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THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.
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CHRISTIAN AT THE GT
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FROM THIS WORLD TO THAT WHICH IS TO COME.
e cliberc b utbrcr the Similitubc of it 'rtam.
By JO fIN B UNYA lv.
,' < \ '
T. NELSON AND SONS, PATERNOSTER ROW;
EDINBURGH ; AND NEW YORK.
t ~ --_____ .-----_______-______
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.
WHEREIN IS DISCOVERED THE MANNER OF HIS SETTING OUT,
HIS DANGEROUS JOURNEY, AND SAFE ARRIVAL
AT THE DESIRED COUNTY.
THE AUTHOR'S APOLOGY
FOR HIS BOOK.
^^HMEN at the first I took my pen in hand
i Thus for to write, I did not understand
That I at all should make a little book
In such a mode; nay, I had undertook
To make another; which, when almost done,
Before I was aware, I this begun.
And thus it was: I, writing of the way
And race of saints, in this our gospel day,
Fell suddenly into an allegory
About their journey, and the way to glory,
In more than twenty things, which I set down.
This done, I twenty more had in my crown;
And they again began to multiply,
Like sparks that from the coals of fire do fly.
Nay, then, thought I, if that you breed so fast,
I'll put you by yourselves, lest you at last
Should prove ad ifninitum, and eat out
The book that I already am about.
Well, so I did; but yet I did not think
"To show to all the world my pen and ink
In such a mode; I only thought to make
I knew not what: nor did I undertake
Thereby to please my neighbour; no, not 1:
I did it mine own self to gratify.
Neither did I but vacant seasons spend
In this my scribble; nor did I intend
But to divert myself, in doing this,
From worser thoughts, which make me do amiss.
8 The Au thor's Apology.
Thus I set pen to paper with delight,
And quickly had my thoughts in black and white.
For, having now my method by the end,
Still as I pulled, it came; and so I penn'd
It down; until it came at last to be,
For length and breadth, the bigness which you see.
Well, when I had thus put mine ends together
I sbow'd them others, that I might see whether
They would condemn them, or them justify:
And some said, Let them live; some, Let them die:
Some said, John, print it; others said, Not so:
Some said, It might do good; others said, No.
Now was I in a strait, and did not see
Which was the best thing to be done by me:
At last I thought, Since you are thus divided,
I print it will, and so the case decided.
For, thought I, some, I see, would have it done,
Though others in that channel do not run:
To prove, then, who advised for the best,
Thus I thought fit to put it to the test.
I further thought, if now I did deny
Those that would have it, thus to gratify,
I did not know but hinder them I might
Of that which would to them be great delight.
For those which were not for its coming forth,
I said to them, Offendyou I am loath;
Yet, since your brethren pleased with it be,
Forbear to judge, till you do further see.
If that thou wilt not read, let it alone;
Some love the meat, some love to pick the bone.
Yea, that I might them better palliate,
I did too with them thus expostulate:
May I not write in such a style as this?
In such a method, too, and yet not miss
My end,-thy good? Why may it not be done?
Dark clouds bring waters, when the bright bring none,
Yea, dark or bright, if they their silver drops
Cause to descend, the Earth, by yielding crops,
Gives praise to both, and carpeth not at either,
But treasures up the fruit they yield together;
Yea, so commixes both, that in her fruit
None can distinguish this from that: they suit
Her well when hungry; but, if she be full,
She spews out both, and makes their blessings nulL
You see the ways the fisherman doth take
To catch the fish; what engines doth he make !
The Author's Apology.
Behold how he engageth all his wits;
Also his snares, lines, angles, hooks, and nets:
Yet fish there be, that neither hook, nor line,
Nor snare, nor net, nor engine, can make thine;
They must be groped for, and be tickled too,
Or they will not be catch'd, whatever you do.
How does the fowler seek to catch his game
By divers means all which one cannot name:
His guns, his nets, his lime-twigs, light, and bell;
He creeps, he goes, he stands; yea, who can tell
Of all his postures ? Yet there's none of these
Will make him master of what fowls he please.
Yea, he must pipe and whistle to catch this;
Yet, if he does so, that bird he will miss.
If that a pearl may in a toad's head dwell,
And may be found too in an oyster-shell;
If things that promise nothing do contain
What better is than gold; who will disdain,
That have an inkling of it, there to look,
That they may find it ? Now, my little book
(Though void of all these paintings that may make
It with this or the other man to take)
Is not without those things that do excel
What do in brave but empty notions dwell.
Well, yet I am not zflly satisfied,
That this your book will stand when soundly tried.
Why, what's the matter ? It is dark. What though ?
But it is feigned. What of that ? I trow
Some men, by feigned words, as dark as mine,
Make truth to spangle, and its rays to shine.
But they want solidness. Speak, man, thy mind.
They drown the weak; metapfors make us blind.
Solidity, indeed, becomes the pen
Of him that writeth things divine to men;
But must I needs want solidness, because
By metaphors I speak?- Were not God's laws,
His gospel laws, in olden times held forth
By types, shadows, and metaphors? Yet loath
Will any sober man be to find fault
With them, lest he be found for to assault
The highest wisdom. No; he rather stoops.
And seeks to find out what by pins and loops,
By calves and sheep, by heifers and by rams,
By birds and herbs, and by the blood of lambs,
God speaketh to him; and happy is he
That finds the light and grace that in them be.
TO The Aut hour's Apology.
Be not too forward, therefore, to conclude
That I want solidness,-that I am rude:
All things solid in show not solid be;
All things in parables despise not we;
Lest things most hurtful lightly we receive,
And things that good are of our souls bereave.
My dark and cloudy words, they do but hold
The truth, as cabinets enclose the gold.'
The prophets used much by metaphors
To set forth truth; yea, whoso considers
Christ, his apostles too, shall plainly see
That truths to this day in such mantles be.
Am I afraid to say, that Holy Writ,
Which for its style and phrase puts down all wit,
Is everywhere so full of all these things-
Dark figures, allegories ? Yet there springs
From that same book that lustre, and those rays
Of light, that turn our darkest nights to days.
Come, let my carper to his life now look,
And find there darker lines than in my book
He findeth any; yea, and let him know,
That in his best things there are worse lines too.
May we but stand before impartial men,
To his poor one I dare adventure ten,
That they will take my meaning in these lines
Far better than his lies in silver shrines.
Come, truth, although in swaddling-clouts I find,
Informs the judgment, rectifies the mind;
Pleases the understanding, makes the will
Submit: the memory too it doth fill
With what doth our imaginations please;
Likewise it tends our troubles to appease.
Sound words, I know, Timothy is to use,
And old wives' fables he is to refuse;
Eut yet grave Paul him nowhere did forbid
The use of parables; in which lay hid
That gold, those pearls, and precious stones, that were
Worth digging for, and that with greatest care.
Let me add one word more: 0 man of God,
Art thou offended? Dost thou wish I had
Put forth my matter in another dress;
Or, that I had in things been more express?
Three things let me propound, then I submit
To those that are my betters, as is fit.
i. I find not that I am denied the use
Of this my method, so I no abuse
The Author's Apology. 1
Put on the words, things, readers; or be rude
In handling figure or similitude,
In application; but, all that I may,
Seek the advance of truth, this or that way.
Denied, did I say? Nay, I have leave
(Examples too, and that from them that have
God better pleased, by tbeir words or ways,
Than any man that breatheth now-a-days)
Thus to express my mind, thus to declare
Things unto thee that excellentest are.
2. I find that men (as high as trees) will wr te
Dialogue-wise yet no man doth them slight
For writing so: indeed, if they abuse
Truth, cursed be they, and the craft they use
To that intent; but yet let Truth be free
To make her sallies upon thee and me,
Which way it pleases God; for who knows how,
Better than he that taught us first to plough,
To guide our mind and pens for his design ?
And he makes base things usher in divine.
3. I find that Holy Writ, in many places,
I-ath semblance with this method, where the cases
Do call for one thing to set forth another:
Use it I may, then, and yet nothing smother
Truth's golden beams; nay, by this method may
Make it cast forth its rays as light as day.
And now, before I do put up my pen,
I'll show the profit of my book, and then
Commit both thee and it unto that Hand
That pulls the strong down, and makes weak ones stand.
This book, it chalketh out before thine eyes
The man that seeks the everlasting prize :
It shows you whence he comes, whither he goes;
What he leaves undone, also what he does:
It also shows you how he runs and runs,
Till he unto the gate of glory comes.
It shows, too, who set out for life amain,
As if the lasting crown they would obtain :
Here also you may see the reason why
They lose their labour, and like fools do die.
This book will make a traveller of thee,
If by its counsel thou wilt ruled be;
It will direct thee to the Holy Land,
If thou wilt its directions understand;
Yea, it will make the slothful active be;
The blind also delightful things to see.
12 The Author's Apology.
Art thou for something rare and profitable ?
Wouldest thou see a truth within a fable ?
Art thou forgetful? Wouldest thou remember
From New-year's day to the last of December?
Then read my fancies; they will stick like burs,
And may be, to the helpless, comforters.
This book is writ in such a dialect
As may the minds of listless men affect:
It seems a novelty, and yet contains
Nothing but sound and honest gospel strains.
Wouldst thou divert thyself from melancholy ?
Wouldst thou be pleasant, yet be far from folly ?
Wouldst thou read riddles, and their explanation?
Or else be drowned in thy contemplation ?
Dost thou love picking meat? Or wouldst thou see
A man i' the clouds, and hear him speak to thee ?
Wouldst thou be in a dream, and yet not sleep ?
Or wouldst thou in a moment laugh and weep?
Wouldst thou lose thyself and catch no harm,
And find thyself again without a charm ?
Wouldst read thyself, and read thou knowest not what,
And yet know whether thou art blest or not,
By reading the same lines? O then come hither,
And lay my book, thy head, and heart together.
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.
S I walked through the wilderness of this world, I
lighted on a certain place where
was a den, and laid me down in
that place to sleep; and, as I slept, I dreamed a
dream. I dreamed, and, behold, I saw a man
clothed with rags, standing in a certain place, with his face
from his own house, a book in his hand, and a great burden
upon his back (Isa. lxiv. 6; Luke xiv. 33; Ps. xxxviii. 4). I
looked, and saw him open the book, and read therein; and,
as he read, he wept and trembled; and, not
being able longer to contain, he brake out
with a lamentable cry, saying, "What shall I do ?" (Acts ii.
37, xvi. 30, 3i; Hab. ii. 1, 2.)
In this plight, therefore, he went home, and refrained him-
self as long as he could, that his wife and children should not
perceive his distress; but he could not be silent long, because
that his trouble increased. Wherefore at length he brake his
mind to his wife and children, and thus he began to talk to
them: O my dear wife, said he, and you the children of my
bowels, I, your dear friend, am in myself undone, by reason of
a burden that lieth hard upon me: moreover, I am for certain
14 The Pilgrim's Progress.
informed that this our city will be burnt with fire from heaven;
in which fearful overthrow both myself, with
thee my wife, and you my sweet babes, shall
miserably come to ruin, except (the which yet I see not) some
way of escape can be found, whereby we may
Heknows noway be delivered. At this his relations were sore
oJ escape as yet.
amazed; not for that they believed that what
he had said to them was true, but because they thought that
some frenzy distemper had got into his head; therefore, it
drawing towards night, and they hoping that sleep might settle
his brains, with all haste they got him to bed. But the night
was as troublesome to him as the day; wherefore, instead of
sleeping, he spent it in sighs and tears. So, when the morn-
ing was come, they would know how he did. He told them,
Worse and worse : he also set to talking to them again; but
they began to be hardened. They also thought to drive away
his distemper by harsh and surly carriages to him: sometimes
they would deride, sometimes they would chide,
Carnal fysic and sometimes they would quite neglect him.
for a sick soul.
Wherefore he began to retire himself to his
chamber, to pray for and pity them, and also to condole his
own misery; he would also walk solitarily in the fields, some-
times reading, and sometimes praying: and thus for some days
he spent his time.
Now I saw, upon a time, when he was walking in the fields,
that he was, as he was wont, reading in his book, and greatly
distressed in his mind; and, as he read, he burst out, as he had
done before, crying, "What shall I do to be saved ?" (Acts
xvi. 30, 31.)
I saw also that he looked this way and that way, as if he
would run; yet he stood still, because, as I perceived, he could
not tell which way to go. I looked then, and saw a man
named Evangelist coming to him, who asked, Wherefore dost
thou cry ?
He answered, Sir, I perceive, by the book in my hand, that
I am condemned to die, and after that to come to judgment
(Heb. ix. 27); and I find that I am not willing to do the first
(Job xvi. 21), nor able to do the second (Ezek. xxii. 14).
The Pilgrim's Progress.. 15
Then said Evangelist, Why not willing to die, since this life
is attended with so many evils ? The man answered, Because
I fear that this burden that is upon my back will sink me lower
than the grave, and I shall fall into Tophet (Isa. xxx. 33).
And, sir, if I be not fit to go to prison, I am not fit, I am sure,
to go to judgment, and from thence to execution; and the
thoughts of these things make me cry.
Then said Evangelist, If this be thy condition, why standest
thou still ? He answered, Because I know not Cion
whither to go. Then he gave him a parchment the necessity of
roll, and there was written within, Flee from -feeing.
the wrath to come !" (Matt. iii. 7.)
The man, therefore, read it, and looking upon Evangelist
very carefully, said, Whither must I fly? Then said Evan-
gelist, pointing with his finger over a very wide field, Do you
see yonder Wicket-gate? (Matt. vii. 13, 14.) The man said,
No. Then said the other, Do you see yonder Christ and the
shining light? (Ps. cxix. 105; 2 Pet. i. 19.) way to him can-
He said, I think I do. Then said Evangelist, onotIbefoundwit
Keep that light in your eye, and go up directly
thereto: so shalt thou see the gate; at which, when thou
knockest, it shall be told thee what thou shalt do. So I saw
in my dream, that the man began to run. Now, he had not
run far from his own door, but his wife and children perceiving
it, began to cry after him to return; but the man put his fingers
in his ears, and ran on, crying, Life! life! eternal life (Luke
xiv. 26.) So he looked not behind him, but fled towards the
middle of the plain (Gen. xix. 17).
The neighbours also came out to see him run (Jer. xx. 1o),
and, as he ran, some mocked, others threat- They that fly
ened, and some cried after him to return; and, from the wrath
to come, are a
among those that did so, there were two that gazing-stock to
resolved to fetch him back by force. The tke world.
name of the one was Obstinate, and the name of the other
Pliable. Now, by this time, the man was Obstinate and
got a good distance from them; but, how- Pliable follow
ever, they were resolved to pursue him;
which they did, and in a little time they overtook him. Then
16 The Pilgrim's Progress.
said the man, Neighbours, wherefore are ye come ? They said,
To persuade you to go back with us. But he said, That can
by no means be. You dwell, said he, in the City of Destruc-
tion, the place also where I was born: I see it to be so; and,
dying there, sooner or later, you will sink lower than the grave,
into a place that burns with fire and brimstone: be content,
good neighbours, and go along with me.
Obst. What said Obstinate, and leave our friends and our
comforts behind us ?
C/zr. Yes, said Christian (for that was his name), because
that all which you shall forsake is not worthy to be compared
with a little of that which I am seeking to enjoy (2 Cor. iv. 18);
and if you will go along with me, and hold it, you shall fare as
I myself; for there, where I go, is enough and to spare (Luke
xv. 17). Come away, and prove my words.
Obst. What are the things you seek, since you leave all the
world to find them ?
Chr. I seek an inheritance incorruptible, undefiled, and that
fadeth not away (I Pet. i. 4); and it is laid up in Heaven, and
safe there (Heb. xi. 16), to be bestowed, at the time appointed,
on them that diligently seek it. Read it so, if you will, in my
Obst. Tush, said Obstinate, away with your book; will you
go back with us or no ?
Chr. No, not I, said the other, because I have laid my hand
to the plough (Luke ix. 62).
Obst. Come, then, neighbour Pliable, let us turn again, and
go home without him: there is a company of these crazy-
headed coxcombs, that, when they take a fancy by the end,
are wiser in their own eyes than seven men that can render a
reason" (Prov. xxvi. 16).
Pli. Then, said Pliable, don't revile; if what the good Chris-
tian says is true, the things he looks after are better than ours;
my heart inclines to go with my neighbour.
Obst. What! more fools still! Be ruled by me, and go
back; who knows whither such a brain-sick fellow will lead
you? Go back, go back, and be wise.
CAr. Nay, but do thou come with thy neighbour, Pliable;
S- T ----
f- -r- PI,:s
OHRISTIAN AND EVANGELIST.
The Pilgrim's Progress. 17
there are such things to be had which I spoke of, and many
more glorious besides. If you believe not me, Christian and
read here in this book; and for the truth of Obstinate pullfor
what is expressed therein, behold, all is con-
firmed by the blood of Him that made it (Heb. ix. 17-22, xiii. 20).
Pli. Well, neighbour Obstinate, saith Pliable, I begin to
come to a point; I intend to go along with Pliabe con-
this good man, and to cast in my lot with tented to go with
him: but, my good companion, do you know risia
the way to this desired place ?
Chr. I am directed by a man, whose name is Evangelist, to
speed me to a little gate that is before us, where we shall re-
ceive instructions about the way.
Pli. Come, then, good neighbour, let us be going. Then
they went both together.
Obst. And I will go back to my place, said
Obstinate: I will be no companion of such railinback.
misled, fantastical fellows.
Now I saw in my dream, that, when Ob- Talk between
stinate was gone back, Christian and Pliable C/ristian and
went talking over the plain; and thus they Pliable.
began their discourse:
Chr. Come, neighbour Pliable, how do you do? I am glad
you are persuaded to go along with me. Had even Obstinate
himself but felt what I have felt of the powers and terrors oi
what is yet unseen he would not thus lightly have given us the
Pli. Come, neighbour Christian, since there are none but us
two here, tell me now further, what the things are, and how to
be enjoyed, whither we are going.
Chr. I can better conceive of them with my mind than speak
of them with my tongue: but yet, since you
are desirous to know, I will read of them in Godas things un-
Pli. And do you think that the words of your book are
certainly true ?
Chr. Yes, verily; for it was made by tIim that cannot lie
(Tit. i. 2).
18 The Pilgrim's Progress.
Pli. Well said: what things are they?
Chr. There is an endless kingdom to be inhabited, and
everlasting life to be given us, that we may inhabit that king-
dom for ever (Isa. xlv. 17; John x. 27-29).
Pli. Well said; and what else ?
Chr. There are crowns of glory to be given us, and garments
that will make us shine like the sun in the firmament of heaven
(2 Tim. iv. 8; Rev. iii. 4; Matt. xiii. 43).
Pli. This is very pleasant; and what else?
Chr. There shall be no more crying, nor sorrow; for He
that is owner of the place will wipe all tears from our eyes
(Isa. xxv. 8; Rev. vii. 17, xxi. 4).
Pli. And what company shall we have there ?
Chr. There we shall be with seraphims and cherubims,-
creatures that will dazzle your eyes to look on them (Isa. vi. 2).
There also you shall meet with thousands and ten thousands
that have gone before us to that place : none of them are hurt-
ful, but loving and holy; every one walking in the sight of
God, and standing in his presence with acceptance for ever
(I Thess. iv. 16, 17; Rev. v. II). In a word, there we shall
see the elders with their golden crowns (Rev. iv. 4); there we
shall see the holy virgins with their golden harps (Rev. xiv.
1-5); there we shall see men that by the world were cut in
pieces, burnt in flames, eaten of beasts, drowned in the seas,
for the love they bare to the Lord of the place,-all well,
and clothed with immortality as with a garment (John xii. 25;
2 Cor. v. 2-4).
Pli. The hearing of this is enough to ravish one's heart. But
are these things to be enjoyed? How shall we get to be
Chr. The Lord, the Governor of the country, hath recorded
that in this book ; the substance of which is, If we be truly
willing to have it, he will bestow it upon us freely (Isa. Iv. I, 2;
John vi. 37, vii. 37; Rev. xxi. 6, xxii. 17).
Pli. Well, my good companion, glad am I to hear of these
things: come on, let us mend our pace.
Chr. I cannot go so fast as I would, by reason of this burden
that is on my back.
The Pilgrim's Progress. 19
Now, I saw in my dream, that, just as they had ended this
talk, they drew near to a very miry slough, that was in the
midst of the plain ; and they, being heedless, did both fall sud-
denly into the bog. The name of the slough
was Despond. Here, therefore, they wallowed Destond.o
for a time, being grievously bedaubed with
dirt; and Christian, because of the burden that was on his
back, began to sink in the mire.
PI. Then said Pliable, Ah! neighbour Christian, where are
you now ?
Chr. Truly, said Christian, I do not know.
Pli. At this Pliable began to be offended, and angrily said to
his fellow, Is this the happiness you have told me all this while
of? If we have such ill speed at our first setting out, what may
we expect betwixt this and our journey's end ?
It is not enough
May I get out again with my life, you shall pos- to be liable.
sess the brave country alone for me. And
with that he gave a desperate struggle or two, and got out of
the mire on that side of the slough which was next to his
own house: so away he went, and Christian saw him no
Wherefore Christian was left to tumble in the Slough of
Despond alone: but still he endeavoured to
struggle to that side of the slough that was trouble, seeks stil
still further from his own house, and next to to get further
the Wicket-gate; the which he did, but could from- hs own
not get out, because of the burden that was
upon his back. But I beheld in my dream, that a man came
to him, whose name was Help, and asked him what he did
Chr. Sir, said Christian, I was bid go this way by a man
called Evangelist, who directed me also to yonder gate, that I
might escape the wrath to come; and, as I was going thither,
I fell in here.
Help. But why did you not look for the The promises.
Chr. Fear followed me so hard, that I fled the next way,
and fell in.
20 The Pilgrim's Progress.
Help. Then said he, Give me thy hand. So he gave him his
hand, and he drew him out, and set him upon
Help lfts him sound ground, and bid him go on his way (Ps.
Then I stepped to him that plucked him out, and said, Sir,
wherefore, since over this place is the way from the City of
Destruction to yonder gate, is it that this plat is not mended,
that poor travellers might go thither with more security ? And
he said unto me, This miry slough is such a place as cannot
Whati akes the be mended: it is the descent whither the scum
Slougz of De- and filth that attends conviction for sin doth
spond. continually run, and therefore it is called the
Slough of Despond; for still, as the sinner is awakened about
his lost condition, there ariseth in his soul many fears, and
doubts, and discouraging apprehensions, which all of them get
together, and settle in this place. And this is the reason of the
badness of this ground.
It is not the pleasure of the King that this place should re-
main so bad (Isa. xxxv. 3, 4). His labourers also have, by the
direction of His Majesty's surveyors, been for above these six-
teen hundred years employed about this patch of ground, if
perhaps it might have been mended: yea, and to my know-
ledge, said he, here have been swallowed up at least twenty
thousand cart-loads, yea, millions of wholesome instructions,
that have at all seasons been brought from all places of
the King's dominions (and they that can tell, say they are
the best materials to make good ground of the place), if
so be it might have been mended; but it is the Slough of De-
spond still, and so will be when they have done what they can.
True, there are, by the direction of the Lawgiver, certain
good and substantial steps, placed even through
forgiveness and the very midst of this slough; but at such time
acceptance to life as this place doth much spew out its filth, as
byfitk n Christ. it doth against change of weather, these steps
are hardly seen; or, if they be, men, through the dizziness of
their heads, step beside ; and then they are bemired to purpose,
notwithstanding the steps be there: but the ground is good
when they are once got in at the gate (I Sam. xii. 23).
The Pilgrim's Progress. 21
Now, I saw in my dream that by this time Pliable was got
home to his house, so that his neighbours came Pliablegot ome,
to visit him; and some of them called him and is visited of
wise man for coming back, and some called is neigbours.
him fool for hazarding himself with Christian: others, again,
did mock at his cowardliness, saying, Surely His entertain-
since you began to venture, I would not have mnent by them at
been so base to have given out for a few diffi- his return.
culties. So Pliable sat sneaking among them. But at last
he got more confidence, and then they all turned their tale, and
began to deride poor Christian behind his back. And thus
much concerning Pliable.
Now, as Christian was walking solitarily by himself, he
espied one afar off, come crossing over the field Mr. Worldly
to meet him ; and their hap was to meet just Wisemanz meets
as they were crossing the way of each other. Crisan.
The gentleman's name that met him was Mr. Worldly Wise-
man: he dwelt in the town of Carnal Policy,-a very great
town, and also hard by from whence Christian came. This
man, then, meeting with Christian, and having some inkling
of him,-for Christian's setting forth from the City of Destruc-
tion was much noised abroad, not only in the town where he
dwelt, but also it began to be the town talk in some other
places,-Mr. Worldly Wiseman, therefore, having some guess
of him, by beholding his laborious going, by observing his
sighs and groans, and the like, began thus to
enter into some talk with Christian : Mr. Worldly
WTorld. How now, good fellow, whither Wiseman and
away after this burdened manner ?
Chr. A burdened manner indeed, as ever, I think, poor
creature had! And whereas you ask me, Whither away? I
tell you, sir, I am going to yonder Wicket-gate before me; for
there, as I am informed, I shall be put into a way to be rid of
my heavy burden.
[World. Hast thou a wife and children ?
Chr. Yes; but I am so laden with this burden, that I can-
not take that pleasure in them as formerly: methinks I am as
if I had none (I Cor. vii. 29).
22 The Pilgrim's Progress.
World. Wilt thou hearken unto me if I give thee counsel ?
Chr. If it be good, I will; for I stand in need of good
World. I would advise thee, then, that thou with all speed
Mr. Worldly get thyself rid of thy burden ; for thou wilt
Wiseman's coun- never be settled in thy mind till then: nor
selo Chrisian. canst thou enjoy the benefits of the blessing
which God hath bestowed upon thee till then.
Chr. That is that which I seek for, even to be rid of this
heavy burden: but get it off myself I cannot; nor is there any
man in our country that can take it off my shoulders; therefore
am I going this way, as I told you, that I may be rid of my
World. Who bid thee go this way to be rid of thy burden?
Chr. A man that appeared to me to be a very great and
honourable person; his name, as I remember, is Evangelist.
World. I beshrew him for his counsel: there is not a more
dangerous and troublesome way in the world
Mr Worldly .
Wiseman con- than is that unto which he hath directed thee;
demns Evange- and that thou shalt find, if thou wilt be ruled
by his counsel. Thou hast met with some-
thing, as I perceive, already; for I see the dirt of the Slough of
Despond is upon thee: but that slough is the beginning of the
sorrows that do attend those that go on in that way. Hear
me; I am older than thou: thou art like to meet with, in the
way which thou goest, wearisomeness, painfulness, hunger,
perils, nakedness, sword, lions, dragons, darkness, and, in a
word, death, and what not! These things are certainly true,
having been confirmed by many testimonies. And why should
a man so carelessly cast away himself, by giving heed to a
Chr. Why, sir, this burden upon my back is more terrible
Te frame of to me than are all these things which you have
The frame of
the heart of a mentioned; nay, methinks I care not what I
young Christian. meet with in the way, if so be I can, also meet
with deliverance from my burden.
World. How camest thou by thy burden at first?
Chr. By reading this book in my hand.
The Pilgrim's Progress. 23
World. I thought so; and it has happened unto thee as to
other weak men, who, meddling with things
too high for them, do suddenly fall into thy Worldly Wise-
man does not like
distractions; which distractions do not only that men should
be serious in read-
unman men (as thine, I perceive, have done ingo hein rae.
thee), but they run them upon desperate ven-
tures, to obtain they know not what.
Chr. I know what I would obtain; it is ease from my heavy
World. But why wilt thou seek for ease this way, seeing so
many dangers attend it ? especially since, hadst
thou but patience to hear me, I could direct Whelthr Mr.
thee to the obtaining of what thou desirest, mantprefers Mor-
without the dangers that thou, in this way, ality before the
wilt run thyself into; yea, and the remedy is
at hand. Besides, I will add, that, instead of those dangers,
thou shalt meet with much safety, friendship, and content.
Chr. Pray, sir, open this secret to me.
World. Why, in yonder village (the village is named
Morality) there dwells a gentleman whose name is Legality,
a very judicious man, and a man of a very good name, that has
skill to help men off with such burdens as thine are from their
shoulders; yea, to my knowledge, he hath done a great deal
of good this way; ay, and besides, he hath skill to cure those
that are somewhat crazed in their wits with their burdens. To
him, as I said, thou mayest go, and be helped presently. His
house is not quite a mile from this place; and if he should not
be at home himself, he hath a pretty young man to his son,
whose name is Civility, that can do it (to speak on) as well as
the old gentleman himself: there, I say, thou mayest be eased
of thy burden; and if thou art not minded to go back to thy
former habitation, as, indeed, I would not wish thee, thou
mayest send for thy wife and children to thee to this village,
where there are houses now stand empty, one of which thou
mayest have at reasonable rates: provision is there also cheap
and good; and that which will make thy life the more happy
is, to be sure, there thou shalt live by honest neighbours, in
credit and good fashion.
24 The Pilgrim's Progress.
Now was Christian somewhat at a stand; but presently he
concluded, If this be true, which this gentle-
edby Mr. World- man hath said, my wisest course is to take
ly Wiseman's his advice: and with that he thus further
Chr. Sir, which is my way to this honest man's house?
Mount Sinai. World. Do you see yonder high hill ?
Chr. Yes, very well.
World. By that hill you must go, and the first house you
come at is his.
So Christian turned out of his way to go to Mr. Legality's
house for help : but, behold, when he was got now hard by the
hill, it seemed so high, and also that side of it
fraid that Mount that was next the way-side did hang so much
Sinai wouldfall over, that Christian was afraid to venture
on his head.
further, lest the hill should fall on his head ;
wherefore there he stood still, and wotted not what to do.
Also his burden now seemed heavier to him than while he was
in his way. There came also flashes of fire out of the hill, that
made Christian afraid that he should be burnt (Ex. xix. 16,
18); here, therefore, he sweat and did quake for fear (Heb.
xii. 21). And now he began to be sorry that he had taken
Mr. Worldly Wiseman's counsel. And with that he saw Evan-
gelist coming to meet him; at the sight also of whom he began
to blush for shame. So Evangelist drew
Evangelistfind- nearer and nearer; and, coming up to him,
et/i Christian un-
der Mount Sinai, he looked upon him with a severe and dread-
vand looked s ful countenance, and thus began to reason
merely upon hizm.
Evan. What dost thou here, Christian? said he : at which
Evangelistrea- words Christian knew not what to answer;
sons afresh with wherefore at present he stood speechless be-
Christian. fore him. Then said Evangelist further, Art
not thou the man that I found crying without the walls of the
City of Destruction.
Chr. Yes, dear sir, I am the man.
Evan. Did not I direct thee the way to the little Wicket.
Thze Pilgrim's Progress. 25
Chr. Yes, dear sir, said Christian.
Evan. How is it, then, that thou art so quickly turned
aside ? for thou art now out of the way.
Ch(/ I met with a gentleman so soon as I had got over
the Slough of Despond, who persuaded me that I might, in
the village before me, find a man that could take off my
Evan. What was he ?
C/r. He looked like a gentleman, and talked much to me,
and got me at last to yield; so I came hither: but when I be-
held this hill, and how it hangs over the way, I suddenly made
a stand, lest it should fall on my head.
Evan. What said that gentleman to you?
C/zr. Why, he asked me whither I was going? and I told
Evan. And what said he then ?
C/r. He asked me if I had a family; and I told him. But,
said I, I am so loaden with the burden that is on my back,
that I cannot take pleasure in them as formerly.
Evan. And what said he then ?
Ch r. He bid me with speed get rid of my burden; and I
told him it was ease that I sought. And, said I, I am there-
fore going to yonder gate, to receive further direction how I
may get to the place of deliverance. So he said that he would
show me a better way, and short, not so attended with diffi-
culties as the way, sir, that you set me in; which way, said he,
will direct you to a gentleman's house that hath skill to take
off these burdens. So I believed him, and turned out of that
way into this, if haply I might be soon eased of my burden.
But when I came to this place, and beheld things as they are,
I stopped, for fear (as I said) of danger: but I now know not
what to do.
Evan. Then, said Evangelist, stand still a little, that I may
show thee the words of God. So he stood trembling. Then
said Evangelist, See that ye refuse not Him that speaketh;
for if they escaped not who refused him that spake on earth,
much more shall not we escape, if we turn away from Him
that speaketh from heaven" (Heb. xii. 25). He said, more-
26 The Pilgrim's Progress.
over, Now the just shall live by faith; but if any man draw
back, my soul shall have no pleasure in him" (Heb. x. 38).
Evangelistcon- He also did thus apply them: Thou art the
vinceth Christian man that art running into this misery; thou
of his er-or. hast begun to reject the counsel of the Most
High, and to draw back thy foot from the way of peace, even
almost to the hazarding of thy perdition.
Then Christian fell down at his feet as dead, crying, Woe
is me, for I am undone!" At the sight of which, Evangelist
caught him by the right hand, saying, "All manner of sin and
blasphemy shall be forgiven unto men" (Matt. xii. 31; Mark
iii. 28). "Be not faithless, but believing" (John xx. 27).
Then did Christian again a little revive, and stood up trem-
bling, as at first, before Evangelist.
Then Evangelist proceeded, saying, Give more earnest heed to
the things that I shall tell thee of. I will now
Wiseman de- show thee who it was that deluded thee, and
scribed by Evan- who it was also to whom he sent thee: The
man that met thee is one Worldly Wiseman,
and rightly is he so called; partly because he savoureth only
of the doctrine of this world (I John iv. 5),-therefore he
always goes to the town of Morality to church; and partly be-
cause he loveth that doctrine best, for it saveth
Evan gelist dis-
covers the deceit him best from the cross (Gal. vi. 12): and be-
of Mr. Worldly cause he is of this carnal temper, therefore he
seeketh to prevent my ways, though right.
Now there are three things in this man's counsel that thou
must utterly abhor.
I. His turning thee out of the way.
2. His labouring to render the cross odious to thee.
3. And his setting thy feet in that way that leadeth unto the
administration of death.
First. Thou must abhor his turning thee out of the way; yea,
and thine own consenting thereto; because this is to reject the
counsel of God for the sake of the counsel of a Worldly Wise-
man. The Lord says, Strive to enter in at the strait gate"
(Luke xiii. 24), the gate to which I send thee; for strait is
the gate that leadeth unto life, and few there be that find it"
The Pilgrim's Progress. 27
(Matt. vii. 13, 14). From this little Wicket-gate, and from
the way thereto, hath this wicked man turned thee, to the
bringing of thee almost to destruction; hate, therefore, his
turning thee out of the way, and abhor thyself for hearkening
Secondly. Thou must abhor his labouring to render the cross
odious unto thee; for thou art to prefer it "before the trea-
sures in Egypt" (Heb. xi. 25, 26). Besides, the King of glory
hath told thee, that he that "will save his life shall lose it"
(Mark viii. 35; John xii. 25; Matt. x. 39). And, "He that
cometh after me, and hateth not his father, and mother, and
wife, and children, and brethren, and sisters, yea, and his own
life also, he cannot be my disciple (Luke xiv. 26). I say,
therefore, for man to labour to persuade thee that that shall be
thy death, without which, the Truth hath said, thou canst not
have eternal life-this doctrine thou must abhor.
Thirdly. Thou must hate his setting of thy feet in the way
that leadeth to the ministration of death. And for this thou
must consider to whom he sent thee, and also how unable that
person was to deliver thee from thy burden.
He to whom thou wast sent for ease, being by name Legality,
is the son of the bond-woman which now is, and is in bondage
with her children (Gal. iv. 21-27); and is, in a
mystery, this Mount Sinai, which thou hast
feared will fall on thy head. Now, if she with her children are
in bondage, how canst thou expect by them to be made free?
This Legality, therefore, is not able to set thee free from thy
burden. No man was as yet ever rid of his burden by him;
no, nor ever is likely to be : ye cannot be justified by the works
of the law; for by the deeds of the law no man living can be
rid of his burden: therefore, Mr. Worldly Wiseman is an alien,
and Mr. Legality is a cheat; and for his son Civility, notwith-
standing his simpering looks, he is but a hypocrite, and cannot
help thee. Believe me, there is nothing in all this noise, that
thou hast heard of these sottish men, but a design to beguile
thee of thy salvation, by turning thee from the way in which I
had set thee. After this, Evangelist called aloud to the heavens
for confirmation of what he had said; and with that there came
28 The Pilgrim's Progress.
words and fire out of the mountain under which poor Christian
stood, that made the hair of his flesh stand up. The words
were thus pronounced : "As many as are of the works of the
law are under the curse; for it is written, Cursed is every one
that continueth not in all things which are written in the book
of the law to do them (Gal. iii. Io).
Now Christian looked for nothing but death, and began to
cry out lamentably; even cursing the time in which he met
with Mr. Worldly Wiseman; still calling himself a thousand
fools for hearkening to his counsel: he also was greatly ashamed
to think that this gentleman's arguments, flowing only from the
flesh, should have that prevalency with him as to cause him to
forsake the right way. This done, he applied himself again to
Evangelist in words and sense as follow:
C/r. Sir, what think you? Is there hope ? May I now go
C/ristian in- back, and go up to the Wicket-gate ? Shall
quires if he may I not be abandoned for this, and sent back
yet be iappy. from thence ashamed? I am sorry I have
hearkened to this man's counsel. But may my sin be for-
Evan. Then said Evangelist to him, Thy sin is very great,
for by it thou hast committed two evils: thou hast forsaken the
way that is good, to tread in forbidden paths. Yet will the
man at the gate receive thee, for he has good-
foErtascomh- will for men; only, said he, take heed that
thou turn not aside again, lest thou perish
from the way, when his wrath is kindled but a little" (Ps.
ii. 12). Then did Christian address himself to go back; and
Evangelist, after he had kissed him, gave him one smile, and
bid him God-speed. So he went on with haste, neither spake
he to any man by the way; nor, if any asked him, would he
vouchsafe them an answer. He went like one that was all
the while treading on forbidden ground, and could by no means
think himself safe till again he was got into the way which he
left to follow Mr. Worldly Wiseman's counsel. So, in process
of time, Christian got up to the gate. Now, over the gate
there was written, Knock, and it shall be opened unto you"
(Matt. vii. 7).
Tue Pilgrim's Progress. 29
lie knocked, therefore, more than once or twice, saying,-
May I now enter here ? Will he within
Open to sorry me, though I have been
An undeserving rebel? Then shall I
Not fail to sing his lasting praise on high.
At last there came a grave person to the gate, named Good-
will, who asked who was there? and whence he came? and
what he would have ?
Chr. Here is a poor burdened sinner. I come from the City
of Destruction, but am going to Mount Zion, that I may be
delivered from the wrath to come. I would, therefore, sir,
since I am informed that by this gate is the way thither, know
if you are willing to let me in.
Good-will. I am willing with all my heart, Thfe gate zwillbe
opened to broken-
said he; and with that he opened the gate. heartedsinners.
So when Christian was stepping in, the other
gave him a pull. Then said Christian, What means that?
The other told him: A little distance from this gate, there is
erected a strong castle, of which Beelzebub is San ees
the captain; from thence both he and they those that enter
that are with him shoot arrows at those that the strait gate.
come up to this gate, if haply they may die before they can
Then said Christian, I rejoice and tremble. C hrisl'/a en-
tered the gate
So when he was got in, the man of the gate with joy and
asked him who directed him thither. trembling.
Chr. Evangelist bid me come hither and Talk between
knock (as I did); and he said that you, sir, Good-will a/u
would tell me what I must do. lristan.
Good-w. An open door is set before thee, and no man can
Chrn Now I begin to reap the benefits of my hazards.
Good-w. But how is it that you came alone ?
Chr. Because none of my neighbours saw their danger, as I
Good-w. Did any of them know of your coming ?
Chr. Yes; my wife and children saw me at the first, and
called after me to turn again: also, some of my neighbours
30 The Pilgrim's Progress.
stood crying and calling after me to return: but I put my
fingers in my ears, and so came on my way.
Good-w. But did none of them follow you, to persuade you
to go back ?
Chr. Yes, both Obstinate and Pliable; but when they saw
that they could not prevail, Obstinate went railing back, but
Pliable came with me a little way.
Good-w. But why did he not come through ?
Chr. We, indeed, came both together, until we came at the
A man may Slough of Despond, into the which we also sud-
have company denly fell. And then was my neighbour Pliable
hen e ses aut discouraged, and would not venture further.
for heaven, and
yet go thither Wherefore, getting out again, on that side next
alone. to his own house, he told me I should possess
the brave country alone for him; so he went his way, and I
came mine,-he after Obstinate, and I to this gate.
Good-w. Then said Good-will, Alas, poor man! is the
celestial glory of so little esteem with him, that he counteth it
not worth running the hazards of a few difficulties to obtain it ?
Chr. Truly, said Christian, I have said the truth of Pliable;
and if I should also say all the truth of myself,
cuseth himselfbe- it will appear there is no betterment betwixt
fore the man at him and myself. It is true, he went back to
his own house, but I also turned aside to go
in the way of death, being persuaded thereto by the carnal
arguments of one Mr. Worldly Wiseman.
Good-w. Oh! did he light upon you? What! he would
have had you a-sought for ease at the hands of Mr. Legality!
They are both of them a very cheat. But did you take his
Chr. Yes, as far as I durst. I went to find out Mr. Legality,
until I thought that the mountain that stands by his house
would have fallen upon my head; wherefore, there I was
forced to stop.
Good-w. That mountain has been the death of many, and
will be the death of many more; it is well you escaped being
by it dashed in pieces.
CAr. Why, truly, I do not know what had become of me
The Pilgrim's Progress. 31
there, had not Evangelist happily met me again, as I was
musing in the midst of my dumps; but it was God's mercy
that he came to me again, for else I had never come hither.
But now I am come, such a one as I am, more fit, indeed, for
death by that mountain, than thus to stand talking with my
Lord. But, oh what a favour is this to me, that yet I am
admitted entrance here!
Good-w. We make no objections against any, notwithstand-
ing all that they have done before they came
hither. They are "in no wise cast out" (John orsteia cagan
vi. 37); and therefore, good Christian, come a
little way with me, and I will teach thee about the way thou
must go. Look before thee; dost thou see Christian di.
this narrow way ? That is the way thou must reacted yet on his
go. It was cast up by the patriarchs, prophets, way.
Christ, and his apostles; and it is as straight as a rule can
make it. This is the way thou must go.
Chr. But, said Christian, are there no turn- Christian a-
ings or windings, by which a stranger may raid o losing
lose his way ?
Good-w. Yes, there are many ways butt down upon this, and
they are crooked and wide. But thus thou mayest distinguish
the right from the wrong, the right only being straight and
narrow (Matt. vii. 14).
Then I saw in my dream, that Christian asked him further
if he could not help him off with his burden
that was upon his back; for as yet he had Christian weary
0 of his burden.
not got rid thereof, nor could he by any means
get it off without help. There is no de-
He told him, As to thy burden, be content liverance from
to bear it, until thou comest to the place of he guiltandbur-
t den of sin, but by
deliverance; for there it will fall from thy the death and
back of itself. blood of Christ.
Then Christian began to gird up his loins, and to ad-
dress himself to his journey. So the other told him, that
by that he was gone some distance from the gate, he would
come at the house of the Interpreter, at whose door he should
knock, and he would show him excellent things. Then Chris.
3 2 T he Pilcrim's Progress.
tian took his leave of his friend, and he again bid him God-
Cr. Then he went on till he came to the house
C tt'istian comes
to the house of the of the Interpreter, where he knocked over and
Interpreter. over. At last one came to the door, and asked
who was there.
C/r. Sir, here is a traveller, who was bid by an acquaintance
of the goodman of this house to call here for my profit: I
would therefore speak with the master of the house. So he
called for the master of the house; who, after a little time,
came to Christian, and asked him what he would have.
Chr. Sir, said Christian, I am a man that am come from
the City of Destruction, and am going to Mount Zion; and I
was told by the man that stands at the gate at the head of this
way, that if I called here, you would show me excellent things,
such as would be a help to me on my journey.
Inter. Then said the Interpreter, Come in; I will show that
re is eer- which will be profitable to thee. So he com-
tained. handed his man to light the candle, and bid
ilu nation. Christian follow him. So he had him into a
private room, and bid his man open a door;
Christian sees the which when he had done, Christian saw
a brave picture. the picture of a very grave person hang up
against the wall; and this was the fashion of it: It had eyes
lifted up to heaven, the best of books in his
The fashion of hand, the law of truth was written upon his
lips, the world was behind his back; he stood
as if he pleaded with men, and a crown of gold did hang over
Chr. Then said Christian, What meaneth this?
Inter. The man whose picture this is, is one of a thousand.
lie can beget children (I Cor. iv. 15), travail in birth with
children (Gal. iv. 19), and nurse them himself when they are
born. And whereas thou seest him with his
The meaning eyes lift up to heaven, the best of books in his
hand, and the law of truth writ on his lips; it
is to show thee that his work is to know and unfold dark things
to sinners, even as also thou seest him stand as if he pleaded
The Pilgrim's Progress. 33
with men: and whereas thou seest the world as cast behind
him, and that a crown hangs over his head; that is to show
thee that slighting and despising the things that are present,
for the love that he hath to his Master's service, he is sure in the
world that comes next to have glory for his reward. Now,
said the Interpreter, I have showed thee this Wiy he showed
picture first, because the man whose picture him the picture
this is, is the only man whom the Lord of the f/rst.
place whither thou art going hath authorized to be thy guide,
in all difficult places thou mayest meet with in the way.
Wherefore, take good heed to what I have showed thee, and
bear well in thy mind what thou hast seen, lest in thy journey
thou meet with some that pretend to lead thee right, but their
way goes down to death.
Then he took him by the hand, and led him into a very
large parlour that was full of dust, because never swept; the
which after he had reviewed a little while, the Interpreter
called for a man to sweep. Now, when he began to sweep,
the dust began so abundantly to fly about, that Christian had
almost therewith been choked. Then said the Interpreter to a
damsel that stood by, Bring hither the water, and sprinkle the
room; the which when she had done, it was swept and cleansed
Chr. Then said Christian, What means this ?
Inter. The Interpreter answered, This parlour is the heart
of a man that was never sanctified by the sweet grace of the
gospel: the dust is his original sin and inward corruptions,
that have defiled the whole man. He that began to sweep at
first, is the Law; but she that brought water, and did sprinkle
it, is the Gospel. Now, whereas thou sawest that so soon as
the first began to sweep, the dust did so fly about that the
room could not by him be cleansed, but that thou wast almost
choked therewith; this is to show thee, that the law, instead
of cleansing the heart (by its working) from sin, doth revive,
put strength into, and increase it in the soul, even as it doth
discover and forbid it; for it doth not give power to subdue
(Rom. vii. 9; I Cor. xv. 56; Rom. v. 20).
Again, as thou sawest the damsel sprinkle the room with
34 The Pilgrim's Priogress.
water, upon which it was cleansed with pleasure; this is to
show thee, that when the gospel comes in the sweet and pre-
cious influences thereof to the heart, then, I say, even as thou
sawest the damsel lay the dust by sprinkling the floor with
water, so is sin vanquished and subdued, and the soul made
clean through the faith of it, and consequently fit for the King
of glory to inhabit (John xv. 3; Eph. v. 26; Acts xv. 9;
Rom. xvi. 25, 26; John xv. 13).
I saw, moreover, in my dream, that the Interpreter took him
He showedhim by the hand, and had him into a little room,
Passion and Pa- where sat two little children, each one in his
tience. chair. The name of the eldest was Passion,
and the name of the other Patience. Passion seemed to be
much discontented, but Patience was very quiet. Then
Christian asked, What is the reason of the discontent of
Passion ? The Interpreter answered, The
Passion will governor of them would have him stay for
have it now.
his best things till the beginning of the next
Patience is for year; but he will have all now. But Patience
is willing to wait.
Then I saw that one came to Passion, and brought him a
Passion has bag of treasure, and poured it down at his feet:
Passzon has ,
his desire, and the which he took up and rejoiced therein, and
quickly lavishes withal laughed Patience to scorn. But I be-
a away.held but a while, and he had lavished all away,
and had nothing left him but rags.
Chr. Then said Christian to the Interpreter, Expound this
matter more fully to me.
Inter. So he said, These two lads are figures: Passion, of the
men of this world; and Patience, of the men
The matter ex of that which is to come. For as here thou
seest, Passion will have all now this year, that
is to say, in this world; so are the men of this world: they must
have all their good things now; they cannot stay till next year,
The worldly that is, until the next world, for their portion
man for a bird of good. That proverb, "A bird in the hand
n te hand. is worth two in the bush," is of more authority
with them than are all the divine testimonies of the good
The Pilgrim's Progress. 35
of the world to come. But as thou sawest that he had quickly
lavished all away, and had presently left him nothing but rags;
so will it be with all such men at the end of this world.
Chr. Then said Christian, Now I see that Patience has the
best wisdom, and that upon many accounts.
I. Because he stays for the best things. the best wisdom.
2. And also because he will have the glory
of his, when the other has nothing but rags.
Inter. Nay, you may add another, to wit, the glory of the
next world will never wear out; but these are suddenly gone.
Therefore Passion had not so much reason to
laugh at Patience, because he had his good Things that
are first must
things first, as Patience will have to laugh at give place; but
Passion, because he had his best things last: for things that are
last are lasting.
first must give place to last, because last must
have his time to come; but last gives place to nothing, for
there is not another to succeed. He, therefore, that hath his
portion first, must needs have a time to spend it; but he that
hath his portion last, must have it lastingly:
therefore it is said of Dives, "Thou in thy ies ad his
life-time receivedst thy good things, and like-
wise Lazarus evil things; but now he is comforted, and thou
art tormented" (Luke xvi. 25).
Chr. Then I perceive it is not best to covet things that are
now, but to wait for things to come.
Inter. You say truth: "for the things that are seen are
temporal, but the things that are not seen are
eternal" (2 Cor. iv. 18). But though this be Thefrst things
are but temjboral.
so, yet since things present and our fleshy
appetite are such near neighbours one to another; and, again,
because things to come and carnal sense are such strangers one
to another; therefore it is that the first of these so suddenly fall
into amity, and that distance is so continued between the second.
Then I saw in my dream that the Interpreter took Christian
by the hand and led him into a place where was a fire burning
against a wall, and one standing by it, always casting much
water upon it, to quench it; yet did the fire burn higher and
36 The Pilgrim's Progress.
Then said Christian, What means this ?
The Interpreter answered, This fire is the work of grace that
is wrought in the heart ; he that casts water upon it, to
extinguish and put it out, is the Devil : but in that thou seest
the fire notwithstanding burn higher and hotter, thou shalt
also see the reason of that. So he had him about to the back-
side of the wall, where he saw a man with a vessel of oil in
his hand, of the which he did also continually cast (but
secretly) into the fire.
Then said Christian, What means this ?
The Interpreter answered, This is Christ, who continually,
with the oil of his grace (2 Cor. xii. 9), maintains the work already
begun in the heart ; by the means of which, notwithstanding
what the Devil can do, the souls of his people prove gracious
still. And in that thou sawest that the man stood behind the
wall to maintain the fire; that is to teach thee that it is hard
for the tempted to see how this work of grace is maintained in
I saw also that the Interpreter took him again by the hand,
and led him into a pleasant place, where was builded a stately
palace, beautiful to behold; at the sight of which Christian
was greatly delighted. He saw also, upon the top thereof,
certain persons walking, who were clothed all in gold.
Then said Christian, May we go in thither?
Then the Interpreter took him and led him up towards the
door of the palace; and, behold, at the door stood a great
company of men, as desirous to go in, but durst not. There
also sat a man at a little distance from the door, at a table-
side, with a book and his ink-horn before him, to take the
name of him that should enter therein; he saw also, that in
the door-way stood many men in armour, to keep it, being
resolved to do to the men that would enter what hurt and
mischief they could. Now was Christian somewhat in amaze.
At last, when every man started back for fear of the armed
men, Christian saw a man of a very stout
The vzlianl countenance come up to the man that sat
there to write, saying, Set down my name, sir:
the which when he had done, he saw the man draw his sword,
ThZe Plrirm's Progress. 37
and put an helmet upon his head, and rush toward the door
upon the armed men, who laid upon him with deadly force;
i1ut the man, not at all discouraged, fell to cutting and hacking
most fiercely. So after he had received and given many
wounds to those that attempted to keep him out, he cut his
way through them all, and pressed forward into the palace
(Acts xiv. 22); at which there was a pleasant voice heard from
those that were within, even of those that walked upon the top
of the palace, saying,--
Come in, come in;
Eternal glory thou shalt win.
So he went in, and was clothed with such garments as they.
Then Christian smiled, and said, I think verily I know the
meaning of this.
Now, said Christian, let me go hence. Nay, stay, said the
Interpreter, till I have showed thee a little
more, and after that thou shalt go on thy way. oeair lic e an
So he took him by the hand again, and led
him into a very dark room, where there sat a man in an iron
Now the man, to look on, seemed very sad: he sat with his
eyes looking down to the ground, his hands folded together,
and he sighed as if he would break his heart. Then said
Christian, What means this? At which the Interpreter bid
him talk with the man.
Then said Christian to the man, What art thou? The man
answered, I am what I was not once.
Chr. What wast thou once ?
Alan. The man said, I was once a fair and flourishing pro-
fessor, both in mine own eyes and also in the eyes of others;
I was once, as I thought, fair for the Celestial City, and had
then even joy at the thoughts that I should get thither (Luke
Chr. Well, but what art thou now?
Alan. I am now a man of despair, and am shut up in it, as
in this iron cage. I cannot get out; oh, now I cannot!
Chr. But how camest thou in this condition?
38 The Pilgrim's Progress.
Man. I left off to watch and be sober; I laid the reins upon
the neck of my lusts; I sinned against the light of the word,
and the goodness of God; I have grieved the Spirit, and he is
gone; I tempted the Devil, and he is come to me; I have pro-
voked God to anger, and he has left me; I have so hardened
my heart that I cannot repent.
Then said Christian to the Interpreter, But is there no hope
for such a man as this? Ask him, said the Interpreter. Nay,
said Christian, pray, sir, do you.
Inter. Then said the Interpreter, Is there no hope, but you
must be kept in the iron cage of despair ?
Man. No, none at all.
Inter. Why, the Son of the Blessed is very pitiful.
Man. I have crucified him to myself afresh (Heb. vi. 6);
I have despised his person (Luke xix. 14); I have despised his
righteousness; I have "counted his blood an unholy thing;"
I have "done despite to the Spirit of grace" (Heb. x. 28, 29):
therefore I have shut myself out of all the promises, and there
now remains to me nothing but threatening, dreadful threat-
enings, fearful threatening of certain judgment and fiery in-
dignation, which shall devour me as an adversary.
Inter. For what did you bring yourself into this condition?
Man. For the lusts, pleasures, and profits of this world; in
the enjoyment of which I did then promise myself much de-
light: but now every one of those things also bite me, and
gnaw me like a burning worm.
Inter. But canst thou not now repent and turn?
MIan. God hath denied me repentance. His word gives me
no encouragement to believe: yea, himself hath shut me up in
this iron cage; nor can all the men in the world let me out.
0 eternity! eternity! how shall I grapple with the misery that
I must meet with in eternity !
Inter. Then said the Interpreter to Christian, Let this man's
misery be remembered by thee, and be an everlasting caution
Ckr. Well, said Christian, this is fearful! God help me to
watch and be sober, and to pray that I may shun the cause of this
man's misery. Sir, is it not time for me to go on my way now ?
The Pilgrim's Progress. 39
Inter. Tarry till I shall show thee one thing more, and then
thou shalt go on thy way.
So he took Christian by the hand again, and led him into a
chamber, where there was one rising out of bed; and as he
put on his raiment he shook and trembled. Then said Chris-
tian, Why doth this man thus tremble? The Interpreter then
bid him tell to Christian the reason of his so doing. So he
began and said, This night, as I was in my sleep, I dreamed,
and, behold, the heavens grew exceeding black; also it thun-
dered and lightened in most fearful wise, that it put me into
an agony. So I looked up in my dream, and saw the clouds
rack at an unusual rate; upon which I heard a great sound of
a trumpet, and saw also a Man sit upon a cloud, attended with
the thousands of heaven: they were all in flaming fire; also
the heavens were on a burning flame. I heard then a voice
saying, "Arise, ye dead, and come to judgment !" and with
that the rocks rent, the graves opened, and the dead that were
therein came forth. Some of them were exceeding glad, and
looked upward; and some sought to hide themselves under the
mountains (I Cor. xv. 52; I Thess. iv. 16; Jude 14; 2 Thess.
i. 7, 8; John v. 28, 29; Rev. xx. 11-14; Isa. xxvi. 21; Dan.
vii. 10; Ps. xcv. 1-3; Mic. vii. 16, 17). Then I saw the Man
that sat upon the cloud open the book, and bid the world draw
near. Yet there was, by reason of a fierce flame which issued
out and came from before him, a convenient distance betwixt
him and them, as betwixt the Judge and the prisoners at the
bar (Mal. iii. 2, 3; Dan. vii. 9, io). I heard it also pro-
claimed to them that attended on the Man that sat on the
cloud, Gather together the tares, the chaff, and stubble, and
cast them into the burning lake" (Matt. iii. 12, xiii. 30; Mal.
iv. I). And with that the bottomless pit opened, just where-
about I stood; out of the mouth of which there came, in an
abundant manner, smoke, and coals of fire, with hideous
noises. It was also said to the same persons, "Gather my
wheat into the garner (Luke iii. 17). And with that I saw
many catched up, and carried away into the clouds; but I was
left behind (I Thess. iv. 16, 17). I also sought to hide myself,
but I could not; for the Man that sat upon the cloud still kept
40 The Pilgri m's ProJgre'ss.
his eye upon me: my sins also came into my mind, and my
conscience did accuse me on every side (Rom. ii. 14, 15). Upon
this I awaked from my sleep.
Chr. But what was it that made you so afraid of this sight ?
Man. Why, I thought that the day of judgment was come,
and that I was not ready for it; but this frighted me most, that
the angels gathered up several, and left me behind; also the pit
of hell opened her mouth just where I stood. My conscience,
too, afflicted me; and, as I thought, the Judge had always his
eye upon me, showing indignation in his countenance.
Then said the Interpreter to Christian, Hast thou considered
all these things ?
Chir. Yes, and they put me in hope and fear.
Inter. Well, keep all things so in thy mind that they may be
as a goad in thy sides, to prick thee forward in. the way thou
must go. Then Christian began to gird up his loins, and to
address himself to his journey. Then said the Interpreter, The
Comforter be always with thee, good Christian, to guide thee
in the way that leads to the City. So Christian went on his
Here I have seen things rare and profitable;
Things pleasant, dreadful, things to make me stable
In what I have begun to take in hand:
"Then let me think on them, and understand
Wherefore they show'd me were; and let me be
Thankful, O good Interpreter to thee.
Now I saw in my dream that the highway, up which Chris-
tian was to go, was fenced on either side with a wall, and that
wall was called Salvation (Isa. xxvi. i). Up this way, there-
fore, did burdened Christian run, but not without great diffi-
culty, because of the load on his back.
HIe ran thus till he came at a place somewhat ascending;
and upon that place stood a Cross, and a little below, in the
bottom, a Sepulchre. So I saw in my dream, that just as
Christian came up with the Cross, his burden loosed from off
his shoulders, and fell from off his back, and began to tumble,
and so continued to do, till it came to the mouth of the Sep-
ulchre, where it fell in, and I saw it no more.
The Piigrim's Pro gress. 4
"Then was Christian glad and lightsome, and said, with a
merry heart, Hle hath given me rest by his
sorrow, and life by his death. Then he stood VWhen Cod re-
leases us of our
still a while to look and wonder; for it was guilt and burden,
"very surprising to him that the sight of the we are as t/ose
Szthat leap for joy.
Cross should thus ease him of his burden. He
looked, therefore, and looked again, even till the springs that
were in his head sent the waters down his cheeks (Zech. xii. io).
Now, as he stood looking and weeping, behold, three Shining
Ones came to him and saluted him with, Peace be to thee."
So the first said to him, "Thy sins be forgiven thee" (Mark
ii. 5); the second stripped him of his rags, and clothed him
with change of raiment (Zech. iii. 4); the third also set a mark
on his forehead, and gave him a roll with a seal upon it (Eph.
i. 13), which he bade him look on as he ran, and that he
should give it in at the Celestial Gate : so A Czhristian can
they went their way. Then Christian gave sizn-, t/zoug a-
lone, when God
three leaps for joy, and went on sing- doth give hi'm the
ing, y of' his heart.
Thus far I did come laden with my sin;
Nor could ought ease the grief that I was in
Till I came hither. What a place is this!
Must here be the beginning of my bliss?
Must here the burden fall from off my back?
Must here the strings that bound it to me crack?
Blest Cross! blest Sepulchre blest rather be
The Man that there was put to shame for me!
I saw then in my dream, that he went on thus, even until he
came at a bottom, where he saw, a little out Simple, Sloth,
of the way, three men fast asleep, with fetters and Preszum
upon their heels. The name of the one was trn.
Simple, another Sloth, and the third Presumption.
Christian then seeing them lie in this case, went to them, it
peradventure he might awake them, and cried, You are like
them that sleep on the top of a mast (Prov. xxiii. 34), for the
Dead Sea is under you,-a gulf that hath no bottom: awake,
therefore, and come away; be willing also, and I will help you
off with your irons. He also told them, If he that goeth
about like a roaring lion" comes by, you will certainly become
42 The Pilgrim's Progress.
a prey to his teeth (I Pet. v. 8). With that they looked upon
him, and began to reply in this sort: Simple
suasion wilfdo, said, I see no danger. Sloth said, Yet a little
God openeth not more sleep! And Presumption said, Every
the eyes. fat must stand upon its own bottom; what is
the answer else that I should give thee? And so they lay
down to sleep again, and Christian went on his way.
Yet was he troubled to think that men in that danger should
so little esteem the kindness of him that so freely offered to
help them, both by awakening of them, counselling of them,
and proffering to help them off with their irons. And as he
was troubled thereabout, he espied two men come tumbling
over the wall on the left hand of the narrow way; and they
made up apace to him. The name of the one was Formalist,
and the name of the other Hypocrisy. So, as I said, they drew
up unto him, who thus entered with them into discourse.
Chr. Gentlemen, whence came you, and
Christian talked whither go you?
Form. and Hyp. We were born in the land
of Vain-glory, and are going for praise to Mount Zion.
Chr. Why came you not in at the gate which standeth at
the beginning of the way ? Know you not that it is written,
that "he that cometh not in by the door, but climbeth up some
other way, the same is a thief and a robber" ? (John x. I.)
Form. and Hyp. They said, that to go to the gate for en-
trance was, by all their countrymen, counted too far about; and
that, therefore, their usual way was to make a short cut of it,
and to climb over the wall, as they had done.
Chr. But will it not be counted a trespass against the Lord of
the city whither we are bound, thus to violate his revealed will?
Form. and Hyp. They told him, that, as for that, he needed
They that come not trouble his head thereabout; for what
into the way, but they did they had custom for, and could pro-
not by the door,
think that they duce, if need were, testimony that would wit-
can say some- ness it, for more than a thousand years.
thing in vindica- .
tion of their own C/r. But, said Christian, will your practice
practice. stand a trial at law ?
Form. and Hyp. They told him that custom, it being of so
/ HRISTIAN AT THE CROSS.
The Pilgrim's Progress. 43
long a standing as above a thousand years, would, doubtless,
now be admitted as a thing legal by any impartial judge.
And beside, said they, if we get into the way, what's matter
which way we get in? If we are in, we are in. Thou art
but in the way, who, as we perceive, came in at the gate;
and we are also in the way, that came tumbling over the wall:
wherein, now, is thy condition better than ours ?
Chr. I walk by the rule of my Master; you walk by the
rude working of your fancies. You are counted thieves already
by the Lord of the way; therefore I doubt you will not be
found true men at the end of the way. You come in by your-
selves, without his direction; and shall go out by yourselves,
without his mercy.
To this they made him but little answer; only they bid him
look to himself. Then I saw that they went on, every man in
his way, without much conference one with another, save that
these two men told Christian, that, as to laws and ordinances,
they doubted not but they should as conscientiously do them as
he. Therefore, said they, we see not wherein thou different
from us, but by the coat that is on thy back, which was, as we
trow, given thee by some of thy neighbours to hide the shame
of thy nakedness.
Chr. By laws and ordinances you will not be saved, since,
you came not in by the door (Gal. ii. 16). And as for this
coat that is on my back, it was given me by the
Lord of the place whither I go; and that, as Christian has
got his Lord's
you say, to cover my nakedness with. And coat on his back,
i take it as a token of his kindness to me; for and is comforted
I had nothing but rags before. And besides,
thus I comfort myself as I go: Surely, think I, when I come
to the gate of the City, the Lord thereof will know me for
good, since I have his coat on my back,-a coat that he gave
me freely in the day that he stripped me of e is comfor-
He is comfort-
my rags. I have, moreover, a mark in my ed, also, with his
forehead, of which, perhaps, you have taken markandhisroll.
no notice; which one of my Lord's most intimate associates
fixed there in the day that my burden fell off my shoulders.
I will tell you, moreover, that I had then given me a roll,
44 The PilTgrim's Progress.
sealed, to comfort me by reading as I go on the way; I was
also bid to give it in at the Celestial Gate, in token of my cer-
tain going in after it: all which things, I doubt, you want, and
want them because you came not in at the gate.
To these things they gave him no answer; only they looked
upon each other and laughed. Then I saw that they went on
Christian has all, save that Christian kept before, who had
talk with him- no more talk but with himself, and that some-
self times sighingly, and sometimes comfortably:
also he would be often reading in the roll, that one of the
Shining Ones gave him, by which he was refreshed.
I beheld, then, that they all went on till they came to the
foot of the Hill Difficulty, at the bottom of
He comes to te which was a spring. There were also in the
same place two other ways, besides that which
came straight from the gate: one turned to the left hand, and
the other to the right, at the bottom of the hill; but the narrow
way lay right up the hill, and the name of the going up the
side of the hill is called Difficulty. Christian now went to the
spring, and drank thereof, to refresh himself (Isa. xlix. Io);
and then began to go up the hill, saying,-
The hill, though high, I covet to ascend,-
The difficulty will not me offend;
For I perceive the way to life lies here.
Come, pluck up heart, let's neither faint nor fear!
Better, though difficult, the right way to go,
Than wrong, though easy, where the end is woe.
The other two also came to the foot of the hill; but when
they saw that the hill was steep and high, and that there were
two other ways to go; and supposing also that these two ways
might meet again, with that up which Christian went, on the
other side of the hill; therefore they were resolved to go in
those ways. Now, the name of one of those ways was Danger,
The danger of and the name of the other Destruction. So
turning out ofthe the one took the way which is called Danger,
waY. which led him into a great wood; and the
other took directly up the way to Destruction, which led him into
The Pilgrim's Progress. 45
a wide field, full of dark mountains, where he stumbled and
fell, and rose no more.
I looked, then, after Christian, to see him go up the hill,
where I perceived he fell from running to going, and from
going to clambering upon his hands and his knees, because of
the steepness of the place. Now about the midway to the top
of the hill was a pleasant arbour, made by the
Lord of the hill for the refreshing of weary war ac
travellers; thither, therefore, Christian got, where also he sat
down to rest him. Then he pulled his roll out of his bosom,
and read therein to his comfort; he also now began afresh to
take a review of the coat or garment that was given him as he
stood by the Cross. Thus pleasing himself a while, he at last
fell into a slumber, and thence into a fast
sleep, which detained him in that place until isH that sleeps
it was almost night; and in his sleep his roll
fell out of his hand. Now, as he was sleeping, there came one
to him and awaked him, saying, Go to the ant, thou sluggard;
consider her ways, and be wise" (Prov. vi. 6). And with that
Christian started up, and sped him on his way, and went apace,
till he came to the top of the hill.
Now, when he was got up to the top of the hill, there came
two men running to meet him amain; the Christian .eets
name of the one was Timorous, and of the with Mistrust
other Mistrust : to whom Christian said, Sirs, and Timorous.
what's the matter? You run the wrong way. Timorous an-
swered, that they were going to the City of Zion, and had got
up that difficult place: But, said he, the further we go. the
more danger we meet with; wherefore we turned, and are
going back again.
Yes, said Mistrust, for just before us lie a couple of lions in
the way, whether sleeping or waking we know not; and we
could not think, if we came within reach, but they would
presently pull us in pieces.
Chr. Then said Christian, You make me afraid ; but whither
shall I fly to be safe ? If I go back to my own country, that is
prepared for fire and brimstone, and I shall certainly perish
there; if I can get to the Celestial City, I am sure to be in
46 The Pilgrim's Progress.
safety there: I must venture. To go back is nothing but death;
to go forward is fear of death, and life ever-
isansare lasting beyond it. I will yet go forward. So
Mistrust and Timorous ran down the hill,
and Christian went on his way. But, thinking again of what
he had heard from the men, he felt in his
edhis roll, where- bosom for his roll, that he might read therein,
in he used to take and be comforted; but he felt, and found it
not! Then was Christian in great distress,
and knew not what to do; for he wanted that which used to
relieve him, and that which should have been his pass into the
Celestial City. Here, .therefore, he began to be much per-
plexed, and knew not what to do. At last he
He is erplexed bethought himself that he had slept in the
for his roll.
arbour that is on the side of the hill; and,
falling down upon his knees, he asked God's forgiveness for
that his foolish act, and then went back to look for his roll.
But all the way he went back, who can sufficiently set forth
the sorrow of Christian's heart! Sometimes he sighed, some-
times he wept, and oftentimes he chid himself for being so
foolish to fall asleep in that place, which was erected only for
a little refreshment for his weariness. Thus, therefore, he
went back, carefully looking on this side and on that, all the
way as he went, if happily he might find his roll, that had been
his comfort so many times in his journey. He went thus till
he came again within sight of the arbour where he sat and
slept; but that sight renewed his sorrow the more, by bringing
Christian be- again, even afresh, his evil of sleeping into his
wails his foolish mind (Rev. ii. 4, 5). Thus, therefore, he now
seeing. went on, bewailing his sinful sleep, saying, O
wretched man that I am, that I should sleep in the day-time
(I Thess. v. 7, 8) ; that I should sleep in the midst of difficulty !
that I should so indulge the flesh, as to use that rest for ease to
my flesh which the Lord of the hill hath erected only for the
relief of the spirits of pilgrims! How many steps have I took
in vain Thus it happened to Israel, for their sin ; they were
,sent back again by the way of the Red Sea; and I am made
to tread those steps with sorrow which I might have trod with
The Pilgrim's Progress. 47
delight, had it not been for this sinful sleep. How far might
I have been on my way by this time! I am made to tread
those steps thrice over, which I needed not to have trod but
once : yea now also, I am like to be benighted, for the day is
almost spent. Oh, that I had not slept!
Now by this time he was come to the arbour again, where
for a while he sat down and wept; but at last (as Christian
would have it), looking sorrowfully down Christian find-
under the settle, there he espied his roll! the eth his roll where
which he, with trembling and haste, catched he lost i.
up, and put it into his bosom. But who can tell how joyful
this man was when he had gotten his roll again for this roll
was the assurance of his life and acceptance at the desired
haven. Therefore he laid it up in his bosom, gave thanks to
God for directing his eye to the place where it lay, and with
joy and tears betook himself again to his journey. But oh,
how nimbly now did he go up the rest of the hill! Yet, before
he got up, the sun went down upon Christian; and this made
him again recall the vanity of his sleeping to his remembrance;
and thus he again began to condole with himself: 0 thou sin-
ful sleep! how for thy sake am I like to be benighted in my
journey! I must walk without the sun; darkness must cover
the path of my feet; and I must hear the noise of the doleful
creatures, because of my sinful sleep. Now also he remem-
bered the story that Mistrust and Timorous told him of, how
they were frighted with the sight of the lions. Then said
Christian to himself again, These beasts range in the night for
their prey; and if they should meet with me in the dark, how
should I shift them ?. how should I escape being by them torn
in pieces? Thus he went on his way. But while he was thus
bewailing his unhappy miscarriage, he lift up his eyes, and,
behold, there was a very stately palace before him, the name
of which was Beautiful, and it stood just by the highway side.
So I saw in my dream, that he made haste, and went for-
ward, that if possible he might get lodging there. Now,
before he had gone far, he entered into a very narrow passage,
which was about a furlong off the porter's lodge; and looking
very narrowly before him as he went, he espied two lions in
48 The Pilgrim's Progress.
the way. Now, thought he, I see the dangers that Mistrust
and Timorous were driven back by. (The lions were chained,
but he saw not the chains.) Then he was afraid, and thought
also himself to go back after them, for he thought nothing but
death was before him. But the porter at the lodge, whose
name is Watchful, perceiving that Christian made a halt, as if
he would go back, cried unto him, saying, Is thy strength so
small? (Mark xiii. 34-37.) Fear not the lions, for they are
chained, and are placed there for trial of faith where it is; and
for discovery of those that have none: keep in the midst of the
path, and no hurt shall come unto thee.
Then I saw that he went on, trembling for fear of the lions,
but taking good heed to the directions of the porter. He
heard them roar, but they did him no harm. Then he clapped
his hands, and went on till he came and stood before the gate
where the porter was. Then said Christian to the porter, Sir,
what house is this? and may I lodge here to-night? The
porter answered, This house was built by the Lord of the hill,
and he built it for the relief and security of pilgrims. The
porter also asked whence he was, and whither he was going?
C/r. I am come from the City of Destruction, and am
going to Mount Zion; but because the sun is now set, I desire,
if I may, to lodge here to-night.
Por. What is your name?
Chr. My name is now Christian, but my name at the first
was Graceless; I came of the race of Japheth, whom God will
persuade to dwell in the tents of Shem (Gen. ix. 27).
Por. But how doth it happen that you come so late? The
sun is set.
Chr. I had been here sooner, but that, "wretched man that
I am!" I slept in the arbour that stands on the hill side.
Nay, I had, notwithstanding that, been here much sooner, but
that, in my sleep, I lost my evidence, and came without it to
the brow of the hill; and then feeling for it, and finding it not,
I was forced with sorrow of heart to go back to the place
where I slept my sleep, where I found it; and now I am come.
Por. Well, I will call out one of the virgins of this place,
who will, if she likes your talk, bring you in to the rest of the
Tle Pilgrim's Progress. 49
family, according to the rules of the house. So Watchful, the
porter, rang a bell, at the sound of which came out at the door
of the house a grave and beautiful damsel, named Discretion,
and asked why she was called.
The porter answered, This man is on a journey from the City
of Destruction to Mount Zion; but being weary and benighted,
he asked me if he might lodge here to-night; so I told him I
would call for thee, who, after discourse had with him, mayest
do as seemeth thee good, even according to the law of the house.
Then she asked him whence he was, and whither he was
going; and he told her. She asked him also how he got into
the way; and he told her. Then she asked him what he had
seen and met with in the way; and he told her. And last she
asked his name; so he said, It is Christian, and I have so
much the more a desire to lodge here to-night, because, by
what I perceive, this place was built by the Lord of the hill for
the relief and security of pilgrims. So she smiled, but the
water stood in her eyes; and after a little pause she said, I will
call forth two or three more of the family. So she ran to the
door, and called out Prudence, Piety, and Charity, who, after
a little more discourse with him, had him into the family; and
many of them meeting him at the threshold of the house, said,
" Come in, thou blessed of the Lord;" this house was built by
the Lord of the hill, on purpose to entertain such pilgrims in.
Then he bowed his head, and followed them into the house.
So when he was come in and sat down, they gave him some-
thing to drink, and consented together that, until supper was
ready, some of them should have some particular discourse
with Christian, for the best improvement of time; and they
appointed Piety, and Prudence, and Charity, to discourse with
him; and thus they began:
Piety. Come, good Christian, since we have been so loving to
you, to receive you in our house this night, let
us, if perhaps we may better ourselves thereby, Piety discourses
talk with you of all things that have happened
to you in your pilgrimage.
Chr. With a very good will; and I am glad that you are so
50 The Pilgrim's Progress.
Piety. What moved you at first to betake yourself to a pil-
grim's life ?
Chr. I was driven out of my native country, by a dreadful
How Christian sound that was in mine ears; to wit, that un-
was driven out of avoidable destruction did attend me, if I abode
his own, country. in that place where I was.
Piety. But how did it happen that you came out of your
country this way ?
Ckr. It was as God would have it; for when I was under
the fears of destruction, I did not know whither to go; but by
chance there came a man, even to me, as I was trembling and
weeping, whose name is Evangelist, and he
How e go!into directed me to the Wicket-gate, which else I
Ike way Io Zion.
should never have found, and so he set me
into the way that hath led me directly to this house.
Piety. But did you not come by the house of the Interpreter?
Chr. Yes, and did see such things there, the remembrance
A rehearsalof of which will stick by me as long as I live;
what he saw in especially three things : to wit, how Christ, in
Ike way. despite of Satan, maintains his work of grace
in the heart; how the man had sinned himself quite out of
hopes of God's mercy; and also the dream of him that thought
in his sleep the day of judgment was come.
Piety. Why, did you hear him tell his dream?
Chr. Yes, and a dreadful one it was. I thought it made my
heart ache as he was telling of it; but yet I am glad I heard it.
Piety. Was that all you saw at the house of the Interpreter ?
Chr. No: he took me, and had me where he showed me a
stately palace, and how the people were clad in gold that were
in it; and how there came a venturous man and cut his way
through the armed men that stood in the door to keep him out;
and how he was bid to come in and win eternal glory. Me-
thought those things did ravish my heart. I would have stayed
at that good man's house a twelvemonth, but that I knew I
had further to go.
Piety. And what saw you else in the way ?
C/r. Saw! why, I went but a little further, and I saw One,
as I thought in my mind, hang bleeding upon the tree; and
The Pilgrim's Progress. 51
the very sight of him made my burden fall off my back (for I
groaned under a very heavy burden; but then it fell down from
off me). It was a strange thing to me, for I never saw such a
thing before; yea, and while I stood looking up (for then I could
not forbear looking), three Shining Ones came to me. One of
them testified that my sins were forgiven me; another stripped me
of my rags, and gave me this broidered coat which you see; and
the third set the mark which you see in my forehead, and gave
me this sealed roll (and with that he plucked it out of his bosom).
Piety. But you saw more than this, did you not?
C7hr. The things that I have told you were the best; yet
some other matters I saw, as, namely, I saw three men, Simple,
Sloth, and Presumption, lie asleep, a little out of the way, as 1
came, with irons upon their heels; but do you think I could
awake them? I also saw Formality and Hypocrisy come
tumbling over the wall, to go, as they pretended, to Zion;; but
they were quickly lost, even as I myself did tell them, but they
would not believe. But, above all, I found it hard work to
get up this hill, and as hard to come by the lions' mouths; and
truly if it had not been for the good man, the porter that
stands at the gate, I do not know but that, after all, I might
have gone back again: but now, I thank God I am here, and
I thank you for receiving of me.
Then Prudence thought good to ask him a
few questions, and desired his answer to them. Prudence dis-
Pru. Do you not think sometimes of the
country from whence you came ?
Chr. Yes, but with much shame and detestation : truly, if
I had been mindful of that country from whence C ris.i's
I came out, I might have had opportunity to thoughts of his
have returned; but now I desire a better native country.
country, that is, an heaveflly" (Heb. xi. 15, 16).
Pru. Do you not yet bear away with you some of the things
that then you were conversant withal ?
Chr. Yes, but greatly against my will; Christian dis-
especially my inward and carnal cogitations, lasted with car-
with which all my countrymen, as well as my-
self, were delighted: but now all those things are my grief; and
52 The Pilgrim's Progress.
might I but choose mine own things, I would choose never to
think of those things more ; but when I
Christian's choice. would be doing of that which is best, that
which is worst is with me (Rom. vii.)
Pru. Do you not find sometimes as if those things were
vanquished, which at other times are your perplexity?
Chr. Yes, but that is but seldom; but they
en hours. are to me golden hours in which such things
happen to me.
Pru. Can you remember by what means you find your
annoyances, at times, as if they were vanquished ?
Chr. Yes: when I think what I saw at the Cross, that will
do it; and when I look upon my broidered
Hgeow Christian coat, that will do it; also, when I look into
gets power a-
gainsthiscorrup- the roll that I carry in my bosom, that will do
tons. it; and when my thoughts wax warm about
whither I am going, that will do it.
Pru. And what is it that makes you so desirous to go to
Mount Zion ?
Chr. Why, there I hope to see Him alive that did hang
IVy Christian dead on the cross; and there I hope to be rid
'would be at of all those things that to this day are in me
iMount Zion. I
an annoyance to me: there, they say, there is
no death (Isa. xxv. 8; Rev. xxi. 4); and there I shall dwell
with such company as I like best. For, to tell you truth, I
love him, because I was by him eased of my burden; and I
am weary of my inward sickness. I would fain be where I
shall die no more, and with the company that shall continually
cry, Holy, holy, holy."
Charity dis- Then said Charity to Christian, Have you a
courses i. family? Are you a married man ?
Chr. I have a wife and four small children.
Cha. And why did you not bring them along with you?
Christian's love Chr. Then Christian wept, and said, Oh!
to his wife and how willingly would I have done it! but they
children. were all of them utterly averse to my going on
Cha. But you should have talked to them, and have en-
The Pilgrimns Progress. 53
deavoured to have shown them the danger of being be-
Chr. So I did; and told them also what God had shown to
me of the destruction of our city; but I seemed to them as
one that mocked," and they believed me not (Gen. xix. 14).
Cha. And did you pray to God that he would bless your
counsel to them ?
Chr. Yes, and that with much affection; for you must think
that my wife and poor children were very dear unto me.
Cha. But did you tell them of your own sorrow, and fear of
destruction? for I suppose that destruction was visible enough
Chr. Yes, over, and over, and over. They might also see
my fears in my countenance, in my tears, and
also in my trembling under the apprehension ofjerishingmight
of the judgment that did hang over our heads; be reading his very
but all was not sufficient to prevail with them unne.
to come with me.
Cha. But what could they say for themselves, why they came
Chr. Why, my wife was afraid of losing this world, and
my children were given to the foolish de-
The cause ivhy
lights of youth: so what by one thing, and his wfe and cil-
what by another, they left me to wander in dren did not go
this manner alone.him.
Cha. But did you not, with your vain life, damp all that you,
by words, used by way of persuasion to bring them away with
Chr. Indeed I cannot commend my life, for I am conscious
to myself of many failings therein. I know also, that a man
by his conversation may soon overthrow what, by argument or
persuasion, he doth labour to fasten upon Christian's.ood
others for their good. Yet this I can say, I conversation be-
was very wary of giving them occasion, by any fore his wi and
unseemly action, to make them averse to going
on pilgrimage. Yea, for this very thing they would tell me I
was too precise, and that I denied myself of things, for their
sakes, in which they saw no evil. Nay, I think I may say,
5 4 T7/e Pilgrim's Progress.
that if what they saw in me did hinder them, it was my great
tenderness in sinning against God, or of doing any wrong to my
Cha. Indeed Cain hated his brother, because his own works
were evil, and his brother's righteous" (I John
ofcteir ablod i iii. 12); and if thy wife and children have been
they perish. offended with thee for this, they thereby show
themselves to be implacable to good, and thou hast delivered
thy soul from their blood" (Ezek. iii. 19).
Now I saw in my dream, that thus they sat talking together
until supper was ready. So when they had made ready, they
sat down to meat. Now the table was fur-
/hadt Chissiae nished "with fat things, and wine that was
well refined :" and all their talk at the table
was about the Lord of the hill; as, namely, about what he had
done, and wherefore he did what he did, and
Their tal at why he had builded that house: and, by what
they said, I perceived that he had been a great
warrior, and had fought with and slain "him that had the
power of death ;" but not without great danger to himself,-
which made me love him the more (Heb. ii. 14).
For, as they said, and as I believed (said Christian), he did
it with the loss of much blood. But that which put glory of
grace into all he did, was, that he did it out of pure love to his.
country. And besides, there were some of them of the house-
hold that said they had been and spoke with him since he did
die on the cross; and they have attested that they had it from
his own lips, that he is such a lover of poor pilgrims, that the
like is not to be found from the east to the west.
They, moreover, gave an instance of what they affirmed;
and that was, he had stripped himself of his glory, that he
might do this for the poor; and that they heard him say and
affirm, that he would not dwell in the mountain of Zion
Christ makes alone." They said, moreover, that he had
princes of beg- made many pilgrims princes, though by na-
gars. ture they were beggars born, and their original
had been the dunghill (I Sam. ii. 8; Ps. cxiii. 7).
Thus they discoursed together till late at night; and after
The Pilgrim's Progress. 55
they had committed themselves to their Lord for protection,
the- betook themselves to rest. The pilgrim
they laid in a large upper chamber, whose chamber.sas
window opened toward the sun-rising: the
name of the chamber was Peace; where he slept till break of
day, and then he awoke and sang-
Where am I now? Is this the love and care
Of Jesus for the men that pilgrims are?
Thus to provide that I should be forgiven !
And dwell already the next door to heaven !
So in the morning they all got up; and, after some more
discourse, they told him that he should not depart till they had
shown him the rarities of that place. And
first they had him into the study, where they into the study,
showed him records of the greatest antiquity; and what he saw
in which, as I remember in my dream, they
showed him first the pedigree of the Lord of the hill, that he
was the son of the Ancient of Days, and came by that eternal
generation. Here also was more fully recorded the acts that
he had done, and the names of many hundreds that he had
taken into his service; and how he had placed them in such
habitations, that could neither by length of days nor decays of
nature be dissolved.
Then they read to him some of the worthy acts that some of
his servants had done; as, how they had subdued kingdoms,
wrought righteousness, obtained promises, stopped the mouths
of lions, quenched the violence of fire, escaped the edge of the
sword, out of weakness were made strong, waxed valiant in
fight, and turned to flight the armies of the aliens" (Heb. xi.
They then read again, in another part of the records of the
house, where it was showed how willing their Lord was to
receive into his favour any, even any, though they in time past
had offered great affronts to his person and proceedings. Here
also were several other histories of many other famous things,
of all which Christian had a. view; as of things both ancient
and modern : together with prophecies and predictions of things
56 The Pilgrim's Progress.
that have their certain accomplishment, both to.the dread and
amazement of enemies, and the comfort and solace of pil-
The next day they took him, and had him into the armory,
where they showed him all manner of furni-
Christian had ture, which their Lord had provided for pil-
grims; as sword, shield, helmet, breastplate,
all-prayer, and shoes that would not wear out. And there was
here enough of this to harness out as many men for the service
of their Lord as there be stars in the heaven for multitude.
They also showed him some of the engines with which some
Christian is of his servants had done wonderful things.
made to see an- They showed him Moses's rod; the hammer
cien ngs. and nail with which Jail slew Sisera; the
pitchers, trumpets, and lamps too, with which Gideon put to
flight the armies of Midian. Then they showed him the ox's
goad wherewith Shamgar slew six hundred men. They showed
him also the jaw-bone with which Samson did such mighty
feats. They showed him, moreover, the sling and stone with
which David slew Goliath of Gath; and the sword, also, with
which the Lord will kill the Man of Sin, in the day that he
shall rise up to the prey. They showed him, besides, many
excellent things, with which Christian was much delighted.
This done, they went to their rest again.
Then I saw in my dream, that on the morrow he got up to
Christian show- go forward; but they desired him to stay till
ed the Delectable the next day also; and then, said they, we
ountainswill, if the day be clear, show you the Delect-
able Mountains; which, they said, would yet further add to his
comfort, because they were nearer the desired haven than the
place where at present he was: so he consented and stayed.
When the morning was up, they had him to the top of the
house, and bid him look south. So he did; and, behold, at
a great distance (Isa. xxxiii. 16, 17), he saw a most pleasant
mountainous country, beautified with woods, vineyards, fruits
of all sorts, flowers also, with springs and fountains, very de-
lectable to behold. Then he asked the name of the country.
They said it was Immanuel's Land; and it is as common, said
The Pilgrim's Progress. 57
they, as this hill is, to and for all the pilgrims. And when
thou comest there, from thence, said they, thou mayest see to
the gate of the Celestial City, as the shepherds that live there
will make appear.
Now he bethought himself of setting forward, and they were
willing he should. But first, said they, let us
go again into the armory. So they did; and fohrisarn sets
when they came there, they harnessed him
from head to foot with what was of proof, lest perhaps he should
meet with assaults in the way. He being,
therefore, thus accoutred, walketh out with Christian sent
his friends to the gate; and there he asked
the porter if he saw any pilgrim pass by. Then the porter
Chr. Pray, did you know him? said he.
Por. I asked his name, and he told me it was Faithful.
Ckr. Oh, said Christian, I know him; he is my townsman,
my near neighbour: he comes from the place where I was born.
How far do you think he may be before ?
Por. He has got by this time below the hill.
C/r. Well, said Christian, good porter, the Lord be with
thee, and add to all thy blessings much in- How Christian
crease, for the kindness that thou hast showed and the porter
to me. greet at parting.
Then he began to go forward; but Discretion, Piety, Charity,
and Prudence, would accompany him down to the foot of the
hill. So they went on together, reiterating their former dis-
courses, till they came to go down the hill. Then said Chris-
tian, As it was difficult coming up, so, so far as I can see, it is
dangerous going down. Yes, said Prudence, so it is; for it is
a hard matter for a man to go down into the
Valley of Humiliation, as thou art now, and The Valley of
to catch no slip by the way; therefore, said
they, are we come out to accompany thee down the hill. So he
began to go down, but very warily; yet he caught a slip or
Then I saw in my dream that these good companions, when
Christian was gone to the bottom of the hill, gave him a loaf
58 The Pilgrim's Progress.
of bread, a bottle of wine, and a cluster of raisins ; and then he
went his way.
Whilst Christian is among his godly friends,
Their golden mouths make him sufficient 'mends
For all his griefs; and when they let him go,
He's clad with northern steel from top to toe.
But now, in this Valley of Humiliation, poor Christian was
hard put to it; for he had gone but a little way before he
espied a foul fiend coming over the field to meet him : his name
is Apollyon. Then did Christian begin to be afraid, and to
cast in his mind whether to go back or to stand his ground.
rsian no r- But he considered again that he had no armour
Christian no ar-
mourforkisback. for his back; and therefore thought that to
C turn the back to him might give him the
solution at the a- greater advantage with ease to pierce him
froach of APol- with his darts: therefore he resolved to ven-
ture and stand his ground; for, thought he,
had I no more in mine eye than the saving of my life, it would
be the best way to stand.
So he went on, and Apollyon met him. Now the monster
was hideous to behold: he was clothed with scales, like a fish
(and they are his pride); he had wings like a dragon, feet like
a bear, and out of his belly came fire and smoke; and his
mouth was as the mouth of a lion. When he was come up to
Christian, he beheld him with a disdainful countenance, and
thus began to question with him :-
Discourse be- Apol. Whence come you? and whither are
twixt Christian you bound?
C/hr. I am come from the City of Destruc-
tion, which is the place of all evil, and am going to the City of
Apol. By this I perceive that thou art one of my subjects;
for all that country is mine, and I am the prince and god of it.
How is it, then, that thou hast run away from thy king? Were
it not that I hope thou mayest do me more service, I would
strike thee now, at one blow, to the ground.
Chr. I was born, indeed, in your dominions, but your service
was hard, and your wages such as a man could not live on,-
T/he Pilgrim's Progress. 59
"for the wages of sin is death" (Rom. vi. 23) ; therefore, when
I was come to years, I did, as other considerate persons do,
look out, if perhaps I might mend myself.
Apol. There is no prince that will thus lightly lose his sub-
jects, neither will I as yet lose thee : but since
thou complainest of thy service and wages, be Apollyon'sflat-
content to go back; what our country will
afford, I do here promise to give thee.
Chr. But I have let myself to another, even to the King of
princes; and how can I, with fairness, go back with thee?
ApoL Thou hast done in this according to the proverb,
"changed a bad for a worse:" but it is or- Apollyon under-
dinary for those that have professed themselves values Christ's
his servants, after a while to give him the slip, service.
and return again to me. Do thou so too, and all shall be well.
Chr. I have given him my faith, and sworn my allegiance to
him; how, then, can I go back from this, and not be hanged
as a traitor ?
Apol. Thou didst the same to me, and yet I Afpollyon jre-
am willing to pass by all, if now thou wilt tends to be merci-
yet turn again and go back. ful.
Chr. What I promised thee was in my nonage; and, besides,
I count the Prince under whose banner now I stand is able to
absolve me; yea, and to pardon also what I did as to my com-
pliance with thee. And. besides, 0 thou destroying Apollyon!
to speak truth, I like his service, his wages, his servants, his
government, his company and country, better than thine; and,
therefore, leave off to persuade me further: I am his servant,
and I will follow him.
Apol. Consider, again, when thou art in cool blood, what
thou art like to meet with in the way that thou goest. Thou
knowest that, for the most part, his servants come to an ill end,
because they are transgressors against me and Apollyon pleads
my ways. How many of them have been put the grievous ends
to shameful deaths! And, besides, thou count- of Christians, to
est his service better than mine, whereas he tianfrompersist-
never came yet from the place where he is, to ing i his way.
deliver any that served him out of their hands: but as for me,
6o The Pilgrim's Progress.
how many times, as all the world very well knows, have I
delivered, either by power or fraud, those that have faithfully
served me, from him and his, though taken by them; and so
will I deliver thee.
Chr. His forbearing at present to deliver them is on purpose
to try their love, whether they will cleave to him to the end:
and as for the ill end thou sayest they come to, that is most
glorious in their account; for, for present deliverance, they do
not much expect it, for they stay for their glory, and then they
shall have it, when their Prince comes in his and the glory of
Apol. Thou hast already been unfaithful in thy service to
him; and how dost thou think to receive wages of him ?
Chr. Wherein, 0 Apollyon! have I been unfaithful to him?
Apol. Thou didst faint at first setting out, when thou wast
almost choked in the Gulf of Despond. Thou
Afollyon pleads ,
Christian's infir- didst attempt wrong ways to be rid of thy
miles against burden, whereas thou shouldest have stayed
till thy Prince had taken it off. Thou didst
sinfully sleep, and lose thy choice thing. Thou wast, also,
almost persuaded to go back at the sight of the lions. And
when thou talkest of thy journey, and of what thou hast heard
and seen, thou art inwardly desirous of vain-glory in all that
thou sayest or doest.
Chr. All this is true, and much more which thou hast left
out; but the Prince whom I serve and honour is merciful, and
ready to forgive. But, besides, these infirmities possessed me
in thy country, for there I sucked them in; and I have groaned
under them, being sorry for them, and have obtained pardon
of my Prince.
Ajol. Then Apollyon broke out into a grievous rage, saying,
Aollyn, z a I am an enemy to this Prince; I hate his per-
rage, falls upon son, his laws, and people; I am come out on
Christian. purpose to withstand thee.
Chr. Apollyon, beware what you do; for I am in the King's
highway, the way of holiness; therefore take heed to yourself.
Afol. Then Apollyon straddled quite over the whole breadth
of the way, and said, I am void of fear in this matter. Prepare
The Pilgrim's Progress. 61
thyself to die; for I swear by my infernal den, that thou shalt
go no further: here will I spill thy soul.
And with that he threw a flaming dart at his breast; but
Christian had a shield in his hand, with which lie caught it, and
so prevented the danger of that.
Then did Christian draw, for he saw it was time to bestir
him: and Apollyon as fast made at him, Christian wound-
throwing darts as thick as hail; by the which, ed in his under-
notwithstanding all that Christian could do to standing, faith,
avoid it, Apollyon wounded him in his head,
his hand, and foot. This made Christian give a little back;
Apollyon, therefore, followed his work amain, and Christian
again took courage, and resisted as manfully as he could. This
sore combat lasted for above half a day, even till Christian was
almost quite spent; for you must know that Christian, by rea-
son of his wounds, must needs grow weaker and weaker.
Then Apollyon, espying his opportunity, began to gather up
close to Christian, and wrestling with him, Apollyon casteth
gave him a dreadful fall; and with that, Chris- Christian down
tian's sword flew out of his hand. Then said to the ground.
Apollyon, I am sure of thee now! And with that he had almost
pressed him to death, so that Christian began to despair of life.
But, as God would have it, while Apollyon was fetching of his
last blow, thereby to make a full end of this good man, Chris-
tian nimbly reached out his hand for his sword, and caught it,
saying, Rejoice not against me, O mine enemy: when I fall,
I shall arise!" (Mic. vii. 8); and with that Christian's vic-
gave him a deadly thrust, which made him story over Afol-
give back, as one that had received his mortal yon.
wound. Christian perceiving that, made at him again, saying,
"Nay, in all these things we are more than conquerors through
Him that loved us" (Rom. viii. 37). And with that Apollyon
spread forth his dragon's wings, and sped him away, that
Christian for a season saw him no more (James iv. 7).
In this combat no man can imagine, unless br
0 A brief relation
he had seen and heard, as I did, what yelling of the combat by
and hideous roaring Apollyon made all the the sectator.
time of the fight,-he spake like a dragon; and, on the other
62 The Pilgrim's Progress.
side, what sighs and groans burst from Christian's heart. 1
never saw him all the while give so much as one pleasant look,
till he perceived he had wounded Apollyon with his two-edged
sword; then, indeed, he did smile and look upward! But it
was the dreadfullest sight that ever I saw.
So when the battle was over, Christian said, I will here give
Christian thanks to Him that delivered me out of the
God thanks for mouth of the lion," to Him that did help me
deliveraceagainst Apollyon. And so he did, saying-
Great Beelzebub, the captain of this fiend,
Design'd my ruin; therefore to this end
He sent him harness'd out: and he, with rage
That hellish was, did fiercely me engage.
But blessed Michael helped me, and I,
By dint of sword, did quickly make him fly.
Therefore to him let me give lasting praise,
And thank and bless his holy name always.
Then there came to him a hand with some of the leaves of
the tree of life; the which Christian took, and applied to the
wounds that he had received in the battle, and was healed imme-
diately. He also sat down in that place to eat bread, and to
drink of the bottle that was given him a little
Christian goes before: so, being refreshed, he addressed him-
on his journey
with his sword self to his journey with his sword drawn in his
drawn in his hand; for he said, I know not but some other
enemy may be at hand. But be met with no
other affront from Apollyon quite through this valley.
Now, at the end of this valley was another, called the Valley
of the Shadow of Death; and Christian must
The Valley ofthe needs go through it, because the way to the
Shadow of Death.
Celestial City lay through the midst of it. Now,
this valley is a very solitary place. The prophet Jeremiah thus
describes it: "A wilderness, a land of deserts and of pits; a
land of drought, and of the shadow of death; a land that no
man" (but a Christian) "passed through, and where no man
dwelt" (Jer. ii. 6).
Now Christian was worse put to it than in his fight with Apol-
lyon; as by the sequel you shall see.
The Pilgrim's Progress. 63
I saw then in my dream, that when Christian was got to the
borders of the Shadow of Death, there met
him two men, children of them that brought The hidren o back
the spies go back.
"up an evil report of the good land (Numb.
xiii.), making haste to go back; to whom Christian spake as
Chr. Whither are you going?
.Men. They said, Back! back and we would have you to do
so too, if either life or peace is prized by you.
Chr. Why, what's the matter? said Christian.
AMen. Matter said they; we were going that way as you are
going, and went as far as we durst ; and indeed we were almost,
past coming back; for had we gone a little further, we had not
been here to bring the news to thee.
C/r. But what have you met with? said Christian.
1Men. Why, we were almost in the Valley of the Shadow of
Death (Ps. xliv. 19) ; but that, by good hap, we looked before
us, and saw the danger before we came to it.
Chr. But what have you seen? said Christian.
MAen. Seen why, the valley itself, which is as dark as pitch:
we also saw there the hobgoblins, satyrs, and dragons of the
pit: we heard also in that valley a continual howling and yell-
ing, as of a people under unutterable misery, who there sat
bound in affliction and irons: and over that valley hang the
discouraging clouds of confusion. Death also doth always
spread his wings over it. In a word, it is every whit dreadful,
being utterly without order (Ps. cvii. o1; Job iii. 5, x. 22).
Chr. Then, said Christian, I perceive not yet, by what you
have said, but that this is my way to the desired haven (Jer.
Mlen. Be it thy way: we will not choose it for ours.
So they parted; and Christian went on his way, but still with
his sword drawn in his hand, for fear lest he should be assaulted.
I saw then in my dream, so far as this valley reached, there
was on the right hand a very deep ditch; that ditch is it into
which the blind have led the blind in all ages, and have both
there miserably perished. Again, behold, on the left hand
there was a very dangerous quag, into which, if even a good
64 The Pilgrim's Progress.
man falls, he can find no bottom for his foot to stand on. Into
that quag King David once did fall, and had, no doubt, therein
been smothered, had not He that is able plucked him out
(Ps. Ixix. 14, 15).
The pathway was here also exceeding narrow, and therefore
good Christian was the more put to it; for when he sought, in
the dark, to shun the ditch on the one hand, he was ready to
tip over into the mire on the other; also when he sought to
escape the mire, without great carefulness he would be ready to
fall into the ditch. Thus he went on, and I heard him here
sigh bitterly; for, besides the dangers mentioned above, the
pathway was here so dark, that ofttimes, when he lift up his
foot to set forward, he knew not where or upon what he should
set it next.
About the midst of this valley 1 perceived the mouth of hell
to be; and it stood also hard by the wayside. Now, thought
Christian, what shall I do ? And ever and anon the flame and
smoke would come out in such abundance, with sparks and
hideous noises (things that cared not for Christian's sword, as
did Apollyon before), that he was forced to put up his sword,
and betake himself to another weapon, called all-prayer (Eph.
vi. 18). So he cried in my hearing, 0 Lord, I beseech
thee, deliver my soul" (Ps. cxvi. 4). Thus he went on a great
while, yet still the flames would be reaching towards him: also
he heard doleful voices, and rushing to and fro, so that some-
times he thought he should be torn in pieces, or trodden down
like mire in the streets. This frightful sight was seen, and these
dreadful noises were heard by him, for several miles together;
and, coming to a place where he thought he heard a company
Christian puto of fiends coming forward to meet him, he
stand, butfora stopped, and began to muse what he had best
while. to do. Sometimes he had half a thought to go
back; then again he thought he might be half way through the
valley. He remembered also how he had already vanquished
many a danger; and that the danger of going back might be
much more than for to go forward: so he resolved to go on.
Yet the fiends seemed to come nearer and nearer; but when
they were come even almost at him, he cried out with a most
The Pilgrim's Progress. 65
vehement voice, I will walk in the strength of the Lord God!"
so they gave back, and came no further.
One thing I would not let slip: I took notice that now poor
Christian was so confounded, that he did not know his own
voice. And thus I perceived it: Just when he was come over
against the mouth of the burning pit, one of
the wicked ones got behind him, and stepped believe that he
up softly to him, and whisperingly suggested spake blasphe-
mies, when it was
many grievous blasphemies to him, which he Satan that sug-
verily thought had proceeded from his own gested them into
mind. This put Christian more to it than
anything that he met with before, even to think that he should
now blaspheme Him that he loved so much before; yet, if he
could have helped it, he would not have done it: but he had
not the discretion either to stop his ears or to know from
whence these blasphemies came.
When Christian had travelled in this disconsolate condition
some considerable time, he thought he heard the voice of a man,
as going before him, saying, "Though I walk through the Val-
ley of the Shadow of Death, I will fear no evil, for thou art
with me" (Ps. xxiii. 4).
Then he was glad, and that for these reasons:
First, Because he gathered from thence, that some who feared
God were in this valley as well as himself.
Secondly, For that he perceived God was with them, though
in that dark and dismal state. And why not, thought he, with
me? though, by reason of the impediment that attends this
place, I cannot perceive it (Job ix. 11).
Thirdly, For that he hoped, could he overtake them, to have
So he went on, and called to him that was before; but he
knew not what to answer, for that he also
thought himself to be alone. And by-and-by Christian glad
the day broke: then said Christian, He hath
" turned the shadow of death into the morning (Amos v. 8).
Now morning being come, he looked back, not out of desire
to return, but to see, by the light of the day, what hazards he
had gone through in the dark. So he saw more perfectly the
66 The Pilgzrim's Progress.
ditch that was on the one hand, and the quag that was on the
other; also how narrow the way was which led betwixt them
both: also now he saw the hobgoblins, and satyrs, and dra-
gons of the pit, but all afar off; for after break of day they
came not nigh; yet they were discovered to him, according to
that which is written, "HIe discovereth deep things out of
darkness, and bringeth out to light the shadow of death" (Job
Now was Christian much affected with his deliverance from
all the dangers of his solitary way; which dangers, though he
feared them more before, yet he saw them more clearly now,
because the light of the day made them conspicuous to him.
And about this time the sun was rising, and this was another
mercy to Christian; for you must note, that though the first
part of the Valley of the Shadow of Death was dangerous, yet
this second part, which he was yet to go, was, if possible, far
Ti secondary more dangerous: for, from the place where
TIhe second part '
of this valley very he now stood, even to the end of the valley,
dangerous. the way was all along set so full of snares,
traps, gins, and nets here, and so full of pits, pitfalls, deep
holes, and shelvings down there, that, had it now been dark,
as it was when he came the first part of the way, had he had a
thousand souls, they had in reason been cast away; but, as I
said, just now the sun was rising. Then said he, His candle
"shineth upon my head, and by his light I walk through dark-
ness" (Job xxix. 3).
In this light, therefore, he came to the end of the valley.
Now I saw in my dream, that at the end of this valley lay
blood, bones, ashes, and mangled bodies of men, even of
pilgrims that had gone this way formerly: and while I was
musing what should be the reason, I espied a little before me
a cave, where two giants, Pope and Pagan, dwelt in old time;
by whose power and tyranny the men whose bones, blood,
ashes, &c., lay there, were cruelly put to death. But by this
place Christian went without much danger; whereat I some-
what wondered: but I have learnt since, that Pagan has been
dead many a day; and as for the other, though he be yet alive,
he is, by reason of age, and also of the many shrewd brushes
The Pilgrim's Progress. 67
that he met with in his younger days, grown so crazy and stiff
in his joints, that he can now do little more than sit in his
cave's mouth, grinning at pilgrims as they go by, and biting his
nails because he cannot come at them.
So I saw that Christian went on his way; yet, at the sight of
the old man that sat in the mouth of the cave, he could not
tell what to think, especially because he spake to him, though
he could not go after him, saying, You will never mend till
more of you be burnt. But he held his peace, and set a good
face on it; and so went by, and catched no hurt. Then sang
0 world of wonders! (I can say no less,)
That I should be preserved in that distress
That I have met with here! 0 blessed be
That hand that from it hath delivered me!
Dangers in darkness, devils, hell, and sin,
Did compass me, while I this vale was in:
Yea, snares, and pits, and traps, and nets did lie
My path about, that worthless, silly I
Might have been catched, entangled, and cast down:
But since I live, let JESUS wear the crown.
Now, as Christian went on his way, he came to a little as-
cent, which was cast up on purpose that pilgrims might see
before them. Up there, therefore, Christian went; and look-
ing forward, he saw Faithful before him upon his journey.
Then said Christian aloud, Ho! ho! so-ho! stay, and I will be
your companion. At that, Faithful looked behind him; to
whom Christian cried, Stay, stay, till I come up to you. But
Faithful answered, No; I am upon my life, and the avenger of
blood is behind me.
At this Christian was somewhat moved, and putting to all
his strength, he quickly got up with Faithful,
and did also overrun him; so the last was Ci isfian ofe
tanes Ff aiful.
first. Then did Christian vain gloriously
smile, because he had got the start of his brother; but not
taking good heed to his feet, he suddenly stumbled and fell,
and could not rise again, until Faithful came up to help
68 The Pilgrim's Progress.
Then I saw in my dream they went very lovingly on
together, and had sweet discourse of all
makes Faithful things that had happened to them in their
andke go lovingly pilgrimage; and thus Christian began:
SChr. My honoured and well-beloved brother,
Faithful, I am glad that I have overtaken you; and that God
has so tempered our spirits, that we can walk as companions
in this so pleasant a path.
Faith. I had thought, dear friend, to have had your company
quite from our town; but you did get the start of me; where-
fore I was forced to come this much of the way alone.
Chr. How long did you stay in the City of Destruction, be-
fore you set out after me on your pilgrimage ?
Their talkabout Faith. Till I could stay no longer; for there
the country from was great talk, presently after you were gone
whencet iey came. out, that our city would, in short time, with
fire from heaven, be burned down to the ground.
Chr. What! did your neighbours talk so ?
Faith. Yes; it was for a while in everybody's mouth.
Chr. What and did no more of them but you come out to
escape the danger?
Faith. Though there was, as I said, a great talk thereabout,
yet I do not think they did firmly believe it; for, in the heat of
the discourse, I heard some of them deridingly speak of you
and of your desperate journey (for so they called this your
pilgrimage). But I did believe, and do still, that the end of
our city will be with fire and brimstone from above; and there-
fore I have made my escape.
Chr. Did you hear no talk of neighbour Pliable ?
Faith. Yes, Christian; I heard that he followed you till he
came at the Slough of Despond, where, as some said, he fell
in; but he would not be known to have so done; but I am
sure he was soundly bedabbled with that kind of dirt.
Chr. And what said the neighbours to him?
How Pliable was Faith. He hath, since his going back,
accountedofwhen been had greatly in derision, and' that
he got home.
heamong all sorts of people: some do mock
and despise him, and scarce will any set him on work. He
I ____ ^ _____ --______^--__________ -
CHRISTIAN AT POPE'S CAVE.
The Pilgrim's Progress. 69
is now seven times worse than if he had never gone out of the
CAr. But why should they be so set against him, since they
also despise the way that he forsook ?
Faith. Oh, they say, Hang him; he is a turn-coat; he was
not true to his profession I think God has stirred up even his
enemies to hiss at him, and make him a proverb, because he
hath forsaken the way (Jer. xxix. 18, 19).
Chr. Had you no talk with him before you came out ?
Faith. I met him once in the streets, but he leered away on
the other side, as one ashamed of what he had done: so I
spake not to him.
Chr. Well, at my first setting out, I had hopes of that man;
but now I fear he will perish in the overthrow
of the city. For it has happened to him accord- Te dogand te
ing to the true proverb, "The dog is turned
to his own vomit again; and the sow that was washed to her
wallowing in the mire (2 Pet. ii. 22).
Faith. These are my fears of him too; but who can hinder
that which will be ?
Chr. Well, neighbour Faithful, said Christian, let us leave
him, and talk of things that more immediately concern our-
selves. Tell me now, what you have met with in the way as
you came; for I know you have met with some things, or else
it may be writ for a wonder.
Faith. I escaped the Slough that I perceived you fell into,
and got up to the gate without that danger;
only I met with one whose name was Wanton, ed by Wanton.
who had like to have done me a mischief.
Ckr. It was well you escaped her net. Joseph was hard
put to it by her, and he escaped her as you did; but it had like
to have cost him his life (Gen. xxxix. 1-13). But what did
she do to you ?
Faith. You cannot think, but that you know something,
what a flattering tongue she had ; she lay at me hard to turn
aside with her, promising me all manner of content.
Chr. Nay; she did not promise you the content of a good
70 The Pilgrim's Progress.
Faith. You know what I mean,--all carnal and fleshly
Chr. Thank God you have escaped her: the abhorred of the
Lord shall fall into her ditch (Prov. xxii. 14).
Faith. Nay, I know not whether I did wholly escape her
SChr. Why, I trow, you did not consent to her desires?
Faith. No, not to defile myself; for I remembered an old
writing that I had seen, which said, "Her steps take hold of
hell" (Prov. v. 5)- So I shut mine eyes, because I would not
be bewitched with her looks (Job xxxi. I). Then she railed on
me, and I went my way.
Chr. Did you meet with no other assault as you came?
Faith. When I came to the foot of the hill called Difficulty,
He is assault- I met with a very aged man, who asked me
ed by Adam the what I was, and whither bound. I told him
First. that I am a pilgrim, going to the Celestial
City. Then said the old man, Thou lookest like an honest
fellow; wilt thou be content to dwell with me for the wages
that I shall give thee? Then I asked him his name, and
where he dwelt. He said his name was Adam the First, and
that he dwelt in the town of Deceit (Eph. iv. 22). I asked
him then what was his work, and what the wages that he would
give. He told me that his work was many delights; and his
wages, that I should be his heir at last. I further asked him
what house he kept, and what other servants he had. So he
told me, that his house was maintained with all the dainties of
the world; and that his servants were those of his own beget-
ting. Then I asked if he had any children. He said that he
had but three daughters, the Lust of the Flesh, the Lust of the
Eyes, and the Pride of Life (I John ii. 16); and that I should
marry them all if I would. Then I asked how long time he
would have me live with him. And he told me, as long as he
Chr. Well, and what conclusion came the old man and you
to at last ?
Faith. Why, at first, I felt myself somewhat inclinable to go
with the man, for I thought he spake very fair; but looking
Thie Pilgrim's Progress. 71
in his forehead, as I talked with him, I saw there written,
" Put off the old man with his deeds."
Chr. And how then ?
Faith. Then it came burning hot into my mind, whatever he
said, and however he flattered, when he got me home to his
house, he would sell me for a slave. So I bid him forbear to
talk, for I would not come near the door of his house. Then
he reviled me, and told me that he would send such a one after
me, that should make my way bitter to my soul. So I turned
to go away from him; but just as I turned myself to go thence,
I felt him take hold of my flesh, and give me such a deadly
twitch back, that I thought he had pulled part of me after him-
self. This made me cry, O wretched man !" (Rom. vii. 24.)
So I went on my way up the hill.
Now when I had got about half way up, I looked behind
me, and saw one coming after me, swift as the wind: so he
overtook me just about the place where the settle stands.
Chr. Just there, said Christian, did I sit down to rest me;
but, being overcome with sleep, I there lost this roll out of my
Faith. But, good brother, hear me out. So soon as the man
overtook me, he was but a word and a blow; for down he
knocked me, and laid me for dead. But when I was a little
come to myself again, I asked him wherefore he served me so.
He said, because of my secret inclining to Adam the First: and
with that he struck me another deadly blow on the breast, and
beat me down backward; so I lay at his foot as dead as before.
So, when I came to myself again, I cried him mercy: but he
said, I know not how to show mercy; and with that knocked
me down again. He had doubtless made an end of me, but
that one came by, and bid him forbear.
Chr. Who was that that bid him forbear?
Faith. I did not know him at first; but as he went by,
I perceived the holes in his hands and in his side; then
I concluded that he was our Lord. So I went up the hill.
Ckr. That man that overtook you was Moses. The temper o/
He spareth none, neither knoweth he how to Moses,
show mercy to those that transgress his law.
72 The Pilgrim's Progress.
Faith. I know it very well; it was not the first time that he
has met with me. It was he that came to me when I dwelt
securely at home, and that told me he would burn my house
over my head if I stayed there.
C/r. But did you not see the house that stood there on the
top of the hill, on the side of which Moses met you?
Faith. Yes, and the lions too, before I came at it: but for
the lions, I think they were asleep, for it was about noon; and
because I had so much of the day before me, I passed by the
porter, and came down the hill.
Ch.: He told me, indeed, that he saw you go by; but I wish
you had called at the house, for they would have showed you
so many rarities, that you would scarce have forgot them to the
day of your death.-But pray tell me, did you meet nobody in
the Valley of Humility?
Faith. Yes; I met with one Discontent, who would willingly
Faif shave persuaded me to go back again with him.
saulted by Dis- His reason was, for that the valley was alto-
content. gether without honour. He told me, moreover,
that there to go was the way to disobey all my friends, as Pride,
Arrogancy, Self-conceit, Worldly-glory, with others, who, he
knew, as he said, would be very much offended if I made such
a fool of myself as to wade through this valley.
Chr. Well, and how did you answer him?
Faith. I told him that although all these that he named might
Claim kindred of me, and that rightly, for in-
swer to Discon- deed they were my relations according to the
tent. flesh; yet, since I became a pilgrim, they have
disowned me, as I also have rejected them; and therefore they
were to me now no more than if they had never been of my
lineage. I told him, moreover, that as to this valley, he had
quite misrepresented the thing; for "'before honour is humility,"
and "a haughty spirit before a fall." Therefore, said I, I had
rather go through this valley to the honour that was so ac-
counted by the wisest, than choose that which he esteemed
most worthy our affections.
Chr. Met you with nothing else in that valley?
Faith. Yes, I met with Shame; but of all the men that I met
The Pilgrim's Progress. 73
with in my pilgrimage, he, I think, bears the wrong name.
The others would be said nay, after a little
argumentation and somewhat else; but this He is assaulted
bold-faced Shame would never have done.
Chr. Why, what did he say to you?
Faith. What! why he objected against religion itself. He
said it was a pitiful, low, sneaking business, for a man to mind
religion. He said that a tender. conscience was an unmanly
thing; and that for a man to watch over his words and ways,
so as to tie up himself from that hectoring liberty that the brave
spirits of the times accustom themselves unto, would make him
the ridicule of the times. He objected also, that but few of the
mighty, rich, or wise, were ever of my opinion (i Cor. i. 26,
iii. 18; Phil. iii. 7, 8; John vii. 48); nor any of them neither,
before they were persuaded to be fools, and to be of a voluntary
fondness to venture the loss of all, for nobody knows what.
He, moreover, objected the base and low estate and condition
of those that were chiefly the pilgrims of the times in which they
lived; also their ignorance and want of understanding in all
natural science. Yea, he did hold me to it at that rate also,
about a great many more things than here I relate; as, that it
was a shame to sit whining and mourning under a sermon, and
a shame to come sighing and groaning home; that it was a
shame to ask my neighbour forgiveness for petty faults, or to
make restitution where I have taken from any. He said, also,
that religion made a man grow strange to the great, because of
a few vices (which he called by finer names); and made him
own and respect the base, because of the same religious frater-
nity: And is not this, said he, a shame?
Chr. And what did you say to him?
Faith. Say! I could not tell what to say at the first. Yea, he
put me so to it, that my blood came up in my face; even this
Shame fetched it up, and had almost beat me quite off. But
at last I began to consider, that that which is highly esteemed
among men is abomination in the sight of God (Luke xvi. 15).
And I thought again, this Shame tells me what men are; but
he tells me nothing what God or the word of God is. And I
thought, moreover, that at the day of doom, we shall not be
74 The Pilgrim's Progress.
doomed to death or life according to the hectoring spirits of the
world, but according to the wisdom and law of the Highest.
Therefore, thought I, what God says is best-indeed. is best,
though all the men in the world are against it. Seeing, then,
that God prefers his religion; seeing God prefers a tender con-
science; seeing they that make themselves fools for the king-
dom of heaven are wisest; and that the poor man that loveth
Christ is richer than the greatest man in the world that hates
him; Shame, depart, thou art an enemy to my salvation! shall
I entertain thee against my sovereign Lord? How then shall I
look him in the face at his coming? Should I now be ashamed
of his ways and servants, how can I expect the blessing? (Mark
viii. 38.) But, indeed, this Shame was a bold villain; I could
scarcely shake him out of my company; yea, he would be
haunting of me, and continually whispering me in the ear with
some one or other of the infirmities that attend religion. But
at last I told him it was but in vain to attempt further in this
business; for those things that he disdained, in those did I see
most glory: and so at last I got past this importunate one. And
when I had shaken him off, then I began to sing,-
The trials that those men do meet withal,
That are obedient to the heavenly call,
Are manifold, and suited to the flesh,
And come, and come, and come again afresh;
That now, or some time else, we by them may
Be taken, overcome, and cast away.
O let the pilgrims, let the pilgrims, then,
Be vigilant, and quit themselves like men.
Chr. I am glad, my brother, that thou didst withstand this
villain so bravely; for of all, as thou sayest, I think he has the
wrong name; for he is so bold as to follow us in the streets, and
to attempt to put us to shame before all men; that is, to make
us ashamed of that which is good. But if he was not himself
audacious, he would never attempt to do as he does. But let
us still resist him; for, notwithstanding all his bravadoes, he
promoteth the fool, and none else. "The wise shall inherit
glory," said Solomon; "but shame shall be the promotion of
fools" (Prov. iii. 35).
The Pilgrim's Progress. 75
Faith. I think we must cry to him for help against Shame,
who would have us to be valiant for the truth upon the earth.
Chr. You say true; but did you meet nobody else in that
Faith. No, not I; for I had sunshine all the rest of the way
through that, and also through the Valley of the Shadow of
Chr. 'Twas well for you; I am sure it fared far otherwise
with me. I had for a long season, as soon almost as I entered
into that valley, a dreadful combat with that foul fiend Apolly-
on; yea, I thought verily he would have killed me, especially
when he got me down, and crushed me under him, as if he
would have crushed me to pieces; for as he threw me, my
sword flew out of my hand: nay, he told me he was sure of
me; but I cried to God, and he heard me, and delivered me out
of all my troubles. Then I entered into the Valley of the
Shadow of Death, and had no light for almost half the way
through it. I thought I should have been killed there over
and over: but at last day brake, and the sun rose, and I
went through that which was behind with far more ease and
Moreover, I saw in my dream, that, as they went on, Faith-
ful, as he chanced to look on one side, saw a man whose name
is Talkative, walking at a distance beside
them; for in this place there was. room enough Talkative de-
for them all to walk. He was a tall man, and
something more comely at a distance than at hand. To this
man Faithful addressed himself in this manner :-
Faith. Friend, whither away? Are you going to the hea-
venly country ?
Talk. I am going to the same place.
Faith. That is well: then I hope we may have your good
Talk. With a very good will, will I be your companion.
Faith. Come on, then, and let us go to- Fa ul
S. Faithful and
gether, and let us spend our time in discoursing Talkative enter
of things that are profitable. discourse.
Talk. To talk of things that are good, to me is very accept-
76 The Pilgrim's Progress.
able, with you, or with any other; and I am glad that 1 have
Talk s d- met with those that incline to so good a work:
like of bad dis- for, to speak the truth, there are but few that
course. care thus to spend their time, as they are in
their travels, but choose much rather to be speaking of things
to no profit; and this hath been a trouble to me.
Faith. That is indeed a thing to be lamented ; for what things
so worthy of the use of the tongue and mouth of men on earth,
as are the things of the God of heaven?
1Tlk. I like you wonderful well, for your sayings are full of
conviction; and I will add, what thing is so pleasant, and what
so profitable, as to talk of the things of God? What things so
pleasant (that is, if a man hath any delight in things that are
wonderful)? For instance: if a man doth delight to talk of the
history or the mystery of things; or if a man doth love to talk
of miracles, wonders, or signs, where shall he find things re-
corded so delightful, and so sweetly penned, as in the Holy
Failh. That is true; but to be profited by such things in our
talk, should be that which we design.
Talk. That is it that I said; for to talk of such things is most
profitable; for by so doing a man may get knowledge of many
things; as, of the vanity of earthly things, and
Talkative'sfine the benefit of things above. Thus in general:
but more particularly, by this a man may learn
the necessity of the new birth, the insufficiency of our works,
the need of Christ's righteousness, &c. Besides, by this a man
may learn, by talk, what it is to repent, to believe, to pray, to
suffer, or the like: by this also a man may learn what are the
great promises and consolations of the gospel, to his own
comfort. Further, by this a man may learn to refute false
opinions, to vindicate the truth, and also to instruct the igno-
Faith. All this is true; and glad am I to hear these things
Talk. Alas! the want of this is the cause why so few under-
stand the need of faith, and the necessity of a work of grace in
their soul, in order to eternal life; but ignorantly live in the
The Pilcgrim's Progress. 77
works of the law, by which a man can by no means obtain the
kingdom of heaven.
Faith. But, by your leave, heavenly knowledge of these is the
gift of God; no man attaineth to them by human industry, or
only by the talk of them.
Talk. All this I know very well; for a man can receive
nothing except it be given him from heaven:
/Oh, brave Talk-
all is of grace, not of works. I could give ative!
you a hundred scriptures for the confirmation
Faith. Well, then, said Faithful, what is that one thing that
we shall at this time found our discourse upon ?
Talk. What you will: I will talk of things heavenly, of
things earthly; things moral, or things evan-
gelical; things sacred, or things profane; active T
things past, or things to come; things foreign,
or things at home; things more essential, or things circum-
stantial, provided that all be done to our profit.
Faith. Now did Faithful begin to wonder; and stepping to
Christian (for he walked all this while by
himself), he said to him (but softly), What a Faitfful beguil-
ed by Talkative.
brave companion have we got! Surely this
man will make a very excellent pilgrim.
Chr. At this Christian modestly smiled, Christian makes
and said, This man, with whom you are so a discovery of
taken, will beguile, with that tongue of his, ing Faithful who
twenty of them that know him not. e was.
Faith. Do you know him, then?
Chr. Know him yes, better than he knows himself?
Faith. Pray, what is he?
Chr. His name is Talkative: he dwelleth in our town. I
wonder that you should be a stranger to him; only I consider
that our town is large.
Faith. Whose son is he ? and whereabout does he dwell ?
Chr. He is the son of one Say-well; he dwelt in Prating
Row; and is known of all that are acquainted with him, by
the name of Talkative in Prating Row; and, notwithstanding
his fine tongue, he is but a sorry fellow.
78 The Pilgrim's Progress.
Faith. Well, he seems to be a very pretty man.
Chr. That is, to them who have not thorough acquaintance
with him; for he is best abroad; near home he is ugly enough.
Your saying that he is a pretty man, brings to my mind what
I have observed in the work of the painter, whose pictures
show best at a distance, but very near, more unpleasing.
Faith. But I am ready to think you do but jest, because you
Ckr. God forbid that I should jest (although I smiled) in
this matter, or that I should accuse any falsely. I will give
you a further discovery of him. This man is for any company,
and for any talk: as he talketh now with you, so will he talk
when he is on the ale-bench; and the more drink he hath in
his crown, the more of these things he hath in his mouth.
Religion hath no place in his heart, or house, or conversation;
all he hath lieth in his tongue, and his religion is to make a
Faith. Say you so ? then am I in this man greatly deceived.
Chr. Deceived! you may be sure of it. Remember the
proverb, "They say, and do not" (Matt.
Takat ve talk, xxiii. 3). But "the kingdom of God is not
ilut does not.
in word, but in power" (I Cor. iv. 20). He
talketh of prayer, of repentance, of faith, and of the new birth;
but he knows but only to talk of them. I have been in his
family, and have observed him both at home and abroad; and
I know what I say of him is the truth. His
He'y hgio house is as empty of religion as the white of
an egg is of savour. There is there neither
prayer, nor sign of repentance for sin; yea, the brute, in his
kind, serves God far better than he. lie is
reiio stain o the very stain, reproach, and shame of religion
to all that know him; it can hardly have a
good word in all that end of the town where he dwells, through
him (Rom. ii. 24, 25). Thus say the common people that
know him, A saint abroad, and a devil at
goes ofzim. home. His poor family finds it so : he is such
a churl, such a railer at, and so unreasonable
with his servants, that they neither know how to do for or
The Pilgrim's Progress. 79
speak to him. Men that have any dealings with him say,
It is better to deal with a Turk than with
him; for fairer dealing they shall have at their Me sthun to
deal with him.
hands. This Talkative (if it be possible) will go
beyond them,-defraud, beguile, and overreach them. Be-
sides, he brings up his sons to follow his steps; and if he find-
eth in any of them a foolish timorousness (for so he calls the
first appearance of a tender conscience), he calls them fools and
blockheads, and by no means will employ them in much, or
speak to their commendations before others. For my part, I
am of opinion that he has, by his wicked life, caused many to
stumble and fall; and will be, if God prevent not, the ruin of
Faith. Well, my brother, I am bound to believe you; not
only because you say you know him, but also because, like a
Christian, you make your reports of men. For I cannot think
that you speak these things of ill-will, but because it is even so
as you say.
Chr. Had I known him no more than you, I might perhaps
have thought of him as at the first you did; yea, had he
received this report at their hands only that are enemies to reli-
gion, I should have thought it had been a slander-a lot that
often falls from bad men's mouths upon good men's names and
professions. But all these things, yea, and a great many more
as bad, of my own knowledge, I can prove him guilty of.
Besides, good men are ashamed of him,--they can neither call
him brother nor friend; the very naming of him among them
makes them blush, if they know him.
Faith. Well, I see that saying and doing are two things, and
hereafter I shall better observe this distinction.
Chr. They are two things indeed, and are as diverse as are
the soul and the body; for as the body without
the soul is but a dead carcass, so saying, if it Tke carcass f
be alone, is but a dead carcass also. The soul
of religion is the practical part: Pure religion and undefiled,
before God and the Father, is this, to visit the fatherless and
widows in their affliction, and to keep himself unspotted from
the world" (James i. 22-27). This, Talkative is not aware of;
8o The Pilgrim's Progress.
he thinks that hearing and saying will make a good Christian;
and thus he deceiveth his own soul. Hearing is but as the
sowing of the seed; talking is not sufficient to prove that fruit
is indeed in the heart and life. And let us assure ourselves,
that at the day of doom men shall be judged according to their
fruits. (Matt. xiii., xxv.) It will not be said then, Did you
believe? but, Were you doers, or talkers only? and accordingly
shall they be judged. The end of the world is compared to
our harvest; and you know, men at harvest regard nothing but
fruit. Not that anything can be accepted that is not of faith,
but I speak this to show you how insignificant the profession
of Talkative will be at that day.
Faitz. This brings to my mind that of Moses, by which he
describeth the beast that is clean. (Lev. xi. ; Deut. xiv.) He is
such a one that parteth the hoof and cheweth the cud; not that
parteth the hoof only, or that cheweth the cud only. The hare
Scheweth the cud, but yet is unclean, because
Fa ithful con- 7
riced of the bad- he parteth not the hoof. And this truly re-
iiessof Talkative. sembleth Talkative: he cheweth the cud, he
seeketh knowledge; he cheweth upon the word, but he divideth
not the hoof. He parteth not with the way of sinners; but,
as the hare, he retaineth the foot of a dog or bear, and there-
fore he is unclean.
Chr. You have spoken, for aught I know, the true gospel
sense of those texts; and I will add another thing : Paul calleth
some men, yea, and those great talkers too,
to things that sounding brass and tinkling cymbals" (I Cor.
sound without xiii. 1-3); that is, as he expounds them in
another place, "things without life, giving
sound (I Cor. xiv. 7). Things without life, that is, without
the true faith and grace of the gospel; and, consequently,
things that shall never be placed in the kingdom of heaven
among those that are the children of life; though their sound,
by their talk, be as if it were the tongue or voice of an angel.
Faith. Well, I was not so fond of his company at first,
but I am as sick of it now. What shall we do to be rid of
Chr. Take my advice, and do as I bid you, and you shall
The Pilgrim's Progress. 81
find that he will soon be sick of your company too, except God
shall touch his heart, and turn it.
Faith. What would you have me to do?
Chr. Why, go to him, and enter into some serious discourse
about the power of religion ; and ask him plainly (when he has
approved of it, for that he will) whether this thing be set up in
his heart, house, or conversation.
Then Faithful stepped forward again, and said to Talkative,
Come, what cheer ? How is it now?
Talk. Thank you, well. I thought we should have had a
great deal of talk by this time.
Faith. Well, if you will, we will fall to it now: and since
you left it with me to state the question, let it be this : How
doth the saving grace of God discover itself when it is in the
heart of man ?
Talk. I perceive, then, that our talk must be about the
power of things. Well, it is a very good T Zative's
question, and I shall be willing to answer you; false discovery of
and take my answer in brief thus : First, a work ofgrace.
"Where the grace of God is in the heart, it causeth there a
great outcry against sin. Secondly, .
Faith. Nay, hold; let us consider of one at once. I think
you should rather say, It shows itself by inclining the soul to
abhor its sin.
Talk. Why, what difference is there between crying out
against, and abhorring of sin ?
Faith. Oh a great deal. A man may cry out against sin,
of policy; but he cannot abhor it, but by virtue of a godly
antipathy against it. I have heard many cry To cry out a-
out against sin in the pulpit, who yet can against sin no sizg
abide it well enough in the heart, house, and of grace.
conversation. Joseph's mistress cried out with a loud voice, as
if she had been very holy; but she would willingly, notwith-
standing that, have committed uncleanness with him (Gen.
xxxix. 15). Some cry out against sin, even as the mother cries
out against her child in her lap, when she calleth it slut and
naughty girl, and then falls to hugging and kissing it.
Talk. You lie at the catch, I perceive.
82 The Pilgrim's Progress.
Faith. No, not I; I am only for setting things right. But
what is the second thing whereby you would prove a discovery
of a work of grace in the heart ?
Talk. Great knowledge of gospel mysteries.
Faith. This sign should have been first: but, first or last, it
is also false; for knowledge, great knowledge, may be obtained
Greal kno- in the mysteries of the gospel, and yet no
ledge no sign of work of grace in the soul. (I Cor. xiii.)
grace. Yea, if a man have all knowledge, he may
yet be nothing; and so, consequently, be no child of God.
When Christ said, "Do ye know all these things?" and
the disciples had answered, Yes; he addeth, "Blessed are
ye if ye do them." He doth not lay the blessing in the know-
ing of them, but in the doing of them. For there is a know-
ledge that is not attended with doing : He that knoweth his
master's will, and doeth it not." A man may know like an
angel, and yet be no Christian: therefore your sign of it is
not true. Indeed, to know is a thing that pleaseth talkers and
boasters; but to do, is that which pleaseth God. Not that the
heart can be good without knowledge; for
knowledgeand without that, the heart is naught. There is,
therefore, knowledge and knowledge: know-
ledge that resteth in the bare speculation of things; and know-
Trueknowledge ledge that is accompanied with the grace of
attended with en- faith and love, which puts a man upon doing
deavours. even the will of God from the heart : the first
of these will serve the talker; but without the other, the true
Christian is not content. "Give me understanding, and I
shall keep thy law; yea, I shall observe it with my whole
heart" (Ps. cxix. 34).
Talk. You lie at the catch again; this is not for edifi-
Faith. Well, if you please, propound another sign how this
work of grace discovereth itself where it is.
Talk. Not I; for I see we shall not agree.
Faith. Well, if you will not, will you give me leave to
do it ?
Talk. You may use your liberty.
The Pilgrim's Progress. 83
Faith. A work of grace in the soul discovereth itself, either
to him that hath it, or to standers by.
To him that hath it, thus : It gives him conviction of sin,
especially of the defilement of his nature, and
the sin of unbelief (for the sake of which he o good sign
is sure to be damned, if he findeth not mercy
at God's hand, by faith in Jesus Christ), (John xvi. 8; Rom.
vii. 24; John xvi. 9; Mark xvi. 16). This sight and sense of
things worketh in him sorrow and shame for sin; he findeth,
moreover, revealed in him the Saviour of the world, and the
absolute necessity of closing with him for life; at the which he
findeth hungerings and thirstings after him ; to which hunger-
ings, &c., the promise is made (Ps. xxxviii. 18; Jer. xxxi. 19;
Gal. ii. 16; Acts iv. 12; Matt. v. 6; Rev. xxi. 6). Now,
according to the strength or weakness of his faith in his Saviour,
so is his joy and peace, so is his love to holiness, so are his
desires to know him more, and also to serve him in this world.
But though I say it discovereth itself thus unto him, yet it is
but seldom that he is able to conclude that this is a work of
grace; because his corruptions now, and his abused reason,
make his mind to misjudge in this matter: therefore in him
that hath this work, there is required a very sound judgment
before he can, with steadiness, conclude that this is a work of
To others it is thus discovered: I. By an experimental con-
fession of his faith in Christ (Rom. x. o1; Phil. i. 27; Matt.
v. 19). 2. By a life answerable to that confession; to wit, a
life of holiness,-heart-holiness, family-holiness (if he hath a
family), and by conversation-holiness in the world: which in
the general teacheth him, inwardly, to abhor his sin, and him-
self for that, in secret; to suppress it in his family and to pro-
mote holiness in the world; not by talk only, as a hypocrite
or talkative person may do, but by a practical subjection in
faith and love to the power of the word (John xiv. 15; Ps. 1.
23; Job xlii. 5, 6; Ezek. xx. 43). And now, sir, as to this
brief description of the work of grace, and also the discovery
of it, if you have ought to object, object; if not, then give me
leave to propound to you a second question.
84 The Pilgrim's Progress.
Talk. Nay, my part is not now to object, but to hear: let
me, therefore, have your second question.
Faith. It is this : Do you experience this first part of this
description of it ? and doth your life and con-
sign of grace versation testify the same? or standeth your
religion in word or in tongue, and not in deed
and truth ? Pray, if you incline to answer me in this, say no
more than you know the God above will say Amen to; and
also nothing but what your conscience can justify you in : for,
not he that commendeth himself is approved, but whom the
Lord commendeth." Besides, to say I am thus and thus, when
my conversation and all my neighbours tell me I lie, is great
Talk. Then Talkative at first began to blush; but, recover-
ing himself, thus he replied: You come now to experience, to
e n conscience, and God; and to appeal to him
Talkatizve not .
Pleased with for justification of what is spoken. This kind
Faithful's ques- of discourse I did not expect: nor am I dis-
tn, posed to give an answer to such questions;
because I count not myself bound thereto, unless you take
upon you to be a catechiser; and, though you should so do,
yet I may refuse to make you my judge. But, I pray, will you
tell me why you ask me such questions ?
Faith. Because I saw you forward to talk, and because I
knew not that you had aught else but notion.
T e reasons wze i
Faithful put to Besides, to tell you all the truth, I have heard
im that ques- of you that you are a man whose religion lies
ion. in talk, and that your conversation gives this
your mouth-profession the lie. They say, you are a spot
Faithfulsplain among Christians, and that religion fareth the
dealing- with worse for your ungodly conversation ; that
Talkaive. some have already stumbled at your wicked
ways, and that more are in danger of being destroyed thereby:
your religion, and an ale-house, and covetousness, and unclean-
ness, and swearing, and lying, and vain company-keeping, &c.,
will stand together. The proverb is true of you which is said
of a whore, to wit, that She is a shame to all women." So
are you a shame to all professors,
T/he Pilgrim's Progress. 85
Talk. Since you are ready to take up reports, and to judge
so harshly as you do, I cannot but conclude Talkaivefings
you are some peevish or melancholy man, not awayfromFaith-
fit to be discoursed with; and so adieu. ful.
Chr. Then came up Christian, and said to his brother, I told
you how it would happen; your words and his lusts could not
agree. He had rather leave your company than reform his
life. But he is gone, as I said: let him go,
A good riddance.
the loss is no man's but his own. He has
saved us the trouble of going from him; for he continuing (as
I suppose he will do) as he is, he would have been but a blot
in our company: besides, the apostle says, From such with-
Faitz. But I am glad we had this little discourse with him;
it may happen that he will think of it again: however, I have
dealt plainly with him, and so am clear of his blood, if he
Ckr. You did well to talk so plainly to him as you did.
There is but little of this faithful dealing with men now-a-days,
and that makes religion to stink so in the nostrils of many, as
it doth; for they are these talkative fools, whose religion is
only in word, and are debauched and vain in their conversation,
that (being so much admitted into the fellowship of the godly)
do puzzle the world, blemish Christianity, and grieve the sincere.
I wish that all men would deal with such as you have done:
then should they either be made more conformable to religion,
or the company of saints would be too hot for them. Then did
How Talkative at first lifts up his plumes!
How bravely doth he speak How he presumes
To drive down all before him! But so soon
As Faithful talks of heart-work, like the moon
That's past the full, into the wane he goes;
And so will all, but he that heart-work knows.
Thus they went on, talking of what they had seen by the
way, and so made that way easy which would otherwise, no
doubt, have been tedious to them; for now they went through
86 The Pilgrim's Progress.
Now, when they were got almost quite out of this wilderness,
Faithful chanced to cast his eye back, and espied one coming
after them, and he knew him. Oh! said Faith-
Evangelistover- ful to his brother, who comes yonder? Then
takes them again.
Christian looked, and said, It is my good
friend Evangelist. Ay, and my good friend too, said Faithful;
for it was he that set me on the way to the gate. Now was
Evangelist come up with them, and thus saluted them:
Evan. Peace be with you, dearly beloved; and peace be to
Chr. Welcome, welcome, my good Evangelist ; the sight of
thy countenance brings to my remembrance
e siah of m. thy ancient kindness and unwearied labouring
for my eternal good.
Faith. And a thousand times welcome, said good Faith-
ful. Thy company, O sweet Evangelist, how desirable it is to
us poor pilgrims!
Evan. Then saith Evangelist, How hath it fared with you,
my friends, since the time of our last parting ? What have you
met with, and how have you behaved yourselves?
Then Christian and Faithful told him of all things that had
happened to them in the way; and how, and with what diffi-
culty, they had arrived to that place.
Evan. Right glad am I, said Evangelist,
lis exzorla tion
to them. not that you have met with trials, but that you
have been victors; and for that you have, not-
withstanding many weaknesses, continued in the way to this
I say, right glad am I of this thing, and that. for mine own
sake and yours. I have sowed, and you have reaped; and the
day is coming when "both he that sowed and they that reaped
shall rejoice together :" that is, if you hold out ; "for in due
season ye shall reap, if ye faint not (John iv. 36 ; Gal. vi. 9).
The crown is before you, and it is an incorruptible one; "so
run, that ye may obtain" it (I Cor. ix. 24-27). Some there
be that set out for this crown, and, after they have gone far
for it, another comes in and takes it from them; hold fast,
therefore, that you have; let no man take your crown (Rev.
The Pilgrim's Progress. 87
iii. I ). You are not yet out of the gun-shot of the Devil:
"you have not yet resisted unto blood, striving against sin:"
let the kingdom be always before you, and believe steadfastly
concerning things that are invisible: let nothing that is on this
side the other world get within you : and, above all, look well
to your own hearts, and to the lusts thereof, for they are "de-
ceitful above all things, and desperately wicked." Set your
faces like a flint ; you have all power in heaven and earth on
Chr. Then Christian thanked him for his exhortation; but
told him, withal, that they would have him ey do an
speak further to them for their help the rest him for his ex-
of the way; and the rather, for that they well hortation.
knew that he was a prophet, and could tell them of things that
might happen unto them, and also how they might resist and
overcome them. To which request Faithful also consented.
So Evangelist began as followeth :
Evan. My sons, you have heard, in the words of the truth
of the gospel, that you must through many
tribulations enter into the kingdom of heaven; what troubles
and, again, that in every city bonds and afflic- they shall meet
with in Vanity
tions abide you: and therefore you cannot Fair, andencour-
expect that you should long go on your pil- ageth them to
grimage without them, in some sort or other.
You have found something of the truth of these testimonies
upon you already, and more will immediately follow : for now,
as you see, you are almost out of this wilderness, and therefore
you will soon come into a town that you will by-and-by see
before you; and in that town you will be hardly beset with
enemies, who will strain hard but they will kill you: and be
you sure that one or both of you must seal the testimony which
you hold with blood; but be you faithful unto death, and the
King will give you a crown of life. He that
shall die there, although his death will be un- He whose lot it
will be there to
natural, and his pain perhaps great, he will suffer, will have
yet have the better of his fellow; not only be- thbetter of his
cause he will be arrived at the Celestial City
soonest, but because he will escape many miseries that the
88 The Pilgrim's Progress.
other will meet with in the rest of his journey. But when you
are come to the town, and shall find fulfilled what I have here
related, then remember your friend, and quit yourselves like
men; and commit the keeping of your souls to your God in
well-doing, as unto a faithful Creator.
Then I saw in my dream, that when they were got out of
the wilderness, they presently saw a town before them, and the
name of that town is Vanity; and at the town there is a fair
kept, called Vanity Fair. It is kept all the year long. It
beareth the name of Vanity Fair, because the town where it is
kept is lighter than vanity; and also because all that is there
sold, or that cometh thither, is vanity : as is the saying of the
wise, All that cometh is vanity" (Eccles. i. ; ii. I, 17; xi. 8;
Isa. xl. 17).
This fair is no new-erected business, but a thing of ancient
standing: I will show you the original of it.
Almost five thousand years agone, there were pilgrims walk-
ing to the Celestial City, as these two honest
The antiquity persons are; and Beelzebub, Apollyon, and
Legion, with their companions, perceiving by
the path that the pilgrims made, that their way to the city lay
through this town of Vanity, they contrived here to set up a
fair,-a fair wherein should be sold all sorts of vanity; and that
it should last all the year long. Therefore
The merchan- at this fair are all such merchandise sold, as
houses, lands, trades, places, honours, prefer-
ments, titles, countries, kingdoms, lusts, pleasures; and delights
of all sorts, as harlots, wives, husbands, children, masters, ser-
vants, lives, blood, bodies, souls, silver, gold, pearls, precious
stones, and what not.
And, moreover, at this fair, there is at all times to be seen
juggling, cheats, games, plays, fools, apes, knaves, and rogues,
and that of every kind.
Here are to be seen, too, and that for nothing, thefts, mur-
ders, adulteries, false-swearers, and that of a blood-red colour.
And as, in other fairs of less moment, there are the several
rows and streets, under their proper names, where such and
such wares are vended; so here likewise you have the proper
i 9 iI
CHRITIANANDFAITFUL ASSNG TROUG VAITY AIR
The Pilgrrim's Progress. 89
places, rows, streets (viz., countries and kingdoms), where the
wares of this fair are soonest to be found.
Here is the Britain Row, the French Row, the The streets of
Italian Row, the Spanish Row, the German
Row, where several sorts of vanities are to be sold. But, as
in other fairs, some one commodity is as the chief of all the fair,
so the ware of Rome and her merchandise is greatly promoted
in this fair; only our English nation, with some others, have
taken a dislike threat.
Now, as I said, the way to the Celestial City lies just through
this town where this lusty fair is kept; and he that will go to
the city, and yet not go through this town, must needs "go
out of the world" (I Cor. v. 10). The Prince
of princes himself, when here, went through Christ went
^ through this fair.
this town to his own country, and that upon a
fair-day too: yea, and, as I think, it was Beelzebub, the chief
lord of this fair, that invited him to buy of his vanities; yea,
would have made him lord of the fair, would he but have done
him reverence as he went through the town. Yea, because he
was such a person of honour, Beelzebub had him from street
to street, and showed him all the kingdoms of the world in a
little time, that he might, if possible, allure that Blessed One
to cheapen and buy some of his vanities; but he had no mind
to the merchandise, and therefore left the Christ bought
town, without laying out so much as one nothing in this
farthing upon these vanities (Matt. iv. 8, 9; falr.
Luke iv. 5-7). This fair, therefore, is an ancient thing, of
long standing, and a very great fair.
Now these pilgrims, as I said, must needs go through this
fair. Well, so they did; but, behold, even as
they entered into the fair, all the people in The jfilgrims
enter the fair.
the fair were moved, and the town itself as it
"were in a hubbub about them; and that for The fair in
a hubbub about
several reasons : for,- them.
First, The pilgrims were clothed with such
kind of raiment as was diverse from the rai- Tihefrst cause
of the hubbub.
ment of any that traded in that fair. The
people, therefore, of the fair made a great gazing upon them
90 The Pilgrim's Progress.
(i Cor. iv. 9). Some said they were fools; some, they weie
bedlams; and some, they were outlandish men.
Secondly, And as they wondered at their apparel, so they
did likewise at their speech; for few could
Second cause of understand what they said. They naturally
spoke the language of Canaan; but they that
kept the fair were the men of this world : so that, from one end
of the fair to the other, they seemed barbarians each to the
other (I Cor. ii. 7, 8).
Thirdly, But that which did not a little amuse the merchan-
disers was, that these pilgrims set very light
Third cause of by all their wares. They cared not so much
as to look upon them; and if they called upon
them to buy, they would put their fingers in their ears, and
cry, "Turn away mine eyes from beholding vanity" (Ps. cxix. 37);
and look upwards, signifying that their trade and traffic was in
heaven (Phil. iii. 20, 21).
One chanced, mockingly, beholding the carriage of the men,
to say unto them, What will ye buy? But
Fturh cause of they, looking gravely upon him, said, We
"buy the truth" (Prov. xxiii. 23). At that
there was an occasion taken to despise the men the more; some
The. mocking, some taunting, some speaking re-
They are mocked.
proachfully, and some calling upon others to
smite them. At last things came to a hubbub and great stir in
the fair, insomuch that all order was confounded. Now was
word presently brought to the great one of the fair, who quickly
came down, and deputed some of his most trusty friends to take
these men into examination, about whom the
Tey are e fair was almost overturned. So the men were
brought to examination; and they that sat
upon them asked them whence they came, whither they went,
They tell who and what they did there in such an unusual
they are, and garb? The men told them that they were
whence they came. .
fence hy came. pilgrims and strangers in the world, and that
they were going to their own country, which was the heavenly
Jerusalem (Heb. xi. 13-16); and that they had given no occa-
sion to the men of the town, nor yet to the merchandisers, thus
ike Pilgrim's Progress. 91
to abuse them, and to let them in their journey, except it was for
that, when one asked them what they would buy, they said they
would "buy the truth." But they that were
They are not
appointed to examine them did not believe believed.
them to be any other than bedlams and mad,
or else such as came to put all things into a confusion in the
fair. Therefore they took them and beat them, and besmeared
them with dirt, and then put them into the
cage, that they might be made a spectacle to in the cage.
all the men of the fair. There, therefore, they
lay for some time, and were made the objects of any man's
sport, or malice, or revenge; the great one of the fair laughing
still at all that befell them. But the men being
patient, and "not rendering railing for rail- in the cage.
ing, but contrariwise, blessing," and giving
good words for bad, and kindness for injuries done, some men
in the fair that were more observing, and less prejudiced than
the rest, began to check and blame the baser sort for their
continual abuses done by them to the men. They, therefore,
in angry manner, let fly at them again, count-
ing them as bad as the men in the cage, and The men of the
fair do fall out
telling them that they seemed confederates, amofglthemselves
and should be made partakers of their misfor- about these two
tunes. The other replied, that for aught they
could see, the men were quiet, and sober, and intended nobody
any harm; and that there were many that traded in their fair
that were more worthy to be put into the cage, yea, and pil-
lory too, than were the men they had abused. Thus, after
divers words had passed on both sides (the men behaving them-
selves all the while very wisely and soberly before them), they
fell to some blows among themselves, and did harm one to
another. Then were these two poor men They are made
brought before their examiners again, and the authors of
Z. this disturbance.
there charged as being guilty of the late
hubbub that had been in the fair. So They are led up
and down the fair
they beat them pitifully, and hanged irons in chains, for a
upon them, and led them in chains up and terror to others.
down the fair, for an example and a terror to others, lest
92 The Pilgrim's Progress.
any should speak in their behalf, or join themselves unto
them. But Christian and Faithful behaved themselves yet
more wisely, and received the ignominy and shame that was
cast upon them with so much meekness and patience, that it
won to their side (though but few in com-
Some of the men
of the fair won to prison of the rest) several of the men in the
them. fair. This put the other party yet into greater
rage, insomuch that they concluded the death of these two
men. Wherefore they threatened that the cage nor irons
should serve their turn, but that they should
Their adver- die for the abuse they had done, and for de-
saries resolve to
kill ltem. luding the men of the fair.
Then were they remanded to the cage again,
They are again i
put ita the cage, until further order should be taken with them.
and after brought So they put them in, and made their feet fast
in the stocks.
Here, therefore, they called again to mind what they had
heard from their faithful friend, Evangelist, and were the more
confirmed in their way and sufferings by what he told them
would happen to them. They also now comforted each other,
that whose lot it was to suffer, even he should have the best of
it; therefore each man secretly wished that he might have the
preferment: but, committing themselves to the all-wise disposal
of Him that ruleth all things, with much content they abode in
the condition in which they were, until they should be otherwise
Then a convenient time being appointed, they brought them
forth to their trial, in order to their condemnation. When the
time was come, they were brought before their enemies, and
arraigned. The judge's name was Lord Hate-good. Their
indictment was one and the same in substance, though some-
what varying in form; the contents whereof were this:
"That they were enemies to, and disturbers of their trade;
that they had made commotions and divisions
Their indict- in the town, and had won a party to their own
most dangerous opinions, in contempt of the
law of their prince."
Then Faithful began to answer, that he had only set himself
The Pilgrim's Progress. 93
against that which had set itself against Him that is higher than
the highest. And, said he, as for disturbance,
I make none, being myself a man of peace: weforhimsel
the parties that were won to us, were
won by beholding our truth and innocence, and they are only
turned from the worse to the better. And as to the king you
talk of, since he is Beelzebub, the enemy of our Lord, I defy
him and all his angels.
Then proclamation was made, that they that had aught to
say for their lord the king against the prisoner at the bar, should
forthwith appear, and give in their evidence. So there came
in three witnesses, to wit, Envy, Superstition, and Pickthank.
They were then asked if they knew the prisoner at the bar;
and what they had to say for their lord the king against him.
Then stood forth Envy, and said to this effect: My lord, I
have known this man a long time, and will at-
test upon my oath before this honourable
bench, that he is-
Judge. Hold! Give him his oath. (So they sware him.)
Then he said,-
Envy. My lord, this man, notwithstanding his plausible
name, is one of the vilest men in our country. He neither
regardeth prince nor people, law nor custom; but doth all that
he can to possess all men with certain of his disloyal notions,
which he in the general calls principles of faith and holiness.
And, in particular, I heard him once myself affirm, that Chris-
tianity and the customs of our town of Vanity were diametrically
opposite, and could not be reconciled. By which saying, my
lord, he doth at once not only condemn all our laudable doings,
but us in the doing of them.
Judge. Then did the judge say to him, Hast thou any more
to say ?
Envy. My lord, I could say much more, only I would not be
tedious to the court. Yet, if need be, when the other gentle-
men have given in their evidence, rather than anything shall be
wanting that will despatch him, I will enlarge my testimony
against him. So he was bid to stand by.
Then they called Superstition, and bid him look upon the
94 Tf/c PilgriZms Progress.
prisoner. They also asked, what he could say for their lord
the king against him. Then they sware him; so he began:
Szper. My lord, I have no great acquaintance with this man,
nor do I desire to have further knowledge of
Suierstitionfol- him; however, this I know, that he is a very
pestilent fellow, from some discourse that, the
other day, I had with him in this town; for then, talking with
him, I heard him say that our religion was naught, and such
by which a man could by no means please God. Which say-
ings of his, my lord, your lordship very well knows what neces-
sarily thence will follow, to wit, that we do still worship in
vain, are yet in our sins, and finally shall be damned : and this
is that which I have to say.
Then was Pickthank sworn, and bid say what he knew in
behalf of their lord the king, against the prisoner at the bar.
Pick. My lord, and you gentlemen all, this fellow I have
known of a long time, and have heard him
tikons. e speak things that ought not to be spoke; for
he hath railed on our noble prince Beelzebub,
and hath spoken contemptibly of his honourable friends, whose
names are the Lord Old Man, the Lord Carnal
SinsareaZlords Delight, the Lord Luxurious, the Lord Desire
aznd greal ones.
of Vain Glory, my old Lord Lechery, Sir
Having Greedy, with all the rest of our nobility: and he hath
said, moreover, that if all men were of his mind, if possible,
there is not one of these noblemen should have any longer a
being in this town. Besides, he hath not been afraid to rail on
you, my lord, who are now appointed to be his judge, calling
you an ungodly villain, with many other such like vilifying
terms, with which he hath bespattered most of the gentry of
When this Pickthank had told his tale, the judge directed
his speech to the prisoner at the bar, saying, Thou runagate,
heretic, and traitor, hast thou heard what these honest gentle-
men have witnessed against thee ?
Faith. May I speak a few words in my own defence ?
7udge. Sirrah! sirrah! thou deserves to live no longer, but
to be slain immediately upon the place; yet, that all men may