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 Title Page
 Production requirements
 Areas of increasing agronomic production...
 Past multiple cropping minimum...
 Present multiple cropping and/or...
 Projection
 Literature cited
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Group Title: Florida Cooperative Extension Service circular 479
Title: Potential and projection for increasing agronomic production with multiple cropping andor minimum tillage systems in Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00049267/00001
 Material Information
Title: Potential and projection for increasing agronomic production with multiple cropping andor minimum tillage systems in Florida
Series Title: Circular Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Physical Description: 11 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Gallaher, Raymond N
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1980?
 Subjects
Subject: Cropping systems -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Tillage -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 9-11.
Statement of Responsibility: Raymond N. Gallaher.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00049267
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 08852879

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Production requirements
        Page 3
    Areas of increasing agronomic production from multiple cropping
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Past multiple cropping minimum tillage research in Florida
        Page 7
    Present multiple cropping and/or minimum tillage research underway in Florida
        Page 8
    Projection
        Page 9
    Literature cited
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Back Cover
        Page 12
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






ULTICROPPING
NIMUM
VILLAGE


Circular 479


J .


Potential and Projection

for Increasing Agronomic Production

with Multiple Cropping and/or Minimum Tillage

Systems in Florida

Raymond N. Gallaher

Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville
John T. Woeste, Dean for Extension


-a!








Potential and Projection
for Increasing Agronomic Production
with Multiple Cropping and/or Minimum Tillage
Systems
in Florida

By

Raymond N. Gallaher
Associate Professor of Agronomy, Coordinator of Multicropping

Production Requirements

Animal Production
To put it mildly, Florida and the rest of the southeast are huge
importers of feed grains, protein supplements and meat products and
exporters of feeder cattle. Recent trends indicate that our export market
for our feeder calves is dwindling because of a shortage of low priced feed
grains that were previously available to midwestern feedlots. Consider-
ing these factors as well as continual yearly increases in Florida's
human population, it behooves us to utilize our resources to increase
agronomic yields and production in Florida.
Florida and the rest of the southeast will remain a grain deficit
region indefinitely if we maintain our present livestock and poultry pro-
grams (9). At present, millions of bushels of feed grains and soybeans
(2,9) are shipped into the southeast annually for use in the poultry and
livestock industries and these industries continue to grow faster than
domestic grain production is increasing.
The livestock and poultry industry is expected to increase substan-
tially in Florida by 1985 (16). Beef production is expected to increase
from 595 million pounds of beef in 1973 to 935 million pounds in 1985, a
57% increase. In 1973 we had 203,000 milk cows and the number is
expected to increase 11% by 1985, with a 27% increase in milk produc-
tion per cow. Swine production will remain around 400,000 head with
no increases expected over the next 10 years, unless a source of cheap
grain is found. Poultry production is expected to increase from the
present 56.8 million birds annually to 100 million by 1985 depending on
supplies of local and imported feed grains. At the same time that these
huge increases in livestock and poultry production are expected, thou-
sands of acres will be lost from native range lands. These and other







expected increases in farm animals and their products over the next
decade will require innovative agronomic research, coupled with.coop-
eration from other disciplines, to provide the necessary forages, grain,
and soybeans.
Agronomic Production
Florida's acreage of feed grains is expected to increase by 8%
(377,000 to 400,000 acres), 48% (54,000 to 80,000 acres) and 200%
(20,000 to 60,000 acres) for corn grain, small grain used for grain, and
grain sorghum, respectively, by 1985 (16). It has been estimated that
soybean use in 1985 will be two-thirds greater than in 1974 (10). Soy-
bean acreage in Florida is expected to increase from 276,000 acres in
1974 to 500,000 acres in 1985 (81% increase) (16). These modest pro-
jected increases in grain and soybean production will not nearly meet
the already present feed deficit, much less the expected future animal
production growth.
Temporary pastures were grown on 668,000 acres in 1973 and are
expected to increase to 955,000 acres (43% increase) in 1985 (16). Ap-
proximately 470,000 acres (655,000 acres in 1985) of the 1973 acreage
was planted in winter annual grasses, part of which was ryegrass over-
seeded on perennial grass pasture or in mixtures with small grains. Rye
is used widely in north Florida for winter grazing. In 1973 we had a total
of about 220,000 acres of summer annual pastures with about 50% of
this established in millet or sorghum x sudangrass. Summer annual
pastures are expected to be 280,000 acres (27% increase over 1973) by
1985. An additional 23,000 acres were planted to corn or sorghum for
silage in 1973 with 42,000 acres expected in 1985, an 83% increase. Hay
acreage will also increase from 188,000 acres in 1973 to 226,000 acres in
1985, an increase of 20%. These increased acreages of forages will come
about by decreases in native range and the continued use of multiple
cropping of the summer annual temporary pastures with other types of
production.

Areas of Increasing Agronomic Production

From Multiple Cropping
Much of our added grain, soybean and forage production in the past
was from increased acreages. With more acreage needed for most all
crops, we need to find other methods of increasing yields to help supply
our present and future feed requirements. A second way to increase
yields is by implementing better plant selection, breeding and manage-
ment of the traditional one crop per year type farming. This has more
potential for increasing yield than the first, but is a slow process requir-
ing a constant output of new research discoveries by scientists of








numerous disciplines, followed by the hard task of educating the
producers.A third alternative is to increase production per unit of
land by multiple cropping. Development of profitable crop sequences
for multiple cropping will also require integrated research by scientists
of several disciplines to work out management problems followed by
educational programs for producers.
Multiple cropping appears to be the best answer for making large
gains in agronomic production requirements in the shortest period of
time. Increasing production by multiple cropping can come about
through selection of crop combinations for year-round farming. Al-
though multiple cropping was practiced before the birth of Christ and
has been used extensively for centuries in underdeveloped countries,
multiple cropping has not been practiced extensively in the United
States until recent years. Double cropping of small grains and grain
sorghum have been practiced for 30 to 40 years in the southeastern
United States with conventional tillage (3). However, new untested or
limited tested multiple cropping and minimum tillage systems need
study. Minimum tillage has shown great potential, but soil moisture,
fertility, weed, insect, disease, nematode, equipment, and planting
problems must be solved in Florida and much of the southeast. The use
of green manure crops or small grain residues, pesticides, timely fertil-
izer applications and minimum tillage may solve some of the problems
associated with the production of agronomic crops. In many areas of
Florida, an ample supply of water is available for irrigation to ensure
successful year-round cropping systems. Multiple cropping experi-
ments are needed to develop profitable and productive crop combina-
tions and their management to obtain maximum yields per acre per
year.

Agronomic Crops Following Vegetables
Considering the mild climate of Florida and the wide range of
agronomic and horticultural crops produced, the potential for land use
efficiency should approximate 100% by selecting crops and manage-
ment for year-round farming. Because most agronomic crops mature
in 80 to 180 days, ample time is left for growing succeeding vegetable
or agronomic crops in multiple cropping combinations. Also consider-
ing that most vegetable crops mature in 60 to 90 days, the land is used
at 30 to 50% of its potential by those farmers who grow only one vege-
table crop a year such as watermelons, cabbage, tomatoes, potatoes
and etc.
An inconclusive look at the potential for double cropping of vege-
tables followed by agronomic crops indicate there are at least 100,000
acres available in Florida. This is in addition to the over 200,000 acres
of vegetable crops that ard already multiple cropped with vegetables







and agronomic crops. Over 25,000 acres are potentially available for
growing grain sorghum following Irish potatoes, over 15,000 acres for
corn following cabbage, over 25,000 acres for corn following tomatoes,
over 10,000 acres for soybeans following sweet corn, over 10,000 acres
for corn, grain sorghum, or soybeans following green peppers and over
15,000 acres for grain sorghum, soybeans or clover crops, following
watermelons, and/or other vegetables. These horticultural crops re-
ceive large applications of nutrient elements making P and K fertil-
izer applications nonessential in many cases for succeeding agronomic
crops. In some systems less than normal applications of N will be
needed for the agronomic crops. Growing agronomic crops following
vegetables in double cropping systems could utilize the residual fertil-
ity that might be lost to leaching or weeds.

Agronomic Crops Following Corn
In recent years we are finding that with proper management
early planted, short season corn hybrids adapted to the southeast may
yield as much or more than traditional mid-or full-season hybrids. If
we continue a trend toward greater production of short-season corn
hybrids all of the more than 400,000 acres (480,000 acres in 1976) of
Florida's corn crop could potentially be harvested in July each year.
Early harvest will also depend largely upon the trend for harvesting
grain around 20 to 33% moisture and using artificial drying before
storage. Increases in the use of both short season hybrids and artificial
drying opens up a potential for the state's corn crop to be followed by
soybeans, grain sorghum or forage crops in multiple cropping systems.
Since these summer-planted crops would be planted at a non-
traditional time of year, much research will be required to develop or
screen for adapted varieties, determine the potential for minimum
tillage for combating unknown pressures and populations of weeds,
insects, diseases, and nematodes as well as other management prob-
lems including spacings, fertility, and irrigation.

Corn, Grain Sorghum, or Soybeans Following Small Grains
Florida is expected to be producing 80,000 acres or more of small
grains for grain by 1985. All of this acreage will likely be followed by
corn, grain sorghum, or soybeans. The use of minimum tillage will
make these systems more feasible, especially if corn is used to any
significant degree. Management research with these systems are
needed particularly in the north Florida areas. If high yielding and
disease resistant varieties of wheat, oats, and rye are developed then
small grain for grain double cropping system acreage would likely be
much greater than 80,000 acres by 1985.







Corn, Grain Sorghum, and Soybeans Following Temporary
Winter Pastures
As much as 400,000 to 600,000 acres of winter annual grasses of
ryegrass plus a small grain, or rye alone, for temporary winter pas-
tures will be available for multiple cropping with agronomic crops in
Florida. Much of this acreage is in rotation with peanuts and other
crops such as corn. If it is assumed that half of this acreage would be
available for corn, grain sorghum, or soybeans then a way for a tre-
mendous increase in yield could be through the practice of grazing the
pastures close followed by immediate and early no-tillage planting of
the summer crops. New in-row subsoil, no-tillage planters should
make these systems more easily adapted.

Corn, Soybeans, or Grain Sorghums Following Green Manure
Crops
Little up-to-date information is available on production of green
manure crops utilized for increasing yields of corn, grain sorghum, or
soybeans. It seems likely that with present trends of high priced N,
infertile soils, low water holding capacity soils, nematode infested
soils, etc. facing Florida farmers that they may return to planting
green manure crops prior to planting summer agronomic crops. Mini-
mum tillage, fertility, and pest management studies are needed to ex-
plore the potentials of increasing yields by utilizing green manure
crops.

Year-Round Forage Systems
More than 40,000 acres will be used to produce corn or sorghum
silage by 1985, a value that may be low if we are to furnish the needed
forage required by the growth in grass fed beef and dairy production.
This silage acreage plus the expected near 300,000 acres of temporary
summer forages, mostly including millet or sorghum x sudangrass,
show a huge acreage potential for planting succeeding late summer
and/or winter forage crops in various year-round forage multiple crop-
ping systems. Silage, green chop, haylage, and hay crops remove or
"mine" large quantities of nutrient elements from the soil. Florida
soils are among the most infertile in the United States and the devel-
opment of year-round forage systems will require exact knowledge of
element removals so that soil fertility will not become a limiting factor
in forage production and fertilizer requirements.

Past Multiple Cropping Minimum Tillage Research in Florida
Following a search of literature and personal contacts with the
University of Florida faculty the following information on multiple








cropping and minimum tillage research has been reported. Norden
and Marshall (15) and Dunavin (4) have reported success with produc-
ing two or three summer silage crops within the same season. Guilarte
et al. (6) reported other multiple cropping possibilities during the
warm season. Forsee and Hayslip (5) and Kretschmer and Hayslip (11,
12) reported research in cropping systems of corn following fall vegeta-
bles and Kretschmer et al. (13) extended this to corn and sorghum
production after fall vegetables. Whitty (22) also discusses the plant-
ing of soybeans after vegetables. Akhanda et al. (1) have published
information on the potential of late planted soybeans and their man-
agement which would be valuable information on planting and har-
vesting sequential crops of vegetables throughout much of the year in
north Florida.
Several reports have been published on minimum tillage of crops
in grass sod (14, 17, 18, 19, 20) or small grain residue (21). Some of the
no-tillage studies are out-of-date and none of these studies involved
the use of no-tillage subsoil planting.




Present Multiple Cropping and/or Minimum Tillage
Research Underway in Florida
Research faculty and graduate students of the University of
Florida's Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences (IFAS) are aggres-
sively conducting multiple cropping/minimum tillage research all over
the state of Florida. Significant research effort is under way at the Ona
Agriculture Research Center (ARC) with emphasis on agronomic suc-
cession cropping systems and sod seeding interplant systems. Vegeta-
ble and agronomic succession systems are being studied at the Sanford
ARC.
Multiple cropping systems involving agronomic crops and/or vege-
tables in monoculture, duoculture, and polyculture successions and in-
terplantings are being studied at Gainesville and Williston, Florida.
Polyculture succession systems are being investigated at the Hastings
ARC involving vegetable crops succeeded by agronomic crops. Signifi-
cant multiple cropping research is under way at the Live Oak ARC, the
Quincy AREC and Jay ARC.
Significant cooperative efforts are under way to determine the best
suited cropping system for Florida. Management variables of tillage,
weed control, other pest management, irrigation, fertility and cropping
successions are under investigation. Results of several aspects of this
research are being published for use by producers at present. A large
volume of information will be forthcoming.







Projection
In the next few years researchers should continue to explore all
avenues of management, plant breeding, and innovation for increasing
our use of year-round multiple cropping systems. The more biomass we
produce per year means the greater amounts of energy we harvest from
the sun. More emphasis should be initiated to encourage pest manage-
ment specialists and plant breeders to work with multiple cropping/
minimum tillage specialists in year-round multicropping systems. The
time is here and data is forthcoming for economic evaluations of the
most profitable multiple cropping systems. More research is needed to
evaluate and adapt those systems which are most energy efficient. Soil
fertility-plant nutrition and crop quality information, as these factors
relate to cropping and/or tillage systems, will also be ready for farmer
use in the near future.
Integrated efforts involving all concerned disciplines should be en-
couraged to study and solve problems associated with specific multiple
cropping systems that are unique to various geographic locations. Any
multiple cropping studies involving cropping systems, tillage, pesti-
cides, and irrigation will result in differential soil-plant ecology that
will or could influence populations of weeds, insects, diseases, nema-
todes, and crop varieties. Although interest exists, the future success or
failure of a cropping system may depend on our success in obtaining
greater numbers of interested specialists, including plant breeders and
those outside of agronomy, to collect needed data in cropping studies.
Projections were made which indicate that Florida would be pro-
ducing approximately 1,000,000 acres of corn grain, grain sorghum,
small grain for grain, and soybeans by 1985 (16). This could be over
1,500,000 acres if multiple cropping and/or minimum tillage systems
and management were developed and adapted by Florida producers.
Qualified scientists are ready for the challenge that lies ahead. Their
efforts to solve Florida's problems in multiple cropping/minimum till-
age farming will be governed in large part by the willingness of Federal
and State political bodies to provide adequate funding.



Literature Cited
1. Akhanda, A. M., G. M. Prine and K. Hinson. 1976 Influence of
genotype and row width on late-planted soybeans in Florida. Soil
and Crop Science Society of Florida. 35.
2. Anderson, O. E. 1975. Research the key to increased feed grain
production. (In) R. N. Gallaher and D. M. Baird Ed. Proc. Feeds and
Feeding Research Day, "Efficient Energy Use." 1:2-3.







Projection
In the next few years researchers should continue to explore all
avenues of management, plant breeding, and innovation for increasing
our use of year-round multiple cropping systems. The more biomass we
produce per year means the greater amounts of energy we harvest from
the sun. More emphasis should be initiated to encourage pest manage-
ment specialists and plant breeders to work with multiple cropping/
minimum tillage specialists in year-round multicropping systems. The
time is here and data is forthcoming for economic evaluations of the
most profitable multiple cropping systems. More research is needed to
evaluate and adapt those systems which are most energy efficient. Soil
fertility-plant nutrition and crop quality information, as these factors
relate to cropping and/or tillage systems, will also be ready for farmer
use in the near future.
Integrated efforts involving all concerned disciplines should be en-
couraged to study and solve problems associated with specific multiple
cropping systems that are unique to various geographic locations. Any
multiple cropping studies involving cropping systems, tillage, pesti-
cides, and irrigation will result in differential soil-plant ecology that
will or could influence populations of weeds, insects, diseases, nema-
todes, and crop varieties. Although interest exists, the future success or
failure of a cropping system may depend on our success in obtaining
greater numbers of interested specialists, including plant breeders and
those outside of agronomy, to collect needed data in cropping studies.
Projections were made which indicate that Florida would be pro-
ducing approximately 1,000,000 acres of corn grain, grain sorghum,
small grain for grain, and soybeans by 1985 (16). This could be over
1,500,000 acres if multiple cropping and/or minimum tillage systems
and management were developed and adapted by Florida producers.
Qualified scientists are ready for the challenge that lies ahead. Their
efforts to solve Florida's problems in multiple cropping/minimum till-
age farming will be governed in large part by the willingness of Federal
and State political bodies to provide adequate funding.



Literature Cited
1. Akhanda, A. M., G. M. Prine and K. Hinson. 1976 Influence of
genotype and row width on late-planted soybeans in Florida. Soil
and Crop Science Society of Florida. 35.
2. Anderson, O. E. 1975. Research the key to increased feed grain
production. (In) R. N. Gallaher and D. M. Baird Ed. Proc. Feeds and
Feeding Research Day, "Efficient Energy Use." 1:2-3.








3. Dalrymple, Dana G. 1971. Survey of multiple cropping in less de-
veloped nations. Washington, D. C. U. S. Dept. Agr. Econ. Res.
Serv. Foreign Agr. Econ. Rep. #91. P 106.
4. Dunavin, L. S. 1975. Sorghum alone vs corn and sorghum in dou-
ble-harvest programs for silage. 34:143-145.
5. Forsee, W. T. Jr., and N. C. Hayslip. 1953. Fertility requirements of
field corn grown on sandy soils following a fall crop of unstaked
tomatoes. 66:148-153.
6. Guilarte, T. C., R. E. Perez-Levy, and G. M. Prine. 1975. Some dou-
ble cropping possibilities under irrigation during the warm season
in North and West Florida. Soil and Crop Science Society ofFlorida.
34:138-143.
7. Halsey, L. H. and S. R. Kostewicz. 1975. Extending the production
season of vegetables in North Florida. Proceedings Florida State
Horticultural Society. 88:228-232.
8. Halsey, L. H. and S. R. Kostewicz. 1976. Seasonal response of vege-
table crops for selected cultivars in North Florida. I. Legumes. Veg-
etable Crops Research Report 1.
9. Jackson, J. E. 1975. Estimated feed-grain production in Georgia
and deficits for 1975. (In) R. N. Gallaher and D. M. Baird Ed. Proc.
Feeds and Feeding Research Day. "Efficient Energy Use." 1:37-38.
10. Jenkins, W. L. 1974. The soybean in our future. (In) Tennessee Val-
ley Authority Bulletin Y-69. Soybean Production, Marketing and
Use. National Fertilizer Development Center, Tennessee Valley
Authority, Muscle Shoals, Alabama 35660. pp. 4-6.
11. Kretschmer, Albert E., Jr. and N. C. Hayslip. 1957. Plant field corn
after vegetables. Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Sun-
shine St. Agr. Res. Rept. 2(1):11.
12. Kretschmer, Albert E., Jr. and N. C. Hayslip. 1959. Plant field corn
following vegetables. Florida Grower and Rancher. 67(2):15,44.
13. Kretschmer, Albert E., Jr. N. C. Hayslip, and W. T. Forsee, Jr.
1963. Spring field corn and sorghum production after fall vegeta-
bles. University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations,
Gainesville, Circular S-145.
14. Lundy, H. W., G. M. Prine, and W. K. Robertson. 1974. No-till
planting of sorghum in bahiagrass or rye grass sod. Soil and Crop
Science Society of Florida. 33:30-33.
15. Norden, A. J. and S. P. Marshall. 1965. Effect of three crops vs two
crops annually on forage production and soil nutrient level. Soil
Crop Science Society of Florida. 25:276-283.
16. Pierce, JoAnn Bell, Editor. 1975. Agricultural Growth in an Urban
Age. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of
Florida, Gainesville.








17. Prine, G. M. 1967. Maize culture in perennial grass sods controlled
by herbicides. Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida. 27:122-132.
18. Prine, G. M. and W. K. Robertson. 1968. Three methods of growing
corn and sorghum in pensacola bahiagrass sod. 28:193-203.
19. Robertson, W. K., G. M. Prine, R. W. Lipscomb, and H. W. Lundy.
1966. Minimum tillage for row crops. Proceedings Pan American
Soil Conservation Congress. Sao Paulo Brasil. pp. 449-457.
20. Robertson, W. K., R. W. Lipscomb, and W. G. Blue, 1964. Corn ex-
periments with the mulch planter. Soil and Crop Science of Florida.
24:237-243.
21. Robertson, W. K., H. W. Lundy, G. M. Prine, and W. L. Currey.
1976. Planting corn in sod and small grain residues with minimum
tillage. Agron. J. 68:271-274.
22. Whitty, E. B. 1974. Planting soybeans after vegetables. University
Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Florida Coop-
erative Extension Service. Agronomy Facts. Number 44.






















































This public document was printed at a cost of $292.50, or 11.7 cents
per copy, to help people increase production of agronomic crops
through the use of multiple cropping and minimum tillage, 4-2.5M-80


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLOR-
IDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES,
K. R. Tefertiller, director, in cooperation with the United States IA
Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the
purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and is
authorized to provide research, educational information and other
services only to Individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color,
sex or national origin. Single copies of Extension publications (excluding 4 -H and Youth
publications) are available free to Florida residents from County Extension Offices.
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