• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Chapter I: Departure from...
 Chapter II: Voyage to Saigon--arrival...
 Chapter III: Historical and descriptive--first...
 Chapter IV: A wonderful temple--ruins...
 Chapter V: Cambodia--its capital...
 Chapter VI: Departure from Saigon--visiting...
 Chapter VII: The wonderful story...
 Chapter VIII: Arrival in Siam--first...
 Chapter IX: Temples at Bangkok--the...
 Chapter X: Ascending the Menam,...
 Chapter XI: Visiting the prince...
 Chapter XII: Stories of elephant-hunting--scenes...
 Chapter XIII: Bang-pa-in to Bangkok--studies...
 Chapter XIV: The king in his state...
 Chapter XV: Women, hair-cutting,...
 Chapter XVI: Cremation in Siam--trade,...
 Chapter XVII: Presentation to the...
 Chapter XVIII: The white elephant--visit...
 Chapter XIX: Leaving Siam--life...
 Chapter XX: Light under the water--pearl-fishing...
 Chapter XXI: Incidents of...
 Chapter XXII: Sights and scenes...
 Chapter XXIII: Crossing the Equator--adventure...
 Chapter XXIV: Sumatra and its peculiarities--snakes...
 Chapter XXV: Arrival in Java--sights...
 Chapter XXVI: Batavia to Buitenzorg--tropical...
 Chapter XXVII: A chapter on political...
 Chapter XXVIII: Rice culture in...
 Chapter XXIX: A post ride in Java--from...
 Chapter XXX: Visiting a tea plantation--preparation...
 Chapter XXXI: Eastern Java, Lombock,...
 Chapter XXXII: Wanderings in the...
 Advertising
 Back Cover
 Spine






Group Title: Boy travellers in the Far East ;, pt. 2nd
Title: Adventures of two youths in a journey to Siam and Java
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00049526/00001
 Material Information
Title: Adventures of two youths in a journey to Siam and Java with descriptions of Cochin-China, Cambodia, Sumatra and the Malay Archipelago
Series Title: Boy travellers in the Far East
Alternate Title: Boy travellers. Siam and Java
Physical Description: 446, 2 p., 1 leaf of plates : ill. (some col.), maps ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Knox, Thomas Wallace, 1835-1896
Harper & Brothers ( Publisher )
Publisher: Harper & Brothers
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1881, c1880
Copyright Date: 1880
 Subjects
Subject: Voyages and travels -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Tutors and tutoring -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Friendship -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Sailing -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Sailors -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Steamboats -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Juvenile fiction -- Thailand   ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Juvenile fiction -- Java (Indonesia)   ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Juvenile fiction -- Vietnam, Southern   ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Juvenile fiction -- Cambodia   ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Juvenile fiction -- Sumatera Barat (Indonesia)   ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Juvenile fiction -- Malay Archipelago   ( lcsh )
Travelogue storybooks -- 1881   ( local )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1881   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1881
Genre: Travelogue storybooks   ( local )
Publishers' catalogues   ( rbgenr )
novel   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Thomas W. Knox ; illustrated.
General Note: Frontispiece and title page printed in colors.
General Note: Publisher's catalogue follows text.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00049526
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002232717
notis - ALH3113
oclc - 62295567

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page i
    Frontispiece
        Plate
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Preface
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
        Page 6
    List of Illustrations
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Chapter I: Departure from Hong-Kong
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Chapter II: Voyage to Saigon--arrival in Cochin China
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Chapter III: Historical and descriptive--first sights and scenes in Anam
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Chapter IV: A wonderful temple--ruins of Nagkon Wat and Angkor
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Chapter V: Cambodia--its capital and king
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Chapter VI: Departure from Saigon--visiting a Chinese junk
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Chapter VII: The wonderful story of Marco Polo
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
    Chapter VIII: Arrival in Siam--first day in Bangkok
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
    Chapter IX: Temples at Bangkok--the founder of Buddhism
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
    Chapter X: Ascending the Menam, from Bangkok to Ayuthia
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
    Chapter XI: Visiting the prince of the elephants--Ayuthia--something about crocodiles
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
    Chapter XII: Stories of elephant-hunting--scenes of the chase
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
    Chapter XIII: Bang-pa-in to Bangkok--studies in natural history and botany
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
    Chapter XIV: The king in his state barge--betel and tobacco
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
    Chapter XV: Women, hair-cutting, and slavery
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
    Chapter XVI: Cremation in Siam--trade, taxes, and birds
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
    Chapter XVII: Presentation to the king--dinner at the palace
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
    Chapter XVIII: The white elephant--visit to the second king of Siam
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
    Chapter XIX: Leaving Siam--life under the ocean wave
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
    Chapter XX: Light under the water--pearl-fishing and turtle-hunting
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 279
    Chapter XXI: Incidents of a sea-voyage--Singapore
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
    Chapter XXII: Sights and scenes in Singapore
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
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        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
    Chapter XXIII: Crossing the Equator--adventure with Malay pirates
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
    Chapter XXIV: Sumatra and its peculiarities--snakes and orang-outangs
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
    Chapter XXV: Arrival in Java--sights and scenes in Batavia
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
    Chapter XXVI: Batavia to Buitenzorg--tropical scenes--birds of paradise
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
    Chapter XXVII: A chapter on political economy--the Dutch culture system in Java
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
    Chapter XXVIII: Rice culture in Java--military and social matters
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Page 392
        Page 393
        Page 394
        Page 395
        Page 396
        Page 397
        Page 398
        Page 399
    Chapter XXIX: A post ride in Java--from Buitenzorg to Bandong
        Page 400
        Page 401
        Page 402
        Page 403
        Page 404
        Page 405
        Page 406
        Page 407
        Page 408
        Page 409
        Page 410
    Chapter XXX: Visiting a tea plantation--preparation of tea
        Page 411
        Page 412
        Page 413
        Page 414
        Page 415
        Page 416
        Page 417
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        Page 421
    Chapter XXXI: Eastern Java, Lombock, Timor, and the Aru Islands
        Page 422
        Page 423
        Page 424
        Page 425
        Page 426
        Page 427
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    Chapter XXXII: Wanderings in the Malay Archipelago--good-bye
        Page 435
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    Advertising
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Back Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
    Spine
        Spine
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THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST
PART SECOND


ADVENTURES OF TWO YOUTHS IN A JOURNEY

TO

SIAM AND JAVA

WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF COCHIN-CHINA, CAMBODIA, SUMATRA
AND THE MALAY ARCHIPELAGO



BY
THOMAS W. KNOX
AUTHOR OF "CAMP-FIRE AND COTTON-FIELD" "OVERLAND THROUGH. ASIA"
"UNDERGROUND" "'JOHN" ETC.




tllustratcb








NEW YORK
HARPER & BROTHERS, FRANKLIN SQUARE
1881




































Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1880, by

HARPER & BROTHERS,

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.















PREFACE.



T HE favorable reception accorded to The Boy Travellers in Japan
and China" has led to the preparation of the present book.
Frank and Fred have continued their journey under the guidance of
Doctor Bronson, and the plan of their travels and observation is identical
with the one they followed through the Celestial Empire and the Land
of the Mikado. The incidents in the narrative were mainly the experi-
ences of the author at a recent date; and the descriptions of countries,
cities, temples, people, manners, and customs are nearly all from his per-
sonal observations and notes. He has endeavored to give a faithful ac-
count of Siam, Java, and the adjacent countries as they appear to-day,
and trusts that the only fiction of the book is in the names of the indi-
viduals who tell the story.
In a few instances the narrative has been slightly interrupted, in
order to introduce matters of general interest to young readers. The
details of the progress of naval architecture and the accounts of sub-
marine operations, together with the wonderful adventures of Marco
Polo, may be classed as digressions. It is hoped they will meet the same
welcome that was accorded to the episode of a whaling voyage in the
first record of the travels of Frank and Fred.
The publishers have kindly allowed the use of some illustrations that
have already appeared in their publications relative to the Far East, in
addition to those specially prepared for this volume. The author has
consulted the works of previous travellers in the East to supplement his
own information, and to some of them he is under obligations. Espe-
cially is he indebted to Mr. Frank Vincent, Jr., author of that excellent







4 PREFACE.

and well-known book, The Land of the White Elephant," not only for
details respecting Cambodia and adjacent regions, but for some of the ad-
mirable engravings that adorn his volume. Other authorities are cred-
ited with the text of their work or in foot-notes to the pages where quo-
tations are made.
The author is not aware that any book describing Siam, Java, Cochin
China, Cambodia, and the Malay Archipelago, and especially addressed
to the young, has yet appeared. Consequently he hopes that this volume
will meet with as warm a welcome as was given to The Boy Travellers
in Japan and China," by adult as well as juvenile members of many fam-
ilies throughout the United States.
T. W. K.




















CONTENTS.




CHAPTER I. PAGE
DEPARTURE FROM HONG-KONG.......................................................... ................... 13

CHAPTER II.
VOYAGE TO SAIGON.-ARRIVAL IN COCHIN CHINA................... .............................. 23

CHAPTER III.
HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE.-FIRST SIGHTS AND SCENES IN ANAM ........................ 34

CHAPTER IV.
A WONDERFUL TEMPLE.-RUINS OF NAGKON WAT AND ANGKOR ............................ 47

CHAPTER V.
CAMBODIA.- ITS CAPITAL AND KING................................................................... 61

CHAPTER VI.
DEPARTURE FROM SAIGON.-VISITING A CHINESE JUNK ................. ..................... 73

CHAPTER VII.
THIE W ONIERFUL STORY OF MARCO POLO............................................................. 86

CHAPTER VIII.
ARRIVAL IN SIAM.-FIRST DAY IN BANGKOK................................. ..................... 106

CHAPTER IX.
TEMPLES AT BANGKOK.-THE FOUNDER OF BUDDHISM. ........................................... 119

CHAPTER X.
ASCENDING THE MENAM, FROM BANGKOK TO ATUTHIA............................................. 131

CHAPTER XI.
VISITING THE PRINCE OF THE ELEPHANTS.-AYUTHIA.-SOMETHING ABOUT CROCODILES. 143

CHAPTER XII.
STORIES OF ELEPHANT-HUNTING.-SCENES OF THE CHASE....................................... 161

CHAPTER XIII.
BANG-PA-IN TO BANGKOK.-STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY AND BOTANY..................... 177

CHAPTER XIV.
THE KING IN HIS STATE BARGE.-BETEL AND TOBACCO........................................ 190








6 CONTENTS.



CHAPTER XV. PAGE
W OMEN, HAIR-CUTTING, AND SLAVERY ......................... ..... ...................................... 202

CHAPTER XVI.
CREMATION IN SIAM.-TRADE, TAXES, AND BIRDS.................................................... 215

CHAPTER XVII.
PRESENTATION TO THE KING.-DINNER AT THE PALACE........................................ 228

CHAPTER XVIII.
THE WHITE ELEPHANT.-VISIT TO THE SECOND KING OF SIAM................................. 237

CHAPTER XIX.
LEAVING SIAM.-LIFE UNDER THE OCEAN WAVE...................................................... 249

CHAPTER XX.
LIGHT UNDER WATER.-PEARL-FISHING AND TURTLE-HUNTING .................................. 262

CHAPTER XXI.
INCIDENTS OF A SEA-VOYAGE.-SINGAPORE ........................................ ...................... 280

CHAPTER XXII.
SIGHTS AND SCENES IN SINGAPORE. ...................................................................... 294

CHAPTER XXIII.
CROSSING THE EQUATOR.-ADVENTURE WITH MALAY PIRATES.................................. 311

CHAPTER XXIV.
SUMATRA AND ITS PECULIARITIES.-SNAKES AND ORANG-OUTANGS ............................. 326

CHAPTER XXV.
ARRIVAL IN JAVA.-SIGHTS AND SCENES IN BATAVIA............................................... 343

CHAPTER XXVI.
BATAVIA TO BUITENZORG.-TROPICAL SCENES.-BIRDS OF PARADISE ......................... 358

CHAPTER XXVII.
A CHAPTER ON POLITICAL ECONOMY.-THE DUTCH CULTURE SYSTEM IN JAVA.......... 374

CHAPTER XXVIII.
RICE CULTURE IN JAVA.-MILITARY AND SOCIAL MATTERS....................................... 387

CHAPTER XXIX.
A POST RIDE IN JAVA.-FROM BUITENZORG TO BANDONG........................................ 400

CHAPTER XXX.
VISITING A TEA PLANTATION.-PREPARATION OF TEA.............................................. 411

CHAPTER XXXI.
EASTERN JAVA, LOMBOCK, TIMOR, AND THE ARU ISLANDS ...................................... 422

CHAPTER XXXII.
WANDERINGS IN THE MALAY ARCHIPELAGO.-GOOD-BYE ....................................... 435

















ILLUSTRATIONS.





Scene on the Head-waters of the Menam River................................................ Frontispiece
M ap................................. ...... ...................... ...............................To face page 13
PAGE PAGE
Hong kong, from Kellet's Island .............. 13 Fishing-village on Lake Thalysap .......... 62
Mary and Effie reading Frank's Letter....... 15 Panompin, the Capital of Cambodia......... 64
Arrival of the French Mail Steamer.......... 18 Specimen of Cambodian Gold-work.......... 66
Private Parlor of the Yuen Fat Hong".... 20 The King of Cambodia......................... 67
A Chinese Boatwoman........................... 21 Queen of Cambodia and Royal Children.... 69
Frank's Dream.................................. 22 The Harbor of Oodong, Cambodia .......... 70
Hurricane during the Change of the Monsoon 23 A Girl of Oodong.............................. 71
A favoring Monsoon............................. 24 House in the Suburbs......................... 72
Running before the Trade-wind ............... 25 A Chinese Junk..... ................................ 74
Rice-fields on the Mekong....................... 28 Outline of Modern Ship, showing Compart-
A Native W oman.......... ...... .... ..... 30 ments............................ .......... 76
Street in the Chinese Quarter ............. 31 A Junk Sailor at Breakfast................. 77
Plants in the Botanical Garden ................ 32 Chinese River Boat............................ 78
A New Acquaintance........................ 33 Ship of the Fourteenth Century.............. 79
A Mosquito of Saigon...................... ...... 33 "The Great Harry ".......................... 80
Native Gentleman at Saigon.................... 35 The Tennessee".............. ....................... 81
View of the French Quarter of Saigon....... 37 The Public Highway of the Future.......... 82
Native Soldiers at Saigon .......................... 39 The Bomb Ferry............................... 83
The King of the Beggars ..................... 41 Moonlight at Sea in the Tropics.............. 84
View of Cholon....................... ......... 43 A Story of the Sea............................ 85
A Chinese Family at Cholon ................... 44 Marco Polo........................ .... .. 87
A Cab for Two.................................. 45 The Great Khan delivering a Tablet to the
Cambodian Female Head- dress. Ancient Elder Polo Brothers. From a Miniature
Sculpture..................... .................. 47 of the Fourteenth Century................. 88
Plan of the Temple at Nagkon ................. 49 Arms of the Polo Family................. 88
Unfinished Pillars.................................. 50 Nicolo Polo, Father of Marco..... .............. 89
Columns in the Temple........................ 51 Portrait of Kublai-Khan. From a Chinese
Sculptures on the Walls of Nagkon Wat...... 52 Engraving........ ................................ 91
View from the Central Tower of the Temple. 54 Marco Polo's Galley in Battle............... 9
Gallery of Sculptures............................. 56 Alau shuts up the Caliph of Baudas in his
Ancient Tower overgrown with Poh-trees.... 58 Treasure-tower................................. 96
Huts of the Priests ............................. 59 Dog-headed Men of Angamanain.............. 97
Stone with Ancient Sculptures................ 60 Medieval Tartar Huts and Wagons......... 99
A Cambodian Idol............................ 61 The Roc, from a Persian Drawing.......... 100








"8 ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE PAGE
Roc's Egg, now in the British Museum...... 100 Securing the Captives............................ 165
Chinese Bank-note of the Ming Dynasty... 101 Siribeddi's Prize................................. 66
Chinese Conjuring Extraordinary............ 103 The Prisoners tied up ......................... 168
Captain Clanchy at Work..................... 104 A little Head Work............................. 169
Come to Dinner !....................... ...... 105 In a Heap of Trouble............................ 170
A Natural Shower-bath........................ 106 Refusing to Move on............................. 171
Flying-fish................. ...................... 107 Sliding down hill ................................ 173
View near Paknam............................. 108 Elephant-hunting on Foot ...................... 174
Native Hut on the Menam River ............ 110 The Hunter Hunted...... .......................... 75
A Village Pathway in Siam.................. I11 Taking a Nap............................... .... 176
Chinese Field-laborers........................... 112 Cocoa-nuts Full Grown and just Forming.. 178
General View of Bangkok.................... 114 The Bread-fruit.................................. 179
House in the Foreign Part of Bangkok...... 115 Pineapple.......................................... 180
A Siamese Priest............................. 118 Star-apple...................... ............ 180
Bird's-eye View of Bangkok................... 120 A New Kind of Fruit .......................... 181
Temple of Wat Chang...................... 121 Tailor-bird and Nest ............................ 182
Temple of the Sleeping Idol.................. 123 A Climbing-fish................................ 183
Brass Idol in a Temple......................... 124 The Snake and the Squirrel.................... 185
Priests Playing, Chess............................ 126 Monkeys at Home............................. 187
Gate-way of a Temple at Bangkok.......... 128 Monkeys............................................ 188
Temple of the Emerald Idol.................. 129 Eagle capturing a Monkey..................... 189
Private Garden near Bangkok............... 133 State Barge of the King of Siam.............. 191
A Siamese Forest Scene....................... 135 A Body of the Royal Guards .................. 192
Parasite and Palm............................ 138 The King visiting a Temple ................. 194
The Bamboo-tree.............................. 139 The Front of the Temple ..................... 195
The Boat they narrowly Missed............... 140 The Tobacco-plant............................. 197
Scene at Bang-pa-in............................ 141 Sir Walter Raleigh and his Pipe............ 197
A River Scene.................. ................. 142 Pipes of all Nations ..............................199
'The Young Prince................................ 144 Young America................................. 200
'Portrait of Chang "............................ 145 The East........................................201
Macedonian Coin, with Ancient Goad....... 146 The West............................... ....... 201
Modern Goad.................................... 146 Siamese Gentleman and Lady................ 203
A War Elephant............................... 147 A Young Prince of the Royal House, with
"Near the Palace.................................. 149 his Attendant.... ............................... 205
In the Ruined City................................ 150 Female Head-dress and Costume............. 206
Crocodiles at Home............................. 152 Minister of Foreign Affairs..................... 207
Taking a Bite............................. 153 Lakon Girls ............... ...................... 209
'The Doctor's Crack Shot....................... 154 A Native Band of Music....................... 210
'The Trochilus................................ ...... 155 A Siamese Theatrical Performance.......... 211
Alligator and Crane............................. 155 Scene on a Small Canal near Bangkok...... 216
"Trochilus and Crocodile........................ 156 Burial-mounds.................................... 217
The Alligator and the Bear ................... 158 Urn containing Ashes........................... 217
,Just Hatched.............................159 Jessamine Flowers...........................218
Coming out to Sun himself..................... 160 A Buddhist Priest......... ..................... 219
An Elephant Fence............................. 161 Characters in the Procession................... 220
Form of a Corral.................................. 161 Haunts of Sea-birds on the Coast............. 223
Beginning the Drive............................ 162 Edible Swallows' Nests...................... 224
Driving into the Corral.... ................ 163 Siamese Water Birds............................ 225






ILLUSTRATIONS. 9

PAGE PAGE
Pheasant and Young......................... 227 Haunts of the Sea-birds..................... 285
Court-yard of the Royal Palace at Bangkok 229 In the Harbor.................................. 286
Chulalonkorn I., Supreme King of Siam.... 231 Boatmen at Singapore.................... 287
Prime-minister of Siam .................... 233 A Chinese Contractor............................ 289
The King of Siam in his State Robes........ 234 Chinese Tailors at Singapore............... 290
A Younger Brother of the King.............. 235 A Group of Jacoons............................. 291
The Hour-glass.................................. 236 Garri with a Load of Sailors.................. 292
A White Elephant worshipping the Sun and Full Dress at the Straits........................ 293
Moon. From a Chinese Drawing......... 237 Chinese Garden at Singapore.................. 296
White Monkey in Elephant Stables.......... 240 Maternal Care............. ....................... 297
How an Elephant Feeds ...................... 241 Rural Scene in Singapore...................... 298
Elephants' Trunks............................ 242 Fruit-sellers at Singapore..................... 299
Elephants Drinking............................... 243 A Bungalow....................................... 300
Fred's Tormentor.............................. 244 Chinese Gentleman's Garden ................... 301
The Second King of Siam, in State Robes.. 247 The God of Gamblers............................ 302
The Doctor getting Ready...................... 249 Malay Boy in the Bird-market............. 303
Coast of Siam, near the Mouth of the River. 251 Head of Black Cockatoo........................ 304
Water-fowl of Siam.............................. 252 Ejecting an Intrude............................ 306
A Wreck among the Breakers.............. 253 A New Type of Mankind ..................... 308
Pearl Fisher attacked by a Shark............. 253 Klings and Chinese........................... 312
Nests of the Water-spider................... 254 Native Nurses and Children................... 313
Divers in their Armor........................... 255 Coaling at the Dock.......................... 314
Divers at W ork.... .......... ..... ........ ....... 256 Carrying Coal on Board........................ 315
Diving over the Side of a Steamer........... 257 Servants on Duty................ ............. 316
Coral-fishing in the Mediterranean........... 259 Scene on the Sumatra Coast................. 317
The Coral-worm ... .................................... 260 Crossing the Line on a Man-of-war.......... 319
Cup-coral and Brain-coral.................... 260 Chief's House in a Pirate Village ............. 322
An Atoll in the Pacific Ocean................. 261 Harbor of Pirates................................ 323
Submarine Observations....................... 263 The Pirates'Victim............................ 324
The Bellows-fish, or Angler.................... 264 Sinews of War.................................... 325
A Curious Home................................. 265 A Trading-station on the Coast............... 327
Crabs in a Quarrel.............................. 266 A Bayou on the Palembang River........... 328
Sea-anemones .................................. 267 Arab Houses at Palembang.................... 329
The Sponge at Home.......................... 268 Lounging under a Mango-tree................ 330
How Sponges are Speared.................... 269 Alligators taking Sun and'Air............. 331
Cleopatra dissolving the Pearl................. 270 View in a Sumatran Village....................... 332
Pearl-bearing Shells.............................. 271 Chased by a Tiger. .............................. 333
Sizes of Pearls................................... 272 Treed by a Bear .. .................................... 334
Pearl-fishery at Bahrein....................... 273 Shooting a Boa-constrictor..................... 335
Persian Gulf Diver.............................. 274 A Snaky Creek.................................... 336
M. Jaquin's Experiment........................ 275 Monkey Examining a Tortoise............... 337
The Bleak......................................... 276 Female Orang-outang. From a Photo-
The Doctor's Discovery........................ 276 graph ............................................ 338
The Turtle at Home............................. 278 Natives of Borneo Fighting with an Orang-
Turtle-hunting ...... .......................... 279 outang.. ................. .............. 339
On a Frail Raft.......... ...................... 282 A Flying-frog .... ............................ 341
The Rescue........................................ 283 A Sumatran Butterfly......................... 342
Gulf-weed.................... .............. 284 Arrival in Port...... ....................... 344








10 ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE PAGE
The Carriage at the Custom-house........... 345 Passport Office.................................... 396
The National Taste............................. 346 Ordered Out of the Country................... 398
Their Servant.................................. .... 347 No Admittance.................................. 399
The Mango....................................... 348 Starting on the Journey.......... ................ 401
A Trifle too Peppery........................... 349 By the Roadside............................... 402
After Breakfast.................................. 349 Lodgings of the Stable-men.................... 403
An Early Call ............... ......... ........... 350 Just Imported..................................... 404
Native House on the River that Feeds the The Waiter at Sindinglaya..................... 406
Canal........................................... 352 Sleeping-room in the Sanitarium ............. 407
Family Party in Batavia....................... 354 A Mountain Cascade.......................... 409
Fan-palm in the Botanical Garden ......... 355 Javanese Boys........................... 410
Chinese Porters................................ 356 Train of Coffee-carts....... .................... 412
Goddess of Sailors and her Assistants....... 357 Seed-pods of the Tea-plant.................... 413
Some of the Third-class Passengers.......... 359 Gathering Tea-leaves ................. ...... 415
View in a Private Garden..................... 360 Drying Tea in the Sun........................ 416
Native Village near the Railvay.............. 361 Drying over Charcoal......................... 416
Tropical Growths along the Line............. 362 Roasting Tea................................... 417
"M angosteens!".................................. 363 Handy with his Feet.............................. 418
Veranda of the Hotel Bellevue............... 365 Roasting Green Tea.............................. 419
View from the Veranda at Buitenzorg....... 366 Tea Regions of the United States............ 420
A Bad Road............................................. 367 Roasting-basket................................. 421
The Vanda Lowii................................ 368 Volcano in Eastern Java....................... 423
A Tree Growing in Mid-air...................... 369 Ruins near Sourabaya.......................... 424
Group of Birds in the Malay Archipelago.. 371 An Island Port................................... 425
Magnificent Bird of Paradise.................. 372 Wild Fig-tree...................................... 425
Superb Bird of Paradise........................ 372 A Village in Lombock.......................... 426
Six-shafted Bird of Paradise................... 373 View near Mataram..............'........... 427
Long-tailed Bird of Paradise................ 373 Where the Great Spirit and the Rajah met. 428
The Yankee Elephant.......................... 375 Gun-boring in Lombock........................ 430
The Chinese Elephant.......................... 375 Natives of Timor.................................. 431
The Operatic Elephant....................... 375 Delli, Portuguese Timor......................... 432
The Elephant in Love......................... 376 Natives of Aru Shooting the Great Bird of
Ancient Bas-relief-Java....................... 376 Paradise........................................ 433
A Monster Volcano........................... 377 A Native Anchor............................... 434
Peasant Farm-houses........................... 379 Great Street of Dobbo in the Trading-sea-
Home of a Prosperous Contractor .......... 380 son ......... ....... ...... ........................... 436
Coffee-plantation in the Mountains........... 381 Wearing the Cangue ........................... 437
"Old Government Java "..................... 382 A Native of Aru................................ 438
A Javanese Chief.............................. 383 Sea-cucumber..................................... 439
An Improved Sugar Estate................... 384 A Papuan Pipe..................................... 439
Retainers of a Javanese Regent.............. 385 A Bird of Ambovna.............................440
"Good-night ". ... .. ........................ ....... 386 Sago Club ......................... ......... 440
The House at the Spring....................... 388 Preparing Sago.................................... 441
Pounding Coffee................................ 389 Sago Oven................................. 442
Dutch Overseers................................. 390 Sugar-palm of Macassar........................ 442
Foot-bridge over a Mountain Stream........ 392 Climbing the Mountain...................... 443
Rewards for Good Conduct................ 394 Coming Down the Mountain....................... 445
Pirate Prisoners on a Colonial Gun-boat.... 395 Good-be !"...................................... 446
c0 v . .. . . .











90 100 110 120 Longitude F]ast 130 from Greenwich 140 156

o anton 08

0ALAY THE ]BOY TRAVELLERS
20o oacan >--f 20

I SIAM & JAVA

I9 OU ( Routes marked thus
Scale of Miles

v 1 BANGKOK 1LIPPINE



10- -0 10
U07O m A )
aofn
j\~~d M i dlkanao i.





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nE- V GU I




10 i10

90 100 TO 120 140 ik Co. Y.
Kap to accompany "The Boy Travellers in the far East"














THE BOY TRAVELLERS
IN

THE FAR EAST.


CHAPTER I.
DEPARTURE FROM HONG-KONG.
rIIHERE she comes !" shouted Frank Bassett, as he pointed away to
"- the eastward.
Doctor Bronson and his nephew Fred were standing close beside
Frank, and their eyes eagerly followed the direction of his hand.
"Yes, there she is!" Fred responded; "what a splendid sight !"


.=_=---~~--=-----=-=;-~_ -- -- .. __ ---=---- =











HONG-KONG, FROM KELLET'S ISLAND.

They were on the lookout platform on Victoria Peak, 1800 feet above
the harbor of Hong-kong. The city, the island, the surrounding waters,
and the neighboring coast of China all lay before them like a map. They
had been studying the scene, and the Doctor had explained to the boys
its remarkable resemblance to the view from the summit of the Rock of
Gibraltar.






14 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.

Their geographical observations were interrupted by the announce-
ment of the sergeant in charge of the signal-station that the Pacific Mail
steamer City of Peking was just outside the harbor, and would shortly
enter through the Ly-ee-moon Pass. Hong-kong harbor has two en-
trances; the one to the eastward is known as the Ly-ee-moon, while that
to the west is called the Lama Passage. Both are easy of navigation, and
admit ships of the largest class to one of the finest harbors in the world.
The great steamer ploughed steadily forward; and as she passed Kel-
let's Island, which is a fortified rock near the Ly-ee-moon, she turned
gracefully, and headed straight for her anchorage. Our friends watched
her till she came to her resting-place, and-her engines had ceased work-
ing; then they said good-bye to the signal-station, and proceeded to the
sedan-chairs which were waiting for them. The chair-coolies had also
seen the steamer, and, as they were anxious to reach the city before the
passengers could come ashore, they made the best possible time on their
way down the mountain. They ran rather than walked, and two or
three times the boys narrowly escaped a fall in the sudden bends of the
zigzag road.
The adventures of Doctor Bronson, Frank Bassett, and Fred Bronson,
and their reasons for being in Hong-kong, have been narrated in a pre-
vious volume.*
They expected the City of Peking to bring letters that, would deter-
mine their future movements. Is it any wonder they were in a hurry
to have her mails landed, and the precious letters delivered ?
Their letters were addressed in care of the banking-house on which
their credits were drawn, and very naturally the boys were eager to go
at once to that establishment. The Doctor suggested that it would be
quite time enough to go there after lunch; and, as the appetites of. the
trio had been sharpened by the excursion up the mountain, the proposal
met no opposition whatever.
The meal was served in the dining-room of the hotel, and as soon as
it was ended the party walked leisurely to the banking-house. In a lit-
tle while their letters were handed to them, and greatly rejoiced were
the boys at the arrival of these precious missives from home. The
return to the hotel was a rapid one on the part of the youths, who left
the good Doctor far behind, in their eagerness to be once more in their
rooms, where they could be safe from interruption while they read the
messages from their friends.
"* "The Boy Travellers in the Far East. Adventures of Two Youths in a Journey to Japan
and China." By Thomas W. Knox. Published by Harper & Brothers, New York, 1880.





NEWS FROM HOME. 15

The letters were full of good news.
The parents of both the boys expressed their delight at the good
use which Frank and Fred had made of their time, and the interesting
accounts they had given of their experiences in Japan and China, and
their voyage over the Pacific Ocean. Mary and Miss Effie had received




















J ill 0;1 1-













MARY AND EFFIE READING FRANK'S LETTER.

the presents which Frank bought for them in Japan, and Mary con-
fessed in her letter that since the arrival of the precious box they had
thought and talked of nothing else. They had dressed themselves in
Japanese garments, and Miss Effie was sure that, if their eyes were prop-
erly sloped at the corners, they could readily pass for residents of Tokio
or Kioto.






16 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.

The Doctor reached the hotel while they were in the midst of their
reading. His package of letters was quite as large as that of either of
the boys, and among them there was a very portly letter, which had
required a liberal amount of stamps to pay for its transportation. This
he opened first, and, after perusing it carefully, he smiled, and laid it
aside. Evidently the contents were pleasing.
Frank and Fred were through with their letters about the same time,
and as soon as they were at liberty they began comparing notes. Both
were a good deal disappointed, as they had received no indication of
their future course. Would they go directly back across the Pacific
Ocean, or would they proceed on a journey around the world? Per-
haps the Doctor could tell them; but just then he was occupied, and
they did not wish to disturb him.
There was a rap at the door, followed by the entrance of a servant
bringing a letter, which had been overlooked at the banker's. It was
'for Mr. Frank Bassett; and that young gentleman was not long in break-
ing the seal and possessing himself of its contents.
His air of melancholy changed to one of delight. He threw his
arms around Fred, and made a start in the direction of the Doctor, as if
intending to favor him with an embrace, but speedily checked himself,
and confined his demonstrations to a quiet leap over a chair that stood
in the middle of the room; then he held out the letter for Fred to read.
Fred's delight at the intelligence conveyed in the document was quite
equal to Frank's. The question was settled; they were to continue on
their journey around the world. The necessary letters of credit would
be sent in care of Doctor Bronson, and should be in the mail brought by
the City of Peking.
Frank saw the large letter on the table in front of the Doctor, and at
once divined that it was the important missive containing papers similar
to the one with which he was provided before he left home. There was
yet a goodly amount remaining on his letter of credit, but not enough
to carry him to America by way of Europe. Fred was in a similar pre-
dicament, and therefore a permission to go forward would be of no great
use if unaccompanied by the necessary cash or its equivalent.
Doctor Bronson relieved their doubt by handing them the letters of
credit which had come in the bulky parcel in question. They were con-
sidered too valuable to be intrusted to the ordinary mail, and therefore
they had been registered." And from their experience with the Post-
office in China and other Eastern countries, our three friends were unan-
imously of the opinion that all valuable letters going there should be






MAIL ROUTES IN EASTERN ASIA. 17

sent by registered post. The Japanese postal service was the most per-
fect one they found in their travels, and the Doctor declared that some
of our officials at home might learn what would be to their advantage
if they would visit the post-office at Yokohama and see how admirably
it was conducted.
Well, boys," said Dr. Bronson, it's all settled."
The boys had a moment of standing on tiptoe in their exuberant
delight, and then Frank asked,
"Where are we to go, Doctor, and when are we to start ?"
"That is what we must determine now," was the reply. "We have
several routes open to us, and each has its advantages."
I think," answered Frank, that we could not do better than leave
the selection of the route to Doctor Bronson. He has proved such an
excellent guide and friend thus far, that we have the most implicit con-
fidence in his judgment, and are quite willing to adopt his suggestions
without question."
This was said as if Frank had been addressing himself to his cousin
rather than the Doctor. Fred instantly accepted the proposal, and it was
promptly agreed that the whole matter should be left in Doctor Bron-
son's hands to arrange. The latter thanked the youths for the expres-
sion of their confidence in him, and then proceeded to designate on the
map the routes leading westward from Hong-kong.
"The regular mail steamers," said he, "go from here to Singapore,
which you see is down close to the equator, and at the entrance of the
Straits of Malacca. The English steamers go directly there without stop-
ping ; but the French ones touch at Saigon, in Cochin China, which is a
colony of the French Government."
"I have thought out a plan," he continued, "while we have been
waiting, and what I propose is this:
"We will go from here to Saigon by one of the French ships, and
then make a stay in Cochin China long enough to see what we wish of
tle country. Then we can find a trading-ship of some kind to take us
to Siam, and once there, we shall have no trouble in getting to Singa-
pore, as there is a regular line between that city and Bangkok, the cap-
ital of Siam. There is much to be seen in Siam, as well as in Cochin
China; and I think this route will be far preferable to the direct one by
the mail steamers, though it will not be so comfortable. We must be
prepared to "rough it" a little both on shore and at sea, but our pri-
vations will be more than compensated by the abundance of interesting
sights on the way.
2






18 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.

The boys agreed at once to the proposal, and the conversation came
to an end. The Doctor went to arrange for the proposed journey,
and the youths brought out their writing materials, and devoted the
rest of the afternoon to the preparation of letters in answer to those
they had just received.
The French steamer arrived from Shanghai in the evening, and her
great hull loomed majestically in the light of the full-moon as she came




























ARRIVAL OF THE FRENCH MAIL STEAMER.

to anchor. It is a condition of the contracts for the transportation of
the mails, that a steamer is not to lie more than twenty-four hours at
any of the stopping-places along the route unless detained by unfore-
seen accidents. Consequently, when one of these ships arrives, it is
pretty certain that her departure will occur within the time above speci-
fied; and it was shortly announced that the ship in question would
leave at noon the next day. The mail service between Europe and the






A CHINESE STEAMSHIP OFFICE. 1

Far East is performed almost as regularly as that across the Atlantic,
and the arrivals at the various points can be guessed with tolerable
accuracy. The English and French steamers perform each a fort-
nightly service both ways, and, as they run alternately, the residents
of China and Japan have weekly mail-days for sending and receiving
their letters.
Doctor Bronson engaged passage for the party by the French steamer
as far as Saigon, and then went to the office of the Yuen Fat Hong"
to ascertain if there was a vessel for Bangkok by way of Cochin China.
In the last few years the Chinese merchants have gone somewhat
extensively into the business of running steamships. There is a com-
pany with a capital of two million dollars that owns several lines of
steamers along the coast and on the great river of China, the Yang-tse-
kiang, and its officers and stockholders are all of them Chinese. There
are several smaller companies, and there are Chinese commission-houses
that act as agents for English and other steamers in the Eastern trade.
The Yuen Fat Hong was one of these commission-houses, and it man-
aged the business of a line of English ships running between Hong-
kong and Bangkok, with an occasional call at Saigon.
Doctor Bronson found the office without any difficulty, and was
shown into a neatly-arranged parlor, where four well-dressed Chinese
were sitting. Three of them were holding fans in their hands, while
the fourth was indulging in the luxury of a pipe. Plants in pots stood
near the walls, and there was a table in the centre of the room, where
the oldest and most serious of the Oriental gentlemen was seated. Evi-
dently it was a time of relief from labor, and so there was no delay in
attending to the inquiries of the Doctor.
The information he obtained was entirely satisfactory. The house
was to send a ship in a week or ten. days to Bangkok by way of Sai-
gon; it would stop two or three days in the latter port, and if the party
would be satisfied with the limited accommodations, they could secure
passage from there to Siam.
It was secured at once, and then the Doctor returned to the hotel.
The next morning the boys were up early; and long before the
hour fixed for their departure from the hotel they had all their baggage
in readiness. The trunks and valises were delivered to the porters and
carried to the landing-place, whence they were to be transported in a
small boat to the great steamer that lay smoking in the harbor. The
boat that the party engaged was a reminder of Canton, as it was occn-
pied by an entire family; two or three children were quietly seated in









































C)
till








































PRIVATE PARLOR OF THE 6"YUEN FAT HONG."





DEPARTURE FOR SAIGON. 21

a sort of box at the stern, and the crew consisted of two women and a
man. One of the women was evidently captain; at least Frank thought
so, when he observed her air of authority in giving directions for the
movement of the boat. The harbor service of Hong-kong is nearly all
performed by Chinese from the famous boat-population of Canton; they
are not forbidden to live on shore as they are at Canton, but from long
habit, and also from motives of economy, they continue to make their
homes on the boats.
While on the way to the ship, Fred made a sketch of the younger
of the two women, and declared his intention of sending it home. She
was rather light in complexion for an inhabi-
tant of Southern China; her hair was covered
by a thick kerchief, tied in a knot under her
chin, and her jacket or blouse was buttoned
in front, and hung loosely down like a silk
wrapper. As soon as she discovered that she
was the subject of a sketch she put on her
sweetest smile, and was evidently proud of
the honor that Fred was showing her.
Less than an hour- after they reached the
ship they were under way for Saigon.'
Our friends spent the afternoon on deck,
where they had plenty of occupation watch- S
TA CHINESE BOATWOMAN.
ing the irregular line of the coast, and observ-
ing the play of light and shade on the water. There were but few pas-
sengers, so that they had an abundance of room; the weather" was de-
lightful, and both Frank and Fred declared that none of their travel
by sea up to that time had been more agreeable. They abandoned all
ideas of being sea-sick; and when the bell called them to dinner they
were promptly in their places at table.
Suddenly Fred turned to his cousin and asked if he was aware that
China was the worst country in the world fqr wheeled vehicles.
Frank said he knew the Celestial Empire was very badly off for means.
of locomotion, but he was not certain that it was the most unfortunate in
this respect.
"It is a great country," said Fred, "and has an enormous population:
we are going to Saigon, which is the capital of Cochin China."
Well," replied Frank, what has that to do with the matter of
wheeled vehicles ?"
"Don't you see?" responded Fred, "there is only one coach in China !"






22 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.

That is a very good conundrum," remarked the Doctor, who had
been listening to the dialogue between the boys; "but it is as old as
it is good. I heard it when I first came to China, years ago."
Fred confessed that he found the conundrum in question in a book
on China which he had picked up in Hong-kong, and thereupon it was
agreed that no more jokes should be made until they were again on
shore.
At an early hour the boys retired to their rooms, and it did not re-
quire a long time for them to fall asleep. Fred made no report of any
unusual occurrence during his sleeping hours, but it was otherwise with
Frank. In the morning he intimated that the letters from home had
set him to dreaming, and that all his relatives and friends had congrat-
ulated him on his pleasant and prosperous journey. Fred asked if any
one had been more profuse in congratulations than any one else, and
the young dreamer admitted that such was the case. He mentioned no
names, but the Doctor and Fred had no difficulty in determining who
that one was.


























FRANK'S DREAM.





EFFECT OF A HURRICANE. 23









CHAPTER II.
VOYAGE TO SAIGON.-ARRIVAL IN COCHIN CHINA.

THE voyage from Hong-kong to Saigon was neither long nor un-
pleasant. The weather was fine, and the wind favored the prog-
ress of the steamer. The Doctor explained that the north-east monsoon
was blowing at that season of the year, and it was to be relied on with
such certainty that the steamship companies arranged their time-tables
with reference to it. The boys had heard something about the mon-
soons before this, and Fred determined that he would study the subject
sufficiently to have a clear understanding of it. So he questioned the
Doctor, and examined all the books he could find that had anything to
say about the monsoons, and when he thought his information was com-
plete he proceeded to put it on paper.















HURRICANE DURING THE CHANGE OF THE MONSOON.

Here is Fred's essay on the winds of the Eastern seas:
The word 'monsoon' comes from the Arabic musim, which means
'season,' and the winds are so called because they blow in alternate sea-
sons, first in one direction and then in the other. On the coast of China






24 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.

the wind is from the south-west from April to October, and is then called
the south-west monsoon; for the other half of the year it blows from
























A FAVORING MONSOON.

the north-east, and is then called the north-east monsoon. There is gen-
erally a period of about two weeks when the winds are irregular at each
change from one monsoon to the other, and at this time the ship-masters
are very fearful of severe storms, with heavy rain and much thunder
and lightning.
"The monsoon winds are known all over the Eastern seas, from the
coast of China to the shores of Arabia. Their periods of blowing are
so well understood that the steamship captains know exactly when they
may be expected, and their voyages are arranged accordingly. On the
printed time-tables of all the steamship companies you will find mon-
soon allowances;' and on the coast of India there are certain ports where
the ships cannot touch at all when the monsoon is unfavorable. The
Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company allows four days
for its ships between Suez and Shanghai when the monsoon is against
them, and one day on the voyage between Hong-kong and Yokohama.
The French mail steamers have the same allowances. In August, when






MONSOONS AND TRADE-WINDS. 25

the south-west wind is blowing, a steamer goes from IIong-kong to Yo-
kohama in seven days; but in April, when the wind is the other way,
she is allowed eight days for the voyage.
"The monsoons are caused just like all other winds-by the heated
air rising and cold air rushing in to fill its place. In summer, when
the sun is over Asia and the ground becomes heated to a high degree,
the air rises, and the cooler air from the south comes to fill up the space.
This makes the south-west monsoon; and when the seasons change, and
it becomes summer in the southern hemisphere and winter in the north-
ern, then the air goes the other way, and the wind blows from the north-
east. This is the north-east monsoon.
The monsoons should not be mistaken for the trade-winds which
blow in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and also in the southern part
of the Indian Ocean. The monsoons change every half year, as I have
explained, but the trade-winds blow regularly all the year round in the
same direction. They are caused by the warm air rising from the vicin-
ity of the equator, owing to the great heat, and the cool air rushing in
from the south and from the north. The trade-winds have been so
named because they have been of great assistance to commerce; sailing-












RUNNING BEFOE TE T WI











RUNNING BEFORE THE TRADE-WVINI).






26 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.

ships can calculate their voyages with great accuracy by means of these
Winds, and I have read and heard of ships in the trade-winds that sailed
for twenty or thirty days without moving a rope or altering the position
of a sail. They went along ten or twelve miles an hour, and the sail-
ors had nothing to do but lie around the deck or in the forecastle, and
amuse themselves in any way they liked."
Fred read his production to the Doctor and Frank as they sat on
deck, the second day of the voyage from Hong-kong. Frank wanted a
copy, but took the precaution to ask the Doctor if it was all correct.
The latter said it was entirely, so far as he knew, but it did not tell
the whole story. Thereupon Frank set at work to find something addi-
tional, and in the course of an hour or so he offered the following post-
script to the essay of his cousin:
"In studying about the trade-winds and the monsoons, I find that
they do not blow directly north or directly south, as we might suppose
they would if they came in to fill up the vacancy caused by the rising
of the heated air. North of the equator the trade-winds blow from the
north-east, and south of it they are from the south-east. The inclina-
tion to the east is caused by the rotary motion of the earth from east to
west. The earth slips from under the wind while turning on its axis,
and it is really the earth that makes the slope of the wind, and not the
wind itself. Something like it may be seen when a boat crosses a river.
The boatman may try to pull straight across, but if he does so the cur-
rent carries him down, and he is unable to land opposite his starting-
point. The only way he can do so is by going obliquely against the
stream.
"The monsoons get their direction in the same way as the trade-
winds get theirs; with this difference, that the south-west monsoon starts
near the equator, and not in the southern hemisphere, like the south-east
trade-wind. The rotary motion of the earth is greater at the equator
than it is in the northern latitudes, and so the wind gets a westerly in-
clination instead of an easterly one, as in the case of the trade-wind.
Some of the scientific men say that the north-east monsoon is not a
monsoon at all, but only the north-east trade-wind taking its regular
course, which has been disturbed by the more powerful wind from the
south-west."
"Very good," remarked the Doctor, when Frank read what he had
written. I am a little fearful, however, that it will not be understood
by everybody, and so we will drop the dry subject and think of some-
thing easier."






ASCENDING THE MEKONG. 27

The boys admitted that the topic was a dry one, but nevertheless it
was interesting; and they thought they would not be doing their duty
in their journey if they failed to comprehend the great winds that so
materially help or hinder the movements of ships in Asiatic waters.
On their third day from Hong-kong the boys heard with delight
that land was visible. At first it was like a dark cloud on the horizon;
but, as they approached it, the scene changed, and the cloud was resolved
into a tropical shore, backed by a line of hills in the distance. The
steamer headed for a little promontory, and by-and-by a light-house was
revealed that marked the entrance of the river which they were to ascend.
A boat came out from the mouth of the river, and a pilot boarded
the steamer. He was a weather-beaten Frenchman, who had lived more
than twenty years in Cochin China, and was thoroughly familiar with
the channel of the river, or rather of its various channels. The Mekong
empties into the China Sea, very much as the Mississippi discharges into
the Gulf of Mexico; it has several mouths, and the whole lower part
of its course is divided into canals and bayous, that are very convenient
for the natives in the matter of local navigation.
Saigon, the destination of the steamer and of our friends, is on one
of these lower branches of the Mekong, about thirty miles from the
sea. The river is not more than five or six hundred feet wide, and
the channel is very crooked. The boys were reminded of their trip up
the Peiho, from Taku to Tien-Tsin, when they were on their way to
Peking, but they voted that the present voyage was the more agreeable
of the two, inasmuch as the steamer did not follow the example of their
ship on the Peiho, by occasionally running her nose into the bank. Their
progress was steady but slow, and they had plenty of time to study the
scenery of the new country they were entering.
On both banks of the river the land is quite flat, and they were told
that, in times of unusual freshets, it was overflowed for long distances.
For this reason, it is not very thickly populated, although the soil is rich,
and could be made to produce abundantly. All along the banks there
was a thick fringe of mangrove-trees, and sometimes they appeared to
extend over many square miles of land. Here and there were rice-fields
that appeared to have the most careful cultivation; and sometimes a vil-
lage, with its temple rising above the modest dwellings of the inhabitants,
was revealed to the eyes of the young wanderers.
The number of the villages increased; and by-and-by a larger col-
lection of houses than they had yet seen was visible. This was the last
village before Saigon, and finally the city itself came into view. The







28 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.





---:~---= =L -=-;





--_-___-_.--__








RICE-FIELDS ON THE MEKONG.

steamer stopped in front of it, and hardly was her anchor down before
she was surrounded by a crowd of native boats. Some of them were
exactly of the model of those at Hong-kong and Canton, and others
were new to the eyes of our friends. A great many Chinese have come
here from Canton, and brought their manners and customs with them ;
and they have also brought their boats, or caused the construction of
some exactly similar to those they left behind.
As soon as convenient the Doctor engaged a boat for the party, and
the three travellers went on shore. There are several hotels at Saigon
not far from the landing-place, and it was not long before the stran-
gers were comfortably quartered-at least comfortably for Cochin China.
After their experiences at Peking and other places, they were not in-
clined to be fastidious about their lodgings. 0
As soon as they had arranged matters at the hotel, the party went
out for a stroll. They found Saigon was well laid out, with broad streets
that ran straight as sunbeams for long distances. Most of them were
macadamized, and shaded with double rows of trees, and they had deep
gutters to carry off the heavy rains that fall in this latitude. The boys
were greatly interested in observing the hats worn by the natives; those
of the men were conical in shape, and came down over the shoulders
like an extinguisher over a candle. The women wore hats that resem-
bled baskets, about six inches deep by not less than two feet across. The






POPULATION AND GROWTH OF SAIGON. 29

hats for both men and women are made of leaves, closely plaited to-
gether, and serve to keep off the rain as well as the sun. The hat of
the man is particularly useful as an umbrella, as the wearer need only
bring it down over his head to make his shelter very nearly complete.
When walking on the road, he must keep it well tilted up in front in
order to enable him to see his way.
As they walked along, the Doctor explained that the most of the
people they met were not the original inhabitants of the country. Sai-
gon was a small fishing-village in 1861, when it was captured by the
French and occupied as a military post. The captors determined to
make it a city of consequence, and the French government has expended
a great deal of money in this endeavor. They have constructed roads
and streets on the same scale that the English have adopted at Shang-
hai, and they have built dock-yards where ships can be repaired. They
have maintained a large garrison of soldiers, and several times have
been called on to suppress insurrections that cost a great deal of money
and blood.
"Now," said the Doctor, when the French established themselves
here, they opened the port for anybody to come and live in Saigon, as
they wanted to build up its trade as fast as possible. A great many
Chinese came here from Canton and Singapore, and the result was that
the place grew very rapidly. The Chinese came much faster than the
emigrants from France and other European countries, and also faster
than the natives of Cochin China from other parts of the conquered
provinces. Consequently, here is a French city with a foreign popula-
tion greater than the native one, and greater than that from France
itself.
"Nearly all the business of Saigon is in the hands of the Chinese,"
the Doctor continued, "and they have managed to drive out most of
the foreigners who were established here. They can live so much more
cheaply, and transact business for a smaller profit, that the foreigner
cannot compete with them. The number of foreign houses in Saigon
is diminishing every year, and it looks as though the Chinese would
have it pretty nearly all to themselves by the end of another ten
years."
They found some parts of Saigon so much Chinese in character that
they seemed to be carried back to Canton or Shanghai. Chinese signs
abounded; Chinese shops were open, and the men doing business both
behind and before the counters were Chinese. Chinese eyes were upon
them, and frequently Chinese peddlers approached them with articles for








30 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.




































































A NATIVE WOMAN.
A NATIVE WOMAN.







A WALK IN SAIGON. 31










TI11 III


























", l ,i
I ll l ,












STREET IN THE CHINESE QUARTER.

sale. Chinese were at worship in the temples, walking, talking, trad-
ing, and pursuing their ordinary avocations, and for every foreigner
the boys encountered they met a hundred inhabitants of the Flowery
Kingdom.
The roads were dry and dusty, and after a walk of a couple of hours
our friends returned to the hotel. Late in the afternoon they went out
again to hear one of the military bands play, and to see the people on
their daily promenade. The band plays at a stand on the street parallel






32 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.

to the river, and everybody who can come out to see and be seen is sure
to be there.
Frank found the crowd so variegated that he suggested to Fred that
it was like looking through a kaleidoscope. There were Frenchmen,
Germans, Englishmen, Spaniards, and Portuguese among the foreigners;
while the Asiatics included Chinese, Anamese, Cambodians, Malays, Sia-
mese, and a variety of other nationalities the boys were unable to deter-
mine. In fact, they would not have been able to recognize all the peo-
ple mentioned above if it had not been for the assistance of the Doctor,
who was skilled in the study of faces and the sound of languages. Fred
thought that the confusion of tongues was enough to give one a faint
idea of what the Tower of Babel must have been at the time the build-
ers suspended work.




















mii




PLANTS IN THE BOTANICAL GARDEN.

They finished their explorations of the day with a visit to the botan-
ical garden, just as the sun was sinking in the west. The garden con-
tains a good variety of the tropical plants peculiar to the country, and
also some that the French have imported, with a view to distributing
them through the province in case the cultivation should prove advan-







NATURAL HISTORY OF COCHIN CHINA. 33

tageous. There are also some wild animals carefully kept in cages, with
the exception of the elephants, which have no greater restriction than
being fastened with chains.
The most interesting of these 4X ,j J,.
animals, in the eyes of the \\ boys, were some tigers which -
came from the upper re-
gions of the Mekong River,
and were larger than any
they had ever seen in Amer-
ica.
The evening was devoted
to a study of the geography
and history of the country
they were in, and before the '
boys went to bed they had .
a pretty clear idea of Cochin
China and the regions that
surround it. In the morn- A NEW ACQUAINTANCE
ing they complained of numerous visits from the mosquitoes that abound
in Saigon the entire year, and are as attentive as the mosquitoes of the
United States or any other country.











A MOSQUITO OF SAIGON.
S _._._-- -==- -- '===== -

A MOSQUITO OF SAIGON.






34 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.









CHAPTER III.
HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE.-FIRST SIGHTS AND SCENES IN ANAM.

T HE boys. made a division of labor in looking up information about
the country. Frank was to find what he could concerning its natu-
ral features and extent, while Fred undertook to learn something about
the French occupation, and the reasons that led to it. When they were
ready, the essays were read to the Doctor for his approval or rejection;
and there was a brief discussion to determine who should be first to
read, or rather last, as each preferred not to be the beginner. The Doc-
tor settled the question by deciding that the natural features of the
country existed before the French came there, and, therefore, it was the
duty of Frank to open the subject.
Thus assured, Frank produced his note-book, and read:
"The countries of Birmah, Siam, and Anam are known to geog-
raphers as 'Indo-China,' for the reason that they lie between India and
China, and have some of the characteristics of both. The empire of
Anam is the one we are now considering, and we will leave the others
until we get to them in the course of our travels. It is erroneously
called Cochin China, from a province of that name which is included in
the empire. The proper divisions of Anam are Cambodia, Tonquin,
Tsiampa, and Cochin China, and more than three-fourths of its boun-
daries are washed by the sea. It is about nine hundred miles long, and
its width varies a great deal, owing to the indentations of the coast.
Cochin China proper is only some ninety miles long by twenty broad,
and it is really the smallest of the provinces. Cambodia is the largest
and most populous, and the soil is said to be more productive than
that of the other parts of the empire. The number of inhabitants is
not known, but it is generally thought to be from twelve to fifteen
millions.
"The people resemble the Malays and Chinese, and are sometimes
called the connecting link between the two. They are smaller than
the Chinese, but not so dark as the Malays; their dress resembles the







INHABITANTS OF THE COUNTRY. 35

Chinese, but they do not shave
their heads as the latter do. They
are not very ingenious, and have
comparatively few manufactures;
"their chief employment are in
agriculture, and they raise a great
deal of rice, which is exported to
China and other countries. They
also export sugar, raw silk, cinna.-
mon, dye -stuff, elephants' hides
and bones, together with a good
"many gums and spices. The dye
known as gamboge comes from
Cambodia, and the name of the
country is said to be derived from
this article. On the coast the
people engage in fishing, and all
through the country the food of
the people consists of fish and
rice. The natives will eat a great
deal when they have the oppor-
tunity, but they are able to live
on a very small allowance of NATIVE GENTLEMAN AT SAIGON.
food when necessity compels them.
Buddhism is the prevailing religion, but they are not very earnest in it;
they have great respect for the dead, and resemble the Chinese in their
veneration for their ancestors.
"The country near the coast is generally flat, but farther inland it
becomes mountainous. There are tribes in the interior that are more
than half savage in their character; they live mostly on wild fruits, and
are widely scattered. Some sleep in the trees, and some build small
huts, but they rarely have permanent villages, and never get together
in great numbers. Sometimes the Cambodians make war on these hill-
tribes, and those that they capture are sold as slaves.
The principal river is the Mekong, and it is one of the largest streams
in South-eastern Asia. It rises in China, and has a general course of
about one thousand seven hundred miles to the south, and it falls into
the sea by several mouths between the ninth and tenth degrees of north
latitude. There are many villages and towns along its banks, and in its
lower course the river is navigable for the largest ships."






36 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.

Frank paused, and said that was all he had been able to obtain about
Anam, but he hoped to have more by-and-by. The Doctor pronounced
his essay an excellent one, as it gave a good general description of the
country, and contained the information that every traveller and reader
ought to have.
Now it was Fred's turn to read. He had been uneasily twisting his
note-book between his fingers, evidently dreading the ordeal of delivery;
but as soon as he was through with the first line, his embarrassment van-
ished, and his voice was as firm as ever.
"Nearly a hundred years ago," said Fred, "France opened relations
with Anam, and arranged to give the latter country certain assistance
against its enemies in return for commercial and missionary privileges.
It was about the time of the famous French Revolution. Only a small
part of the promised assistance was given by France, and she was too
busy with affairs at home to demand all that had been agreed upon on
the part of Anam. The French missionaries were protected in the exer-
cise of their religious duties, and a small trade was carried on until about
the year 1831. The old king died, and a new one went on the throne;
he was opposed to the French and Spanish missionaries, and endeavored
to drive them out of the country. Many of them were killed, and the
native Christians were persecuted, so that Christianity threatened to dis-
appear.
Things went on in this way for twenty years. In 1851 the French
determined to interfere, both for the protection of the missionaries and
to demand the concessions that were promised when relations were first
opened with Anam. Shortly before they came, an order had been issued
that all missionaries should be drowned in the river, and any native who
concealed, or in any way assisted a missionary, was to be cut in two.
The war was a slow one, and the invaders were several times held back
by fortifications that had been built by the French engineers who came
here in 1795. The persecutions were partially stopped, and in 1857 the
French went away.
"New orders against the missionaries were then issued, and more of
them were killed. In August, 1858, there was a combined French and
Spanish expedition against Anam, which captured the chief seaport and
several important places. The war was kept up till 1862, when there
was a treaty of peace. This treaty compelled Anam to pay five million
dollars to France as compensation for the war, and to promise that every
native should be free to adopt any religion that he liked. The mission-
aries were not to be disturbed, and the principal cities were to be open
























z__~~ ______ ____- --~

z-- -- ~



H --- ------







VIE OF T-EFE-hQTHE O AGN






38 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.

to French merchants to trade in whatever they chose to buy and sell.
A French Protectorate was established over the province of Cochin
China, and afterwards over other provinces, and-"
"Stop a moment," said the Doctor; "you had better explain what a
protectorate is."
Fred was evidently prepared for the question, as lie answered
promptly,
"A protector is one who defends or shields from injury. In gov-
ernment matters a protector is a person who has the care.of a kingdom
during the minority or illness of the king; or it may mean a cardinal
or other high official who looks after the interests of a religious body.
A protectorate is a government by a protector, or it may be the author-
ity assumed by a superior power over a weaker or a dependent one.
"The case of France and Anarrr is that the treaty provided that the
French should take the management of the affairs of the conquered
country, and that the governor-general they sent here should be really
the highest officer in the land. The Anamese can do nothing in the
way of making and.enforcing laws without the consent of the French;
in fact, they are exactly in the condition of a colony, and the country
where we now are is called the French Colony of Eastern Asia."
"Quite right," said the Doctor, when Fred had concluded. "Now
we will hear what the French have done in the way of colonization."
They have followed their old policy of making no interference
with the local laws, except with such as had a character of oppression
or cruelty. They required the native authorities to swear to be loyal to
France, and when they did so they sustained them until there were com-
plaints that they did not manage affairs properly. In such cases they
have investigated the complaints, and done what they thought right in
the matter, either by removing or sustaining the official. They have
lowered the taxes and established regulations regarding civil marriages,
and, on the whole, their presence has been a benefit to the people of Anam.
In the matter of marriages they have followed the rule that they long
ago adopted in Algeria; a native may be married under the native laws
if he likes, and can divorce his wife at a moment's notice, and without
giving any reason; but if he marries her in a French court, he is under
French laws, and must abide by them. A great many of the natives of
the better class insist upon having their daughters married in the French
courts, as they know they will be better treated than under the old
system.
"Several times there have been insurrections against the French,






EXTENT OF THE FRENCH PROTECTORATE. 39

and some of them have cost a great deal of money and fighting. But
they have always resulted in victories for the French, and in the addi-
tion of new provinces to the territory under their control. At present
they have a protectorate over more than half of the peninsula; some of
the smaller provinces in the North are nominally independent, while in
some portions of the country held by the French the natives do very
little more for the foreign government than pay a small tax to it every
year.
"The population of the country under the French protectorate is
said to be not far from four millions. There is an army of ten or twelve
thousand men, of whom nearly
if not quite half are natives.
The natives are said to make
good soldiers, particularly in
the artillery. A great part of
the garrison duty in the forts
on the coast and in the inte-
rior is performed by the na-
tive troops, and they are said
to get along very well with the
French. In Cambodia many
of the soldiers are from tManil-
la, as they are considered more
warlike, and besides the king
says it is cheaper to hire them
from other countries than to
use his own people. The army
of Cambodia is smaller in pro- AIV1 -i-
portion than that of the other NATIE S S AT
parts of the country, and the French allow the king to do pretty much
as he likes."
Fred had reached the end of his chapter, and consequently came to
a pause. The Doctor complimented him on his excellent account of
the invasion and occupation of Anam, and after a little general talk on
the subject, the party broke up.
As they were naturally interested in the subject of native troops in
the French service, Frank took the first opportunity to make a sketch
of a couple of them that he saw on duty. He found that they wore a
blue blouse with white trousers--or, rather, that the trousers had been
white at some former date-and their heads were protected from the






40 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.

heat of the sun by flat hats made of pith or cork, while their feet were
bare. The men that he saw were armed with breech-loading rifles of
French manufacture, and they carried their cartridges at the waist-belt,
after the European fashion.
Strolling by the river-bank, the boys saw three or four light gun-boats
at anchor in the stream. They learned that the government had about
twenty of these boats, which were used for transporting troops wherever
they were needed, and also for the purpose of protecting the natives
against pirates, and to enforce the laws generally.
They observed that the police were not of the same nationality as
the soldiers, and found, on inquiry, that the policemen were all Malays
from Singapore, under the supervision of French chiefs. They are said
to be very efficient, and one great advantage of employing them is that
they are not likely to be involved in any of the native conspiracies.
By the end of their second day in Saigon, it occurred to the boys
that it was about time to begin a letter to friends at home.
We will write it as we did the letters from Kioto and Hong-kong,"
said Frank; "that is, provided you are willing."
Fred assented to the proposal, and so it was agreed that they would
make up a single letter, in which each should describe some of the things
they had seen, and they would so arrange it that nothing should be de-
scribed twice. They devoted all the time they could spare from sight-
seeing to the production of this letter, and here is the result i
"We have been walking and riding around Saigon, and have seen a
great many things that are new to us. This morning we started early
for a walk to Cholon, about three miles away, and had a very pleasant
time on the road. We met crowds of people coming to town with
basketsful of fresh vegetables for the market; they were nearly all
women, and their dress was much like that of the women we saw in
Canton, except that they had great hats like circular trays. Part of
the way the road follows the bank of a ditch, which the French call
'The Grand Canal;' but there is not much grandeur about it, as it is
half-choked with weeds, and when the tide is out there is not water
enough to float a boat of any size. There has been no rain for weeks,
and the dust was so thick that sometimes we could hardly see across the
road, and were in danger of being run over.
"Near the door of a house, in the edge of the city, we saw three
beggars standing, while a man with his finger raised was talking to them.
Doctor Bronson says the man who talked was their chief; and he was
telling them what to do and where to go for the day. Begging is a

)






A WALK TO CHOLON. 41
regular business in China, and the beggars have their associations, like
other trades.







=-'













THE KING OF THE BEGGARS.

"We met a long line of carts just after we got outside the city; each
cart was drawn by a pair of bullocks, and they had ropes through their
noses, just as we put them through the noses of bulls at home. The
foremost pair was led by a boy, and all the other bullocks were fastened
to the carts immediately in front of them. How they get on without
pulling some of their noses out, when a cart in the middle of the line
breaks down, we cannot imagine. Perhaps the cord gives way before
the nose does.
There were lots of half-wild dogs that seemed to belong to nobody;
they barked at us, and some of them threatened to bite; but we showed
fight, and they concluded to leave us. These brutes are known as
'pariah' dogs all through the East:, 'pariah,' as applied to a man, means
an outcast; and a pariah dog is a dog that has no master and no home.
They are not so abundant here as at Constantinople or Damascus, but
Doctor Bronson says there are quite enough of them to go around, and
they go around all night and all day.






42 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.

"Such a noise as the cart-wheels made you never heard in all your
lives. Grease must be scarce in Cochin China, or the people must be
fond of music; at all events, they do not try to stop the squeaking, and
a native will go to sleep in one of these carts when it is moving along
the road, just as calmly as he would in a Pullman car. Doctor Bronson
says that these carts are loaded with gamboge and other dye-stuffs, and
also with hides and horns of cattle, and perhaps with the tusks of ele-
phants that have been killed for the sake of their ivory.
"About half-way along the road, we came to what the French call
La Plaine des Tombeaux,' which is nothing more nor less than an enor-
mous cemetery. It is said to cover several square miles of ground;
whether it does so or not we cannot say, but certainly it is very large,
and, as the Doctor remarked, very densely inhabited. There is nothing
very remarkable about the tombs, as they are nothing but square en-
closures, with little spires like those of the temples. In one part of the
cemetery some priests were at work laying out a place for a grave; Doc-
tor Bronson says that they perform a lot of ceremonies to determine
where a grave shall be made, and are very particular to bring it under
good influences, and shield it from bad ones. The same superstitions
that prevail in China are to be found here; and even the most intelligent
of the native or Chinese merchants in Saigon would not think of under-
taking any important enterprise without first consulting the gods, and
ascertaining that the Fung Shuey' was in their favor.
"It was an odd sight to see the telegraph-poles along'the road, and
skirting the edge of this ancient cemetery. It was bringing the past and
the present close together, and from all we can see the present is having
the best of it.
"Well, we reached Cholon after a leisurely walk, and went down to
the bank of the river, where great numbers of boats were moored.
There were hundreds, and perhaps thousands of these boats, and at the
place where they are moored they are tied very close together. They
are rather long and narrow, and the best of them have a roof over the
centre to protect the occupants from the sun and rain. Some of them
are hewn out of single logs, and others are built of planks, as in other
countries. Many are permanently fastened to the bank and are occupied
as houses, like some of the boats in Canton; and altogether there is a
pretty large water population. Near the water's edge there are huts
built on platforms, and so arranged that the refuse of the kitchen falls
into the river. The owner is under no expense for drainage, and the
whole cost of his building does not exceed five dollars. Living is cheap












Crz
































































VIElV OF CITIOLON.






44 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.

in Cholon,'if you are willing to occupy a grass-roofed hut, six feet square,
on the bank of the river, and eat nothing more costly than boiled rice and
fish. We saw two or three huts of the kind we describe, occupied by
half a dozen persons each. They must have found the quarters rather
close at times, but probably did not mind a trifle like that. A single
plank served as the roadway to the shore, and in some instances it was
so shaky that it required a steady head and careful stepping to avoid
being thrown into the water.



























A CHINESE FAMILY AT CHOLON.

"More than half the people we saw were Chinese, and not the na-
tives of the country, and nearly all the business in the shops appeared
to be done by the former. We peeped into some of the houses where
the Chinese live, and they did not seem to care how much we looked
at them. We saw one group that was quite interesting, in spite of the
poverty of the habitation and the scarcity of furniture; there were five
persons in all, or perhaps we should say eight, as there were three cats







A PRIMITIVE CONVEYANCE. 45

under the table that acted as though they were as good as anybody else.
Two men and two children were at a table, and a woman was standing
up behind them to see that everything was all right. On the table there'
was a small tub that contained stewed fish and some kind of vegetables,
and there was a bowl for each one to eat from. They were better off
than some other parties we saw at breakfast, who had only one bowl
for the whole lot, and everybody helped himself with his chop-sticks.
"We saw something that reminded us of Shanghai; it was nothing
more nor less than a wheelbarrow, but, unlike the Shanghai one, it had
no passengers. Wouldn't it be funny to see a wheelbarrow in America
for carrying passengers, just as we have cabs and coaches? You must
come to China for a sight like that, and also for a regular ride in a
wheelbarrow, and you can have the consolation of knowing that it is
very cheap and also very uncomfortable. The wheelbarrow has no
springs, and so you get the benefit of every jolt, however small; and
as the vehicle is somewhat weak in the joints, and the man who pushes




















A CAB FOR TWO.

it is far from powerful, you feel all the time as though you were liable
to be spilled out. The wheel is large and clumsy, and the frame has
a sort of rest in the centre, where you can put your arms. Two men
can occupy one of these coaches, and they are very popular among the
natives, but less so among the foreigners.






46 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.

On our way back we wandered off into the forest of tropical plants
that stood on each side of the road in many places, and suddenly came
on a little village which was entirely concealed until we were within
twenty yards of it. The natives like to hide their residences as much
as they can, on account of the shade they get from the surrounding
trees, and also to be undisturbed by too many visitors. The dogs
barked at us, and if it had not been for some of the natives that called
them off it is quite possible we should have been bitten. There were
half a dozen children lying around in the dust, and as they were en-
tirely naked, they did not seem to be afraid of soiling their clothes.
The men and women were not heavily clothed, as the weather is hot,
and they want to be as comfortable as possible. In one house a man
was lying on a bench just inside the wide door-way, and a little girl was
fanning him; the Doctor says the girl was undoubtedly a slave, and
that she cost her owner not far from thirty dollars.
Children are bought and sold here the same as in China, and a
good many of the foreigners are said to own slaves while they live in
the country, but they do not try to carry them away. Slaves prefer
foreign masters to native ones, as they are more likely to be kindly
treated, and to receive their freedom in a few years.
Some of the houses in the village were well built, and raised a yard
or so from the ground upon pillars of brick. The interior consists of
three or four rooms, and the general appearance of the house is like a
Chinese one. There is an ornamental framework carved in wood to
support the roof, which is covered with thick tiles, and there is gener-
ally a veranda on each side of the door, where the master sleeps in the
afternoon and lounges away a great deal of his time. We should call
the people lazy if they were in America; but it is the custom of- the
country to be indolent, and perhaps they are not to blame. Very little
will support a man, as he can gather fruit from the trees, and an acre
of ground is all that he needs for maintaining a large family. The
heat that prevails all the year round does not encourage activity, and
a good many foreigners, who are very enterprising when they first come
here, become as idle as the natives by the end of their second year in
the country."






THE RUINS OF NAGKON WAT. 47








CHAPTER IV.
A WONDERFUL TEMPLE.-RUINS OF NAGKON WAT AND ANGKOR.

W HAT with sight-seeing, writing letters to friends at home, and fill-
ing their note-books with information for future use, the boys had
enough to occupy their time during their stay in Saigon. In the course
of their studies of the country and its characteristics, they became inter-
ested in its ancient history, and were desirous of seeing some of the ruins
that remain from the early days of Anam and Cambodia. But as the













CAMBODIAN FEMALE HEAD-DRESS. ANCIENT SCULPTURE.
time at their disposal was too short, and the expense and difficulties of
a journey to the interior would be very great, they were obliged to
*forego the pleasure they would derive from an actual visit to some of
the most stupendous ruins in the world.
But the Doctor came to their relief in a great measure by giving
them a full account of the wonders they were unable to contemplate.
"It is not generally known," said he, "that Cambodia contains the
ruins of a temple that was greater in its time than the very famous one
of Thebes in Egypt."
Frank and Fred opened their eyes in astonishment, as they had always
believed there was nothing in the world that could surpass the Egyptian
temples of old.






48 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.

"I will describe them to you," he continued, "and make comparison
between the work of the Egyptian builders and those of Cambodia.
When I have finished, you will be able to judge which is the more
magnificent.
"The great temple I refer to in Cambodia is known as the Nagkon
Wat. Wat, in the Malay language, means temple, and the place in ques-
tion is designated by the name 'Nagkon.' The province where it is sit-
uated is really in the territory of Siam-as it was taken from Cambodia
near the end .of the last century and annexed to the rival kingdom. If
you want to find the ruins on the map, you must look in about latitude
13 30' north, and longitude 104 east. It is not known who built the
temple, as the inscriptions on the stones are in a language that is not
understood at the present day. The general belief is that it was erected
twelve or fifteen hundred years ago, but the estimates of its age vary all
the way from five hundred to two thousand years.
It is far more modern than the temples of ancient Egypt, and prob-
ably not nearly as ancient as some of the famous edifices of Syria. In
course of time some one will l)e able to read the inscriptions, and then we
will learn all about its age and the reasons for its erection."
"Here is a map of the ruins as they exist to-day," said the Doctor.
"You perceive that the general shape of the work is a square, and that
there are altogether three squares, the smaller inside the greater."
The boys looked at the map, and indicated that they observed the
outline of the temple.
"Well," continued Doctor Bronson, "the outer wall, which is not shown
in the plan, is more than half a mile square; if you should undertake to
walk around it you would have a promenade of nearly three miles.
"Outside the wall there is a wide ditch that was evidently of con-
siderable depth when first made, but it is filled in many places with
weeds and trees, and there is a forest of palm-trees between the outer
wall and the body of the temple.
"The main entrance is by a causeway, which you see extending up-
ward from the foot of the map. The whole length of this causeway,
from its beginning beyond the outer wall to the entrance of the temple,
is nearly two thousand feet, and more than half this distance is within
the wall. The building itself, as you see it on the map, is oblong in shape,
being eight hundred feet long by five hundred and ninety wide; it rises
in three terraces to a central tower two hundred and fifty feet high, and
there are four other towers at the corners of the inner temple that are
each one hundred and fifty feet from the ground.







PLAN OF THE TEMPLE. 49



:: : ::: :: :::



















I .


























______ First Terrace.


"" Third Terrace.
I MPLr E Central Shrine and Tower.



S*a
L.
16


Fi. 1. Plan of Inner Temple a Nakon.







"Fi. 2. Plan of area enclosed by outer wall of N kon Wat.







Fig. 2. Plan of area enclosed by outer wall of Faiadon eat.
c^""llll^ jj ( i rtT ra e






50 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.

"The causeway was paved with blocks of sandstone, and the edifice
throughout is of the same material. All the stone for the work was
brought from a quarry thirty miles away, and the transportation alone




























UNFINISIED PILLARS.

was an enormous affair. The blocks were brought in a rough state, and
were not finished until they had been put in the positions where they
were to remain. The temple was never completely finished, as there are
several columns that remain just as they came from the quarry, and a
careful observer can indicate the, exact spot where the workman turned
away from his labor. It is supposed that the stone was brought on boats
in a canal, as there is no road that could have served for purposes of
transit.
"It is impossible to describe in detail all the halls, and corridors, and
sculptured walls of this wonderful temple. There are several halls com-
posed of rows of solid columns, like the great hall of the temple at






NAGKON WAT GREATER THAN THEBES. 51

Thebes. I remember standing astonished at Thebes as I looked at the
great hall, with its one hundred and thirty-four columns, and learned
that, originally, the temple contained nearly three hundred columns of
different sizes. In the Cambodian temple of Nagkon Wat, one thou-
sand five hundred and thirty-two solid columns have been counted; and
































COLUMNS IN THE TEMPLE.

it is estimated that there are not less than six thousand columns in the
entire mass of ruins in and around the temple. Most of these columns
are made from single blocks of stone, and all of them are beautifully
carved, just as the Egyptian ones are beautifully painted.
"It would not be at all difficult for a stranger to lose his way in
Nagkon Wat, and wander for hours, unable to find an exit. He might


































lit
O(






































iOWW

SCULPTURES ON THiE WrALLS OF NAGKON WVAT.






PICTURES ON THE TEMPLE WALLS. 53

spend days and days in the study of the beautiful sculptures that adorn
the place; and when I tell you that the walls are covered with sculptures
from one end of the temple to the other, and you remember the enor-
mous size of the building, you can understand what a gigantic picture-
gallery it is. The scenes represented are mostly from the Hindoo my-
thology; they illustrate battles and triumphal processions, sacrifices and
festivals, and also the contests of some of the Hindoo deities with each
other, and with mortals. There is one gallery alone that has half a mile
of pictures cut in stone, and it is estimated that at least one hundred thou-
sand human figures are engraved there. Here is a picture of some of them,
and you may judge by it of the general excellence of the work throughout."
The boys devoted several minutes to the contemplation of the photo-
graph which the Doctor showed them. Frank remarked that the light-
ness of the wheels of the chariot would seem to indicate that it was made
of metal, and consequently the ancient Cambodians must have been fa-
miliar with the use of iron or brass, perhaps both. The soldiers at the
bottom of the picture were marching in a manner that denoted military
discipline, but he could not make out the nature of their weapons. Cer-
tainly they were not rifles, as fire-arms were unknown in those days,
and they did not seem to be spears or bows and arrows. The men were
provided with shields, and in this respect their customs resembled those
of many people of the present day.
The Doctor explained that the ancient Cambodians made use of
spears; but the principal weapons they employed were clubs, not alto-
gether unlike those of the South Sea Islanders. Sometimes the club
was made straight, and at others it was curved at the end farthest from
the hand of its owner. It was wielded with the right hand, and the
shield was carried in the left.
Fred called attention to the fact that there was an elephant in the
picture, and the man on his back was in the act of discharging an arrow
from a bow. Therefore they must have employed bowmen, and evi-
dently they were an important part of the service, as they were mounted
on elephants.
"You are quite right in your conclusions," Doctor Bronson respond-
ed; "the bowmen were considered of the highest importance, and their
arrows often did great execution. The elephant had a prominent place
in all the armies of the East, as you know from history, and the Cambodi-
ans were no exception to the rule. No Eastern king would consider his
retinue complete without a large number of war-elephants in his stables."
There is a tradition," he continued, "that the king of ancient Cam-









0C






























































VIEWV FROM THE CENTRAL TOWER OF TIlE TEMPLE.
CC






THOMSON'S DESCRIPTION. 55

bodia had an army of half a million of men, with a hundred thousand
elephants, which he could lead to war at a few days' notice. This is
undoubtedly an exaggeration; but lie probably had a good supply of
these very useful animals, and his army presented a fine appearance
when it was called to the field."
Frank observed that the men did not wear armor, and, in fact, had
very little clothing anyway. He wondered that this was the case, as
the king was evidently very rich and powerful, and ought to have had
his army equipped and dressed in the best possible style.
Fred replied that armor, in a hot country like Cambodia, would be a
very inconvenient thing for a soldier, and render him practically useless.
Frank had not thought of that, and as soon as his attention was called to
it he quite agreed with Fred.
A gentleman who visited the temple of Nagkon Wat," the Doctor
remarked, has given a very good account of the general character of the
sculptures on the walls. I refer to Mr. Thomson, and cannot do better
than quote a few lines from him.
The bass-reliefs," says Mr. Thomson, which are sculptured on the
walls of the galleries of Nagkon Wat are extremely interesting. They
are contained in eight compartments, measuring each from two hundred
and fifty to three hundred feet in length, with a height of six and a half
feet, and in a square space of six and a half feet the average number of
men and animals depicted is sixty. The majority of these representa-
tions are executed with such care and skill, and are so well drawn, as to
indicate that art was fostered, and reached a high state of perfection
among the Khamen-te-Buran,' or ancient Cambodians.
The chief subjects represented are battle scenes, taken from the
epic poems, Ramayana and Mahabarata-which the Siamese are said to
have received from India about the fourth or fifth century. Disciplined
forces are depicted marching to the field, and possessing distinct charac-
teristics soon lost in the confusion of battle. In the eager faces and at-
titudes of the warriors, as they press forward past bands of musicians,
we see that music then, as now, had its spirit-stirring influence. We also
find humane actions represented-a group bending over a wounded com-
rade to extract an arrow, or remove him from the field. There are also
the most animated scenes of bravery-soldiers saving the lives of their
chiefs; chiefs bending over their plunging steeds, and measuring their
prowess in single combat; and, finally, the victorious army quitting the
field laden with spoil, and guarding the numerous captives with cavalry
in front and rear.






56 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.

"1Perhaps the most wonderful subject of all the bass-reliefs is what
the Siamese call the battle of 'Ramakean.' This is one of the leading
incidents of the Ramayama, of which Coleman says,' The Grecians had
their Homer, to render imperishable the fame acquired by their glorious
combats in the Trojan war; the Latins had Virgil, to sing the prowess
of JEneas; and the Hindoos have their Valmac, to immortalize the deeds
of Rama and his army of monkeys.' The Ramayama-one of the finest
poems extant--describes the scenes of Rama's life, and the exploits of the
contending foes.
"In the sculptures of Nagkon Wat, many of the incidents of the life
of Rama are depicted; such as his final triumph over the god Ravana,






























GALLERY OF SCULPTURES.

and the recovery of his wife Sita. The chief illustration of the poem,
however, is the battle scene which ensues after the ape-god Hanuman






MIRACLES IN HINDOO MYTHOLOGY. 57

had performed several of the feats which formed the every-day incidents
of his life, such as the construction of what is now known as Adam's
Bridge, between Ceylon and India. This he accomplished by a judicious
selection of ten mountains, each measuring sixty-four miles in circum-
ference; and being short of arms, but never of expedients, when convey-
ing them to Ceylon, he poised one of them on the tip of his tail, another
on his head, and with these formed his celebrated bridge, over which his
army of apes passed to Lanka.
"In another compartment the subject appears to be the second Ava-
tar of Vishnu, where that god is represented as a tortoise supporting the
earth, which is submerged in the waters. The four-armed Brama is
seated above. A seven-headed snake is shown above the water, coiled
around the earth, and extending over the entire length of the bass-relief.
The gods on the right and the dinytas on the left are seen contending
for the serpent. Hanuman is pulling at the tail, while above a flight of
angels are bearing a cable to bind the reptile after the conflict is over.
"In another compartment we find various mechanical appliances that
are in use to-day. There are double-handled saws; and there are knives,
levers, wedges, pestles and mortars, and a number of other contrivances
that are more or less familiar to us."
The boys listened with much interest to the reading of the preceding
account. When the Doctor concluded, Frank ventured to ask if the tem-
ple was in a good state of preservation, and whether it was in use at the
present time.
It has greatly decayed," replied Doctor Bronson; but there are so
many of its walls and galleries standing, that the most careless visitor
cannot fail to be impressed with its grandeur, and be able to trace out
every part of the original plan. In many places the weeds and grass
and other vegetation are so luxuriant that the work of the architects is
concealed, and can only be found by searching. There is one tree, called
the 'poh,' that is a great destroyer of walls and stone floorings. The
whole temple was constructed without the use of cement, and in many
instances the junction of the stones is so perfect that only a slender line
can be perceived. The roots of the poh-tree insinuate themselves into
the smallest crevice; then they grow and expand, and by so doing they
gradually force the stones apart. This tree has been of great injury to
the temple we have been considering, and to many other edifices in these
tropical countries of the East.
"In reply to your second question, I can say that the temple is still
used, though not to the extent it was in its early days. A few priests






58 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.






























ANCIENT TOWER OVERGROWN WITH POH-TREES.

live there, and perform services at regular periods; they are supported
by the contributions of the followers of Buddha, who visit the place, and
by donations from the inhabitants of the country round there. They
do not live in the temple itself, but in small huts erected inside the
enclosure that surrounds the great building. These huts are .of thatched
grass, and stand on posts as a security against the snakes that abound
in the neighborhood. They are shaded by the palm-trees that have
grown up in what was once a clear space around the temple, and in hot
afternoons their protection is very grateful."
Fred inquired about the other ruins in Cambodia, and wished to know
how extensive they were.
"As to that," the Doctor explained, "I cannot speak positively, and
I doubt if there is any one who can. About three miles from Nagkon
Wat there are the ruins of a city which was known as Angkor, which
y/ I-)






RUINS OF ANGKOR.-MOUHOT'S EXPLORATIONS. 59

was evidently a very important city in its day. It was the capital of.
Cambodia, and, according to the description of a Chinese official, who
visited it in the year 1295, it was something remarkable. It was then
in the height of its glory; but three hundred years later, when it was
visited by a Portuguese missionary, it was almost in ruins, and had
ceased to be of any consequence. Then there was another period of
nearly three hundred years in which nothing was heard of or from
Angkor; it was not till the year 1855 that any writer seems to have
gone there, and as for the Cambodians themselves, they are sublimely
ignorant of the history of this once great city.
"In the year I last mentioned, M. Mouhot, a French explorer, passed
through Cambodia and made a careful survey and description of the
ruins. He subsequently died in the northern part of Siam, and it was
feared that the result of his labors would be lost, but fortunately his
journal was saved and has since been published. Since Mouhot's time
several persons -have written about the ruins, so that a fair amount of
knowledge concerning them is accessible. But every year new remains
are discovered among the trees of the thick forest, and it is difficult to

























HUTS OF THE PRIESTS.






60 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.

say when all of the ancient walls and statues and temples will be brought
to light."
At the conclusion of the Doctor's remarks, a servant entered with
the announcement that dinner was on the table. Thereupon the mental
feast on the antiquities of Eastern Asia was abandoned for the more prac-
tical feast on the edible productions of the country. Frank thought that
the dinner would receive a high compliment if it proved as enjoyable as
their talk about Nagkon Wat and the ruins of Angkor-an opinion which
Fred lost no time in sharing.


























STONE WITH ANCIENT SCULPTURES.






THE CAPITOL OF CAMBODIA. 61









CHAPTER V.
CAMBODIA.-ITS CAPITAL AND KING.

HJAVING studied ancient Cambodia, Frank and Fred were desirous
Sof learning something of the modern country of that name. At
the hotel where they were stopping they found a gentleman who had
recently been at Panompin, the Cambodian
capital, and had spent sufficient time there
to be able to give a good account of it. As
soon as he found that his young acquaint-
ances were anxious to hear about Cambodia,
he promptly consented to enlighten them.
He was at leisure one evening after din-
ner, and, by mutual consent, the party gathered
on the veranda in front of the hotel, and an
hour was pleasantly passed in conversation re-
garding the little-known country.
"If you think," said the gentleman, "that
Panompin is a large city, as one naturally
thinks of the capital of a country, you would
be greatly disappointed if you went there.
Its population is not more than twenty or
twenty-five thousand, and is made up of sev-
eral nationalities. There are Siamese, Chinese,
Anamese, and Manilla men among the inhab-
itants, as well as the native Cambodians, and _
there are no long streets of fine buildings, such
as you would expect a capital to contain. It
is situated on the banks of the Mesap, a small A CAMBODIAN IDOL.
river of Cambodia that empties into the Me-
kong: the greater part of Panompin is on the right bank of the stream,
but there is a small portion of it on the opposite shore, and another on
an island near the junction of the Mesap with the Mekong. To locate







62 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.

it on the map, you must put your finger at about latitude 11' 30' north,
and longitude 105 east, and if your map is a good one, you will find a
large lake not far off.
This is Lake Thalysap, and it is a body of water of no small impor-
tance. It is about ninety miles long, and varies from eight to twenty-
five miles in width. It is very shallow except in a few places, and in the
wet season the country around it is so flooded with water that the lake
is then a hundred miles and more in length. There are many villages





...-- -

_1 --- ---- --






"_ -- --









FISHING-VILLAGE ON LAKE THALYSAP.

along the shores of the lake, and at all seasons of the year you can see
whole fleets of boats going to and fro over the water. Great quantities
of fish are caught in the lake, and those not intended to be eaten in the
vicinity are dried or salted for export to other parts of Asia. There are
also many fish caught for their oil; the villages along the lake make a
considerable business by preparing this oil, and the stench is often so
great that your nose will tell you the location of a village before your
eyes do.
"In the lower part the lake narrows steadily until it forms a river,
and this river is the Mesap, which I have mentioned to you ; conse-
quently you have only to follow the current to come to Panompin. It






SIGHTS IN PANOMPIN. 63

has only been the capital within the last ten years; until that time the
seat of government was at Oodong, and the change was made on account
of the supposed unhealthiness of the latter place. The real fact is that
Panaompin is better situated for commercial and political purposes, as it
is at the end of the great lake, and close by the River Mekong. If you
could see the two places you would understand it at once.
"1 You can have little idea of the quantity of fish caught in the lake
and river till you see them. Lots of towns and villages are entirely oc-
cupied with the fish business, and some of these towns contain as many
as four hundred houses, though the most of them are smaller. Some
of the fish are eight or ten feet long and three feet thick, and their
bodies are so full of oil that one of them is a good prize to his captor.
It is very funny to see a native struggling with one of these large fish;
and sometimes it requires a hard fight to bring him in. I have seen a
man dragged into the water and nearly drowned; and though I enjoyed
the performance, I presume it was no fun at all to the man.
Panompin consists, for the most part, of bamboo huts, without much
pretence of architecture, and the streets are so bad that though the king.
has several carriages he rarely rides out. The principal street is about
three miles in length, and somewhat irregular in its course, as though the
instruments of the surveyor who laid it out were not in the best order.
There are a few stores and shops of brick, and there are some temples
whose spires rise above the buildings that surround them. The palace
of the king is the finest edifice in the place; it was designed by a French
architect, and the construction was supervised by him, but all the actual
work was performed by natives. It is like a fine dwelling-house in the
neighborhood of New York or London, and the internal arrangement of
the rooms is entirely European in character. The palace has some large
halls for receptions, and it has dining-rooms, sleeping-rooms, and all the
usual apartments that a dwelling should contain. The king lives there;
and, as he rarely goes out, he determined to have a residence as comfort-
able as could be made. He is very proud of it; and if you should visit
him he would consider it a great politeness if you admired it all you pos-
sibly could-and a little more.
"Not far from the king's palace is the barrack, where the French
troops are quartered for the preservation of order, and to see that the
king does nothing that would be against the interest of his protectors.
There is generally a French gun-boat or two lying in the river opposite
the barracks, and in the river farther down there are two or three small
gun-boats and steamers that belong to the king, and are kept near his palace.

















__ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ---- .__ -- ...... __ --
0-






































































PANOMPIN, THE CAPITAL OF CAMBODIA.
__ ____ - __ _

















__ -V---~ -Z










PANOMPIN,-- THE--- CAPIT --L OF CAMBODIA.






GAMBLING AS A NATIONAL REVENUE. 65

"As the city has so much dependence on the river for its support,
there is a tendency on the part of the inhabitants to crowd near the stream ;
consequently Panompin stretches about three miles along the bank, and
less than half a mile away from it. This is where you find the street I
have mentioned; it is not more than thirty feet wide, and paved with a
concrete mass of broken brick mixed with sand. You find a straggling
line of low huts of bamboo or other light material along the whole length
of this street, and in the busy hours of the day the assemblage of people
is pretty dense. The Chinese are great gamblers, and a goodly portion
of these huts are gambling-shops, whose proprietors pay a license for the
privilege of running the business. In several of these Eastern countries
the money received from gambling forms an important item in the pub-
lic revenue; and if it should be stopped, the treasury would suffer in con-
sequence."
What an outrageous piece of business!" said Frank. "To think
that a government would derive any part of its revenue from gambling !"
But remember we are in Asia," Fred remarked; "and we can't expect
these people to be civilized."
The Doctor smiled at this outburst of indignation, and when it was
ended he reminded the boys that several governments of Europe did ex-
actly what they thought so reprehensible when done by Asiatics.
"Not governments of any consequence," said Frank.
"Well," answered the Doctor, "I hardly think we could say that.
Italy, Spain, and Austria are certainly of some consequence, and in all
of them the lottery, which is a form of gambling, is a government in-
stitution. It is only a few years ago that the gambling-tables at Baden-
Baden, in Germany, were stopped, and there was serious talk, at the time,
of allowing the gamblers that were suppressed in Germany to open their
business at Geneva, in Switzerland.
"And furthermore," Doctor Bronson continued, "we cannot throw
many stones at the Chinese and other Eastern people for gambling when
we have so much of it in America. In all our large cities the vice exists
in defiance of the law; and in some of the States, particularly in Kentucky
and Louisiana, the lottery is a recognized institution, and the drawings are
supervised by officers appointed by the governor."
Frank and Fred both declared that this information was new to them,
and hereafter they would not be too hasty to condemn other countries,
lest they might find that the thing they objected to prevailed in their
own.
The description of Panompin was resumed:
5






66 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.

"There are some manufactures in the Cambodian capital," their in-
formant continued, "but they are not numerous.' The people are famous
for their manufactures of silk, which is an important article of export,
both in its raw and in its finished state. They are skilful workers of
gold and silver, and I could show you some exquisite specimens of their
production. Wait a moment and I will bring one."
He went to his room, which was situated just off the veranda, and re-
turned in a few moments with a small box resembling a flattened orange,
or, more properly, a melon. The boys took it to the light, and examined
it with care.
The gold, as well as the workmanship, was Cambodian; some of it
was the natural color of the metal, and other parts were stained to various
degrees of redness. On the top there was a cluster of leaves, and the end
of the stem contained a topaz, which had been purposely left unfinished.

















SPECIMEN OF CAMBODIAN GOLD-WORK.

The leaves were in fine filigree, and some of the wires were so delicate
that they resembled golden hairs. The whole surface of the box was
covered with flowers and leaves in the most tasteful designs; and both
the boys were of opinion that the jewellers of New York would not find
it easy to imitate this production of the Asiatic barbarians.
"The king has a fine collection of these things," the gentleman con-
tinued, "and he generally gives one of them to any stranger of impor-
tance who visits him. It is lucky for his treasury that it is not easy to
go to Panompin, as otherwise he might find these presents a serious expense.







THE: KISG IS HI?? JIILITARY DEESS, 67





















































































THE KING OF CAMBlODIA.
ni i~i






68 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.

"And if you wish to know about the king, here is his photograph.
You perceive that it is taken in European dress, which he wears on grand
occasions, and has adopted since the French Protectorate was established
in Cambodia. He is an amiable gentleman of pleasing manners, and
makes an agreeable impression on those who come in contact with him.
He has quite a collection of English and French books, maps, and albums,
and is fond of showing them; and he has a fine lot of Japanese and Chi-
nese vases-enough to stock a fair-sized museum. Then he has European
clocks, music-boxes, and the like; and he has a billiard-table, on which he
plays very well. He also has a piano, but those who have heard him per-
form on it say that he is better at billiards than at music.
"The carpets, furniture, and other adornments of his palace are mostly
from Europe, but he has some fine specimens of native embroidery that
are fully equal to any of his foreign importations. He sleeps in a bed
of European manufacture, and the netting that protects him from mos-
quitoes is from an English or French loom. He has travelled to Hong-
kong and Shanghai, where he spent much time in learning all he could
about the productions of the western part of the world, and, on his re-
turn, hle endeavored to give his people the benefit of his knowledge. He
is much liked by his people; and, on the whole, they could hardly hope
for a better ruler.
The Queen of Cambodia, like most of the Asiatic queens, is rarely
seen in public. She has not adopted the foreign dress, but adheres to
the panoung, a sort of loose wrapper falling a little below the knees, and
gathered at the centre. Here is her portrait, with two of the royal chil-
dren; and you will observe that she wears heavy anklets of gold, and does
not think it necessary to cover her feet with shoes. Her hair is cut in
the national way, and sticks up in the centre like a shoe-brush. Great
importance is attached to the ceremony of hair-cutting when a royal
child reaches the age of seven years, and it is generally performed by
the king himself in the presence of all the dignitaries of the land."
What a funny idea !" said Fred, that the king shall act as a barber,
and handle the shears over the head of one of his children. I wonder if
he is as skilful as a regular professional ?"
"As to that," was the reply, "I presume it does not make much dif-
ference. He only takes off a lock or two, and the hair-dresser of the pal-
ace does the rest. You will hear more of this curious ceremony when
you get to Siam, as the custom prevails there no less than in Cambodia.
"In Panompin there is an artificial mound, which is called for polite-
ness' sake a mountain, where the hair-cutting ceremony is performed. It






ROYAL HAIR-CUTTING. 69

































QUEEN OF CAMBODIA AND ROYAL CHILDREN.

stands near the palace, and is as high as the building itself. It is built
partly of earth and partly of bamboo, and the sides are colored so as to
represent stone, silver, and gold, the last color being near the top. A
winding path leads up to a platform on the summit, and here the king
stands while he goes through the solemnities of the occasion. The path
goes through tunnels and arches, and occasional grottoes and valleys, and
the whole structure is intended to represent a mountain in miniature.
The platform is a favorite resort of the king in the evening, as the air
is generally cooler there than on the ground below, and not infrequently
he meets his ministers on the top of the mountain to discuss matters of
public importance.






70 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.

"But it is getting late, and I think I have told you as much about
Panompin and the King of Cambodia as you will be likely to remember.
So I will say good-night."
The boys thanked the gentleman for his kindness, and the Doctor
added his acknowledgments to theirs. Then the party separated.



















THE HARBOR OF OODONG, CAMBODIA.

Frank and Fred sat up till their eyelids were heavy to take down in
writing a summary of what they had heard. They realized the necessity
of making their notes at once, through fear that if they waited till the
next day something would be forgotten. Frank wrote the description of
Panompin and the country generally; and Fred devoted himself to the
royal family, the scenes in the palace, and the curious story of cutting
the youthful.hair. Thus the labor was divided to the satisfaction of both.
In the morning the Doctor informed them that they were to depart
that.day for Siam. The steamer Danube had arrived, and her captain
had been early on shore to arrange for the delivery of what cargo was
to be landed, and to receive what he should take away. He did not
expect to be long in port, and they must be prepared to leave at a few
hours' notice.
Their baggage was put in readiness, and the rest of the time on shore
was devoted to the preparation of letters for America. The French mail
steamer from Singapore was due that day on her way to Hong-kong and
,Shanghai, and when she left she carried a goodly budget from the boys.






THE ANCIENT CAPITAL OF CAMBODIA. 71

In due time the letters were safely delivered; and for a fortnight there
was little else talked of in the Bassett and Bronson households than the
adventures of Frank and Fred in Cochin China.
The boys made good use of their time up to the last moment. Fred
found a copy of the book of M. Mouhot, who has been mentioned hereto-
fore, and the last hour of his stay in Saigon was devoted to writing out
the description which that gentleman gives of Oodong, the former capi-
tal of Cambodia. The visit of M. Mouhot was made in 1860, and is thus
described:
"On approaching the capital the prospect becomes more diversified;
we passed fields of rice, cottages encircled by fruit-gardens, and country-
houses belonging to the Cambodian aristocracy, who come here in the
evening for the sake of breathing a purer air than they can find in the
city. As we drew closer to the
gates, I found the place to be pro-
tected by a palisade three metres
high-about ten feet. The houses
are built of bamboo or planks, and
the market-place occupied by the
Chinese is as .dirty as all the oth-
ers of which I have made mention.
The largest street, or, rather, the
only one, is about a mile in length;
and in the environs reside the agri-
culturists, as well as the mandarins
and other govern ment officers. The
entire population numbers about
twelve thousand.
"The many Cambodians living
in the immediate vicinity, and still
more the number of chiefs who re-
sort to Oodong for business or
pleasure, or are passing through it
on their way from one province to
another, contribute to give anima-
tion to the capital. Every tmo-
ment I met mandarins, either borne
in litters or on foot, followed by a crowd of slaves carrying various arti-
cles; some yellow or scarlet parasols, more or less according to the rank
of the person; others, boxes with betel. I also encountered horsemen






72 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.

mounted on pretty, spirited animals, richly caparisoned and covered with
bells, ambling along, while a troop of attendants, covered with dust and
sweltering with heat, ran after them. Light carts, drawn by a couple of
small oxen,.trotting along rapidly and noiselessly, were here and there to
be seen. Occasionally a large elephant passed majestically by. On this
side were numerous processions to the pagoda, marching to the sound of
music; there, again, was a band of ecclesiastics in single file, seeking alms,
draped in their yellow' cloaks, and with the holy vessels on their backs."


























HOUSE IN THE SUBURBS.
------= ~ ~~-;Z~-:==Tr_-~ -











HOUSE IN THE SUBURBS.






LEAVING COCHIN CHINA. 73








CHAPTER VI.
DEPARTURE FROM SAIGON.-VISITING A CHINESE JUNK.

W HEN the party went on board the Danube, the boys found that
they were not to have the comforts of the great steamers that had
brought them from Shanghai and Hong-kong. The Danube was a small
ship, and her builders did not design her for carrying passengers; she was
constructed in England, and, after she arrived in China, a little cabin was
built on her deck, so that a couple of passengers might have a room to
share between them. The dining-saloon was about six feet long, and as
many wide, and its cushioned sofas could be used as beds. Consequently,
she could carry four passengers with comparative comfort, and, in emer-
gencies, another could sleep on the table when the sea was smooth, or
under it in rough weather. The captain was a jolly Englishmin, who
gave a hearty greeting to the American strangers, and before they had
been ten minutes on board they felt quite at home. Their heavy bag-
gage was sent below, and there was plenty of room under the bunks in
the cabin for stowing all the articles they needed on the voyage.
The Danube moved from her anchorage and turned her prow down
the river.
Hurrah !" shouted Frank, "now we are off for Siam."
Fred joined his cousin in raising a cheer.
"Don't be in too great a hurry," said Captain Clanchy, we are not
off yet. We are to go along-side that Chinese junk you see just at the
bend of the river, and will take some cargo from her. We shall proba-
bly be two or three hours about it, and then we will be off for Siam."
Frank's face fell at this intelligence, but only for a moment.
"We shall have an opportunity of seeing a junk and going on board
of it," he remarked, and that will repay us a dozen times over for the
delay."
Fred was equally happy at the prospect, and both the boys were im-
patient to be on the deck of the strange craft.
In a little while their wishes were gratified, and they were able to







R







-T















































A CIIINESI1 ,JUNK.
All1
lll p


IN~i






CHINESE NAVAL ARCHITECTURE. 75

step from the Danube to the great junk. Before they did so Fred
suggested that he had just thought why these Chinese ships were called
junks.
"Why is it ?" Frank asked.
"Because," was the reply, "you can see from the shape of them how
they are built. The Chinese make a ship a mile or two long, and when
they want one they cut off a junk, or chunk, just as you like to spell
it. Then they stick masts into it, and it is ready to sail away. It is
square at both ends, and resembles a chunk out of a log more than
anything else."
There was a laugh all around at Fred's humorous description of the
Chinese process of ship-building, and by the time the joke had ceased
to amuse they were ready to go over the side. Captain Clanchy accom-
panied them, and pointed out several objects of interest that otherwise
might have escaped their attention.
"You observe," said the captain, "that the deck of the junk is lum-
bered up with all sorts of stuff. How the men manage to get around is
a mystery, and it is a wonder that they can keep the craft on her course
with everything in such confusion."
The boys were equally puzzled, and thought there must be a good
many junks lost every year. The captain said such was the case; but,
on the other hand, there was such a great number of these craft that a
few more or less made no perceptible difference.
Except to the owners and the men that are lost with the junks,"
remarked the Doctor. It must be a very serious affair to them."
Sometimes these junks last to a great age," the captain continued.
"There are junks now navigating the China seas that are more than a
hundred years old; at least so I am informed."
How long have the Chinese had this model for their ships ?" Frank
asked of the captain.
"Nobody knows how long," was the reply. "We are ignorant of
the early history of China, and can only guess at many things. But we
have reason to believe that the Chinese were the first people that ever
built ships to be propelled by the force of the wind alone. They began
with the model they now have, and have stuck to it ever since."
"Where is the captain of this junk ?" Fred asked. "I would like to
see him.'"
She has probably half a dozen captains," Clanchy replied; per-
haps a dozen."
"A dozen captains! how can that be ?"






76 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.

"They build these junks in compartments," said the Doctor, in re-
sponse to Fred's inquiry, "and each compartment has a captain."
"I thought the plan of building ships in compartments was of mod-
ern invention, and had only been applied to ocean steamers in the last
thirty years. Seems to me I heard so," Frank remarked.
"In one sense you are right," the Doctor answered; "it is only about
thirty years ago that the English and American ship-builders began the
adoption of this principle. Nearly all the great steamers now navigat-
ing the Atlantic Ocean are divided into compartments-generally five








OUTLINE OF MODERN SHIP, SHOWING COMPARTMENTS.

or six; and even should two of these spaces become filled with water
from any accident, the ship will continue to float. Several steamers
have been saved after collision with icebergs, or with other ships, by
reason of being thus constructed. -Iad they been of the old model, they
would have infallibly gone to the bottom.
"But the Chinese are ahead of us, as they have built their ships in
this way for centuries. Six hundred years ago Marco Polo visited the
East, and on his return wrote a book about the country and people. He
describes the compartment ships that the Chinese built at that time, and
explains their advantages. The wonder is that it took the European
builders so long to copy the idea. Not till well into this century was
it adopted."
"But how about the half dozen captains ?" Fred asked. "Why
should a ship like this have so .many, when the Great Eastern or the
City of Chester can get along with one ?"
"The way of it is," said Captain Clanchy, "that the junk has a lot
of compartments-anyway from six to a dozen--and each compartment
is let out to a merchant. He is captain of that compartment and all it
contains; and if there are ten compartments, he is one-tenth captain of
the whole. The crew is under a chief who gets his orders from the
merchants, and they have a great deal to say as to how the junk shall
sail. Sometimes they want her to go to half a dozen places at once, and
,






HOW A JUNK GETS UNDER WAY. 77

in as many directions, and not infrequently they get into frightful rows
about it. Don't understand me to say that this is always the case, or
anything like it, as a good many of their junks are managed pretty much
as an English ship would be. We will see how the matter stands on
this one."
A little inquiry revealed the fact that there were two men on board
equally interested in the cargo, and with equal authority over the move-
ments of the junk. But they were evidently working in perfect har-
mony, and so there was no chance that the strangers would be compelled
to witness a row among the commanders.
The boys found the deck of the junk covered with a very complex ar-
rangement of ropes, windlasses,
tubs, and baskets. Some of the
crew were sitting around wait-
ing for orders, and others were
at breakfast. As soon as the
Danube was made fast along-
side, they were set at work to re-
move the cargo,from one of the
compartments and transfer it to
the steamer. The steamer's crew
assisted in the work, and in a
little while it was accomplished. .
During this time the great sail -
of matting was flapping against
the mast, and the ropes were -
swinging as though they would
become hopelessly entangled.
But no accident happened; and
when the Danube had moved
away, the sails were run up and A JUNK SAILOR AT BREAKFAST.
the junk began to push slowly
through the water. This gave the boys an opportunity to see her gen-
eral shape and mode of construction.
They found that she was built of heavy planking, and that' many of
the planks retained the shape of the tree from which they were taken.
These planks, as they were told, were fastened together by wooden tree-
nails; in fact, there was very little metal about the fastenings; and, as a
further security, there were a good many lashings of ropes to hold the
outside timbers to the frame. The stern rose high out of water, and was






78 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.

cut off square, and the same was the case with the bow. The funniest
thing was a pair of great staring eyes, to enable the ship to see her way,
and to frighten off the demons that infest the waters and have a partic-
ular hostility to sailors. Every boat and ship of Chinese construction is
provided with eyes, and the larger the eye the better the craft can take
care of herself.


























CHINESE RIVER BOAT.

The junk in question had three masts, and there was a gay assortment
of flags and streamers flying from them. The mat sails were held up by
a great many ropes-there being a rope to each section where the bam-
boo poles ran across. There was a great advantage in this arrangement,
as it enabled the sailors to shorten sail in case of an increasing wind by
simply lowering it till one of the sections could be taken in. And when
they wish to furl the sail altogether, they have only to let go and the
whole thing comes down with a run." The construction of the sails
can be better understood by reference to the picture here presented of
a boat such as the Chinese use for river navigation.






PROGRESS IN SHIP-BUILDING. I9

As the Danube steamed on down the river and out to sea the conver-
sation between the boys and Doctor Bronson turned very naturally upon
ships and their peculiarities.
"The difference between us and the Chinese in the matter of ships
is that we have progressed, while they have remained stationary. Their
junks are of the same pattern as they were a thousand years ago, while
we are making changes every year. Look at a picture of a European
ship of the fourteenth century, and see how closely it resembles a Chi-
nese junk. Both the bow and stern are very far out of water, and the
arrangement of the sails is quite Chinese in its character. About the

























SHIP OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY.

year 1520 the English built a war ship which they called the The Great
Harry, and it was considered a wonderful specimen of naval architect-
ure. Who would venture to sail in her now, and how long would it take
a war steamer of 1880 to send her to the bottom ? Compare The Great
H-arry with the Tennessee, which is one of the recent American ships,
and observe the progress that has been made in three centuries and a
half. The bow and stern have been brought to a level, and the shape






80 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.

of the hull is such that the ship glides through the water instead of
ploughing over it. Navigators have found that the ship that makes the
least 'fuss' while in motion is the best, and they have devoted a great
deal of study to finding the proper shape for the least resistance."
























"THE GREAT HARRY."

"Yes," remarked Captain Clanchy, who was standing near, "and it
took them a long time to find that the shape of the stern of a ship was
almost as important as that of her bow, in regulating her speed. A
square stern makes a great boiling and depression in the water, while a
long tapering stern allows the water to close silently and with the least
possible resistance. You can easily illustrate what I mean by taking a
stick of wood that is square at both ends, and tying a string to it so as
to drag it endwise in the water. You find that it moves easier when
the forward end is sharpened than when both ends are blunt, and then
if you sharpen both of them you find it moves still more easily. This
is what the naval architects were a long time discovering, and the most
of them are wondering why they did not think of it before."
"Then, too," said Doctor Bronson, "it was found that by lengthen-






IMPROVEMENTS IN STEAM NAVIGATION. 81

ing a ship of the old model a great deal was gained. This has been
done in the last ten or fifteen years, and many of the steamers now run-
ning between New York and England have been lengthened in this way.
They have not been built on at either end, but have been cut in two in
the centre, and had a new section built in. A ship to be lengthened
would be placed on the ways, and then cut open in the middle. If she
was to be extended a hundred feet, the two ends would be drawn apart
for that distance, and then the space would be filled up. She might be
two hundred feet long when taken on the ways, and without any change
of bow or stern her length would be increased to three hundred feet.
With this addition to her tonnage she is much more valuable than be-
fore, and her original speed can be maintained with only a small addi-
tion to her power. Then there have recently been great improvements
in the construction of engines; and I think it safe to say that what with
changes in length, engines, and some other things, a ship of a given num-
ber of tons can be run for half the expense that was required twenty
years ago. Steam navigation is now so economical that it is rapidly
driving sailing vessels from the ocean. The number of sailing ships
on long voyages is diminishing every year, and that of steamers is in-
creasing."
"What is the greatest speed that steamers can make nowadays, with
all these improvements ?" Frank asked.







------~--~~----c-=-- ---~ -- 2
-____ -------- .....__ __ _-_--







THE "TENNESSEE.

"There is much dispute," Doctor Bronson replied, "over the per-
formances of ships at sea, and it is not at all easy to get at the actual
facts. Take the great steam lines between New York and Liverpool,
and there are two or three of them that claim to have done better than
6






82 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.

any of their rivals. The managers of the White Star Line can show that
their ships have made the voyage quicker than the Inman steamers, and
the Inman managers can as readily prove that their ships have surpassed
all others. There are several steamers afloat that have made more than
four hundred miles in twenty-four hours, but they can only do it when
all the circumstances are favorable. There are many men who believe
that steamers will be built before the end of this century that will make


S--- i- 7= ....-~s_~









!A-
















I see no reason to doubt that the feat will be accomplished. We may
yet come to the speed of a railway train on the water, and more than
one inventor believes that he can do so. The prediction that we will
yet cross the Atlantic in three days is no wilder than would have been
the prediction, at the beginning of this century, that we could travel on
land or sea at our present rate, and that intelligence could be flashed
along a wire in a few seconds of time from one end of the world to the
other. The railway, the ocean steamer, the telegraph, the telephone, and






TRAVELLING IN A.D. 3000. 83

many other things that seem almost commonplace to us, would have been
regarded as the emanations of a crazy brain a hundred years ago."
Perhaps," said Fred, "the year 3000 may find us travelling in the
air as freely as we now travel on land."
"Not at all impossible," the Doctor answered. "We, or our de-
scendants, may be able to go through the air at will, and show the birds
that we can do as much as they can. Not long ago I was reading a
sketch which was supposed to be written a thousand years hence. The
writer describes his travels, and gives a picture of the public highway.
An omnibus supported by balloons, and drawn by a pair of them-har-
nessed as we would harness horses-is represented on its way through the
air. The driver is on his box and the conductor at the door, while the
passengers are looking out of the windows. A bird, who has doubtless
become thoroughly familiar with the aerial craft, has seized the hat of a
passenger and flies away with it, and the victim of the theft is vainly
stretching his hands towards his property. Balloons are sailing through
the air, and in one a man is seated, who is evidently out for a day's sport.
He has a rod and line, and is industriously occupied in- birding, just as
one might engage in fishing from the side of a boat. A string of birds
hangs from the seat of his conveyance, and he is in the act of taking a
fresh prize at the end of his line.















_THE BOMB FERRY.






THE BOMB FERRY.






84 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.

There is another picture representing the ferry of the future. It
consists of an enormous mortar, from which a couple of bombs have
been fired; they are connected by a chain, and each bomb is large enough
to contain several persons. The passengers are supposed to be quite com-
fortable, and to be whizzed through the air at the speed of a cannon-shot."





















MOONLIGHT AT SEA IN THE TROPICS.

"But, of course, such a thing is impossible," said Fred; "nobody could
stand it to be shot through a tube at that rate."
"But something very much like it has been proposed in all serious-
ness; a few years ago an inventor in New York had a scheme for a line
of tube four or five feet in diameter, and extending to the principal cities
of the land. His cars were to consist of hollow globes or spheres, and
they were to be propelled at a very rapid rate by exhausting the air in
front of them. His plan was regarded as quite visionary, but it is not
at all impossible that it may yet come into use. Small pneumatic tubes
are in successful operation for the transmission of letters and little par-
cels; and in London there is a tube four feet in diameter from the Gen-
eral Post-office to a railway station more than two miles away. The mail-
bags are transported through this tube, and on several occasions men have
taken their places in the carriages and enjoyed the sensation of this novel
mode of travel."






CROSSING THE GULF OF SIAM. 85

The steamer held her tortuous way down the Mekong, and at length
she passed the light-house and went out to sea. The weather was de-
lightful, though a trifle warm, and the three passengers found the cabin
oppressive at times on account of the closeness of the atmosphere. A
good deal of their time was passed on deck both by day and by night,
and, as the moon was then at the full, the night on deck was thoroughly
enjoyable. Occasionally they were joined by the captain, and, as he pos-
sessed a good fund of marine stories, the boys picked up a great deal of
information of a varied character. As they were bound for Siam, they
overhauled their trunks for all the books they possessed on that coun-
try, and happily they found several volumes in the captain's library that
were of use to them. Among them was the account of Marco Polo and
his travels in the East. What our friends found in the work in question
we will reserve for the next chapter.






























A STORY OF THE SEA.
1 '














A STORY OF THE SEA.






86 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.









CHAPTER VII.
THE WONDERFUL STORY OF MARCO POLO.

"W HAT do you make out of Marco Polo's book ?" said the Doctor
Sto the boys, after they had devoted a sufficient time to its perusal.
"We find it very interesting," Frank replied. "The style is quaint,
and the information it contains is curious. Evidently it is a true story,
and the man must have actually gone over the ground he describes, or it
would never be so accurate."
It is some time since I read it," responded Doctor Bronson, and
perhaps you had best tell me about it. By so doing you will refresh
my memory, and at the same time fix the information in your own
minds."
Thus encouraged, the boys proceeded to tell the story of Marco Polo
to Doctor Bronson, just as though he had never heard it. The Doctor
was a patient listener, and both Frank and Fred showed, by the complete-
ness of their account, that they had thoroughly read the book.
"To begin with," said Frank, "Marco Polo was a Venetian advent-
urer. His father was named Nicolo Polo, and he-Marco-had an uncle
named Maffeo. Marco was born in the year 1254, and six years later his
father and uncle started on a journey to Constantinople and the southern
part of Russia. They were merchants, and their business carried them
into Central Asia, and then to Cathay, where they spent some time with
the khan, or emperor, of that country."
"And what is Cathay ?" said Dr. Bronson, with a smile.
"Cathay is the ancient name for China," Fred answered, and even
to-day it is sometimes called so. Do you remember how Tennyson, in
one of his poems, says, .
Better fifty years of Europe than a cycle of Cathay;'

and I am sure you once told me that the Russian name of China is
'Kitie,' with the accent on the last syllable. That is pretty near the
sound of Cathay, and undoubtedly came from it."






THE POLOS IN CATHAY. 87

Quite correct," the Doctor responded; "you have a good memory
both for facts and poetry."
Kublai-Khan, the Emperor of Cathay," Frank continued, "had never
before seen a gentleman from Europe. He was delighted with the Vene-
tians, and greatly interested in the stories they told him about Europe
and its countries and customs. How long they remained there we do
not know, but it is certain that the emperor, Kublai-Khan, determined
to send them as ambassadors to the Pope, who was then the greatest
monarch of Europe. Accordingly, he wrote letters to the Pope asking
him to send a large number of educated missionaries to Cathay to con-
vert the people to Christianity. These he intrusted to the two Polos, and
sent with them an officer of his own court.




















1i





MARCO POLO.

Before they started on their mission he gave them a golden tablet,
upon which there was inscribed an order for them to receive everything
they might desire for their comfort and convenience in the countries
through which they might pass; and his last order to them was to bring





88 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.

back to him some oil of the lamp which burns on the sepulchre of our
Lord at Jerusalem.' On the road the Tartar prince who accompanied
them fell sick, and they were obliged to leave him behind. If the truth
were known, it is quite probable he did not wish to make the journey,
and was glad of an excuse for avoiding it.





I ro










THE GREAT KHAN DELIVERING A TABLET TO THE ELDER POLO BROTHERS.
(From a Miniature of the Fourteenth Century.)

"In 1269 the brothers arrived at Acre, in Palestine, and found that
the Pope, Clement IV., had died the year before, and no new one had
been chosen. So they went to Venice to see how
matters stood in that city, and to get some news of
f their families. Nicolo found that his wife had died
during his absence, and his son Marco was a fine
youth of fifteen years.
"They waited at Venice for two years; but the
College of Cardinals could not agree on a new Pope,
and consequently the Church was without any head
ARMS OF THE POLO to whom they could deliver their letters. Fearing
FAMILY that the Great Khan would be displeased at their
long absence, and believe them faithless to their trust, they determined to
return to him and explain the state of affairs. Accordingly, they started
in 1271, taking young Marco with them, and in due time were once more
at Acre. Before they left the coast for the interior, they learned that a
new Pope had been chosen. The man on whom the choice fell was then
in Syria, and so they were able to carry out the khan's commission, and






DEPARTURE OF MARCO POLO FOR THE EAST. 89

get a reply. But he was only able to give them two priests to accom-
pany them to Cathay, and these soon found a reason for declining to go
to the strange land. So the three Polos set out alone for the dominions
of the Great Khan.































"--A I W







NICOLO POLO, FATHER OF MARCO.

With the letters, presents from the Pope to the khan, and the holy
oil from Jerusalem, they took the route by Sivas, Mosul, and Bagdad to
Hormuz, where tley turned north and went through Bokhara, Persia, and






90 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.

by way of Kashgar, Yarkand, and Khoten. Then they went to the des-
ert of Gobi, and, after crossing it, reached the territories of the khan near
the great wall of China. They had been three years and a half on the
journey, and the date of their arrival at the khan's court is supposed to
be 1275.
"The khan was greatly pleased to see them, and he was especially
delighted with young Marco, to whom he seemed to take very kindly.
Marco, in his turn, sought to win the favor of the emperor by making
himself as useful as possible; he studied the Oriental languages, and in
a little while he could speak and write no less than four of them.
"The emperor soon began to employ him in the public service, and
he acquitted himself so well that he was sent in charge of missions to
distant countries. His first mission was to the province of Yunnan, and
in going there he was obliged to pass through several other provinces.
He had noticed, during his stay at court, that the emperor was very fond
of hearing about strange countries and their manners and customs, and
so he took good care to bring back as much information as possible. The
khan complimented him for his learning, and found him a great contrast
to the commissioners, who could never tell anything except the business
on which they had gone.
"We don't know much about the details of his employment while he
was at the court of the emperor," said Frank, but we are told that he
was for three years governor of the great city of Yangtchoo; 'and we also
learn that he was in Tangut for a year or more, and that he went on mis-
sions to Mongolia, to Cochin China, and other regions, and commanded
expeditions to the Indian seas. What his father and uncle were doing
all this time we do not know, except that the evidence shows they were
making themselves rich. Perhaps they were able to obtain good con-
tracts through the influence of Marco; and if they could get a monopoly
of government contracts for a few years, they would have no difficulty
in piling up a large fortune.
"Thus they remained at the court of the khan for eleven years, and
by-and-by they wanted to go home and enjoy their wealth. But the
khan would not listen to it, and perhaps they would never have been
heard of again if it had not been for an accident.
"Arghun-Khan of Persia, a great-nephew of Kublai-Khan, had lost
his wife, and her dying injunction was that her place should be filled by
a lady of her own kin-the Mongol tribe of Bayaut. An embassy came
to Kublai's court with the request, and the choice fell on Lady Kukachin,
who is described as a most beautiful woman. The overland road to Per-
9,






THE GREAT KHAN OF TARTARY. 91

sia was considered dangerous, and it was determined to send her by sea.
Accordingly, the khan fitted out an expedition in fine style, and, as the
Venetians were well acquainted with navigation, while the Tartars were
ignorant of it, the khan concluded to send the Polos with the fleet. He
was reluctant to let them go; but having once determined to do so, he
gave them a great many fine presents, and intrusted them with messages
to the various sovereigns of Europe, including the King of England.
They appear to have sailed from the Port of Zayton in the early part











I@ I






/
f'41












PORTRAIT OF KUBLAI KHAN.
(From a Chinese Engraving.)

of 1292. The voyage was long and unfortunate, and the greater part of
the embassy and suite perished on the way. The lady and the three Ve-
netians arrived safely in Persia, where it was found that her intended hus-
band had died, and so she was compelled to marry his son.
As soon as their mission had ended, the Polos proceeded to Venice,






92 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.

which they reached in the year 1295. Their long absence had caused
them to be well-nigh forgotten, and very few people could be found who
remembered anything about the Polos. They had changed much in their
complexions, had almost forgotten their own language; all their utter-
ances had a decidedly Tartar accent; and they were so travel-stained and
shabby that they had difficulty in being received in their own house,
which was now occupied by relatives.
"In order to establish their identity, the wanderers invited their rela-
tives to a grand banquet. When the time came for sitting down at table,
the three appeared in robes of crimson satin; a little later they exchanged
these for robes of crimson damask, and these again for the richest velvet
of the same color. Afterwards they dressed in clothing like that of the
rest of the company, and each of the crimson robes, as soon as it was laid
aside, was cut up and given to the servants.
"Just as the dinner was breaking up, Marco rose from the table and
retired for a moment. When he returned, he brought the shabby dresses
they had worn on their arrival, and the three Polos then went to work
with knives to rip open these apparently worthless garments. As they
cut away the seams, showers of great diamonds of the purest water, and
also emeralds, pearls, rubies, sapphires, and carbuncles, fell on the table.
"There could be no further doubt about the relationship; everybody
at table was ready to swear that he was father, son, and brother all at
once to any of the trio. Relatives poured in on them in great numbers,
and all Venice rushed to do them honor. They were appointed to offices
of high trust, and the young men of Venice came to hear March tell of the
wonders he had seen in his long absence. They were the most popular
men in the city, and received more invitations to dinner than they could
accept.
"There is a tradition that the wife of one of the Polos one day gave
a beggar an old coat belonging to her husband, as she considered it too
shabby for him to wear any longer. When he asked for it the next day,
in order to put away the jewels it contained, she told him she had given
it to a poor man whom she did not know. The tradition says, He went
to the Bridge of Rialto, and stood there turning a wheel, to no apparent
purpose, but as if he were a madman; and to all who crowded around
to see what prank was this, and asked him why he did it, he answered,
" He'll come, if God pleases." So, after two or three days, he recognized
his old coat on the back of one of those who came to stare at his mad
proceeding, and got it back again.'
"Soon after his return, an expedition was sent from Venice against





























kit"
H N- --.



SI)














----- -_------ -- -_ __----


-..._ __ _____ .. : -- __________ ____ -- .-. _--'-- : _. .__ .. -


MARCO POLOS GALLEY IN BATTLE.





94 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.

Genoa, and Marco was placed in command of one of the ships or galleys.
A great battle was fought; the Venetians were defeated; Marco was capt-
ured, placed in irons, and lodged in a prison at Genoa. While in captivi-
ty, he told the story of his travels to a fellow-prisoner named Rusticiano
or Rustichello, of Pisa, and the latter committed it to writing. It was
fortunate for us, though not so for him, that Marco Polo was in prison,
as otherwise we might never have had an account of his travels. After
his release, he led a quiet life at Venice, and seems to have died not far
from the year 1325. He was buried in the Church of San Lorenzo;
but all trace of his tomb was lost when that edifice was rebuilt.
"Now it is Fred's turn," said Frank; "I have told the history of
Marco Polo, and shown why and how he went to the East; Fred will
give you an account of what the great traveller saw in his absence from
Europe of nearly twenty years."
Fred drew his note-book from his pocket and proceeded to his share
of the entertainment.
Marco Polo's work," said Fred, "consists of four divisions or books
and a prologue. The prologue opens as follows:
"'Great princes, emperors, and kings, dukes and marquises, counts,
knights, and burgesses, and people of all degrees, who desire to get
knowledge of the various races of mankind, and of the diversities of
the sundry regions of the world, take this book and cause it to be read
to you. For ye shall find therein all kinds of wonderful things, and the
divers histories of the great Hermenia, and of Persia, and of'the land of
the Tartars, and of India, and of many another country of which our
book doth speak particularly, and in regular succession, according to the
description of Messer Marco Polo, a wise and noble citizen of Venice, as
lie saw them with his own eyes. Some things, indeed, there be therein
which he beheld not; but these he heard from men of credit and veraci-
ty. And we shall set down things seen as seen, and things heard as
heard only, so that no jot of falsehood may mar the truth of our book;
and that all who read it or hear it read may put full faith in the truth
of all its contents.'
"It is hardly worth while to read the whole prologue to you," Fred
remarked, "as it is long, and we can only give a general glance at the
contents of the whole work. A great many editions of the travels of
Marco Polo have been published; the most valuable of all is the latest,
which is by Colonel Yule, an English officer who spent a long time in
India. He has made a careful study of the subject, and his work, with
explanatory notes, is as complete as years of labor could make it. Indeed,





PRINCE ALAU AND THE CALIPH. 95

there are more pages taken up with the explanatory notes than with the
original text of Marco Polo.
"The four divisions or books give an account of the various coun-
tries he visited in his years of -wandering, and of the wonderful sights he
beheld. The route he followed can be traced by geographers without
difficulty, and the cities he visited have most of them been identified.
Many have had their names changed, and some have disappeared alto-
gether, so that in a few instances the localities are in dispute. But, taken
as a whole, the story is a truthful one, and shows Marco Polo to have been
the greatest traveller of his time.
Some of the stories that seem at first to be the wildest fiction are
known to be founded in fact, if not literally correct. In speaking of
Syria, he says: 'There is a great lake at the foot of a mountain, and in
this lake are found no fish, great or small, throughout the whole year till
Lent comes. On the first day of Lent they find in it the finest fish in the
world, and great store, too, thereof; and these continue to be found till
Easter-eve. After that they are found no more till Lent comes round
again; and so 'tis every year.'
"Colonel Yule is unable to locate the particular lake mentioned, but
says there are several lakes in different parts of the East that are de-
serted by the fish for certain periods of the year. It would not be at
all strange if such were the case, and a very little exaggeration of the
story would make the fish appear in Lent, and go away at other times.
"While describing Baudas-the modern Bagdad-he tells how an
army, under Prince Alau, captured the city, and found the greatest accu-
mulation of treasure that ever was known. The prince was enraged at
seeing so much wealth, and asked the caliph why he did not take the
money to hire soldiers to defend the city. 'The caliph,' says Marco,
'wist not what to answer, and said never a word. So the prince con-
tinued, "Now then, caliph, since I see what a love thou hast borne thy
treasure, I will e'en give it thee to eat." So he shut the caliph up in the
treasure-tower, and bade that neither meat nor drink should be given
him, saying, "Now, caliph, eat of thy treasure as much as thou wilt, since
thou art so fond of it, for never shalt thou have aught else to eat!"'
So the caliph lingered four days in the tower, and then died. The
story has been used by several poets both in England and America, and
it has been made the basis of an Eastern romance.
Some of the more fanciful stories he tells are about the men of
Lambri, and of Angamanain. Here is what he says of the former:
"'Now you must know that in this kingdom of Lambri there are






96 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.

men with tails; these tails are of a palm in length, and have no hair on
them. These people live in the mountains, and are a kind of wild men.
Their tails are about the thickness of a dog's. There are also plenty of
unicorns in the country, and abundance of game in birds and beasts.'


























difference in the size of dogs' tails. The range from a terrier or pug to
a mastiff or a Siberian blood-hound is pretty wide. It reminds me of the
stone thrown at a man, that was described by a witness as about the size
of a piece of chalk."
"By the island of Angamanain," Fred continued, "Polo probably
meant the Andaman Islands. Here is what he says of them :
"' The people are without a king, and are idolaters, and no better than
wild beasts. And I assure you that all the men of this island of An-ga-
manain have heads like dogs, and teeth and eyes likewise! In fact in
the face they arsie just like big mastiff dogs! They have a quantity of
spices; but they are a most cruel generation, and eat everybody they can
catch, if not of their own race. They live oni flesh and, rice and milk,
and have fruits different from ours. '
th ar

























stone thrown at a rean, that cs described by a witness as about the size








catch, if not of their own race. They live on flesh and, rice and milk,
and have fruits different from ours.'





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