Title: How to profitably increase litter size
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00049916/00001
 Material Information
Title: How to profitably increase litter size
Translated Title: Circular / Florida Agricultural Extension Service ; no. 320 ( English )
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Durrance, Kenneth L.
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Extension Service, IFAS, University of Florida
Publication Date: 1968
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00049916
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text
JANUARY 1968


How To
Profitably Increase
Litter Size


$ $$$ $$


Florida Agricultural Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville


CIRCULAR 320


$I$IIS$











INTRODUCTION

The Importance of
Litter Size






Seventy-five per cent of all production costs is re-
presented by feed. The remaining 25% of produc-
tion cost is largely determined by management
skills.
The most important single factor determining
profit is litter size.
ESTIMATED COST OF PIGS AS INFLUENCED
BY LITTER SIZE
2Cost Per Pig 3Cost Per Pig
NO. Pigs Per Farrowed When Weaned When
Litter Sow's Feed Cost: Sow's Feed Cost:
.04/lb. .03/lb. .04/lb. .03/lb.
2 $18.75 $15.60 $30.13 $24.79
4 9.38 7.80 16.44 13.77
6 6.25 5.20 11.88 10.10
8 4.69 3.90 9.60 8.26
10 3.75 3.12 8.23 7.16
12 3.13 2.60 7.31 6.42

1.-Sow feed figured as constant regardless of litter size.
2.-Includes feed, equipment, veterinary cost, boar charge and overhead.
3.-Includes all of (1 and 2) plus creep feed, equipment charge, veterin-
ary charge, and other overhead charges for suckling pigs. Esti-
mated at $2.75 per pig from farrowing to weaning.
ESTIMATED COST OF PIGS AS INFLUENCED
BY LITTER SIZE

Cost Per Litter
NO. Pigs Per Weaned When
Litter Sow's Feed Cost:

.04/lb. .03/lb.
2 $60.26 $49.58
4 65.76 55.08
6 71.28 60.60
8 76.80 66.08
10 82.30 71.60
12 87.72 77.04






HOW TO PROFITABLY INCREASE
LITTER SIZE
K. L. Durrance and A. C. Warnicki
A. Select gilts on following points:
Sound underline 14 or more prominent
teats.
From lines and families with high fer-
tility (large litter size) and early sexual
maturity.
Heavy muscling and rapid rate of gain,
with good feed efficiency.
Structurally correct, with sound feet and
legs and quality bone.
Select at approximately 4 months or 150
to 200 pounds.
Healthy individuals and from healthy
herds.
Utilize littermate records from Swine
Evaluation Center.
B. Management of replacement gilts
Feed 3-6 lb. growing ration (16% pro-
tein content) for adequate gains.
Provide lush pasture where possible.
a. Winter oats, rye and clover
b. Summer Pearlmillet and grasses
Check feet and trim if needed.
C. Herd Health
Vaccinations for:
a. Hog cholera (pigs at 6 to 9 weeks and
sows yearly)
b. Leptospirosis (at least 2 weeks before
breeding)
c. Erysilpelas (pigs at 8 to 12 weeks and
sows 2 weeks before each breeding
season)
Testing. Blood test all gilts and sows
annually at least three weeks before
breeding for Brucellosis and Leptospirosis.
Isolate all purchased breeding stock for
at least 30 days before adding to herd.

lAssociate animal husbandman, Agricultural Extension Service and
animal physiologist, Agricultural Experiment Stations.






Treat for internal and external parasites
as needed.

D. Management before and during breeding
season
Breed gilts at approximately 6 to 8
months of age (preferably at third heat
period).
Flush gilts by feeding 6 8 lbs. daily for
14 days before breeding begins.
Continue increased feed intake approxi-
mately 3 weeks after breeding.
Double mate by breeding to Boar A at
beginning of heat, and 24 hours later to
Boar B in commercial herd and to same
boar in purebred herd.
Record breeding dates in permanent
record and farrowing dates in pocket
notebook.
During hot weather provide access to
tooling devices (natural shade or mist
devices) from time of breeding to far-
rowing.
E. Late gestation and farrowing
Increase feed level (to approximately 6
lbs.) during last 3 to 4 weeks before far-
rowing.
Ten to 14 days before farrowing, worm
sows with Piperazine or Atgard.
Bring sows to holding area 4- 5 days be-
fore farrowing.
a. Wash down with hose
b. Treat for external parasites
Three days before farrowing, wash and
scrub thoroughly (especially underline),
apply disinfectant and place in clean far-
rowing stall.
Have necessary equipment and supplies
available at farrowing time. (See Circular
Florida Agricultural Extension No. 166)
Be present at farrowing time and give
needed assistance.

F. Boar Management
Test boars for Brucellosis and Leptospi-
rosis 30 to 60 days before breeding begins.






Feeding
a. Nonbreeding season mature boars,
feed 3 4 lbs. daily of balanced ration
(14-15% protein).
b. Breeding season flush ten days
prior to breeding with 5- 8 lbs. feed
and continue this level during heavy
service.
c. Young boars feed approximately
6 lbs. feed daily or according to con-
dition and development.
d. When hand mating, feed after boar
services the sow.
Before Breeding:
a. Cut tusks of mature boars at least
two weeks before breeding.
b. Check feet and trim toes if necessary
3 to 4 weeks before breeding season.
c. Mature boars one week prior, breed
to market gilt.
d. Young boars 2 to 3 weeks before
breeding season, breed to a few market
gilts.
Frequency of service:

Maximum services per boar
Age Per Day Per Week Per Month
7-12 months 2 8 25
12 months and
older 3 12 40

*Systems of mating
a. Hand mating:
1. Place female in lot with boar
during cool part of day (early
morning or late evening)
2. Constant mist sprays during
summer months are helpful.
b. Pasture mating (boar and fe-
males together)
1. Have shady areas and mist
sprays during summer.
2. Rotate boars: one boar or
group during day and another
during night, allowing rest
period during 12 hours of
non-use.







G. Breeding and Farrowing Dates
GESTATION TABLE


Sow Sow
Date bred 114 days Date bred 114 days
(date due) (date due)


Jan. 1
Jan. 6
Jan. 11
Jan. 16
Jan. 21

Jan. 26
Jan. 31
Feb. 5
Feb. 10
Feb. 15

Feb. 20
Feb. 25
Mar. 2
Mar. 7
Mar. 12

Mar. 17
Mar. 22
Mar. 27
April 1
April 6

April 11
April 16
April 21
April 26
May 1

May 6
May 11
May 16
May 21
May 26

May 31
June 5
June 10
June 15
June 20


April 25
April 30
May 5
May 10
May 15

May 20
May 25
May 30
June 4
June 9

June 14
June 19
June 24
June 29
July 4


July
July
July
July
July


Aug. 3
Aug. 8
Aug. 13
Aug. 18
Aug. 23

Aug. 28
Sept. 2
Sept. 7
Sept. 12
Sept. 17

Sept. 22
Sept. 27
Oct. 2
Oct. 7
Oct. 12


June 25 Oct. 17
June 30 Oct. 22


July 5
July 10
July 15
July 20
July 25

July 30
Aug. 4
Aug. 9
Aug. 14
Aug. 19

Aug. 24
Aug. 29
Sept. 3
Sept. 8
Sept. 13


Oct. 27
Nov. 1
Nov. 6
Nov. 11
Nov. 16

Nov. 21
Nov. 26
Nov. 31
Dec. 6
Dec. 11

Dec. 16
Dec. 21
Dec. 26
Dec. 31
Jan. 5


Sept. 1
Sept. 2
Sept. 2
Oct. 3
Oct. 8


Oct.
Oct.
Oct.
Oct.
Nov.


Nov. 7
Nov. 12
Nov. 17
Nov. 22
Nov. 27


Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.


Dec. 27


Feb. 4
Feb. 9
Feb. 14
Feb. 19
Feb. 24


Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.


Mar. 26
Mar. 31
April 5
April 10
April 15

April 20















































































COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
and
United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
M. O. Watkins, Director









Lose $ by:


$ Overfeed sows, gilts and boars

$ Feed unbalanced rations

$ Overwork boar.

$ Use contaminated lots.

$ Disregard disease and parasite control.

$ Subject sows and gilts to extreme high temperatures
during breeding.

$ Run sows and gilts together.

$ Keep inadequate records.
$ Fail to isolate newly purchased animals
$ Fail to vaccinate for Hog Cholera, Leptospirosis and
Erysipelas


Ways to make $:

$ Select gilts from lines with large litter size records.

$ Practice a sound cross-breeding program.

$ Grow gilts out so they are in medium flesh and
vigorous condition.

$ Flush gilts two weeks before breeding.

$ Breed gilts at third heat period.

$ Use double mating breeding system.

$ Decrease energy intake following breeding.

$ Increase feed level the last third of gestation period.

$ Keep breeding animals cool and comfortable during
breeding and gestation periods.
) $ Be present at farrowing time.




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