• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Introduction and general guide...
 I. Small grain cover to corn followed...
 II. Small grain cover followed...
 III. No tillage corn when no soybeans...
 IV. No tillage soybeans
 V. No tillage grain sorghum, forage...
 VI. Minimum tillage corn, grain...
 Section I: Weed control in...
 Section II: Weed control in corn...
 Table 1: Weed control in corn
 Table 2: Estimated effectiveness...
 Section III: Weed control in soybeans...
 Table 1: Weed control in soybe...
 Table 2: Estimated effectiveness...
 Back Cover






Group Title: Florida Cooperative Extension Service circular 480
Title: Tentative production management guidelines for no-tillage systems
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00049274/00001
 Material Information
Title: Tentative production management guidelines for no-tillage systems
Series Title: Circular Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Physical Description: 35 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Gallaher, Raymond N
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1980?
 Subjects
Subject: No-tillage -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Cropping systems -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Raymond N. Gallaher ... et al.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00049274
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 08851652

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Introduction and general guidelines
        Page 5
    I. Small grain cover to corn followed by sorghum
        Page 6
        Page 7
    II. Small grain cover followed by corn, followed by soybeans
        Page 8
        Page 9
    III. No tillage corn when no soybeans follow in the same warm season
        Page 10
    IV. No tillage soybeans
        Page 11
    V. No tillage grain sorghum, forage sorghum, sorghum x sudangrass or millet
        Page 12
    VI. Minimum tillage corn, grain sorghum, and/or soybeans
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Section I: Weed control in sorghum
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Section II: Weed control in corn - 1979
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Table 1: Weed control in corn
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Table 2: Estimated effectiveness of recommended herbicides on common weeds in Florida corn
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Section III: Weed control in soybeans - 1979
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Table 1: Weed control in soybeans
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Table 2: Estimated effectiveness of recommended herbicides on common weeds in Florida soybeans
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Back Cover
        Page 36
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





Circular 480


NULTICROPPING
NIMUM
TILLAGE


lII-~ V 4%


Tentative Production Management Guidelines

For No-Tillage Systems

Raymond N. GaJlaher, David H. Teem, W. L. Currey,
and B. J. Brecke*



Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville
John T. Woeste. Dean for Extension








Table of Contents


Introduction and General Guidelines. ................... ...5
I. Small Grain Cover to Corn Followed by Sorghum ....... .6
II. Small Grain Cover Followed by Corn, Followed by Soy-
beans........................................ ..8
III. No Tillage Corn When No Soybeans Follow in the Same
Warm Season. .................... ........... 10
IV. No Tillage Soybeans ............................ .11
V. No Tillage Grain Sorghum, Forage Sorghum, Sorghum X Su-
dangrass or M illet ...............................12
VI. Minimum Tillage Corn, Grain Sorghum, and/or Soybeans.13

Section I Weed Control in Sorghum .................... .15
Table I.......................................... 15

Section II Weed Control in Corn 1979 .................. 17
T able 1 ........................................ 19
T able 2 ..........................................24

Section III Weed Control in Soybeans 1979 ............. .26
T able 1 ........................................ 28
T able 2 ........................................ 34








Tentative Production Management Guidelines

For No-Tillage Systems


Raymond N. Gallaher, David H. Teem, W. L. Currey,
and B. J. Brecke*

Introduction and General Guidelines
In 1976 a survey of the potential ofmulticropping and no-tillage sys-
tems for Florida was conducted with several objectives in mind:
1. to determine the potential for expansion of agronomic/
horticultural crops in multicropping no-tillage systems,
2. to enlist the aid of faculty of the University of Florida and/or fed-
eral employees and organizations to cooperate in the expansion of
multi-cropping and minimum tillage systems, and
3. to initiate a cooperative program that would quickly establish
Florida as a leader in multicropping and no-tillage systems activi-
ties.
Following the state survey, a program called "Management of Multi-
cropping and No-Tillage Systems for the Southeast" was prepared.
During the past three years, research investigations were and are con-
tinuing to be conducted on management of forage production in succes-
sion multicropping systems:
1. vegetables followed by agronomic crops in multicropping systems,
2. fertility of corn succeeded by soybeans in the warm season at three
Florida locations, and
3. no-tillage systems studies with crops planted into crop residues,
pasture sods, and mulches with special emphasis on succession
cropping systems.
Management research has been conducted with about 70 multicrop-
ping conventional and no-tillage systems in Florida. This experience in
addition to experiences in other states points to two general conclusions:
1. Over 300 succession multicropping systems are possible in the
Southeast with our present resources and climate.
2. In order to maximize multicropping productivity, knowledge of
the following variables under our varied Florida environments
will be needed: pests, water, cropping system combinations, no-
tillage, fertility, equipment and economic conditions.

*Gallaher Is Associate Professor of Agronomy and Coordinator of Multicropping,
Galnesvllle; Teem is Associate Professor of Agronomy and Coordinator of Weed Sci-
ence, Gainesville; Currey is Associate Professor of Agronomy and Weed Scientist,
Galnesvllle; and Brecke is Assistant Professor of Agronomy and Weed Scientist, Jay
ARC.








Although recent research findings are not conclusive, certain state-
ments can be made regarding the potential advantages of multicrop-
ping and no-tillage farming. Multicropping aids in:
1. utilizing land better,
2. helping to meet the demand for fiber and food,
3. satisfying needs of a growing population in Florida and the South-
east, and
4. helping to offset increased costs of production, labor, inflation,
taxes, and other overhead by spreading costs over two or three
crops per year instead of one.
No-tillage is an excellent soil conservation practice and when coupled
with multicropping, offers several additional advantages such as:
1. conservation of time,
2. conservation and efficient utilization of water and energy,
3. reduction of pollution which results from soil erosion,
4. provision for more timely planting of crops,
5. fewer farming operations, thus requiring less equipment and labor,
6. utilization of crop residues, sod crops, and mulch crops for conser-
vation and crop production,
7. reduced problems with lesser cornstalk borer,
8. conservation of fuel and other petroleum products, and
9. greater or equal yield when compared to conventional farming.
The one major disadvantage of multicropping no-tillage farming is
education and attitude. It is not for everyone. Success in this type of
farming requires an innovative, highly skilled, and informed farmer,
who wants to make it work on his farm. To help alleviate this problem,
extension of this research has been going on continually during the past
three years. Numerous field days, demonstrations, talks, and short-
courses have been held for farmers, county agents, faculty, SCS and
ASCS people. Cooperative efforts have resulted in tremendous interest
by farmers who wish to try some type of multicropping no-tillage system
on their farm. No-tillage or minimum tillage acreage is predicted to
increase dramatically in Florida this year and in future years.
The following are some general guidelines on step-by-step manage-
ment for several no-tillage crops that may or may not be in succession
multicropping systems. More specific reports will be published as re-
search data is completed.

I. Small Grain Cover to Corn Followed by Sorghum
A. Corn planted no-tillage into small grain cover
1. Moisture or irrigation must be available.
2. Herbicides At Planting:
Paraquat should be applied to control existing vegetation.
Use 2 pints per acre plus Ortho X-77 at 1 pint per 100 gal-








lons of water. Apply before or at planting in 40 to 60 gallons
of water per acre to insure thorough coverage. Do notapply
after crop emergence. Small grain under intensive graz-
ing by cattle should be allowed at least 5 to 7 days to initiate
new growth following cattle removal and prior to paraquat
kill. Otherwise paraquat will be less effective in controlling
the small grain cover. Paraquat will not provide preemer-
gence control; therefore, a herbicide or combination of herbi-
cides may be needed to provide residual control. The choice
of herbicides should be based on the specific weeds expected
in each situation. Refer to Table 2 of Section II, "Weed Con-
trol in Corn 1979", page 24 for the estimated effectiveness
of herbicides on specific weeds. Table 1 of the same section
can then be used to determine appropriate rates and com-
ments on application. The herbicide or herbicides chosen
can be tank-mixed with paraquat or may be applied in a
separate operation.
3. Insecticides and Nematicides:
Use 2 lb. a.i. 10G Furadan/A, or others as needed and la-
beled for crop and specific pests.
4. Planting Rate:
Without irrigation 18-20,000 plants/A; with irrigation
30,000 plants/A.
5. Use a short season hybrid for grain, planted early, for late
June or early July harvest.
6. Fertilize according to soil test with split application for N.
Where irrigation is available, use a minimum of 150 lb N/A
for yield expectations of 100 bushels per acre. Apply an addi-
tional 35 pounds N per acre for every 25 bushels of corn yield
expected over 100 bushels per acre. Soil pH in top two inches
should be 5.8 or above. This pH is needed for good growth
and also herbicide performance. Low pH may reduce the ef-
fectiveness of certain herbicides such as Atrazine or Bladex.
7. Post Directed Application:
Refer to the section "Weed Control in Corn" for herbicides,
weeds controlled, and application comments.

B. Sorghum. planted no-tillage into corn stubble or stalks in
the same warm season.
1. Moisture or irrigation must be available.
2. Herbicides:
Paraquat should be applied to control existing vegetation.
Use two pints per acre plus Ortho X-77 at one pint per 100
gallons of water. Apply before or at planting in 40 to 60 gal-








lons of water per acre to insure thorough coverage. Do not
apply after crop emergence.
Paraquat will not provide preemergence control; therefore,
additional herbicides may be needed to provide residual con-
trol or to control weeds after emergence of the sorghum.
Refer to the attached section "Weed Control in Sorghum"
(page 15) for herbicides and application comments.
3. Use a short season hybrid planted no later than August 1.
Contact your country extension office for information.
4. Insecticides and Nematicides:
Use as needed and labeled for crops and pests.
5. Planting Rate:
With irrigation plant 10 12 lbs of seed/A; without irrigation
plant 8 10 lbs of seed/A.
6. Fertilizer:
Apply 100 lbs N in split applications. Add P and K as per soil
test. Contact your country extension office for recommenda-
tions.
7. Post Directed Application:
Refer to Section I, "Weed Control in Sorghum" (page 00) for
herbicides and application comments.
II. Small Grain Cover Followed by Corn Followed by Soybeans
A. Corn planted no-tillage into small grain cover.
1. Moisture or irrigation must be available.
2. Herbicides At Planting:
Paraquat should be applied to control existing vegetation.
Use two pints per acre plus Ortho X-77 at one pint per 100
gallons of water. Apply before or at planting in 40 to 60 gal-
lons of water per acre to insure thorough coverage. Do not
apply after crop emergence. Small grain under intensive
grazing by cattle should be allowed at least 5 to 7 days to
initiate new growth following cattle removal and prior to
paraquat kill. Otherwise paraquat will be less effective in
controlling the small grain cover. Paraquat will not provide
preemergence control; therefore, a herbicide or combination
of herbicides may be needed to provide residual control. The
choice of herbicides should be based on the specific weeds
expected in each situation. Refer to Table 2 of Section II,
"Weed Control in Corn 1979" (page 24) for the estimated
effectiveness of herbicides on specific weeds. Table 1 of the
same section can then be used to determine appropriate
rates and comments on application. The herbicide or herbi-
cides chosen can be tank-mixed with paraquat or may be
applied in a separate operation.








NOTE: Atrazine is not labeled for use in this system of soy-
beans following corn. Refer to the label.
3. When grain is desired, use an early maturing corn and plant
early for late-June to early-July harvest.
4. Insecticides and Nematicides:
Use 2 lbs. a.i. of #10G Furadan/A or others as needed and
labeled for crop and pests.
5. Planting Rate:
With irrigation plant 30,000 plants/A; without irrigation
plant 18 20,000 plants/A.
6. Fertilizer:
Fertilize according to soil test with split application of N on
corn. Where irrigation is available use a minimum of 150 lbs
N/A on corn for yield expectations of 100 bushels per acre.
Apply an additional 35 pounds N per acre for each 25 bushel
increment expected over 100 bushels per acre. The pH in the
top two inches of soil should be 5.8 or above.
7. Post Directed Application:
Refer to Section II, "Weed Control in Corn" (page 17) for
weeds controlled and application comments.
B. Soybeans following corn in the same warm season.
1. Moisture or irrigation must be available.
2. Herbicides At Planting:
Paraquat should be applied to control existing vegetation.
Use two pints per acre plus Ortho X-77 at one pint per 100
gallons of water. Apply before or at planting in 40 to 60 gal-
lons of water per acre to insure thorough coverage. Do not
apply after crop emergence. If cornstalk residue is cut in
with a harrow or rototiller prior to planting soybeans, exist-
ing weeds will usually be destroyed and paraquat will not be
needed.
Paraquat will not provide preemergence control; therefore, a
herbicide or combination of herbicides may be needed to pro-
vide residual control. The choice of herbicide should be based
on the specific weeds expected in each situation. Refer to Ta-
ble 2, Section III, "Weed Control in Soybeans 1979" (page
34) for the estimated effectiveness of herbicides on specific
weeds. Table 1 of this section can then be used to determine
appropriate rates and comments on application. The herbi-
cide or herbicides chosen can be tank-mixed with paraquat
or may be applied in a separate operation.
3. Use the 'Cobb' variety planted no later than August 1.
4. Insecticides and Nematicides:
Use as needed and labeled for crop and pests.








5. Planting rate:
Use 7 9 seeds/ft. of row. Later planting should be planted in
narrow row widths to insure adequate ground cover.
6. Inoculation:
Double inoculate when beans are planted in areas that have
never been planted to soybeans before. Check with your
county extension director for more information on which
high quality inoculums are available.
7. Fertilizer:
No additional fertilizer should be needed if corn was prop-
erly fertilized according to soil tests.
8. Post Directed Application:
Refer to Section III, "Weed Control in Soybeans 1979" (page
26) for herbicides, weeds controlled, and application com-
ments.


III. No Tillage Corn When No Soybeans Follow in the Same
Warm Season

A. Corn planted no-tillage into small grain cover.
1. Moisture or irrigation must be available.
2. Herbicides At Planting:
Paraquat should be applied to control existing vegetation.
Use two pints per acre plus Ortho X-77 at one pint per 100
gallons of water. Apply before or at planting in 40 to 60
gallons of water per acre to insure thorough coverage. Do
not apply after crop emergence. Small grain under in-
tensive grazing by cattle should be allowed at least 5 to 7
days to initiate new growth following cattle removal and
prior to paraquat kill. Otherwise paraquat will be less ef-
fective in controlling the small grain cover. Paraquat will
not provide premergence control; therefore a herbicide or
combination of herbicides may be needed to provide resid-
ual control. The choice of herbicides should be based on the
specific weeds expected in each situation. Refer to Table 2
of Section II "Weed Control in Corn 1979" (page 24) for the
estimated effectiveness of herbicides on specific weeds. Ta-
ble 1 of this section can then be used to determine appropri-
ate rates and comments on application. The herbicide or
herbicides chosen can be tank-mixed with paraquat or may
be applied in a separate operation.
3. Insecticides and Nematicides:
Use 2 lbs a.i. Furadan/A or others as needed and labeled for
crop and pests.








4. Planting Rate:
With irrigation 30,000 plants/A; without irrigation 18 -
20,000 plants/A.
5. Use recommended corn hybrids.
6. Fertilizer:
Fertilize according to soil tests with split application for N.
Where irrigation is available use a minimum of 150 lbs N/
A for yield expectations of 100 bushels per acre. Apply an
additional 35 pounds N per acre for each 25 bushels incre-
ment expected over 100 bushels per acre. The pH in the top
two inches of soil should be 5.8 or above.
7. Post Directed Application:
Refer to the attached section "Weed Control in Corn 1979"
for herbicides, weeds controlled and application comments.
B. Corn planted no-tillage into last year's soybean residue.
Same as for A.
C. Corn planted no-tillage into last year's corn residue.
Same as for A.
D. Corn planted no-tillage into last year's peanut residue.
Same as for A.
E. Corn planted no-tillage into fallow.
Same as for A.
IV. No-Tillage Soybeans
A. Soybeans planted no-tillage into small grain straw.
1. Moisture or irrigation must be available.
2. Herbicides At Planting:
Paraquat should be applied to control existing vegetation.
Use two pints per acre plus Ortho X-77 at one pint per 100
gallons of water. Apply before or at planting in 40 to 60
gallons of water per acre to insure thorough coverage. Do
not apply after crop emergence. Soybeans should be
planted quickly after small grain harvest while weeds are
small for greater herbicide effectiveness and better soybean
and straw mulch competition against weeds. Paraquat will
not provide preemergence control; therefore, an herbicide
or combination of herbicides may be needed to provide re-
sidual control. The choice of herbicides should be based on
the specific weeds expected in each situation. Refer to Table
2 of Section III "Weed Control in Soybeans 1979" (page 34)
for the estimated effectiveness of herbicides on specific
weeds. Table 1 of the same section can then be used to de-
termine appropriate rates and comments on application.
The herbicide or herbicides chosen can be tank-mixed with
paraquat or may be applied in a separate operation.








3. Use soybean varieties recommended for the location and
planting date.
4. Insecticides and Nematicides:
Use as needed and labeled for crop and pests.
5. Planting Rate:
Use 7 9 seeds/ft of row. Later plantings should be planted
in narrow row widths to obtain more rapid ground cover.
6. Inoculation:
Double the inoculation rate when beans are planted in
areas that have never been planted to soybeans. Check
with your county extension director for information on
which high quality inoculums are available.
7. Fertilization:
Fertilize according to soil tests.
8. Post Directed Application:
Refer to Section III "Weed Control in Soybeans 1979"
(page 26) for herbicides, weeds controlled, and application
comments.
B. Soybeans planted no-tillage into last year's soybean residue.
Same as for A.
C. Soybeans planted no-tillage into last year's corn residue.
Same as for A.
D. Soybeans planted no-tillage into fallow.
Same as for A.
V. No-Tillage Grain Sorghum, Forage Sorghum, Sorghum X
Sudangrass or Millet
A. Planted no-tillage into small grain residue
1. Moisture or irrigation must be available.
2. Herbicides At Planting:
Paraquat should be applied to control existing vegetation.
Use two pints per acre plus Ortho X77 at one pint per 100
gallons of water. Apply before or at planting in 40 to 60
gallons of water per acre to insure thorough coverage. Do
not apply after crop emergence. Paraquat will not pro-
vide preemergence control; therefore, additional herbicides
may be needed to provide residual control or to control
weeds after emergence of the sorghum. Refer to Section I
"Weed Control in Sorghum 1979" (page 15) for herbicides,
and application comments.
3. Insecticides and Nematicides:
Use as needed and labeled for crop and pests. Early plant-
ings normally have less sorghum midge damage.
4. Use recommended varieties for forage sorghum, millet, sor-
ghum X sudangrass or grain sorghum.








5. Planting Rate Grain Sorghum:
With irrigation plant 10 12 lbs seed/A; without irrigation
plant 8 10 lbs seed/A. Follow seeding recommendations
for forage sorghum, sorghum X sudangrass and millet.
Contact your county extension office for recommendations.
6. Fertilizer:
Use 100 lbs N applied in split applications. Add P & K as
per soil tests. Contact county extension office for recom-
mendations.
7. Post Directed Application:
Refer to the attached section "Weed Control in Sorghum
1979" for herbicide and application comments.
B. Plant no-tillage into last year's soybean residue.
Same as for A.
C. Plant no-tillage into last year's corn residue.
Same as for A.
D. Plant no-tillage into last year's peanut residue.
Same as for A.
E. Plant no-tillage into fallow.
Same as for A.
F. Plant no-tillage into vetch or lupine.
Same as for A.
G. Plant no-tillage into small grain straw after small grain is
harvested for grain.
Same as for A.



VI. Minimum Tillage Corn, Grain Sorghum, and/or Soybeans
1. The land area may be in the following condition:
small grain cover
small grain straw
fallow
last year's corn stover residue
last year's soybean residue
last year's sorghum residue
other winter cover crops (legumes)
last year's peanut residue
2. Minimum tillage is the first step and involves a harrow or roto-
tiller operation to incorporate residue in the top three inches of
the soil.
3. Plant into the minimum tillage seedbed.
4. Herbicide:
Refer to the attached sections on weed control in corn, soybeans
or sorghum.








5. Insecticides and Nematicides:
Use appropriate materials as needed at approved rates accord-
ing to label for crop and specific pests. Consult your county
extension office.
6. Planting rates:
Select cultivars and planting rates as appropriate for the soil
and environmental conditions. Consult your county extension
office for recommendations.
7. Fertilizer:
Fertilize according to soil tests. Consult your county extension
office for recommendations.
8. Post Directed Herbicide:
Refer to the attached sections on weed control in corn, soybean,
or sorghum.










Section I

Weed Control in Sorghum






Herbicide Rate/Acre1 Weeds Controlled and Remarks

PREEMERGENCE

propachlor 4.0 Grain sorghum only. Will provide
(Ramrod or short term grass control to establish
Bexton) a height differential between the
crop and weeds thus allowing the
use of a directed spray. Do not graze
or feed forage or silage to dairy ani-
mals.

POSTEMERGENCE
atrazine 1.5 Forage and grain sorghum. For con-
(AAtrex or trol of seedling grass and broadleaf
Atrazine) weeds. Add emulsifiable oil at rate of
1 gal. per acre. Apply after sorghum
reaches the 3 leaf stage and when
weeds are small. Do not use on
sands or loamy sand soils. Do not
graze or feed forage for 21 days fol-
lowing application.
2,4-D 0.5 Forage or grain sorghum. For broad-
(Several leaf weed control broadcast when
brands) sorghum is 4 10" tall or as directed.
Spray when sorghum is more than
10" tall.
dicamba 0.25 Grain sorghum only. For broadleaf
(Banvel) weed control apply broadcast or
post-directed from 10 25 days after
sorghum emergence. Delaying ap-
plication later than 25 days after
emergence may reduce grain yields.
POST-DIRECTED
Linuron 0.5-1.0 Grain sorghum only. Apply when
(Lorox) sorghum is more than 15 inches tall
up to lay by; when weeds are less
than 4 inches tall. May be tank mixed
with 2,4-D. Add a surfactant to spray
mix and restrict spray to lower 4
inches of sorghum plant. Do not
graze or feed to livestock within 3
months.









Paraquat
(Ortho Paraquat CL)


Grain sorghum only. For control of
annual grass and broadleaf weeds
apply after sorghum is 12" tall as a
directed spray. Do not allow spray to
contact more than the lower 3" of the
sorghum. Add 1 pint of X-77 per 100
gal. of spray.


1 Rates are in pounds of active ingredients per acre.








Section II


Weed Control in Corn 1979
Successful weed control is essential for economical production of corn
in Florida. Weeds reduce corn yields by competing for moisture, nutri-
ents, and light during the growing season and also interfere with har-
vest. Producing a good crop of corn is only half the battle and will not be
profitable unless the corn can be harvested. Late season weeds can
result in excessive yield losses, inefficient equipment operations, and
provide a source of weed seed for the following season. Weeds can be
controlled in corn; however, this involves good management practices
in all phases of corn production.
Crop rotations are beneficial, not only in reducing weed problems in
corn, but also in crops following in the rotation. Other benefits include
reducing insects, diseases, and nematodes in corn and in succeeding
crops.
Crop competition is one of the most important, but often one of the
most overlooked, tools in weed control. A good stand of corn, which
emerges rapidly and uniformly and shades the middles early, is very
helpful in reducing weed competition. This involves utilizing good man-
agement practices, such as choosing a well adapted hybrid, good fertil-
ity, maintaining proper soil pH, and using adequate plant populations.
Utilizing these good management practices is necessary for producing
high yielding corn, and is also an aid in weed control. The plant that
emerges and grows most rapidly is usually the plant that will have the
competitive advantage, therefore, everything possible should be done to
ensure that the corn and not the weeds, has this competitive advantage.
Know your weeds and choose a herbicide that is effective for your
specific weed problems. Generally, for preplant and preemergence ap-
plications, the weed problem must be anticipated since the weeds have
not emerged at the time of application. This can best be done by observ-
ing the field in the fall and recording what weeds are present and in
what areas of the field they occur. These "weed maps" can be very useful
the next spring in refreshing your memory and making decisions on
what can be a useful herbicide to purchase. Once your weed problems
have been determined, Table 2 of this Section can be helpful in deter-
mining what herbicide is most effective for these weed problems.
Cultivation is still a good and economical means of weed control;
however, for cultivation to be effective in controlling weeds in the row,
there must be a height differential between the corn and the weeds.
Preplant or preemergence herbicide applications are the best methods
of achieving this height differential and allowing cultivation to be effec-
tive in the row. Few benefits, other than weed control, have been attrib-
uted to cultivation, and in fact, some disadvantages can be listed for








cultivation. Cultivation can disrupt the roots of corn, increase moisture
losses from the soil, and bring more weed seed to the surface where they
will germinate. Therefore, if good weed control has been achieved with
herbicides, then the need to cultivate is questionable.
Herbicides are one of the most effective tools for successful weed
control in corn. Preplant or preemergence applications combined with
the previously discussed management practices, are important for en-
suring that the corn has the initial competitive advantage. If the corn is
taller than the weeds, then postemergence directed applications can be
utilized to extend the weed control through the season; however, if the
weeds are as tall as the corn, then this option is not available with most
herbicides. Late season, over-the-top applications can be used to aid in
harvest efficiency, although in most cases this will not be needed if good
weed control was achieved with preplant, preemergence, or directed ap-
plications, and the corn is harvested when it is ready.
The herbicides suggested in Table 1 of this Section are those that
have performed well in IFAS research. When choosing a herbicide, con-
sideration should be given to the crop which will follow in a rotation and
whether the herbicide will carry over and injure the succeeding crop.
Read the label and follow all instructions and precautions. Accurate
calibration of the sprayer is extremely important since rates too low
may not provide adequate weed control and rates too high may injure
the crop or result in carry over and injury to succeeding crops. Herbi-
cides, like any pesticide, should be handled with care. Store herbicides
behind locked doors in the original containers with the label intact and
separated from seed, fertilizers, and other pesticides.









Table 1. WEED CONTROL IN CORN


Trade Name and
Broadcast Rate/Acre
of Commercial Product


Common Name and
Broadcast Rate/Acre
of Active Ingredient


PREPLANT:
Sutan +
(4.75 pts.)


butylate
plus
protectant
(4 Ibs.J


butylate plus protectant
(3 Ibs.)


Sutan +
(3.75 pts.)


AAtrex 80W or
Atrazine 80W
(1.25 Ib.)
OR
AAtrex 4L or
Atrazine 4L
(1 qt.)
PREEMERGENCE:
AAtrex 80W or
Atrazine 80W
(2.5 3.75 lbs.)
OR
AAtrex or
Atrazine 4L
(2- 3 qts.)
Lasso (2 2.5 qts.)
OR
Lasso II (13- 16 Ibs.)







Dual 6E
(2.6 3.3 pts.)


Annual grasses, some broadleaf
weeds, nutsedge and Texas pani-
cum are controlled. Incorporate im-
mediately after application to a
depth of 3 to 4 inches.
Good broad spectrum control of an-
nual grasses and broadleaf weeds.
Incorporate immediately after ap-
plication to a depth of 3 to 4 inches.
See remarks for each herbicide.


+
atrazine
(1 lb.)


atrazine
(2- 3 bs.)





alachlor
(2- 2.5 Ibs.)








metolachlor
(2- 25 Ibs.)


Good broadleaf weed control but
less effective on grasses. Lower rate
on light sandy soils. Under dry con-
ditions a shallow cultivation may im-
prove control. Do not graze or feed
treated forage to livestock for 21
days after application.
Provides good control of annual
grasses and certain broadleaf
weeds. Use the lower rate on light
sandy soils. Best results are when
rainfall occurs within 4 6 days after
application. If the granular formula-
tion is used, plant as flat as possible
to avoid granules concentrating in
the bottom of the furrow.

Good control of annual grasses and
certain broadleaf weeds. Use lower
rate on light sandy soils. If 1/2 inch of
rain does not fall within 7 days after
application, incorporate into the up-
per 1 inch of soil with a rotary hoe or
rolling cultivator. Use on corn
grown for grain only.


Remarks









Table 1. WEED CONTROL IN CORN (Continued)


Trade Name and
Broadcast Rate/Acre
of Commercial Product


Common Name and
Broadcast Rate/Acre
of Active Ingredient


cyanazine
(1.2- 1.6 Ibs.)


Good control of annual grasses and
broadleaf weeds. Best results are
when rainfall occurs within 4 6
days. Do not use on sand or
loamy sand with less than 1% or-
ganic matter.


pendimethalin Good control of grasses and certain
(.75 1.0 lb.) broadleaf weeds. For best results,
rainfall or irrigation is needed within
4 5 days after application. Use low
rate in light sandy soils. Do not use
on peat or muck soils.


PREEMERGENCE:
(Continued)
Lasso (1.5 qt.)
OR
Prowl (.75 qt.)
OR
Dual 6E (1.5 pt.)
+
AAtrex 80W or
Altrazine 80W
(1.25 Ib.)
OR
AAtrex 4L or
Atrazine 4L
(1.0 qt.)

POSTEMERGENCE:
AAtrex 80W or
Atrazine 80W
(2-25 lb.)
OR
AAtrex 4L or
Atrazine 4L
(2qts.)


Bladex 80WP
(1.5- 2.0 Ibs.)


alachlor
(1.5 lb.)
OR
pendimethalin
(.75 Ib.)
OR
metolachlor
(1.25 Ib.)
+
atrazine
(1.0 Ilb.)


atrazine
(2.0 Ibs.)


cyanazine
(1.2- 1.6 lb.)


Good broadspectrum control of an-
nual grasses and broadleaf weeds.
The spectrum of weeds controlled is
increased over either component
alone. See weeds controlled and re-
marks for each herbicide.


Addition of a non-phytotoxic oil at the
rate of 1 gal./Acre provides quicker
kills of weeds. Most effective if
weeds are less than 2" tall. Most ef-
fective on broadleaf weeds.



Do no add surfactants or petroleum
crop oils. Do not apply if 5th corn leaf
is visible. Do not use on sand or
loamy sand with less than 1% or-
ganic matter. Most effective on
broadleaf weeds.


Remarks


Bladex 80WP
(1.5- 2 bs.)
OR
Bladex 4L
(1.2 1.6 qts.)


Prowl
(.75 1.0 qt.)










Table 1. WEED CONTROL IN CORN (Continued)


Trade Name and
Broadcast Rate/Acre
of Commercial Product


Common Name and
Broadcast Rate/Acre
of Active Ingredient


Lasso (1.5 qt.)
+
AAtrex 80W or
Atrazine 80W
(1.25 Ib.)
OR
AAtrex 4L or
Atrazine 4L
(1 qt.)

Basagran
(.75 1.5 qt.)


2,4-D Several
trade names
and formulations


POST EMERGENCE:
(Continued)
Banvel
(.25- .50 pt.)


alachlor
(1.5 lb.)
+
atrazine
(1.0 lb.)


bentazon
(.75- 1.5 lb.)


2,4-D
(0.5 lb.)


dicamba
(.25- .25 Ib.)


Apply before weeds are past 2-leaf
stage and before corn is 5 inches
tall. See weeds controlled and re-
marks for each herbicide.







Controls certain broadleaf weeds
and yellow nutsedge. Rate depends
on weed species and size; there-
fore, refer to the label. Do not apply
to corn that has been subjected to
stress. Rainfall within 8 hours may
nullify effectiveness. Do not mix with
other pesticides or fertilizers.

Controls broadleaf weeds; cockle-
bur, pigweed, ragweed, morning
glory and coffeeweed. Broadcast
over the top when corn is 4 10
inches tall and weeds are small. Ap-
ply as directed spray to the base of
the corn plant, to minimize injury, af-
ter corn reaches 12 inches in height.
Do not apply when corn is silking or
tasseling. Apply after corn has
reached the "soft dough" stage to
control late season weeds. Avoid
spray drift to near-by sensitive
crops.


Good control of broadleaf weeds.
Can be applied broadcast over the
top until com is 36 inches tall or until
15 days before tassel emergence,
depending on which occurs first. Do
not graze or harvest for dairy or beef
feed prior to milk stage. Avoid spray
drift to nearby sensitive crops.


Remarks










Table 1. WEED CONTROL IN CORN (Continued)


Trade Name and
Broadcast Rate/Acre
of Commercial Product


Common Name and
Broadcast Rate/Acre
of Active Ingredient


Evik80W
(1.25- 2.0 lbs.)


Lorox 50WP
(1.5-3.0 lb.)








Ortho Paraquat CL
(1 pt.)






Ortho Paraquat CL
(1 pt.)
+
AAtrex 80W or
Atrazine 80W
(1.25 lb.)
OR
AAtrex 4L or
Atrazine 4L
(1 qt.)


ametryn
(1.0- 1.6 lb.)


linuron
(.75- 1.5 lb.)








paraquat
(0.25 lb.)







paraquat
(0.25 lb.)


+

atrazine
(1.0 lb.)


Good control of grasses and broad-
leaf weeds. Most effective if weeds ar
less than 6" tall. Apply as a directed
spray after the smallest corn is at
least 12 inches tall. Do not spray
over the top of corn. Use an approved
surfactant at 1 pt. for each 25 gal of
spray mixture. Do not graze or feed
forage to livestock for 30 days after
application.

Controls most grasses and broad-
leaved weeds up to 5 inches tall. Ap-
ply as a directed spray after corn
is 15 inches tall. Use lower rate for 2-
inch weeds and higher rate for 5-inch
weeds. Do not spray over the top of
corn. Use an approved surfactant at 1
pt. for each 25 gal. of spray mixture.

For control of emerged annual grass
and broadleaf weeds. Apply after
corn is 10" tall as a directed spray.
Do not allow spray to contact more
than the lower 3" of corn plants. Add 1
qt. of surfactant X-77 for 100 gal. of
spray. Do not mix with liquid fertilizer.

Use as tank mix for improved control
of weeds, especially broadleaf
weeds. Apply after corn is 10" tall
as a directed spray. Add atrazine to
spray tank, then add paraquat and X-
77. Do not graze treated areas or
feed treated forage to livestock.


Weed Control In No-Till Corn

Production practices in no-till corn virtually eliminate effective cultivation, thus placing greater
importance on effective chemical weed control.

Chemical weed control in no-till corn is similar to conventionally planted corn with two basic
differences: (1) Existing vegetative growth must be killed or suppressed with an herbicide at or
before planting, and (2) herbicides requiring soil incorporation cannot be effectively used. All
other herbicides listed in this report for preemergence or postemergence application can be
used in no-till corn just as in conventional com.


Remarks









Table 1. WEED CONTROL IN CORN (Continued)


Trade Name and Common Name and
Broadcast Rate/Acre Broadcast Rate/Acre
of Commercial Product of Active Ingredient Remarks


Weed Control In No-Till Corn

Paraquat CL paraquat For control of most annual weeds
(1 2 qts.) (.5 1 lb.) and top-kill of perennials. Apply be-
fore, during, or after planting but
prior to emergence of corn for con-
trol of emerged vegetation. Good
coverage is essential for effective
control. Apply at 40 to 60 gallons per
acre. Add surfactant X-77 as recom-
mended on the label. Will not supply
residual control and should be used
in conjunction with residual herbi-
cides as previously discussed under
preemergence application. Choose
the residual herbicide or combina-
tion of herbicides based on the antic-
ipated weeds. Residual herbicides
may be applied as a separate appli-
cation or tank mixed. If tank mixed,
refer to the label for specific mixing
instructions.


Herbicide recommendations in this report are contingent upon their registration by the Envi-
ronmental Protection Agency. If a registration is cancelled, the herbicide would no longer be
recommended.


The use of product trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warranty of
the products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.








Table 2. Estimated Effectiveness of Recommended Herbicides
on Common Weeds in Florida Corn*

W 0-


SI SI IU iI I 3 | |

WEEDS c < m fa a. g a. a.

Bristly starbur P G G P P P E E E G G E G G-E

Fla. beggarwneed P E E F-G F-G P G G-E P G G E G G-E
Fla. pusley G-E E E G-E G-E G-E E G F-G G G E G G
Morning glories F-G G G P P P G E G E E G G G
Pigweed G-E E E E E G-E E E G E E E E G-E
Ragweed F E E F F P E E F-G E E E E G-E
Sicklepod F-G G F-G P P P E E P E E E G-E G-E


Crabgrass E G G-E E E E G E P P P E G-E E
Goosegrass E G G-E E E E G E P P P E G-E E
Johnsongrass E F F F F G-E G F-G P P P E G-E E
(from seed)
Sandbur E G G G G G-E G G-E P P P E G E
Texas panicum G-E P P P P G-E F-G F-G P PG P G-E F-G E
Texas panicum G-E P P P P G-E F-G F-G P IP P G-E IF-G IE





on ommon ee sin or a orn (Continued)


Sedge
Purple nutsedge
Yellow nutsedge


*Estimated effectiveness based on rates recommended in this report. Effectiveness may vary depending on factors such as
herbicide rate, size of weeds, time of application, soil and weather.


Weed Control Symbols
E = 90 100% control
G = 80 90% control
F = 60 80% control
P = less than 60% control


Time of Application Symbols
PPI = preplant incorporated
Pre = preemergence
Post = postemergence broadcast
DP = directed postemergence


- -Q 3 0 r a 0
o. 0. IL a 0 0. e: Cn C. 0
-- L c 0 0 x
00
G- ,P P P! P- P P

G-E P P P P-F P P F P G G G
+- P P PT P-F PF
cc U) >!
:3 M M M d- >

G P P P P-F P P P P F P G G G
G P P P P-F P P P G- F P G G GI








Section III

Weed Control in Soybeans -1979
Successful weed control is one of the most important practices for eco-
nomical soybean production in Florida. Losses due to weeds have been
one of the major limiting factors in soybean production in Florida.
Weeds compete with soybeans for light, moisture, and nutrients. Early-
season competition is the most critical. Most of the yield reduction due
to weed competition occurs during the first six weeks after planting;
therefore major emphasis on control should be given during this period.
However, producing a good crop of soybeans is only half the battle and
will not be profitable unless the soybeans can be harvested. Late season
weeds can result in inefficient equipment operation and excessive har-
vest losses. Weeds can be controlled in soybeans; however, this requires
good management practices in all phases of soybean production. Good
soybean weed control involves utilizing all methods available and com-
bining them in an integrated weed management system.
Crop rotations may be beneficial since many of the most trouble-
some weeds in soybeans sicklepodd, morning glories, cocklebur, and
Florida beggarweed) can be more easily controlled in crops such as corn
or sorghum. If the full benefit of the rotation is to be achieved, weeds
must be controlled throughout the growing season of the rotational
crop. The major goal of the rotational crop for weed control is to reduce
the number of weed seed available for germination.
Seed produced late in the season of the corn or sorghum will be availa-
ble to germinate and compete with the succeeding soybean crop. Other
benefits of crop rotation may include reduction in insects, diseases, and
nematodes.
Crop competition is one of the most important, but often one of the
most overlooked tools in weed control. A good stand of soybeans, which
emerges rapidly and shades the middles early, is very helpful in reduc-
ing weed competition. This involves good management practices such
as: choosing a well adapted variety, maintaining good fertility, main-
taining proper soil pH, planting for adequate plant populations, and
using row spacings as narrow as is practical. Utilizing these good man-
agement practices is necessary for producing good soybean yields and is
also an aid in weed control. The plant that emerges first and grows most
rapidly is usually the plant that will have the competitive advantage;
therefore, everything possible should be done to ensure that the soy-
beans, and not the weeds, have this competitive advantage.
Know your weeds and choose a herbicide that is effective for your
specific weed problem. Generally, for preplant and preemergence appli-
cations, the weed problems must be anticipated since weeds may not
have emerged at the time of application. This can best be done by ob-









serving the field in the fall and recording the weeds present and their
location in the field. These "weed maps" can be very useful the next
spring in refreshing your memory and making decisions on what herbi-
cide to purchase. Once your weed problems have been determined, Ta-
ble 2 of this section can be helpful in determining which herbicide is
most effective for those weeds.
Herbicides are one of the most effective tools for weed control in
soybeans. Preplant or preemergence applications combined with the
previously discussed management practices are important in ensuring
that the soybeans have the initial competitive advantage. One of the
problems often encountered during this period is lack of rain to activate
surface herbicides. Surface applied herbicides require rainfall or irriga-
tion to be effective and for best results, moisture is needed within a week
after application. Lack of moisture during this period often results in
poor weed control. Incorporated herbicides are not dependent on rainfall
or irrigation and have generally given more consistent weed control;
however, they do require additional time and equipment for incorpora-
tion. Surface applied herbicides can give excellent control and offer the
greatest ease of application but also carry the risk of failure if moisture
is not received.
If good initial weed control is received with either a preplant or pre-
emergence application and the soybeans are taller than the weeds, then
other control measures are available to extend the control throughout
the season. Post-directed sprays have been one of the keys to full season
weed control; however, for this to be effective, the soybeans must be
taller than the weeds. Late-season, over-the-top applications can be
used to aid in harvest efficiency, although in most cases this will not be
needed if good control can be achieved with preplant or preemergence
and a directed application.
Cultivation is still a good and economical method of weed control;
however, for cultivation to be effective in controlling weeds in the row,
the soybeans must be taller than the weeds. The major reason for culti-
vation is weed control. Therefore, if good weed control has been
achieved with a herbicide, delay cultivation until weeds are present.
Cultivate only deep enough to achieve weed control, since deep cultiva-
tion may disturb soybean roots, bring weed seed to the surface, and
disturb the layer of soil previously treated with a herbicide.
Calibrate accurately since rates too high may injure the crop and
rates too low may not provide weed control. The herbicides listed in
Table 1 are those that have performed well in IFAS research at the rates
and time of application suggested. Herbicides, like any other pesticide,
should be handled with care. Store herbicides behind locked doors, in
the original containers, with the label intact, and separate from seed,
fertilizer, and other pesticides.










Table 1. WEED CONTROL IN SOYBEANS


Trade Name and
Broadcast Rate/Acre
of Commercial Product


Common Name and
Broadcast Rate/Acre
of Active Ingredient


PREPLANT
Treflan
(1.0- 1.5 pts.)
Cobex
(1.3- 2.0 pts.)
Prowl
(1.0- 1.5 pts.)
Tolban
(1.0- 1.5 pts.)
Basalin
(1.0 1.5 pts.)
Treflan
(1 pt.)
or
Cobex
(1.3 pts.)
or
Tolban
(1 pt.)
or
Prowl
(1 pt.)
+
Sencor or Lexone 50 WP
(0.5- 0.75 Ibs.)
or
Sencor or Lexone 4L
(0.5- 0.75 pt.)
Vemam
(2.3 pts.)


trifluralin
(0.5 0.75 Ibs.)
Dinitramine
(0.33- 0.5 Ibs.)
Pendimethalin
(0.5- 0.75 Ibs.)
profluralin
(0.5 0.75 Ibs.)
fluchloralin
(0.5 0.75 Ibs.)
trifluralin
(0.5 Ib.)
or
dinitramine
(0.33 Ibs.)
or
profluralin
(0.5 Ib.)
or
pendimethalin
(0.5 lb.)
+
metribuzin
(0.25 0.38 Ibs.)


vemolate
(2.0 Ibs.)


Good control of annual grasses and
certain broadleaf weeds. Poor con-
trol of cocklebur, sicklepod (coffee-
weed), morning glory, and ragweed.
Incorporate thoroughly according to
the label directions. The risk of injury
has been greater with dinitramine
than the other herbicides listed;
therefore, do not incorporate dini-
tramine deeper than 2 inches. The
spectrum of weeds controlled is sim-
ilar for each of these herbicides.

Good to excellent control of both
broadleaf and grass weeds, espe-
cially coffeeweed. Refer to the Sen-
cor or lexone label for soil texture
and organic matter restrictions. The
tank-mix combinations may be less
phytotoxic to soybeans than metri-
buzin alone applied preemergence,
depending on rainfall. See footnote.1


Annual grasses, nutsedge, some
broadleaf weeds are controlled.
Poor control of beggarweed, cockle-
bur, and ragweed. Incorporate Im-
mediately after application to a
depth of 3". Some early stunting of
soybeans may occur. Use in prob-
lem nutsedge fields.


'Metribuzin is not recommended for use on Tracy, Semmes, Altona, Vansoy, or Coker 102
soybeans. Crop injury may occur when metribuzin is used in conjunction with soil-applied
organic phosphate pesticides.


Remarks










Table 1. WEED CONTROL IN SOYBEANS (Continued)


Trade Name and
Broadcast Rate/Acre
of Commercial Product


Common Name and
Broadcast Rate/Acre
of Active Ingredient


PREEMERGENCE
Lasso
(2.0- 2.5 qts.)







Dual 6E
(2.6 pts.)
Lasso
(2 qts.)
+
Premerge 3
(4 qts.)




Lasso
(2 qts.)
+
Dyanap or
Klean-Krop
(4.0 6.0 qts.)



Surflan 75W
(1.0- 1.25 Ibs.)
or
Surflan 4AS
(1.5 2.0 pts.)
Sencor or Lexone 50 WP
(0.75 Ibs.)
or
Sencor or Lexone 4L
(0.75 pt.)


alachlor Controls annual grasses and certain
(2.0- 2.5 Ibs.) broadleaf weeds. Poor control of
cocklebur, coffeeweed, morning-
glory, and Texas panicum. Apply
band or broadcast soon after plant-
ing. Use lower rates on sandy soils.
Best results when rainfall is received
within 4 6 days after application.


metolachlor
(2 Ibs.)
alachlor
(2 Ibs.)
+
dinoseb
(3 Ibs.)




alachlor
(2 Ibs.)
+
dinoseb
(1.0- 1.5 Ibs.)
+.
naptalam
(2.0- 3.0 Ibs.)

oryzalin
(0.75- 1.0 Ibs.)




metribuzin
(0.38 Ibs.)


Similar to alachlor above.

Provides good control of annual
grasses and many broadleaf weeds
including crabgrass, pigweed, Fla.
pusley and Fla. beggarweed. Some
suppression of cocklebur and morn-
ing glory. Best results when rainfall
occurs within 4 6 days after appli-
cation.

Controls most annual grasses and
seedling broadleaf weeds, with sup-
pression or control of Fla. beggar-
weed, morning-glory, and cockle-
bur. Use the low rate of dinoseb +
naptalam on light sandy soils. Best
results when rainfall occurs within 4 -
6 days after application.
Annual grasses and certain broad-
leaf weeds are controlled. If 0.5" of
rain does not occur within 7 days, in-
corporate into top 1 inch of soil with a
rotary hoe or rolling cultivator.
Good control of many broadleaf
weeds, especially coffeeweed. The
range of crop tolerance is narrow,
therefore accurate application is crit-
ical. Refer to the Sencor or Lexone
label for soil texture and organic
matter restrictions. See Footnote.1


Remarks










Table 1. WEED CONTROL IN SOYBEANS


Trade Name and
Broadcast Rate/Acre
of Commercial Product


Common Name and
Broadcast Rate/Acre
of Active Ingredient


Sencor or Lexone 50WP
(0.75 Ibs.)
or
Sencor or Lexone 4L
(0.75 pt.)
+
Surflan 75W or 4AS
(1.0 lb. or 1.5 pt.)
or
Lasso
(2 qts.)


EARLY
POSTEMERGENCE
Lasso
(2 qts.)
+
Premerge 3
(2qts.)


Tenoran or Norex
(2.0 3.0 lbs.)







Basagran
(0.75 1.5 qts.)


metribuzin
(0.38 lb.)



+
oryzalin
(0.75 Ib.)
or
alachlor
(2.0 Ibs.)


alachlor
(2.0 Ibs.)
+
dinoseb
(1.5 Ibs.)


Good broad spectrum weed control.
See comments for each herbicide
above. Refer to the Sencor of Lex-
one label for soil texture and organic
matter restrictions. (See Footnote


Good broad spectrum control of
most seedling broadleaf weeds and
grasses plus preemergence control
of those weeds listed on the product
labels. Apply when the weeds are up
and soybeans are in the cotyledon
stage but before the first leaves
open exposing the buds. Timing of
application is critical. Do not spray if
soil surface is very wet or air temper-
ature is expected to exceed 950 F
within 24 hours after application.


chloroxuron Controls seedling cocklebur, morn-
(1.0 1.5 Ibs.) ing glory, coffeeweed, etc., up to 2"
tall. Apply over the top, or as a semi-
directed spray after soybeans have
formed the first trifoliate leaves. A
surfactant must be used at these
rates. Temporary soybean foliage
burn will occur.

bentazon Good to excellent control of certain
(0.75 1.5 Ibs.) weeds in the 2 6 leaf stage as cock-
lebur, ragweed, morning glory, and
yellow nutsedge. Use low rate on
small weeds. Two applications at
the low rate may be needed for
nutsedge control. Early treatment
and good spray coverage are
needed for best results. Soybeans
have excellent tolerance.


Remarks









Table 1. WEED CONTROL IN SOYBEANS (Continued)


Trade Name and
Broadcast Rate/Acre
of Commercial Product


Common Name and
Broadcast Rate/Acre
of Active Ingredient


Premerge 3 or
Salvage Dinitro
(1- 2 qts.)














Dyanap or
Klean Krop
(2.0 4.0 qts.)


DIRECTED
POSTEMERGENCE
Lorox 50WP
(2.0 Ibs.)









Butyrac 200
(1 pt.)
or
Butoxone
(1.2 pts.)


dinoseb
(.75-1.5 lb.)















dinoseb
(0.5 -1.0 lb.)
+
naptalam
(1.0-2.0 Ibs.









linuron
(1.0 lb.)









2,4-DB
(0.25 lb.)


Primarily for control of emerged
cocklebur. Apply when soybeans
have emerged and are still in the cot-
yledon stage and before first true
leaves have opened, or use lower
rate after true leaves of soybeans
have expanded and prior to bloom.
The late application is a salvage pro-
gram for cocklebur and morning-
glory which are as tall as the soy-
beans and some soybean injury
may occur. DO NOT use a surfac-
tant. Do not apply if soil or soybean
foliage is wet or temperature is
above 950 F.

Primarily for control of emerged
cocklebur. Do not apply before soy-
beans have formed second trifoliate
or after soybeans begin to bloom.
DO NOT add a surfactant. Use
lower rate for weeds less than 3
inches tall and high rate for weeds 3
- 6 inches tall.






Controls seedling grasses, beggar-
weed, cocklebur, coffeeweed, pig-
weed, etc. Apply as a directed spray
when soybeans are at least 8" tall
and weeds do not exceed 2 4" in
height. Do not spray higher than 3"
on the soybean stem. Sprayed
leaves will die. Add one pint of sur-
factant WK for each 25 gallons of
spray mixture.
Use for cocklebur and moving glory
control. Apply as directed spray
when soybeans are 8 12 inches
tall. Spray should not contact more
than the lower 1/3 of soybean plant.


Remarks









Table 1. WEED CONTROL IN SOYBEANS


Trade Name and
Broadcast Rate/Acre
of Commercial Product

Lorox 50WP
(1.0 lb.)
+
Butyrac 200
(1 pt.)


Ortho Paraquat
(0.5 pt.)









Sencor 50WP
(.5- 1.0 lb.)










Premerge 3
(2 qts.)


BROADCAST
LATE
POSTEMERGENCE
Butyrac 200
(1 pt.)
or
Butoxone
(1.2 pts.)


Common Name and
Broadcast Rate/Acre
of Active Ingredient

linuron
(0.5 lb.)
+
2,4-DB
(0.25 Ib.)


paraquat
(0.125 Ib.)









metribuzin
(.25- .50 Ib.)










dinoseb
(1.5 lb.)


2, 4-DB
(0.25 lb.)


Remarks

The combination provides superior
control than either herbicide applied
alone. See remarks for each above.
Apply with a minimum of 25 gpa of
water on broadcast basis at 20 25
psi to avoid spray drifts. Add a sur-
factant.
Provides good contact control of
weeds 2 4 inches tall. Soybeans
must be at least 14 inches tall. Apply
as a directed spray to lower three
inches of the soybean plant. Use low
pressure and avoid spray drift. DO
NOT apply over the top as soybean
kill will result. Use surfactant X-77
and repeat treatment in 7 14 days if
necessary.
Apply as a directed spray after soy-
beans are 8" tall and weeds are less
than 3" tall. Spray should not contact
more than the lower one-third of the
soybean plant. The rate depends on
the weed species present; there-
fore, refer to the label. The addition
of a surfactant will improve control.
Refer to footnote1 for restriction on
soybean varieties.


Apply as a directed spray after soy-
beans are 6 to 8 inches tall and
weeds are no more than 2 to 3
inches tall. Spray should not contact
more than the lower one-half of the
soybean plant since sprayed leaves
will be injured. The addition of a sur-
factant will improve control of most
weeds, especially seedling grasses.


May be applied as an overall spray 7
- 10 days before bloom to mid-bloom
for severe cocklebur infestations.
Temporary injury may occur. The
late season spray is SALVAGE
TREATMENT for use if cocklebur
forms a canopy over the crop.









Table 1. WEED CONTROL IN SOYBEANS (Continued)
Trade Name and Common Name and
Broadcast Rate/Acre Broadcast Rate/Acre
of Commercial Product of Active Ingredient Remarks
Ortho Paraquat paraquat Apply when half of the soybean
(0.5 -1.0 pt.) (0.125 0.25 Ib.) leaves have dropped and the re-
maining half are yellow. Earlier ap-
plications will reduce yields. Harvest
can begin 6 10 days after applica-
tion. Weeds such as Hairy indigo will
not be dessicated by this treatment.
This is a harvest aid treatment. Use
surfactant X-77.
Weed Control in No-Till Soybeans
Production practices in no-till soybeans virtually eliminate effective cultivation, thus placing
greater importance on effective chemical weed control.
Chemical weed control in no-till soybeans is similar to conventional planted soybeans with
two basic differences:
(1) Existing vegetative growth must be killed or suppressed with a herbicide at or before plant-
ing.
(2) Herbicides requiring soil incorporation cannot be effectively used. All other herbicides listed
in this report for preemergence or postemergence application can be used in no-till soy-
beans just as in conventional soybeans.
Paraquat paraquat For control of most annual weeds
(1 2 pts.) (.5 1 lb.) and top-kill of perennials. Apply be-
fore, during, or after planting but
prior to emergence of soybeans for
control of emerged vegetation.
Good coverage is essential for ef-
fective control. Apply at 40 to 60 gal-
lons per acre. Add surfactant X-77
as recommended on the label. Will
not supply residual control and
should be used in conjunction with a
residual herbicide program as previ-
ously discussed under preemer-
gence application. Choose the re-
sidual herbicide or combinations of
herbicides based on the anticipated
weeds. Residual herbicides may be
applied as a separate application or
tank-mixed. If tank-mixed, refer to
the label for specific mixing instruc-
tions.
Herbicide recommendations in this report are contingent upon their registration by the Envi-
ronmental Protection Agency. If a registration is cancelled, the herbicide would no longer be
recommended.

The use of product trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warranty of
the products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.











Table 2. Estimated Effectiveness of Recommended Herbicides
on Common Weeds in Florida Soybeans*

Herbicides


0
r_ c
I .

8a1
I


E
m
S?


Cu
ci


x
2
0
-J


a
0)


Iz


0.
0L


0c
0
-J


x
00
I-z
e,!


0)


mO'm
M CO


Time of Application PPI PPI PRE PRE PRE PRE PST PRE, PRE, PDS PST PDS,
PST PST PST
WEEDS
BROADLEAF
Bristly starbur P P P G P P E F F F G F
Crotalaria P P P P P F P F-G F-G F G P
Cocklebur P P-F P F-G P P-F E F-G F-G E G-E E
Florida beaarweed P P P G G G P G G E F-G P
Florida pusley E G G F-G G-E G F-G F-G F-G G G F
Morningglory P G P F P P-F G F-G F-G G G G
Pigweed E G G G E G-E G G G E G-E G
Ragweed P P P G F G F-G G G E G G
Sicklepod (coffeeweed) P F P G P P-F P F-G F-G G F-G F
Smartweed P P P P P G G G G F






1 7 7 rI r -r1----r-. ,


cI




a.
C [


Cn
uc


o O
e3


g

00
c- .E

ha)
2Ja
a)0


0.
21


(o

a)


0)

2x
M (a


Time of Application PPI PPI PRE PRE PRE PRE PST PRE, PRE, PDS PST PDS,
PST PST PST
GRASS
Barnyardgrass E G G G E G P G G E G P
Crabgrass E E G G E G P G G E G-E P
Fall panicum G-E E G F G G P F F E P P
Goosegrass E E G G E G P G G E F-G P
Johnsongrass
(seedlings) E G G F F F P F F E P P
Sandbur E G G F G F P F-G F-G E F P
Signalgrass E F G F G G P F F G F P
Texas panicum E P G P-F P P P P-F P-F G F P
SEDGES
Purple nutsedge P E P P P-F P P-F P P G P P
Yellow nutsedge P E P P P-F P G-E P P G P P
*Estimated effectiveness based on herbicide rates recommended in this report. Effectiveness may vary depending on factors such as herbicide rate, size of
weeds, time of application, soil and weather.


WEED CONTROL SYMBOLS

E = 90 to 100% control
G = 80 to 90% control


F = 60 to 80% control
P = less than 60% control


TIME OF APPLICATION SYMBOLS

PPI= preplant incorporated
PDS = postemergence directed


PRE = preemergence
PST = postemergence over the top







I ,:~.r ~


This publication was printed at a cost of $746.55, or 30 cents per
copy, to inform Florida farmers about no-tillage crop systems.
6-2.5M-80



COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLOR-
IDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES,
K. R. Tefertiller, director, in cooperation with the United States
Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the
purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and Is
authorized to provide research, educational Information and other
services only to individuals and Institutions that function without regard to race, color,
sex or national origin. Single copies of Extension publications (excluding 4-H and Youth
publications) are available free to Florida residents from County Extension Offices.
Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers Is available from C. M.
Hlnton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida,
Galnesvllle, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this publication, editors should contact
this address to determine availability.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs