• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Planting dates and planning
 Variety selection
 Field plowing and liming
 Introduction
 Nematode control
 Fertilizing and side dressing
 Planting seed and irrigating
 Use pesticides carefully
 Weed control
 Insect control
 Disease prevention
 Harvesting, grading and packin...
 Sources of additional informat...
 Metric and English units
 Back Cover






Group Title: Florida Cooperative Extension Service circular 492
Title: Okra in Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00049246/00001
 Material Information
Title: Okra in Florida a small-farm production guide
Series Title: Circular Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Physical Description: 11 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: William, R. D
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1982
 Subjects
Subject: Okra -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography : p. 10-11.
Statement of Responsibility: R.D. William ... et al..
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00049246
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 10736426

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
    Planting dates and planning
        Page 3
    Variety selection
        Page 3
    Field plowing and liming
        Page 3
    Introduction
        Page 3
    Nematode control
        Page 4
    Fertilizing and side dressing
        Page 5
    Planting seed and irrigating
        Page 6
    Use pesticides carefully
        Page 6
    Weed control
        Page 6
    Insect control
        Page 7
    Disease prevention
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Harvesting, grading and packing
        Page 10
    Sources of additional information
        Page 10
    Metric and English units
        Page 11
    Back Cover
        Page 12
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




/ APRIL 1982


I ~ -:


OKRA IN FLORIDA
-. A SMALL-FARM PRODUCTION GUIDE


Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florida / John T. Woeste, Dean









CONTENTS AND OKRA PRODUCTION CALENDAR
Dates for
Topic Page Completion
INTRODUCTION ........ ............ ............
PLANTING DATES AND PLANNING ...........
VARIETY SELECTION .......................
Okra varieties and characteristics ..............
FIELD SELECTION AND SOIL TESTING ........
PLOWING AND LIMING .....................
NEMATODE CONTROL.........................
Fumigant-type nematicides for okra ............
FERTILIZING AND SIDEDRESSING ............
PLANTING SEED AND IRRIGATION ...........
USE PESTICIDES CAREFULLY ................___
WEED CONTROL ....... ................. ......
Herbicides for okra ...........................
INSECT CONTROL .............................
Insecticides for okra ..........................
DISEASE PREVENTION ........................
Preventing diseases of okra...................
HARVESTING, GRADING, AND PACKING ......
SOURCES OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ....
METRIC AND ENGLISH UNITS ................ _







Design, layout and illustration by Laurie A. Walsh.

R. D. William, Former Assistant Professor & Extension Vegetable Specialist
W. M. Stall, Associate Professor & Extension Vegetable Specialist
R. A. Dunn, Associate Professor & Extension Nematologist
F. A. Johnson, Associate Professor and Extension Entomologist
G. W. Simone, Assistant Professor and Extension Plant Pathologist.


Acknowledgements: The authors express their sincere thanks to L. H. Halsey and other faculty members of
the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) who provided information or suggestions for the
preparations of this guide. Also, we thank C. W. Obern for providing leadership in developing the slide/tape
entitled, "Growing Okra for Profit", ST-146 & 147. Support from the IFAS Center for Rural Development is
acknowledged.









OKRA IN FLORIDA


INTRODUCTION

Okra is commonly grown by market gardeners for
fresh market sales or for processing in Florida. Okra
harvest begins about 60 days after planting and
may continue for several months. A regular supply
of labor is needed to pick okra every 2 to 3 days.
Yields of 400 to 600 bushels per acre of okra can
be harvested for fresh market sales in Florida. Nor-
mal production costs without labor will range from
$800 to $1200 per acre. Labor costs will vary with
yield per acre. Before planting okra, develop your
market and know where to sell the produce.



PLANTING DATES AND PLANNING
Okra grows best during the warm season. Plant
okra after soil temperatures have warmed to at least
60*F (16C). Note the correct dates of planting
listed in the chart. Planting earlier frequently
results in poor germination and low yields.

Planting Dates for Okra in Florida


North Florida:
Central Florida:
South Florida:


March to June
February to August
January to March
August to October


After deciding what to plant, complete your okra
production calendar. Each production step is impor-
tant and must be done at the right time. Mark the
dates on your calendar to help plan each step in
growing quality okra for fresh market.


VARIETY SELECTION
Select okra varieties based on buyer demand and
yield. Always buy quality seed with high germina-
tion rates listed on the seed tag. Note the seed qual-
ity test dates to avoid buying old seed that may
have reduced germination and vigor.
Either buy seed treated with fungicide or buy the
fungicide to treat okra seed yourself. Fungicide
treatment reduces seed rot and decay during
sprouting and emergence. Handle the treated seed
carefully because the fungicide is poisonous.

FIELD SELECTION AND SOIL TESTING
Okra will grow in most Florida soils. Select a well-
drained soil that can be irrigated during dry periods.
Avoid fields infested with soilborne diseases or high
populations of nematodes. Rotate fields and crops;
grow okra following grain crops or pastures.
Have your soil tested 3 to 4 months before plant-
ing by obtaining a Soil Test Mailer Kit from your
County Extension Agent. Follow the instructions
for preparing and sending your samples, and mail
them along with $3 per sample to the Soil Testing
Laboratory at the University of Florida. After 2 to 4
weeks, you will receive a Soil Test Report from
either the laboratory or your County Agent. The
results of this test will help you decide which kind
and quantity of lime and fertilizer to buy. Annual
soil tests are suggested for best lime and fertilizer
management.

PLOWING AND LIMING
Okra grows best when the soil is disc-plowed 2 to
3 months before planting. Plowing early helps rot
plant debris and reduces some nematodes and


Okra Varieties and Characteristics

Pod Color Plant
Variety and Shape Height Remarks
Clemson Spineless Rich green; short taper dt 4 to 5 A standard variety
tip with ridges; uniform. feet in Florida. Plants are
relatively free of
spines.

Emerald Emerald green; 3 to 4 Pods remain
long and smoothly feet tender even at
rounded. large size.
Dwarf Long Dark green; tapered 2.5 to 3
Green Pod and slightly ridged. feet
Perkins Dwarf Dark green; tapered 2.5 to 3
Spineless and slightly ridged, feet









OKRA IN FLORIDA


INTRODUCTION

Okra is commonly grown by market gardeners for
fresh market sales or for processing in Florida. Okra
harvest begins about 60 days after planting and
may continue for several months. A regular supply
of labor is needed to pick okra every 2 to 3 days.
Yields of 400 to 600 bushels per acre of okra can
be harvested for fresh market sales in Florida. Nor-
mal production costs without labor will range from
$800 to $1200 per acre. Labor costs will vary with
yield per acre. Before planting okra, develop your
market and know where to sell the produce.



PLANTING DATES AND PLANNING
Okra grows best during the warm season. Plant
okra after soil temperatures have warmed to at least
60*F (16C). Note the correct dates of planting
listed in the chart. Planting earlier frequently
results in poor germination and low yields.

Planting Dates for Okra in Florida


North Florida:
Central Florida:
South Florida:


March to June
February to August
January to March
August to October


After deciding what to plant, complete your okra
production calendar. Each production step is impor-
tant and must be done at the right time. Mark the
dates on your calendar to help plan each step in
growing quality okra for fresh market.


VARIETY SELECTION
Select okra varieties based on buyer demand and
yield. Always buy quality seed with high germina-
tion rates listed on the seed tag. Note the seed qual-
ity test dates to avoid buying old seed that may
have reduced germination and vigor.
Either buy seed treated with fungicide or buy the
fungicide to treat okra seed yourself. Fungicide
treatment reduces seed rot and decay during
sprouting and emergence. Handle the treated seed
carefully because the fungicide is poisonous.

FIELD SELECTION AND SOIL TESTING
Okra will grow in most Florida soils. Select a well-
drained soil that can be irrigated during dry periods.
Avoid fields infested with soilborne diseases or high
populations of nematodes. Rotate fields and crops;
grow okra following grain crops or pastures.
Have your soil tested 3 to 4 months before plant-
ing by obtaining a Soil Test Mailer Kit from your
County Extension Agent. Follow the instructions
for preparing and sending your samples, and mail
them along with $3 per sample to the Soil Testing
Laboratory at the University of Florida. After 2 to 4
weeks, you will receive a Soil Test Report from
either the laboratory or your County Agent. The
results of this test will help you decide which kind
and quantity of lime and fertilizer to buy. Annual
soil tests are suggested for best lime and fertilizer
management.

PLOWING AND LIMING
Okra grows best when the soil is disc-plowed 2 to
3 months before planting. Plowing early helps rot
plant debris and reduces some nematodes and


Okra Varieties and Characteristics

Pod Color Plant
Variety and Shape Height Remarks
Clemson Spineless Rich green; short taper dt 4 to 5 A standard variety
tip with ridges; uniform. feet in Florida. Plants are
relatively free of
spines.

Emerald Emerald green; 3 to 4 Pods remain
long and smoothly feet tender even at
rounded. large size.
Dwarf Long Dark green; tapered 2.5 to 3
Green Pod and slightly ridged. feet
Perkins Dwarf Dark green; tapered 2.5 to 3
Spineless and slightly ridged, feet









OKRA IN FLORIDA


INTRODUCTION

Okra is commonly grown by market gardeners for
fresh market sales or for processing in Florida. Okra
harvest begins about 60 days after planting and
may continue for several months. A regular supply
of labor is needed to pick okra every 2 to 3 days.
Yields of 400 to 600 bushels per acre of okra can
be harvested for fresh market sales in Florida. Nor-
mal production costs without labor will range from
$800 to $1200 per acre. Labor costs will vary with
yield per acre. Before planting okra, develop your
market and know where to sell the produce.



PLANTING DATES AND PLANNING
Okra grows best during the warm season. Plant
okra after soil temperatures have warmed to at least
60*F (16C). Note the correct dates of planting
listed in the chart. Planting earlier frequently
results in poor germination and low yields.

Planting Dates for Okra in Florida


North Florida:
Central Florida:
South Florida:


March to June
February to August
January to March
August to October


After deciding what to plant, complete your okra
production calendar. Each production step is impor-
tant and must be done at the right time. Mark the
dates on your calendar to help plan each step in
growing quality okra for fresh market.


VARIETY SELECTION
Select okra varieties based on buyer demand and
yield. Always buy quality seed with high germina-
tion rates listed on the seed tag. Note the seed qual-
ity test dates to avoid buying old seed that may
have reduced germination and vigor.
Either buy seed treated with fungicide or buy the
fungicide to treat okra seed yourself. Fungicide
treatment reduces seed rot and decay during
sprouting and emergence. Handle the treated seed
carefully because the fungicide is poisonous.

FIELD SELECTION AND SOIL TESTING
Okra will grow in most Florida soils. Select a well-
drained soil that can be irrigated during dry periods.
Avoid fields infested with soilborne diseases or high
populations of nematodes. Rotate fields and crops;
grow okra following grain crops or pastures.
Have your soil tested 3 to 4 months before plant-
ing by obtaining a Soil Test Mailer Kit from your
County Extension Agent. Follow the instructions
for preparing and sending your samples, and mail
them along with $3 per sample to the Soil Testing
Laboratory at the University of Florida. After 2 to 4
weeks, you will receive a Soil Test Report from
either the laboratory or your County Agent. The
results of this test will help you decide which kind
and quantity of lime and fertilizer to buy. Annual
soil tests are suggested for best lime and fertilizer
management.

PLOWING AND LIMING
Okra grows best when the soil is disc-plowed 2 to
3 months before planting. Plowing early helps rot
plant debris and reduces some nematodes and


Okra Varieties and Characteristics

Pod Color Plant
Variety and Shape Height Remarks
Clemson Spineless Rich green; short taper dt 4 to 5 A standard variety
tip with ridges; uniform. feet in Florida. Plants are
relatively free of
spines.

Emerald Emerald green; 3 to 4 Pods remain
long and smoothly feet tender even at
rounded. large size.
Dwarf Long Dark green; tapered 2.5 to 3
Green Pod and slightly ridged. feet
Perkins Dwarf Dark green; tapered 2.5 to 3
Spineless and slightly ridged, feet









OKRA IN FLORIDA


INTRODUCTION

Okra is commonly grown by market gardeners for
fresh market sales or for processing in Florida. Okra
harvest begins about 60 days after planting and
may continue for several months. A regular supply
of labor is needed to pick okra every 2 to 3 days.
Yields of 400 to 600 bushels per acre of okra can
be harvested for fresh market sales in Florida. Nor-
mal production costs without labor will range from
$800 to $1200 per acre. Labor costs will vary with
yield per acre. Before planting okra, develop your
market and know where to sell the produce.



PLANTING DATES AND PLANNING
Okra grows best during the warm season. Plant
okra after soil temperatures have warmed to at least
60*F (16C). Note the correct dates of planting
listed in the chart. Planting earlier frequently
results in poor germination and low yields.

Planting Dates for Okra in Florida


North Florida:
Central Florida:
South Florida:


March to June
February to August
January to March
August to October


After deciding what to plant, complete your okra
production calendar. Each production step is impor-
tant and must be done at the right time. Mark the
dates on your calendar to help plan each step in
growing quality okra for fresh market.


VARIETY SELECTION
Select okra varieties based on buyer demand and
yield. Always buy quality seed with high germina-
tion rates listed on the seed tag. Note the seed qual-
ity test dates to avoid buying old seed that may
have reduced germination and vigor.
Either buy seed treated with fungicide or buy the
fungicide to treat okra seed yourself. Fungicide
treatment reduces seed rot and decay during
sprouting and emergence. Handle the treated seed
carefully because the fungicide is poisonous.

FIELD SELECTION AND SOIL TESTING
Okra will grow in most Florida soils. Select a well-
drained soil that can be irrigated during dry periods.
Avoid fields infested with soilborne diseases or high
populations of nematodes. Rotate fields and crops;
grow okra following grain crops or pastures.
Have your soil tested 3 to 4 months before plant-
ing by obtaining a Soil Test Mailer Kit from your
County Extension Agent. Follow the instructions
for preparing and sending your samples, and mail
them along with $3 per sample to the Soil Testing
Laboratory at the University of Florida. After 2 to 4
weeks, you will receive a Soil Test Report from
either the laboratory or your County Agent. The
results of this test will help you decide which kind
and quantity of lime and fertilizer to buy. Annual
soil tests are suggested for best lime and fertilizer
management.

PLOWING AND LIMING
Okra grows best when the soil is disc-plowed 2 to
3 months before planting. Plowing early helps rot
plant debris and reduces some nematodes and


Okra Varieties and Characteristics

Pod Color Plant
Variety and Shape Height Remarks
Clemson Spineless Rich green; short taper dt 4 to 5 A standard variety
tip with ridges; uniform. feet in Florida. Plants are
relatively free of
spines.

Emerald Emerald green; 3 to 4 Pods remain
long and smoothly feet tender even at
rounded. large size.
Dwarf Long Dark green; tapered 2.5 to 3
Green Pod and slightly ridged. feet
Perkins Dwarf Dark green; tapered 2.5 to 3
Spineless and slightly ridged, feet









OKRA IN FLORIDA


INTRODUCTION

Okra is commonly grown by market gardeners for
fresh market sales or for processing in Florida. Okra
harvest begins about 60 days after planting and
may continue for several months. A regular supply
of labor is needed to pick okra every 2 to 3 days.
Yields of 400 to 600 bushels per acre of okra can
be harvested for fresh market sales in Florida. Nor-
mal production costs without labor will range from
$800 to $1200 per acre. Labor costs will vary with
yield per acre. Before planting okra, develop your
market and know where to sell the produce.



PLANTING DATES AND PLANNING
Okra grows best during the warm season. Plant
okra after soil temperatures have warmed to at least
60*F (16C). Note the correct dates of planting
listed in the chart. Planting earlier frequently
results in poor germination and low yields.

Planting Dates for Okra in Florida


North Florida:
Central Florida:
South Florida:


March to June
February to August
January to March
August to October


After deciding what to plant, complete your okra
production calendar. Each production step is impor-
tant and must be done at the right time. Mark the
dates on your calendar to help plan each step in
growing quality okra for fresh market.


VARIETY SELECTION
Select okra varieties based on buyer demand and
yield. Always buy quality seed with high germina-
tion rates listed on the seed tag. Note the seed qual-
ity test dates to avoid buying old seed that may
have reduced germination and vigor.
Either buy seed treated with fungicide or buy the
fungicide to treat okra seed yourself. Fungicide
treatment reduces seed rot and decay during
sprouting and emergence. Handle the treated seed
carefully because the fungicide is poisonous.

FIELD SELECTION AND SOIL TESTING
Okra will grow in most Florida soils. Select a well-
drained soil that can be irrigated during dry periods.
Avoid fields infested with soilborne diseases or high
populations of nematodes. Rotate fields and crops;
grow okra following grain crops or pastures.
Have your soil tested 3 to 4 months before plant-
ing by obtaining a Soil Test Mailer Kit from your
County Extension Agent. Follow the instructions
for preparing and sending your samples, and mail
them along with $3 per sample to the Soil Testing
Laboratory at the University of Florida. After 2 to 4
weeks, you will receive a Soil Test Report from
either the laboratory or your County Agent. The
results of this test will help you decide which kind
and quantity of lime and fertilizer to buy. Annual
soil tests are suggested for best lime and fertilizer
management.

PLOWING AND LIMING
Okra grows best when the soil is disc-plowed 2 to
3 months before planting. Plowing early helps rot
plant debris and reduces some nematodes and


Okra Varieties and Characteristics

Pod Color Plant
Variety and Shape Height Remarks
Clemson Spineless Rich green; short taper dt 4 to 5 A standard variety
tip with ridges; uniform. feet in Florida. Plants are
relatively free of
spines.

Emerald Emerald green; 3 to 4 Pods remain
long and smoothly feet tender even at
rounded. large size.
Dwarf Long Dark green; tapered 2.5 to 3
Green Pod and slightly ridged. feet
Perkins Dwarf Dark green; tapered 2.5 to 3
Spineless and slightly ridged, feet






soilborne diseases. Also, lime can be applied more
evenly to a plowed soil than to a field covered with
plant debris.
Except for marl and rockland soils, most Florida
soils are "sour" or acid and need to be limed before
planting. When the Soil Test Report shows a pH
below 6.0 or low amounts of calcium (Ca) or
magnesium (Mg), limestone application will be sug-
gested to improve okra production. The best ratio of
calcium and magnesium in your soil is about 5 Ca to
1 Mg.
Apply dolomite limestone when the report shows
that magnesium is low or the ratio of calcium to
magnesium in your soil is low. If your soil contains
enough magnesium, apply a lime material contain-
ing calcium. About 1 ton of limestone is needed to
raise the pH of sandy soils 1 unit. Apply these
limestone materials evenly and mix into the top 6
inches of soil 2 to 3 months before planting.

NEMATODE CONTROL
Nematodes are tiny, microscopic worms that live
on plant roots and survive in the soil. Root-knot and
sting nematodes which are common in Florida can


Many types of nematodes can reduce okra
quality and yields. This photo shows galls on
roots caused by root-knot nematode.


cause okra to wilt and appear stunted; roots may
also rot prematurely. Because okra is especially sen-
sitive to them, nematodes often cause low yields and
quality, slow growth to the first harvest, and a short
harvest season.
Before okra is planted, check your folds for nema-
todes. If you lack knowledge about possible nema-
tode infestations, obtain a Nematode Sample kit
from your local County Extension Office and follow
the sampling instructions to prepare a soil sample
for analysis. Send your samples and $5 for each sam-
ple to the Nematode Assay Laboratory at the Uni-
versity of Florida in Gainesville. The types of nema-
todes, population levels, and suggested control
methods will be reported to you.
Whenever possible, select fields that contain low
populations of nematodes. Fields rotated with pure
stands of grass, pastures, and corn or small grains
often contain fewer root-knot nematodes. However,
if nematode populations are moderate or high, a
nematicide should be applied. Begin by plowing the
field 2 to 3 months before planting to completely rot
weeds and plant trash. Read the product label
carefully for application details. Note all safety
precautions and handle each chemical with extreme
care. These nematicides can cause serious skin
burns, eye injury, or internal poisoning if handled
carelessly.
Fumigant nematicides listed in the next table are
injected into the soil as liquids, where they form a
gas which spreads through the soil to kill nematodes
in a 12-inch circular core within the row. About 2 to
3 weeks before your planned planting date, prepare
a loose seedbed with proper soil moisture for seed
germination. Soil temperatures 6 inches deep should
be 50* to 85"F. The fumigant will spread through
the soil slowly at low temperatures, so the exposure
period must be extended. The gas may escape too
fast to kill nematodes at high temperatures.
Liquid fumigants can be applied over the entire
field (broadcast) or in rows within plant beds. If
root-knot nematode populations are high, broadcast
the fumigant using chisels or coulter applicators
spaced 12 inches apart and 6 to 8 inches deep. After
application, smooth or pack the soil surface with a
roller, drag, or culti-packer to "seal" the soil and slow
the escape of fumigant. A light surface irrigation
(wet soil 1/2-inch deep) also helps to retain soil
fumigant, but is not adequate by itself.
Low populations of root-knot and most other
nematodes can be controlled by injecting one or two
bands of fumigant within the row before bedding.
For row application, inject the nematicide 2 to 6
inches deep and form a bed 8 to 10 inches high im-
mediately after injection to seal the nematicide in
the soil.
Do not disturb the soil during the exposure period
stated in the Nematicide Table. Plant okra anytime








Fumigant Nematicides for Okra

Broadcast or Overall Treatment Row (36-inch spacing)' Exposure Periods2
Fl. oz./chisel Fl. oz./chisel After treatment,
per 1000 per 1000 leave soil
linear ft. linear ft. undisturbed
Fumigant (12-inch between for
nematicides Gal./Acre outlets) Gal./Acre at least:
D-D 20-25 59-73 9-11 79-973 14 to 18 days
Telone II 12-15 35-44 5.2-7.0 46-623 10 days
Soilbrom 40 13.5-18.0 40-53 4.5-6.0 40-53 7 days
Soilbrom 85 or 4.5-6.0 13-18 1.5-2.0 13-18 7 days
Dowfume W-85
Soilbrom 90 or 3.4-4.5 10-13 1.1-1.5 10-13 7 days
Dowfume W-90

If rows are spaced further apart, less fumigant will be needed for each acre of field treated. Calculate the amount of fumigant need-
ed per acre by multiplying the broadcast rate by the fraction of total surface area treated.
2 These are shortest waiting periods. If soil is wet or cold during the exposure period, more time may be needed for nematicide fumes
to escape from the soil. To aid evaporation and escape of fumes after these exposure periods are complete, use shallow cultivation and
form beds where soil was treated by broadcast fumigation or scrape 2-3 inches of soil from tops of beds formed during row fumigation.
3 Rates are listed for only one fumigant outlet (chisel or coulter) per row. If using two or more outlets per row, space outlets 12 in-
ches apart and use rates per outlet listed for broadcast treatments.

after completion of the exposure period if the soil is
free of the fumigant smell. However, if the soil a
temperature has remained below 60'F (16*C) or
been wet, mix the soil before planting. In a field f .
treated with broadcast fumigants, shallow cultiva- ,
tion or the process of forming beds should enable
fumes to escape. To aerate soil after row fumigation,
drag 2-3 inches of soil from the beds formed during
row application. Allow another day or two for any
remaining fumigant to escape. When aerating the
soil, avoid (1) deep cultivation and (2) mixing treated
soil with untreated soil which may contain
nematodes.

FERTILIZING AND SIDEDRESSING
A complete fertilizer containing nitrogen (N),
phosphate (P205), and potash (K20) should be broad- "
cast or applied in bands about 2 feet wide and mixed
into the soil while planting okra. Fertilizer can also
be placed in narrow bands 2 to 4 inches away from
the seed row and slightly below the level of the seed
if proper equipment is available. Avoid placing fer-
tilizer too close to okra seed to prevent root injury
from fertilizer salts.
In addition to a complete fertilizer, vegetables
need small amounts of micronutrients including <
manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc(Zn) and ,S.
boron (B). A complete fertilizer containing
micronutrients can be purchased. In Dade County,
10 lbs. per acre of soluble magnesium (Mg), and all A simple gravity-flow applicator can be built for
micronutrients should be applied with the complete $150 to $300 to apply fumigant nematicides if you
fertilizer on marl and rockland soils. own a toolbar and tractor.







The total amount of nitrogen, phosphate and
potash needed for planting is listed in the following
chart. Apply the amount listed if your soil test
results show low levels of P20, and K20 or you lack
soil test results. If your soil test results show
medium or high levels of either P20, or K20, adjust
the application rates as suggested on the report. A
good practice following fumigation is to apply 10 to
20 lbs. per acre of nitrogen in the nitrate (NO) form
and the rest in the ammonium (NH) form.


Okra Fertilization


Soil Amount needed
type at planting
Mineral soils' (lbs. N-P2,-K20/acre)
with irrigation 108-144-144
without irrigation 73-96-96
Peat and muck soils2 0-60-120
Marl 54-72-72
Rockland 45-60-60

1 Adjust the rates of P205 and K20 depending on soil test
results. Application of 1800 lbs. 6-8-8 fertilizer provides 108 lbs.
N and 144 lbs. each P205 and K20 for irrigated okra, whereas
1200 lbs. 6-8-8 supplies the 72-96-96. High analysis fertilizers
may be less expensive. They should be used at the recommended
rates of N-P205-K20.
2 The amount of fertilizer suggested here is the amount need-
ed for organic P205 and K20. When soil tests show a medium
level of P205 and in an organic soil, reduce the amount of P205
by one-third and when soil P205 levels are high, reduce by two-
thirds. Follow the same suggestions for medium and high levels
of K20.

Additional fertilizer can be sidedressed after
planting if leaching rains occur. Apply 30 lbs. each
of nitrogen and potash per acre every 3 weeks until
flowering. Place the fertililizer about 2 to 3 inches
deep, but far enough away from the plants to keep
from cutting or burning roots. You can cultivate
with a rolling cultivator or sweeps at the same time.

PLANTING SEED AND IRRIGATING
Okra can be planted on raised beds 4 to 8 inches
high. If a row fumigant was applied, the raised bed
should have been formed at that time. Space rows 3
to 5 feet apart to provide space for harvesting. Seed
should be spaced 4 to 10 inches apart in the row.
Plant the seed 1/2 to 1 inch deep in moist soil.
Depending on row spacing, 15 to 30 lbs. of seed will
be needed to plant an acre at 36-inch row spacings.
Highest yields of quality okra can be harvested
when about 1 acre-inch of rain and/or irrigation
water is available every 7 to 10 days for most soils in
Florida. Check the soil often for adequate moisture
and irrigate when it begins to dry.


Look carefully for insects or diseases every 3 to
4 days.


USE PESTICIDES CAREFULLY
Watch for pests or problems by walking through
the fields every few days. Look carefully for signs of
insects and other pests, or poor plant growth. Once
in awhile, dig or uncover a few roots to look for in-
sects or diseases. Learn to identify the important
pests of okra. Then, select the right method to con-
trol the pest before it damages your crop.
Read the pesticide label and instructions before
each use. Follow all cautions and warnings. Keep all
pesticides in the original container or package. Store
in a safe, dry place that is kept locked. Keep out of
the reach of children. Get rid of empty packages or
containers by following the instructions on the
label. Note carefully the time interval between the
last chemical application and harvest.

WEED CONTROL
Pesticide labels and regulations change often. Ask
your County Agent or local farm supply dealer
about lawful pesticide uses for okra production.
Soon after planting okra, weeds will begin to
sprout and grow. When the okra and weeds are
small, tilling with a rolling cultivator will kill most
small weeds. Later, use sweeps and cultivators or
rolling cultivars set to cover small weeds within the
row. However, throwing too much soil directly
against the okra stems can increase stem rots and
decay.
Herbicides also can be applied to control weeds in
okra fields, but they can harm your crop if applied
incorrectly. Follow the instructions printed on the







The total amount of nitrogen, phosphate and
potash needed for planting is listed in the following
chart. Apply the amount listed if your soil test
results show low levels of P20, and K20 or you lack
soil test results. If your soil test results show
medium or high levels of either P20, or K20, adjust
the application rates as suggested on the report. A
good practice following fumigation is to apply 10 to
20 lbs. per acre of nitrogen in the nitrate (NO) form
and the rest in the ammonium (NH) form.


Okra Fertilization


Soil Amount needed
type at planting
Mineral soils' (lbs. N-P2,-K20/acre)
with irrigation 108-144-144
without irrigation 73-96-96
Peat and muck soils2 0-60-120
Marl 54-72-72
Rockland 45-60-60

1 Adjust the rates of P205 and K20 depending on soil test
results. Application of 1800 lbs. 6-8-8 fertilizer provides 108 lbs.
N and 144 lbs. each P205 and K20 for irrigated okra, whereas
1200 lbs. 6-8-8 supplies the 72-96-96. High analysis fertilizers
may be less expensive. They should be used at the recommended
rates of N-P205-K20.
2 The amount of fertilizer suggested here is the amount need-
ed for organic P205 and K20. When soil tests show a medium
level of P205 and in an organic soil, reduce the amount of P205
by one-third and when soil P205 levels are high, reduce by two-
thirds. Follow the same suggestions for medium and high levels
of K20.

Additional fertilizer can be sidedressed after
planting if leaching rains occur. Apply 30 lbs. each
of nitrogen and potash per acre every 3 weeks until
flowering. Place the fertililizer about 2 to 3 inches
deep, but far enough away from the plants to keep
from cutting or burning roots. You can cultivate
with a rolling cultivator or sweeps at the same time.

PLANTING SEED AND IRRIGATING
Okra can be planted on raised beds 4 to 8 inches
high. If a row fumigant was applied, the raised bed
should have been formed at that time. Space rows 3
to 5 feet apart to provide space for harvesting. Seed
should be spaced 4 to 10 inches apart in the row.
Plant the seed 1/2 to 1 inch deep in moist soil.
Depending on row spacing, 15 to 30 lbs. of seed will
be needed to plant an acre at 36-inch row spacings.
Highest yields of quality okra can be harvested
when about 1 acre-inch of rain and/or irrigation
water is available every 7 to 10 days for most soils in
Florida. Check the soil often for adequate moisture
and irrigate when it begins to dry.


Look carefully for insects or diseases every 3 to
4 days.


USE PESTICIDES CAREFULLY
Watch for pests or problems by walking through
the fields every few days. Look carefully for signs of
insects and other pests, or poor plant growth. Once
in awhile, dig or uncover a few roots to look for in-
sects or diseases. Learn to identify the important
pests of okra. Then, select the right method to con-
trol the pest before it damages your crop.
Read the pesticide label and instructions before
each use. Follow all cautions and warnings. Keep all
pesticides in the original container or package. Store
in a safe, dry place that is kept locked. Keep out of
the reach of children. Get rid of empty packages or
containers by following the instructions on the
label. Note carefully the time interval between the
last chemical application and harvest.

WEED CONTROL
Pesticide labels and regulations change often. Ask
your County Agent or local farm supply dealer
about lawful pesticide uses for okra production.
Soon after planting okra, weeds will begin to
sprout and grow. When the okra and weeds are
small, tilling with a rolling cultivator will kill most
small weeds. Later, use sweeps and cultivators or
rolling cultivars set to cover small weeds within the
row. However, throwing too much soil directly
against the okra stems can increase stem rots and
decay.
Herbicides also can be applied to control weeds in
okra fields, but they can harm your crop if applied
incorrectly. Follow the instructions printed on the







The total amount of nitrogen, phosphate and
potash needed for planting is listed in the following
chart. Apply the amount listed if your soil test
results show low levels of P20, and K20 or you lack
soil test results. If your soil test results show
medium or high levels of either P20, or K20, adjust
the application rates as suggested on the report. A
good practice following fumigation is to apply 10 to
20 lbs. per acre of nitrogen in the nitrate (NO) form
and the rest in the ammonium (NH) form.


Okra Fertilization


Soil Amount needed
type at planting
Mineral soils' (lbs. N-P2,-K20/acre)
with irrigation 108-144-144
without irrigation 73-96-96
Peat and muck soils2 0-60-120
Marl 54-72-72
Rockland 45-60-60

1 Adjust the rates of P205 and K20 depending on soil test
results. Application of 1800 lbs. 6-8-8 fertilizer provides 108 lbs.
N and 144 lbs. each P205 and K20 for irrigated okra, whereas
1200 lbs. 6-8-8 supplies the 72-96-96. High analysis fertilizers
may be less expensive. They should be used at the recommended
rates of N-P205-K20.
2 The amount of fertilizer suggested here is the amount need-
ed for organic P205 and K20. When soil tests show a medium
level of P205 and in an organic soil, reduce the amount of P205
by one-third and when soil P205 levels are high, reduce by two-
thirds. Follow the same suggestions for medium and high levels
of K20.

Additional fertilizer can be sidedressed after
planting if leaching rains occur. Apply 30 lbs. each
of nitrogen and potash per acre every 3 weeks until
flowering. Place the fertililizer about 2 to 3 inches
deep, but far enough away from the plants to keep
from cutting or burning roots. You can cultivate
with a rolling cultivator or sweeps at the same time.

PLANTING SEED AND IRRIGATING
Okra can be planted on raised beds 4 to 8 inches
high. If a row fumigant was applied, the raised bed
should have been formed at that time. Space rows 3
to 5 feet apart to provide space for harvesting. Seed
should be spaced 4 to 10 inches apart in the row.
Plant the seed 1/2 to 1 inch deep in moist soil.
Depending on row spacing, 15 to 30 lbs. of seed will
be needed to plant an acre at 36-inch row spacings.
Highest yields of quality okra can be harvested
when about 1 acre-inch of rain and/or irrigation
water is available every 7 to 10 days for most soils in
Florida. Check the soil often for adequate moisture
and irrigate when it begins to dry.


Look carefully for insects or diseases every 3 to
4 days.


USE PESTICIDES CAREFULLY
Watch for pests or problems by walking through
the fields every few days. Look carefully for signs of
insects and other pests, or poor plant growth. Once
in awhile, dig or uncover a few roots to look for in-
sects or diseases. Learn to identify the important
pests of okra. Then, select the right method to con-
trol the pest before it damages your crop.
Read the pesticide label and instructions before
each use. Follow all cautions and warnings. Keep all
pesticides in the original container or package. Store
in a safe, dry place that is kept locked. Keep out of
the reach of children. Get rid of empty packages or
containers by following the instructions on the
label. Note carefully the time interval between the
last chemical application and harvest.

WEED CONTROL
Pesticide labels and regulations change often. Ask
your County Agent or local farm supply dealer
about lawful pesticide uses for okra production.
Soon after planting okra, weeds will begin to
sprout and grow. When the okra and weeds are
small, tilling with a rolling cultivator will kill most
small weeds. Later, use sweeps and cultivators or
rolling cultivars set to cover small weeds within the
row. However, throwing too much soil directly
against the okra stems can increase stem rots and
decay.
Herbicides also can be applied to control weeds in
okra fields, but they can harm your crop if applied
incorrectly. Follow the instructions printed on the







Herbicides for Okra1

Time of Amount of
Application Product/Acre
Herbicide to Crop Sandy Soils Remarks and Limitations
Diphenamid Preemergence 10 lbs. Controls germinating annuals. Apply at
planting and incorporate with brief irriga-
tion or shallow cultivation 0.5 to 2 inches
deep. Note precautions of planting non-
registered crops within 6 months.
Trifluralin Preplant incorporate 1 to 2 Controls germinating annuals, especially
(Treflan EC) pints grasses. Incorporate 2-3 inches within 8
hours. Weed control has been erratic on
some soils in Florida. Note label precau-
tions of planting non-registered crops
within 5 months.
Profluralin Preplant incorporate 1 to 2 Use on trial basis. Controls germinating
(Tolban 4E) pints annuals, especially grasses. Incorporate 4
to 6 inches within 4 hours. Note label
precautions for planting non-registered
crops.

When applying new herbicides or using these chemicals for first time, apply to a small trial area.


label and apply herbicides at exactly the right rate
and time. Herbicides listed in the following chart
can be used to control most weeds that sprout from
seeds in okra fields.

INSECT CONTROL
Only a few insects injure okra. Those that attack
young pods can reduce yields and quality of your
okra crop. Insect pests that injure okra leaves
usually cause little injury or yield loss.
Learn to identify the insects that attack okra. In-
spect your field two times per week by checking dif-
-ferent parts of the field each time. Inspect both
sides of the leaves, buds, stems and pods for insects
or signs of pest damage.


ILh-"' I


The climbing cutworm eats the stems of many
vegetables. Plant stands and yields are reduced.


r..


Aphids are small Insects that suck Juices from
plants reducing okra pod quality.


The green stinkbug also sucks Juices from okra
plants. Pods may become curved or pimpled from
stinkbug feeding.








Insecticides for Okra


Insecticide Name Amount to Apply Minimum Days
Insect and Formulation' per Acre to Harvest
Aphids + parathion 4E % to 1% pts. 21
+ mevinphos (Phosdrin) 4E to /2 pt. 1
malathion 5E 1/2 pts.
Corn earworm carbaryl (Sevin) 80WP 1 to 21/2 lbs. Day of Harvest
+ mevinphos (Phosdrin) 4E to 1 pt. 1
Okra caterpillar + parathion 4E % to 1% pts. 21
Stinkbugs carbaryl (Sevin) 80WP 1 to 2/2 lbs. Day of Harvest
+ mevinphos (Phosdrin) 4E /2 to 1 pt. 1
Cutworms + mevinphos (Phosdrin) 4E to 1 pt. 1
(climbing) carbaryl (sevin) 5%B 40 lbs. Day of Harvest
Mites + mevinphos (Phosdrin) 4E to 1 pt. 1
Wireworms + parathion 2% bait 50 lbs. Preplant
+ parathion 10% granules 30 to 40 lbs. Broadcast before
planting and incorporate
6 inches
SOther formulations are sometimes available and can be used instead of listed chemicals. Read the label and apply the correct
amount stated on the package. Insecticides listed with a cross (+) are restricted for use only by certified applicators who have passed a
test and carry a "certified pesticide applicator license".


If you find insect pests that harm okra, apply one
of the insecticides listed in the table. Apply these in-
secticides only when pest populations reach damag-
ing levels. Avoid killing beneficial insects with un-
necessary application of insecticides. A couple of
days after application, begin inspecting the field
again. Wait until the infestation again becomes a
threat to your okra, before reapplying insecticides.

DISEASE PREVENTION
Most diseases that attack okra can be prevented
by rotating crops and fields, and treating seed with
fungicides. Learn to identify the common diseases
of okra so you can recognize them while inspecting
your fields.

Damping-off is caused by common fungi (Pythium
and Rhizoctonia) that live in the soil. These
soilborne fungi reduce plant stands or populations
by rotting the seed or stems of seedlings during
sprouting and emergence of many vegetable crops.
Reduced stands and erratic populations result in
poor yields and reduced profits.

Southern blight is another common disease which
attacks many vegetables and other plants. The
soilborne fungus (Sclerotium rolfsii) can kill young
seedlings or mature plants by rotting the stem at or
just below the soil surface, usually during warm and
rainy weather. Young seedlings "damp-off' while


mature plants wilt rapidly and die. A white web-like
mat of mycelium and small seed-like structures
known as sclerotia can be observed on the stem near
the soil surface. The sclerotia turn from white to tan
as they mature.

Verticillium wilt is caused by another soilborne
fungus (Verticillium albo-atrum) that causes both
young and mature okra plants to wilt and die.
Symptoms first appear as wilting and drying along
the edges of older leaves, followed by an upward leaf
roll before they drop from the plant. Internal brown-
ing or discoloration of the conductive or vascular
tissue can be seen just inside the bark when the
stem is cut lengthwise.

Powdery mildew is a leaf disease which occurs in
cool, humid weather. The fungus (Erysiphe cichor-
acearum) commonly appears as a white, powdery
growth on the underside of older leaves. Infected
leaves roll upward along the midrib. Powdery
mildew is more serious in South Florida, but rarely
reduces yields.

Wet rot is a frequent, but minor disease that rots
okra flowers and pods. The fungus (Choanephora
cucurbitarum) appears as a white, whisker-like
growth with black heads.
To reduce or prevent losses caused by these
diseases, consider the following cultural and pre-
ventative practices:







Preventing Diseases of Okra


Disease Control Method Remarks
Damping-off Rot plant debris and Chop and allow plant debris to dry before
plant shallow plowing. Plant quality seed 1/2 to 1 /2 inches
deep in moist soil with temperatures above
60F (16C).
Thiram (Arasan 50) Buy seed treated with thiram or treat your
seed by applying 1 teaspoon thiram/lb. of
seed.

Southern Plow deep and rotate crops Plow 6 to 10 inches deep to bury seed-
blight like sclerotia each year. Plant grass crops
for 3 to 4 years to reduce infestations.

Verticillium Rotate crops and fields Avoid planting susceptible crops such as
wilt eggplant, southern peas, tomatoes, and okra
in a field more than once every 4 to 6 years.

Powdery Plant at correct time Produce okra during warm rather than cool,
mildew humid seasons. No fungicides are registered
for controlling mildew on okra.
Wet rot Plant at correct density Avoid crowding plants since reduced air cir-
culation favors this disease.


*^f r .







Damping-off is caused by fungi that live in the
soil and rot seed or your plant stem during
sprouting.


Southern blight is a common soilborne disease
of many vegetables. Note the tiny seed-like
sclerotia on the stem.





















4. ._-*'. le
-







Verticillium wilt is a disease that infects okra, Powdery mildew is a leaf disease that occurs
eggplant, southern peas and tomatoes. Plants wilt during cool, humid weather, but usually does not
as the water conducting tissue inside the stem affect yield.
becomes clogged.


HARVESTING, GRADING AND PACKING
Harvesting of fresh pods will begin about 60 days '
after planting and continue for several months.
Harvest okra every 2 to 3 days when the pods are 2
to 4 inches long and tender. Usually, it takes 4 to 5 '.' --
days between flowering and picking.
Separate and discard curved or misformed pods.
Grade okra into one or two sizes according to '' *
market requirements. Most buyers will pay more for -
"Fancy" grade okra which is less than about 3 inches
long.
Pack the okra in clean hampers. While packing
okra for market, shade the hampers to avoid wilting,
rotting, and loss in quality. Fresh okra can be cooled
to 50F (10C) and kept for about 1 week. Avoid
temperatures below 50F because pods will discolor Grade okra depending on size and discard
and begin to decay. curved or misshapen pods.





SOURCES OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
1. Florida Extension Circular 473, "Growing Quality Vegetables in Florida An Introduction for Small-
scale and Part-time Market Gardeners".
2. Florida Extension Insect Control Guide (Looseleaf), Initial cost $10.00.
3. Florida Extension Plant Disease Control Guide (Looseleaf), Initial cost $10.00.
4. Florida Extension Nematode Control Guide, (Looseleaf), Initial cost $10.00.
5. Florida Weed Control Guide (Looseleaf), Initial cost $15.00.
6. Florida Extension Circular 196, "Weed Control for Commercial Vegetable Production in Florida".





















4. ._-*'. le
-







Verticillium wilt is a disease that infects okra, Powdery mildew is a leaf disease that occurs
eggplant, southern peas and tomatoes. Plants wilt during cool, humid weather, but usually does not
as the water conducting tissue inside the stem affect yield.
becomes clogged.


HARVESTING, GRADING AND PACKING
Harvesting of fresh pods will begin about 60 days '
after planting and continue for several months.
Harvest okra every 2 to 3 days when the pods are 2
to 4 inches long and tender. Usually, it takes 4 to 5 '.' --
days between flowering and picking.
Separate and discard curved or misformed pods.
Grade okra into one or two sizes according to '' *
market requirements. Most buyers will pay more for -
"Fancy" grade okra which is less than about 3 inches
long.
Pack the okra in clean hampers. While packing
okra for market, shade the hampers to avoid wilting,
rotting, and loss in quality. Fresh okra can be cooled
to 50F (10C) and kept for about 1 week. Avoid
temperatures below 50F because pods will discolor Grade okra depending on size and discard
and begin to decay. curved or misshapen pods.





SOURCES OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
1. Florida Extension Circular 473, "Growing Quality Vegetables in Florida An Introduction for Small-
scale and Part-time Market Gardeners".
2. Florida Extension Insect Control Guide (Looseleaf), Initial cost $10.00.
3. Florida Extension Plant Disease Control Guide (Looseleaf), Initial cost $10.00.
4. Florida Extension Nematode Control Guide, (Looseleaf), Initial cost $10.00.
5. Florida Weed Control Guide (Looseleaf), Initial cost $15.00.
6. Florida Extension Circular 196, "Weed Control for Commercial Vegetable Production in Florida".








7. Florida Extension Vegetable Crops Fact Sheet, VC-16, "Weed Control in Market Vegetable Gardens".
8. Florida Extension Circular 225, "Commercial Vegetable Fertilization Guide".
9. Florida Vegetable Crops Department Research Report VC 3-76, "Seasonal Response of Vegetable Crops
for Selected Cultivars in North Florida, III. Okra, Sweet Corn, and Sweet Potatoes".
10. Slide/tape sets ST-158, "Growing Quality Vegetables for Profit" and ST-146 and 147, "Growing Okra for
Profit" can be viewed at your local Extension Office by requesting an appointment 2 to 3 weeks in ad-
vance.
The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. It is
not a guarantee or warranty of the products named and does not signify that they are approved to the exclu-
sion of others of suitable composition.


NOTES


METRIC AND ENGLISH UNITS


METRIC TO
ENGLISH


centimeter (cm) = 0.394 inch
meter (m) = 3.281 feet
meter (m) = 1.094 yard

gram (g) = 0.035 ounce
kilogram (kg) = 2.205 pound
metric ton (mt) = 1,102 U.S. ton

milliliter (ml) = 0.035 fluid ounce
liter (L) = 0.220 gallon

square meters (m2) = 10.764 square feet
hectare (ha) = 2.471 acre


kg/ha = 0.892 lb/A
mt/ha = 0.446 t/A
liter/ha = 0.089 gal/A
ml/100 L= 0.16 fl oz/100 gal


Speed


km/hr = 0.621 mph
m/sec = 3.28 ft/sec


Length


Weight


ENGLISH TO
METRIC


inch (in) = 2.54 cm
foot (ft) = 0.305 m
yard (yd) = 0.914 m

ounce (oz) = 28.35 g
pound (Ib) = 453.6 g
U.S. ton (t) = 0.907 mt


(Liquid) Volume
fluid ounce (fl oz) = 28.35 ml
gallon (gal) = 4.546 liter
Area
square feet (ft2) = 0.093 m2
acre (A) = 0.0405 ha
Amount/Acre


lb/A = 1.12 kg/ha
t/A = 2.210 mt/ha
gal/A = 11.21 liter/ha
fl oz/100 gal = 6.24 ml/00 L

mph = 1.609 Km/hr
ft/sec = 0.305 m/sec











































































This publication was promulgated at a cost of $906.40, or 45 cents per copy to inform Floridians about
growing vegetables in Florida. 5-2M-82


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL -l
SCIENCES, K. R. Tefertiller, director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this infor-
mation to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress;and is authorized to provide research, educa- I A
tional Information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex or
national origin. Single copies of Extension publications (excluding 4-H and Youth publications) are available free to Florida
residents from County Extension Offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers Is available from
C. M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this
publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability.




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