PUBLISHED SEMI-MONTHLY BY
BUREAU OF IMMIGRATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
SEPTEMBER 1, 1930
THE SINKHOLE OF CIVILIZATION
By T. J. BROOKS, Assistant Commissioner of Agriculture
HE economic sinkhole of civilization is
idleness-voluntary and enforced. Idle-
ness is a vacuum. Individual idleness,
when a matter of choice, is usually based
on an income sufficient to supply needs with-
out productive effort. This is evidence of a lack
of interest in anything which lures to action.
Idleness coerced by illness is unfortunate and
can be remedied only by restoration to health.
The idleness that eats away at the foundation
of civilization is the idleness that comes from
lack of employment. It is evidence of lack of
economic balance when able-bodied men and
women suffer for the necessities of life and
cannot find employment. Enforced idleness
breeds anarchy, bolshevism and revolution.
It is impossible for man to produce more than
he WANTS if the production is properly bal-
anced. Man has never learned to arbitrarily
balance production. Production is given over
to chance. Too much of some things and too
little of others is the result.
What to do with a temporary surplus is a
menacing problem. How to supply a deficiency
when those who need it have not the purchase
price is another menacing problem.
The only remedy for an over-supply is de-
struction or exportation. When no remedy is
supplied price tumbles below cost of produc-
tion. The worker is punished for having pro-
duced what man needs!
Labor supply is subject to the same economic
law. When labor is efficient more of a certain
thing is produced than demand will take at a
fair price. Labor is not needed and is turned
out to starve.
What is the remedy? Sometimes labor can
be shifted and sometimes it cannot. This is the
case today. There is a surplus of labor. Millions
of able-bodied men seeking work and none to
be had. This means millions lost daily. These
men must consume or starve. They are para-
sites under duress. The old, old question arises:
"What are you going to do about it?" -The
Government is undertaking to help by putting
on large public works. This indicates the trend
of thought-that the Government has a respon-
sibility which it cannot refuse to assume or
forfeit the loyalty of its citizenship. Society
as a whole ought to be able to employ itself.
When ordinary industrial life breaks down then
it is a time for organized society to have work
done which does not compete with independent
production until such time as consumption
catches up with production and the workers can
go back to their own work. It is to be hoped
that the project can be carried out on a scale
big enough to prevent suffering and revolu-
tionary feeling. Statesmanship must assume
broader tasks than have been within its purview
in the past. It matters not whether we may
"view with alarm" or "point with pride," it is
here. If our civilization is to avert this sinkhole
of idleness it must find work for all who need it.
There will be but one more issue of
FLORIDA REVIEW unless a sufficient
number of requests for its continuance are
received immediately to justify its being
If you are interested, write.
2 FLORIDA REVIEW
(Columbus (Ga.) Sun, July 18, 1930)
The state of Florida should feel greatly encouraged by
the showing its growth of population has made in the past
decade. According to figures just given out, the state
has a population of 1,468,635, an increase of over half
a million in the ten years. No other state can show a
gain of 51.6 in the same length of time.
Florida is not unlike colonial United States, in that
she too has drawn strong and resourceful men and women
When adversity came, a composite ingenuity met and
overcame it. Experience gained elsewhere by her citi-
zens, in all sorts of problems and disasters, was applied.
The result has been a more rapid recovery after seem-
ingly impassable obstacles arose than might have been
brought about in states of much larger population.
Florida is a great state, and with the experience be-
hind her in meeting difficulties, she will, with her larger
population, continue to grow and shine more brightly in
union's field of stars.
CHATTAHOOCHEE CLAY DEPOSITS ARE
SUITABLE FOR MANUFACTURING
Analysis of Cornell University Shows That Clay
Deposits Are Suitable for Building
(River Junction Tribune, August 8, 1930)
There is a deposit of clay in the hills of Chattahoochee-
River Junction sufficient to supply brick for any future
needs of this community and to furnish this entire sec-
tion with this building material. Olin C. Bell, of Cornell
University, Ithaca, N. Y., who in 1922-23 made a survey
of the clay deposits of the State of Florida, gave par-
ticular reference to the deposits in this community.
In his report to the State Geologist at Tallahassee in
1923 he describes these deposits and according to this
information there are two deposits which are "exceptions
to the average conditions found in Gadsden county." One
of these in the northeast edge of River Junction, where a
plant manufacturing common brick was operated in 1907
by Ed Royston. The product of this plant was used in
constructing several buildings in River Junction and
Chattahoochee, according to the report.
"The Royston deposit is irregular in thickness, but it
is as much as fifteen feet in places and underlies a fairly
extensive area in a small valley at River Junction.
"This is a red burning clay of medium shrinkage and
good drying and working qualities. It may be used for
ordinary structural materials, such as common brick,
hollow ware, drain tile, etc."
The report says: "By far the best clay in the county
(Gadsden) for burned products are the flood-plain clays
along the Apalachicola and Ocklocknee rivers. One such
deposit is located on the State Hospital farm, about one
mile northwest of Chattahoochee, in a field joining the
Apalachicola river and the Georgia-Florida boundary
line. The thickness of this deposit is not definitely
known, but is more than five or six feet. It is known
to underlie an area of sixty or eighty acres in Georgia
The report in speaking of this particular deposit says:
"The clay may be used to make an excellent grade of
common building brick and similar structural materials."
In each of these deposits the analysis is given to show
the physical properties.
The report also makes mention of the "deposits of
sand-clay road material." Among other clays examined
was a sample taken from the road-bed just east of
Chattahoochee. "This is a grayish-green jointed clay of
low plasticity, containing a few flint secretions and
geodes. In a burned condition is suited only for railroad
The report tells of the clay deposits on the Ocknocknee
river and of the manufacture of brick by the Ocklocknee
Brick Company at Lawrence.
There is sufficient information contained in the report
to warrant any interested party or parties looking into
the possibility of manufacturing the clay found here in
Chattahoochee-River Junction on commercial basis. Espe-
cially should such materials be utilized for future build-
ings in either the town of River Junction or at the state
USING FLORIDA PRODUCTS
(Orlando Evening Reporter-Star, July 27, 1930)
We heard a statement of fact yesterday that is worthy
of special and also repeated mention.
It concerned the new building of the Tampa Gas Com-
pany, now in course of construction.
The principal materials used in the construction of this
building are products of Florida-and all coming from
within a few miles of Tampa.
All the cement in the building is Florida cement, made
in our own plant. The gypsum blocks which are used in
the partitions and all the plaster come from the Alafia
river, furnished by the phosphate plant operating there.
The travertine stone which will be employed largely in
the outside finish comes from Bradenton. This will,
therefore, be almost an all-Florida building.
The owners and contractors of this building are en-
titled to commendation for this use of home materials,
selecting, in every case, the home product if it is suitable
or practicable for the purpose. Their example should be
followed by other Florida builders.-Tampa Tribune.
HUNGARIAN COLONY BECOMING ACTIVE
IN BAY COUNTY
Panama City, Fla., Aug. 15.-Information has been
furnished to the effect that Howard Young of Chicago,
formerly attached to the Red Cross service in Hungary
following the late war, has been visiting High Point dur-
ing the past week, perfecting arrangements for the Hun-
garian colony which Nat West has been promoting the
past year or more.
Mr. Young and Mr. Lasky who has been at High Point
for several weeks left by auto Wednesday for Chicago
for the first conference with Hungarian leaders there
relative to proper time for the first colonists to com-
mence moving to Bay county.
Next week there will be printed a letter which has
just been received from Mr. Inge, one of the big poultry
raisers of California, giving his ideas of the advantages
of northwest Florida over California for poultry raising
after giving both states a long fair trial of active opera-
tions. Mr. Inge plans to move his operations to Bay
county this fall and head the poultry department of this
FLORIDA REVIEW 3
Published Semi-Monthly by
Bureau of Immigration, Department of Agriculture
NATHAN MAYO........... Commissioner of Agriculture
T. J. BROOKS ........... Asst. Commissioner of Agriculture
Entered as second-class matter, June 25, 1926, at the Post Office
at Tallahassee, Florida, under the Act of June 6, 1920.
Will be mailed free to anyone upon request.
SEPTEMBER 1, 1930
PUBLISHER LIKES QUARTERLY BULLETIN
THE CROWELL PUBLISHING COMPANY
New York, August 15, 1930.
Mr. T. J. Brooks, Assistant Commissioner,
The State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture,
Dear Mr. Brooks.-Thank you for sending me your last
quarterly bulletin entitled "Agriculture and Related Sub-
I read it over with a good deal of pleasure; noted the
quotations from The Country Home; and passed it on to
our editors. Have had several favorable comments from
.them on the type of editorial material it includes. Here
is one of them: "There's a state department that is giving
its farmers what they want-not the time-worn, cut and
dried technical stuff, but something that is food for their
minds. They certainly agree with The Country Home
editorial policy of telling how to live rather than preach-
ing always about how to make a living."
The entire bulletin I think is unusual and far superior
to any government document of its kind that I have ever
seen. I liked particularly your brief explanatory articles
on the cotton, grain, and stock exchanges.
Very truly yours,
THE CROWELL PUBLISHING COMPANY,
John F. Morrissy, The Country Home.
THE WONDER STATE
(Sanford Herald, August 9, 1930)
With the announcement of Florida's population figures,
other states, many of which perhaps were inclined to
believe that the hurricanes and depression had driven
more people from the state than the boom brought, are
beginning to sit up and take notice. And they are ex-
pressing themselves in no uncertain terms that Florida
is the wonder state of the nation. Like this, from the
Rome (Ga.) News Tribune:
"The increase of a fraction over 50 per cent in the
growth of Florida during the past ten years should prove
highly gratifying to those brave spirits who hav44hung on
and hoped on' in spite of the numerous afflictions to
which the state has been subjected. It is doubtful if any
other state in the union will show so large a measure of
growth and certainly there is cause for general satisfac-
tion in the result.
"Though afflicted by a 'boom' that left disaster in its
wake, swept by storms that did vast damage to property
and to morale, and suffering the immense losses imposed
by the fruit fly, Florida has gone right ahead, growing
amazingly in the face of every discouraging circumstance.
A state that can achieve a feat like this possesses poten-
tialities that are measureless, and those who have been
inclined to view the future of Florida with pessimism
will have to revise their opinions. It is destined to in-
creasing greatness. The figures prove it.
"Florida's population in 1920 was less than a million.
Its population today is 1,468,635, the total gain being
500,165. It is an amazing showing and adds lustre to
the great chapter of achievement being written in the
south as the facts of the new census are made known."
NOW IS TIME TO INVEST IN REAL ESTATE
(Daytona Beach Independent, August 1, 1930)
In a copyrighted article appearing in the first column of
the first page of a recent issue of the Journal of Com-
merce of Chicago, a widely known writer on financial
and commercial topics stresses the fact that of all times
in the history of Florida, now is the best time to invest
in real estate in different sections of the state.
The opening paragraph of the writer reads:
"If those who lost money in Florida after the real estate
bubble exploded would scrape together a few nickels and
invest them wisely there today, the legitimate return on
their investment should amount to more than they lost
in their maudlin gambling, for if ever a state as a whole
was a buy, that state is Florida today."
The writer sums up the trials through which Florida
has passed during recent years, including the breaking of
the boom, the storms in the southeast, the closing of the
banks and the visitation of the fruit fly, and marvels at
the fact that the state has withstood these attacks, and
is yet in the forefront of a majority of commonwealths.
Very sensibly, he insists that care should be taken in
making investments, and that small investments will now
yield infinitely more than the losses, imaginary or real,
that were sustained during the boom.
(Geneva (Ohio) Free Press, July 27, 1930)
Population of Maine increased only about four per cent
between 1920 and 1930, while population of Florida in-
creased 51.6 per cent-from 968,470 to 1,468,636.
Maine and Florida are among the famous play places
of the nation. Maine receives its crowds in summer,
Florida in winter. During the last decade both states
have advertised their advantages and attractions exten-
sively and catered more than ever before to visitors.
Previous to last October, these campaigns brought more
and more tourists, hunters, fishermen, campers and others
in quest of rest and recreation, but the census takers
were not interested in transients. They enumerated only
the permanent population of natives and settlers. The
trend of these from the austere north to the salubrious
south indicates that most people seek easier living and
softer living conditions.
In 1900, Florida population was only a little more than
half a million. In thirty years it has nearly tripled.
The great boom and the over-inflation of Florida land
values are of the past, but the flowery state has inesti-
mable resources in its climate, forests, fisheries, fruits
and gardens. It is a large state. It can accommodate
more millions comfortably. Its substantial growth will
RESIDENCE OF L. T. HIGHLEYMAN AT PALM ISLAND, MIAMI
FLORIDA REVIEW 5
BUILDING PERMITS BEST CRITERION OF
Nearly $100,000 in New Buildings So Far This
(Vero Beach Journal, August 8, 1930)
Building permits issued for the month of July for con-
struction in the City of Vero Beach amounted to $50,640,
which is by far the largest amount issued for any one
month since June, 1926. Since building permit records
were started in May, 1921, only in two years, 1922 and
1925, have the permits issued in July exceeded the
amount for last month. The total amount of permits
issued since January 1 this year is $95,480, which is
greater than the total of permits issued for the first seven
months of 1927, 1928 and 1929, by over $15,000. July,
1922, and July, 1925, alone, exceed last year in the
amount issued for last July.
Over the nine year period from 1921 to 1929 the total
amount of building permits issued has been $3,001,813.
Nearly seventy-five per cent of this amount was for the
years 1925 and 1926 when 473 permits were issued total-
ing $2,248,858. The greatest building year was 1925
when $1,579,863 in permits were issued. The smallest
building year was 1927, when only $44,350 in building
permits were issued. In 1928 there were $91,350 and in
1929 $113,000 in totals for these two years, with $95,480
for the first seven months of this year.
The amounts shown in building permits do not repre-
sent the actual amount expended in the improvements.
A conservative estimate would be that an additional
forty to fifty per cent is expended in betterments and
improvements not included in the permits.
THE ROAD TO GOOD HEALTH
(Woonsocket (R. I.) Call, July 22, 1930)
A pretty little miss of 18 summers, adjudged the
nation's healthiest girl at the last congress of 4-H clubs,
avoids alcohol, tobacco and rouge and eats meat but once
a week. Her S.O.S. (Secret of Success) is surf, oranges
and sunshine. She comes from Florida, where she should
be able to get plenty of surf, oranges and sunshine. She
likes citrus fruits and this sounds like adding commer-
cialism to her recipe, inasmuch as she comes from a state
which ships citrus fruit all over the country. Swimming
and tan appeal to her, too. And this is natural, too. They
appeal to all red-blooded American girls.
The road to good health should attract all young men
and women who desire to get the best there is in life.
But the routes which are given to bring one upon that
excellent highway are many and varied. They are
peddled by physicians, dietitians, manufacturers of food-
stuffs and medicines, beauty contest winners, actors and
actresses and a score of other individuals. All have their
pet routes to reach this highway of good health.
It is not surprising that the nation's healthiest girl
should advise against the use of alcohol. No girl of 18
years should use it. The most competent health authori-
ties in the world warn against the use of alcohol as a
beverage for young and old. As for using tobacco and
rouge, authorities differ, although most authorities agree
that tobacco, at least, does no good to young people. As
for surf, oranges and other citrus fruits, and sunshine,
most people agree that they are all excellent aids to good
health. A coat of tan, showing contact with the sun, is
admitted to be healthful.
No intelligent man or woman needs the recipe of a
beauty contest winner or any other such authority to
win good health. The reason that many folks do not
travel along the highway of good health is that they
neglect the human engine within their body. What is
needed is more good common sense, not more recipes and
batches of advice from those who have some particular
section of the land or some medicine or foodstuff to
boost. The road to good health is open to all.
WOODLEA GRAPES AVERAGE OVER FOUR
TONS TO ACRE
Many Bunches Weighed as High as 3% Pounds,
Vines 21/2 Years Old
(Lake County Citizen, August 8, 1930)
Two and one-half years ago Gilbert Hill, manager of
the Woodlea place, owned by G. M. Wakelin, set out two
acres of grape vines, and this year harvested over four
tons of Beacon grapes to the acre, which sold for not
less than 4c per pound. Mr. Hill shipped 9,600 pounds
and sold about the same number of pounds at the vine-
yard. Several of the bunches weighed as high as 3%
pounds each. Woodlea is located about two and one-half
miles from Tavares on Lake Harris. Aside from the vine-
yard Mr. Wakelin has one of the finest orange, grapefruit
and tangerine groves in the State of Florida.
Mr. Hill, manager of the place for the past ten years,
is of the opinion that grapes will be one of the coming
industries of Florida. The fact that it only takes about
eighteen months to bring them into bearing is the biggest
advantage. He sold a large crop off the vines last year.
It is doubtful if there has been any finer grapes grown
anywhere than Mr. Hill produced this year.
One man at one time bought $100 worth of grapes at
the vineyard and took them to a nearby wholesale mer-
chant and doubled his money on the purchase.
It seems that Lake county is the ideal spot for raising
grapes, large acreages being planted at Montverde,
Altoona and Fruitland Park. Another big feature is that
cold weather won't hurt them.
POULTRY RAISERS MUST COOPERATE TO
(Gainesville Sun, August 15, 1930)
"If poultry raising is to come into its own in Florida,
if this industry is to grow into a 10 million or a 20 million
dollar business in the next five to ten years, then poultry
raisers must cooperate so that our product can be graded,
packed and marketed in a large and efficient manner.
In no other way can Florida eggs meet the competition
from outside states where poultry raising is organized,
and which states are today supplying Florida with a large
proportion of its egg requirements. The day when small
producers of staple articles or produce can sell individ-
ually is past, be they manufacturers or farmers."
With these words, E. B. Stocking, president of the
Florida Poultry Producers' Cooperative Association, made
a plea for cooperation during the poultry program at
Farmers' Week Thursday afternoon. He told of the
work of the association and its goals.
6 FLORIDA REVIEW
THE GREAT DROUGHT OF 1930 IN THE UNITED STATES
(New York Times)
THE- RANGE OF DROUGHT CONDITIONS seriously affected
GRAVEST AREAS OF
Showing Areas Affected and, Ranging from Black to White, the Intensity
NATION COMBATS ITS WORST DROUGHT
Federal Weather Bureau Reports an Unusual Stagnation of Air Over Vast Territory-Letters
Received at Department of Agriculture Indicate Intensity of Blight-Florida Not Affected
(The New York Times, August 10, 1930)
Washington, Aug. 6.-The year 1930 is going into
history as that of the great drought, of "stagnant air,"
hot winds and blistering heat; the year in which rainfall
over great areas of the United States sagged to record
low levels; the year when the Kentucky blue grass turned
white, when rivers and creeks went dry, when agriculture
suffered a loss that will reach hundreds of millions of
There have been serious droughts before, but none in
the history of the Weather Bureau has been so prolonged
as that through which most of the country east of the
Rockies is now passing. Not even the most expert of the
government's weather forecasters is ready to say that
the end is in sight. There have been intensely hot months
of July in the sixty years covered by bureau records, but
rarely have these torrid days continued into August.
Both Dr. Charles F. Marvin, the chief, and Dr. Charles
C. Clark, assistant chief of the Weather Bureau, were
asked to explain. Neither man was ready to give an
unqualified answer, but both agreed that the trouble may
be due to what they termed "stagnant air"-or air stand-
ing almost still, from which the vapor has all but disap-
peared, heated to almost Sahara intensity, hanging over
every section of the country east of the Rocky Moun-
In the Weather Bureau offices the experts who follow
the trails of storm and wind and heat were busy with
charts which will become a part of the general report
dealing with the drought, to be submitted to the Presi-
July Drought Unequaled
Following the scanty rainfall of the winter and spring,
June was exceedingly dry in a belt from the lower
Mississippi Valley northeastward over the Ohio Valley
and thence eastward to the Atlantic. The deficient fall
in July intensified the drought, which, by August 1, had
become general in all sections east of the Rocky Moun-
tains except a few limited areas.
The Weather Bureau records, supplemented by pre-
liminary reports for July from bureau stations in all
parts of the United States, together with data for the
months preceding for available stations, show conditions
Virginia-July rainfall, 43 per cent of normal; De-
cember to July, 61 per cent.
Maryland-July, 32 per cent; December to July, 66
West Virginia-July, 41 per cent of normal; Decem-
ber to July, 62 per cent.
Tennessee-July, 25 per cent; June-July, 30 per cent.
Kentucky-July, 30 per cent; March to July, 52 per
Ohio-July, 36 per cent; June and July, 47 per cent.
Indiana-July, 53 per cent; March to July, 57 per
Illinois-March to July, 54 per cent.
Missouri-July, 12 per cent; Mch. to July, 55 per cent.
FLORIDA REVIEW 7
Arkansas-July, 26 per cent; June and July, 23 per
These were low records, covering forty years or more.
Other states had scanty rianfall in July as follows:
Illinois, 36 per cent; Iowa, 37 per cent; Michigan, 43
per cent; Minnesota, 52 per cent; Texas, 31 per cent;
Oklahoma, 26 per cent; Kansas, 60 per cent; Nebraska,
47 per cent; South Dakota, 63 per cent and North Dakota,
46 per cent.
The drought was intensified by exceedingly hot weather
during much of July. The temperature averaged above
normal, except in a few localities. In the Middle Atlantic
area it was 3 to 4 degrees warmer than normal, and
from 4 to as much as 7 degrees warmer from the northern
portions of the central and east gulf states northwest-
ward to the Canadian border.
Daytime temperatures especially were exceedingly
high, with 100 degrees or higher reported from sections
east of the Rocky Mountains on every day of the month
from the 4th to its close. The daily maximum averaged
from 94 to 98 degrees in the central and northern por-
tions of Alabama and Mississippi, northern Louisiana,
western Tennessee, the lower Ohio Valley, Arkansas and
the greater portions of Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas.
The highest temperatures occurred the last few days of
the month, when a number of stations from Arkansas
northward reported 106 to 108 degrees.
Hot All the Way to Rockies
The records of the bureau for the first week in August
show that the weather conditions intensified the drought.
Some sections not seriously affected were becoming
alarmingly dry. It is true there were a few showers in
isolated areas that brought relief locally, but otherwise
there was little or no relief anywhere. High tempera-
tures and rainless days and nights continued over all
parts of the country this side of the Rockies.
Crops have been damaged or destroyed to an extent
that, pending details, no one in official Washington is
willing to estimate. No matter when the end of the
drought comes now, the damage is certain to attain vast
proportions. Hundreds of millions of dollars in crops
have been destroyed and those crops cannot be reclaimed.
Everywhere rivers, creeks and brooks are dried up or
running extremely low. There is a scarcity of water
for live stock and domestic uses. In the worst affected
zones cattle are dying for lack of water and pasturage.
In others the stockmen, anticipating what may be ahead,
are selling their herds at sacrifices. In large sectors of
the eastern orchard belts, the fruit is burned to a crisp
and useless for any purpose. Hay and other pasturage
crops are affected, and corn has suffered marked de-
terioration. The damage involves every state in which
the raising of grain is a principal industry.
While the drought is general almost everywhere east
of the Rockies, the section hardest hit and in which re-
covery will be slowest, is the Mississippi Valley. This
area comprises western West Virginia, southern Ohio,
Indiana and Illinois, eastern Missouri and Arkansas,
western Tennessee and Mississippi and eastern Louisiana.
The area is increasing and a situation almost as serious
now exists in Oklahoma, eastern Texas, Kansas, Iowa
and Nebraska and the remaining states in which the
drought first assumed grave proportions. Virginia, Mary-
land, Delaware, North Carolina and Alabama face a
serious situation, as do the states on the eastern slopes
of the Rockies. Minnesota, Wisconsin, New England,
New York and the Pacific coast states are the only sec-
tions in which conditions described as semi-normal still
exist. A phenomenon is the case of Florida and Georgia.
Neither has been seriously affected.
The grain crops, with the exception of corn, have
escaped the heat. Those crops were ready for the
harvest before the drought became serious. The major
damage affects corn, cotton, fruits, hay and live stock.
That ruin is facing vast numbers of farmers is certain.
That fact has been brought home to the President. How
to keep them on the farms and save them to agriculture
is the matter receiving the earnest consideration of the
The situation has stopped discussion of a presidential
vacation, in the executive offices. Before many days the
plan the President will follow in an effort to relieve the
victims of the drought is confidently expected.
Letters Pour In
Thousands of letters from farmers everywhere in the
drought area, to the Secretary of Agriculture, plead for
the help of the government. Two of these letters-typi-
cal of the thousands of others-from farmers in the
worst drought-ridden sections of the country, follow. The
first is from the head of the Farm Bureau in Jackson
county, West Virginia, to Secretary of Agriculture
Arthur M. Hyde:
Ravenwoods, W. Va., July 28, 1930.
Hon. Mr. Hyde, Secretary of Agriculture:
Dear Sir: I am writing to you in the interest of most
of the 18,000 citizens of Jackson county, West Virginia,
enclosing a clipping from our country paper which partly
explains. I do not speak so much for myself personally.
There are a few who may be able to buy feed and
victuals for their stock and families, but about 90 per
cent of the people have spent all their means and labors
for this year in trying to produce a crop to feed the
stock and supply their families. In about two weeks
from today we will have nothing to eat or feed and no
money nor credit to buy with.
And if our cows are not fed now they will go dry; if
our chickens are not fed they will not lay, and, instead
of being an asset, both cows and chickens will become a
liability and allowed to die, as at present there is no real
sale for them. In the face of this distress many of the
people are trying to desert their homes and go-God
only knows where. The Jackson County Farm Bureau
is telling the people to hold on and take good care of
their stock and perhaps help may come from somewhere,
but there is no hope of anything being grown this season
A lot of bulk wheat in the'grain would supply the
people and chickens right now, ground wheat for the
cows and hogs, or anything you can send, can and will
be distributed honestly and fairly by the Farm Bureau
free of charge. I know that in about two weeks' time
the people of this county will be hungry with nothing to
supply the want. My neighbors are coming to me with
streaming faces, telling me of their distress.
At our last Farm Bureau meeting we decided to try to
alleviate the distress, but do not know how to go about it.
Please help us.
Yours very truly,
S. S. BALL, Director,
Jackson County Farm Bureau.
The other letter is from central Arkansas, where the
drought is almost a plague:
Havana, Ark., July 29, 1930.
My dear Mr. Hyde.-We have got a terrible drought
here and there is lots of people that has not got bread.
8 FLORIDA REVIEW
Will you take it up with President Hoover and Congress
to appropriate means to feed the people? If there is
not something done it won't be long till lots of them will
starve. I have been a farmer here for about twenty
years. This is the worst I ever saw, and all the farmers
think like I do.
We need help right away. If we could get rye and
something for a pasture for our stock this fall also, it
would help us.
Yell county, Arkansas.
Form of Relief in Doubt
What form relief of the drought victims will take
is a question still to be answered. Chairman Legge has
suggested the utilization of a considerable part of the
wheat surplus as the solution of the live stock problem,
while Senator Robinson is understood to have urged the
President to use as much of the Farm Board revolving
fund as may be necessary to afford relief in sections
where the situation is most grave.
Other suggestions include increased road building ac-
tivities to give the farmers work until they can get an-
other money crop in the ground. The Legge suggestion
has aroused a favorable reaction and it is believed likely
that in the months ahead wheat instead of corn will be
the grain generally used to sustain the nation's herds, in
the interval that must elapse before new alfalfa and
other feed crops can be made.
The present situation is one of the most serious that
has ever faced American agriculture. As Dr. Marvin,
chief of the Weather Bureau, said: "This unquestion-
ably is the worst drought in the history of the weather
bureau, and the bureau is sixty years old."
FLORIDA IN SUMMER
(Ft. Pierce Tribune, August 7, 1930)
Each year more people are becoming educated to the
idea of remaining in Florida for the summer. Many
letters have been received here by friends of residents
of Fort Pierce who are summering in northern cities and
resorts, and they are nearly all unanimous in saying how
they wish they were back in Fort Pierce, in order that
they might cool off. If they only knew how free Fort
Pierce is this summer from mosquitoes they would re-
gret more than ever that they left.
It is just as easy to say, "Let's spend the summer in
Florida," as to say Asheville, California, Washington, or
Maine, and much more comfortable. And the summer
will soon be here when everyone will remain at home, or
at least in the state, as the most restful and agreeable
place to be during the hot months. Just because every-
one associates the idea of moving south with warmer
weather does not alter actual circumstances. Take the
average mean temperatures of the summer months in
Fort Pierce, and compare them with many of the sum-
mer resorts in northern states, and you will find a dif-
ference of from ten to twenty degrees in favor of this
city, and here on the Indian River we have a constant
ocean and river breeze.
As for a vacation, we would rather stay right here and
enjoy fishing, swimming, golf, tennis, boating, and other
recreation, in comfort, than move to warmer climes.
Advertising, experience, letters, and other means, will
gradually educate the public of the United States to come
to Florida as the nation's summer resort.
FLORIDA SHOWS LARGE GAIN IN
(Cairo (Ga.) Messenger, July 25, 1930)
Showing an increase of 51.6 per cent in the last
decade, Florida's population is 1,468,635, according to a
tabulation of enumerators' reports completed Saturday
from each of the sixty-seven counties.
The state gained 500,165 over the 1920 figure of
968,470, and fell only 31,365 short of the million and a
During the last ten years, three cities advanced into
the class of 100,000 or more population. They are Jack-
sonville with 129,682, Miami with 110,025, and Tampa
Of the sixty-seven counties, forty-four increased their
population substantially, while ten showed slight de-
creases. The other thirteen were created since the 1920
Counties along the east coast, where many of the re-
sorts are located, enjoyed the largest increases, although
several counties in the citrus belt of central Florida, and
Hillsborough and Pinellas counties, the most populous
centers on the west coast, also showed substantial gains.
Five of the counties showed increases of more than
100 per cent. Broward led with 284.4 per cent, but was
pushed closely by Dade, of which Miami is the seat, with
233.5 per cent. Palm Beach county, another east coast
resort center, increased 177 per cent, while Orange
county in the central section and Pinellas, picturesque
west coast resort, increased 149 and 118 per cent, re-
In addition to Jacksonville, Miami and Tampa, the ten
other largest cities of the state in order, are St. Peters-
burg, 39,501;'-Pensacola, 31,455; Orlando, 27,263; West
Palm Beach, 21,328; Lakeland, 18,549; Daytona Beach,
16,761; Key West, 13,279; St. Augustine, 11,930; Talla-
hassee, 10,744, and Sanford, 10,003. None of the other
cities in the state has reached the 10,000 class.
Small Decrease Noted
The ten counties which showed a decrease in popula-
tion since 1920, are Calhoun, DeSoto, Hamilton, Jeffer-
son, Liberty, Madison, Monroe, Nassau, St. Lucie and
Suwannee. Several new counties were formed out of
DeSoto county, however, during the last ten years, which
accounts for the decrease shown there.
Thirteen counties were created since the 1920 enume-
ration. They are Charlotte, Collier, Dixie, Gilchrist,
Glades, Gulf, Hardee, Hendry, Highlands, Indian River,
Martin, Sarasota and Union.
COTTON BEING GINNED AT SNEADS BY
(River Junction Tribune, August 15, 1930)
Farm crops in that part of Jackson county around
Sneads and other places in the eastern section, are look-
ing well and indications are that there will be a better
than the average cotton crop. Peanuts, corn and other
field crops are also promising better results than last
year, according to information reaching here.
The cotton crop is now beginning to open and the gin
operated by Liddon will be in full operation beginning
this week. Already there have been a few bales of cot-
ton ginned at Sneads, but the crop is just now beginning
to come in.
FLORIDA REVIEW 9
POULTRYMEN TO BE AIDED IN DISEASE
Livestock Board to Quarantine Against Tuber-
(Tampa Times, August 7, 1930)
Jacksonville, Aug. 7.-(A. P.)-Steps were taken
today by the State Livestock Sanitary Board to prevent
the introduction and spread of avian tuberculosis (poul-
try disease) in Florida by establishing a limited quaran-
The regulation, adopted at a meeting of the board
here, provides that "all chickens four months of age and
over, before entering the State of Florida for purposes
other than immediate slaughter shall pass the standard
intradermal tuberculin test within 30 days of movement
into the state." The regulation will become effective
Dr. J. V. Knapp, state veterinarian and secretary to
the board, said the regulation is similar to one main-
tained in many of the southern states. Under its re-
quirements each chicken must be identified by a sealed
and numbered leg band and on interstate movements
must be accompanied by a certificate of health, which
must show the number of the band and the date of test-
ing, Dr. Knapp explained. The regulation will not apply
in flocks designated by proper federal and state authori-
ties as tuberculosis free accredited flocks, he added.
WHY POULTRY IS ADAPTED TO FLORIDA
(Lynn Haven Press, August 9, 1930)
And it is easy to see why this is true. The hen was
originally a native of the tropics, a part of the world
where days are long and nights are short. She was
created for conditions like that. She has never adapted
herself to short days and long nights. She has never
found it possible to lay as many eggs when days are
short as she does when days are long.
The foregoing from the National Farmer is confirma-
tion of what we know to be a fact. Florida with a trop-
ical climate is the natural place for the poultry industry.
(Greenwich (Conn.) Graphic, July 25, 1930)
Who knows but the new game of miniature, Tom
Thumb or Florida golf that is sweeping the country like
an epidemic, may have been raised up at this strategic
time to hold the world steady until economic conditions
are restored to a state of equilibrium? Like a veritable
mushroom these courses, resembling ground-maps of park
systems, greet one all along any journey, and always in-
terest is attracted by the novel plan of golf procedure
which is enticing young and old to halt by the wayside
to try a hand at the game, and where the beginner is
not embarrassed by the skill of the professional, but the
lure of play holds one to try again.
Some way, the abandon of the game is getting in its
good work and hearts are tuning up to a renewed interest
in life, troubles slip away and the mere thrill of activity
with concentration on the ball has a way of making the
world look most attractive and effort well worth while.
It is good to pack up all troubles in an old kit-bag and
enter with zest into some form of recreation, and as all
work and no play made Jack a dull boy in years gone by,
so the same rule holds true in this age, and as folks are
but children just grown older, play seasons are as neces-
sary today as they ever were-even more so, consider-
ing the increased rush and bustle of living, and the re-
laxation sends one back with a brighter outlook on the
world in general.
Whoever instigated the wayside golf courses, where
all who run may stop and play, undoubtedly had a finan-
cial bonanza envisioned, but he also has presented a boom
to humanity that had well-nigh forgotten how to enter
into life's playground to help along the great game of
getting out of self, and for a brief space revel in the joy
of being alive. Here boys and girls, young and old men
and women are finding a new delight. It is good to
shut up shop occasionally, and rest in play-action, and
until the thing is overdone the scheme is worth enjoying.
BROWARD FARMERS WILL PLANT
(Hastings Herald, August 8, 1930)
Fort Lauderdale-What is said to be one of the largest
agricultural projects to be undertaken on the south-
eastern coast of Florida in recent years, is the one being
undertaken by R. A. Carlton, agricultural agent for the
Seaboard Air Line Railway Co., and C. H. Pfuntner, of
the Southland Grove Co., with several other residents of
Some 2,000 acres of pineapple lands are being secured
northeast of this city for the planting of pineapples.
They expect to start clearing immediately. Approxi-
mately 5,000,000 plants have been ordered for the plant-
The area between Miami and Palm Beach, with its
well drained pine sand lands, is said to be favorable for
pineapple culture, plants producing 15 crops from one
GOODS TO CUBA
(Citrus County Chronicle, August 14, 1930)
It will be interesting news to citizens of Citrus county
to know that canned meats, canned right here in Citrus,
have been shipped to agricultural and educational leaders
in Cuba, to use in studying the best ways and means
of canning meats in Cuba. Mrs. Elizabeth Moore, local
county agent, has been doing some good work in the
county in teaching conservation of food stuffs, and the
county's reputation for canned goods is becoming known
far and wide.
POULTRY SALES A CONTINUED SUCCESS
(Marianna Times-Courier, August 14, 1930)
A poultry sale was advertised for Greenwood, Malone
and Sneads, to be conducted July 21st. Offerings were
far more than expected and all poultry could not be
handled. Another sale was called for the following week
and again all poultry could not be handled. The sale
conducted on Monday of last week at Malone and Sneads
finally cleaned up the poultry brought to the sale three
weeks ago. County Agent Sam Rountree wishes to an-
nounce that as soon as schedules and prices can be ar-
ranged, sales will be conducted in other parts of the
FLAME VINE ON THE ESTATE OF MRS. E. H. BREWER, OF WINTER PARK, FLA., AND CORTLAND, N. Y.
FLORID.A REVIEW 11
32,522 MILES OF HIGHWAYS IMPROVED
BY U. S. IN 1929
Many Millions Expended for New Road Projects
(Orlando Sentinel, July 27, 1930)
In 1929 the highway departments of the 48 states
improved a total of 32,522 miles of state highways, ac-
cording to reports received from the departments by the
Bureau of Public Roads, U. S. Department of Agricul-
ture. In the year they expended a total of $910,485,291
for highways. They also reported a total of 314,136
miles of highways in the state systems at the end of
The total mileage improved is an increase of 3,270
miles over the 1928 figure, and includes 7,451 miles of
graded and drained earth roads and 25,071 miles of new
surfacing. New surfaces were placed on three types of
roads-on unsurfaced roads, on roads already improved
with a lower type of pavement, and on roads of the same
type of surfacing, which is classed as reconstruction work.
Of the 25,701 miles of new surfacing, 14,014 miles were
laid on unsurfaced earth roads, 4,337 miles on a lower
type of surfacing, and 6,720 miles on the same type of
The types and mileages of new surfacings are as fol-
lows: Sand-clay and topsoil, 2,399 miles; gravel, 12,183
miles; waterbound macadam (treated and untreated),
1,642 miles; bituminous macadam, 1,200 miles; sheet
asphalt, 116 miles; bituminous concrete, 440 miles; Port-
land cement concrete, 6,991 miles, and brick and other
block pavements, 100 miles.
The total of 314,136 miles in the state systems repre-
sents an increase of 7,694 miles over the 1928 figure, and
includes 208,324 miles of surfaced highways, 28,553 miles
of graded and drained roads, and 77,259 miles of unim-
proved and partly graded highways.
The surfaced mileage consists of 133,211 miles of low-
type and 75,113 miles of high-type surfacing. The low-
type surfaces include 15,442 miles of sand-clay and top-
soil; 97,838 miles of gravel, and 19,931 miles of water-
bound macadam. High-type surfaces include 14,043
miles of bituminous macadam; 1,498 miles of sheet
asphalt; 5,722 miles of bituminous concrete; 50,584 miles
of Portland cement concrete, and 3,266 miles of vitrified
brick and other block pavements.
For construction and right of ways the states spent
$557,400,625; for maintenance, $173,060,321; for equip-
ment and machinery, $18,056,509; for interest on out-
standing bonds and notes, $45,834,531, and for miscel-
laneous items, $5,524,358. The states also paid out $42,-
384,378 in retirement of the principal of outstanding
bonds and notes and transferred $45,791,374 to county
and town funds for local roads. Other obligations as-
sumed by the state highway departments amounted to
The total sum available to the 48 states for 1929 for
state highway and bridge work under supervision of state
highway departments (including bond payments and
transfers to counties) amounted to $1,194,775,026. This
was made up of an unexpended balance of the previous
year's funds of $232,967,988, and an income of $961,-
807,038. Of this sum, motor vehicle fees of $278,092,734
and gasoline tax receipts of $287,258,416 allotted to
state highways represented more than 58 per cent. Sales
of state bonds and notes issued for state highways
amounted to $161,229,297, or more than 16% per cent
of the income. Federal-aid fund allotments of $77,-
572,691 represented 8 per cent. Highway taxes levied in
several states amounted to $11,431,349, and appropria-
tions for highway funds by several states totaled $60,-
305,631. Miscellaneous income was reported as $11,-
726,508, and funds transferred from local authorities as
$74,190,412. The states reported an unexpended balance
of $284,189,735, at the end of 1929.
FLORIDA HAS LEAD IN PHOSPHATE SOLD
Produced 82 Per Cent of United States Output
Washington.-Florida held first place, as usual, in
phosphate rock production in 1929 and was the source
of 82 per cent of all the phosphate rock sold or used by
producers in the United States in 1929, the same as in
1928, according to the department of commerce. Land
pebble rock constituted 98 per cent of the Florida out-
put in 1929, and showed an increase of eight per cent
in quantity and seven per cent in value, as compared
with 1928; the average value f. o. b. mines was $3.21 a
long ton in 1929 as compared with $3.28 a ton in 1928.
The hard rock production in 1929 decreased in both
quantity and value as compared with 1928; the average
value f. o. b. mines in 1929 was $3.67 as compared with
$4.00 in 1928.
The production of phosphate rock in Tennessee in 1929,
consisting of brown and blue rock, showed an increase
of about 10 per cent in quantity and about 8 per cent
in value as compared with 1928. The production of
brown rock constituted more than 90 per cent of the
total. The average value a long ton was $4.89 as com-
pared with $4.95 in 1928. The quantity of phosphate
rock sold or used in the western states in 1929 decreased
5.5 per cent as compared with 1928.
Although the total sales of phosphate rock by producers
in 1929 increased 7 per cent in quantity and 6 per cent
in value as compared with 1928, there was continual de-
crease in production of Florida hard rock and continued
decline in the domestic market for phosphate rock in
the western states. The average selling value of all
varieties was $3.50 f. o. b. mines, as compared with $3.55
Imports in 1929, about 2 per cent less than in 1928,
amounted to 44,899 long tons, valued at $469,171. Ex-
ports were the largest of any year except 1903, being
1,142,746 long tons, valued at $5,386,919, according to
the official records.
Producers in Florida only reported shipments during
1929 from the mines for export. These export shipments
amounted to 1,110,325 long tons, consisting of 94 per
cent land pebble and 6 per cent hard rock, which together
constituted 36 per cent of the total sales in Florida in
1929, and showed an increase of 25 per cent as compared
Total sales to domestic consumers, which comprised
64 per cent of the Florida sales and all the sales of the
other producing states-Idaho, Montana, Tennessee and
Wyoming-indicated a small increase in the quantity of
phospahte rock consumed in the United States in 1929
as compared with 1928.
"Wealth and fertility unlimited are in Florida soil."-
FUTURE FARMERS IN STATE CONVENTION AT UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA REVIEW 13
FUTURE FARMERS GATHER IN STATE
CONVENTION AT UNIVERSITY
(By J. F. Williams, Jr., Florida State Board for Voca-
tional Education, in Farm and Grove Section,
Monticello News, August 8, 1930)
The picture on opposite page shows delegates from the
thirty-seven active chapters of the Future Farmer or-
ganization in Florida assembled in Gainesville for their
Second Annual State Convention.
As a part of the regular program of the State Con-
vention, at four o'clock on Monday afternoon, June 9th,
the Future Farmers held their Statewide Public Speaking
Contest. This contest was held in the University of
Florida auditorium and broadcast over radio station
The participants in this public speaking contest were
the four boys who had won in their respective congres-
sional districts and thus qualified themselves to speak
in the state contest. Mallory Roberts of Crescent City
was state winner. He will represent Florida in the
Southern Regional Future Farmer Public Speaking Con-
test which will be held in Athens, Georgia, early in Octo-
ber. The winner in this contest will represent the south
in the National Future Farmers of America Public Speak-
ing Contest which will be held in Kansas City in Novem-
ber, at the time of the National Congress Future Farmers
of America. This national contest is being sponsored by
Senator Arthur Capper of Kansas and he is offering
$1,000.00 in prizes to the winning boys.
After the public speaking contest the boys in attend-
ance at the state convention adjourned to Glenn Springs,
where they enjoyed a swimming party and fish fry.
The final entertainment feature for the delegates at-
tending the state convention of the Future Farmer or-
ganization was a free picture show sponsored by the
Florida Forest Service. Films were shown which brought
home a lesson to these farm boys on the need for and
value of forest protection. Then a three reel picture
entitled, "A Boy with a Vision," was shown, which gave
us a very clear conception of the activities of the Future
Farmers who attended the National Congress last year in
Kansas City. Incidentally, Florida had delegates in at-
tendance upon this congress and Grey Miley of Plant
City was elected vice-president of the National Organiza-
tion Future Farmers of America.
FARM PUPILS FROM THREE SCHOOLS
ENJOY JOINT GATHERING
(Homestead Enterprise, August 8, 1930)
Redland Chapter of the Future Farmers of Florida,
assisted by the Four-H Club Girls, was the host to Lemon
City and Homestead Chapters in a joint meeting at the
Redland Farm Life School on Wednesday, August 6.
The "green-hand" team of Lemon City Chapter
initiated 16 members of Redland and Homestead Chap-
ters in that degree, after which John L. Butts, adviser
for Lemon City Chapter and County Supervisor of Agri-
cultural Education, installed the officers for the two new
After the ceremonies, the new officers and various
members with visitors made short speeches, in which they
expressed appreciation for the work of the organization
and prophecies of a bright future for the business of
farming in the hands of these young "farmers."
The Four-H Girls' Club was led in several songs by its
president, concluding with the national Four-H pledge.
Mr. Wakefield, adviser for Homestead and Redland
Chapters, thanked the Lemon City boys and the club girls
for helping to make the meeting a success.
Those receiving the "green-hand" degree were William
Booth, Clifford Campbell, H. M. Cook, William McCon-
nell, Colley Redd, Ernest Neill, Preston Lee, Leonard
Bjorkman, Roy Woodbury, Ronald Kirfoot, Robert
Turner, Oliver Woodbury, Ray Benson, Charles Hack,
Eugene Campbell, and Harry Wright. At the meeting
were several other boys who expect to join the Future
Farmers as soon as they can qualify. It is necessary to
be enrolled in vocational agriculture before eligible to
The newly installed officers for Redland Chapter are:
President, Roy Woodbury; vice-president, Ernest Neill;
secretary, Daniel Mullin; treasurer, Lennard Bjorkman;
reporter, Ray Benson; adviser, George N. Wakefield.
Officers for Homestead Chapter are:
President, Early Dendy; vice-president, William Booth;
secretary, H. M. Cook; treasurer, William Edwards; re-
porter, William McConnell; adviser, Mr. Wakefield.
Before going into joint session the three chapters were
served a delicious supper of sandwiches, salad and punch
by the Four-H Girls' Club, assisted by Mrs. C. N. Hen-
derson of Princeton.
EXPERIMENT STATION HELPS INTRODUCE
NEW CROP TO SOUTH
(Ft. Meade Leader, August 7, 1930)
Crotalaria is now added to the list of plants which the
Florida Experiment Station and United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture have introduced into the south-
eastern part of the United States.
Letters received by the experiment station as a result
of two recent articles on this new soil building crop-one
in a national and the other in a southern farm publica-
tion-indicate a tremendous interest in Crotalaria from
Texas to West Virginia. The Florida station has sup-
plied seed for testing to experiment stations and farmers
in most of the other southern states. Indications are
that the crop will grow successfully in most of them, and
that it will be widely planted another year.
Other crops which the Florida station has helped to in-
troduce into the south include velvet beans and tung oil.
APALACHICOLA'S HONEY CROP GOES TO
(Apalachicola Times, August 9, 1930)
The Apalachicola River Beekeepers' Association has
just shipped a solid carload of 3,000 gallons of fancy
tupelo honey to New York, and ten carloads will follow
immediately. This honey has one remarkable feature
that no other honey has, and that is that it never turns
to sugar, nor will it become rancid, and therefore com-
mands a better price than other honeys.
This honey was produced by the beekeepers of Gulf
and Franklin counties and is shipped through an organ-
ization that has one of the very few government bonded
The Apalachicola river valley is said to offer the finest
location in the world for making this particular brand
of honey.-The Breeze, DeFuniak Springs.
14 FLORIDA REVIEW
PRELIMINARY CENSUS REPORT
Director of the Census Makes Important Announcement Showing Increase of Millions in Country's
Population-Florida Next to Top of the List in Highest Increase
The Director of the Census today (August 8) an-
nounced that according to a preliminary count made by
local supervisors and summarized in the Census Bureau,
the population of Continental United States (comprising
the 48 states and the District of Columbia) as of April
1, 1930, the date of the fifteenth census, was 122,698,190.
These figures are subject to revision as the final count is
completed, but it is not expected that any very consider-
able changes will be made. The total, it may be noted,
agrees rather closely with an estimate for April 1, 1930,
amounting to 122,957,000, which was made by the Census
Bureau more than a year ago, on the basis of reported
births, deaths, and net immigration.
Figures are also announced for the various outlying
territories and possessions of the United States (except
the Philippine Islands, which were not included in the
fifteenth census) and for persons in military and naval
service, etc., abroad. The total population including
these possessions amounted to 124,848,664, as compared
with 107,508,855 in 1920. The population of the various
tnrri+ies andrl nnossessins in 1930 and 1920 is shown in
other states, Michigan, Texas and Illinois, each account
for more than 1,000,000 of the increase. Pennsylvania
gained more than 900,000, and Ohio and New Jersey each
gained more than 870,000.
* On a percentage basis California shows the highest
increase, 65.5 per cent, and Florida the next highest,
51.4 per cent, followed by Michigan with 32.0 per cent,
Arizona with 30.4 per cent, New Jersey with 27.6 per
cent, Texas with 24.8 per cent, and North Carolina with
23.9 per cent. Montana with 12,557, or 2.3 per cent
fewer inhabitants in 1930 than in 1920, is the only state
which shows a decrease, though Georgia shows an in-
crease of only two-tenths of 1 per cent, and 3 other
states, Vermont, Iowa, and South Carolina, increased less
than 3 per cent.
Population of Continental United States, 1930-Pre-
United States .....
1930 1920 Number %
... 122,698,190 105,710,020 16,987,570 16.1
the following table:
Total ....1... ..
. 124,848,664 107
Continental U. S. ..... 122,698,190 105
Alaska ............. .. 58,758
Hawaii ....... .. ....... 368,336
Porto Rico ........ ... 1,543,913 1
Guam ....... ........ ..... 18,521
American Samoa ....... 10,055
Panama Canal Zone.. 39,467
Virgin Islands .......... 22,012
Military and naval ser-
vice, etc., abroad .. 89,412
*A minus sign (-) denotes decrease.
As compared with the population
States in 1920, which was 105,71
represents an increase of 16,987,1
The absolute increase is larger thi
previous decade, and the percentage
than that shown for the decade
only 14.9 per cent. Allowance
ever, for the fact that the period
1910 and 1920 was less than a fu
tween the 1920 and 1930 census
decade. An increase of 16.1 per
(the time between January 1, 192
is equivalent to 15.7 per cent for
the 1920 increase for 116 moni
April 15, 1910, and January 1, 1
15.4 per cent for 120 months. M
therefore, the rate of increase for
pleted is only slightly higher than
The accompanying table gives th
in 1930 and 1920, with the incre
centage) for the intervening deca
More than one-quarter of the
United States was concentrated in
in the far west, with an increase
York, in the east, with an increase
New England :
Increase 1920-1930* New Hampshire. .
1920 Number % Vermont ..........
,508,855 17,339,809 16.1 Massachusetts ....
,710,620 16,987,570 16.1 Connecticut .......
55,036 3,722 6.8 e Atlantic:
255,912 112,424 43.9 New York ...............
,299,809 244,104 18.8 jersey
New Jersey ..........
13,275 5,246 39.5 Penn
8,056 1,999 24.8 E h Central:
East North Central:
22,858 16,609 72.7
O h io ...... ... .............
26,051 -4,039 -15.5 Indiana .................
Illin ois ................ .
117,238 -27,826 -23.7 ni
117,238 -27,826 -23.7 Michigan .................
W isconsin ........
of Continental United west North Central:
0,620, the 1930 figure Minnesota
M issouri ..................
an that shown for any North Dakota .........
:e of increase is higher South Dakota .....
1910-1920, which was Nebraska
should be made, how- Kansas ......
between the census of Delaware ........
11 decade, and that be- Maryland ..........
was more than a full Dist. of Columbia.
cent for 123 months Virginia ..
:0, and April 1, 1930) North Carolina ...
exactly 10 years; and South Carolina .
ths (the time between Georgia
.920) is equivalent to Florida ...
East South Central:
making this adjustment, Kentucky .. .. .
the decade just com- Tennessee ....
that for the preceding Alabama
M ississippi ..........
vWest South Central:
e population, by states, Arkansas ...... ...
ase (number and per- Louisiana ..........
de. Oklahoma ...
total increase in the Texas .
two states; California, Montana...........
of 2,245,148, and New Idaho ......... ...
e of 2,234,276. Three Wyoming ....
FLORIDA REVIEW 15
Colorado ................. 1,035,043 939,629 95,414 10.2
New Mexico ............ 427,216 360,350 66,866 18.6
Arizona ................. 435,833 334,162 101,671 30.4
Utah ................... 502,582 449,396 53,186 11.8
Nevada ... ........... 90,981 77,407 13,574 17.5
Washington ....... 1,561,967 1,356,621 205,346 15.1
Oregon .................... 952,691 783,389 169,302 21.6
California ............... 5,672,009 3,426,861 2,245,148 65.5
*Figures revised since state announcement was issued.
tFinal figures based on official bulletin recently published.
Summary of Preliminary Population Figures for the State
The following table gives the population of Florida by
counties, and the population of the principal cities. The
figures are based on announcements made by the local
supervisors and are subject to revision in the final official
count. Except for the state total, these figures have for
the most part already been released by the Census
COUNTY OR CITY 1930
State total..... ...... 1,465,969
A lachua ..................
B aker ........... ....
B ay ..... ... ..
B radford ......... .........
B revard .. .................
Broward ..... ............
Calhoun .......... ........
Charlotte ....... ..........
C itru s .......................
C lay ...... ............ .....
C ollier ........ .. ........
D ade ....... ... ..
D eSoto ...........
D ixie ....... ...
D u al ........ ...... ....
Flagler ........ .........
F franklin ..................
G adsden ......................
G ilchrist ......... ... .....
G lades ....... ..............
G ulf ......... ........ ... ..
H ardee .......................
H endry .....................
Holmes .......... ....
Indian River ............
Jackson ... ...... ......
Jefferson ........ .........
L ake ......... .......... ..
L ee ....... . ......
L evy ....... ......
L iberty ........ .........
M adison ................
M anatee .... .........
M arion ............
Martin ......... ....
N assau ........................
Okeecobee ............. ..
Orange ...... .......
Palm Beach ........
Pasco ..... .........
Pinellas .. ........
Polk .......... .. .......
St. Johns ..........
St. Lucie .. ...............
1920 Number %
968,470 497,499 51.4
Santa Rosa ....... .......
Sem inole .... .......
Sum ter ........ .. ...
Suw annee .................
T aylor ................
V olu sia .......................
W akulla ........ ..
W alton ... ..... .........
G ainesville .................
M iam i ......... ...........
St. Augustine ..........
St. Petersburg ..
Sanford .......... .....
Tallahassee ............ ...
Tam pa ........... ...
West Palm Beach ......
*A minus sign (-)
DEL MONTE COMES TO FLORIDA
Among the outstanding features of interest in citrus
circles during the past month was the announcement that
the Del Monte people, world famous canners of fruits
and vegetables, have definitely decided to enter the
Florida field for the extensive canning of grapefruit.
Tampa is the site selected for the location of the Florida
plant of the Del Monte concern.
The Florida Packing Corporation, canners and dis-
tributors of Del Monte products, with headquarters in
San Francisco, have closed a deal for a factory site on
East Broadway at Thirtieth street, Tampa. The plant,
it is said, will employ approximately 500 people at the
height of the canning season.
Construction of the building, to cost around $150,000,
is expected to start in a few weeks. It will be rushed so
it can be in full operation during the winter. There is a
frontage of more than 500 feet on East Broadway and
the property has a frontage on the Tampa Northern
Details of the plans of the purchasers could not be
learned. It has been known for some time, however, that
the Del Monte people were anxious to locate at a good
manufacturing and shipping point within the citrus belt.
Business people here familiar with the California com-
pany's negotiations said the deal was far more important
than the mere location of a cannery because it meant
that canned Florida grapefruit had "arrived." The
superior quality of the Florida product and the wide
demand for it over the country, and especially in Cali-
fornia, convinced the Del Monte packers, they said, that
it would be in tremendous demand wherever offered.
(Citrus County Chronicle, August 14, 1930)
Mrs. Elizabeth Moore, county home demonstration
agent and a corps of co-workers, has been busy for the
last several days canning ducks purchased from the
Sunnyland Duck Farms. More than sixty of these fine
birds were canned under Mrs. Moore's direction, and
many others here are buying the ducks for canning pur-
poses. The duck farm is overstocked and is making at-
tractive prices to those who will buy the birds right now.
16 FLORIDA REVIEW
REQUEST FOR COPIES OF REVIEW
THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY
New York, August 18, 1930.
Mr. Nathan Mayo, Commissioner,
Department of Agriculture,
Dear Sir.-Some time ago we wrote to you in regard
to securing for our file the issues noted below of the
"Florida Review," published by the Florida Immigration
Bureau, and you replied saying that it would not be
possible for you to send them to us, as they were no
As it is our intention to preserve'the file permanently,
we feel that no effort should be spared to complete it. Do
you think that an appeal through the columns of the
"Florida Review" to your readers might be successful in
bringing us these numbers? Many people who subscribe
for magazines and papers save their copies until for
lack of space or for other reasons, they are glad to dis-
pose of them, particularly if they can find a depository
where they will be useful and appreciated. Many old
files come to the Library as gifts, both solicited and un-
solicited, and it is seldom that publishers make an appeal
for us to their readers without satisfactory results. Any-
thing further you may do towards supplying us with the
missing issues of the "Florida Review" will be highly
Very truly yours,
E. H. ANDERSON, Director.
The Library needs the following:
Vol. 1, Nos. 1, 3 to 8 and later than No. 9 (1926);
Vol. 2, Nos. 1 to 6, 8 (1927);
Vol. 3, No. 5 to end of volume (1928-29);
Vol. 4, Nos. 5, 9 (1929);
Vol. 4, No. 17 (February 1930).
FINE GRAPES GROWN IN BAY COUNTY
Dr. H. Q. Brewer, one of the leading pharmacists of
Panama City, is placing on the market a lot of choice
purple grapes grown on his homestead across the bay on
the West Peninsula. The vines are about three years old,
and from two hundred and forty planted, there are about
one hundred and seventy-five bearing. From this num-
ber he is confident they will yield 1,500 pounds of grapes.
During the year they were fertilized, using only about
$7.50 worth of fertilizer.
Dr. Brewer states that the land on his homestead,
which is about half a mile from the Gulf of Mexico, is
most productive, and that he has grown also this year, a
quantity of choice vegetables, including tomatoes, which
have to have shade at this particular place, and do well
either in shade of trees, or under shelter.
TOURISTS ARE COMING
(Highland News, August 15, 1930)
The coming season bids fair to bring more tourists to
Florida from the north than ever before. There are a
number of reasons. One is the fact that all eyes have
been on Florida during the past year, and the nation is
looking on us in a more favorable light than at any
time since the boom. There is less unfavorable propa-
ganda than at any time during recent years, and more
favorable mention throughout the nation.
Then, the terrible drouth that has gripped the north
for so long has depleted the supply of cash for many
people, and rather than buy coal and risk their health in
the north, they will come to Florida, where the climate
is equable and the necessity for coal as fuel is unknown.
They realize that they can live cheaper and better here
than in the north, and when the winter is over we pre-
dict that more than ever before will remain for the sum-
mer, for they will not desire to experience another sum-
mer similar to that through which they have just gone.
More farming will be done than usual in Florida this
year, and this west coast section has some very desirable
uncultivated land, where a variety of excellent crops can
be grown. The real development of this, the greatest
state in the Union, will begin this winter, we believe.
MARIANNA PLANNING FOR BIG FESTIVAL
(Pensacola Journal, August 14, 1930)
Marianna, Aug. 13.-Leaders of the Satsuma Festival
Association met Monday night at the Hotel Chipola to
make final plans for the festival this year. The festival
will be held in Marianna November 13, 14 and 15, and
this year livestock exhibits will be held in connection
with the festival.
At this meeting it was decided that Marianna would
not compete in the queen contest, but leave this affair
open to outsiders.
Inasmuch as the colored industrial school is located
at Marianna, it was agreed to have a building devoted
to exhibits of work of the Jackson county negroes.
Chas. E. Jones, editor of the Marianna Floridan, was
named in charge of the various departments of the fes-
tival. These committees will be named at an early date.
FLORIDA'S COTTON CROP SHOWS
(Weekly Sun, August 7, 1930)
Jacksonville, Aug. 4.-(A. P.)-While Florida pro-
duces only a small part of the annual American cotton
crop, the acreage under cultivation in this state on July
1 was 10.4 per cent larger than that for last year.
The monthly review of the Sixth Federal Reserve Bank
district, issued from Atlanta, shows that there were
106,000 acres of cotton under cultivation in Florida com-
pared with 96,000 acres last year at the same time. No
report on probable production will be available before
late this month, it was said.
REVELL GROWS GIANT CUCURBITA AT
(Wakulla County News, August 15, 1930)
A giant squash, weighing 16 pounds, was grown in the
garden of Raymond P. Revell at Sopchoppy this year.
Mr. Revell gave the prize cucurbita to a neighbor for
seed. It was of the scalloped, bushy variety, and created
a sensation every time its owner displayed it.
Just another bit of evidence, Mr. Revell says, of the
wonderful productivity and adaptability of the soil
around Sopchoppy to the growing of truck and vegetables.