• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Summary
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 List of Figures
 Present cattle situation
 Structure of Florida’s feeding...
 Feedlot ownership and facility...
 Cattle and cattle ownership
 Marketing Florida’s fed cattle
 Feedstuffs use
 Personnel requirements
 Use of feedlot capacity
 Concluding remarks
 References
 Appendix I: Directory of Florida...
 Back Cover






Group Title: Florida Cooperative Extension Service circular 493
Title: Structural and operational characteristics of the Florida cattle feeding industry
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00049263/00001
 Material Information
Title: Structural and operational characteristics of the Florida cattle feeding industry
Series Title: Circular Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Alternate Title: Cattle feeding industry
Physical Description: viii, 52 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Simpson, James R
Baker, F. S ( Frank Sloan ), 1921-
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1981?
 Subjects
Subject: Cattle -- Marketing -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: James R. Simpson and F.S. Baker, Jr.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00049263
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 10736568

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Summary
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
    List of Figures
        Page viii
    Present cattle situation
        Page 1
    Structure of Florida’s feeding industry compared with other areas of the United States
        Page 2
    Feedlot ownership and facility characteristics
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Cattle and cattle ownership
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Marketing Florida’s fed cattle
        Page 7
    Feedstuffs use
        Page 8
    Personnel requirements
        Page 9
    Use of feedlot capacity
        Page 10
    Concluding remarks
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    References
        Page 52
    Appendix I: Directory of Florida cattle feeders, 1980
        Page 53
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







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STRUCTURAL AND OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FLORIDA

CATTLE FEEDING INDUSTRY





by




James R. Simpson and F. S. Baker, Jr.







Summary


An average of about a half million feeder calves (almost half the
annual calf crop) are shipped out of Florida each year from south and
east of the Suwannee River. In addition an unknown number, possibly as
many as 100 thousand, are trucked out from the area north and west of the
Suwannee. Calves account for about 85 to 90 percent of the outshipments,
while the other 10 to 15 percent are mainly yearling feeder cattle grown-
out on pasture in the northern and central part of the state. Most of
the calves go to major feeding areas in the southwestern and plains states
for growing and/or finishing in the feedlot. In 1978, for example, about
58 percent of the calves were trucked to the southern plains areas of
Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Kansas, and Colorado; and 17 percent went
to the California Arizona feeding area.

In late 1979 and early 1980, the.Florida cattle industry was
surveyed to determine the characteristics and practices of the active
feedlots in the state. Results of the survey may prove helpful in assist-
ing cattle feeders in assessing their individual operations. Also, in-
formation from the survey may be valuable in the expansion of Florida's
cattle feeding industry, and may identify problems that require further
research. The survey results accounted for 126,400 head out of an estimated
128,400 head marketed in 1979.

Fourteen feedlots throughout Florida were visited in making the 1979
survey. In summarizing the information obtained, the eight smaller lots
(less than 5,000 head capacity), the three medium size lots (5,000 to
9,999 head capacity), and the three larger lots (10,000 head or more
capacity) were grouped. Data in the tables are presented by size of lot
and also by overall lot size.

Florida's number of cattle on feed, as of January 1, has ranged from
a low of 55 thousand head in 1974 to a high of 81 thousand head in 1976.
There were about 5 to 10 thousand head more on feed in the late 1970s
than in the late 1960s. In 1979, an estimated 128,400 fed cattle were
marketed by Florida feedlots. This is only about one-fifth the average
number of feeder calves shipped out of the state each year.

Almost all cattle marketed out of Florida feedlots were sold direct
to Florida packers; however, 14 percent of the cattle finished in medium
size lots (5,000 9,999 head) were sold to Georgia (3 percent), Alabama
(5 percent), and packers in other states (6 percent).

Nearly half of the cattle finished in Florida feedlots were marketed
in the 900 to 1,100 pound weight range. A similar number of cattle were
finished at weights of 700 pounds and below. The smaller cattle included
"baby beef", mostly from the larger feedlots, and lightweight heifers
marketed around the 600 to 700 pound weight range.







About 38 percent of the cattle in Florida feedlots were fed to Choice
grade, 52 percent to the Good grade, and 10 percent to Standard. Many of
the carcasses produced were not Federally graded and were not actually
rolled with the USDA grade stamp.

Sixty one percent of the feedlot cattle marketed were sold on a
carcass weight and yield basis, while 39 percent were sold on liveweight.
Smaller lots (less than 5,000 head) sold most of their cattle on live-
weight, and the larger lots (more than 10,000 head) sold mostly on grade
and yield. The intermediate size lots marketed about an equal number by
each of the two methods.

Corn grain was shown to be the principal ingredient of Florida feed-
lot rations, making up 51 percent of the total on an "as-fed" basis, and
65 percent on a dry matter (moisture-free) basis. Adding the grain con-
tained in silage and earlage increased the quantity of grain used to 73
percent of the total feed dry matter used by all lots surveyed. Corn
silage supplied almost a third of the total feed dry matter used by the
smaller lots, a seventh of the dry matter fed by the medium-size lots,
and only 3 percent of the total dry matter fed by lots with more than
10,000 head capacity. Although the survey results did not reveal exact
composition of rations, it is obvious from the quantities of feeds used
that larger feedlots fed higher levels of grain than the smaller lots.
It is interesting to note from quantities of grain and roughage fed in
Florida feedlots, especially the larger lots, that levels (percentages)
of grain and roughage were similar to those fed in commercial lots in
major cattle feeding areas in the southwestern states.

Only 5 percent of the corn fed by Florida feedlots was homegrown,
and the homegrown corn was produced only by the small and medium size lots.
About 26 percent of all corn was produced in Florida, 45 percent in Georgia,
and 29 percent in other states. Florida feeders report that 62 percent of
purchased corn was bought on the open market, while 38 percent was con-
tracted. Larger lots contracted slightly more of their purchased corn
than did the smaller and medium-size lots. The three larger lots used
almost 55 percent of the total corn purchased.

Most of the roughage used by Florida lots was homegrown. The smaller
category of lots (less than 5,000 head) accounted for 46 percent of all
roughage fed, while medium lots used 29 percent, and the larger lots fed
25 percent of the total.

Smaller lots (less than 5,000 head) employed 2.38 person equivalents
per 1,000 head of one-time capacity. The medium size lots and the larger
lots each employed 1.38 person equivalents per 1,000 head.

In 1979, and early 1980, when the lots were surveyed, the capacity
of the nine smaller lots was being used about half as much as that of the
three largest, and the capacity of the medium size lots was being used
only slightly more than that of the smaller ones.







Respiratory infections were stated to be the most serious health
problem by two large, one medium-size, and one smaller feedlot (results
not shown in tables). Heat stress was the only other health related
problem mentioned by the feeders. One other important concern expressed
was that of the problem of marketing Good grade cattle in Florida.

Brahman crosses and cattle with an undercurrent of Brahman were the
predominant breed types fed by all lot sizes.

The survey concentrated on feeding characteristics and marketing
methods. No attempt was made to cover other industry structure problems
such as pricing, regulations, buying practices or buyer concentration.
Furthermore, this study is aimed at providing statistics useful for de-
scribing the industry rather than carrying out an analysis of the industry
in the traditional industrial organizational framework which relates
structure to conduct and performance.








TABLE OF CONTENTS


SUMMARY . . . . .


TABLE OF CONTENTS . . . .


LIST OF TABLES . . . . .


LIST OF FIGURES . . . .


PRESENT CATTLE SITUATION . . .


STRUCTURE OF FLORIDA'S FEEDING INDUSTRY COMPARED
AREAS OF THE UNITED STATES . . .


FEEDLOT OWNERSHIP AND FACILITY CHARACTERISTICS. .


CATTLE AND CATTLE OWNERSHIP . . .


MARKETING FLORIDA'S FED CATTLE . . .


FEEDSTUFFS USE . . . .


PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS . . . .


USE OF FEEDLOT CAPACITY . . . .


CONCLUDING REMARKS . . . .


REFERENCES . . . . .


APPENDIX I DIRECTORY OF FLORIDA CATTLE FEEDERS, 1


Page

. .. i-iii


. iv


. v-vii


. viii


. 1


WITH


OTHER


2


3


5


7


8


9


. . 10
. . 3












. . 52
. . 52


. . 53


980


. .








LIST OF TABLES



Table Page

1 Total cattle population in Florida, January 1,
1979, including numbers of various classes . .. 11

2 Cattle and calves: Inventory numbers, calf crop and
disposition, Florida, 1967-1979 . . .. .12

3 Estimated number of feeder cattle in Florida,
July 1, 1979 . . . .... .. .. 13

4 Cattle marketed through auction markets compared
with total marketing, 1967-1979 . . .... 14

5 Cattle outshipments: number of head shipped out of
Florida by truck from areas east and south of the
Suwannee River, by classes, 1969-1978 . ... 15

6 Florida cattle outshipments, inshipments and net
outshipments, 1969-1979 . . . .... 17

7 Florida calf outshipments, inshipments and net
outshipments, 1969-1979 . . . . 18

8 Number of stocker-feeder cattle and calves shipped out
of Florida to other states, and numbers shipped into
Florida in 1978 . ...... ........ .19

9 Cattle and calves on feed, January 1, 1969-1979 .... .20

10 Number of Florida feedlots by size 1965-68, and 1979 21

11 Number of cattle marketed from Florida feedlots,
1965-68 and 1979 . . . . ... 22

12 Estimated number of cattle feedlots in Florida in
1979 compared with Nebraska, Texas and the 23
major cattle feeding states, 1978 . . .. 23

13 Estimated number of cattle marketed from Florida
feedlots in 1979 compared with Nebraska, Texas
and 23 major cattle feeding states, 1978 . ... 24

14 Year in which present type of Florida feeding
operations were established, by size of feedlot,
1979 . . . . . . 25

15 Principal businesses) of Florida feedlot owners,
by size of feedlot, 1979 . . . .. 26







LIST OF TABLES--continued


Table Page

16 Type of feeding facilities used by Florida feedlots
by size of feedlot, 1979. . . . 27

17 Primary source of financing for fixed investment in
Florida feedlots by size of feedlot, 1979 . .. 28

18 Ownership of cattle in Florida feedlots, by size of
operation, 1979 . . . .. 29

19 Kind of cattle placed on feed in Florida by size
of feedlot, 1979. . . . . 30

20 Florida originated cattle placed on feed by kind of
cattle and size of feedlot, 1979. . . .. 31

21 Number and percent of feeder cattle purchased by Florida
feedlots, by type of buyer and size of operation, 1979. 32

22 Origin of cattle placed in Florida feedlots by market
type, 1979 ... . . . . 33
23 Number and percent of feeder cattle contracted by
Florida feedlots by size of feedlot, 1979 . .. 34

24 Weight ranges of cattle placed in Florida feedlots, 1979. 35

25 Placements by sex and type of cattle in Florida feedlots
by size of lot, 1979 . . . . 36

26 Placements by month of cattle placed in Florida feedlots
by size of lot, 1979 . . . . 37

27 Length of cattle feeding period, Florida feedlots, by
size of lot, 1979 ... ...... ... ... .38

28 Deathloss of cattle placed in Florida feedlots, by size
of lot, 1979 . . . . .. 39

29 Geographic area of cattle marketed from Florida feedlots,
by size of lot, 1979. . . . .. 40

30 Weight ranges of cattle marketed from Florida feedlots,
by size of lot, 1979 . . .... ... 41

31 Estimated grades of steers, heifers and calves marketed
from Florida feedlots, by size of lot, 1979 . .. 42







LIST OF TABLES--continued


Table Pag

32 Type of selling arrangements for Florida feedlot
cattle, by size of lot, 1979 . . . .. 43

33 Source of price information most important in selling
cattle from Florida feedlots, by size of lot, 1979 .. 44

34 Feed ingredient used (as-fed basis) by Florida by
size of lot, 1979 . . . . . 45

35 Feed ingredient use (dry matter basis) by Florida
feedlots by size of lot, 1979 . . .. 46

36 Source of corn used by Florida feedlots by size of
lot, 1979 . . . . . . 47

37 Type of Florida feedlot corn purchase arrangements,
by size of lot, 1979 . . . . 48

38 Source of roughage fed in Florida feedlots, by size
of lot, 1979 . . . . 49

39 Use of hired labor in Florida feedlots by job
description and size of lot, 1979. . . . 50

40 Potential and actual use of Florida feedlot capacity
based on various turnaround ratios, by size of lot,
1979 . . . * * 51







LIST OF FIGURES


Page


Location of Florida feedlots, 1979. . . .


viii


Figure

1








STRUCTURAL AND OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FLORIDA


CATTLE FEEDING INDUSTRY


James R. Simpson and F. S. Baker, Jr. 1/


The Florida cattle feeding industry underwent significant changes
in the late 1960s and 1970s as large-scale feedlots were developed and
as small-scale feeders declined in importance. Describing this change,
which also took place in other parts of the United States, is one impetus
for this report. Another reason is that rapid increases in fuel prices
have led to speculation that Florida, a major calf producing state, will
increasingly be competitive in finishing cattle to slaughter weight.
Technological developments in Florida's feed grain production and rapid
population growth are other reasons that the feeding industry probably
will grow.

Present Cattle Situation


Florida ranks sixteenth in the United States in total number of
cattle and calves and ninth in number of beef cows. Also, beef cows and
replacement heifers make up almost 60 percent of the state's cattle pop-
ulation. Beef cattle contribute significantly to Florida's economy as
evidenced by a gross income of $366,225,000 from sale of 1,199,000 cattle
and calves in 1978 [2]. Total cattle population in Florida, on January
1, 1979 numbered 2.2 million head, of which about 1.1 million head were
beef females that had calves (Table 1). Inventory numbers for 1967-1979,
given in Table 2, show that the state's cattle numbers have grown signif-
icantly despite fluctuations due to the cattle cycle [4]. The estimated
number of feeder cattle in Florida on July 1, 1979 was 818,000 head of
which about 100,000 head were carried over from the 1978 calf crop, and
718,000 head were born in 1979 (Table 3).

The number of cattle marketed in Florida increased from about 860,000
head in 1967 to 1,514,000 in 1977 and 921,000 in 1979 (Table 4). Of these,
about three fourths were marketed through livestock auctions with the
remaining one fourth sold direct.

Florida livestock outshipments by truck from areas east and south of
the Suwannee River (most of Florida outshipments), by classes for 1969-1979
are given in Table 5. A summary of all cattle and calf outshipments, in-
shipments and net outshipments, presented in Table 6, shows that inship-
ments of cattle and calves are about one third to one half the number of



1/Associate Professor and Extension Livestock Marketing Economist,
Food and Resource Economics Department and; Professor of Animal Science,
Agricultural Research and Education Center, Quincy, Florida.








outshipments. Even though about a half to two thirds of a million cattle
and calves are shipped out annually, about a quarter of a million head are
shipped back into Florida each year; however, most of the outshipments
are feeder cattle, while two thirds of the inshipments are for Florida
slaughter.

Florida calf outshipments and inshipments for 1969-79 (as opposed
to all cattle and calves shown in Table 6) are given in Table 7. About
a half million calves are shipped out of the state each year with the
number varying from a low of 357 thousand head in 1974 to a high of 605
thousand head in 1972. Calf inshipments range from 3 to 7 percent of
outshipments. From Tables 6 and 7 it appears that calves account for
about 85-90 percent of all cattle shipped out. But, the number of
stocker-feeder cattle shipped out of state of the type which could go
into Florida feedlots is larger than the number of calves reported in
the time series data given in Table 7, as there are a significant number
of cattle shipped from the Florida panhandle. In 1978, for example, it
is estimated that outshipments of stocker-feeder cattle from all Florida
numbered about 707 thousand head, compared with inshipments of 35 thousand
head (Table 8). In effect, the total net number of stocker-feeder cattle
and calves shipped out was 672 thousand head.

About 75 percent of the calves shipped out of Florida in 1978 went
to cattle feeding areas in the southwestern and plains states, which
required trucking from 1,400 to 2,200 miles. Fifty eight percent of the
calves were trucked to the southern plains areas of Texas, Oklahoma,
New Mexico, Kansas and Colorado; and 17 percent went to the California-
Arizona feeding area [2]. Shipments to nearby states of Georgia, Alabama,
and Mississippi accounted for only 17 percent of the calves moved out of
Florida in 1978. Most of these were probably for backgrounding as prep-
aration for shipping to other feeding areas for feedlot finishing.

Florida's number of cattle on feed as of January 1 has ranged from
a low of about 55 thousand head in 1974, to a high of 81 thousand head
in 1976 (Table 9). There were about 5-10 thousand head more on feed in
the late 1970s than in the late 1960s. As of 1979, the 23 major cattle
feeding states had about 12.7 million head on feed while the total for
the 39 states for which cattle on feed numbers are reported was 13.3
million head. Florida with 65 thousand head on feed had about a half
of one percent of all cattle on feed in the United States.


Structure of Florida's Feeding Industry
Compared with other Areas of the United States


The number of cattle feedlots in Florida is given in Table 10.
About 460 lots with less than 1,000 head one-time capacity were reported
in 1965. That number had dropped by about 25 percent 4 years later
(in 1968) to 355 lots. Also, during that period, the number of lots with
1,000 head or more fell from 16 to 13.








A survey of Florida's feedlots was carried out at the end of 1979
and in early 1980. The results, given in this report, include one lot
with less than 1,000 head one-time capacity, seven from 1,000 to 4,999
head, three with 5,000 to 9,999 head one-time capacity and three with
10,000 head or more of capacity. It is estimated that all of the lots
with 1,000 head or more of capacity were included in the survey, and that
at most there were 20-30 active lots with less than 1,000 head capacity
in the whole state. However, despite consultation with feedlot owners,
packers and county extension directors, only two lots of less than 1,000
head capacity were identified when the list of lots was compiled. A
directory of feedlots operating in 1980 along with their addresses and
one-time capacity is given in Appendix 1. Location of the lots is shown
in Figure 1.

Florida marketing by size of lot, available from 1965-68, show
160,000 head in 1966 to 122,000 head in 1968 (Table 11). About 40 per-
cent of the total were from lots with less than 1,000 head capacity. By
1979, only 1,200 head were identified as originating from lots with less
than 1,000 head capacity, or about 1 percent of all cattle marketed. At
most, 2-3 percent of Florida's cattle were marketed from small lots in
1979.

The number of feedlots in Florida is compared with the number in
Nebraska, Texas and for the 23 major cattle feeding states in Table 12.
About 97 percent of Nebraska's lots had less than 1,000 head capacity,
and 86 percent of the Texas lots were in this category. About one fourth
of Florida's lots are of this size. About 3 percent of Florida's cattle
were marketed from lots with less than 1,000 head capacity, while 39
percent of Nebraska's marketing were from that category (Table 13).
About 79 percent of Florida's cattle were marketed from lots with 8,000
head and more one-time capacity compared with 31 percent in Nebraska,
92 percent in Texas and 52 percent for the 23 major cattle feeding states.
The conclusion drawn is that Florida's structure, in terms of feedlot
size composition and total marketing, has more similarity to the states
with predominantly commercial cattle feeding operations such as those
found on the High Plains and the Southwest, than those in the corn belt
states.


Feedlot Ownership and Facility Characteristics


The year in which the 14 Florida feedlots surveyed were established
is given in Table 14. The earliest 5,000 head lot was built in 1935
while the earliest medium size (5,000 to 9,999 head) lot was established
in 1970. The earliest large lot was formed in 1962.

The principal businesses) of Florida feedlot owners displays con-
siderable consistency, in percentage terms, across lot sizes. About
two thirds of all feeders had ranching activities (Table 15). In addi-
tion, two-thirds of the smaller and medium size lot owners were also
engaged in general farming although only one of the three large feedlot
operators was engaged in general farming. Two of the large feeders also
owned meat packing plants.







































Figure I. Location of Florida
Feedlots, 1979


I,


TO MONROE COUNTY
r/ .;^-^








Twelve of the 14 feedlots in the survey had fenceline feed bunks.
One had in-pen bunks while one other had an automated feed conveyer
(Table 16). In addition to fenceline bunks, two feedlots also had in-pen
feeders.

About 36 percent of the Florida cattle feedlots surveyed used com-
mercial banks and 21 percent PCA or Federal Land Banks to obtain their
fixed investment capital (Table 17). In contrast, about 71 percent used
their own financing. About half of the operations obtained their invest-
ment capital from more than one source.

Cattle and Cattle Ownership


Ownership of cattle is given in Table 18. Nearly two-thirds of all
cattle were owned by the feedlot, with that proportion highest in the
small lots (83 percent) and declining (to 57 percent) in the largest
size category. None of the cattle were owned by retailers. The only
cattle owned by packers were in large size lots and they only amounted
to 10 percent of the cattle on feed in this size category. The highest
proportion of ranch owned cattle were in the larger lots.

About 88 percent of all cattle placed on feed in Florida were
Brahman crosses (Table 19). British breeds and British crosses repre-
sent 5 percent of the placements as did Charolais and other continental
breeds. Dairy breeds and dairy crosses amounted to about 2 percent of
the total. Brahman crosses were about an equivalent percentage across
lot sizes as were Charolais and other continental breeds. Dairy breeds
and dairy crosses amount to about 2 percent of the total. The highest
percentage of British breed crosses, on the other hand, was found in
small lots, while nearly all the dairy breed placements were in large
lots.

Virtually all the Brahman cross cattle (95 percent), most of the
Charolais and other continental breeds (90 percent) and dairy breeds
and crosses (92 percent) placed in Florida feedlots originated in the
state (Table 20). However, only about two-thirds of the British breeds
and British crosses came from Florida. Of the British and British cross
feeder cattle originating in the state, 62 percent were fed in large lots,
compared with 66 percent of the Brahman crosses, 97 percent of the dairy
breeds, and 73 percent of the Charolais and other continental breeds which
were fed in the larger lots.

Operators bought about 49 percent of all cattle purchased for Florida
feedlots, compared with 46 percent of the total obtained through salaried
buyers (Table 21). About 5 percent of all placements were acquired through
order buyers.

About 9 out of 10 head purchased by smaller and medium size lots were
obtained by the operator, while about 1 in 10 head purchased by these size
operations were purchased through order buyers. Only lots with 10,000
head or more of capacity used salaried buyers.








The percentage of feeder cattle purchased from ranches, as opposed
to auctions, varied inversely with the size of feedlot. About 89 percent
of the cattle going into lots with less than 5,000 head capacity were
"country cattle", compared with 62 percent for medium size lots and 45
percent in large lots (Table 22). Overall, 55 percent of all cattle
placed in Florida feedlots were "country cattle" versus 45 percent from
auctions. Approximately 82 percent of all auction purchased cattle went
to large lots. The 3 large size operations accounted for 55 percent of
ranch cattle.

Only 5 percent of all cattle purchased by smaller lots were contracted.
In contrast, medium and large lots each contracted about 13 percent of
their cattle (Table 23). Virtually all of the contracts were made directly
with ranchers. Large feedlots accounted for about 76 percent of the cattle
contracted through ranchers. All of the cattle contracted through order
buyers was done so by medium size operations.

The largest portion of cattle going on feed, 26 percent, weighed
300-400 pounds (Table 24). The percentages consistently declined after
that, as the weight ranges increased. For example, about 21 percent of
all placements were in the 400-499 pound weight range, with the percentages
then dropping to 19, 16 and 11 percent for each 100 pound increment. About
7 percent of all placements are 300 pounds or less.

In 1979, smaller size lots preferred 700-800 pound cattle (35 percent
of their placements) while the greatest placements in medium size lots
were in the 500 pound category (36 percent of all their placements). In
contrast, the largest size lots preferred 300 lb. cattle (32 percent of
their placements). About three quarters of all cattle weighing below
500 pounds were placed on feed by large lots. The percent of all place-
ments by large lots continuously declined as weight increased. They had
64 percent of 500 pound cattle, 50 percent of 600 pound placements and
42 percent of the 700 pound category.

About 64 percent of all cattle placed on feed in Florida in 1979,
regardless of feedlot size, were steers. About 22 percent of the other
placements were heifers, 7 percent calves, 3 percent were cows and 4 per-
cent bulls (Table 25). All of the cows and bulls were placed on feed by
larger lots with the smaller lots feeding the highest percentages of
heifers. Approximately 68 percent of all steers, 70 percent of all
heifers and 93 percent of all cows were fed-out by lots with 10,000 head
or more capacity.

Nearly one-third of all cattle were placed on feed in September and
October (Table 26). May was the lowest month with 4 percent of the place-
ments. March through June were the lowest months, reflecting a desire
by feeders to keep inventories as low as possible during the hot summer
months, and also feeder cattle were in shorter supply during those months.
There was considerable variations between lot sizes, however, as smaller
lots did place a considerably higher percentage of cattle on feed in
these months. For example, July was the second largest month (13 percent)
of the year.







The variation in placements is also striking when reviewing the per-
centage of placements by size category by month. In April, the smallest
size lots accounted for 31 percent of all placements even though they
only accounted for about 16 percent of all the cattle placed on feed in
Florida during the year. In May, about 33 percent of all placements
were in this size category, and in July they handled about 31 percent of
all placements.

Most cattle (43 percent) were held from 90 to 120 days (Table 27).
An equivalent percent of cattle were held in the smaller lots for 90-120
days as 120-150 days. However, the percentage fed 120-150 days declined
as lot size increased (14 and 8 percent respectively). About 15 percent
of all cattle were held for more than 150 days. Medium size lots tended
to feed more cattle in this category.

An average death loss of 3.1 percent was recorded by Florida feed-
lots (Table 28). The least loss was in the smallest lots (1.4 percent)
while the greatest loss (3.8 percent) was in the largest size lots. It
is noteworthy that the largest lots also had the highest percentages of
auction market cattle (Table 22). About 83 percent of all cattle were
lost during the first 30 days on feed. The smaller lots report 86 per-
cent during that time while the largest lots estimate that 82 percent
are lost during the first 30 days. This is also apparently related to
the type and source of cattle.


Marketing Florida's Fed Cattle

Virtually all (98 percent) of the cattle marketed from Florida feed-
lots during 1979 were sold to packers in Florida (Table 29). Only the
medium size feedlots marketed cattle outside the state. Even they
averaged 86 percent of their sales to Florida packers with just 3 percent
of their cattle going to Georgia, 5 percent to Alabama and 6 percent to
other areas.

Nearly half (44 percent) of Florida's cattle were sold in the 900
to 1,100 pound weight range (Table 30). The other popular size was cattle
weighing up to 700 pounds (34 percent). About 45 percent of the cattle
sold from the largest lots weighed less than 700 pounds compared with 6
percent from the smallest lots and 14 percent from medium size lots.
This pattern reflects special selling arrangements by certain feeders.
Smaller lots sold about 59 percent of their cattle in the 1,000 to 1,099
weight range compared with 33 percent of the cattle from medium size lots
and 10 percent from the largest lots. In contrast, the smallest lots
accounted for 42 percent of all cattle marketed in the 1,000-1,099 range
and 90 percent of all cattle in the 1,100-1,199 range.

The estimated grades of steers, heifers and calves marketed from
Florida feedlots in 1979 is presented in Table 31. About 38 percent were
calculated as falling in the USDA Choice grade, 52 percent as Good and









10 percent as Standard. The highest percentage of Choice (47) was reported
from the smaller lots. This was probably due to this size lot specializing
in marketing heavy cattle and orienting their operations to steers. Because
the greatest numbers of steers, heifers and calves were marketed from the
largest lots, about 65 percent of all Choice cattle, 69 percent of all Goods
and 56 percent of all Standards were sold out of this size category.

There were two main types of selling arrangements used by Florida
feedlots. The first, direct liveweight, accounted for about 39 percent of
all cattle sold while about 61 percent are sold on a grade and carcass
weight basis (Table 32). The use of each method was related to the size
of feedlot. For example, about 76 percent of all cattle sold by the smaller
lots were sold on a direct liveweight basis compared with 48 percent of the
cattle from medium size lots and 29 percent from the largest lots. Approx-
imately 49 percent of all the cattle sold on a direct liveweight basis came
from the largest lots. In addition, lots with 10,000 head and more one-time
capacity accounted for 79 percent of all cattle sold on a grade and carcass
weight basis.

The largest feedlots indicated that the National Provisioner Yellow
Sheet and meat wholesalers were the most important sources of price in-
formation for them, while medium size feeders relied on Cattle Fax, USDA
dressed carcass quotations and Texas weekly papers (Table 33). Smaller
feeders used a variety of sources including radio, Cattle Fax, packers,
USDA, the Yellow Sheet, futures market quotes, and Reuters Monitoring
System. All feeders indicated they used several sources of information,
but the above are their principal ones.

Feedstuffs Use


Corn grain was the principal ingredient of Florida feedlot rations.
As shown in Table 34, the survey revealed that the quantity of corn used
comprised 51 percent of all ingredients listed by the 14 Florida feed-
lots. This percentage was based on weights on an "as-fed" basis for the
various feeds. Since the moisture content of silage and bagasse is much
higher than that of corn grain, the dry matter (or moisture-free) per-
centage of corn grain used was actually much higher than indicated in
Table 34, where weights and percentages of the feeds are shown on an
"as-fed" basis.

Because the high moisture content of corn silage, sorghum silage,
sugarcane silage, sugarcane bagasse, and corn earlage, using the "as-fed"
or gross weights of these feeds distorts their contribution to cattle
feeding in Florida; and since the feed energy, protein, and minerals are
contained in the dry matter, the relative importance of the various feeds
can be more clearly shown on dry, moisture-free weight basis. Furthermore,
the grain contained in corn and sorghum silages, and in corn earlage,
added significantly to the quantity of grain fed to cattle in the state.
Assuming that the silage dry matter was composed of 40 percent grain and
60 percent roughage, grain consumed in silage increased the quantity of







grain dry matter fed across all sizes of Florida feedlots in 1979 by about
one-eighth. As shown in Table 35, corn made up 65 percent of the total
feed dry matter; adding the grain consumed in silage raised the level of
corn to 73 percent of the total.

Data supplied by the feedlots clearly indicate that the larger lots
fed higher levels of grain than the smaller lots (Tables 34 and 35). Al-
though the quantities of feeds reported do not constitute feedlot rations,
it is apparent that corn grain was the principal feed ingredient. This
is especially striking when showing quantities of feeds on a dry matter
basis and with silage grain added to the corn (Table 35). Smaller lots
fed more corn silage than did larger lots and thereby used a somewhat
higher percentage of roughage. It is interesting to note that quantities
of grain and roughage shown in Table 35 indicate that Florida feedlots,
especially the larger lots, used levels of grain and roughage similar to
those used by commercial feedlots in the major cattle feeding states.

About 5 percent of all corn fed in Florida feedlots was homegrown
(Table 36). Smaller and medium size feedlots report that 10-11 percent
of their corn was homegrown while all of the larger lots purchased their
corn. About 21 percent of all corn fed was grown in Florida while 45
percent was hauled in from Georgia and 29 percent from other areas. Ap-
proximately 37 percent of the Florida grown corn was used by large lots.
In addition, in 1979, they fed 53 percent of the Georgia corn and 71 per-
cent of the corn brought in from other areas. Overall, 52 percent of all
corn fed in Florida feedlots was used by large lots.

Florida feeders report that 62 percent of their corn was purchased on
the open market (Table 37). Approximately half of the corn purchased on
the open market was by the three largest feeders compared with 23 percent
by the smaller operators and 28 percent by the medium size lots.

Virtually all (88 percent) of the roughage fed in Florida feedlots
was homegrown (Table 38). Furthermore, all of the roughage fed by smaller
and medium size lots was homegrown. About half of the large lot's roughage
was homegrown. The smaller size category of lots (less than 5,000 head)
accounted for 53 percent of all roughage fed while medium size lots ac-
counted for one third of the total 79 thousand tons fed in Florida during
1979.


Personnel Requirements


Estimates of personnel requirements other than the overall feedlot
manager, owner-operator or owner are given in Table 39. The individual
categories such as cowboys or mechanic are really not too meaningful as
the type of operation and cross-use of labor varied considerably. More
valuable are the ratios in person equivalents per 1,000 head of capacity.
The results indicate that the smaller lots employed about 2.38 person
equivalents per 1,000 head of one-time capacity compared with 1.38 person








equivalents for the medium and larger size operations. The number of
personnel used per 1,000 head would be larger if calculations were made
on the average number of cattle on feed at any one time.

Use of Feedlot Capacity


The actual use of capacity by Florida feedlots would be quite dif-
ficult to determine since the feeding period varied considerably between
lots, and there were strong seasonal influences. However, if there were a
2.0 turnaround rate, 168,000 head annually could potentially be fed in
Florida lots (Table 40). If there were a 2.5 turnaround, which may be
closer to the actual situation, 210,000 head could potentially be fed.

In the 14 lots surveyed in 1979, which accounted for about 97-98
percent of the feeding capacity in the state, 126,400 head were fed. If
there were a 2.0 turnaround rate in feeding the 126,400 cattle, the lots
would have been used at 75 percent of capacity. If, however, the turn-
around rate was 2.5, the lots would have been used at only 60 percent of
capacity. Regardless of the assumptions about turnaround, the smaller
lots' capacity was used only about half as much as that of the largest
lots. Medium lots were used only slightly more than the smaller ones.

Concluding Remarks


The Florida cattle feeding industry structure has changed considerably
during the 1970s, and much more is expected in decade of the 80s as the
industry evolves. There is potential for Florida to become much more
important as a cattle feeding state.


(10)








equivalents for the medium and larger size operations. The number of
personnel used per 1,000 head would be larger if calculations were made
on the average number of cattle on feed at any one time.

Use of Feedlot Capacity


The actual use of capacity by Florida feedlots would be quite dif-
ficult to determine since the feeding period varied considerably between
lots, and there were strong seasonal influences. However, if there were a
2.0 turnaround rate, 168,000 head annually could potentially be fed in
Florida lots (Table 40). If there were a 2.5 turnaround, which may be
closer to the actual situation, 210,000 head could potentially be fed.

In the 14 lots surveyed in 1979, which accounted for about 97-98
percent of the feeding capacity in the state, 126,400 head were fed. If
there were a 2.0 turnaround rate in feeding the 126,400 cattle, the lots
would have been used at 75 percent of capacity. If, however, the turn-
around rate was 2.5, the lots would have been used at only 60 percent of
capacity. Regardless of the assumptions about turnaround, the smaller
lots' capacity was used only about half as much as that of the largest
lots. Medium lots were used only slightly more than the smaller ones.

Concluding Remarks


The Florida cattle feeding industry structure has changed considerably
during the 1970s, and much more is expected in decade of the 80s as the
industry evolves. There is potential for Florida to become much more
important as a cattle feeding state.


(10)









Table l.--Total cattle population in
numbers of various classes


Class


Florida, January 1, 1979, including


Number


--Head--
Inventory


Females that have calved
Replacement heifers
Bulls
Steers
Calves under 500 lb
Total cattle population

Beef females
Cows that had calved
Replacement heifers
Beef breeding females

Dairy females
cows that had calved
Replacement heifers
Dairy breeding females

Totals
Beef and dairy breeding females


Other cattle


1,338,000
225,000
76,000
100,000
441,000
2,180,000


1,149,000
146,000
1,295,000


189,000
38,000
227,000


1,522,000


658,000


Source: Florida Agricultural Statistics,


Livestock Summary, 1979.


(11)










Table 2.--Cattle and calves: Inventory numbers, calf crop and disposition, Florida, 1967-1979.


On hand January 1 Farm Deaths
All cattle Ma/ slaughter/ Cattle
and Calf Inship- Marketings Cattle and and
Year calves All cows-/ crop ments Cattle Calves calves calves

------------------------------1000 Head---------------------------------------

1967 1,877 1,089 773 161 409 450 6 46
1968 1,900 1,120 851 114 362 499 6 48
1969 1,950 1,180 944 136 383 568 6 53
1970 2,020 1,230 1,000 106 372 633 8 55
1971 2,060 1,220 1,025 115 361 657 6 46
1972 2,130 1,266 1,087 91 300 692 7 72
1973 2,237 1,336 1,180 100 289 626 9 103
1974 2,490 1,494 1,320 70 350 442 18 120
1975 2,950 1,670 1,250 69 652 562 15 120
1976 2,920 1,615 1,170 65 568 669 11 107
1977 2,800 1,579 1,135 65 662 852 11 125
1978 2,350 1,410 1,060 76 478 711 10 107
1979 2,180 1,338 1,060 76 298 623 3 92


Source: Florida Agricultural


Statistics, Livestock Summaries 1975 and 1979.


a/ Includes custom slaughter for use on farms where produced, but excludes interfarm sales
within the state.


b/ Excludes custom slaughter for farmers at commercial establishments.


c/ Cows and heifers that have calved.








Table 3.--Estimated number of feeder


Livestock
category


Number


--Head--

Calves under 500 Ibs 718,000
Steers over 500 Ibs 72,000
Heifers over 500 Ibs 28,000
Total 818,000




Source: Florida Agricultural Statistics: Livestock Summary, 1979


(13)


cattle in Florida, July 1, 1979








Table 4.--Cattle marketed through auction markets compared with total marketing, 1967-1979.


Sales through auction markets
Northwest and Central and Auction
Northeast Florida South Florida as a
Year Cate aa Total percent
Year Cattle Calves-! Cattle Calvesa/ Total marketingsb/ of total

------------------------------------Head--------------- ----------------- --Percent--

1967 649,599 859,000 76
1968 662,530 861,000 77
1969 708,715 951,000 75
1970 -- -- 713,124 1,005,000 71
1971 136,771 190,030 144,864 276,951 748,616 1,018,000 74
1972 121,000 226,587 125,846 315,999 473,433 992,000 48
1973 102,279 214,594 120,205 320,603 757,681 915,000 83
1974 99,482 159,337 110,337 235,588 604,821 792,000 76
1975 161,146 199,229 183,365 306,817 850,557 1,214,000 70
1976 184,756 202,740 212,888 294,097 894,481 1,237,000 72
1977 233,072 154,032 251,880 230,258 869,242 1,514,000 57
1978 350,308 -- 486,145 -- 836,453 1,189,000 70
1979 299,620 434,760 -- 734,380 921,000 80

Source: Computed from Florida Agricultural Statistics, Livestock Summaries, 1975 and 1979.
a/ Calves included with cattle beginning 1978.


b/ From Table 2, sum of cattle and calves marketed.










Table 5.--Cattle outshipments: number of head shipped out of Florida by truck from areas
east and south of the Suwannee river, by classes, 1969-79 (Continued)


Calves All cattle and calves

Year Slaughter Stocker Dairy Slaughter Stocker Dairy Total

--------------------------------------Head---------------------

1969 8,699 351,127 2,514 15,983 386,994 4,263 407,240
1970 9,926 423,540 2,431 19,142 473,293 4,110 496,545
1971 14,559 541,026 1,502 20,507 580,338 3,370 604,215
1972 9,440 593,744 1,956 16,474 635,681 3,312 655,467
1973 8,088 543,008 971 18,283 570,718 2,727 591,728
1974 8,260 348,046 1,064 36,773 372,312 2,862 411,947
1975 64,745 328,920 880 101,514 406,760 1,974 510,248
1976 72,852 409,883 456 101,121 470,396 1,578 573,095
1977 53,832 480,444 1,221 80,070 529,746 2,999 612,815
1978 41,932 556,437 903 63,169 606,789 2,713 672.,671
1979 13,203 511,157 1,864 22,872 548,474 2,967 574,313


Source: Florida Agricultural Statistics, Livestock Summaries, 1975 and 1979.










Table 5.--Cattle outshipments:


number of head shipped out of Florida by truck from areas
east and south of the Suwannee river, by classes, 1969- 79 (Continued)


Steers Heifers Cows
Year Slaughter Stocker Slaughter Stocker Dairy Slaughter Stocker Dairy Bulls

------ -------------------------------Head---------------------------------- ----

1969 1,710 20,893 931 9,725 992 4,137 4,159 742 1,611
1970 1,477 21,815 560 15,557 1,077 6,373 10,374 498 2,917
1971 2,059 22,202 451 7,977 1,130 2,988 7,897 675 1,749
1972 1,621 25,075 815 6,149 686 4,141 8,131 655 3,054
1973 2,840 12,871 148 5,677 1,234 6,830 7,320 507 2,234
1974 13,632 5,036 1,958 7,494 968 11,605 9,861 812 3,211
1975 13,339 53,210 4,886 16,820 270 16,866 5,642 806 3,864
1976 4,518 41,559 3,353 13,213 493 18,990 4,406 626 2,746
1977 4,916 31,993 4,163 10,242 836 16,212 5,773 750 2,433
1978 3,929 30,204 2,642 13,953 1,047 13,303 4,563 585 3,173
1979 1,086 21,105 537 8,478 862 7,294 4,117 240 3,170


Source: Florida Agricultural Statistics:


Livestock Summary, 1974 and 1979












Table 6.--Florida cattle and calf outshipments, inshipments and net outshipments, 1969-1979



Inshipments
as a
Net percent of
Year Outshipments Inshipments outshipments outshipments

-----------Head-------------Hed------- ------------ --percent--

1969 407,240 173,458 233,782 45
70 469,545 166,143 303,402 35
71 604,215 199,322 404,893 33
72 655,467 224,384 431,083 34
73 591,728 239,299 352,429 40
74 411,947 214,414 197,533 52
75 510,248 215,752 294,496 42
76 573,095 236,897 336,198 41
77 612,815 221,948 390,867 36
78 672,671 243,256 429,415 36
1979 574,313 222,303 352,010 39



Source: Florida Aaricultural Statistics, Livestock Summary, 1978 and 1979.










Table 7.--Florida calf outshipments, inshipments and net outshipments, 1969-1979


Calf Calf
Inshipments outshipments outshipments
as a as a percent as a percent
Net percent of of all cattle of all bt
Year Outshipments Inshipments outshipments outshipments outshipmentsk/ calves marketed-'

---------------Head----------------- -------------------Percent--------------------

1969 362,340 21,323 341,017 06 89
70 435,897 17,437 418,460 04 93
71 557,087 16,783 540,304 03 92 85
72 605,140 20,377 584,763 03 93 87
73 552,067 25,788 526,279 05 93 88
74 357,370 12,991 344,379 04 87 81
75 393,665 27,115 366,550 07 77 70
76 483,191 31,792 451,399 06 84 72
77 535,497 35,336 500,161 07 87 63
78 599,272 28,059 571,213 05 89 84
1979 526,224 36,371 489,853 07 92 84


b/ Calves marketed in Table 2.


Source: Compiled from Florida Agricultural Statistics: Livestock Summary, 1978 and 1979.

a/ Cattle outshipments in Table 6.










Table 8.--Number of stocker-feeder cattle and calves shipped out of Florida
to other states, and numbers shipped into Florida in 1978


Item


Number


Outshipments to other states
From south and east of Suwnnee
From north and west Florida
Total outshipments


Inshipments
To south
To north


from other states
and east of Suwannee
and west Florida


Total inshipments
Net shipped out-of-state


606,789
100,000
706,789


29,743
5,000
34,743
672,046


Source: Florida Agricultural Statistics, 1978, and estimates by
independent researchers.


(19)








Table 9.--Cattle and calves on feed, January 1, 1969-1979


Florida
as a
23 39 percent
Year Florida Statesa/ Statesa/ of 39 states

---------------1000 head--------------- --percent--

1969 60 11,965 12,534 0.48
70 61 12,644 13,190 0.46
71 57 12,209 12,770 0.45
72 57 13,330 13,876 0.41
73 58 13,861 14,432 0.40
74 55 13,067 13,642 0.40
75 60 6,619 10,167 0.59
76 81 12,327 12,943 0.63
77 73 11,948 12,580 0.58
78 72 12,811 13,469 0.53
1979 65 12,681 13,275 0.49


Source: Livestock


and Meat Statistics, various issues.


/The 23 major cattle feeding states are:


(20)








Table 10.--Number of Florida feedlots by size 1965-68, and 1979


1000 head and more
Less than 1,000 to 5,000 to 10,000 head Sub- Total
Year 1000 head 4,999 head 9,999 head and more total lots

--------------------Number of lots---------------------------



1965 461 16 477
1966 465 13 478
1967 415 15 430
1968 355 13 368
1979
Surveyed 1 7 3 3 14 14
Estimated 5-10 7-8 3 3 13-14 18-24


Source: 1965-68 from Beef Cattle Committee Report, A.G.U.A., IFAS,
University of Florida, 1975. The 1979 data are from the
survey results.


(21)








Table 11.--Number of cattle marketed from Florida feedlots, 1965-68,
and 1979


1000 head and more
Less than 1,000 5,000 to 10,000 head Sub- Total
Year 1,000 head 4,999 head 9,999 head and more total lots

------------------------------Head------ ---------------------

1965 50,000 -- 96,000 146,000
1966 85,000 75,000 160,000
1967 67,000 -- 91,000 158,000
1968 48,000 74,000 122,000
1979
Surveyed 1,200 18,500 21,700 85,000 125,200 126,400
Estimated 3,200 18,500 21,700 85,000 125,200 128,400



Source: 1965-68 from Beef Cattle Committee Report, A.G.U.A., IFAS,
University of Florida, 1975. The 1979 data are from the survey
results.


(22)










Table 12.--Estimated number of cattle feedlots in Florida in 1979 compared with Nebraska, Texas
and the 23 major cattle feeding states, 1978

One-time capacity
State 1,000 2,000 4,000 8,000 16,000 32,000
or Less than to to to to to and
region 1,000 head 1,999 3,999 7,999 15,999 31,999 over Total"'

----- -------- -------------Number--------------------------------

Florida 5 2 4 2 4 1 18
Nebraska 13,500 200 90 47 29 9 4 13,879
Texas 959 19 13 26 36 41 26 1,120
23 statesb/ 125,523 845 412 230 217 133 65 127,425

------------------------------- Percent------------ -------------------

Florida 28 11 22 11 22 6 100
Nebraska 97 01 01 01 100
Texas 86 02 01 02 03 04 02 100
23 statesb/ 98 01 100


Source: Livestock and Meat Statistics,


Supplement for 1978 and survey data.


a/ Percent may not add to 100 due to rounding.
b/ See footnote "a" in Table 9 for a list of the 23 states.








Table 13.--Estimated number of cattle marketed from Florida feedlots in
1979 compared with Nebraska, Texas and 23 major cattle feeding
states, 1978



State 1,000 8,000
or Less than to and
region 1,000 head 7,999 over Total

------------------------Head------------------------

Florida 3,200 23,700 101,500 128,400
Nebraska 1,630,000 1,255,000 1,285,000 4,170,000
Texas 80,000 312,000 4,523,000 4,915,000
23 states./ 8,542,000 4,242,000 13,861,000 26,645,000
----------------------Percent---- ------- --------

Florida 03 18 79 100
Nebraska 39 30 31 100
Texas 02 06 92 100
23 states/ 32 16 52 100



Source: Livestock and Meat Statistics, Supplement for 1978, and
survey data.


a/See footnote "a" in Table 9 for


a list of the 23 states.


(24)







Table 14.--Year in which the 14 Florida cattle feeding operations surveyed were
established, by size of feedlot, 1979


One-time capacity

Less than 5,000 to 10,000 head
5,000 head 9,999 head and more

----------------------------Year------ ---------


1935 1970 1962
1955 1973 1971
1958 1974 1976
1972
1975 (2 lots)
1976
1977


(25)









Table 15.--Principal businesses) of Florida feedlot owners, by size
of feedlot, 1979



One-time capacity

Type of Less than 5,000 to 10,000 head
business 500 head 9,999 head and more Total

----------------------Number----------- --------

Cattle feeder 8 3 3 14
Rancher 5 2 2 9
Meat packer 2 2
Feed company -
Retailer -
General farming 5 2 1 8
Other 2 1 3
----------------------Percent-------------------

Cattle feeder 100 100 100 100
Rancher 63 66 66 64
Meat packer 66 2
Feed company -
Retailer -
General farming 63 66 33 57
Other 25 33 21


(26)








Table 16.--Type of feeding facilities used by Florida feedlots by size
of feedlot, 1979




One-time capacity
Type of Percent
feeding Less than 5,000 to 10,000 head of all
facility 5,000 head 9,999 head and more Total feedlots

------------------Number------------------
-Percent-

Fenceline bunk 7 3 2 12 86
In-pen bunks 1 1 07
Automated feed conveyer 1 1 07
Total 8 3 3 14 100

In-pen bunks (additional) 1 1 2 14


(27)










Table 17.--Primary source of financing for fixed investment in Florida
feedlots by size of feedlot, 1979



One-time capacity
Percent
Source of Less than 5,000 to 10,000 head of all
financing 5,000 head 9,999 head and more Total feedlots

----------------Number----------------- -Percent-

Commercial banks 3 1 1 5 36
PCA or Land Bank 2 1 3 21
Private firm -
Own 6 2 2 10 71
Other 1 1 07


(28)








Table 18.--Ownership of cattle in Florida feedlots, by size of operation, 1979





One-time capacity

Type of Less than 5,000 to 10,000 head
ownership 5,000 head 9,999 head and more Total

--------------------Head---------------------

Feedlot 16,420 14,660 48,470 79,550
Members of the
feedlot corp. 2,520 2,880 5,400
Packers -- 8,000 8,000
Retailers -
Ranchers 760 7,040 15,450 23,250
Other 10,200 10,200
Total 19,700 21,700 85,000 126,000

--------------------Percent----------------

Feedlot 83 68 57 63
Members of the
feedlot corp. 13 03 04
Packers -- 10 07
Retailers -
Ranchers 04 32 18 18
Other 12 08
Total 100 100 100 100

-------------------Percent-----------------

Feedlot 21 18 61 100
Members of the
feedlot corp. 47 53 100
Packers -- 100 100
Retailers 100
Ranchers 03 30 67 100
Other 100 100


(29)








Table 19.--Kind of cattle placed on feed in Florida by size of feedlot, 1979


One-time capacity

Less than 5,000 to 10,000 head
Item 5,000 head 9,999 head and more Total


--------------------------Head-- -------- ---------------


All cattle placed on feed
British breeds & British crosses
Brahman crosses
Dairy breeds & dairy crosses
Charolais and other Continental
breeds
Total


2,084
17,032
64

520
19,700


1,200
19,375


1,125
21,700


2,880
75,320
2,480

4,320
85,000


6,164
111,727
2,544

5,965
126,400


All placements by type within size
categories
British breeds and British crosses
Brahman crosses
Dairy breeds and dairy crosses
Charolais and other Continental breeds
Total

All placements by type between size
categories
British breeds and British crosses
Brahman crosses
Dairy breeds and dairy crosses
Charolais and other Continental breeds
All breeds


----------------------- Percent----------- ----------


03
89
03
05


86
00
03
100


16 17


05
88
02
05


47 100
68 100
97 100
72 100
67 100







Table 20.--Florida origin cattle placed on feed by kind of cattle and size of feedlot, 1979



One-time capacity

Less than 5,000 to 10,000 head
Item 5,000 head 9,999 head and more Total

---------------------------Head----------- -----------

Florida cattle placed on feed
(numbers)
British breeds and British crosses 434 1,200 2,592 4,226
Brahman crosses 16,376 19,375 70,177 105,928
Dairy breeds and dairy crosses 64 2,280 2,344
Charolais and other Continental breeds 310 1,125 3,960 5,395

Total 17,184 21,700 79,009 117,893
-J
"------------------------ --Percent-- -----------------

Florida placements as a percent of
all placements
British breeds and British crosses 20 100 90 69
Brahman crosses 96 100 93 95
Dairy breeds and dairy crosses 100 92 92
Charolais and other Continental breeds 97 100 92 90
Total 87 100 93 93
-------------------------------Percent---------- ---------

British breeds and British crosses 10 28 62 100
Brahman crosses 16 18 66 100
Dairy breeds and dairy crosses 03 97 100
Charolais and other Continental breeds 06 21 73 100








Table 21.--Number and percent of feeder cattle purchased by Florida
feedlots, by type of buyer and size of operation, 1979


One-time capacity

Less than 5,000 to 10,000 head
Source 5,000 head 9,999 head and more Total

------------------- Head------------------------


Operator
Salaried buyer
Order buyer
Other
Total


17,590

2,110

19,700


19,450

2,250

21,700


24,900
58,000
2,100

85,000


61,940
58,000
6,460

126,400


------------------------Percent--------- ----------


Operator
Salaried buyer
Order buyer
Other
Total


89

11

100


90

10

100


------------------------Percent---------- --------


40
100


Operator
Salaried buyer
Order buyer
Other


100
100
100


(32)








Table 22.--Origin of cattle placed in Florida feedlots by market type, 1979



One-time capacity

Market Less than 5,000 to 10,000 head
type 5,000 head 9,999 head and more Total

------------------------Head------------ --------

Ranch 17,472 13,450 38,230 69,152
Auction 2,228 8,250 46,770 57,248
Total 19,700 21,700 85,000 126,400

-----------------------Percent-------------------

Ranch 89 62 45 55
Auction 11 38 55 45
Total 100 100 100 100

----------------------Percent------------------

Ranch 25 20 55 100
Auction 04 14 82 100


(33)









Table 23.--Number and percent of feeder cattle contracted by Florida
feedlots by size of feedlot, 1979


One-time capacity

Less than 5,000 to 10,000 head
Source 5,000 head 9,999 head and more Total

------------------------Head------------ ------


Ranchers 1,076 2,250 10,930 14,256
Order buyers 750 750
Total 1,076 3,000 10,930 15,006

Total place-
ments 19,700 21,700 85,000 126,400
------------------------Percent--------- ---------

Ranchers 05 10 13 11
Order buyers 03 01
Total 05 13 13 12

-----------------------Percent-- ----------------
Contracts between size
categories
Ranchers 08 16 76 100
Order buyers 100 100

Total 07 20 73 100


(34)








Table 24.--Weight ranges of cattle placed in Florida feedlots, 1979



One-time capacity
Weight Less than 5,000 to 10,000 head
range 5,000 head 9,999 head and more Total


--Ibs--

Less
than 300
300-399
400-499
500-599
600-699
700-799
Total


---------------- ----Head-------------------------


1,500
1,196
5,304
900
3,916
6,884
19,700


360
4,215
1,800
7,800
6,400
1,125
21,700


7,200
26,900
19,110
15,520
10,400
5,870
85,000


9,060
32,311
26,214
24,220
20,716
13,879
126,400


-------------------------Percent--------- -------


Less
than 300
300-399
400-499
500-599
600-699
700-799
Total


08
06
27
04
20
35
100


07
26
21
19
16
11
100


-------------------------Percent------ ---------


Less
than 300
300-399
400-499
500-599
600-699
700-799


100
100
100
100
100
100


(35)








Table 25.--Placements by sex and type of cattle in Florida feedlots
by size of lot, 1979



One-time capacity
Sex and
type of Less than 5,000 to 10,000 head
cattle 5,000 head 9,999 head and more Total

------------------------Head---------------------


Steers
Calves
Heifers
Cows
Bulls
Total


12,640
2,196
4,864


19,700


13,870
3,000
3,480
225
1,125
21,700


55,070
3,600
19,260
3,230
3,840
85,000


81,580
8,796
27,604
3,455
4,965
126,400


------------------------Percent-------------------


Steers

Calves

Heifers


Cows


Bulls


Total


64

14

16

01

05

100


------------------------Percent--------- ----------


Steers

Calves

Heifers


Cows

Bulls


(36)





Table 26.--Placements by month of cattle placed in Florida feedlots
by size of lot, 1979



One-time capacity

Less than 5,000 to 10,000 and
Month 5,000 head 9,999 head and more Total

-----------------------Head---------------------


416
612
528
1,944
1,448
2,168
2,574
1,494
2,040
4,824
1,040
612
19,700


1,500
600
1,900
1,900
600
600
720
720
2,260
4,900
3,000
3,000
21,700


9,150
9,390
4,270
2,400
2,400
4,890
5,050
8,090
11,580
13,890
8,690
5,200
85,000


11,066
10,602
6,698
6,244
4,448
7,658
8,344
10,304
15,880
23,614
12,730
8,812
126,400


-------------------------Percent--------------------

02 07 08 09
03 03 11 08
03 09 08 05
10 09 03 05
08 03 03 04
11 03 06 06
13 03 06 07
05 03 09 08
11 10 13 12
25 22 16 19
06 14 11 10
03 14 06 07
100 100 100 100
--------------------------Percent--------------------


14 82 100
06 88 100
28 64 100
31 38 100
13 54 100
08 64 100
09 60 100
07 79 100
14 73 100
21 59 100
24 68 100
34 59 100


(37)


Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May
Jun
Jul.
Aug.
Sep.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
Total


Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May
Jun
Jul.
Aug.
Sep.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec
Total


Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May
Jun
Jul.
Aug.
Sep.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.








Table 27.--Length of cattle feeding period, Florida feedlots, by size
of lot, 1979



One-time capacity

Length of time Less than 5,000 to 10,000 head
on feed 5,000 head 9,999 head and more Total


----Days----

Less than 60
60-90
90-120
120-150
More than 150
Total


-------------------------Head---------------------


320
1,920
7,390
7,190
2,880
19,700


1,125
11,575
3,000
6,000
21,700


2,480
29,720
34,840
7,250
10,710
85,000


2,800
32,765
53,805
17,440
19,590
126,400


-------------------------Percent------------------


Less than 60
60-90
90-120
120-150
More than 150
Total


-------------------------Percent----------


Less than 60
60-90
90-120
120-150
More than 150


02
10
37
36
15
100


05
53
14
20
100


03
35
41
08
13
100


02
26
43
14
15
100


100
100
100
100
100


(38)










Table 28.--Deathloss of cattle placed in Florida feedlots, by size
of lot, 1979



One-time capacity

Less than 5,000 to 10,000 head
'Item 5,000 head 9,999 head and more Total


---------------------H--ead---------------------
Lost while
on feed 273 357 3,250 3,880


Lost in the
first 30 days 235 304 2,667 3,206

Total 508 661 5,917 7,086

Total placed
on feed 19,700 21,700 85,000 126,400

-----------------------Percent---------- ---------

Lost while
on feed 1.4 1.7 3.8 3.1

Lost in the
first 30 days 86 85 82 83


(39)









Table 29.--Geographic area of cattle marketed from Florida feedlots, by
size of lot, 1979



One-time capacity

Less than 5,000 to 10,000 head
State 5,000 head 9,999 head and more Total

-----------------------Head----------------------
Florida 19,700 18,700 85,000 123,400
Georgia 600 600
Alabama 1,050 -1,050
Other 1,350 1,350
Total 19,700 21,700 85,000 126,400
-----------------------Percent--------------------

Florida 100 86 100 98
Georgia 03 -
Alabama 05 -01
Other 06 01
Total 100 100 100 100


(40)








Table 30.--Weight ranges of cattle marketed from Florida feedlots, by
size of lot, 1979



One-time capacity

Weight ranges Less than 5,000 to 10,000 head
of cattle sold 5,000 head 9,999 head and more Total


-------------------------Head-----------------------
Less
than 600 660 20,500 21,160
600-699 670 2,925 17,650 21,245
700-799 530 1,350 12,100 13,980
800-899 800 641 10,900 12,341
900-999 3,524 9,416 14,950 27,890
1,000-1,099 11,616 7,160 8,900 27,676
1,100-1,199 1,900 208 2,108
1,200 and more -

Total 19,700 21,700 85,000 126,400

--------------------------Percent------------------

Less
than 600 03 24 17
600-699 03 14 21 17
700-799 03 06 14 11
800-899 04 03 13 10
900-999 18 43 18 22
1,000-1,099 59 33 10 22
1,100-1,199 10 01 01
1,200 and more -

Total 100 100 100 100
--------------------------Percent------------------


Less
than 600 03 97 100
600-699 03 14 83 100
700-799 04 10 86 100
800-899 07 05 88 100
900-999 13 34 53 100
1,000-1,099 42 26 32 100
1,100-1,199 90 10 100
1,200 and more -


(41)







Table 31.--Estimated grades of steers, heifers and calves marketed from
Florida feedlots, by size of lot, 1979


One-time capacity

Less than 5,000 to 10,000 head
Grade 5,000 head 9,999 head and more Total


-----------------------Head--------------------


Choice

Good

Standard

Total


9,290

8,547

1,723

19,560


6,224

10,553

3,573

20,350


28,608

42,506

6,816

77,930


44,122

61,606

12,112

117,840


-------------------------Percent-------- ---------


Choice

Good

Standard

Total


47

44

09

100


31

52

17

100


38

52

10

100


----------------------Percent-------- --------


Choice

Good

Standard


100

100

100


(42)


--









Table 32.--Type of selling arrangements for Florida feedlot cattle,
by size of lot, 1979



One-time capacity
Type of
selling Less than 5,000 to 10,000 head
arrangement 5,000 head 9,999 head and more Total


------------------------Head-------------


Direct live/leight

Grade and
carcass weight
Total


14,966


4,734
19,700


10,500


11,200
21,700


24,300


60,700
85,000


49,766


76,634
126,400


------------------------Percent--------------------


Direct liveweight

Grade and carcass
weight
Total


24
100


52
100


71
100


61
100


--------------------------Percent-------------------


100


Direct liveweight

Grade and carcass
weight


(43)







Table 33.--Source of price information most important in selling cattle
from Florida feedlots, by size of lot, 1979


One-time capacity

Less than 5,000 to 10,000 head
5,000 head 9,999 head and more



-Radio -Cattle Fax -Yellow sheet
-Packers
-USDA market news -USDA dressed -Meat wholesalers
carcass quotations
-Reuters Monotering system -Yellow sheet
and futures
market
-Cattle Fax -Texas weekly newspapers
-Yellow sheet and futures
market
-Cattle Fax


(44)








Table 34.--Feed ingredient used (as-fed basis) by Florida feedlots by
size of lot, 1979.



One-time capacity

Less than 5,000 to 10,000 head
Feed ingredient 5,000 head 9,999 head and more Total

-------------------------Tons---------------------

Corn 23,773 25,450 53,718 102,941
Corn earlage 6,000 6,000
Corn silage 32,500 14,500 5,500 52,500
Sorghum silage 1,282 3,000 35 4,317
Bagasse and sugar-
cane silage 3,334 11,557 14,891
Cottonseed hulls 18 -1,300 1,318
Hay 300 1,320 1,620
Molasses 2,416 2,000 2,893 7,309
Supplement 1,315 3,060 3,530 7,905
Other 674 2,500 1,802 4,976
Total 65,612 56,510 81,655 203,777

-------------------------Percent-----------------

Corn 36 45 66 51
Corn earlage 11 3
Corn silage 50 26 7 26
Sorghum silage 2 5 2
Bagasse and sugarcane
silage 5 14 7
Cottonseed hulls -2 1
Hay 2 1
Molasses 4 4 3 3
Supplement 2 5 4 4
Other 1 4 2 2
Total 100 100 100 100
--------------------------Percent-------------------

Corn 23 25 52 100
Corn earlage 100 100
Corn silage 62 28 10 100
Sorghum silage 30 69 01 100
Bagasse and sugarcane
silage 22 78 100
Cottonseed hulls 01 -99 100
Hay 19 81 100
Molasses 33 27 40 100
Supplement 16 39 45 100
Other 14 50 36 100


(45)










Table 35.--Feed ingredient use (dry matter basis) by Florida feedlots by
size of lot, 1979.


One-time capacity

Less than 5,000 to 10,000 head
Feed ingredient 5,000 head 9,999 head and more Total

-----------------------Tons----------- --------

Corn 20,207 21,633 45,660 87,500
Corn earlage 2,700 2,700
Corn silage 11,375 5,075 1,925 18,375
Sorghum silage 385 900 11 1,296
Bagasse and sugar-
cane silage 1,167 4,045 5,212
Cottonseed hulls 16 -1,170 1,186
Hay 270 1,188 1,458
Molasses 1,836 1,520 2,199 5,555
Supplement 1,184 2,754 3,177 7,115
Other 607 2,250 1,622 4,479
Total 37,047 36,832 60,997 134,876
-------------------------Percent-----------------

Corn 55 59 75 65
Corn earlage 7 2
Corn silage 31 14 3 14
Sorghum silage 1 2 1
Bagasse and sugarcane
silage 3 7 4
Cottonseed hulls -2 1
Hay 1 2 1
Molasses 5 4 3 4
Supplement 3 8 5 5
Other 1 6 3 3
Total 100 100 100 100
--------------------------Percent---------------

Corn graina/ 68 72 78 73
Roughageh/ 23 10 13 15


a/ Including grain in corn earlage, corn silage, and sorghum silage.

b/ Corn and sorghum silage (excluding grain), cottonseed hulls, hay, and
sugarcane bagasse and silage.


(46)










Table 36.--Source of corn used by Florida feedlots by size of lot,
1979


One-time capacity

Less than 5,000 to 10,000 head
Source 5,000 head 9,999 head and more Total


------------------------Head------------ ---------


Purchased
Florida
Georgia
Other
Subtotal

Home grown
Total


4,936
11,319
4,768
21,023

2,750
23,773


9,000
10,200
3,750
22,950

2,500
25,450


8,090
24,488
21,140
53,718


53,718


22,026
46,007
29,658
97,691

5,250
102,941


-----------------------Percent---------- -----------


Purchased
Florida
Georgia
Other
Subtotal

Home grown
Total


Purchased
Florida
Georgia
Other
Subtotal

Home grown
Total


21
48
20
89

11
100


35
40
15


15
46
39
100


21
45
29
95

05
100


------------------------Percent--------------------


100
100
100
100

100


.(47)









Table 37.--Type of Florida feedlot corn purchase arrangements by
size of lot, 1979


One-time capacity

Type of Less than 5,000 to 10,000 head
arrangement 5,000 head 9,999 head and more Total

-------------------- lTons------,-.-,-- ------------
Open market 14,095 16,800 30,130 61,025
Contract 6,928 6,150 23,588 36,666
Total 21,023 22,950 53,718 97,691

-..-------.--- --- ---- Percent--------------.-----..-

Open market 67 73 56 62
Contract 33 27 44 38
Total 100 100 100 100

------- --------.-------Percent---------------------

Open market 23 28 49 100
Contract 19 17 64 100


(48)









Table 38.--Source of roughage fed in Florida feedlots, by size of
lot, 1979


One-time capacity

Less than 5,000 to 10,000 head
Source 5,000 head 9,999 head and Total


--..--.-------------------Tons------------------.-----


Home grown 37,434 23,500 9,744 70,678

Purchased 9,968 9,968
Total 37,434 23,500 19,712 80,646
---.-----.--------------Percent-------------------

Home grown 100 100 49 88

Purchased 51 12
Total 100 100 100 100

----------------------n-Percent -------------------

Home grown 53 33 14 100

Purchased 100 100


(49)










Table 39.--Use of hired labor in Florida feedlots by job description
and size of lot, 1979


One-time capacity

Job Less than 5,000 to 10,000 head
description 5,000 head 9,999 head and more

--------------Person equivalents----------

Yard foreman 0.67 0.75 1.00
Asst. yard foreman 0.43 1.00 1.33
Mill foreman 0.60 1.00
Feeders and
equip. operators 1.42 2.67 4.00
Cowboys 1.17 3.00 5.67
Mechanic 0.25 2.00
Clerk 0.15 1.00 1.50
Office mgr. 0.22 1.00 1.00
Other 1.05 0.25 2.33
Total 5.96 9.67 19.83

--------------------Head----------------

Average one-time
feedlot capacity 2,500 7,000 14,333

---------------Person equivalents---------

Ratio, person
equivalent per 1,000
head of capacity 2.38 1.38 1.38


(50)










Table 40 .--Potential and actual use of Florida feedlot capacity based
on various turnaround ratios, by size of lot, 1979


One-time capacity

Less than 5,000 to 10,000 head
Item 5,000 head 9,999 head and more Total


------------------------Head------------


Total cattle
marketed

Total one-time
capacity


19,700


20,000


21,700


21,000


85,000


43,000


126,400


84,000


Number of cattle
which could be
marketed if there
were a turnaround of:


1.5
2.0
2.5


30,000
40,000
50,000


31,500
42,000
52,500


64,500
86,000
107,500


126,000
168,000
210,000


------------------------Percent--------- ------------


Actual use of
capacity if
turnaround were:
1.5
2.0
2.5


132
98
79


100
75
60


(51)







REFERENCES


[T] Dietrich, Raymond A., The Texas-Oklahoma Cattle Feeding Industry:
Structural and Operational Characteristics B-1079, Texas A&M
University, December, 1979.


[2] Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Florida Agricultural
Statistics: Livestock Summary 1979, Orlando, 1980.


[3] IFAS, Beef Cattle Committee Report, A.G.U.A., University of
Florida, 1975.


[4] Simpson, James R., "Cattle Cycles:
The Florida Cattleman, January, pp.


A Guide for Florida Cattlemen,"
46-48, 54, 57, 77, 84B.


[5] U.S. Department of Agriculture, Livestock and Meat Statistics,
Statistical Bulletin No. 522. Supplements for various years.


(52)







APPENDIX I

Directory of Florida Cattle Feeders, 1980~/



Feedlot One-time
Feedlot location Address capacity


A. Duda and Sons, Inc.
A. Duda and Sons, Inc.


ALICO Inc.


Chamblee Farms, Inc.


Davis Farms, Inc.


Diamond M. Feedlot


Kaplan Industries, Inc.


Lykes Brothers Feedlot,
Inc.


S.A. Perry Cattle Co.


Seminole Sugar Corp.


La Belle
Ocala


Quitman, Ga.


Lamont


Balm


Lithia


Bartow


Brooksville


Belleview


Belle Glade


P.O. Box 257
Oviedo, Fl. 32765


Rt. 3 quitman, Ga 31643

P.O. Box 509
Belle Glade, Fl.
33430

P.O. Box 97
Balm, Fl. 33503

Rt. 1, Box 120-1,
Lithia, Fl. 33547

P.O. Box 427
Bartow, Fl. 33830


Box 1118,
Brooksville, Fl. 32904

Rt. 1, Box 3470
Belleview, Fl. 32620

P.O. Box 130
Belle Glade, Fl. 33430


Suber Cattle Co.


Gretna


P.O. Box 119,
Gretna, Fl. 32332


U.S. Sugar Corp.


White Farms, Inc.


V.E. Whitehurst & Sons


Clewiston


Chiefland


Williston, Fl.


Sugarland Ranch,
Hwy 80 West,Clewiston,
Fl. 33440

Rt. 1 Box 153,
FortWhite Fl. 32038


Rt.l Box 123
Williston, Fl.


32696


a/ The feedlots and their capacities are for mid 1980, and reflect industry
changes since the survey was taken in late 1979 and early 1980.


21,000
2,000

5,000


2,700


1,600


400


22,000


11,000


3,500


8,000


500


5,000


3,500

3,000









































































This publication was promulgated at a cost of $925.00, or 46 cents per copy, to provide the results of a
census of the Florida cattle feeding industry. 4-2M-81


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL
SCIENCES, K. R. Tefertlller, director, In cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this Infor-
matlon to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educa-
tional Information and other services only to Individuals and Institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex or
national origin. Single copies of Extension publications (excluding 4-H and Youth publications) are available free to Florida
residents from County Extension Offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers Is available from
C. M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesvlle, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this
publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability.




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