• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Oranges
 Hamlin
 Navel
 Parson brown
 Pineapple
 Valencia
 Grapefruit
 Duncan
 Foster
 Marsh
 Redblush (ruby)
 Thompson (pink marsh)
 Star ruby
 Tangerines and tangerine hybri...
 Minneola
 Nova
 Orlando
 Osceola
 Page
 Lee
 Ponkan
 Dancy
 Robinson
 Sunburst
 Murcott (honey tangerine)
 Satsuma
 Temple (temple orange)
 Acid citrus fruit
 Bearss (Sicilian)
 Meyer
 Tahiti (Persian)
 Back Cover






Group Title: Florida Cooperative Extension Service circular 502
Title: Florida citrus varieties
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00049244/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida citrus varieties
Series Title: Circular Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Physical Description: 38 p. : col. ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Tucker, David Patrick Hislop
Hearn, Charles Jackson
Pieringer, A. P
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1982
 Subjects
Subject: Citrus -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: D.P.H. Tucker, C.J. Hearn, and A.P. Pieringer.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00049244
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 10759111

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
    Introduction
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Oranges
        Page 7
    Hamlin
        Page 8
    Navel
        Page 9
    Parson brown
        Page 10
    Pineapple
        Page 11
    Valencia
        Page 12
    Grapefruit
        Page 13
    Duncan
        Page 14
    Foster
        Page 15
    Marsh
        Page 16
    Redblush (ruby)
        Page 17
    Thompson (pink marsh)
        Page 18
    Star ruby
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Tangerines and tangerine hybrids
        Page 21
    Minneola
        Page 22
    Nova
        Page 23
    Orlando
        Page 24
    Osceola
        Page 25
    Page
        Page 26
    Lee
        Page 27
    Ponkan
        Page 28
    Dancy
        Page 29
    Robinson
        Page 30
    Sunburst
        Page 31
    Murcott (honey tangerine)
        Page 32
    Satsuma
        Page 33
    Temple (temple orange)
        Page 34
    Acid citrus fruit
        Page 35
    Bearss (Sicilian)
        Page 36
    Meyer
        Page 37
    Tahiti (Persian)
        Page 38
    Back Cover
        Page 39
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






August 1982


Circular 502
;JIE LIBRARy


FLORIDA ',u-
0Un F'oridi
CITRUS '

VARIETIES
D. P. H. Tucker, C. J. Hearn, A. P. Pieringer


Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville
John T. Woeste, Dean for Extension
















Florida Citrus
Varieties


D. P. H. Tucker


C. J. Hearn


A. P. Pieringer


D. P H. Tucker is a Professor-Extension Horticulturist. Fruit Crops Depart-
ment. AREC. Lake Alfred: C. J. Hearn is a Research Geneticist. United States
Department of Agriculture (L SID4). Agricultural Research Service (ARS).
Orlando. and an Adjunct Professor. Fruit Crops Department. Gainesville: A. P
Pieringer is an Associate Professor-Associate Horticulturist. AR I( Lake Alfred:
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. respectively. University of Florida.














Contents


Introduction ....................................... 5
Oranges ............... .................. ... ....... 7
Hamlin 8; Navel 9; Parson Brown 10; Pineapple 11;
Valencia 12.
Grapefruit ........................... ............... 13
Duncan 14; Foster 15; Marsh 16; Redblush (Ruby) 17;
Thompson 18; Star Ruby 19.
Tangerines and Tangerine Hybrids .......................... 21
Minneola 22; Nova 23; Orlando 24; Osceola 25; Page 26;
Lee 27; Ponkan 28; Dancy 29; Robinson 30; Sunburst 31;
Murcott 32; Satsuma 33; Temple 34.
Acid Citrus Fruit ........................... .......... 35
Bearss 36; Meyer 37; Tahiti 38.












Edited by: Joyce J. Dolbier
Design and layout by: Yaeko Duran



Acknowledgment
The authors express appreciation to Randall C. Smith, United States Department of Agriculture
(USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), for assistance in preparing photographs used in this
publication.








Introduction


Florida produces a wide selection of citrus fruits grown for process-
ing and for fresh consumption. Suitable selections from the range of
varieties described will provide the commercial grower and the home
owner with fruit for sale or personal consumption throughout most of
the year.
Ease of peeling varies among varieties, with the loose-skinned man-
darin types being the most easily peeled. The navel orange peels more
readily than other oranges. Seediness varies from fruit to fruit on the
same tree. and the range is actually wider than indicated in this publi-
cation. Size of fruit also varies considerably due to many factors.
Trees of the various types vary in cold-hardiness. Mandarin types
(tangerines and tangerine hybrids) are generally the most cold-hardy
with the cold-tender Temple being a notable exception. The sweet or-
ange ranks next in hardiness followed closely by grapefruit. Lemons
and limes (acid fruit) are far less cold-hardy and therefore are limited
to the warmest locations in the state. Fruit tolerance to cold differs
from tree hardiness, with the grapefruit being most cold-hardy, fol-
lowed by the orange and then mandarin.
The orange peel color of fruit is intensified by low fall and winter
temperatures. The fruit often does not develop desired color in Florida
because of the mild climate. Color of flesh is similarly affected by mild
climate but less so. Early-maturing varieties are not as well colored as
mid- and late-season ones. and the late-maturing Valencia may regreen
to some extent when fruit is held on the tree until late spring or early
summer.
Fruit of mandarin varieties vary widely in color, some being much
more dependent on low temperatures than others. Grapefruit develops
excellent peel color in even the hottest climates. Lemons are picked
according to size and "cured" to develop yellow color. Limes are not
temperature-dependent with regard to color.
Color is not closely related to eating quality. Citrus fruit mature
slowly and do not suddenly ripen in comparison with many other fruits.
so there are gradual changes in juice, sugar, and acid that determine
when the fruit are mature. Commercial growers take samples of fruit
for analysis to determine whether the fruit has attained legal maturity
standards. The dooryard grower determines this by taste. It may be
held on the tree long after it reaches acceptable quality standards. im-
proving in quality until the flesh begins to dr\ (starting at the stem-
end) and becomes mushy or it may fall. The fruit does not continue to








ripen after harvest. A grapefruit crop from the same bloom can be
harvested from October through May or later. Fruit of orange varieties
hold for a shorter period than grapefruit but still for quite a long period,
while mandarin types cannot be held on the tree nearly as long.
The flesh of mandarins also is prone to separate from the peel as it
ages and becomes puffy. Lemons and limes may be used whenever they
are deemed to have sufficient juice. Even though there is a main bloom
in the spring along with other types, the acid varieties bloom sporad-
ically during the year, and it is possible to have a limited quantity of
fruit all year.
Varieties vary in disease and insect susceptibility, especially to citrus
scab (a fungus), and in the response to fertilizers and irrigation. Vir-
tually all characteristics of varieties are influenced by the rootstock
variety on which they are grafted, and this should be taken into account
when selecting varieties. More detailed information on cultural prac-
tices. insect and disease control, and post-harvest requirements is avail-
able in other Cooperative Extension Service publications.








ranges


10


m


















































Variety: HAMLIN
Type and parentage: Sweet orange
Average diameter (inches): 2/4- 3
Seeds per fruit: 0-6
Commercial harvest season: October- January
The fruit from this variety will develop a good natural color break. Its earliness makes
its harvest possible before the danger of winter freezes in Florida. The fruit is susceptible
to splitting. This variety is the early sweet orange most widely grown in Florida and also
one of the more cold-tolerant orange varieties. The Hamlin has poorer juice color than
Pineapple and'Valencia.



8



















































Variety: NAVEL
Type and parentage: Sweet orange
Acrjre diamncier iin, hei 3-3'/2
Seeds per fruit: 0-6
Commercial harvest season: October -January
Selections available in Florida often produce small crops of large fruit. The fruit is
usually marketed fresh. Fruit from trees on rough lemon rootstock tend to dry out early
in the season. The tendency to mutate has produced many navel strains. Rot beginning in
the navel end causes fruit drop. The navel seen at the blossom end is actually a partially
formed secondary fruit. The peel is eajsil removed by hand and the fruit can be section-
ized more easily than most oranges. Fruit tends to have lower acid content than other
orange varieties.

9



















































Variety: PARSON BROWN
Type and parentage: Sweet orange
Average diameter (inches): 2/2 2Y4
Seeds per fruit: 10-20
Commercial harvest season: October- January
This variety has poorer juice color than Pineapple and Valencia. Its seediness detracts
from its use for the fresh fruit market.



















































Variety: PINEAPPLE
Type and parentage: Sweet orange
Average diameter (inches): 2/ 3
Seeds per fruit: 15-25
Commercial harvest season: December- February
The tree is subject to alternate bearing a condition in which a heavy crop is followed
by a very light crop. This variety is also susceptible to pre-harvest fruit drop. It is the
midseason sweet orange most widely grown in Florida. Heavily laden trees are more sus-
ceptible to cold damage.




I1I


















































Variety: VALENCIA
Type and parentage: Sweet orange
Average diameter (inches): 2%/-3
Seeds per fruit: 0-6
Commercial harvest season: March- June
This variety usually has two crops of fruit on the tree after bloom, the old and the new.
It is the most important sweet orange grown in Florida, accounting for about 43% of the
orange crop. It is desirable for processing and fresh consumption.






12







rapefruit


JYI


















































Variety: DUNCAN
Type and parentage: Grapefruit
Average diameter (inches): 3/2- 5
Seeds per fruit: 30-70
Commercial harvest season: November-May
The fruit is extremely seedy, but of excellent quality It is good for sectionizing. The
flesh is pale yellow. It is the oldest grapefruit variety







14











































V


Variety: FOSTER
Type and parentage: Grapefruit
Average diameter (inches): 3'/ 5
Seeds per fruit: 30-50
Commercial harvest season: November- March
Extreme seediness makes this fruit unpopular for fresh consumption. It exhibits ex-
ceptionally early season quality A pink blush of color can be detected in the peel.



















































I

Variety: MARSH
Type and parentage: Grapefruit
Average diameter (inches): 31/2-42
Seeds per fruit: 0-6
Commercial harvest season: November- May
This fruit is the commercial grapefruit variety most widely grown in Florida. It has
pale yellow flesh and a large open cavity in the center of the fruit. It may acquire a bland
flavor late in the season.






16


















































Variety: REDBLUSH (RUBY)
Type and parentage: Grapefruit
Average diameter(inches): 3'/ 4'
Seeds per fruit: 0-6
Commercial harvest season: November- May
There is a pink blush in the peel. The flesh is crimson in color but fades to pink late in
the season.







17































































Variety: THOMPSON (PINK MARSH)

Type and parentage: Grapefruit
Average diameter (inches): 3/4 4/2
Seeds per fruit: 0-6
Commercial harvest season: December- May

The flesh is pale pink and fades as the season progresses.


:
I ~":
a:: : I
7'


















































Variety: STAR RL BI
Type and parentage: Grapefruit
Average diameter (inches): 3% 4
Seeds per fruit: 0-6
Commercial harvest season: December- May
The fruit is characterized by a dark pink blush in the peel and jn inl nL deL p red Il1,h
Leaves often show blotchy chlorotic areas. Trees are verse sensitive to some herbicides.







19









Tangerines and
Tangerine Hybrids


















































Variety: MINNEOLA
Type and parentage: Tangelo (Duncan X Dancy)
Average diameter (inches): 3 3 1/
Seeds per fruit: 7-12
Commercial harvest season: December- January
Fruit production is enhanced by cross-pollination by another variety such as Temple.
The fruit often exhibits a pronounced neck at the stem end. It is susceptible to scab fungus.







22


















































Variety: NOVA
Type and parentage: Tangelo (Clementine X Orlando)
Awcrjae dijmeier I inches 2%-3
Seeds per fruit: 1-30
Commercial harvest season: November- December
This fruit requires cross-pollination by another variety such as Lee. Orlando. or Tem-
ple. Avoid the use of rough lemon as a rootstock.








23


















ia(,


Variety: ORLANDO
Type and parentage: Tangelo (Duncan X Dancy)
Average diameter (inches): 2/ -3
Seeds per fruit: 0-35
Commercial harvest season: November-January
For increased fruit set in the absence of cross-pollination, trees respond to girdling or
growth-regulator sprays applied between full bloom and two-thirds petal fall. Varieties
suitable for cross-pollination include Temple and Nova. Trees should be fertilized more
frequently, especially nitrogen, than most varieties as the foliage tends to show symptoms
of starvation especially in the fall and winter. Leaves of this variety are characteristically
cup-shaped.

















V


Variety: OSCEOLA
T pe and parentage: Citrus hybrid (Clementine X Orlando)
Average diameter (inches): 2-V: 2%
Seeds per fruit: 15-25
Commercial harvest season: October- November
This is a highly colored fruit. It requires cross-pollination by another variety such as
Temple or Orlando. It is susceptible to scab.

















































Variety: PAGE
Type and parentage: Citrus hybrid (Minneola X Clementine)
Average diameter (inches): 2-2%
Seeds per fruit: 0-25
Commercial harvest season: October- February
This variety tends to bear many small fruit which are unacceptable commercially
Cross-pollination by another variety such as Lee, Orlando, or Temple will help to par-
tially alleviate this problem. Internal quality is excellent. This variety is susceptible to
scab.




26


















































Variety: LEE
I pI and parentage: Citrus hybrid (Clementine X Orlando)
Average diameter (inches): 2' 3
Seeds per fruit: 10-25
Commercial harvest season: November- December
The latest information indicates that it may not need cross-pollination. Peel color de
velopment is delayed compared to internal quality. Fruit has low acid content.







27


















































Variety: PONKAN
Type and parentage: Mandarin
Average diameter (inches): 24 3/4
Seeds per fruit: 3-7
Commercial harvest season: December- January
This variety is alternate bearing in habit. The peel tears easily at harvest. Fruit ships
poorly due to high incidence of decay. Fruit has low acid content.







28


















































Variety: DANCY
Type and parentage: Tangerine
Average diameter (inches): 2 2 /
Seeds per fruit: 6-20
Commercial harvest season: December -January
This variety often produces large crops of small fruit which are commercially unmar-
ketable: however, this does not detract from the eating quality. Thinning the crop early in
the season by pruning will allow remaining fruit to size satisfactorily This variety is sus-
ceptible to Alternaria spot fungus disease. The peel tears easily at harvest causing rapid
fruit decay during postharvest handling.



29



















































Variety: ROBINSON
Type and parentage: Tangerine (Clementine X Orlando)
Average diameter (inches): 2 V1 24
Seeds per fruit: 1-20
Commercial harvest season: October- December
This variety requires cross-pollination by another variety such as Temple. Orlando. or
Lee. Brittle wood and the tendency to bear fruit near the limb extremities may result in
limb breakage and tree collapse in years of heavy crops. This variety is susceptible to in-
dividual twig and limb dieback. It also is considered one of the more cold-hardy varieties.
It should not be budded on rough lemon rootstock as fruit tends to dry out prematurely.



30


















































Variety: SLUNBIRST
Type and parentage: Citrus hybrid (Robinson X Osceola)
Average diameter (inches): 2'/ 3
Seeds per fruit: 1-20
Commercial harvest season: November- December
This variety requires cross-pollination by another variety such as Temple. Orlando.
Nova. or Robinson. The fruit ripens after Robinson but earlier than Dancy and ships better
than either.






31


















































Variety: MURCOTT (HONEY TANGERINE)
Type and parentage: Probably a hybrid of a tangerine and sweet orange
Average diameter (inches): 2Y/
Seeds per fruit: 10-20
Commercial harvest season: January- March
Trees tend to alternate-year bearing. Over bearing during the heavy cropping year may
result in extensive limb breakage and tree collapse. This condition may be partially al-
leviated by extra fertilizer applications and early fruit thinning by pruning during heavy
fruiting years. Trees normally are very cold-hardy but can be very susceptible to cold
damage when heavily laden. Trees are susceptible to scab fungus disease and the fruit is
susceptible to sunburn.


32


















































Variety: SATSUMA
Type and parentage: Mandarin
Average diameter (inches): 21 2/:
Seeds per fruit: 0-6
Commercial harvest season: September- November
This is a cold-hardy variety) which performs well on trifoliate orange rootstock. It pro-
duces the best quality fruit in the northern part of the state. Trees have a characteristic
open habit of growth with less foliage than is normal in other citrus varieties .






33


















































Variety: TEMPLE (TEMPLE ORANGE)
Type and parentage: Probably a hybrid of tangerine and sweet orange
Average diameter (inches): 24- 3
Seeds per fruit: 15-20
Commercial harvest season: January- March
This variety is extremely susceptible to scab. Trees lack cold-hardiness. Fruit drop and
deteriorate rapidly following freezing weather.







34









lAcid Citrus Fruit


















































Variety: BEARSS (SICILIAN)
Type and parentage: Lemon
Average diameter (inches): 2-2'/2
Seeds per fruit: 1-6
Commercial harvest season: July- December
Trees are very vigorous, thorny, and susceptible to scab. Trees are also very sensitive
to cold and the fruit breaks down rapidly following freezing weather. This variety is sus-
ceptible to peel injury when harvested early in the season.





36

















































Variety: MEYER
Type and parentage: Probably a lemon hybrid
Average diameter (inches): 2/ 3
Seeds per fruit: 10
Commercial harvest season: November- March
This variety has a characteristic low spreading growth habit and few thorns. It has a
relatively large fruit with a smooth skin and lower acidity than other lemons. It is less cold
susceptible than other lemon varieties but not desirable for lemon oil production.





37

















































Variety: TAHITI (PERSIAN)
Type and parentage: Lime
Average diameter (inches): 1 4- 21V2
Seeds per fruit: 0
Commercial harvest season: June- September
Trees are thorny and highly susceptible to cold. The fruit is susceptible to breakdown
at the stylar end at maturity







38


















































This public document was promulgated at a cost of $10,036.67,
or 66.9 cents per copy, to provide information about Florida
citrus varieties. 8-15M-82



COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORI-
DA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, K. R.
Tefertlller, director, In cooperation with the United States Department FA
of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the
May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to pro-
vide research, educational Information and other services only to indl-
viduals and Institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex or national ori-
gin. Single copies of Extension publications (excluding 4-H and Youth publications) are
available free to Florida residents from County Extension Offices. Information on bulk
rates or copies fdr out-of-state purchasers is available from C. M. Hinton, Publications
Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
32611. Before publicizing this publication, editors should contact this address to deter-
mine availability.




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