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Florida citrus spray guide
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00049911/00005
 Material Information
Title: Florida citrus spray guide
Series Title: Circular
Physical Description: v. : ; 23 cm. (fold.)
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extensive Service, Institute of Food Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1980
Publication Date: 197 -
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Citrus -- Diseases and pests -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Spraying and dusting in agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Pests -- Control -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 197 -
General Note: Desciption based on: 1980 edition.
Funding: Circular (Florida Cooperative Extension Service)
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000917306
oclc - 08265115
notis - AEM7601
System ID: UF00049911:00005
 Related Items
Preceded by: Florida citrus spray and dust schedule.

Full Text


ary 1980 Circular 393-F






lorida Citrus

Spray Guide


1980


ective and Safe Use of Agricultural Chemicals
in Citrus Production

FOR COMMERCIAL.USE ONLY

Before using any pesticide:
Read the complete label and the general
instructions in this guide.
This program was compiled by J. L. Knapp, IFAS
pension citrus pest management specialist, in co-
ration with the University of Florida Institute of
bd and Agricultural Sciences, and the U.S. Depart-
nt of Agriculture, Science and Education Adminis-
tion, Agricultural Research.

For additional information, consult your
County Extension Director or Citrus Agent.


Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville
John T. Woeste, Dean






FLORIDA CITRUS
SPRAY GUIDE
1980



Federal and state regulations set general and sp
standards that the applicators must meet before the
use restricted pesticides. The core manual entitled "
Pesticides Properly--A Guide for Pesticide Applica
should be studied and followed by anyone using pesti
Products mentioned in this guide are subject to cha
EPA rules, regulations and restrictions. Infor
presented is current at the date of publication. Addi
information is available from your Cooperative Exte
Service. (See Table I.)


Pesticide Safety
All precautions on the labels of pesticide containers
be read and observed at all times with all pesticides.
Florida regulations require labels to carry instruction
decontamination and disposal of empty container
highly toxic pesticides. Read and heed these instruc
Check for local regulations concerning the dispose
empty containers. Do not reuse containers.
Re-entry times (the period of time immedi
following time of application of a pesticide to a field
unprotected workers should not enter) were established
EPA effective June 10, 1974 (see Table 1). Re-enti
workers into pesticide-treated citrus groves is prohi
until sprays have dried or dust has settled, unless spec
differently on the label.
Pesticides should not be discharged in or near
immediate vicinity of any body of water. Due care mu
exercised by anyone adding pesticides to spray tanl
other pesticide application equipment to preclude con
nation of any body of water.
Protective canopies should be placed on tractors pt
airblast sprayers in order to minimize the hazards of
drift to the operator.
All pesticides should be kept in locked storage. Un
materials should be returned to locked storage at the er
each day.
Applicators should change coveralls and clothing d





Other Sources of Information
is Guide does not include recommendations for
ol of minor pests or pests occurring infrequently. See
rida Guide to Citrus Insects, Diseases, and Nutritional
ders"; "Citrus Diseases and Disorders," Univ. of Fla.
; Fla. Agr. Ext. Cir. 137C, "Insects and Mites of
da Citrus"; IFAS "Florida Insect Control Guide"; and
S'Florida Plant Disease Control Guide"; or consult
County Extension Agent.


Pesticide Application
e: Rates recommended in this Guide are for dilute
s using ground equipment only unless otherwise
fied (Table 4).
r pesticides to be effective, thorough coverage of both
and outside foliage is essential. All recommended
ides and scalicides except sulfur kill only upon contact
the pest. Maximum control is possible only when
s contact the pests by thoroughly wetting all fruit,
and twig surfaces before the pests can become
rous. Poor coverage means poor control and costly
re.
sts to be controlled, speciality varieties, tree spacing,
pruning may affect spray distribution requirements.
ck with your County Extension Agent.
he sprayer should be nozzled to deliver two-thirds of
volume of spray into the upper one-half of the tree.
last sprayers should be pulled at 1 mph for maximum
y penetration. One mile per hour is equivalent to 88
per minute. For additional information on sprayers, see
S Circular 351, "Citrus Growers' Guide to Air
saying "

centrate spray: Programs should be based on a dilute
ram that has provided thorough coverage. Factors
'tributing to the success of a concentrate spray program
ude: (1) The use of only well-trained, competent spray
rators; (2) not spraying when the wind is above 8 mph
:he grove; (3) nozzling sprayer for two-thirds output in
upper one-half of the trees; (4) reducing spray materials
25 percent at 3X (1/4 dilute gallonage) or higher
centrations to avoid excessive residues; (5) not
feeding a ground speed of 1 mph; (6) using concentrate


oil sprays only upon recommendation of spra
manufacturer; (7) shutting sprayers off at the end of r
to avoid over-spraying; and (8) disconnecting oscillators
dilute airblast machines at concentration of 3X (1/4 dil
gallonage) or above. See Table 5 for examples.

Aerial application: Can be successfully used in control
citrus rust mite and aphids and the suppression of bl
scale. Aerial application for the control of other s
insects and greasy spot is not recommended. The follow
should be considered in planning an aerial applicati
(1) rates of material per acre should be based on the qu
tity required for a dilute spray (e.g. an acre requiring
500-gallon tanks of dilute spray should receive 2.5 pi
of chlorobenzilate 4E); (2) materials should be mixed
sufficient water to make 10 to 15 gallons of finished sp
per acre for mature groves and 5 to 10 gallons per acr
groves that require one or less dilute tanks; (3) do not sp
when wind is above 5 mph in the grove; (4) spray only
row of trees per pass; (5) helicopter applications are m
effective at ground speeds of 20 to 25 mph between
tree rows; (6) fixed wing aircraft should be operated
speeds specified by aircraft manufacturers; and (7) do
apply materials by air where such use is prohibited on
label.


Mites and Their Control
Citrus Rust Mite: When citrus is grown for the fresh fr
market, rust mite must be controlled to prevent russeting
the fruit. Injurious mite populations can develop anytir
therefore, thorough inspections (every other week) sho
be made during the late spring, through fall when weat
favors rapid rust mite buildup. Inspections should
conducted even after sprays have been applied. Wh
appropriate, control for rust mite should be combined wi
other necessary pest control measures.
When citrus is grown for processing, rust mite contr
can be related more to overall tree vitality and less
pack-out. Therefore, higher mite populations can 1
tolerated on fruit for processing. Frequent inspection
(every other week) should be made during the late spri
and early summer while fruit are still small. Control mz
also be required in the fall if rust mites reach high densities
(See Table 2.)






)ider Mites: The Texas citrus mite and citrus red mite
the most common spider mites found on citrus. Both
ies feed on leaves, fruit and green twigs and at times
be found together on the same foliage. These mites
rally appear during dry periods, usually in the spring,
or early winter. In the fall, they occasionally cause
drop and twig injury. Spider mites are generally no
)lem in the fall in groves where oil has been applied in
summer. Six-spotted mites occasionally cause damage in
spring. Some pesticides are known to cause increases
ider mites. (See Table 2.)

Insects and Their Control
veral species of natural enemies are regulating
nations of many insect pests that attack Florida citrus.
cides should be selected and used with care in order to
rve these important natural enemies.
ales: Populations of both armored and soft scale
Id remain below economic levels unless parasite
ity is seriously retarded by excessive use of pesticides
iful to these parasites.
serious infestations of citrus snow scale may exist
lly. If infestations become so heavy as to infest fruit
leaves or to damage bark, two dilute sprays per year,
erably at postbloom and summer, are recommended.
roughness of application, especially on interior wood, is
as important as the selection of an effective scalicide.
ostbloom and summer scalicide sprays are recom-
ided to prevent persistent green spots and subsequent
y on tangerines and other varieties intended for the
h fruit market.
phids may attack trees of all ages, but control measures
generally warranted only for young trees or topworked
s where the proportion of new growth to old is greater.
ids should be controlled on Temple orange trees of all

ealybugs can be controlled most effectively by
lying a recommended insecticide before the fruit
homes infested. Insecticides applied after fruit set will kill
osed mealybugs but not those under the button.
ybugs are not a regular problem.
Vhitefly larvae often become numerous on the lower leaf
faces on new growth. Occasionally, a postbloom and
nmer spray may be required to control the different
ges of this pest.


Sooty mold grows on excretions from whiteflies,
scale, brown soft scale, mealybugs and aphids.
prevented by controlling these insects. Existing mold
be loosened by a summer oil spray of 0.5 percent or gr
Rainfall or overhead irrigation is required for removal.

FUNGUS DISEASES AND THEIR CONTROL
Melanose: All locally grown citrus varieties are subject
melanose attack. Precautionary spraying for this disea
often necessary to assure a good packout. It is not n
sary to control this disease if the crop is intended for
cessing.
Disease incidence varies from year to year according
the amount and frequency of rainfall during the period
fruit susceptibility, which lasts for about 12 weeks a
fruit set. Melanose usually is more serious in older gr
than in younger ones. Disease severity depends on
amount of inoculum-bearing deadwood in the tree can
(see Table 3).
Scab: This disease affects Temples, Murcotts, lem
grapefruit and some tangelos. It generally is more sever
flatwoods and coastal areas than on the sandhills (see T
3).
Greasy spot: This disease can cause serious premat
defoliation during fall and winter. Infection occurs mo
in the summer, but symptoms do not appear until 2 t
months later, the incubation period depending partly
the variety affected. The greasy spot fungus also inf
fruit rind, causing specks to appear in areas between the
glands. Living cells adjacent to the specks retain a gr
color for longer than normal and such areas often fail
respond to ethylene degreening treatment. On grapefr
the specks tend to be larger, giving rise to a condition t
has been described as "pink pitting." Greasy spot must
controlled on trees of all ages. Disease history of the gr(
influences the choice of material. The best time to ass
disease severity is to observe canopy density and premat
leaf drop just prior to the spring flush (January-Februar
Good spray coverage of the lower leaf surface is essent
for satisfactory greasy spot control. (See Table 3.)
Alternaria brown spot: This disease is currently of ec
nomic importance only on Dancy tangerines and Minnec
tangelos.
It attacks stems and leaves while they are very you






nly if wet weather coincides with a growth flush or if
lead irrigation during this critical period is prolonged
necessarily frequent.
ifolatan 4 F (1 to 2 gal per 500 gal) applied late dor-
just before new growth is anticipated, will reduce
naria infection of the spring flush. This treatment
be delayed until immediately after first signs of at-
on the new growth if it is possible to spray on short
e. This could save the cost of the prebloom spray in
Years when the weather during the critical period of
t development is dry for attack. The major economic
rtance of shoot infection is that it rapidly increases the
er of spores available for fruit infection.
uit remain susceptible to attack for 3 to 4 months
petal fall. Under severe disease pressure at least 2
er sprays (3 to 4 Ib metallic copper per 500 gal) are
ed postbloom, one in late April to early May (as for a
e melanose spray) and another 4 to 6 weeks later.
atan should not be applied postbloom because of pos-
injury to fruit rind.
own rot: Control can be obtained by spraying the lower
-t of the tree with neutral copper (1/2 the amount
n in Table 7), applying the spray about the middle of
ist in groves where the disease has been troublesome in
3ast. Where brown rot is only an occasional problem,
ing may be deferred until immediately after the first
arance of affected fruit, when the entire tree should be
ed. Chopping of cover crops, hedging of trees, and
ing off low hanging branches will improve ventilation
educe the likelihood of infection.
stharvest decay (stem end rot and green mold) in fruit
hiring degreening can be reduced by spraying Benlate
at 1 to 2 lb/A within 3 weeks to the day of harvest.
treatment provides protection against decay initiated
ie degreening room that is not effectively controlled by
equent postharvest fungicide treatments.

Physiological Sprays
nutritional Sprays--Application of zinc in nutritional
ys is not economically justified in groves where only
!ly-scattered or very mild symptoms of zinc deficiency
ar. When extensive deficiency symptoms appear, zinc
Id be sprayed, preferably in the post-bloom period.
amount of zinc (as metal) used in the spray may be

(Continued on panel 7.)





Table 1. PESTICIDE REGULATIONS1


Pesticide
(Al Active
Ingredient)

Benlate

Chlorobenzilate

Comite

Delnav


Waiting time until

Reentry Harvest

O3 NTL3

O3 NTL3

03 7 days

O3 NTL3


Diazinon

Difolatan


21 days

NTL3


Other use requirements

None

RESTRICTED PESTICIDE2

Only 2 applications per year.

Only 2 applications per year at least 4 months apart on lemon and lime;
at least 3 months apart on other citrus if fruit is present during first
application.

None

Apply only when trees are dormant and do not apply when mature fruits are on tree.


Dimethoate 03 15 days Only 2 applications to mature fruit. Do not apply during bloom period.


Guthion
(Azinphos-Methyl) RESTRICTED PESTICIDE Only 2 applications per season.

1 application/season 24 hrs. 7 days

2 applications/season 24 hrs. 28 days

Kelthane 03 days None
(dicofol)

Lead Arsenate O3 NTL3 RESTRICTED PESTICIDE2. Grapefruit only 1-6 weeks after bloom.

Malathion 03 7 days Do not apply during full bloom.

Meta Systox-R 48 hrs. 7 days Registered for oranges, grapefruit, and lemons. Only 2 applications per season.

Parathion RESTRICTED PESTICIDE2.


up to 4.0 Ib Al/acre

4-10 Ib Al/acre

Phosphamidon

Plictran

Sulfur

Supracide


Systox

Torak


Trithion

2.5 Ib Al/acre

2.5-3.75 Al/acre

3.75-5.0 Al/acre

Vendex


48 hrs.

48 hrs.

03

03

03

03


48 hrs.

03


48 hrs.

48 hrs.

48 hrs.


14 days

30 days

15 days

NTL3

NTL3

14 days


21 days

7 days


2


RESTRICTED PESTICIDE2. Registered for oranges, grapefruit and lemons.

Registered for oranges, grapefruit, lemons, limes, tangerines.

None

Registered for oranges, grapefruit and lemons. Only 2 applications per season.
45 days between applications.

RESTRICTED PESTICIDE2. Registered for oranges, grapefruit and lemons.

RESTRICTED PESTICIDE2 Only 2 applications per year. Allow 3 months between
applications if fruit was present during first application.

30 days between applications.


48 hrs.

14 days

30 days


7 days


Registered for oranges, grapefruit and lemons. Only 4 applications in any 12
month period. Only dilute sprays on lemons.


'Extracted from federal and state regulations, and from registered labels.

2 e rrict f -t 1 M MII


03


I


I


I


--







d from 2.5 Ib per 500 gal for mild to moderate
iency to 5 Ib for moderately severe deficiency (see
e 7). These rates apply to inorganic zinc sources, such
asic zinc salts or zinc oxide. Application of 0.7 Ib zinc
per acre in the form of liquid zinc chelate with low-
me ground spray equipment has controlled moderate
deficiency.
Spray applications of manganese are recommended for
Grove having persistent manganese deficiency symp-
s, and particularly for groves on alkaline soils. Copper is
ommended in nutritional sprays only where a deficiency
ually exists and when this element is not used in a
ease control program. Boron deficiency is difficult to
ntify in mild cases, so boron should be used in a main-
ance program. Either spray applications or soil applica-
ns may be made, but not both in the same year. In
rays, use 1.67 Ib soluble borate containing 48 percent
03 or equivalent per 500 gal or 1.25 Ib soluble borate
ntaining 58 percent or 66 percent B203 per 500 gal. For
Applications, consult Florida Agricultural Experiment
nation Bulletin 536C.
Maturity Sprays--Lead arsenate is the only arsenical
mpound cleared for use on grapefruit to reduce acidity.
se of arsenic on other citrus is illegal. To avoid excessive
ytotoxicity, arsenic should not be applied to trees less
an 7 years of age. The most effective use of arsenic is
obtained by spraying within 1 to 6 weeks after bloom. Use
.0 to 12.5 pts--4 Ib flowable lead arsenate per 500 gal for
white varieties and 4.0 to 6.0 pts for pink and red
rapefruit. The higher amount is necessary for a high ratio
n the early season.
Preharvest-Drop Control Sprays--2,4-D is effective for
educing pre-harvest drop of Pineapple, seedling oranges,
nd Temple oranges. Sprays applied to other citrus varieties
lave been ineffective. Sprays containing 20 ppm (acid
equivalent) of 2,4-D are recommended for application
separately or in combination with wettable sulfur, but only
s dilute sprays. For best results, make a single application
during October or November, but do not apply after
January 1. Do not apply 2,4-D to resets less than five years
old. Unused spray solution should be discarded in a waste
area and spray machines thoroughly cleaned. Fill the tank
full of water, add 6 Ibs of washing soda, agitate, and then
pump out through the guns. Rinse with clean water. Do not
use 2,4-D sprays in wooden tanks that are to be used for
other sprays.


To prepare 20 ppm, divide the constant 10.7 by the
acid per gal as shown on the label to obtain the liquid
concentrate required to give 20 ppm in 500 gal of
mixture. For example, the concentrate contains 4.0 It
per gal; 10.7 4 = 2.67 liquid oz per 500 gal of
mixture.
Abscission or Fruit Coloring Sprays--Acti-Aid at 1 to
(1/2 to 1 unit) per 500 gal can be applied preharves
early and midseason oranges to loosen fruit for process.
Not more than 1000 gal/acre of spray should be app
Use 1 can (3 pt) of Component B (normally supplied
Acti-Aid or an equivalent surfactant at comparable r
per 500 gal. Do not reduce rate of surfactant when con
trate of Acti-Aid is reduced. Material should not be apr
after the spring flush begins.
Ethrel can be applied to tangerines and tangelos to
duce postharvest degreening time and partially loosen
fruit, thereby reducing plugging. Do not apply before
is passing minimum internal quality requirements and 11
20 percent colorbreak is present. Use 4 pt per 500 gal oi
tangerine and tangelo varieties except 'Orlando' wl
should receive 3-1/3 pt per 500 gal. Avoid using on low
or, freeze injured, or drought stressed trees. Do not appl
rain is expected within 12 hours. Do not use a surface
and do not combine Ethrel with any other materials
training surfactants. Use only dilute sprays.


This publication was promulgated at a cos
of $1188, or .08 cents per copy, to infor
commercial citrus growers of the IFAS rec
commendations for control of citrus pests
1-15M-80

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNI-
VERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD
AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, K. R.
Tefertlller, director, in cooperation with the
United States Department of Agriculture, publishes
this Information to further the purpose of the May
8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to pr
research, educational information and other services only to ir
duals and institutions that function without regard to race, c
sex or national origin. Single copies of Extension public
(excluding 4-H and Youth publications) are available free to Fli
residents from County Extension Offices. Information on bulk
or copies for out-of-state purchasers is available from C. M. Hir
Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, Universil
Florida, Galnesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this put
tion, editors should contact this address to determine availab





Table 2. INSECTS AND MITES TREATMENT GUIDE'


Insect Insecticide Rate/5

Scale Diazinon 4 L 5.0 pts.
(50 W also available)

Dimethoate 2.67 EC 4.0 pts
(also 4 L) (2.67 pt







Ethion 4 EC 3.75 pts
(25 WP also available)

Ethion + Oil 3.75 pts
0.5%


Guthion 2EC 5.0 pts.
(Azinphos-Methyl)
(50 WP also available)


Malathion 5 EC 6.0-10.(




Oil (FC 435-66 and
FC 412-66)











1.0%





0.5%






Parathion 4 EC 2.5 pts


Supracide 2 EC 2.5-5.0




Trithion 4 EC 3.75 pl
(8 EC and 25 WP also available


Rust Mites


Chlorobenzilate 4 EC


1.25 p


Comite 6.75 EC 1.0-1.5





Delnav 8 EC 2.0 pts

Ethion 4 EC 2.5-3.7'
(25 WP also available)

Ethion + Oil 3.75 pt:
0.5%


Guthion 2EC 5.0 pts.
(Azinphos-Methyl)
(50 WP also available)

Dicofol 4 E 3.0 pts.
Kelthane 1.6 EC 1.0 gal.
(dicofol)


Plictran 50 WP 20-30 c


nments Other Pests Controlled

f citrus snow


trol citrus snow Citrus red mite
scale. Aphids
to honey bees-
tion where the
poisoning of
exists for


only. Rust mites
ily.

TE Spray--use exact Rust mites
se leaf drop Spider mites
urn.


se wettable powder Whiteflies




or high infestations
Glover, and yellow
it control chaff or black scale.

ol snow scale. Do
oes are wilting or
tate. Do not apply
Sof sulfur. Oil
Octoberr may increase
)f trees to cold
ay reduce crop the
Oil applied in
hibit solids forma-
fruit coloring.

ixed with any Whiteflies
mite material except Spider mites
ed under the Greasy spot
on. Loosens sooty mold

1.5 pts. parathion
thion as a scali-
ii combinations
Sfor greasy spot


ol brown soft scale. Mealybugs


ol Florida red scale or Whiteflies
e. Miticide should
st mite control.

only.
y. Add 1.0% oil Citrus rust mites
er scales. Spider mites
under rust mites.

spray solution


spray solution Spider mites

tix with oil or
weeks of oil.

Spider mites

n spring and Spider mites
Scale as dilute spray

TE Spray--use exact Scale
le leaf drop and/or Spider mites


spray solutions Scale
se wettable powder Whiteflies
Ihen tank mixing with
Mealybugs
groves
e unless Spider mites
e unless
ded.
spray
ve pH 8.
nix with oil or apply
'oid application
ier" growth flush.


25 Ibs. pplemental rust mite
ded between main
nged use increases
te and armored scale
Do not combine with
within 3 weeks of oil.


Insect


Rust Mites
(cont.)


Insecticide


Torak 4 EC


Rate/500


2.5-5.0 pts


Trithion 4 EC 2.5-3.75 pts.
(8EC and 25WP also available)


Vendex 50 WP


Spider Mites


Comite 6.75 EC


20-40 oz.


1.0-1.5 pts


Delnav 8 EC 2.0 pts.

Dimethoate 2.67 EC 4.0 pts.
(4 L also available) (2.67 pts.)





Ethion 4 EC 2.5 pts
(25 WP also available)

Ethion + Oil 3.75 pts. +
0.5%



Dicofol 4 E 3.0 pts.
Kelthane 1.6 EC 1.0 gal.
(dicofol)




Trithion 4 EC 2.5-3.75 pi
(8EC and 25WP also available)


Oil (FC 435-66 and 0.5-1.0%
FC 412-66)


Vendex 50 WP


Aphids


Dimethoate 2.67 EC
(4 L also available)


20-40 oz.


4.0 pts.
(2.67 pts.)


Meta-Systox-R 2 EC 5.0 pts.


Phosphamidon 8 EC 5.0 pts.


Systox 2 EC


5.0 pts.


Mealybugs





Guthion 2 EC 5.0 pts.
(Azinphos-Methyl)
(50 WP also available)

Parathion 4 EC 2.5 pts.

Whiteflies




Oil (FC 435-66 and 0.5-1.0%
FC 412-66)





Guthion 2 EC 5.0 pts.
(Azinphos-Methyl)
(50 WP also available)

Supracide 2 EC 2.5-5.0 pts.


lments Other Pests Controlled

Spider mites

n spring and summer. Spider mites
:n spots on grapefruit
re fruit is fully


at rates greater than Texas citrus mite
>ns to fruit less than
iameter when tank
or within 10 days of


ray solution Rust mites
Do not tank
apply
of oil.

*use only Rust mites

only. Aphids
honey bees;
n for several
potential for
aging bees exists.

Rust mites
Citrus snow scale

y. Scale
E Spray--use exact Rust mites
excessive leaf
it burn.

moves Rust mites
unless

ray
pH 8.

Spots on grapefruit Citrus snow scale
e fruit is fully Rust mites


nder scale insects Higher rate for scale
Whiteflies
Greasy spot
Loosening sooty mold

e only. Do not ap- Rust mites
ter than 20 oz/500
than one inch in di-
k mixed with oil or
f an oil spray.

loney bees; avoid Citrus red mite
e the potential Scale insects
foraging bees except citrus snow
days. and black


c to honey bees-
ernoon

honey bees--
n where the
isoning of
ists for several days.

c to honey bees-
ernoon

uit becomes infested. Ap-
he fruit has set will kill ex-
;s but not those that have
le button.

under scale Scale
Rust mites
Whiteflies

under scale Scale

Im after the adult females
their eggs followed by
cation.

under scale Scale (except citrus
snow)
Spider mites
Greasy spot
Loosens sooty mold

s under scale Scale
Rust mites


Sunder scale Scale


Pesticide/ Pesticide/
500 gal. acre
(pts.) (pts.)3,4


1X (Dilute) 1 1000 2 4
2X(Modified) 1/2 500 4 4
^ Dilute 1/2 500
3X 1/4 250 6 3
6X 1/8 125 12 3
7.5X 1/10 100 15 3
15X 1/20 50 30 3

1X refers to the concentration of pesticide in the spray tank (no
lonage per acre) when compared to a dilute mixture, i.e. IX equ
per 500 gallons, 3X equals (3 x 2) or 6 pints per 500 gallons. See
one and four.

2 Fractions refer to the amount of spray applied per acre when c
to the dilute recommendation, i.e. 1 or dilute equals 1000 ga


Table 3. Treatment guide for control of s


Market Dise;
Disease Variety Destination Presst


Scab Temples Fresh He
and and
Murcotts Process






Li



Grapefruit Fresh






Process

Melanose All6 Fresh




Process

Greasy All1o Fresh Mo
Spot and
Process H







L


1 Based arbitrarily on heaviest infection during the preceding 5
2 First sign of shoot emergence, usually in late February.

3 Difolatan can be used only if mature crop has been harvested.

4 Difolatan applied late dormant at this rate for scab control w
required to assure economic control of melanose. Do not ap
growth.
5 Benlate should not be used in groves where tolerance has devel

6Mature groves only, unless excessive dead wood.

7 A better assurance of control is provided by applying one spra

8 Copper sprays applied in the summer sometimes blacken exist

9 See Oil section under Scale in Table 2 for comments.

10 A 1% oil alone is usually adequate for Valencias, Temples, M
necessary to add copper or Benlate even to these less suscept
varieties such as Hamlins, Pineapples, and grapefruit to assure
spot on grapefruit rind (pink pitting). When "pink pitting" has
11 To obtain greasy spot control on summer flushes that grow out
September. These later growth flushes are affected much less b
tion is, therefore, seldom necessary.

Table 4. Per acre dilute gallonage requirements and per acr
calculations

Recommended Recommended
dilute rate pesticide/
Tree height Example gal./acre 500 gal. (pts.)1

18' + larger Ig. grapefruit 1500 2

14' to 16' Ig. orange 1000 2
med. grapefruit

10' to 12' med. orange 750 2
sm. grapefruit
less than 10' sm. orange 500 2

1Based on a recommended rate of 2 pts. per 500 gallons from Ta
Table 5. Example of dilute vs. concentrate sprays

If the dilute pesticide recommendation is 2 pints per 500 gallon
and 1000 gallons per acre are required for thorough coverage
then:


1; however, a postbloom copper treatment will also be
it after late dormant due to possible injury to young





II and a second spray 2-3 weeks later.

d, thus leading to further downgrading of fruit.


However, if the oil rate is reduced to 0.5%, it may be
d Benlate are often required on the more susceptible
% oil spray is usually inadequate for control of greasy
copper or Benlate to the June-July oil spray.

y, another application would be required in August or
ose of the spring and early summer. A second applica-

of this volume is equal to 250 gallons of water per acre. See
two and three.

per acre is reduced at 3X and greater concentrations as there is
cable run off applying this reduced gallonage per acre. This
r the use of less material and reduces chance of over tolerance

rate of pesticide can be calculated by determining dilute gallon-
rementS based on tree height (Tables 4 and 5).
Table 6. Gallons of oil concentrates to use for each
500 gallons of dilute spray

il in the stock is and the percentage oil desired in
the spray tank is:

0.5% 1.0%

97+ 2.55 5.10

90-92 2.75 5.50

83-84 3.00 6.00


Table 7.1 Pounds of copper, zinc, and manganese
compounds to equal the standard dosage2
per 500 gallons of water.3
Metallic Content shown on label(%)
34-36 48 52-56 75 80 85-90

ler 11.0 8.5 7.0 5.0 4.5

10.0 -- 7.0 -

-anese 8.5 6.5 4.5

andard dosage required to correct deficiencies, based on the
etal content per 500 gal., is 3.75 Ib. for copper; 5.0 lb. for zinc;
id 3.75 lb. for manganese.
or concentrate sprays, multiply the pounds required by 0.75.
or soluble sulfates, see Fla. Agr. Expt Sta. Bul. 536C,


Sulfur


ind greasy spot on Florida citrus.



Rate/
ng Treatment 500 Gal. (dilute)


Difolatan 4F3,4 5 qts.
nt2 or
Benlate 50Ws 1.0-1.5 lbs.

tal Difolatan 4F3 5 qts.
or
Benlate 50W5 1.0-1.5 lbs.

tal Difolatan 4F3 5 qts.
or
Benlate 50Ws 1.0-1.5 Ibs.

Difolatan 4F3,4 5 qts.
it2

tal Benlate 50W5 1.0-1.5 Ibs.


I necessary

3ril Copper 3.0-4.0 Ibs.
(Metallic)
ay7

Necessary

y 1 Copper8 1.5-2.0 Ibs.
(Metallic)
+
Oil 0.5%
or
Benlate 50WS 1.0-1.5 lbs.
+
Oil 0.5%

/1 Oil9 1%


X!
conc. of
pesticide


Fraction Total
of dilute gallons/
gallonage2 acre


I