U.S.Dept. of Agriculture,
PUBLISHED SEMI-MONTHLY y /
BUREAU OF IMMIGRATION, DEPARTMEitF AGRICULTURE
OCTOBER 6, 1930
DAIRYING IN FLORIDA
By NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner of Agriculture
E covet the opportunity to be of service
to a people of so enterprising spirit as
those who have built up this great in-
stitution and have contributed to its
maintenance and support by their attendance or
otherwise. From the great City of St. Louis
and the middle-west come many of our happy
pleasure-seekers and many of our best citizens,
and successful business institutions and farms
are operated by them since they have made
Florida their permanent home. Florida is at
home everywhere and everybody is at home in
As the Review is passing through the press
this week everything is being placed in order
in the great Arena Building in St. Louis for the
National Dairy Exposition, that for nearly a
quarter of a century has been one of the out-
standing presentations of the dairy interest in
this country. It is very fitting that such an ex-
hibition should be held in this great western
Metropolis, situated as it is in the very center
of great agricultural activities. It is available
for the attendance of throngs of interested
people, from every section of the country.
Agriculture is commanding more intelligent
attention today than perhaps at any time in the
history of our country, where agricultural
achievements have led the world. And just at
this time the interest in the dairy and poultry
features of farm activities stands at the fore-
front. We are beginning to really place the
proper value on the cow and the hen. They
have always been worth while, but too often
have we failed to recognize the fact. Now we
are giving them both time and thought to the
end that they are proving profitable as well as
conducive to improved health.
We are thoroughly purifying our dairy and
poultry equipment and continually cleansing
our processes for manufacturing milk by-
products so that the consumer has little or no
occasion to be disturbed relative to the cleanli-
ness or healthfulness of these indispensable
articles of food.
Florida is glad to have a part in promoting
the cause which this exposition represents and
which will be such an important factor in bring-
ing to the attention of our people that which
the future holds in store for us if we but utilize
all the facilities that are ours. For, notwith-
standing the marvelous progress that has been
made in the past few years, there remains much
to do before we can feel that there can be any
diminishing of effort or time in reaching the
standards that lie just ahead.
There must be no laxity in the endeavor to
improve our herds, encouraging a process of
evolution that will submit to no conclusion, but
that rather shall gather momentum as time
shall unfold to us the extreme advantage ex-
perienced in raising blooded stock.
Elsewhere in this issue of the Review-thou-
sands of copies of which will be distributed to
visitors at this show-will be found discussions
of dairy and poultry activities in Florida, where
the progress made in the past five years has
been so pronounced as to invite favorable com-
ment from the throngs of visitors that tour our
great state. There appears, also, views of some
of the fine herds that are a source of pride to
our people and indicate what may be expected
here where overhead costs are low and where
the year round climate is favorable to the dairy
and poultry industry.
During the fall and winter months a number
of fairs are held throughout Florida, exhibiting
not only some of the finest specimens of animals
and poultry, but hundreds of varieties of the
choicest vegetables and fruits produced any-
where on the globe, and it will delight our
splendid, friendly people to have the visitors at
2 FLORIDA REVIEW
this exposition spend their vacation enjoying
these delightful events with a tour over the
thousands of miles of paved highways touching
every part of the state, noting the great harvest
of citrus fruit and vegetables that are to be seen
in the very midst of the winter season.
If you have never visited the great packing
plants dotted all over the state, it will afford
you a delightful experience to join the hosts of
people that come from every part of the country
each year and witness the operations of one of
the marvels of industry.
Among the many exhibits that give attrac-
tion and charm to this exposition will be found
a Florida booth displaying many of the articles
of production which come from Florida fields
and we invite you to make this booth one of
your objectives, not only to see what is dis-
played there, but to secure other information
concerning this state that may be a matter of
interest to you. This Department also holds
itself in readiness to respond to any inquiries
that are made with reference to the state or its
GROWTH OF DAIRYING IN FLORIDA
(Radio Talk Given September 8, 1930, Over WJAX, Jack-
sonville, Fla., by John M. Scott, Chief Milk Inspector)
Along with the increased population of the State,
dairying in Florida has made a wonderful growth dur-
ing the past ten years. More people are becoming in-
terested in dairy work, and more cows are being milked
than ever before.
A number of factors has caused this growth. In-
creased population has increased the demand for dairy
products; increased farming activities have had a ten-
dency to increase a home-market demand for our feed
and forage crops.
People of Florida, and especially dairymen, are more
interested in growing grasses than ever before. Florida
people are just now beginning to realize that desirable
grasses for grazing purposes can be grown successfully
here in Florida.
One of our great troubles in the past has been that
very few of our farmers have been interested in dairy-
ing and as a result have not been interested in growing
grass. The fact that they have been growing cultivated
crops means that they have been in the habit of de-
stroying grass instead of trying to grow grass for graz-
Those who plan doing dairy work in Florida and do
not take the production of grass into consideration will
not find dairying as profitable from a financial point of
view as will the dairymen who depend largely on grass
for from six to nine months during the year.
In all of our dairy sections of the United States milk
has always been produced most economically when the
cows were on good grass pastures. What is true of
other sections of the United States will be found true in
One other point must be kept in mind and that is to
keep the pasture grazed close enough so that the cows
will have an opportunity to graze only on new growth
that is not more than one to two weeks old. The new
growth of grass is more nutritious and more digestible
than is the older and more mature growth. If for any
reason the pasture is not grazed close enough to insure
fresh, tender grass at all times, then the mowing machine
should be used. Mow the entire pasture or such parts
of it on which the grass has become old or mature.
Few people seem to realize the importance of water
for milk production. The Michigan Experiment Station
has discovered that a cow drinks 3.4 pounds of water for
every pound of milk she produces. Florida with her
heavy summer rainfall and large number of lakes and
springs should be able to supply all of the water neces-
Some of those that are listening in may be surprised
to know just where the most of the milk put on the
market is produced.
The records secured during the past year show that
Dade county produced more milk than any other one
county in the State. Then comes Duval, Hillsborough,
Pinellas, Orange and Palm Beach counties. These are
not only the leading production centers, but they are
also the leading consuming centers of milk and other
Some of the smaller production centers, but which are
increasing in production each year and which are sure to
increase the number of cows each year for the next few
years are Alachua county, which from October 1, 1929,
to March 31, 1930, in addition to supplying their own
needs exported to other parts of the state 116,500 gallons
of milk, and Marion county, which in addition to supply-
ing their own needs sent to other parts of the state
83,247 gallons of milk.
Flagler and Volusia county dairy farmers sold to two
distributors 96,373 gallons of milk. It is estimated that
other dairymen in these two counties produced and sold
a like amount.
One distributor in Madison county purchased from
dairy farmers 27,058 gallons of milk. One distributor
in Sanford purchased 14,091 gallons of milk.
In those sections of Florida where milk and cream can
be produced cheaply enough to be converted into manu-
factured products a market will always be available. A
goodly number of farmers in the State are now selling
sweet cream and sour cream and are finding it profitable.
There are now at least five creameries in the State that
are making butter. One of these plants made between
300,000 and 400,000 pounds of butter during the past
twelve months. The smaller plants made from 50,000
to 100,000 pounds of butter. It has been estimated, by
those in a position to know, that there is now being made
in Florida approximately 2,000,000 pounds of butter a
year. This includes all butter made on the farms and
that made by the creameries. Our opinion is that the
next five years will see a very decided increase in the
amount of butter made in Florida.
Few people realize the large quantity of dairy products
that go into the manufacture of ice cream each year.
How many of you people who are listening in realize
that Florida folks consume about 3,000,000 gallons of
ice cream a year? Nearly all of this is now made in
Florida. Florida people should be consuming 5,000,000
to 6,000,000 gallons of ice cream a year. The per capital
consumption of ice cream in Florida is about 1.9 gallons.
The per capital consumption of ice cream in Pennsylvania
is almost 5 gallons; in California it is about 4.5 gallons;
and in New Jersey it is 4.25 gallons. We do not under-
FLORIDA REVIEW 3
Published Semi-Monthly by
Bureau of Immigration, Department of Agriculture
NATHAN MAYO................ Commissioner of Agriculture
T. J. BROOKS............Asst. Commissioner of Agriculture
Entered as second-class matter, June 25, 1926, at the Post Office
at Tallahassee, Florida, under the Act of June 6, 1920.
Will be mailed free to anyone upon request.
Vol. 5 OCTOBER 6, 1930 No. 8
stand how it is that the folks up in Pennsylvania and
New Jersey, where they have from five to six months
winter weather each year, eat so much more ice cream
than can the folks of Florida where we have sunshine
the year round.
Cottage cheese is another dairy by-product that is now
being made and put on the market here in Florida.
Miami alone made 20,470 pounds the past twelve months.
That the dairy industry of Florida is growing can
perhaps be shown best by the fact that since October 1,
1929, there has been shipped into Florida from other
states only 104,552 gallons of fresh fluid milk. The year
before nearly twice that amount of milk was imported.
Some may wonder where our imported milk comes
from. Alabama, Virginia, Georgia, Tennessee and Mis-
souri supplied nearly all of it this past year. This shows
that dairying is developing in all the southern states.
The Milk and Cream Law as passed by the last legis-
lature was an act intending to secure for the people of
Florida a supply of milk produced under sanitary con-
ditions and that is wholesome and fit for human con-
sumption and at the same time offered to the public
under its correct designation as to grade and quality
and as to its source of production.
So far the State Milk Inspectors have found very little
opposition to the enforcement of the State Milk and
Cream Law. In fact we have found the great majority
of the producers and dealers are very much in sympathy
with the work. We would ask for the cooperation of
the milk consumers of the State. The consumers can be
of great assistance in this work. For example, if a milk
producer or dealer fails to deliver you milk of good
quality, let the State Milk Inspection Division know about
it. An effort will be made to find the cause of the
trouble and remedy it if possible. We have always found
the milk producer and the milk dealer ready to cooperate
whereby he will be enabled to deliver a better quality
In addition to inspecting milk plants and dairies in all
parts of the State the Milk Inspection Division of the
State Department of Agriculture has tried to be of ser-
vice to the milk dealers and producers. That is, we
have tried to supply them with such information as would
be helpful to them and assist them in making improve-
ments so as to not only produce a better quality of milk,
but at the same time lower their cost of production. This
has been accomplished in some cases by changes in feed-
ing methods; in other cases, by the elimination of out-of-
date equipment; and the installing of labor-saving
The dairymen of the State, during the past year, have
spent a large sum of money making improvements in
their barns, lots and milk houses so as to enable them
to supply their trade with milk of a better quality. As
a rule when one dairyman in a community makes im-
provements in his equipment or about his barn, other
dairymen in the community follow his example.
A goodly number of dairymen have installed milk
coolers so as to be able to cool the milk as soon as drawn.
A number of others have installed boilers and sterilizing
boxes. At least four producers have put in pasteurizers
so as to supply pasteurized milk to those who want it.
Some dairymen have changed the location of their barns
so as to improve the sanitary conditions. Others have
built new milk rooms or revamped the old one so as to
be able to handle milk in a more sanitary manner.
May we suggest to the milk consumers who may be
listening in that you get in the habit of making regular
visits to the dairy that supplies you with milk and see for
yourself the condition under which the milk is being pro-
duced. Every good dairyman is always glad to have his
customers come and see his barn and herd. By such
visits you will become better acquainted, and the chances
are that you will become better friends.
Just one more word regarding milk. The people of
Florida do not use enough fresh milk and other dairy
products. The average per capital consumption of milk
and ice cream in Florida is much lower than in many
other states. There has been a noticeable increase in the
demand for cottage cheese during the past year. We
believe that as the quality of the milk is improved there
will be a much larger consumption of all dairy products.
With the thorough cooperation of the dealers, producers
and consumers, this can be brought about in a short time.
FARM RELIEF THROUGH SELLING FEED
In this day when the farmer is trying so hard to make
ends meet the question is often asked what can be done
to help him bring buckle and tongue together?
The Florida State Marketing Bureau offers as one
solution to the problem that the farmer grow feed stuffs
and market them through livestock. There is no ques-
tion about whether feed will grow in Florida, but how
to sell has been the problem. With the markets now
developed and the Bureau working all the time to get
the very best market for the products of the farm, there
need be no fear on the part of the farmer that there
will be no sale for his livestock. It will be a long time
before Florida can produce enough feed to grow the
livestock needed to furnish the products used in Florida.
But what price will the farmer receive and will the
growing of feed pay him a profit? This will depend upon
the yield per acre, how much care is used in feeding and
the class of livestock fed. What feeds shall he grow?
Those that suit his location, type of soil and class of live-
stock that he keeps should be grown. There are thou-
sands of acres in Florida that should grow grass for the
market, as this is the cheapest form of feed to grow.
Florida is fortunate in having so many good pasture
grasses and in having so many days that livestock can
stay out on pasture. What better pasture can be made
than when some combination of carpet, Dallis, Bermuda,
Bahia, Lespedeza, Para and clover is used? Those who
know say that Florida has soil upon which pasture can be
4 FLORIDA REVIEW
made equal to the best blue grass pasture of other
states. Write to the State Department of Agriculture at
Tallahassee for Bulletin Number 27 and read on pages
9 and 10 of how many cows are being carried per acre
on some of the good pastures in this State. Also write
to the State Agricultural Experiment Station at Gaines-
ville for the results obtained from pasture there. From
this data see if you do not think that the selling of
pasture grass could be made a business that would yield
a good profit upon the money invested.
The work done at the McNeill Experiment Station in
Mississippi, where pasture and long leaf pines are being
grown together on the cut-over lands of that state, should
be of great interest to those who own cut-over flat woods
land in Florida.
Next to pasture the selling of green forage should
bring the best returns to the farmer. Here Florida
offers to the farmer a long list of good feeds from which
to choose. If to be fed green or put into the silo, what
better can be grown anywhere than corn, Napier grass,
Japanese cane, sorghum and the several millets. Soy
beans have given good results when put into the silo at
the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. Yields of
more than thirty tons per acre have been made where
Japanese cane or Napier grass was used for silage. Silage
keeps as well in Florida as in any state, and is the very
best insurance against drought.
Legume hay sells for a good price when fed to live-
stock. What better legume hay can be grown anywhere
than that made from cow peas, soy beans, peanuts,
kudzu, velvet beans, beggar weed, pigeon peas, Austrian
peas and vetch, all of which grow to perfection in
If non-legume hay is wanted then Johnson grass,
Sudan grass, Natal grass, Crab grass, Para grass, Maiden
cane and many native grasses may be used.
The root crops to be grown as feed for livestock have
never received the attention that should have been given
them. Beet pulp is one of the popular feeds sold in
Florida. Why not grow sweet potatoes, rutabagas, tur-
nips, carrots, sugar beets, angels and cassava and sell
them through livestock. Roots can be used to take the
place of silage and because of the high yield per acre
can be produced at a low cost. Mr. H. S. McLendon,
agricultural agent for the Florida East Coast Railway
Company, obtained yields of from 40 to 100 tons per
acre of carrots and angels when planted in those
counties through which that railway runs. Mr. Bostick,
of Quincy, planted rutabagas after his crop of shade to-
bacco was cut and made more than 32 tons per acre.
With such yields possible why are no more roots grown
and sold to livestock? John M. Scott, former animal
husbandryman of the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station, says that sweet potatoes are worth 60c per
bushel when fed to good dairy cows. It is easy to make
more than 100 bushels per acre. What general farm
crop brings in a larger return?
While Florida is not known as a grain growing state,
yet there is a good list to choose from, for corn, velvet
beans, soy beans, peanuts, cow peas and cotton seed
can be grown well enough to give a good profit if sold
to livestock. With plenty of green feed and legume
hay not much grain is needed to balance up the ration.
With all the feeds mentioned being easily grown in
Florida, there is no reason why this should not become a
great livestock state.
J. M. BURGESS,
Marketing Specialist Dairy Products.
FLORIDA AT THE NATIONAL DAIRY SHOW
Agricultural Exhibition of the Department of
Agriculture One of the Features of this
Florida will be well represented at the National Dairy
Show, which will be held in St. Louis, October 11th to
October 19th, inclusive. The agricultural exhibit au-
thorized by the legislature and which is being displayed
at a number of large fairs this year, will occupy a con-
spicuous place in the wonderful Arena, which will be
visited by throngs every day, totaling, it is estimated,
four hundred thousand.
This is the 24th annual exposition held in St. Louis
and was attended last year by two hundred and seventy-
nine thousand people during the nine days.
The fine, new and large buildings furnish excellent
equipment for a show of this kind, ranking among the
best in every way. A number of states will be repre-
sented there. Florida's exhibit will include a large
variety of farm products that will be a real revelation to
those who visit the show and are not familiar with the
agricultural resources of this state.
The magnitude of this great event can be more
thoroughly appreciated when it is understood that the
Arena contains 25,000 square feet for general exhibits of
merchandise, feeds, etc. The East Building, 30,000
square feet for dairy farm, barn and plant equipment and
trucks. The outside section, with lots from 30 by 20
feet to 80 by 30 feet for agricultural machinery and
other exhibits, and 5,000 square feet for poultry equip-
ment and supply exhibits. It will be attended by lead-
ing dairy farmers from the entire country, general
farmers from the middle west and south, thousands of
poultry breeders, hundreds of 4-H Club boys and girls,
agricultural college men from every state and Canada,
four hundred farm equipment dealers, hundreds of dairy
college students, county farm agents, creamery men, milk
dealers and ice cream manufacturers. To all of these
Florida will display evidences of her tremendous re-
sources and agricultural accomplishments and possi-
On the opposite page is a view of the great Arena
Building in which the exposition will be held, followed
by a picture of Hon. Victor J. Miller, who is serving his
second term as mayor of Saint Louis.
SURVEY INDICATES NORTH TURNS EYES
(Tampa Tribune, September 7, 1930)
Miami, Sept. 6.-(Special)-Field secretaries of the
Florida State Bureau of Publicity from the north pre-
dict the most substantial season in the state's history.
The return of the thousands of questionnaires indicates
an unusual interest in the state.
Florida's present condition justifies faith in its imme-
diate future, the bureau's reports indicate. The people
of the north and west have been battling a period of
depression like the people of this state, and the drought
has driven farmers for the first time to investigate
farming and trucking conditions in this state, seriously,
the reports show.
The great Arena Building in St. Louis, where will be shown the Agricultural Exhibit of the Florida Department of Agriculture, October 11-19
The great Arena Building in St. Louis, where will be shown the Agricultural Exhibit of the Florida Department of Agriculture, October 11-19
6 FLORIDA REVIEW
VICTOR J. MILLER, Mayor of St. Louis
"I am very happy to say that I spent a most delightful month in Florida last
winter. Many pictures of the beauty of both country and climate had been painted
for me by enthusiastic friends, which I was able to experience for myself during my
visit, and I realize that no exaggerations had been made. I enjoyed every moment
of my stay, particularly the hours spent on the beach, and it is impossible for me
to adequately express my appreciation for the hospitality shown by your people."
-Victor J. Miller.
(Portland (Maine) Press-Herald, August 25, 1930)
Measuring by hard times Florida has had about as
severe a period of adversity in the last five years as any
state in the Union. She suffered from a boom and its
terrific reaction, two hurricanes which took their toll of
human life and property; two freezes which ruined her
fruit and other crops; the Mediterranean fruit fly scare;
a tremendous lot of adverse publicity affecting the state
and its people and a succession of bank failures, enough
to wreck confidence in any ten states.
And in spite of it all Florida is making a wonderful
"come back." Its people are regaining their confidence.
The business of the state, agricultural, industrial and
tourist, is most promising and the Floridans are looking
forward to the best year they have ever known.
It takes more than hurricanes, the ravages of insects
and bank failures to ruin a state whose people are just
bound to succeed.
Peter O. Knight, lawyer, banker and president of the
Tampa Electric Company and director in many Florida
corporations, was in New York recently and told the Sun
how his state was staging its "come back." "We have
no unemployment situation in Florida," this optimistic
Floridan is reported to have said. For four and a half
years while the rest of the country was inflating we were
deflating. We have reached bottom and the foundation
on which we are now building the future of our state has
a sound economic base.
Florida is bound to stage a wonderful come back. It
is America's winter playground just as Maine hopes to
be recognized some day as the nation's summer play-
ground. The prospects are that it will have a splendid
citrus crop this year. Last winter its tourist business
was the best the state has ever known and next winter
it is believed all records will be broken. In the period
of inflation some of the counties of Florida became in-
volved in debt, but the state is out of debt itself and is
carrying out an extensive program of highway improve-
One thing about Florida makes a strong impression on
the rest of the country. Her people do not permit them-
selves to become discouraged or pessimistic. They are
not all talking about how hard the times are but about
how wonderful the prospects are for better business in
the immediate future. They help to make business bet-
ter by this attitude and if the rest of the Nation followed
the example of the average Florida citizen, business
would be a great deal better than it is everywhere.
(Staff News, Johnson City, Tenn., September 12, 1930)
A Florida friend blew into the office the other day.
"How are matters?" we asked. "Florida beginning to
"Come back!" she sniffed. "If you talked very much
with Florida people you'd know Florida never went
down. It's better off than it ever was."
"The boom left us with hundreds of miles of good
paved roads which we would not have had so soon with-
out it. There are many splendid buildings, good houses.
We didn't lose any of those improvements when we lost
the boom. They are right here.
"The climate we have always with us. Take today,
with its temperature ranging along in the early seventies.
This is a typical Florida winter day. You consider it a
rare day, and comment on how fine it is. This is our
normal day, calling for no remarks. The only thing
that's different from this is that in central Florida, where
I live, the air is scented with pines.
"We are growing new and different things all the time.
Take tung oil alone. The tung is a Chinese tree, which
is growing in Florida more quickly and vigorously than
in its native habitat. The oil from its nuts has long been
recognized as the very best for some purposes in industry
and the arts. With American machinery the oil is ex-
tracted in a purer and more satisfactory state than in
China with the ancient native methods. Five years from
its planting a tung tree bears nuts.
"The northern and western papers are always willing
to print the abnormal stuff about Florida-a hurricane or
a few fruit-flies or anything of that sort. But where do
you find tributes to the courage and splendid persistence
of its people? Where do you find anything about the
way they took hold and carried on after troubles?
Humph! Coming back! Florida has never gone any way
We were silenced. Never again shall we dare be
facetious about Florida. We humbly inquired how long
it would take to get there in our somewhat outworn
vehicle, and for how much vW@ could spend a week or
month after we got there. And every time we see a lady
painting her porch furniture we shall remember that
probably through the tung oil in some of her colors she
is helping to put Florida ahead.
THE FLORIDA URGE
(Tampa Life, August 16, 1930)
Out in Tulsa, Oklahoma, an editor of the Daily World
of that city is puzzling over Florida in this fashion:
":What is the inside on this hegira to Florida? It
seems that almost everybody of prominence must go to
Florida for a brief stay. The Sunday papers are full of
golf and fish pictures. We noticed that Babe Ruth, one
of the highest salaried men in the world, had gone down
there, presumably to make a splurge, but the same week
Calvin Coolidge, anti-spender and anti-splurger, took the
trip. We thought the epidemic might have something to
do with prohibition, but about the time Mayor Walker
and Commissioner Whalen and other well known Tam-
manyites packed a dozen trunks each and started it was
announced that President Hoover was on his way. It
may be the head of the prohibition party government
was going down to check up on Al Smith's wide smile
and evident popularity. Something fine must have hap-
pened to draw so many eminent citizens and start a
regular stampede from all parts of the country-except
It is just the Florida urge, friend. Once it gets you
it is irresistible. Almost everybody comes down here
sooner or later. You will eventually; why not this
Statistics report that Florida is still getting many
thousands of gallons of milk from outside the state.
With every advantage for dairying, here in Florida, it
seems passing strange that we will continue to have to
import a good portion of our supply of milk and milk
products. One of Florida's greatest needs is more and
better milk cows.-Milton Gazette, September 5, 1930.
DAYTONA BEACH ESTATE OF JACKSON JOHNSON OF ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI
FLORIDA REVIEW 9
VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IN FLORIDA
(By H. E. Wood, Assistant Supervisor)
The teachers of vocational agriculture in the Florida
schools are encouraging dairying projects for the
students. Florida's climate, grass, present production
and ability to produce feed crops and other factors in-
dicate great potentialities for this enterprise in the state.
Vocational students are required to keep records on
their projects. Some interesting facts and figures have
been derived from these records.
The latest available figures on completed records show
twenty-one students representing twelve different de-
partments in different parts of Florida possessing sixty-
five milk cows. The total yield from these cows was
130,177 pounds of milk or an average yield of 2,003
pounds per cow. The lowest yield reported from any in-
dividual cow was 957 pounds at a cost of 9 % cents per
pound, while the highest yielding cow produced 4,200
pounds at a cost of 1 7/10 cents per pound. The cost
account records included all labor, pasture, feed, rent on
equipment and interest on investment. The average cost
per pound of milk was five cents.
The above figures indicate a need for better producers
and point toward a low upkeep for dairy cattle in Florida.
Further analysis of the records show total charges of
$6,507.76 and total credits of $9,105.80 on these 65 cows,
with a return of $1.39 on the dollar invested.
The return per dollar invested on the individual cow
which produced 4,200 pounds (mentioned before) was
$1.80 and the milk sold for 26 cents per gallon.
The total labor income on the 65 cows amounted to
$3,371.67 and the total number self hours put in by the
students was 4,931, which would show a labor income of
68c per hour. This does not indicate all the hours neces-
sary to care for 65 cows, but only the student's self
hours. All other labor was charged at what it actually
cost and included in the total charges. Student labor
was also included in the total charges.
In addition to milk cows, nine boys in five different
communities of the state possess 20 Jersey heifers with
a total value of $620.00. Also teachers in several com-
munities are bending every effort to improve production
by introducing pure-bred bulls and registered stock. The
state is also improving matters by eradication of the tick,
which now makes the introduction of better blood prac-
As an example of the interest that teachers of voca-
tional agriculture are manifesting in the potentialities
of dairying in Florida, the following objectives from Mr.
John L. Butts' program of work for Dade county is
"In making my annual 'program of work' for the agri-
cultural department of the Dade County Agricultural
High School for the year 1930-31, we uncovered some in-
teresting features and data. This program is arrived at
by making a careful survey of the farms and economic
problems of the entire community served by the school.
The conditions as found are carefully weighed and
problems for solution are analyzed by appealing to the
best talent available and then the course of study for
the ensuing year is worked out with the ultimate objec-
tive of helping solve the outstanding problems. In this
article I wish to present our views on dairying only.
This, briefly, is our program of work as arrived at in
the above manner:
1. To place fifteen registered heifers-heavy spring-
ers-with fifteen boys in my day-unit class at the Bryan
Junior High School.
2. A group 'calf raising' project on the school farm.
Secure four dairy cows-springers-Jersey, Guernsey,
Holstein and Dutch Belt.
3. Attend Dairy Day during 'Farmers Week' at the
University of Florida.
4. Attend the Florida Livestock Sale at Monticello,
Florida, October 28th, prepared to bid in the above
5. Arrange a program and hold a conference of Dade
county dairymen. Representatives from Duval county,
Extension Service, State Marketing Bureau and others.
6. To offer evening class to those interested in dairy-
7. To foster an educational campaign for the use of
milk and its products.
Our survey showed comparatively few calves being
raised by our dairymen. The only excuse offered was
excessive cost of raising calves under our conditions.
We do not have in mind an 'experiment,' we simply
mean to raise those calves under normal conditions and
keep accurate records of the cost. However, we have
results from experiments that have been conducted in
calf raising with the whole milk, skim milk, and milk
powder. These experiments will serve us as a guide.
The Florida State Marketing Bureau furnished us with
some very interesting information regarding the dairy
situation in Florida, which summarizes as follows:
There is one dairy cow to each nine persons in the
There is one dairy cow to each 4 1-3 persons in the
There is one dairy cow to each 15% persons in Florida.
If each family in Florida would eat one pound of
butter per week (the average for the United States is
3% pounds per family) there would be 13,000,000
pounds used per year. Florida produced just a little
more than 2,000,000 pounds last year.
In view of the above information, we are far from
the saturation point in dairying. Therefore, we are
justified in placing dairying as one of the major enter-
prises on our program of work in the Dade County Agri-
cultural High School."
In 28 different communities in Florida there were
ninety-six boys with laying hen projects. These boys
owned 5,354 hens and marketed 32,913 dozen eggs,
which had a value of $13,937.31.
The total cost of production was $9,091.66 or an
average cost of 27.6 per dozen. The students made a
net profit of $4,845.65. The total labor income was
$7,016.29. This represented a labor income of $1.31
per hen and also showed $1.53 return on $1.00 invested.
The average production per hen is low, but the sub-
stantial profit is made -possible through Florida's wonder-
ful market for poultry; her climate; ability to produce
home-grown feeds, especially green feeds; and low cost
of necessary houses and equipment.
The average labor income per hour amounted to 60
cents for the entire state.
The records of the best laying hen project in Florida,
which is very typical of many commercial flocks in the
state, show the following: The boy had 100 hens. They
produced 1,465 dozen eggs or an average of over 12
William Jones, vocational agricultural student, with his blue ribbon Holstein cow, Lemon City, Florida
FLORIDA REVIEW 11
dozen per hen. The cost of production was 12 cents
per dozen, the total charge amounting to $276.10. The
total credits amounted to $444.56, leaving a net profit
The boy charged his own labor at $36.60, which is
included in the total charges. When this amount was
added back to the net profit it amounted to a labor in-
come of $205.06 or $1.12 per hour. His own labor
amounted to 183 hours on this project.
This boy who conducted the project is now a student
at the University of Florida in the Agricultural College.
This poultry project is responsible for putting him there
and keeping him there.
Other phases of poultry production engaged in by
Florida students of vocational agriculture include
poultry for meat, breeding stock, turkeys, baby chicks,
pigeons and ducks. There are 41 projects in these
various phases. Twenty-two of these are projects for
producing meat, therefore the following discussion is
directed to meat producing projects.
There were 3,172 head, producing 5,636 pounds of
meat, showing they were marketed mainly as broilers
and fryers. They were produced in twelve communities
in different parts of Florida. The total charges were
$1,208.81 or an average cost of 21%c per pound. The
average selling price was 40 cents per pound, amounting
to the total value of $2,260.73. The return per dollar
invested equaled $1.87, or a net profit of $1,051.92. The
labor income per hour was approximately 61 cents.
Teachers in Florida have joined with the State Mar-
keting Bureau in conducting cooperative sales. The
teacher at Lake City has been the most active in the
state in the matter of poultry sales and has been able
to get the producers substantial increases in prices over
independent sales prices.
This summary of records by vocational students of
agriculture in Florida on dairying and poultry is a pre-
sentation of actual facts insofar as boys between the
ages of 14 and 20 are able to keep accurate records
under the supervision of trained agricultural teachers.
FLORIDA, THE RICHEST OF ALL
(Chipley Banner, September 4, 1930)
Here is something else to tell inquirers seeking in-
formation about Florida's progress:
During the past ten years, from 1920 until 1930,
there has been an increase of 277.49 per cent in the
number of automobiles registered in Florida.
In 1920 the number of automobiles registered with
the state department totaled 80,163.
On June 15, 1930, the number of automobiles regis-
tered at Tallahassee totaled 302,610.
Since Florida's population, according to the recent
census, is 1,468,635, there is an automobile for every
4.8 people in the state.
That means that if all the home automobiles were
loaded up with home folks, every man, woman and child
in Florida could go riding at the same time.
And they could go riding on 17,000 miles of good
roads, and could see in every county of their state poten-
tial wealth that easily places our Florida at the top of
Tell that to the strangers. You can prove it.
BRIGHTON FLOCK HAS 1,500 YOUNG
(American Eagle, Estro, September 4, 1930)
What appears to be the largest individual flock of
domestic turkeys now being grown in Florida was dis-
closed in a recent trip by The Back Country representa-
tive around Lake Okeechobee. These turkeys are being
hatched and reared on the Brighton Valley Poultry Farm,
a part of the Curtiss-Bright development at Brighton on
state road 8 on the west side of the lake.
This large poultry ranch is being operated by J. D.
Leverett, who now has scattered over an ideal tract for
the purpose, 1,500 young turkeys in all stages of growth
from those just hatched up to others nearly half grown.
Mr. Leverett said this flock was to be further increased
during the present season by 1,000 more birds now in
the process of incubation. He is expecting to have about
2,500 turkeys ready for the Thanksgiving and holiday
Besides the turkeys there are about 3,000 half-grown
White Leghorn pullets coming on that will begin laying
in September. These will be supplemented by 500 one
and two-year-old hens, the best layers saved from the
past season's egg flocks, which will give a total of about
500 winter egg producers. All the eggs produced by
this plant have a ready demand by one of the chain
stores in Miami.
In addition there are more than 100 guinea hens on
this ranch. These recently began laying and a number.
of them will be allowed to hatch their own eggs, from
which source Mr. Leverett expects to realize an increase
of at least 200 of these attractive birds, to be marketed
on special order from Miami during tourist season as
"game fowls." A number of ducks and geese are being
fattened here to supply a winter demand in Miami.
In connection with looking after all these fowls and the
marketing of the eggs, Mr. Leverett finds time for and
jealously maintains a herd of 15 purebred fox hounds
and a half a dozen riding horses for the pleasure and
accommodation of those visiting Brighton during the
tourist season who enjoy real fox hunting.
Incidentally, Leverett is devoting his odd moments to
the making of a saddle of extraordinary quality. The
leather employed in its manufacture was tanned at
Tallahassee from the hides of cows and other animals
raised on the Brighton Valley Farms.-Miami Herald.
CARLOAD HONEY SHIPPED THURSDAY
(Apalachicola Times, September 6, 1930)
The Apalachicola River Valley Beekeepers Associa-
tion shipped a carload of fancy Tupelo honey to the
New York market Thursday. The carload consisted of
300 cases containing two 5-gallon tins each.
This honey has been refined under the Federal ware-
housing regulations at their house at Apalachicola. Other
carload shipments will follow as fast as refining can be
This honey has two remarkable features that no other
honey has and that is, it never turns to sugar nor will
it become rancid; therefore, commands a better price
than other honeys.
The Apalachicola river valley is said to offer the finest
location in the world for making this particular brand
Seven boys at Dade County (Florida) Vocational Agriculture School own and operate a fifteen cow dairy herd.
The above shows their dairy plant at Lemon City.
Seve bos a Dad Conty(Flrida Voatinal griultre choo ow an operate fften co dary erd
FLORIDA REVIEW 13
SO THIS IS FLORIDA
(Bradenton Herald, September 1, 1930)
Florida is absolutely unique among the 48 states.
Crowded with curious and fascinating things. The only
state in the Union favored by nature with an inexhaus-
tible and dependable steam heating plant. Bigger than
all New England with Massachusetts left out. Income
about a half billion dollars a year. For the historian
and the antiquarian, rich in shrines and lore. Gilded
idleness and the extreme of fashion exist almost side by
side with the plodding industry of soil-stained farmers.
A million sun-seekers pour in by railroad, steamship,
motor car, airplane and even bicycle. Champions of all
kinds of sport hie to this land for training, fun and
profit. Two hundred and fifty million dollars left in a
season by this amazing horde of snow-dodgers. The
natural winter playground of all the eastern part of the
country. So easy to reach. Has about everything a state
needs, properly developed and utilized. Raises 200 kinds
of crops and she can raise some of them four times a
year. Fruit, vegetables, fish, lumber and poultry to
occupy her profitably and steadily the year around.-New
$90,000,000 FROM THE SOIL
(Clearwater Sun and Herald, September 12, 1930)
We know this piece is full of figures and therefore
not inviting to the eye. But you should read it never-
theless. It is important. It is the substance of the
annual report of L. M. Rhodes, commissioner of the state
marketing bureau. If you cannot read it now, lay it
aside. You will have many an occasion to refer to it
in the future. It tells you things you should know,
things you have always wanted to know. It tells you the
value of last season's various crops and where they came
"We place," says Mr. Rhodes' report, "an estimate of
$88,757,313 as the total gross income from the 1929-30
fruit and vegetable crop. There are several fruits and
vegetables of comparatively minor importance which we
have not attempted to cover in this report, but which
would increase somewhat the income. The additional
revenue from vegetables, melons, and non-citrus fruit,
consumed locally or hauled by truck, and not already in-
cluded, would likely increase the gross revenue to a
total of $90,000,000. A sum of $7,000,000 is our esti-
mate of rail and express transportation charges within
the state, and is included in the gross income above.
"The so-called strictly commercial citrus crop totaled
39,485 cars or 14,214,600 boxes. Other revenue citrus
such as cannery grapefruit, and that consumed locally
and not otherwise accounted for, increased the total
revenue crop to 16,824,600 boxes.
"The total value of the 1929-30 citrus crop was esti-
mated by the bureau at $52,757,313, including $3,555,000
as rail and express transportation charges within the
"The so-called strictly commercial crop of vegetables,
melons, and non-citrus fruit, yielded the equivalent of
"The gross revenue from vegetables, melons, and non-
citrus fruits is execedingly difficult to estimate because
of the many limiting factors involved, and therefore,
there can be only a reasonably accurate approximation.
We place a value of $36,000,000 upon the vegetable,
melon, and non-citrus fruit crop. This sum includes an
estimated $3,445,000 as rail and express transportation
charges in the state.
"An accurate estimate of the net returns to the hun-
dreds of marketing agencies, and shippers, would in-
volve an extended study and expense perhaps out of
proportion to the probable benefits of such an estimate.
"Our rankings of vegetables, melons, and non-citrus
fruits, according to value during the 1929-30 season were
as follows: Celery, strawberries, tomatoes, potatoes,
string-beans, watermelons, cabbage, peppers, cucumbers,
and lettuce. Others were in less value but very im-
portant in the aggregate. Among citrus fruits, oranges
ranked first, grapefruit second, and tangerines third."
The ten leading citrus shipping counties during the
1929-30 season were: Polk, Orange, Pinellas, Lake,
Hillsborough, Manatee, Volusia, DeSoto, Brevard, Marion.
The ten leading vegetable, melon and non-citrus fruit
shipping counties during the 1929-30 season rank as
follows: Seminole, Dade, Alachua, Manatee, Palm Beach,
St. Johns, Broward, Marion, Sarasota, and Hillsborough.
The fifteen leading fruit and vegetable shipping coun-
ties during the 1929-30 season rank as follows: Polk,
Seminole, Orange, Manatee, Lake, Dade, Pinellas, Hills-
borough, Alachua, Marion, Palm Beach, St. Johns,
Broward, Sarasota, and Hardee.
Pinellas is not listed in the ten counties leading in
vegetable and non-citrus production. But that can be
remedied, is being remedied. We nominte Cucumber
and Strawberry as generals in the movement to carry us
VARA REVIEWS YEAR'S WORK
(Holmes County Advertiser, September 12, 1930)
Dr. J. J. Vara, county veterinarian, finds himself in
possession of some very interesting statistics when he
summarizes the activities of his year's work in the pro-
motion of livestock interests in our county. He speaks
especially of the work of hog cholera vaccination, which
has assumed impressive proportions in this county.
From September 1st, 1929, to September 1st, 1930,
he has vaccinated in this county 13,121 hogs. In doing
this work he made 978 visits to the premises of stockmen
for the purpose of vaccinating their hogs. He used
452,000 c. c. anti-hog cholera serum and 27,085 c. c.
hog cholera virus.
In commenting upon the work he said that hogs vacci-
nated the past year were a decided improvement over
those treated in previous years. Farmers are using more
purebred boars. More attention is being paid to feeding
and to worm and lice prevention. However, there is room
for lots more improvement.
Many of our farmers are still raising hogs too much
as a side issue and not giving the industry its proper
place in their farm plans. Now is the time to plan for
the planting of cover crops, oats, winter peas, vetch, and
other winter growers for soil improvement and for spring
Dr. Vara also stated that hog sales should start soon,
some time between September 15th and October 1st.
The first sale will be put on as soon as sufficient hogs
are listed to insure its success. Prices are pretty good
now. The feed supply remains uncertain because of the
prolonged drouth conditions, but many of our farmers
have feed to finish hogs before the general movement
begins, which usually causes more or less slump in prices.
14 FLORIDA REVIEW
These cows form part of an excellent dairy herd in Central Florida
Making hay in April from oats in Central Florida
FLORIDA REVIEW 15
The way to minimize the effect of so-called hard times
is to stop talking about such a disagreeable subject.
After all, there have been few years through which
most of us have passed that we have not bewailed poor
business, cramped finances, light crops, low prices, un-
employment and many other Gloomy Gus favorites, and
we have not failed to survive it all.
It is not so much the situation today that worries us
all, but what we convince ourselves is locked up in the
vaults of the future. And, yet, when these vaults are
unlocked as we get to them we find that we have greatly
overestimated the calamity that awaited us.
What a wonderful old world it is that the Infinite Hand
created for us. Of course it has its hazards, but that is
what makes the game worth while. But how fine at the
end of the day when we discover that we have overcome
all these obstacles and come through without a scratch.
Florida has had her weals and her woes as well, but
what a smile she has worn all the time. And every hard
knock has made her stronger and worth an immense
What if we have had a few storms. They have had
them everywhere else. We are as much entitled to a
little of the unpleasantness as our good friends in other
states in this fine old land of ours. But it has been no
worse than in other places and you would never know it
happened to look at Florida now.
Of course we have had the Mediterranean fly, but with
the help of Uncle Sam, the biggest man in the world,
we made a wreck of that insect and we have a citrus
crop this year that will not only bring profitable returns
to Florida, but will delight consumers everywhere.
Then what wonderful progress has been made in
Florida in the dairy and poultry industry in the past
decade and particularly within the last five years with
our wonderful herds of blooded stock and high grade
poultry to be found in every part of the state.
Florida ships ten per cent of all fresh fruit and vege-
tables of the United States from less than 300,000 of
her 35,111,040 acres of land area, an average of over
$285.00 per acre. And there are plenty of acres not in
use that are available for the use of thousands of farmers
who are farming only a few months in the year, when in
Florida they can farm 12 months and enjoy it.
From 1915 to 1929, inclusive, Florida invested in its
state highways, $90,483,724.89, giving to the state
8,631 miles of hard-surfaced roads. What a tribute to
the enterprising spirit of our people who have given to
the state such a wonderful system of highways. And
during the year of 1927 the total federal taxes paid
amounted to $44,483,095.42. So while advancing by
rapid strides in state improvements a great and thrifty
people contributed millions to the nation's treasury.
Florida has established a reputation not only as a
winter resort, but as a place in which to seek real com-
fort as well during the summer months. Prostrations
from the heat are practically unknown in this land of
sunshine, cooling breezes and refreshing showers.
STATE DAIRY SALE SET FOR OCTOBER 28
(Marianna Floridan, September 5, 1930)
Monticello, Fla.-The state dairy sale will be held
here October 28, and a large number of registered
Guernseys, Holsteins and Jerseys, consigned by members
of the State Dairyman's Association, will be offered.
This sale will begin at the local sale stables at 10:30,
and at noon lunch will be served by the Monitcello
Kiwanis Club. Six Guernseys, five Holsteins, and 20
Jerseys have already been consigned, and include some
of the best dairy cattle blood in the state.
GEORGE HIGHSMITH HAS FINE STOCK OF
(Levy County Journal, September 11, 1930)
One of the best stocks of cattle in Levy county is that
owned by G. M. Highsmith, Montbrook merchant and
Mr. Highsmith has on his ranch a number of well bred
cattle including one of the finest Hereford bulls in the
state. Mr. Lee Tillis and Mr. Chauncey Tillis assisted Mr.
Highsmith last week in penning the cattle for marking
and branding purposes.
More cattlemen like Mr. Highsmith will make cattle
raising in Levy county more profitable.
CHICKEN SALE NETS PRODUCERS NEAT
SUM, SAYS MANAGER BRETT
(Okaloosa News-Journal, August 29, 1930)
Farmers of Okaloosa county were paid $251.00 for
1,305 pounds of chickens at a poultry sale in Crestview
The sale was held at the Producers Association ware-
house with Manager Paul Brett issuing the cash to the
farmers when their fowls were placed on the scales.
Chicken sales here are conducted through the coopera-
tion of County Agent J. W. Malone; the Producers Asso-
ciation, and the State Marketing Bureau.
In all probability another sale will be held here at
some near future date.
COLORED FARMER MAKING A SUCCESS
(Gadsden County Times, September 11, 1930)
M. M. McMillan, colored farmer living twelve miles
northwest of Quincy, brought to the Times office Sat-
urday samples of the products of his farm of this year's
growth, among them being sugar cane, grapes, sweet
potatoes, beans, okra and turnips. McMillan is the owner
of a sixty-acre farm, which he claims has made him in-
dependent. There is no indebtedness against him or
other debts for which his property is liable. He owns
an automobile, two horses, several head of cattle, a nice
bunch of hogs and a fine flock of chickens. He states
that he never comes to Quincy without bringing with
him something to be sold on the markets. McMillan has
been a subscriber to the Gadsden County Times for sev-
eral years, and states that there are two debts which he
never allows to drag-the subscription to the county
paper and his taxes.
One of the Profitable dairies in South Florida. Note silo back of barn. Courtesy Milam Dairy Farm
Dairy barn and part of the herd of a first class dairy in the northeastern part of Florida