• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Title Page
 Frontispiece
 Description and distribution
 Propagation
 Magnolias for Floridaion
 Ashe magnolia, cow cucumber magnolia...
 Southern magnolia, bull bay magnolia...
 Pyramidal magnolia (magnolia fraseri...
 Umbrella magnolia (magnolia...
 Sweetbay magnolia, sweet bay (magnolia...
 Deciduous flowering magnolias (magnolia...
 Hybrid groups, selections, and...
 Reference
 Author






Group Title: Florida Cooperative Extension Service circular 1089
Title: Magnolias
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00049198/00001
 Material Information
Title: Magnolias
Series Title: Circular
Physical Description: 11 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Knox, Gary W ( Gary Wayne )
Publisher: University of Florida, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Place of Publication: Gainesville FL
Publication Date: 1995
 Subjects
Subject: Magnolias -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 11-12).
Statement of Responsibility: Gary W. Knox.
General Note: Title from cover.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00049198
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 32763781

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Frontispiece
        Page 2
    Description and distribution
        Page 3
    Propagation
        Page 4
    Magnolias for Floridaion
        Page 4
    Ashe magnolia, cow cucumber magnolia (magnolia macrophylla var. ashei)
        Page 5
    Southern magnolia, bull bay magnolia (magnolia grandiflora)
        Page 6
    Pyramidal magnolia (magnolia fraseri var. pyramidata)
        Page 7
    Umbrella magnolia (magnolia tripetala)
        Page 7
    Sweetbay magnolia, sweet bay (magnolia virginiana)
        Page 7
    Deciduous flowering magnolias (magnolia selections and hybrids)
        Page 8
    Hybrid groups, selections, and cultivars
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Reference
        Page 11
    Author
        Page 12
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
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DESCRIPTION AND DISTRIBUTION

Magnolias encompass a group of about 80 species
of trees and large shrubs. They are native to eastern
Asia and the eastern Americas north of the equator.
Magnolias are both temperate and tropical,
evergreen and deciduous. They characteristically
have showy, fragrant flowers that are white, pink,
purple, green, or yellow. The flowers are followed
by showy red or pink fruits displaying red, orange,
or pink seeds, each of which hangs from the fruit by
a thread-like strand.
Magnolia species are found in a wide range of soils
and climates but most often are associated with
moist soils in mixed deciduous-coniferous woodlands.
Magnolias have been harvested for timber and
medicinal uses but usually are cultivated for their
beautiful flowers, fruits, foliage, and plant forms.

HISTORY

The magnolia family is very ancient, with fossil
remains dating from between 36 and 58 million
years ago. The unusual distribution of existing
magnolia species resulted when Ice Age glaciers
destroyed ancient European forests but not those in
Asia or America.
Surviving magnolia species represent some of the
more primitive flowering plants. Magnolia flowers
do not have true petals and sepals; they are composed
of petal-like tepals. Instead of producing true nectar,
the flowers attract pollinating beetles with fragrant,
sugary secretions. Magnolia flowers are primarily
pollinated by beetles of the Nitidulidae family
because magnolias evolved long before bees and
other flying pollinators.
Magnolias were well known and widely used by
ancient cultures in Asia and the Americas. The
beautiful flowering tree Magnolia denudata,
known as "Yu-lan" ("Jade Orchid") to the ancient
Chinese, has been cultivated since the 7th century.
The Japanese have grown Magnolia kobus var.
stellata for centuries as flowering pot plants called
"Shidekobushi" ("Zigzag-petalled Kobushi
Magnolia"). The Aztecs knew Magnolia
macrophylla var. dealbata as "Eloxochitl" ("Flower
with Green Husk").
Europeans were not familiar with magnolias
and first encountered them while exploring the
Americas. In 1688, Sweet Bay (Magnolia virginiana)
was the first magnolia introduced to Europe.


Unaware of Amerindian or Asian names for the
species, 18th century taxonomists named magnolias
to commemorate Pierre Magnol, a 17th century
French botanist.

USES

Asians have long cultivated Magnolia species for
their flowers. Asian species were introduced to
Europe and America in 1780. As additional species
were introduced, this group of free-flowering
magnolias became immensely popular. Intensive
breeding programs began hybridizing magnolias to
develop more floriferous and hardy forms with a
wider range of flower colors. The hybrids and crosses
produced by these breeding programs, still ongoing,
have resulted in many superior ornamental trees.
These magnolias are now among the 10 most popular
flowering trees in the U.S.
Other magnolias are grown for their value as
shade trees. The American tree Southern Magnolia
(Magnolia grandiflora) was introduced to Europe
in 1731. This tree quickly became popular because
of its glossy evergreen foliage, large beautiful
flowers, and elegant form. Magnolia grandiflora
also was found to be widely adaptable to different
climates, soils, and exposures. Thus, it was the
first magnolia to be planted widely and is now
considered the most widely planted ornamental
evergreen tree in the world.
Aside from their ornamental value, several
species are harvested for timber. The Asian species
Magnolia hypoleuca and M. kobus are used for
furniture. The North American species M.
acuminata, M. grandiflora, M. macrophylla, and
occasionallyM. virginiana have been used similarly.
Flower buds ofM. liliiflora and bark ofM. officinalis,
M. liliiflora, and M. kobus (in Asia) and M.
grandiflora and M. virginiana (in America) have
been used in infusions as a tonic. Flower tepals
have been used for food. Wildlife feed on the
magnolia's seeds and flower tepals.

PESTS IN FLORIDA

Magnolias are less susceptible to pests than are
many other ornamentals. Soft and armored scales
are common in woods and landscapes and can
occasionally damage plants. Magnolia root borer
(Euzophera magnolialis) has caused problems in
nurseries but is not a significant landscape problem.







Page 4


Several nematodes can infest magnolia roots. Wildlife
eat the seeds and flower tepals.
Several diseases affect magnolias, but none are
serious. Stem cankers, powdery mildew and many
different leaf spots are occasional problems. Root
and wood rots occur, as well as a verticillium wilt.

PROPAGATION

Seeds

Magnolias grown from seed often vary in crown
structure, size, vigor, and flower and foliage
characteristics. Seed-grown plants usuallytake much
longer to flower than do asexually propagated plants.
Magnolia fruits are 2 to 6 inches long and ripen
in late summer to late fall. When mature, individual
follicles in the fruit split to expose red or orange
seeds. Fruits should be promptly harvested when
seeds are mature. Alternatively, fruits with
immature seeds may be ripened in a warm room.
Seeds should be macerated in water to remove the
red seed coat and fleshy pulp. Soaking macerated
seeds in water for a few days may help in pulp
removal. Freshly cleaned seeds may be sown right
away, but germination may be improved if seeds
are stratified at 40'F for 2 to 4 months. Seeds may
be stored for several years in sealed containers at
320 to 400F.

Cuttings

Cutting propagation is preferred for most
magnolias. However, rooting potential of cuttings
varies considerably among cultivars as well as
among species. Magnolia denudata, M. acuminata,
and M. grandiflora are considered difficult to root
from cuttings.
Soft to semi-hardwood cuttings should be taken
from juvenile plants whenever possible. Wounding
may be beneficial. Cuttings should be treated with
5,000 to 10,000 ppm IBA and placed under
intermittent mist. Cuttings usually root within 6 to
12 weeks.

Layering

Layering is the ancient, traditional way of
propagating magnolias. In its simplest form,
branches are bent and pegged to the ground in late
winter or early spring. A slit or cut is usually made


in the buried portion of the stem. The terminal
portion of the bentbranch shouldbe staked vertically.
Magnolias may also be air-layered. Layered plants
can be cut from the mother plant 1 to 2 years later.

Grafting

Grafting and budding are effective ways of
propagating large numbers of a desirable magnolia.
Understocks should be 3- to 4-year-old plants. Many
different magnolia species may be used as
understocks.
Grafting is possible from late summer through
early spring. Side and veneer grafts are
commonly used.
Magnolias may be chip budded at any time of the
year. The buds should be tied and waxed or wrapped
with polyethylene film. A warm, humid environment
will speed callusing. After budbreak, the stocks are
cut back. Magnolias may also be T-budded.

Micropropagation (Tissue Culture)

There has been modest success in
micropropagating magnolias. Reportedly, shoot
proliferation is slow and yields are low.

MAGNOLIAS FOR FLORIDA

Cucumbertree Magnolia, Cucumber Magnolia
(Magnolia acuminata and M. a. var.
subcordata)

Description and Uses

Cucumber Magnolia is a fast-growing deciduous
shade tree ultimately reaching 60 to 80 feet in height
and 30 feet in width. Young trees are pyramidal but
become oval or rounded with age. Lower branches
are pendulous and may even touch the ground. Light
green, oval leaves are 6 to 10 inches long with downy
undersides. Slightly fragrant, greenish-yellow to
yellow flowers occur in late spring and early summer.
On most plants, the 3-inch flowers are almost
inconspicuous because they open after the leaves
have expanded. Flowers are followed by slightly
elongated, 4-inch dark red fruits.
The variety subcordata grows to be a medium tree
and usually has smaller fruits and shorter and more
rounded leaves than the species.







Page 4


Several nematodes can infest magnolia roots. Wildlife
eat the seeds and flower tepals.
Several diseases affect magnolias, but none are
serious. Stem cankers, powdery mildew and many
different leaf spots are occasional problems. Root
and wood rots occur, as well as a verticillium wilt.

PROPAGATION

Seeds

Magnolias grown from seed often vary in crown
structure, size, vigor, and flower and foliage
characteristics. Seed-grown plants usuallytake much
longer to flower than do asexually propagated plants.
Magnolia fruits are 2 to 6 inches long and ripen
in late summer to late fall. When mature, individual
follicles in the fruit split to expose red or orange
seeds. Fruits should be promptly harvested when
seeds are mature. Alternatively, fruits with
immature seeds may be ripened in a warm room.
Seeds should be macerated in water to remove the
red seed coat and fleshy pulp. Soaking macerated
seeds in water for a few days may help in pulp
removal. Freshly cleaned seeds may be sown right
away, but germination may be improved if seeds
are stratified at 40'F for 2 to 4 months. Seeds may
be stored for several years in sealed containers at
320 to 400F.

Cuttings

Cutting propagation is preferred for most
magnolias. However, rooting potential of cuttings
varies considerably among cultivars as well as
among species. Magnolia denudata, M. acuminata,
and M. grandiflora are considered difficult to root
from cuttings.
Soft to semi-hardwood cuttings should be taken
from juvenile plants whenever possible. Wounding
may be beneficial. Cuttings should be treated with
5,000 to 10,000 ppm IBA and placed under
intermittent mist. Cuttings usually root within 6 to
12 weeks.

Layering

Layering is the ancient, traditional way of
propagating magnolias. In its simplest form,
branches are bent and pegged to the ground in late
winter or early spring. A slit or cut is usually made


in the buried portion of the stem. The terminal
portion of the bentbranch shouldbe staked vertically.
Magnolias may also be air-layered. Layered plants
can be cut from the mother plant 1 to 2 years later.

Grafting

Grafting and budding are effective ways of
propagating large numbers of a desirable magnolia.
Understocks should be 3- to 4-year-old plants. Many
different magnolia species may be used as
understocks.
Grafting is possible from late summer through
early spring. Side and veneer grafts are
commonly used.
Magnolias may be chip budded at any time of the
year. The buds should be tied and waxed or wrapped
with polyethylene film. A warm, humid environment
will speed callusing. After budbreak, the stocks are
cut back. Magnolias may also be T-budded.

Micropropagation (Tissue Culture)

There has been modest success in
micropropagating magnolias. Reportedly, shoot
proliferation is slow and yields are low.

MAGNOLIAS FOR FLORIDA

Cucumbertree Magnolia, Cucumber Magnolia
(Magnolia acuminata and M. a. var.
subcordata)

Description and Uses

Cucumber Magnolia is a fast-growing deciduous
shade tree ultimately reaching 60 to 80 feet in height
and 30 feet in width. Young trees are pyramidal but
become oval or rounded with age. Lower branches
are pendulous and may even touch the ground. Light
green, oval leaves are 6 to 10 inches long with downy
undersides. Slightly fragrant, greenish-yellow to
yellow flowers occur in late spring and early summer.
On most plants, the 3-inch flowers are almost
inconspicuous because they open after the leaves
have expanded. Flowers are followed by slightly
elongated, 4-inch dark red fruits.
The variety subcordata grows to be a medium tree
and usually has smaller fruits and shorter and more
rounded leaves than the species.






Page 5


History

Cucumber Magnolia derives its common name from
the green, immature fruits that somewhat resemble a
cucumber. Cucumber Magnolia is valued for its light,
durable timber. It was used by Native Americans to
construct canoes and bowls. It has the widest range of
all North American magnolias but in Florida is found
only in 3 Panhandle counties. Curiously, the variety
subcordata was first discovered in 1790 but was lost in
the wild until rediscovery in 1910.
Yellow-flowered forms of Magnolia acuminata
and M. a. var. subcordata have been selected and
hybridized to produce much-sought true-yellow
flowering magnolias. The variety subcordata has
been especially valued for its smaller stature.
Breeders particularly strive to develop cultivars
that flower before leaves appear.

Culture

As with other magnolias, Cucumber Magnolia
grows best in full sun or partial shade on moist, well-
drained soils. This tree is also quite tolerant of wet
and alkaline soils.

Cultivars

This tree is difficult to propagate asexually. Thus,
many cultivars are not yet widely available.
In Florida, the yellow-flowered cultivars tend to
produce flowers that are very pale yellow. Our warm
winters and bright sunlight prevent the yellow
pigment from developing fully.

'Butterflies' (Magnolia acuminata xM. denudata
'Sawada's Cream') Deep yellow flowers appear
before the leaves on an upright tree. These flowers
are the deepest yellow of any cultivar thus far.

'Elizabeth' (Magnolia acuminata x M. denudata)
- This pyramidal tree displays creamy, yellowish,
fragrant flowers in spring before leaves appear.

'Evamaria' (Magnolia x brooklynensis [M.
acuminata x M. liliiflora]) Unopened flower buds
are purple, green, and yellow. Open flowers are
magenta rose, shaded with orange and yellow.

'Miss Honeybee' (Magnolia acuminata var.
subcordata) This small tree produces 4-inch


diameter flowers that are light to medium yellow.
The plant blooms and leafs out at the same time.

Fellow Bird' (Magnolia x brooklynensis 'Evamaria'
x M. acuminata var. subcordata) -Light yellow,
cup-shaped flowers are produced simultaneously
with new leaves.

Other yellow-flowered magnolias are 'Golden
Glow' (M. acuminata), 'Koban Dori' (M. acuminata),
'Ellen' (M. acuminata var. subcordata), 'Yellow
Lantern' (Magnolia acuminata x M. x soulangiana
'Alexandrina'), and 'Hattie Carthan' (Magnolia x
brooklynensis 'Evamaria' x M. x brooklynensis).

Ashe Magnolia, Cow Cucumber Magnolia
(Magnolia macrophylla var. ashei)

Description and Uses

Ashe Magnolia can be considered a smaller form
of Bigleaf Magnolia, Magnolia macrophylla. Ashe
Magnolia is a large shrub or small tree (to about 25
feet) with large, light green leaves with whitish
undersides. The leaves are slightly smaller than
leaves of Bigleaf Magnolia: up to 2 feet long and 1
foot wide. The 6- to 8-inch diameter flowers occur in
late spring and are white with rose-purple blotches
on the inner tepals. The reddish, cylindrical fruits
are about 3 inches long. Significantly, Ashe Magnolia
flowers at an earlier age than does BigleafMagnolia.
Plants as small as 1 foot tall commonly bloom.

History

Ashe Magnolia is found only in the Florida
Panhandle and is considered threatened. It grows in
the understory on slopes of ravines often in
association with American Hop Hornbeam (Ostrya
virginiana), Two-winged Silverbells (Halesia
diptera), and Red Buckeye (Aesculus pavia).

Culture

Ashe Magnolia transplants poorly and seems to
be short-lived in many landscape sites unless its
cultural requirements are closely met. Partial shade
and well-drained soil are required. It will not tolerate
wet soil or drought. Sheltered sites are best since
strong winds can shred the papery leaves and
break the brittle branches. The large leaves







Page 6


decompose slowly after falling and may be
considered a litter problem.

Southern Magnolia, Bull Bay Magnolia
(Magnolia grandiflora)

Description and Uses

Southern Magnolia is native to moist soils of the
Coastal Plain of the southeastern U.S. This large
tree grows up to 90 feet tall and 30 to 40 feet wide.
The crown is pyramidal to ovoid, although crown
shape and density vary greatly. Southern Magnolia
has glossy, leathery, evergreen, oval leaves that are
5 to 8 inches or more long and half as wide. The upper
leaf surface is dark green, and the lower surface is
often covered by brown, dense, felt-like hairs. The
fragrant white flowers are 8 inches in diameter,
appearing in late spring and intermittently
throughout the summer. The flowers are followed by
reddish, 3- to 5-inch long, oblong fruits displaying
red seeds ripening in late fall. This species is
extremely variable in size, shape, habit, growth
rate, canopy density, leaf color, and flowering season.
This variability has allowed a large number of
cultivars to be selected.
Southern Magnolia is used as a specimen plant,
street tree, shade tree, screen, or windbreak. This
tree also can be grown as an espalier.

History

Southern Magnolia was introduced to Europe
in 1731. This tree was quickly popularized for
its glossy evergreen foliage, large beautiful
flowers, and elegant form. Magnolia grandiflora
also was found to be widely adaptable to different
climates, soils, and exposures. It was the first
magnolia to be widely planted and is now
considered the most widely grown ornamental
evergreen tree in the world.
In the southern U.S., Southern Magnolia was
often planted in front of early homesteads. While
most trees were limbed up to provide shade, the
lower limbs of Southern Magnolia were retained.
These were often pegged to the ground so that
they rooted. With the tree anchored by several
such rooted branches, it resisted virtually any
strong wind. The layered branches also provided
replacement trees in the event that the main
tree died.


Culture

Adapted throughout north and central Florida,
Southern Magnolia grows best in moist, rich soils in
full sun. It also is adapted to partial shade and wet
or clay soils. Southern Magnolia is considered very
drought tolerant when grown in areas that allow
extensive root growth. It is moderately drought
tolerant in areas with poor, dry soil or where its root
system is restricted. Because field-grown trees often
transplant poorly, they should be moved in winter
and spring and irrigated regularly for several months.

Cultivars

Many cultivars have been selected. The following
list highlights some of the better or more well-known
cultivars for Florida.

'Bracken's Brown Beauty' Considered one of
the best selections for foliage and plant form, the
lower leaf surface is a rich, dark brown.

'Little Gem' This dwarf, compact tree has a
narrow, upright form. Although slow growing, it
blooms when very small. Flowers are smaller than
the species but open throughout a 5-month period
over summer. The small leaves are lustrous dark
green with bronze-colored undersides. This is an
excellent small tree, hedge, or espalier plant.

'Saint Mary' Slow growing and compact, 'Saint
Mary' blooms when very small and has lustrous,
oval, wavy-margined leaves. This cultivar originated
as a seedling purchased by Glen St. Mary Nursery in
Glen St. Mary, Florida.

'Samuel Sommer' Fast growing and vigorous,
this cultivar produces flowers up to 14 inches in
diameter.

Other cultivars are 'Alabama Everlasting,'
'Angustifolia,' 'Baby Doll,' 'Cairo,' 'Charles Dickens,'
'Claudia Wanamaker,' D.D. BlancherTM, 'Edith
Bogue,' 'Exionensis,' 'Exmouth,' 'Ferruginea,'
'Gloriosa,' 'Goliath,' 'Hasse,' 'Lakeside,' 'Lanceolata,'
'Madison,' 'Monlia' (Majestic BeautyTM), 'Pioneer,'
'Praecox Fastigiata,' 'Russet,' 'Saint George,' 'Santa
Cruz,' 'Springhill,' 'Monland' (Timeless BeautyTM),
'Variegata,' and 'Victoria.'
In addition, Magnolia grandiflora has been bred






Page 7


with M. virginiana, Sweetbay Magnolia. From this
hybrid, two cultivars have been selected: 'Freeman'
and 'Maryland.'Despite the Sweet Bay parentage,
these cultivars resemble Southern Magnolia in
foliage, form, and size. The hybrids flower at a
younger age than does Southern Magnolia. The
flowers also are intermediate in size between the
two parents, with the fragrance resembling that of
Sweet Bay.

Pyramidal Magnolia
(Magnolia fraserivar. pyramidata)

Description and Uses

Pyramidal Magnolia is a pyramidal small tree
growing to 35 feet. This deciduous tree has smooth,
oval leaves 8 inches long and half as wide. Leaves
are arranged in whorls at the ends of branches.
The fragrant white flowers are 3 to 4 inches in
diameter, opening in late spring. Pyramidal
Magnolia flowers when quite young. Reddish fruits
follow the flowers and ripen sooner than do fruits
of any' other magnolia. Pyramidal Magnolia is
native to parts of the Southeast's Coastal Plain,
including the Florida Panhandle.

History

Pyramidal Magnolia appears to be a smaller-
statured, lowland counterpart of Fraser Magnolia
(Magnolia fraseri), native to the hills and mountains
of the South. It is considered rare because of its
limited distribution.

Culture

Cultural requirements of Pyramidal Magnolia
are similar to those of Ashe Magnolia. This tree is
found in moist woods and is known to be intolerant
of poorly drained soils.

Umbrella Magnolia (Magnolia tripetala)

Description and Uses

Umbrella Magnolia is a small to medium,
deciduous tree native to eastern North America
including Florida. This upright-growing tree is often
multi-stemmed. The leaves are up to 20 inches long
and 10 inches wide. Umbrella Magnolia derives its


common name from these large leaves, which are
arranged in clusters at the ends ofbranches. Cream-
colored flowers up to 8 inches in diameter open in
late spring after the foliage. Trees begin flowering
when as young as 7 years from seed. The 4-inch long
fruits are the brightest red of the American
magnolias.


History

Umbrella Magnolia is distinguished by having
extraordinarily foul-smelling flowers. Even its wood
has a disagreeable smell when cut.
As with Bigleaf Magnolia, Umbrella Magnolia is
valued for its large leaves, which lend a tropical
appearance in temperate climates.

Culture

Umbrella Magnolia is found growing in rich,
moist soils of sheltered woods and ravines. This tree
should grow best with partial shade and well-drained,
slightly acid soil.

Cultivars

Although probably unavailable in commerce, the
cultivars 'Bloomfield' and 'Woodlawn' were selected
in the 1970s.
Magnolia tripetala is the parent of a number of
hybrids, including 'Silver Parasol' (M. hypoleuca x
M. tripetala) and 'Charles Coates' (M. sieboldii x M.
tripetala). Similarly, Magnolia x thompsoniana
'Urbana'was selected from the progeny ofM. tripetala
x M. virginiana.

Sweetbay Magnolia, Sweet Bay
(Magnolia virginiana)

Description and Uses

Sweetbay Magnolia is a beautiful semi-evergreen
to evergreen tree, which eventually grows to 40 to 60
feet tall and about half as wide. Sweetbay Magnolia
is very striking when the glossy green leaves flutter
in the wind, exposing the whitish undersides. The
narrow oblong leaves are 3 to 5 inches long and 1 to
2 inches wide. Extremely fragrant, white flowers are
2 inches in diameter and occur throughout mid to
late summer. The lemon-scented flowers tend to






Page 7


with M. virginiana, Sweetbay Magnolia. From this
hybrid, two cultivars have been selected: 'Freeman'
and 'Maryland.'Despite the Sweet Bay parentage,
these cultivars resemble Southern Magnolia in
foliage, form, and size. The hybrids flower at a
younger age than does Southern Magnolia. The
flowers also are intermediate in size between the
two parents, with the fragrance resembling that of
Sweet Bay.

Pyramidal Magnolia
(Magnolia fraserivar. pyramidata)

Description and Uses

Pyramidal Magnolia is a pyramidal small tree
growing to 35 feet. This deciduous tree has smooth,
oval leaves 8 inches long and half as wide. Leaves
are arranged in whorls at the ends of branches.
The fragrant white flowers are 3 to 4 inches in
diameter, opening in late spring. Pyramidal
Magnolia flowers when quite young. Reddish fruits
follow the flowers and ripen sooner than do fruits
of any' other magnolia. Pyramidal Magnolia is
native to parts of the Southeast's Coastal Plain,
including the Florida Panhandle.

History

Pyramidal Magnolia appears to be a smaller-
statured, lowland counterpart of Fraser Magnolia
(Magnolia fraseri), native to the hills and mountains
of the South. It is considered rare because of its
limited distribution.

Culture

Cultural requirements of Pyramidal Magnolia
are similar to those of Ashe Magnolia. This tree is
found in moist woods and is known to be intolerant
of poorly drained soils.

Umbrella Magnolia (Magnolia tripetala)

Description and Uses

Umbrella Magnolia is a small to medium,
deciduous tree native to eastern North America
including Florida. This upright-growing tree is often
multi-stemmed. The leaves are up to 20 inches long
and 10 inches wide. Umbrella Magnolia derives its


common name from these large leaves, which are
arranged in clusters at the ends ofbranches. Cream-
colored flowers up to 8 inches in diameter open in
late spring after the foliage. Trees begin flowering
when as young as 7 years from seed. The 4-inch long
fruits are the brightest red of the American
magnolias.


History

Umbrella Magnolia is distinguished by having
extraordinarily foul-smelling flowers. Even its wood
has a disagreeable smell when cut.
As with Bigleaf Magnolia, Umbrella Magnolia is
valued for its large leaves, which lend a tropical
appearance in temperate climates.

Culture

Umbrella Magnolia is found growing in rich,
moist soils of sheltered woods and ravines. This tree
should grow best with partial shade and well-drained,
slightly acid soil.

Cultivars

Although probably unavailable in commerce, the
cultivars 'Bloomfield' and 'Woodlawn' were selected
in the 1970s.
Magnolia tripetala is the parent of a number of
hybrids, including 'Silver Parasol' (M. hypoleuca x
M. tripetala) and 'Charles Coates' (M. sieboldii x M.
tripetala). Similarly, Magnolia x thompsoniana
'Urbana'was selected from the progeny ofM. tripetala
x M. virginiana.

Sweetbay Magnolia, Sweet Bay
(Magnolia virginiana)

Description and Uses

Sweetbay Magnolia is a beautiful semi-evergreen
to evergreen tree, which eventually grows to 40 to 60
feet tall and about half as wide. Sweetbay Magnolia
is very striking when the glossy green leaves flutter
in the wind, exposing the whitish undersides. The
narrow oblong leaves are 3 to 5 inches long and 1 to
2 inches wide. Extremely fragrant, white flowers are
2 inches in diameter and occur throughout mid to
late summer. The lemon-scented flowers tend to






Page 7


with M. virginiana, Sweetbay Magnolia. From this
hybrid, two cultivars have been selected: 'Freeman'
and 'Maryland.'Despite the Sweet Bay parentage,
these cultivars resemble Southern Magnolia in
foliage, form, and size. The hybrids flower at a
younger age than does Southern Magnolia. The
flowers also are intermediate in size between the
two parents, with the fragrance resembling that of
Sweet Bay.

Pyramidal Magnolia
(Magnolia fraserivar. pyramidata)

Description and Uses

Pyramidal Magnolia is a pyramidal small tree
growing to 35 feet. This deciduous tree has smooth,
oval leaves 8 inches long and half as wide. Leaves
are arranged in whorls at the ends of branches.
The fragrant white flowers are 3 to 4 inches in
diameter, opening in late spring. Pyramidal
Magnolia flowers when quite young. Reddish fruits
follow the flowers and ripen sooner than do fruits
of any' other magnolia. Pyramidal Magnolia is
native to parts of the Southeast's Coastal Plain,
including the Florida Panhandle.

History

Pyramidal Magnolia appears to be a smaller-
statured, lowland counterpart of Fraser Magnolia
(Magnolia fraseri), native to the hills and mountains
of the South. It is considered rare because of its
limited distribution.

Culture

Cultural requirements of Pyramidal Magnolia
are similar to those of Ashe Magnolia. This tree is
found in moist woods and is known to be intolerant
of poorly drained soils.

Umbrella Magnolia (Magnolia tripetala)

Description and Uses

Umbrella Magnolia is a small to medium,
deciduous tree native to eastern North America
including Florida. This upright-growing tree is often
multi-stemmed. The leaves are up to 20 inches long
and 10 inches wide. Umbrella Magnolia derives its


common name from these large leaves, which are
arranged in clusters at the ends ofbranches. Cream-
colored flowers up to 8 inches in diameter open in
late spring after the foliage. Trees begin flowering
when as young as 7 years from seed. The 4-inch long
fruits are the brightest red of the American
magnolias.


History

Umbrella Magnolia is distinguished by having
extraordinarily foul-smelling flowers. Even its wood
has a disagreeable smell when cut.
As with Bigleaf Magnolia, Umbrella Magnolia is
valued for its large leaves, which lend a tropical
appearance in temperate climates.

Culture

Umbrella Magnolia is found growing in rich,
moist soils of sheltered woods and ravines. This tree
should grow best with partial shade and well-drained,
slightly acid soil.

Cultivars

Although probably unavailable in commerce, the
cultivars 'Bloomfield' and 'Woodlawn' were selected
in the 1970s.
Magnolia tripetala is the parent of a number of
hybrids, including 'Silver Parasol' (M. hypoleuca x
M. tripetala) and 'Charles Coates' (M. sieboldii x M.
tripetala). Similarly, Magnolia x thompsoniana
'Urbana'was selected from the progeny ofM. tripetala
x M. virginiana.

Sweetbay Magnolia, Sweet Bay
(Magnolia virginiana)

Description and Uses

Sweetbay Magnolia is a beautiful semi-evergreen
to evergreen tree, which eventually grows to 40 to 60
feet tall and about half as wide. Sweetbay Magnolia
is very striking when the glossy green leaves flutter
in the wind, exposing the whitish undersides. The
narrow oblong leaves are 3 to 5 inches long and 1 to
2 inches wide. Extremely fragrant, white flowers are
2 inches in diameter and occur throughout mid to
late summer. The lemon-scented flowers tend to







Page 8


become cream-colored with age. Fruit cones turn red
in late summer and expose bright red seeds that
contrast with the glossy foliage. Plants will flower
when as young as 3 years old from seed. Occasional
trees are multi-stemmed, but most trees have a
single, dominant central leader.
Two varieties of Sweetbay Magnolia occur:
virginiana, a smaller, almost deciduous form in its
northern range, and australis, a larger, more
evergreen type found in the lower South. The variety
australis should be grown in Florida.
Sweetbay Magnolia is best used as a patio or
specimen tree. This beautiful tree should be planted
more often.

History

The common names ofMagnolia virginiana reflect
its nativity to the wet woodlands and swamps of mid-
Atlantic and southeastern North America: Swamp
Bay, Swamp Laurel, Swamp Magnolia, Swamp
Sassafras, Beaver Tree, and Beaverwood. These last
two names refer to the observed feeding preference
of beavers for the stems and roots of this species.
Early settlers made a tincture from the bark to treat
coughs, colds, and fevers.
In 1688, Sweetbay Magnolia became the first
magnolia introduced to Europe.

Culture

Although native to low, wet woodlands, Sweetbay
Magnolia grows best in moist, well-drained soils and
full sun to partial shade. This tree tolerates wet soils
and also is somewhat tolerant of alkaline soils.

Cultivars

The cultivars ofMagnolia virginiana var. australis
include the following.

'Crofts' Cold hardiness and glossy leaves are
characteristic of this tree.

'Henry Hicks' This cultivar remains evergreen
throughout the species' range.

'Willowleaf Bay' This fast-growing, narrowly
pyramidal tree has narrower leaves than the typical
variety.


In addition, Sweetbay Magnolia has been bred
with Southern Magnolia, Magnolia grandiflora.
Refer to the section on Southern Magnolia for a
discussion of this hybrid.

Deciduous Flowering Magnolias
(Magnolia Selections and Hybrids)

Description and Uses

This group of deciduous trees is known for its
spectacular display of flowers, which appears before
the foliage in late winter and early spring. Considered
some of our most beautiful flowering trees, this
broad grouping encompasses cultivars bred from
several Asian magnolia species.
Deciduous flowering magnolias generally are
considered small trees with slow to moderate growth
rates. Smaller cultivars may be grown as large
shrubs, and some larger trees may eventually grow
40 to 70 feet tall. Tree shape characteristically is
upright to rounded when young, becoming rounded
or broad-spreading with age. The medium green
leaves are oval to circular and vary from 3 to 10
inches long and 2 to 10 inches wide. Leaves turn a
nondescript yellow to brown before falling. The trunk
has smooth, tan or grey bark, and branches exhibit
large, fuzzy flower buds.
The fragrant flowers open before the foliage and
range in color from white to pink to purple. Often
flowers display one color on the outer side of the
tepal and a lighter color inside. Tepals also may
shade from a dark color near the base to a lighter
color at the tepal tip. Characteristics vary with the
cultivar, but flowers range from 3 to 12 inches in
diameter. Peak bloom occurs around the first week
of February in Gainesville. Some cultivars produce
flowers sporadically through the summer and fall.
Reddish fruits sometimes develop in the fall.
Deciduous flowering magnolias are best used as
small patio, specimen or accent trees. Smaller
cultivars may be incorporated into foundation
plantings or shrub borders or grown in containers.

History

Many parents of today's deciduous flowering
hybrid magnolias were widely grown by the ancient
Chinese and Japanese. The beautiful flowering tree
Magnolia denudata was known as "Yu-lan" ("Jade
Orchid") to the ancient Chinese. Its flower was





Page 9


considered a symbol of purity and the tree has been
cultivated in temple gardens since the 7th century.
The Chinese also cultivated "Hou-phu" (Magnolia
officinalis) for the bark's medicinal qualities and
"Mu-lan" ("Woody Orchid," Magnolia liliiflora) for
grafting stock. The Japanese have grown Magnolia
kobus var. stellata for centuries as flowering pot
plants called "Shidekobushi" ("Zigzag-petalled
Kobushi Magnolia"). The Japanese brought these
container-grown magnolias into their homes during
the bloom season in order to fully appreciate the
flowers and fragrance.
The first of these Asian species was introduced to
Europe in 1780 and subsequently to America. As
additional species were introduced, this group of
free-floweringmagnolias became immensely popular.
Intensive breeding programs produced late-
blooming, more floriferous forms with a wider range
of flower colors. A primary goal of these breeding
programs was to develop late-blooming cultivars
whose flowers would avoid being damaged by late
frosts. Famous breeders were Frenchman Etienne
Soulange-Bodin in the early 19th century,
Englishmen Peter C. M. Veitch in the early 1900s
and Charles Raffill in the 1940s, and most recently
American D. Todd Gresham in the 1950s and 1960s.
These breeding programs have relied heavily on
M. liliiflora, M. kobus var. stellata, andM. denudata
for parentage. Other species incorporated include
M. campbellii, M. kobus, M. salicifolia, and M.
sprengeri. Because the Chinese and Japanese
probably selected superior variants and natural
hybrids of their native magnolias, the genetic heritage
ofthese species, hybrids, and crosses is very complex
and confused. Genetically, the species, hybrids, and
crosses have shown various levels ofploidy from the
normal diploid (2n) through octoploid (8n).
The hybrids and crosses produced by these breeding
programs, which are still ongoing, have resulted in
many superior ornamental trees. These magnolias
are now among the 10 most popular flowering trees in
the U.S. Furtherimprovements in floweringmagnolias
can be expected. Other Asian species continue to be
introduced into cultivation. Most tropical species are
still relatively unknown and are untapped resources
for future breeding programs.

Culture

Deciduous flowering magnolias are adapted to
USDA Hardiness Zone 8 and cooler microclimates in


Zone 9. In Florida, they grow best in full sunlight to
partial shade on moist, well-drained soils. Acid to
neutral soils are preferred, but slightly alkaline soils
are also suitable for growth. Although adaptable to
clay, loam, or sand soils, these magnolias are
intolerant of wet or poorly drained soils. Well-
established plants are moderately drought tolerant.
Avoid exposed, windy locations because strong winds
can damage large flowers and the typically brittle
branches.

Hybrid Groups, Selections, and Cultivars

Magnolia kobus var. stellata Cultivars and
Hybrids

Star Magnolia, Magnolia kobus var. stellata, has
become the best known species because it is widely
adaptable and blooms when very small. Star
Magnolia is a slow-growing, broad-spreading, small
tree or large shrub, ultimately reaching 20 feet tall.
Its flowers are 3 to 5 inches in diameter with 12 to 40
tepals. Flowers are white, although a few cultivars
have pinkish flowers.
Star Magnolia's characteristics have made it
popular as a parent of many hybrids. Breeding it
with M. kobus has produced the "Loebner Hybrids,"
and hybrids with M. liliiflora have produced the
U.S. National Arboretum's "Little Girl Hybrids."Star
Magnolia and its progeny are well adapted to Florida.
They can be grown successfully through Zone 9a,
about as far south as Tampa. The following list
contains cultivars that are grown successfully in
Florida.

'Centennial' (Magnolia kobus var. stellata) -
Some consider this the best M. kobus var. stellata
cultivar for Florida. Flowers are white with a pinkish
cast.

'Rosea Jane Platt' (Magnolia kobus var. stellata)
-This cultivar produces pink flowers that hold their
color well in Florida.

'Leonard Messel' This Loebner Hybrid is less
vigorous than others. Purple buds open to pink, 5-
inch diameter M. kobus var. stellata-type flowers.

"Little Girl Hybrids" In order of their flowering
sequence, they are 'Ann,' 'Betty,' 'Judy,' 'Randy,'
'Ricky,' 'Susan,' 'Jane,' and 'Pinkie'. ('Ann' flowers







Page 10


about 2 weeks after M. kobus var. stellata, and
'Pinkie' flowers about 4 weeks later.) These cultivars
were bred by Francis DeVos and William Kosar at
the National Arboretum. Their growth habit is
similar to M. kobus var. stellata. Flower
characteristics vary with the cultivar and range
from 2 to 6 inches in diameter with 6 to 18 pink to
purple tepals. These cultivars thus bring dark pink
and purple flowers to an M. kobus var. stellata-type
plant. 'Ann,' 'Susan,' and 'Jane' are being produced
in Florida. 'Susan' is the favorite of many growers.

'Merrill' This Loebner Hybrid is a vigorous,
broad-spreading tree sporting 4- to 6-inch white
flowers about 4 weeks later than M. kobus var.
stellata.

'Royal Star' (Magnolia kobus var. stellata) -
White, 4-inch flowers are produced about a week
later than ordinary M. kobus var. stellata. It is
widely grown because of its cold hardiness.

'Waterlily' (Magnolia kobus var. stellata) At
least 3 distinct forms carry this name. Each is
vigorous, flowers 1 to 2 weeks later than ordinary M.
kobus var. stellata, and has flowers with a pinkish
cast.

Soulangiana Group

Etienne Soulange-Bodin first bred Magnolia
denudata with M. liliiflora in the early 1800s. This
hybrid has been repeated thousands of times,
producing more than 100 cultivars. Labelled M. x
soulangiana, this group constitutes the largest and
best known category of deciduous flowering
magnolias. In general, these are broad, spreading
small trees that are well adapted to northern Florida.
Flowers vary by cultivar but may be goblet-, cup-, or
saucer-shaped and white to pink to purple. Since
these hybrids are early blooming, flowers are often
damaged by late freezes. A few cultivars adapted to
Florida are listed below.

'Alexandrina' Several clones share this name.
Generally, the flowers are fragrant, tulip-shaped,
white inside and pink-purple outside.

'Brozzonii' This plant has pale pink flowers
that are white inside.


'Deep Purple Dream' Beautiful dark red-purple
buds open into lighter red-purple, bowl-shaped
flowers. Plant has a shrubby habit.

'Grace McDade' Large white flowers are shaded
with purple-pink and appear about 2 weeks later
than other cultivars.

Gresham Hybrids

D. Todd Gresham bred magnolias in Santa Cruz,
California, in the 1950s and 1960s. Using 8 species
and hybrid groups for parentage, he developed more
than 30 cultivars and selections, and others are still
being named and released more than 20 years after
his death. Generally, these cultivars grow the largest
and have the largest flowers of all deciduous flowering
magnolias. Flowers tend to be goblet-shaped the
first day of bloom. On the second day, they open into
a saucer shape and are up to 12 inches in diameter.
Leaves are in scale with flowers and are circular and
up to 10 inches in diameter. Trees are generally
upright when young but may become rounded as
they grow to medium sized trees. Unfortunately,
most of these cultivars do not begin flowering until
plants are much larger than other deciduous
flowering magnolias, perhaps 6 feet or taller. Many
cultivars are still being evaluated, but those on the
following list are some of the best now growing in
Florida.

'Dark Shadow' Reddish purple flowers are
produced on a shrubby tree.

'Darrell Dean' The 12-inch, saucer-shaped
flowers are orchid pink outside and white inside.

'Elisa Oldenwald' Flowers are creamy white
with light pink tones at the base of the tepals. They
are up to 12 inches across.

'Full Eclipse' Flowers with red-purple outer
tepals and white inner tepals develop on an upright
tree.

'Heaven Scent' Fragrant, pinkish lavender
flowers are produced on this tree.

'Jon Jon' This produces very large, creamy
white flowers with a red-purple tinge at the base.
Bloominglater in the spring than any other Gresham,








Page 11


the flowers usually avoid damage from late frosts.

'Joe McDaniel'- This cultivar has dark burgundy
buds that open to dark red flowers with cream
interiors.

'Peter Smithers'- The 10-inch flowers are bright
rosy pink outside and white inside.

'Pink Goblet' Beautiful goblet-shaped flowers
are pink outside and white inside.

'Raspberry Ice'- Flowers are 9 inches across and
pinkish white with violet shading at the base. Plant
has a shrubby habit.

'Royal Crown' Large 10- to 12-inch flowers are
violet-red outside and white inside. This early-
blooming plant blooms over a 3-week period and at
a younger age thari other cultivars. It often re-
blooms in the fall.

'Sangreal' -Large red-purple flowers develop on
a vigorous tree.

'Tina Durio' Flowers are 10 inches in diameter
and white with a slight pink tinge at the base of the
tepals.

'Todd Gresham'- This fast-growing tree produces
dark burgundy buds opening to large flowers with
dark pink exteriors and white interiors.

'Winelight'- The late-blooming flowers are large
and luminescent white with a pinkish tinge at the
base.

Other Cultivars

'Diva' (Magnolia sprengeri) -'Diva' is the parent
of a number of hybrids. It produces 8-inch, rosy pink
flowers with pale pink interiors when as young as 5
to 7 years. ,

'Galaxy' (M. liliiflora 'Nigra' xM. sprengeri 'Diva')
- This National Arboretum release bears tulip-
shaped, reddish purple flowers in mid-season on a
fast-growing, pyramidal tree.

'Spectrum' (M. liliiflora 'Nigra' x M. sprengeri
'Diva').- Another National Arboretum release,


'Spectrum'produces large, tulip-shaped, deep reddish
purple flowers with a white interior on a broad,
rounded tree. Flowers are larger than on 'Galaxy'
and bloom later.

'Vulcan' (Magnolia campbellii 'Lanarth' x M.
liliiflora 'Nigra') -'Vulcan' bears 10-inch, ruby red
flowers on a small, narrowly rounded tree.

REFERENCES

Adams, Russell. 1992. Personal communication.
Gainesville Tree Farm, Gainesville, Florida.

Byrnes, Bob. 1993. Personal communication. Trail
Ridge Nursery, Keystone Heights, Florida.

Callaway, Dorothy J. 1991. Magnolia
'Galaxy.'American Nurseryman 174(2): 122.

Callaway, Dorothy J. 1994. The world of
magnolias. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press.
260 pp.

Dirr, Michael A. 1983. Manual of woody landscape
plants. 3d ed. Champaign, Illinois: Stipes
Publishing Company. 826 pp.

Dirr, Michael A., and Charles W. Heuser, Jr. 1987.
The reference manual of woody plant
propagation. Athens, Georgia: Varsity Press.
S239 pp.

Ellis, David G. 1988. Propagating new magnolia
cultivars. Proc. International Plant
Propagators' Soc. 38: 453-456.

Foster, Maurice. 1990. Some developments in
magnolias for the garden. Proc. International
Plant Propagators' Soc. 40: 303-307.

Gardiner, James M, 1989. Magnolias. Chester,
Connecticut: The Globe Pequot Press. 144 pp.

Gilman, E. F., H, Beck, D. G. Watson, P. Fowler,
and N. R. Morgan. 1993. Southern trees-tree :
recommendation expert system.F C.E.S.
Monograph 3.

Leibee, Gary L. 1992. Unearthing magnolia
menace. American Nurseryman 175(2): 70-77.












Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium Staff. 1976.
Hortus third. New York: Macmillan.

McCulloch, Steve. 1989. Magnolia acuminata var.
subcordata 'Miss Honeybee.'New plant forum-
Western Region. Proc. International Plant
Propagators' Soc. 39: 178.

Munson, R.W., Jr. 1993. Personal communication.
Wimberlyway Gardens, Gainesville, Florida.

Sorensen, Per. 1992. Magnolia 'Vulcan.'American
Nurseryman 176(2): 130.

Spongberg, Stephen A. 1976. Magnoliaceae hardy
in temperate North America. J. Arnold
Arboretum 57: 250-312.

Tiffney, Bruce H. 1985. Perspectives on the origin
of the floristic similarity between eastern Asia
and eastern North America. J. Arnold
Arboretum 66: 73-94.

Tobe, John D. 1993. A molecular systematic study


of eastern North American species of Magnolia
L. Ph.D. Dissertation, Clemson University,
Clemson, South Carolina.

Tobe, John D. 1994. Personal communication.
Tallahassee, Florida.

Treseder, Neil G. 1978. Magnolias. London: Faber
& Faber. 246 pp.

Turner, Carole Beeson. 1992. '93 commercial
introductions. American Nurseryman 176(12):
79-98.

Ueda, Kunihiko. 1988. Star Magnolia (Magnolia
tomentosa)-an indigenous Japanese plant. J.
Arnold Arboretum 69: 281-288.

AUTHOR

Gary W. Knox, associate professor and
environmental horticulturalist, North Florida
Research and Education Center, Cooperative
Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences, University of Florida, Monticello, FL32344.


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, John T. Woeste, Director, in
cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress;
and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, age,
sex, handicap or national origin. The information in this publication is available in alternate formats. Single copies of extension publications (excluding 4-H and
youth publications) are. available free to Florida residents from county extension offices. Information on bulk rates, copies for out-of-state purchases is available
from C.M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, University of Florida, PO Box 110011, Gainesville, FL 32611-0011. Information about alternate formats is
available from Educational Media and Services, University of Florida, PO Box 110810, Gainesville, FL 32611-0810. Printed 5/95.




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