Group Title: Florida citrus spray and dust schedule ...
Title: Florida citrus spray and dust schedule /
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00049927/00002
 Material Information
Title: Florida citrus spray and dust schedule /
Series Title: Circular
Physical Description: 13 v. : ; 23 cm. (folded)
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida,
Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla
Publication Date: 1975
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Citrus -- Diseases and pests -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Spraying and dusting in agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Pests -- Control -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1967-197.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Citrus Commission Advisory Committee, 1967-1969; by the Florida Dept. of Citrus Advisory Committee, 1970-1973.
General Note: Description based on: 1976 edition.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00049927
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: electronic_aleph - 003435743
oclc - 62333848
 Related Items
Preceded by: Better fruit program.
Succeeded by: Florida citrus spray guide.

Full Text

r 393-A 3 february 1975


FLORIDA CITRUS

SPRAY

AND DUST




\ 1975


active and eV& ofA ical





Before using any pesticide:


Read the complete label
Read the General Instruc-
is in this schedule

This program was compiled by the University of
orida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, and
SS. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research
service, with the advice of commercial firms.

For additional information, consult your County Ex-
nsion Director.

Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville






RESTRICTIONS ON PESTICIDE USE

The Environmental Protection Agency has been given author
responsibility for regulation of pesticides in both inter-state and inti
use. EPA is establishing procedures for registration and classificatic
pesticides to conform with provisions of the 1972 Federal Enviror
Pesticide Control Act. The 1972 Act requires that EPA shall cc
reregistration of all pesticides, including those with State labels, I
October 21, 1976. EPA also is required to classify all pesticide L
"General" (available to the public) or "Restricted" (for application
certified applicators or by persons under their direct supervision:
December 31, 1974, EPA had not issued a list of restricted and gene
pesticides.
Some confusion may exist over the term "Restricted." In Florid
Law, the term "Restricted Pesticide" refers to pesticides consider(
regulatory officials of Florida Department of Agriculture and Col
Services to be "so hazardous to man or his environment, animal, c
that restrictions on their sale, purchase, use, or possession are nec
to protect the public." Such pesticides may be purchased only by I
of a "Restricted Pesticide Identification Card" issued by FDACS. R
ed pesticides mentioned in this Schedule are designated in the table
by footnote.
Labels approved by EPA prescribe conditions for the safe use
ticides by grove workers and establish waiting periods between app
and harvest to ensure that the fresh fruit residues will not exci
federally established residue tolerances.
Re-entry times (the period of time immediately following I
application of a pesticide to a field when unprotected workers she
enter) were established by EPA effective June 10, 1974. Unless se[
listed in the table below, re-entry of workers into pesticide treated
groves is prohibited only until sprays have dried or dust has settle
In writing this Schedule, every possible precaution has been ex
to ensure that recommendations or suggestions made are in cor
with applicable federal or State labels. However, during the curre
sitional period, changes may occur in the status of certain pes
making these recommendations or suggestions obsolete. Users
Schedule are cautioned that the label on the pesticide and r
Schedule is the final authority on permitted pesticide use. Limit
space in this Schedule make it impractical to reproduce all prec
and restrictions found on the label of each pesticide.
The following table is extracted from the EPA Compendium ol
tered Pesticides as of December 1, 1974, and from registered label

Waiting days (wd) and other limit
Pesticide (see footnote *)

Benlate NTL
Carzol SPd 7 wd; registered for oranges, I
grapefruit and tangerines. Allow
30 days between applications
Chlorobenzilate NTL
Comite 7 wd; registered with EPA only for c
and grapefruit, but with the Si
"Citrus." Do not apply more tha
per year
Delnav NTL; on lemon and lime do not app
than twice in 1 year; do not make
application within 4 months after
On other citrus do not re-apply v
months if fruit is present duri
application
Diazinon 21 wd
Difolatan Apply only when trees are dormant
not apply when mature fruits are






late 15 wd. when used at dosage of 0.5 Ib. ac-
tual/100 gal. water. Registered for
oranges, grapefruit, tangerines and
lemons; do not apply during bloom
period. Make no more than 2 applica-
tions to mature fruit
NTL; through 7.5 lb. actual per acre; on
grapefruit, orange, tangelo, tangerine
do not repeat within 90 days and do not
apply more than twice per season on
tangerines
21 wd; through 7.5 lb. actual per acre; on
lemon and lime; do not apply more than
once per season

30 wd; from above 7.5 lb. through 10.0 lb.
actual per acre on grapefruit and
oranges only
n NTL
n28 wd; where 2 applications per season; do
not apply more than 2 times per fruit
year

7 wd; where 1 application per season
ne 7 wd
arsenated NTL; grapefruit only, 1 to 6 weeks after
bloom
ion 7 wd; do not apply during full bloom
Systox-R' 7 wd; do not apply more than twice per
season. Registered for oranges,
grapefruit, and lemons
ion' 14 wd; through 4.0 Ib. actual per acre

30 wd; from above 4.0 lb. through 10.0 Ib.
actual per acre
hamidon" 15 wd. Registered for only grapefruit, lemon,
orange and tangerine
n NTL; registered for oranges, grapefruit,
tangerines, lemons, and limes only
:ide 14 wd; on orange and grapefruit only.
Maximum 2 applications annually, at
least 45-day interval between applica-
tions
21 wd; on orange, grapefruit and lemon only
7 wd; do not apply more than twice a year.
Do not make a second application within
3 months if fruits were present on the
tree at the time of the first application
n'
bophenothion) 30 wd if used at not more than 5.0 lb. actual
per acre
14 wd if used at not more than 3.75 lb. actual
per acre; 30 days required between
applications
NTL if used at not.more than 2.5 Ib. actual
per acre; 30 days required between
applications

ticides listed are registered for use on orange, grapefruit, tangerine, lime, lemon,
J tangelo unless otherwise noted in table
ry time = 24 hours.
ry time= 48 hours.
pesticides are on the Florida Restricted Pesticide List, and require a permit to
'chase and apply.
Io time limitation; i.e.., no waiting days required between last application and
vest unless otherwise specified in table.







PRECAUTIONS

All precautions on the labels of pesticide containers must be read
observed at all times with all pesticides.
Pesticides should not be discharged in or near the immediate vicini
any body of water. Due care must be exercised by anyone adding
ticides to spray tanks or other pesticide application equipment to prec
contamination of any body of water.
Protective canopies should be placed on tractors pulling airt
sprayers in order to minimize the hazards of spray drift to the operator
Florida regulations require labels to carry instructions for del
tamination and disposal of empty containers of highly toxic pestici
Read and heed these instructions. Do not reuse containers.
Wash spray equipment daily to avoid hazardous accumulations.
All highly toxic pesticides should be kept in locked storage and n
be removed from the spray job.


OTHER SOURCES OF INFORMATION

This Schedule does not include recommendations for control of m
pests or pests occurring infrequently. See "Florida Guide to Citrus Inst
Diseases, and Nutritional Disorders"; "Citrus Diseases and Disorde
Univ. of Fla. Press; Fla. Agr. Ext. Cir. 137C, "Insects and Mites of FIc
Citrus"; IFAS "Florida Insect Control Guide"; and IFAS "Florida F
Disease Control Guide"; or consult your County Extension Director.


PESTICIDE APPLICATION

Rates recommended in this Schedule are for ground equipment
unless otherwise specified.
For pesticides to be effective, thorough coverage of both inside
outside foliage is essential. All recommended miticides and scalicide,
cept sulfur kill only upon contact with the pest. Maximum control is p(
bly only when sprays contact the mites and scale insects by thorou
wetting all fruit, leaf, and twig surfaces before the pests can bec
numerous. Poor coverage means poor control and costly failure.
Dilute sprays on mature citrus trees are greatly affected by insuffic
gallonage, poor distribution of spray, and increased ground speeds.
ture citrus trees of normal foliation require at least the height (in feet) o
tree plus 5 gallons for adequate gallonage. Example: A 20-foot tree
require 25 gallons. The sprayer should be nozzled to deliver two-thirc
the volume of spray into the upper one-half of the tree. Airblast spra
should be pulled at 1 mph for maximum spray penetration. One mile
hour is equivalent to 88 feet per minute.
Concentrate spray programs should be based on a dilute program
has provided thorough coverage. Factors that make a concentrate s
program successful include: (1) use only well-trained, competent s
operators, (2) do not spray when the wind is above 8 mph in the grove
nozzle sprayer for two-thirds output in the upper one-half of the trees
reduce spray materials by 25% at 4X or higher concentrations to a
excessive residues, (5) do not exceed a ground speed of 1 mph, (6)
concentrate oil sprays only upon recommendation of sprayer mania
turer, (7) shut sprayers off at the end of rows to avoid over-spraying
disconnect oscillators on dilute airblast machines at concentrations c
or above.
Aerial applications can be successful in control of citrus rust mites
aphids, but scale insect control has not been demonstrated. The follow
factors should be helpful in planning an aerial application: (1) rate
material per acre should be equal to the quantity required for a dilute s
(e.g. an acre requiring two 500-gallon tanks of dilute spray should rec
2.5 pints of chlorobenzilate 4E), (2) materials should be mixed with
ficient water to make 10 to 15 gallons of finished spray per acre for ma
groves and 5 to 10 gallons per acre in groves that require one or less d
tanks, (3) do not spray when wind is above 5 mph in the grove, (4) s







one row of trees per pass, (5) helicopter applications are more effec-
it ground speeds of 20 to 25 mph between the tree rows, (6) fixed wing
aft should be operated at speeds specified by aircraft manufacturers,
(7) use only materials having label approval for aerial applications.


INSECTS AND THEIR CONTROL

SCALES, MEALYBUGS, AND WHITEFLIES

citrus snow scale is the only armored scale insect that can be regarded
serious pest of Florida citrus. Two dilute sprays per year, preferably at
bloom and summer, are recommended. Thoroughness of application
are important than selection of a scalicide. Complete coverage of all
j is essential.
Lover (long) scale, chaff scale, yellow scale, purple scale, and Florida
scale populations should remain quite low unless parasite activity is
iusly retarded by excessive sulfur applications. Postbloom and
Ter scalicide sprays are recommended to prevent persistent green
Son tangerines and other early varieties intended for the fresh fruit
;et.
'lack scale, brown soft scale, and green scale are serious only in
as where parasite activity is retarded.
fealybugs can best be controlled by applying a recommended
cide before the fruit becomes infested. Scalicides applied after the
has set will kill mealybugs that are exposed but not those that have
ad under the button.
Vhitefly larvae often become numerous on the lower leaf surfaces in
:h, June, and September. A postbloom spray applied after the adult
ies have deposited their eggs and followed by a summer scalicide
ication, provides the best control of whiteflies.
ooty mold grows on excretions from whiteflies, black scale, brown soft
5, mealybugs, and aphids. It is prevented by controlling these insects.


SCALICIDES

)il.-Only oils with specific properties are recommended. Spray oil
ting FC 435-66 specifications (see Florida Pesticide Law, Rules and
ilations, Chapter 5E-2.21) has the greatest pesticidal action without
Missive adverse effect on tree and fruit.
lil is applied as an emulsion, diluted to a specified concentration of
al oil in the final spray mixture. See Table II. A 1% oil emulsion is
;tive for the control of Glover, purple, chaff, yellow, Florida red, black,
brown soft scale. It also controls whiteflies and protects against greasy
Lower concentrations are used for spider mite control and for
aning sooty mold.
'recautions in the use of oil include: Do not apply oil spray when trees
Nilting or near wilting. Do not apply oil and sulfur within 3 weeks of
I other. Oil spray applied after October 1 may increase susceptibility of
i to cold damage and may reduce the fruit crop the following year. Oil
ys applied in the fall may inhibit solids formation in the juice and retard
ring of fruit, and should not be applied within 60 days of anticipated
est.
'arathion is effective for the control of mealybugs and for Glover, chaff,
,le, yellow, Florida red, snow, black, and cottony cushion scale.
ithion is only effective against black scale when applied in mid-May
n there is a peak hatch of crawlers. Do not use parathion for control of
m soft scale. Parathion may be applied in any month. Normally, use 2.5
f parathion 4 liquid* per 500 gal. See discussion under mealybugs.


Table III for other formulations. Whenever necessary, liquid formulations are
Inated by numbers which are the pounds of active ingredient per gallon of for-
tion. Thus parathion 4 liquid means a liquid formulation containing 4 Ib. of actual
hion per gal.






Guthion is effective for the control of black, yellow, snow, Florid
chaff, Glover, purple scale, mealybugs, and whitefly. Black scale is
tively controlled with a postbloom application of Guthion. While GL
can be used in any month of the year, its use is restricted to 2 applici
per year to fruit. The recommended dosage is 5.0 pt. of Guthion 2L li
per 500 gal. See discussion under citrus rust mite, mealybugs, and wh
Guthion should not be used in highly alkaline sprays.
Malathion is substantially less hazardous than parathion or GL
and may be used for the control of Glover, purple, yellow, red, snov
brown soft scale. Malathion may be applied in any month. Use 6.0
malathion 5 liquid* per 500 gal. for light infestations, and 10.0 r
moderate or heavy infestations. Use the higher rate for snow, Glove
yellow scale control.
Supracide is also less hazardous to use than parathion or Guthio
is effective for the control of snow, Glover, chaff, purple, yellow, and
scale as well as whiteflies. The use of Supracide is restricted to 2 ap
tions per year, with at least a 45-day interval between applications a
days before harvest. Use 2.5 pts. of Supracide 2 liquid per 500 gal. fo
to moderate infestations and 5.0 pts. for extremely heavy infestation;
Diazinon is also substantially less dangerous than parathi(
Guthion, and is recommended only for the control of citrus snow scalh
5.0 pt. of diazinon 4 liquid per 500 gal.
Dimethoate is also substantially less dangerous than parathi,
Guthion, and may be used for the control of Glover, purple, chaff, y
and Florida red scales. Dimethoate is not effective against citrus
scale and black scale. Use 4.0 pt. of dimethoate 2.67 liquid per 500 (
Ethion or tnthion at 3.75 pt. of the 4 liquid* is effective against
snow scale when thoroughly applied as a dilute spray for mite control
discussion under "Miticides."
Ethion-Oil is effective for the control of scale insects, citrus rust I
and spider mites. Use 3.75 pt. ethion with 0.5 to 0.7% oil per 500 gal
dilute spray. It is very important that the proper rates of ethion-oil be
in a concentrate spray in order to avoid excessive leaf drop and po
fruit burn.
Parathion-Oil, Malathion-Oil.-The combination of 0.5 to 0.7% oi
1.25 pt. of parathion 4 liquid* or with 5.0 pt. of malathion 5 liquid'
Tables II and III) is excellent for the combined control of spider mite
scale. See discussion of oil under "Scalicides."


APHIDS

Aphids may attack trees of all ages, but control measures are gen
warranted only for young trees or topworked trees since the proport
new growth to old is much higher than in mature trees. Aphids shoL
controlled on Temple orange trees of all ages.
Phosphamidon and dimethoate are highly toxic to honeybee,
should not be used when possibility exists of poisoning for
honeybees at time of treatment or within a few days thereafter. Meti
tox-R and Systox are moderately toxic to honeybees and should n
applied directly on the bees at time of treatment. Late afternoon trea
would avoid this hazard.


APHICIDES

Meta Systox-R 2 liquid at 5.0 pt. per 500 gallons or Systox 2 liquid
pt. per 500 gallons will provide good control of aphids.
Phosphamidon 8 liquid at 5.0 pt. per 500 gal. is an effective aphic
Dimethoate 2.67 liquid at 4.0 pt. per 500 gal. is an effective aph
See "Scalicide" section.




SSee Table III for other formulations.






MITE CONTROL


trus Rust Mite.-When citrus is grown for the fresh fruit market, rust
must be controlled to prevent russeting of the fruit. Injurious mite
nations can develop anytime; therefore, thorough inspection of fruit
foliage should be made throughout the year. Frequent inspections
nthly) should be made during the late spring, through fall when
er favors rapid rust mite buildup. Inspections should be conducted
after sprays have been applied. When appropriate, control for rust
should be combined with other necessary pest control measures.
hen citrus is grown for processing, rust mite control can be related
to overall tree vitality and less to pack-out. Therefore, higher mite
nations can be tolerated on fruit for processing. Frequent inspections
nthly) should be made during the late spring and early summer while
re still small. At times, rust mite control may be required in the fall
rust mites reach high densities on the foliage.
ider Mites.-The Texas citrus mite and citrus red mite are the most
on spider mites found on citrus. Both species feed on leaves, fruit
reen twigs and at times can be found together on the same foliage.
r mites generally appear during dry periods, usually in the spring, fall,
rly winter. Spider mites are important in the fall and winter when high
nations occasionally cause leaf drop and twig injury. Spider mites are
rally no problem in the fall in groves where oil has been applied in the
er. Six-spotted mites occasionally cause damage in the Spring
d. Some pesticides are known to cause increases in spider mites.



MITICIDES

hlorobenzilate is available as a liquid concentrate containing 4 lb. per
t is effective against rust mite at 1.25 pt. per 500 gal. of spray, but is of
value against spider mites. Chlorobenzilate should not be used in
ine solutions.
arzol SP is available as a 92% active water soluble powder. It is ef-
e against citrus rust mite at 5 to 10 oz. per 500 gal. It may be used any
rust mite control is needed. Carzol should not be used in alkaline
ions.
uthion is available as a liquid concentrate containing 2.0 lb. per gal. or
50% wettable powder. It is effective against citrus rust mite at the
ge of 5.0 pt. of Guthion 2L liquid per 500 gal. See discussion under
licides."
fictran is available as a 50% wettable powder and is effective against
s rust mite at a dosage of 20-30 oz. per 500 gal. Do not tank mix with
o not apply oil within 4 weeks before or after application of Plictran.
ot apply to lemons when yellow fruit is present. If possible, time
cation on citrus to avoid new flush or 'feather' growth, especially with
entrate sprays, since temporary foliar injury may occur on such
th.
ulfur applications often are followed by increases in citrus red mite
nations, and repeated applications or excessive amounts of sulfur
Share followed by increased populations of armored scales; however,
osage of 25.0 Ib. of wettable sulfur per 500 gal. of spray is useful in the
'bloom spray and where supplemental rust mite control is needed
ieen the main sprays.
)o not use wettable sulfur in combination with oil emulsion. Any
ication of sulfur should not be closer than 3 weeks to an oil application.
sulfur dust users should note the following: Good coverage is just as
)rtant in dusting as in spraying. Dust sides and tops of trees in two
:tions, preferably when the air is calm and the leaves are covered with
SApply a total of 0.5 to 1.5 Ib. per tree (depending on size) at each
ication.
'orak is an emulsifiable concentrate containing 4.0 Ib. active ingredient
gallon. It may be used at 4.0 pt. per 500 gal. to control rust mite and
er mites in postbloom, or rust mite in summer sprays.







Trithion is available as liquid concentrates containing 4.0 lb. or
per gal., as a 25% powder, and as a 2% dust. Although Trithion spray
be used at any time, the preferred application is late fall and wint
combined control of rust mite and spider mites. Use 1.25 pt. of the
liquid per 500 gal. of spray for this purpose, but increase the dosage t
pt. at other times. Trithion can be used with oil on oranges, but Tr
may injure grapefruit if combined with oil in the summer or if applied
in the fall before the fruit is fully colored.
Ethion is available as a liquid concentrate containing 4.0 Ib. per ga
as a 25% powder. Its preferred use is in the late fall and winter for
bined control of spider mites and rust mite at the dosage of 2.5 pt. p
gal. of spray. Increase the dosage to 3.75 pt. at other times. When us
3.75 pt. in combination with oil, it can be used as a summer spray for
insects, rust mite, and spider mites. See discussion under ethion-oil
"Scalicides."
Delnav is available as liquid concentrate containing 8.0 lb. per g
preferred use is for the combined control of rust mite and spider
during the late fall and winter. Use 2.0 pt. of 8.0 Ib. material per 500
spray.
Kelthane MF is an emulsifiable concentrate containing 4.0 Ib.
ingredient per gal. It can be used as a miticide at any time at a dosage
pt. per 500 gal., but is best used during the late fall and winter month
combined control of rust mite and the spider mites. Kelthane s
preferably be confined to groves where ethion, Trithion, and Delni
longer control the spider mites. Kelthane should not be used in gr
infested with snow scale unless a scalicide is also included. Kelt
should not be used in highly alkaline sprays.
Comite is available as a liquid concentrate containing 6.75 lb. a
ingredient per gallon and is used at a dosage of 25 oz. per 500-gal. tan
preferred use is during the late fall and winter for the combined cont,
rust mite and spider mites. Comite should not be used in highly alk
solutions (over pH 10), tank mixed with oil, or applied within 2 weeks
to or following an oil treatment.
Oil is effective against spider mites at dosages of 0.5% and higher.
discussion about scalicides.
Dimethoate is effective against citrus red mite at the rate sugge
under "Scalicides."


FUNGUS DISEASES AND THEIR CONTROL

Melanose is of significant economic importance only on citrus gr
for the fresh fruit market.
Disease incidence varies from year to year according to the amount
frequency of rainfall during the period of fruit susceptibility, which last
about 10 weeks after fruit set. Melanose is usually more serious in c
groves than in younger groves, disease severity depending on the am,
of inoculum-bearing deadwood in the tree canopy.
Difolatan and copper fungicides are the only materials curn
recommended for melanose control. Difolatan 4F at 4 to 5 gal. per 500
should be applied just before shoot growth is expected to commence ir
spring. Do not apply if mature fruit is still on the tree. Difolatan must nc
applied, even at lower rates, after growth commences or post-bi
because it can damage young leaves and cause a rind blemish.
Copper fungicides at rates equivalent to 3 to 4 Ib. metallic copper
500 gal. control melanose, but only when applied post-bloom. Sometir
a single post-bloom spray will provide sufficient control, but to ass
protection throughout the period of fruit susceptibility two sprays ma)
required. Maximum protection from a single spray is generally obtained
is applied about 4 weeks after petal-fall. Better results are assured
applying one spray 2 to 3 weeks after petal-fall and a second spray 2
weeks later.
Scab affects Temples, Murcotts, lemons, grapefruit and some tangi
and is generally more severe in flatwoods and coastal areas than on







tills. Difolatan or Benlate sprays, correctly timed, are usually more
ive than schedules of copper fungicides at 3 to 4 lb. of copper (me-
per 500 gal. or ferbam 95% wettable powder at 6 lb. per 500 gal.,
id dormant and again at 2/3 petal-fall.
folatan 4F at 4 to 5 gal. per 500 gal. can only be applied when the
are dormant and, even then, only if the fruit has been harvested. A
i spray of Difolatan applied just before growth commences can be
lent in itself for scab control. However, if the delay between applica-
Ind bloom exceeds 6 to 8 weeks, a spray of copper, ferbam or
rably Benlate should be applied at bloom, particularly in groves that
a severe scab history.
inlate 50W at 1.0 to 1.5 Ib. per 500 gal. is most effective when applied
y before fruit set. A dormant spray applied just before growth com-
es can assist scab control but should not on its own be relied upon to
Je satisfactory control.
'easy spot often causes serious premature defoliation during the fall
winter. Infection occurs mostly in the summer, but symptoms do not
tr until 2 to 9 months later, the incubation period depending partly on
iriety affected. The greasy spot fungus also infects fruit rind, causing
;s to appear in areas between the oil glands. Living cells adjacent to
pecks retain a green color for longer than normal and such areas
fail to respond to ethylene degreening treatment. On grapefruit, the
;s tend to be larger, giving rise to a condition that has been described
ink pitting." Rind infection is of economic importance only on fresh
-t citrus.
>pper fungicides at 1.25 to 2.50 Ib. metallic copper per 500 gal. or
ite 50W at 1.0 Ib. per 500 gal., or oil (FC 435-66 specifications) at
applied in late June or July, will control greasy spot on the spring
and fruit rind and on any later flushes that have grown out prior to
ing. Groves in which greasy spot is severe may need an additional
in August or September to control greasy spot on the later flushes.
bloom copper sprays applied for melanose control also give some
ol of greasy spot on the spring flush, but they are not as reliable as a
or July copper spray. Particularly on oranges, copper sprays may
en any existing corky areas on the rind and lead to a further
grading of fruit intended for the fresh market. To be weighed against
possible disadvantage, is the fact that copper fungicides are more
:ive than oil for greasy spot control when disease pressure is heavy.
ite is also generally more effective against greasy spot than oil and it
er than copper for use on fresh market citrus. Benlate or oil would be
referred materials for greasy spot control in groves that have exces-
high copper contents in the soil. Good spray coverage of the lower
surface is essential for satisfactory greasy spot control.
)stharvest decay (stem end rot and green mold) in fruit requiring
iening can be reduced by spraying Benlate 50 W at 1 to 2 Ib/A within
iks to the day of harvest. This treatment provides protection against
( initiated in the degreening room that is not effectively controlled by
,quent postharvest fungicide treatments.
'own rot control can be obtained by spraying the lower 6 ft. of the tree
neutral copper (1/2 the amount shown in Table I), applying the spray
id the middle of August in groves where the disease has been
lesome in the past. Where brown rot is only an occasional problem,
ing may be deferred until immediately after the first appearance of
led fruit, when the entire tree should be sprayed. Chopping of cover
i, hi ": "f trees, and pruning off low hanging branches will improve
atiin daiR '"uce the likelihood of infection.


PHYSIOLOGICAL SPRAYS

Jtritional Sprays.-Application of zinc in nutritional sprays is not
)mically justified in groves where only widely-scattered or very mild
toms of zinc deficiency appear. When extensive deficiency symptoms
ar, zinc should be sprayed, preferably in the post-bloom period. The








amount of zinc (as metal) used in the spray may be varied from 2.5 It
500 gal. for mild to moderate deficiency to 5 lb. for moderately st
deficiency and up to 10 Ib. per 500 gal. for very severe deficiency. T
rates apply to inorganic zinc sources, such as basic zinc salts or
oxide. Application of 0.7 lb. zinc (Zn) per acre in the form of liquid
chelate with low-volume ground spray equipment has controlled mod
zinc deficiency.
Spray applications of manganese are recommended for any (
having persistent manganese deficiency symptoms, and particularly
groves on alkaline soils. Copper is recommended in nutritional sprays
where a deficiency actually exists and when this element is not usec
disease control program. Where boron deficiency is suspected, use
Ib. of soluble borate containing 58 or 66% B,O equivalent or 1.67
46% soluble borate per 500 gal. Sodium molybdate sprays at 5.0 to 10
per 500 gal. are recommended to control yellow spot.
For additional information on nutritional sprays and fertilization
Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 536C.
Maturity Sprays.-Lead arsenate is the only arsenical comp
cleared for use on grapefruit to reduce acidity. Use of arsenic on I
citrus is illegal. To avoid excessive phytotoxicity, arsenic should ni
applied to trees less than 7 years of age. The most effective use of an
is obtained by spraying within 1 to 6 weeks after bloom. Use 2.0 to 6.:
of lead arsenate per 500 gal for white varieties and 2.0 to 3.0 Ib. for pinl
red grapefruit. The lower amount is used for a high ratio of solids to
in mid-season, and the higher amount for a high ratio in the early sea
Preharvest-Drop Control Sprays.-2,4-D is effective for redt
preharvest drop of Pineapple, seedling oranges, and Temple oranges
further information see the 1973 Spray and Dust Schedule.




CAREFULLY NOTE INSTRUCTIONS ON MANUFACTURE
LABEL ON ALL SPRAY AND DUST MATERIALS


SCHEDULE

The main sprays in this program are the Spring (II) and Summe
applications. These two with the possible addition of a suppleme
spray for citrus rust mite will be adequate for most Florida groves,
optional sprays in this Schedule are the late dormant (I) for i
melanose, and rust mite control and the supplemental mite spray (1l
use at any time that rust mites or spider mites require control.

I. Late Dormant Spray
A. For scab control-Use Difolatan, Benlate, ferbam, or copper
B. For scab and melanose control-Use Difolatan
C. For citrus rust mites-See section on Miticides


II. Spring Sprays, March to May
A. For melanose, scab, greasy spot, and rust mites-Use chlorc
zilate, Carzol, or wettable sulfur for rust mites. Apply copper about 4 '
after petal-fall for melanose control; or when 9/3 of the petals have 1
for scab control. If scab is the primary disease i=te or f'- -m 1
2/3 of the petals have fallen and apply a separate .. spra
melanose about 4 weeks after petal-fall.
Supplements: For scale, mealybugs, and whitefly-Parathio
malathion. For six-spotted mites-Substitute Kelthane, ethion, or Tri
for chlorobenzilate or sulfur.
Nutritional-Zinc, manganese, borate.
Maturity-Arsenic (on grapefruit only)
B. For rust mite, and scale-Use chlorobenzilate or Carzol plus t
parathion or malathion.







Supplement: Maturity-Arsenic (on grapefruit only).
C. For rust mite, scale, mealybug, and whitefly-Use Guthion; or com-
ations of chlorobenzilate, Carzol, or sulfur with either parathion or
athion.
Supplement: Maturity-Arsenic (on grapefruit only).


Summer Spray, June through August
A. For rust mite, greasy spot, and scale-Use (1) chlorobenzilate oi
zol with oil, or ethion with oil; or (2) chlorobenzilate or Carzol with eithe
plus parathion or oil plus malathion. Time application for rust mite
trol.
Supplement: Maturity-Arsenic (on grapefruit only).
B. For greasy spot, scale, and rust mite-1% oil should be applied in
June or July. Copper or Benlate are more effective against greasy spot
tre disease pressure is heavy.
Supplement: Maturity-Arsenic (on grapefruit only).
C. For scale, rust mite, and greasy spot-Use Guthion; or a combina-
of either parathion or malathion with either chlorobenzilate, Carzol, or
ur; plus copper or Benlate.
Supplement: Maturity-Arsenic (on grapefruit only).


Supplemental Mite Spray
A. For citrus rust mite-If rust mites become numerous at a time other
1 the main spray periods, use chlorobenzilate, Carzol, wettable sulfur or
t with sulfur.
B. For spider mite and rust mite control during the fall and winter
iths-Use one of the several combination miticides for spider mite and
I mite listed under Miticides.



USEFUL TABLES FOR MIXING SPRAY FORMULAS


ILE 1. POUNDS OF COPPER, ZINC, AND MANGANESE COMPOUNDS
rO EQUAL THE STANDARD DOSAGEt PER 500 GAL. OF WATERt.

Metallic content shown on label (%)

34-36 48 52-56 75 80 85-90

)per 11.0 85 7.0 5.0 4.5
c - 100 7.0 -
iganese 8.5 6.5 45 -


t standard dosage required to correct deficiencies, based on the metal content per
gal. is 3.75 Ib. for copper, 5.0 lb. for zinc, and 3.75 Ib. for manganese.
concentrate sprays, multiply the pounds required by 0.75.
information on use of soluble sulfates, see Fla Agr Expt. Sta. Bul. 536C.


TABLE II. GALLONS OF OIL CONCENTRATES TO USE
FOR EACH 500 GAL. OF SPRAY


oil In the stock Is and the percentage oil desired
in the spray tank Is

0.5% 0.7% 1.0% 1.30

2.55 3.55 5.10 6.60
12 2.75 3.85 5.50 7.15
84 3.00 4.20 6.00 7.80









TABLE III. EQUIVALENT AMOUNTS OF LIQUID AND POWDEF
FORMULATIONS OF PESTICIDES

Formulations


Wettable Powders
Percent active Ingredient
15 25 50

Pounds per 500 gal.
4 2.5
5 3.0
8.5 5.0
15.0
25.0
5.t0
7.5
5.ot
7.5
2.50


Liquids

Pounds active Ingredient p
2 4 5 6

Pints per 500 gal.
2.5 1.25
3.0 1.5
5.0 2.5


or fall and winter use only.












Imlsut of Foodd ami Agleuurul Selmna




TEACHING


EXTEMIUfl


^M-------W--


pesticidee





Parathion


Malathion

Ethion

Trithion

Guthion
Systox


THIS PUBLIC DOCUMENT WAS PROMULGATED AT AN
ANNUAL COST OF $1,191.49 OR A COST OF $.048 PER
COPY FOR THE PURPOSE OF ADVISING CITRUS
GROWERS ABOUT RECOMMENDED PRACTICES FOR
CONTROL OF PESTS ATTACKING CITRUS.




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