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Title: This business of growing replacement pullets
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 Material Information
Title: This business of growing replacement pullets
Translated Title: Circular / Florida Agricultural Extension Service ; no. 201A ( English )
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Moore, J. S.
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Extension Service, IFAS, University of Florida
Publication Date: 1969
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Bibliographic ID: UF00049913
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Front Matter
        Page 2
    Main
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







Circular 201A


THIS BUSINESS OF

GROWING REPLACEMENT

PULLETS


By J. S. Moore
Agricultural Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville


April 1969










s for


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CONSIDER


THESE


FACTORS


'i
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-- BUSINESS OF GROWING REPLACEMENT
PULLETS
J. S. Moore
Extension Poultryman


Growing replacement pullets is
the most important phase of com-
mercial egg farming. It is from
these pullets that poultrymen ex-
pect to secure economical and
profitable egg production the fol-
lowing year.
Many factors mist be taken
into consideration if quality pullets


are to be placed in the laying
house.
This circular briefly discusses
these eight factors: the chick, the
house and equipment, the feed,
labor, the disease problem, man-
agement, cost of production, and
lights for growing pullets.


THE CHICK


Pullet chicks which are pur-
chased become the potential money
makers during the laying period.
It is important to select the best
chick available of the breed and
strain desired for the egg farm.
The chick selected should pos-
sess an inherent ability for: (1)
high egg production, (2) large
egg size, (3) good egg quality,
(4) high livability, and (5) effi-
cient utilization of feed. All chicks
should come from pullorum-
typhoid clean stock.
Chick buyers should study re-
ports from Random egg-laying
tests and the performance of birds
on neighboring farms. They
should secure a list of Florida
hatcheries cooperating in the
National Poultry Improvement


Plan to help in making the right
start.
In planning your chick pur-
chases, consider the performance
first and the initial price second.
Always purchase chicks from a
reliable hatchery.
Start with healthy chicks to
help reduce the chance of disease
attacking the flock.
Sexed pullet chicks are used by
the commercial egg producer.
Most poultrymen are using
.either Single Comb White Leg-
horns, Incrossbreds, or Crossbreds
of the lighter weights on their egg
farms. In a few cases some of the
heavier breeds (particularly Single
Comb Rhode Island Red) or Cross-
breds are used.


THE HOUSE AND EQUIPMENT


The second factor to consider
is the poultry house and equipment
necessary to handle the chicks
from the start until they are
placed in laying houses.
The house should be comfortable


for the chicks and the growing
pullets, convenient for the opera-
tor, and constructed at a low cost.
Chicks can be brooded either in
wire cages or on the floor.








Cleaning Buildings and Equipment
In growing pullets, sanitation
is all-important.
1. Remove all movable equip-
ment (feeders, brooders, waterers)
out of the house. Wash and clean
thoroughly.
2. Remove all litter and manure
from the house.
3. Thoroughly sweep and wash
the entire house, ceiling, walls,
floors. You cannot disinfect filth.
A high pressure washer gives good
results.
4. Disinfect the house and all
equipment. This can best be done
with a high pressure sprayer such
as a Steam Jenny.
5. Prepare the house for the
chicks such as putting in new
litter, heating up the brooder or
regulating the temperature in the
house or the hot water pipes, and
placing chick guards, feeders and
waterers properly.

Floor Brooding
Sufficient space to allow the
chicks and pullets to grow nor-
mally is important. Provide at
least /2 square foot of floor space
per chick at the start, and 11/2 to 2
square feet per pullet later during
the growing period (from six


weeks to maturity). The breed or
strain used can influence the
amount of space necessary.
The equipment must be ample
and of the right size to do a satis-
factory job. It should include:
1. A hover brooder for each 300
to 350 chicks.
2. Feeders-at least 1" per chick
for the first two weeks, 1.75" per
chick through the 6th week, 3"
per chick through the 12th week,
and 4 to 5" till time of housing.
3. Waterers-at least /2 to 1"
per chick; additional waterers
should be used during warm
weather.

Cage Brooding
Two systems of cage brooding
are being used. In one system, heat
is furnished by hot water pipes
along the top of the cages. The
other system uses cages in an en-
vironmental or semi-environmental
controlled house, that is, the en-
tire house is heated and ventilated.
In most instances cages are in
rows. Each cage or section is
approximately 21/ feet by 3,
4 or 5 feet. In this section 25 to 35
chicks are grown to 6 weeks of
age. They are then transferred to
growing cages.


THE FEED


If they are to grow normally,
chicks and pullets must be fed a
well-balanced diet according to a
definite schedule.
A common practice at the start


is to place feed on egg flats, papers
or cut-down chick boxes in addi-
tion to the feed placed in the chick
feeders. After the chicks learn to
eat, remove egg flats, etc., and









keep feed hoppers not more than
half full; this will tend to prevent
feed waste.
Keep feed and water available at
all times.
During the growing period of
the 11th, 12th and 13th Florida
Random Sample Tests, with a
growing period of 160 days, the
average feed consumption was
19.09 pounds (see table 1). This
varied from a low of 17.66 to a
high of 20.20 pounds. Chicks for
these three tests were all hatched
in March.
During the growing period of
the 14th, 15th and 16th Florida
Random Sample Tests, with a


growing period of 150 days, the
average feed consumption was
16.92 pounds varying from a low
of 15.67 to a high of 17.55.
The hatch dates for these chicks
were May, August and October.
Pullets for the 11th, 12th and
13th tests weighed an average of
3.32 pounds varying from 3.15 to
3.47. Pullets in the 14th, 15th and
16th tests weighed an average of
3.18 pounds varying from a low of
2.80 to 3.41.
The date of hatch affects total
feed consumption and the weight
of pullets. In addition to the date
of hatch the formulation of the
feed can affect the amount of feed


TABLE 1
AMOUNT OF FEED TO GROW PULLETS TO 160 DAYS OF AGE
AND WEIGHT OF PULLETS AT 160 DAYS OF AGE
Florida Random Sample Test
Test Year Date of Feed Per Weight Per
Hatch Pullet (Ibs) Pullet
11th
1962-1963 March 23/62 20.20 3.47
12th
1963-1964 March 22/63 19.42 3.15
13th
1964-1965 March 20/64 17.66 3.33
AVERAGE 19.09 3.32

AMOUNT OF FEED TO GROW PULLETS TO 150 DAYS OF AGE
AND WEIGHT OF PULLETS AT 150 DAYS OF AGE
Florida Random Sample Test
Test Year Date of Feed Per Weight Per
Hatch Pullet (Ibs) Pullet


14th
1965-1966
15th
1966-1968
16th
1967-1969
AVERAGE


May 28/65

August 5/66

Oct. 7/67


17.55

15.67

17.53
16.92









TABLE 2
DAYS NECESSARY TO REACH 50% PRODUCTION
Florida Random Sample Test
Test Year Date of Number of Days Weeks to Reach
Hatch To Reach 50% Production 50% Production


11th
1962-1963
12th
1963-1964
13th
1964-1.965
14th
1965-1966
15th
1966-1968
16th
1967-1969


March 23/62

March 22/63

March 20/64

May 28/65

August 5/66

October 7/67


AVERAGE
consumed, the weight of pullets
and date of sexual maturity (see
Tables 1 and 2). High fiber diets,
low protein diets, low lysine diets,
skip-a-day feeding or restricted
feeding have been used with vary-


165.4

167.0

168.0

171.0

172.0

161.0
167.4


23.0
23.9


ing degrees of success as methods
of delaying sexual maturity. Over
the past six years at the Florida
Random Sample Test, pullets have
reached 50 percent production at
about 167 days of age.
BOR


The cost of labor is an impor- factors which determine the
tant item in growing replacement amount of time required to man-
pullets. age replacement pullets.
Location of buildings, distances Study your operation to see if
traveled between buildings in feed- the several chores can be handled
ing and watering, and types and more efficiently.
arrangement of equipment are

THE DISEASE PROBLEM


By purchasing healthy chicks,
you have made a start in the right
direction to keep losses at a min-
imum.
Thoroughly clean the poultry
house and all equipment before
chicks arrive, and then follow a
careful sanitation program to keep
them healthy throughout the
brooding and rearing period.
Adopt a vaccination program to


avoid or reduce losses from New-
castle, infectious bronchitis and
fowl pox. Follow recommended
procedures for the vaccine that
you will use.
If a disease appears, secure a
complete diagnosis immediately.
Contact the Diagnostic Laboratory
in your area, the county extension
agent or service representative.
ACT AT ONCE.









MANAGEMENT


Poor management practices, as
well as diseases, may result either
in mortality or inferior pullets in
the laying house. A sound pro-
gram must be adopted and fol-
lowed throughout the entire grow-
ing period.
These are some suggestions in
developing a good brooding and
rearing program:
Floor Brooding
1. Clean the house and equip-
ment before chicks arrive. Arrange
equipment properly.
2. Brood quality chicks. Keep
chicks comfortable at all times.
Start chicks at 90 to 95 F. and
drop temperature as soon as out-
side temperature and feathering
will permit- usually about 5' F.
per week. Artificial heat may be
required for 3 weeks in warm
weather or as long as 6 or 8 weeks
in cold weather. Improper heat
results in piling up or chilling.
3. Chicks are started at all sea-
sons of the year. To insure con-
tinued production, have a new
group of ready-to-lay pullets to
replace the group that has been
in 13 to 14 months of production.

Pullets on the floor.
r r N


4. Keep brooder houses clean and
chicks away from old birds.
5. Shavings, cane pith (bagasse)
or other materials are desirable
as dry litter. The cheapest one is
the best to use. The majority of
Florida producers are using shav-
ings. Avoid moldy material.
6. Install a chick guard around
brooders about 11/2 feet high and
18 to 24 inches from edge of hover.
This will prevent floor drafts and
prevent chicks from chilling before
they find the source of heat.
7. Roosts may be provided at 4
or 5 weeks of age.
8. Lights-see Lights for Grow-
ing Pullets.
9. Provide plenty of fresh air
ventilation without drafts.
10. Adopt a proven feeding pro-
gram.
11. Keep everything clean.
12. Watch for parasites (exter-
nal and internal).
13. For Newcastle, bronchitis
and chicken pox, follow the man-
ufacturers directions in using
vaccines.




1
'U-


IF 7MV11


-Pul
Pullets in cages in a heated house.


Pullets in cages
14. If a disease condition ap-
pears, secure complete diagnosis
immediately. Contact the Diagnos-
tic Laboratory in your area or the
county extension agent.
15. Watch the growth and de-
velopment of pullets and remove
unthrifty pullets at once.
16. Debeak all pullets by the
precision method at 7 to 9 days
of age.
17. Dispose of dead birds by
burning.
Cage Brooding
In the semi-environmental con-
trolled house, start the tempera-
ture at 88 F. at bird height.
Temperature can be dropped to
750 within 10 days. Feed chicks
for the first few days on paper or


cardboard. After this time they
will eat from the mechanical feed-
er. In most instances dew drop
waterers or cups are used. The
chicks learn to use these in a very
short time. Watch temperature
and ventilation. Provide adequate
food and water at all times.
In the cage house heated with
hot water pipes, either an oil or
gas fired furnace may be used to
heat the water.
For the first few days, feed the
chicks on chick box lids or paper.
After this the mechanical feeder
can be used. Cups or dew drop
waterers may be used from the
beginning. Place 35 chicks to
each 2 by 5 foot cage section.
Chicks can be grown in this house
for 6 weeks and then transferred
to growing cages.































Pullets in cages showing the use of automatic feeder.
COST OF PRODUCTION


Growing pullets is expensive,
and poultrymen should include all
expense items to determine total
cost. Expense items -include feed,
chicks, labor, use of land, buildings
and equipment, interest, deprecia-
tion and miscellaneous items.
Poultry producers should keep
a complete record of all expenses
and receipts, both cash and non-
cash, to know what it is costing
to grow a pullet.
Records indicate that feed is the
most expensive item. Approximate
percentages of the different items


are listed in Table 3. These are
average figures taken from the
records of the Florida Random
Sample Tests.
Factors Affecting Costs of
Growing Replacement Pullets
Some of the factors influencing
the cost of raising pullets are:
1. Number of pullets per man
2. Mortality-number and time
3. Feed efficiency
4. Cost of chicks
5. Price of feed
6. Labor efficiency
7. Production efficiency


TABLE 3
COST OF GROWING REPLACEMENT PULLETS*


Item Percentages
Feed 52
Chick 27
Labor 9
All other costs 12
*These percentage figures will vary from farm to farm within the same year,
and on the same farm from year to year.


---~-






Daylight Data for 250 a 300 N Latitude
January Through December


SUNSET


.I
0'
M:


DAYLIGHT


SUNRISE


Jan. Feb. March I April IMay JJune July IAug I

LIGHTS FOR GROWING PULLETS


The age of sexual maturity is
partially determined by the
amount of light during the grow-
ing period. Since chickens are
hatched during all months of the
year, the length of the day and
the amount of light will influence
time of sexual maturity. For this
reason many pullet growers at-
tempt to control the amount of
light given the pullets during the
growing period. Because of the
numerous lighting programs being
offered, there is considerable con-
fusion. The age of the birds, the
season of the year and the type


of house being used all influence
the lighting program. The main
purpose of all pullet lighting pro-
grams is to prevent pullets from
maturing sexually before maturing
physically.
Bear in mind that an increas-
ing day-length during the grow-
ing period will stimulate early
maturity. A decreasing day-length
during the growing period will
delay the age of maturity.
From June 21 to December 21
there is a natural decrease in day-
length; from December 21 to June
21 there is a natural increase in










day-length. In Florida those pul- Pullets hatched in September,
lets hatched in April, May, June, October, November, December,
July and August will be grown to January, February and March will
maturity on decreasing natural reach maturity when the length of
daylight, and therefore no artifi- day is increasing. For these pul-
cial lighting program is necessary. lets a reducing light program is

TABLE 4
Daylight Data for 25" & 30 N Latitude
Month Day Sunrise Sunset Daylength
25* 30* 25* 30* 25 30*


January 0
10
20
30
February 9
19
March 1
11
21
31
April 10
20
30


June 9
19
29
July 9
19
29
August 8
18
28
September 7
17
27
October 7
17
27
November 6
16
26
December 6
16
26


A. M.
6:46 6:56
6:47 6:57
6:47 6:56
6:44 6:52
6:40 6:45
6:32 6:37
6:23 6:26
6:14 6:15
6:04 6:03
5:53 5:51
5:42 5:39
5:33 5:28
5:25 5:18
5:18 5:10
5:13 5:04
5:10 5:00
5:09 4:58
5:10 4:59
5:12 5:02
5:16 5:06
5:20 5:11
5:26 5:17
5:30 5:23
5:35 5:29
5:38 5:32
5:42 5:37
5:46 5:45
5:50 5:51
5:55 5:57
5:59 6:03
6:04 6:10
6:11 6:18
6:18 6:26
6:24 6:34
6:32 6:42
6:38 6:49
6:44 6:54


P. M.
5:20 5:10
5:28 5:18
5:36 5:27
5:43 5:35
5:50 5:44
5:56 5:52


6:02
6:07
6:12
6:16
6:20
6:25
6:30
6:35
6:39
6:45
6:50
6:53
6:54
6:54
6:52
6:48
6:40
6:32
6:23
6:16
6:02
5:52
5:41
5:32
5:24
5:16
5:12
5:10
5:10
5:13
5:18


5:59
6:06
6:12
6:18
6:24
6:30
6:37
6:43
6:49
6:55
7:00
7:04
7:05
7:04
7:01
6:56
6:48
6:38
6:27
6:22
6:03
5:51
5:39
5:28
5:18
5:10
5:04
5:00
5:00
5:02
5:07


Hours
10:34 10:14
10:41 10:21
10:49 10:31
10:59 10:43
11:10 10:59
11:24 11:15


11:39
11:53
12:08
12:23
12:38
12:52
13:05
13:17
13:26
13:35
13:41
13:43
13:42
13:38
13:32
13:22
13:10
12:57
12:45
12:34
12:16
12:02
11:46
11:33
11:20
11:05
10:54
10:46
10:38
10:35
10:28


11:33
11:51
12:09
12:27
12:45
13:02
13:19
13:33
13:45
13:55
14:02
14:05
13:03
13:58
13:50
13:39
13:25
13:09
12:55
12:45
12:18
12:00
11:42
11:25
11:08
10:52
10:38
10:26
10:18
10:13
10:13









recommended. Start out using a
daily light period with sufficient
supplemental artificial light, so
that a reduction of the light period
each week will bring the pullets
to 21 weeks of age with a day
length that equals the natural day-
light period.
Reducing light programs vary
in procedure with date of hatch,
latitude of location, breed of bird,
desired time of maturity, type of
house and other factors. In Flor-
ida, most houses are open con-
struction which does not permit
restricted lighting. Florida is loca-
ted approximately between lati-
tudes 25 and 30 degrees North
where there is maximum of about
four hours difference in longest
and shortest days. This small
difference results in a more grad-
ual change in natural day-lengths
than in more Northern latitudes.
A typical reducing light program
for growing pullets in Florida
would be as follows:
1. Determine the natural day-
length at the end of the growing
period, (usually about 20-22 weeks
of age). See Table 2 and Figure 1.
2. Add three hours to that day-
length to determine the day-length
to be used at the beginning of the
program (about 12 weeks of age);


or, add 15 to 20 minutes per week
for the time the program will be
used.
3. The starting day-length is
then decreased 15 to 20 minutes
per week until natural day-length
is reached at the end of the pro-
gram and the pullets remain on the
increasing natural daylight or are
placed on a constant or increasing
day-length using artificial light.

General Lighting
Recommendations
1. Light intensities of 0.5 or
more footcandles give maximum
stimulation, while 3.0 or more may
be harmful to the eyes.
2. Color of light Incandescent
light is preferred over fluorescent;
red, orange and yellow over green
and blue.
3. 12 hours of light is the thresh-
old for maximum development
unless light is decreasing.
4. Morning and/or evening
lights may be used. Morning
lights are generally easier to use.
5. It should not be necessary to
begin a lighting program on grow-
ing pullets prior to 12 weeks of
age. The last 12 weeks of the
growing period are the most
critical.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The author is indebted to Dr. H. R. Wilson of the Poultry Science Department
for his assistance in preparing the section on Lights for Growing Pullets.



COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
M. O. Watkins, Dean




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