The deceptiveness of wages

Group Title: Florida review (Tallahassee, FL)
Title: Florida review
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00049005/00099
 Material Information
Title: Florida review
Physical Description: 5 v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Bureau of Immigration
Publisher: Bureau of Immigration, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1926-1930
Frequency: semimonthly
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Industries -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (June 7, 1926)-v. 5, no. 9 (Oct. 20, 1930).
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00049005
Volume ID: VID00099
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001744570
oclc - 01279992
notis - AJF7332
lccn - sn 00229569

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    The deceptiveness of wages
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Full Text


JULY 7, 1930

No. 2


By T. J. BROOKS, Assistant Conimissioner df Agriculture

AGES mean little except on the basis of
their purchasing power. Crops mean
little to the farmer except in terms of
the current approximate price index.
The cost of living is relative, depending upon
the standard of living set up as a basis for
High wages are very attractive. Seldom do
people give proper attention to the subject of
the cost of living which must come from the
wages secured. During the World War, when
wages soared to unheard-of heights, carpenters
left home and traveled hundreds of miles, pay-
ing railroad fare, hotel bills, or rents, etc., and
at the end of a few weeks journeyed back home,
landing with little more net return than they
could have earned in their home town.
The fact that no farmer can pay factory
wages to field hands causes thousands of young
men to go to the cities and work by the day,
week or month/for wages. It often happens
that the net saving is no greater under high
wages in cities than under low wages in the
country. The cost of living in town and city
differs so widely, measured in money require-
ments, that high wages may not cover the
difference. Among the items of expense which
are higher in cities than in the country may be
mentioned food, clothes, rent, taxes, social ac-
tivities, diversions, fraternities, civic clubs. The
same standard of living will cost much less in
the country than in the cities.
The income from crops means but little un-
less calculated on the basis of the current ap-
proximate price index. The purchasing power
of a day's labor on the farm as compared to
the purchasing power of a day's labor in other
vocations is the only method of measuring the
value of products of the farm. The same prin-
ciple adheres to everything that men do for a
livelihood. The real value of a wage is its pur-
chasing power measured in terms of the necessi-
ties of the civilization of the day.

Capital wants returns commensurate with the
highest standard of living of the day, but is
usually unwilling to allow labor the same
standard-it has ever been thus.
Labor wants returns commensurate with the
highest standard of living of the day, regardless
of how this affects capital.
Swap places with the personnel of capital
and labor and the situation would not be
changed. Each one would manifest the spirit
now manifested by the other. The capitalist
would become labor-minded and the laborer
would become capital-minded.
Wage-earners gradually change their view-
point as they become the owners of stock in the
industries. Ownership of shares in corpora-
tions by laborers is more extensive than at any
other period in the history of the world. This
situation broadens the viewpoint of the em-
ployees and makes for industrial peace.
It is also deceptive to look upon the profits of
capital as so much filched from labor. A great
part of profits go to expand the industrial plants
and extend the business. The employees con-
sume as much per capital as the employers. The
main difference is in ownership. Of course the
capitalist enjoys more of the comforts, con-
veniences and leisure of life than the non-
capitalist class, but the rich are not by any
manner of means all idle. Many of them work
as diligently as any employee.
The wage-earner claims the same right to
aspire to luxuries as does the feudal capitalist.
The same is true of all non-professional occu-
The European merchant who is inured to
poverty, frugality and self-denial is used to liv-
ing in the back end of his store. He comes to
America and does the same thing. The conse-
quence is that with a small patronage he man-
ages to live because he has so little expense.
In a few years he expands his business. He has
no rainbows to chase which call for an expendi-

Vol. 5

i e.I, t of Agrioultwe


ture. He belongs to nothing, carries no extra-
neous expense, his dress is simple, his food is
substantial but plain. To this man the high
wages and high profits expected and asked in
trade in this country are not a deception. He
comes from a country with a low standard of
living into a country with a high standard of
living, but he does not change. There is no pro-
tective tariff against frugality, and he wins.
The farmer has it in his power to live at less
expense in actual cash than any one, but his
income will not allow him to indulge in lavish
expenditure of money. He deserves all the
good things that any one else does. He can
get more from work and less from money than
any other class.
No one can choose for another what it takes
to make a desirable situation. The individual
likes and dislikes are to be determined by each
person for himself. Wages, income, profits,
these are not all there is in way of remunera-
tion for labor. There are nobler things which
give more thrill to life and which are prized
higher. It is for each to choose his wage by
deciding what fills his individual requirements
and seek them with diligence. In no other way
can one hope to get the most possible out of life.


(DeLand Sun, June 10, 1930)
Ten million narcissus bulbs of marketable quality were
produced in seven Florida counties this season, it was
revealed by a survey recently completed. A major per-
centage of this crop was produced in Volusia county,
center of this large and rapidly expanding industry.
Persons with a waning faith in Florida's possibilities
for soil production would do well to consider the bulb
industry, which is bringing millions of dollars of wealth
to this state annually. Narcissus is but one of the
numerous varieties of flowering bulbs that are produced
on a commercial scale in Florida. This, however, is the
largest crop of bulbous growth, and the crop in Volusia,
Duval, Clay, St. Johns, Flagler and Alachua county
should bring nearly a million dollars this year. This is
only the marketable crop. In addition the growers pro-
duced millions of bulbs that will be used for planting
another season.
Florida occupies an enviable place in the culture of
flowering bulbs. An impending embargo against im-
portation of bulbs from foreign countries gave promise
of protection to growers in the United States. Condi-
tions in Florida were promising. Experiments have been
successful and it has been demonstrated that high quality
bulbs can be produced here. They can be matured at a
season when they bring attractive prices. Bulbs dug at
this time can be matured and placed in the market for
winter forcing in the greenhouses of the north, where
there is a good demand and highest prices are offered.
Although the bulb industry in Florida is in its infancy,
it already means millions of dollars in wealth and it
promises to expand in the years to come.


(Florida Times-Union, June 8, 1930)
With steady progress being made by growers of bright
leaf tobacco in South Georgia and Florida, there is shown
increasing interest in everything that pertains to the in-
dustry. Success made last year with the crop has led to
greater plans for the present season, and it is now practi-
cally certain that the production will be considerably
greater and the quality kept to a high standard. In every
part of Georgia and Florida, where the bright leaf has
been grown recently, there is evidenced increasing in-
terest, and anything concerning the industry is con-
sidered important. This is brought to mind through
preparations announced for the tobacco exposition, which
is to be held in Valdosta in November.
The secretary and manager of the Tobacco Belt Ex-
position, Howell K. Wilkinson, has recently heard from
Washington to the effect that the extension service of
the federal department of agriculture is ready to send
and operate an educational exhibit on the subject of
tobacco culture and preparation, at the demonstration in
Valdosta. The exposition is announced to open Novem-
ber 8 and continue through November 15.
It is remarked that the government will set up and
display the most complete outfit touching the cultivation
and handling of tobacco that has ever been sent out by
the agricultural department. Nothing like it has been
done for the encouragement of the tobacco industry in
this section before, and the presence of the exhibit will
undoubtedly draw hundreds of interested visitors to Val-
dosta during the first part of November, all anxious to
study the educational display undertaken.
The presentation is expected to explain and exploit
the results of experimental work done in Georgia by
government agents, the results attained being of particu-
lar value to planters and others concerned in the exten-
sion of the crop. In Florida the conditions prevailing are
quite similar to those found in South Georgia, and all
experiments made will equally interest the tobacco
growers of this state. Securing of this exhibit is re-
marked as an outstanding accomplishment for those who
are working for greater interest in tobacco culture. The
success of the efforts of the exposition manager is a
matter for congratulation.


(Jacksonville Journal, June 10, 1930)
More Florida land has been bought by America's Play
Ground, Inc., a Jacksonville company.
Approximately 11,000 acres in Levy county, near the
Gulf coast, was acquired Saturday.
E. Z. Jones, Sr., president of the company, says the
tract will be developed. It lies in the heart of a boating,
hunting and fishing section, he says.
Last week America's Play Ground, Inc., bought the
Terrace hotel at Eagle Lake for $100,000, it said.

Calves less than six months of age can not make the
best use of pasture and if put on it should be given, in
addition, a full feed of skim milk, or milk substitute and
enough grain to keep them growing rapidly. Heifers
from 6 to 12 months of age, however, need little or no
feed other than pasture during the spring and summer
when the pasturage is good.-Citrus County Chronicle,
May 22, 1930.


Jiflariha Rebnct

Published Semi-Monthly by
Bureau of Immigration, Department of Agriculture
Tallahassee, Florida

NATHAN MAYO .... .......Commissioner of Agriculture
T. J. BROOKS. .......Asst. Commissioner of Agriculture
Entered as second-class matter, June 25, 1926, at the Post Office
at Tallahassee, Florida, under the Act of June 6, 1920.
Will be mailed free to anyone upon request.

Vol. 5

JULY 7, 1930

No. 2


A. J. Beland Pleased with Work Done by His

(Milton Gazette, June 10, 1930)
The following interview with Mr. A. J. Beland, the
French-Canadian colonizer, published in this morning's
Pensacola Journal under a Bagdad date line, will be of
interest to all who are interested in the development of
Santa Rosa county and west Florida. According to this
interview, Mr. Beland is making rapid progress in locat-
ing families on his thirty thousand acre tract, and the
best part of the matter is that the colonists are all well
pleased with their choice. The Journal says:
Bagdad, June 9.-The big French colonization develop-
ment near Munson has made rapid strides during the past
10 days, eleven new homes of 30 acres each having been
sold by A. J. Beland, of Pensacola, head of the move-
This, Mr. Beland says, is but a beginning, that within
the next three months he will have sold at least 50 other
tracts to Frenchmen, and possibly more. Mr. Beland
was in Milton Monday, passing through en route to
"Geronimo," which, until a more "Frenchy" name has
been hit upon, will be the name of the big settlement in
Santa Rosa.
"I am expecting a man from Manatoba within a few
days," said Mr. Beland, "who comes as the representative
of 15 French families of that section, and I am practi-
cally sure he will buy. One of the most encouraging
features of this development is the eagerness with which
colonists already on the grounds are writing back to their
friends and relatives, to come on. The French people are
what you might call clannish, as far at least as com-
munity spirit is concerned. While many of us speak the
English language, yet naturally we feel our own language
is more expressive, and these colonists too have other
ties binding them together. I am also encouraged at the
treatment being accorded the several colonists who are
now on the grounds, preparing their new homes. While
several barns and out houses are in process of construc-
tion, as yet only one colonist, Mr. F. Chenet, of Mani-
toba, has started up a residence. He will build a six-room
house within the next few months.
"Most of the 11 colonists are just now erecting barns,
which they are using as homes, spending their time upon
the more important matter of clearing land, fencing, etc.,
getting ready for a crop another year. The homes will
be built during the winter. We have two stump pullers

on the scene, which are being used by the colonists get-
ting their lands ready. Most of these shacks are 16 by
24 feet, and are all built somewhat after the same pat-
Mr. Beland says the families who have bought the 30-
acre lots are not really the colonists he has been depend-
ing upon all the while, though most of them are French
people. Two of them came from Frankfort, Ill., two
from Womsockett, R. I., one from Manchester, N. H.,
two from Los Angeles, two from Fall River, Wis., with
only one from Manitoba, thus showing that the French
colony is appealing to Frenchmen all over the United


(Fort Dodge (Ia.) Messenger, May 15, 1930)
Much has been heard of late regarding the Edison
efforts to find in the United States a rubber-bearing
weed. Mr. Edison believes he has found this plant in one
of the varieties of golden rod, and experiments along
that line are going on. Meantime, there is also hope of
accumulating the rubber tree.
Dr. O. F. Cook, of the department of agriculture, calls
attention to the fact that the Brazilian rubber tree has
made rapid growth in Florida in the last two seasons.
Many of the young trees in experimental work have
reached a height of fifteen to twenty feet. They are of
the same species of Hevea that is planted extensively in
the East Indies and other tropical countries.
These small Floridan trees are being shown at Chap-
man Field, near Miami, in the extreme southern part of
Florida. Other plants from all of the rubber growing
sections of the world are also being tried in a limited
way. Just how far north the Hevea may be grown will
be tested later.
The winter of 1928-29 was severe for the Miami sec-
tion, but the rubber trees with slathouse protection con-
tinued to show growth. Dr. Cook says that this fact in-
dicates that the Hevea is much more resistant to cold
than has been supposed, and that the development of
hardy strains that can hold their own in southern Florida
is possible. Tapping of Hevea trees planted in Haiti
shows yields of rubber comparable to those in the East
Experiments with rubber-producing plants are being
carried on in California, Arizona, Cuba, Honduras, Haiti,
Panama, and the Canal Zone, but have not been carried
far enough to justify any conclusions regarding the com-
mercial production of rubber in the United States as yet.


(Florida State News, June 9, 1930)
All the big onions are not grown in Bermuda.
An onion weighing two pounds was exhibited by J. G.
Guffee, Leon county farmer living on the old Bainbridge
road, to prove that big onions can be grown in this
The onion grown by Guffee measured 19 inches around
and six and one-half inches in diameter. It was grown
in the back yard garden and no fertilizer was used in its
production. It was planted last November.
Several other onions weighing about a pound each
were also exhibited by Guffee along with his pride, the
two-pound onion.




(Tampa Tribune, June 5, 1930)
Tarpon Springs, June 4.-(Special)-Sponge ship-
ments from this city, the largest sponge market in the
world, amounted to $169,618.98 in May, according to
records of the American Railway Express office. The
total number of bales shipped was 967, aggregating
47,820 pounds. The month was one of the best in some
Small catches of sponges from hooker boats were sold
on the block yesterday at the sponge exchange for $774.
The yellow sponges sold for $263, and the grass for $511.
Total sales for last week of sponges from hooker boats
amounted to $1,980.
The stock in the exchange continues to increase, with
the midsummer sales a month off. It is expected sales
will run into six figures.


Chicago Gets Entire Stock of Terminal

(Tampa Tribune, June 1, 1930)
Ten carloads of frozen orange juice in gallon cans
are being shipped from Tampa to Chicago to be dis-
tributed like milk from house to house throughout the
summer as a new large scale development in Florida's
citrus history.
The undertaking is the consummation of years of
study and experimentation by those interested in the de-
velopment of the citrus industry, as well as by distribu-
tors. Among the pioneers in this research the Tampa
Union Terminal Company has been outstanding, and this
concern was busy all day yesterday loading thousands of
cartons of gallon cans into refrigerator cars. Its com-
plete stock of 25,000 gallons was sold to one Chicago
concern. If twice that much juice had been available it
would have gone just as quickly.
During the last few years Florida firms have made con-
siderable progress in canning citrus juice and citrus
hearts, but most of this progress has been with grape-
fruit. Orange juice is harder to handle. The big Tampa
terminal went on the theory that the only way to get
orange juice to the consumer unimpaired was to keep it
frozen from the time it was extracted until it was con-
sumed, and Clyde Perry, president of the terminal com-
pany, is enthusiastic about the outlook.
Assured of Success
"We feel we know enough about this process and its
requirements to be assured of success; we feel that a
new industry is born," Mr. Perry said.
He explained that what they are doing is not new,
that they have been working on it for years. Others have
made advances too, notably California interests. The
big accomplishment is the establishment of commercial
marketing. It's fruit juice in the family refrigerator that
counts. It may be worth a lot to the Florida citrus
The citrus industry which found a way to utilize cull
grapefruit until the price was established at about 90
cents a field crate, has been up against it to know what
to do about oranges that could not be polished up for

marketing. They were stumped to make the oranges
worth anything.
Oranges More Valuable
With the success of this method of distribution,
oranges should be worth as much as grapefruit, Mr.
Perry said. He said he believed they would be, and
illustrated it by saying there were from four to five
gallons of pure juice in every box of oranges, which
would bring the cost of the juice to 20 cents a gallon,
plus the cost of extraction, storage and marketing.
Refrigeration will make this cost relatively high, be-
cause refrigeration must be constant from the plant in
Tampa to the home ice box, but the Chicago company is
marketing the juice at about 30 cents a pint and 50
cents a quart. That looks high, until one considers the
off-season price of oranges in northern cities.
One important discovery has been established in labo-
ratories, and that is that the health-giving vitamin C is
preserved in the frozen product and in the product after
it has been melted as in the original fruit. This is con-
sidered most important because orange juice is used
largely for its health-giving properties.
Mr. Perry said he had juice put up from the crop be-
fore last, and it is as good as when in the original fruit.
At the same time a lot has since been learned about
handling the product. There is every prospect for a
developing trade. Fruit men have their eyes on this
new branch of the industry.


(Ocala Banner, June 11, 1930)
Only the arrival of a carload of cans, expected last
night or sometime today, is necessary before the actual
canning operation of the Shaver Brothers canning
factory get under way, at their plant on West Broadway
and the Seaboard railroad. Everything is all ready to
begin canning Marion county tomatoes.
Immediately the cans arrive, more than 80 Ocala per-
sons, men and women, will be given several weeks' em-
ployment in the canning plant, which will employ about
100 helpers. The vats, cookers, sealing machines, con-
veyors and other essential canning machinery has been
installed and tested and are in order to start canning.
Officials of the canning factory have placed their daily
production mark at 1600 cases of tomatoes and tomato
juice, which will require more than 1600 bushels of to-
matoes per day for the use of the canning plant. The
Shaver Brothers have contracted to can the fruit from
about 1700 acres of H. W. Tucker's land exclusively.
The cans to be used here are the product of the Jack-
sonville plant of the Continental Can Co., which was re-
cently established at that place in order to better serve
the canning needs of the southern territory and it is ex-
pected that the first carload will arrive in time to start
canning today, the time originally set to begin.
A large quantity of ripe tomatoes are stored in the
washing room of the plant awaiting the beginning. It
was at first feared that continued heavy rains would
hamper the canning plant's needs and cause a curtailment
of operations to about two weeks. This fear, however,
has been dissipated by factory attaches and the work
now is expected to last several weeks if no more heavy
rains interfere.

President Hoover spent the winter here after his election in 1928



(Florida Times-Union, May 31, 1930)
Practically, there no longer is any so-called "back
country" in Orange county, Florida, as disclosed to the
public through the census of this year and as is to be
seen by those who observe and take note of the trans-
formation that has taken place in that Central Florida
county within the past decade.
Only one other county in Florida, a comparatively
small one, is shown by the census to have a larger per-
centage of gain in population than is shown by Orange
county, which, by the official record, shows increase at
the rate of 152 per cent in the past ten-year period.
In 1920, the population stood at 19,890, an increase of
only 4 per cent over the figures in the 1910 census. But
in 1930 the census enumerators found that 50,102 per-
sons have residence in Orange county, a population in-
crease of 152 per cent in ten years.
In a published reference to this showing, that is ex-
ceedingly gratifying, it is said that "The steady and con-
stant growth of this (Orange) county during the past ten
years gives evidence of the substantial background and
real development that is taking place here in Central
Florida." To this might have been added, with all of
truth, that this splendid increase in the population of
Orange county is due very largely to the activities of the
Orange County Chamber of Commerce and to those of
the Orlando Chamber of Commerce also, these activities
being participated in by the people of the county and
of the city to an extent that perhaps is unrivalled in any
other county and city in Florida.
When Orange county or Orlando undertakes to do
something that is worth while, the people, generally, join
enthusiastically, actively and practically in "putting over"
what is desired to be accomplished. Consequently, by
making Orange county and Orlando, its capital city, more
attractive and more inviting, very much of the increase
in population has been secured, for it is a known fact
that people seeking new places of abode prefer to estab-
lish themselves where conditions and environments are
of the very best. These conditions and environments Or-
lando and Orange county have brought into being through
intelligent, active and practical efforts that never cease.
Therein is example for Florida cities and counties that
are not making progress as they should.
It is not possible to set forth in the space here at com-
mand even a partial list of the things that have been done
in and by Orange county, and in Orlando, and that ac-
counts for the remarkable growth in population that is
shown by the 1930 census. But there is one particular
thing that must be mentioned here as accounting, to a
very large extent, for the steady and continuing growth
of Orange county, in popularity, in population and in
substantial achievement. And that is the character and
the spirit of the people who reside and work in that
county and city.
Mayor Alsop, of Jacksonville, in public addresses, fre-
quently says that Florida's one very greatest asset is its
people. Orange county has this asset, developed in
splendid manner and degree, and largely through the
noble and worthy efforts put forth by the Orange County
Chamber of Commerce under the leadership of its secre-
tary and manager, Dr. Karl Lehmann, who has served
continuously since its organization almost ten years ago,
and who has been loyally assisted by every worthy mem-
ber of that county-wide body. Through the work this

organization has done, more than two-score local cham-
bers of commerce have been established and are func-
tioning in as many of the smaller towns and communities
of Orange county, each and all affiliated with the county
organization. And thus it is that Orange county now
practically has no back country, the people of every sec-
tion being imbued with-the spirit of progress, and that of
friendship, also, making material growth and prosperity
possible as nothing else can do.
And this is why Orange county is able to show such
remarkable growth in population, as, also, in the progress,
prosperity and happiness of its people.


Ship Line Awarded Mail Contract

(Tampa Tribune, June 8, 1930)
Further extension of Tampa's foreign water commerce
is seen here in the recent signing by Postmaster General
Brown of a contract with the American West African
Line, Inc., for carrying United States mails from Tampa
and other gulf ports to the Canary Islands and West
African ports from Daker, Senegal to Duala, Cameroons
and beyond.
The American West African Line is represented by the
Lykes Brothers Steamship Company, agents, and plans
are being made to improve the service with more fre-
quent sailings and an intensive development of the al-
ready steadily growing West African trade.
The first United States-West Africa line was inaugu-
rated by the United States shipping board about eight
years ago in an endeavor to serve and increase commerce
between the gulf and west African ports. The American
West African Line, Inc., purchased the original line in
July, 1928, and since then has been maintaining a service
from Tampa, Port Arthur, New Orleans, Mobile, Pensa-
cola and other gulf ports to the Canary Islands, Madeira,
Cape Verde Islands and West African ports, with a sail-
ing about once every 50 or 60 days.
While the West African coast is considerably behind
other parts of the world in development, steamship of-
ficials point out that the country is rich in natural re-
sources and with competition engendered by the colonies
of the different nations vying for foreign trade, the
growth of this territory has been remarkable in the last
few years.
Various lumber interests have developed a large and
thriving trade with West Africa in pine, which has been
found the most suitable lumber to withstand the ravages
of the tropical climate. Other products which also have
found a profitable market in West Africa are gasoline,
kerosene, lubricating oils, and the American manufac-
tured products of flour, sugar and other foodstuffs, wall
board and building materials, automobiles, lanterns,
hardware, cotton goods and other articles.
This growing West African demand for American
made products and the fact that a thriving lumber trade
has been established, lead local steamship officials to
predict that the trade as forecast for the American West
African Line, Inc., under the new federal mail contract,
will help Tampa's port business.
West African commodities include ivory, manganese,
mahogany, cocoa beans, palm oil, palm kernel oil, palm
kernels and rubber.





However, All Not Plain Sailing, George M.
Sargent Says

(By Richard L. Rinc, Agricultural Editor, in Miami Daily
News, June 1, 1930)
"And the woman always pays" apparently extends to
the henyard, where the hens and pullets paid and paid,
enabling George M. Sargent of Fulford, to make his
way through the 1928-1929 term at the University of
Miami, thus bringing him one step nearer fulfilling his
life's ambition of ultimately becoming a practicing
physician. He is a graduate of Miami high school, but
also attended the Dade County Agricultural High School,
where he acquired much of his poultry-raising knowl-
Many states and countries are contributing their quota
toward creating here a great and prosperous agricultural
community. This time Kansas, once called "bleeding
Kansas," because of the many adverse circumstances
afflicting the early settlers there, is the source of much
of the experience and good sense shown by young
His father for 23 years conducted a big dairy there,
where the present poultryman and future physician was
raised. The cows were all registered Holsteins. Cor-
rect feeding, sanitation, disinfecting of equipment, are
all details George M. Sargent learned as a boy, this
knowledge later to be applied here to chickens instead of
Getting established, with the hens paying for schooling
as well as for expansion, young Sargent has found to be
uphill work, as pleasant as hard work under difficulties
well can be. Mrs. Sargent, his mother, is greatly in-
terested in the poultry farm, and does much of the trap-
nesting. She made a plea for presentation of the darker
sides of the business as well as the bright side, in press
comments, since many people naturally fitted for some-
thing else, occasionally venture into poultry keeping be-
cause they expect to get rich quick and with little effort.
In spite of all precautions, coccidiosis made its appear-
ance in the Sargent flock. Expert treatment and careful
sanitation stamped it out, although some chicks were lost.
The fallacy of being able to create eggs at a cost of
"one cent each," as occasionally published by enthusiasts
who know a little but not much-was also mentioned by
Mrs. Sargent.
In the Sargent flock there are at present about 250
grown birds in lay, and 700 small ones, nucleus of a
larger plant. The laying birds are in two pens, both
under trapnest. Of these, 180 have revealed excellent
laying ability, although mostly of local stock. Forty are
in a "best pen," from which the main breeding stock is
expected to come.
Some of the best birds, bought of R. E. Biggs when two
years old, showed what "local stock can do," for they
went well above the 160-egg mark in their second year
on average, although bought without any special guar-
antee, and with the assumption that they were being sold
to make room for some special Hanson stock acquired by
Mr. Biggs at that time. They were mated to a cockerel
of the Crescent strain of Bradenton. Pullets from this
mating went well above the record of their dams. One,
taken at random, No. 230, when looked up in the record
book, revealed a lay of 182 eggs in her first seven months,

since November, or about 26 eggs per month on an
Young Sargent hopes to continue in the poultry busi-
ness, at least long enough to finish the course at the
University of Miami. It may even be possible should
he some day become a practicing physician, he thinks,
as Dr. J. G. DuPuis has done in dairying.
A disinfectant anyone can make, similar to many ex-
pensive preparations on the market, is given here. In
Kansas young Sargent sold it to dairies and poultrymen.
It is advisable to use crocks or earthenware for mixing
and storing purposes, but may be used on metal for
cleansing purposes.
Put nine gallons of water in a 12-gallon crock, in which
dissolve one gallon can of chloride of lime, costing about
$1.10. In one gallon of water dissolve five pounds of
soda ash, Wyandotte is a trade name for it. Sal soda,
from any drug store, may be used, but being half
strength it is advisable to double the quantity. The two
are now mixed in the crock, by adding the gallon of soda
ash liquid to the nine gallons containing the lime solu-
tion. Allow 24 hours for settling.
The above stock solution is used for spraying pur-
poses by adding three gallons of water to one-half pint of
stock. To disinfect troughs and drinking fountains, take
one-fourth pint stock solution to five of water. This is
said to be similar to Zonite, known to most hospitals and
many housewives.


Green Corn Shipments Nearing End

(Tampa Tribune, June 8, 1930)
Fort Meade, June 7.-(Special)-Watermelon ship-
ping is at its peak here and green corn is still moving,
though the end of the season for this crop is in sight.
An average of seven carloads of melons a day has been
shipped from here for some time, with more than 80 cars
having been sent out thus far this season. Corn ship-
ments have fallen to only one car daily and next week is
expected to see the last of the crop rolled out.
About two-thirds of the melon crop is believed to have
been harvested. Growers have received good prices and
demand has been heavy. Many of the melons have been
consumed within the state, though most of them went
north. Growers have pooled their shipments for the
most part and cars have been graded carefully and packed
according to size and quality. This has resulted in a
better market than heretofore. Prices have ranged from
$250 to $650 a car on the track here.
Corn Market Strong
Strong market for green corn is expected to prevail
for the remainder of the shipping season. Warmer
weather in the north has increased the demand for roast-
ing ears. Total shipments from here have amounted to
33 cars and it is believed about 10 more cars will go out
before shipping ceases to be profitable. There is a con-
siderable amount of corn still in the fields that will be
available for express shipment and sale within the state
after the buyers leave.
The corn crop this season was of unusually high
quality, free from worms and with well filled ears. Im-
proved cultivation methods were credited with bringing
this about.




F. E. C. Reports on Shipments-2,104 Cars Are

(Palm Beach Post, June 10, 1930)
Reaching another high figure for production of early
season vegetables, 2,104 cars were moved from the upper
Everglades by the Florida East Coast Railway during the
growing season that has just been brought to a close in
the 'Glades. This figure for the 1929-30 season, while
one of the highest, falls several hundred cars lower than
the record year of 1927-28, when 2,337 cars were moved.
The figures on the carlot movement have been supplied
by C. R. Phillips of the West Palm Beach traffic office
of the rail company. Of the total, 1,571 cars were beans
this season, with 117 cars of cabbage, 115 tomatoes, 64
potatoes, 47 celery and the remainder onions, romaine,
beets, peppers, lettuce, peas and carrots. The number of
mixed cars was 160.
Shipping points, numbering 10, dispatched as follows:
Okeechobee, 29; Port Mayaca, 53; Sand Cut siding, 717;
Canal Point, 717; Pelican Lake, 199; Cardwell, 117;
Runyan, 43; Belle Glade, 712; South Bay, 131; Lake
Harbor, 56.
Shipments from the high point stations included Canal
Point with 556 cars of beans, 2 cabbage, 111 mixed vege-
tables, 1 potatoes, 47 tomatoes. Pelican Lake section
(this is the area that was ravaged by the hurricane of
1928), 179 cars beans, 5 cabbage, 1 onions, 12 vegetables,
2 tomatoes. Cardwell, 106 cars beans, 7 cabbage, 4 vege-
tables. Belle Glade, 470 cars beans, 47 celery, 79 cab-
bage, 12 vegetables, 43 potatoes, 34 tomatoes, 7 beets,
1 peppers, 1 lettuce, 4 peas. South Bay, 123 cars beans,
6 cabbage, 2 vegetables.
This does not represent the entire output of the upper
Everglades, as much of the farm products were shipped
by express and other carriers. Nor do these figures repre-
sent sales to hucksters, shipments by boats, or those
made by growers who hauled their produce out to be sold
along the coast.
The shipment of 1929-30, according to Everglades
advices, was small compared to acreage under develop-
ment, but heavy in view of damage done by late March
frosts and early April inundations.
The spring tomato crop was one of the smallest ever
recorded in the region, being only 115 cars, as compared
to 246 cars the previous season and 520 cars during the
1927-28 production period, according to the Everglades


(Polk County Record, May 31, 1930)
Tallahassee, May 31.-(A. P.)-One Dade county
dairy produced 163,974 gallons of milk from October 1,
1929, to March 31, 1930, and another 153,569 gallons
of milk, the State Department of Agriculture has been
advised by John M. Scott, chief milk inspector.
The daily average of the former was 896 gallons and
the latter 839 gallons. The highest production for any
one month was 37,327 gallons and 29,557 gallons, respec-
tively, for March, or an average daily production for the
former of 1,204 gallons and for the latter 953 gallons.

The highest production for one day for March was
1,261 gallons for one and 1,051 gallons for the other.
Scott reported that there are two or three other dairies
in Dade county that produced nearly as much milk. One
other dairy of the county produced more milk than either
of those listed in the foregoing figures, but the milk in-
spection bureau did not have complete records for it.
The dairy industry has been growing in Dade county
and every other county in the state during the past five
years, Scott said.


(St. Petersburg Independent, June 7, 1930)
Florida has not made much headway in growing
peaches, which though of good flavor are small, and no
attempt has been made to develop an apple industry, even
in the extreme northern counties, but grapes are a
natural crop. Developments so far leave no doubt that
grape-growing will soon be an important branch of agri-
cultural industry in this state. There are now several
large vineyards, the combined yield last year being nearly
a thousand tons of grapes. The grapes were as large
and luscious as those grown anywhere and found a ready
Showing how grape and citrus culture is being com-
bined in Florida, and how one crop naturally follows the
other, Charles S. Adams, writing in the Florida Grower,
"Grapes as a supplementary cash crop to citrus con-
stitutes one of the best production partnerships now
extant in Florida. For when the rush season of citrus
culture is about ready for its sunset, the dawn of grape-
growing's busiest months is at hand. And after the
grape crop has been picked, packed and marketed with
its commercial by-products, it is time to begin fall activi-
ties in the groves, the crux of which is reached when the
shipment of tree-ripened oranges and grapefruit begins.
"Grape-growing has survived its experimental stages in
this state. Florida's annual shipments are not yet im-
pressive as viewed from a national distribution stand-
point-last year approximately one-tenth of one per cent
of the American grape crop originated in this state. But
a good beginning has been made and the new commercial
industry is off to a favorable start."
The Grower's article informs us that the Florida Grape
Growers Association now has more than a hundred mem-
bers, though only eight years old; that there are more
than five thousand acres of vineyards, and that 50 per
cent of the crop is marketed in Florida through door-
yard and wayside stands. The price range is from
eight to twelve cents a pound retail and from one hun-
dred dollars to two hundred dollars a ton. The principal
grapes grown are Beacons, Carmans, Florida Niagaras
and Munsons.
One of the most promising facts in connection with
viticulture in Florida is that most any species of grapes
will grow in almost any part of the state. Fine grapes
have been produced in the Everglades section, and it is
now believed that the hill sections of central Florida and
along the west coast are well adapted to grape-growing
on a large scale. With what is now known about the
development of the industry and with what has been
accomplished to fall back upon for encouragement, grapes
should soon be one of the large fruit crops of Florida,
with a valuable by-product industry in jam, jellies and





Half of Amount Goes from Each of Indian River
City and Titusville

(Titusville Star-Advocate, June 6, 1930)
A total of 74 carloads of spring celery have been
shipped from the Titusville and Indian River City sec-
tion this spring, according to figures given out this morn-
ing by G. J. Strickland, local passenger and freight agent
for the Florida East Coast Railway Company.
Mr. Strickland said that 34 cars had been shipped to
carry the spring crop from Titusville, and that just
about that number have gone out this spring and summer
from the Indian River City station. The celery was pro-
duced by the Indian River Celery & Produce Company,
with which B. R. Gorgas is connected, and the Indian
River City Vegetable Farms, with which Charles Stewart
is connected.
Mr. Stewart's company finished shipping their crop
this week, and Mr. Gorgas will finish his crop next week,
still having several cars standing in the fields. Mr.
Gorgas has on display a sample of his product at the
Dixie Pharmacy, which is of the finest quality, and the
entire crops of these two firms have brought good prices.
Seven carloads of potatoes have also been shipped from
Titusville this spring.


(Orlando Sentinel, June 1, 1930)
L. H. Gore has been one of the most successful celery
growers of the Oviedo area, it is said, his crop this year
being especially good and highly remunerative.
Mr. Gore came to Oviedo ten years ago from North
Carolina, and worked for wages in this section for about
five years. The next five years, up to the present, saw
him grow from a wage-hand to a home and muck land-
owner and one of the leading growers of celery.
He worked one year on halves for Mr. C. S. Lee, where
he began to learn the celery business and where he made
his first beginnings in accumulating capital for engaging
in business for himself.
Mr. Gore's next step was to purchase the muck lands
which he now owns inside the city of Oviedo, a tract of
about 11 acres of very fine producing soil. Eight acres
of his holdings are now highly developed and producing
good celery every year.
This spring Mr. Gore has already cut about 2,200
crates of celery from a little more than four acres of his
land, and will cut much more in a few weeks. The first
cutting of 2,200 crates was sold for $3.05 a crate in the
field, or a total of more than $6,000.00.
Mr. Gore has in the last four years paid for his home
and for his celery land from the profits on his celery land,
plus his original capital made working one year on halves
for Mr. Lee.
His celery land is now worth approximately $20,000,
it is said, including clearing, leveling and tiling of the
acreage. It is thought that Mr. Gore's record of paying
for his home and lands in four years from the profits of
the soil could scarcely be equalled in any other line of
Besides his own farm Mr. Gore has half interest in a
crop of celery with Mr. A. D. Sauer in the Black Ham-

mock. Mr. Gore and Mr. Sauer also are partners in five
acres of spring peppers in the Black Hammock.
Mr. Gore will have a total of approximately 4,000
crates of celery for himself this year, it is said, besides
his peppers. His celery was damaged to some extent by
the floods of early spring, cutting the production, but
despite the damage he is producing some of the best
celery of this section.
Mr. Gore is a highly regarded citizen, a leader in the
Oviedo Baptist church and a supporter of public progress.
He is the leader of the Junior Baptist Young People's
Union, and a teacher in Sunday school.
Mr. Gore attributes a large part of his success to his
gracious helpmate, Mrs. Gore, who has stood loyally by
him through hard times in former years and just as
loyally through his later success.
Mr. and Mrs. Gore have three fine children, one boy,
Milton, who is an Oviedo high school athlete; two girls,
Lucile and Elizabeth. All the family are members of the
Baptist church.
Mr. Gore is one of the best fishermen of this section,
and says he does not allow his celery crops to interfere
with his fishing. He is an expert with the casting rod,
having hooked some of the biggest bass caught from the
St. Johns river.


(Tampa Times, June 11, 1930)
The American Can Company has leased the C. B. Witt
building, Florida and Water street, and will use it as a
storage warehouse to take care of south Florida's can-
ning needs.
Tampa and south Florida's fast growing canned citrus
industry is the direct cause of the company's establish-
ing a supply depot here.
The building, at present occupied by the C. B. Witt
Wholesale Grocery Company, will be taken over by the
can company September 1, and will be remodeled. It
is a two-story structure, with 30,000 square feet of floor
space, the largest available warehouse building in the
city, according to R. B. Armstrong, rental expert with
J. M. Berger, who handled the lease.
The recognition, by the can company, of Tampa's
possibilities as a distribution center was hailed today by
the chamber of commerce as a new step in the Forward
Tampa movement.


(Hendry County News, May 29, 1930)
About eight miles from LaBelle at the Circle-Bar
ranch, C. C. Carlton, cattle baron, is experimenting with
better grasses for his stock. According to Homer Hand
two large tractors have been at work plowing over 600
acres of pasture in preparation for planting of Bermuda
This is the first move of cattlemen in this area toward
more efficiency in the raising of beef cattle, and is looked
upon and watched with interest by all the residents of
the section as well as by rival cattlemen.
Mr. Carlton is owner of over 5,000 head of cattle with
nearly 1,600 head in this section of south Florida.



(South Florida Developer, April 18, 1930)
Last month the largest cane sugar mill in the United
States began operation at Clewiston on the south shore
of Lake Okeechobee. It marked the completion of the
second major step in the conversion of the Florida Ever-
glades into what promises to be one of the world's
greatest sugar-producing areas.
Five years ago Clewiston was nothing but a wide spot
in a very muddy road wandering aimlessly into the
monotonous brown reaches of the Everglades. As far as
the eye could see stretched water and waving saw-grass.
While attention was focused on Florida during the real
estate boom of 1925, the first plans for growing sugar
cane on a large commercial scale in the Everglades were
laid. When the real estate boom faded, work on the
sugar project was under way and on January 14, 1929,
the first plant of the Southern Sugar Company began
cane grinding operations.
This plant had a capacity of 1,500 tons of cane a day.
To feed it 4,500 acres of cane were harvested during the
short grinding season. At that time other acres were
being cleared for planting at the rate of 150 per day.
Seventy-five tractors plunged and wallowed through the
sawgrass, leaving behind them plowed fields of brown soil.
Under the rays of the Florida sun and with the aid of
fertilizers, this soil became rich, black and ready for
planting. When the cane was ripe for harvesting on
January 2nd of this year, there were 11,000 acres avail-
able for grinding.
To meet this increased production of cane, the capacity
of the mill has been increased to 4,000 tons per day.
Over $2,500,000 was spent in more than doubling the
mill's capacity. When this year's grinding started, the
Southern Sugar Company had invested more than
$12,000,000 in equipment, drainage, clearing and plant-
ing operations and the purchase of additional land.
Something of the personalities and aspirations behind
this swift transformation of the Everglades into a source
of sugar was told in the Manufacturers Record a year
ago. Above everything else looms the figure of Bror G.
Dahlberg, president of the Southern Sugar Company.
Dahlberg first became interested in sugar cane produc-
tion as head of the Celotex Company, which manufac-
tures 400,000,000 square feet of structural insulation
board a year from bagasse, the residue of sugar cane
after the juice has been extracted. The Celotex Com-
pany depended largely on Louisiana mills for its supply
of bagasse, and several years ago when these mills
seemed doomed to close because of the inroads of dis-
ease into the state's cane crop, Dahlberg looked toward
Florida as the possible location for the founding of a new
sugar industry that would not only supply the Celotex
Company with raw material but would add to the do-
mestic sugar production of the United States. While the
Louisiana cane problem was successfully solved through
the introduction of new and disease-resisting varieties of
cane from Java, Dahlberg investigated the possibilities
of growing cane in the Everglades. Government reports
on experiments showed that cane grew there rapidly and
had a high sugar content. The stumbling block was
Other sugar men scoffed, said the drainage problem
was insoluble or economically impractical. The state of

Florida, they pointed out, had spent millions of dollars
without success. Expert drainage engineers said it could
be done, and Dahlberg backed their judgment against the
pessimism of the scoffers. The drainage engineers' plans
called for a system of water control similar to that used
in Holland to keep out the waters of the North Sea.
Dikes would segregate areas of approximately 40,000
acres and huge pumps would drain or irrigate these
sectors at will. Today there are more than 200 miles of
canals and ditches served by huge centrifugal pumps
with a total capacity of 350,000 gallons of water a
minute. This drainage system controls some 100,000
acres of land. Surrounding this land are approximately
60 miles of dikes.
The enlargement of the sugar mill is but one indica-
tion of the rapidity with which this project is being car-
ried forward. Last year 4,500 acres of cane were har-
vested. This year the harvest covers 11,000 acres. In
January new cane was being planted at the rate of 400
acres per day. Next year the total acreage for harvest-
ing will be 30,000. The Southern Sugar Company's six
year development program calls for the addition of a
5,000 ton grinding mill each year and the annual plant-
ing of 20,000 acres of new cane. By 1936, Dahlberg
estimates there will be 135,000 acres of cane for harvest-
ing or 4,500,000 tons. This will produce 450,000 tons
of raw sugar. The grinding capacity of the company's
mills will be 34,000 tons of cane per day.
The development of the Everglades centers around
Clewiston, which five years ago was too small to find
itself on the map. Today it has a population of 2,500
persons, all engaged in the sugar business. The town has
electric lights, schools, churches, fine homes and a bank
with deposits totaling $300,000. Within the last six
months the population of the town has increased 150
per cent.
While the Southern Sugar Company's big mill is now
in Clewiston, the program calls for the erection this year
of a 5,000 ton mill at Canal Point on the other side of
Lake Okeechobee, where a 600-ton mill is already located.
The remaining mills will be located at other strategic
points as planting progresses. When the program is
completed it will form one of the largest sugar cane
growing and grinding units in the world.
The Southern Sugar Company's Clewiston mill differs
from other sugar mills in one major respect, the effort
to obtain maximum economy in fuel consumption. The
average sugar mill uses bagasse to feed its boilers and
no effort is made to conserve this material because what
is not used is more of a nuisance than anything else to
the operators. Because of its affiliation with the Celo-
tex Company, however, the Southern Sugar Company
wished to conserve as much bagasse as possible to be
used in the manufacture of Celotex. (The Celotex Com-
pany has already made plans for the erection of a manu-
facturing plant in the Everglades.) The enlarged plant
was therefore designed to operate on a maximum of
8 per cent fibre in the cane which contains on an average
a 12 per cent minimum of fibre. The Clewiston factory,
grinding 4,000 tons of cane per day, will produce 160
tons of bone-dry fibre. This is sufficient to manufacture
approximately 500,000 square feet of Celotex. In the
sugar factory proper, where the juice is boiled down to
commercial sugars, especial attention was given to secure
efficient operation methods in order to work with the
least possible amount of steam consumption.
The Clewiston mill was enlarged under the direction
of W. G. Ames, construction engineer. The buildings


housing the factory equipment are of steel and concrete.
About 750 tons of structure steel was used in the addi-
tion. A brief summary of the enlargement of equip-
ment follows:
The original milling tandem consisted of a 33 by 78
inch crusher driven by a 22 by 42 inch Corliss engine, a
shredder driven by a 300 horsepower motor and a nine
roller mill, 34 by 78 inches, driven by a 36 by 60-inch
Corliss engine. This milling plant was increased by the
addition of another 34 by 78 inch nine roller mill lined
up in the same tandem with the original installation. The
new set of mills are driven by a 36 by 60 inch Corliss
engine. New rolls were provided throughout.
Three 1000 horsepower boilers were added to the
original boiler-house installation of four 500 horse-power
boilers. Each new boiler is provided with two bagasse
furnaces and equipped with superheaters, soot blowers
and oil burners. The boilers are connected by steel
breeching to a 200-foot reinforced concrete stack with a
13 foot-top diameter.
A new 200-kilowatt turbo-generator, which will carry
the entire present load requirements of the factory, was
installed. The original two engine driven 825-kilowatt
generators will be held as stand-by units and for supply-
ing the lesser load requirements of the factory. They
will also supply light and power to the city of Clewiston
during the off season in the sugar company's activities.
The juice heating station in the original installation
consisted of four heaters of 568 square feet heating
surface each. To this battery has been added four new
heaters of 1,500 square feet heating surface each. Two
drum type continuous vacuum filters, 8 by 12 feet, have
been added to the original installation of six Shriver
plate and frame filters and an auxiliary battery of six
Vallez filters. The concentration of the juices into syrup
form is now effected in two multi-effect evaporators by
the use of exhaust steam. The original installation was
one quadruple effect evaporator of 22,000 square feet
heating surface. To effect maximum economy in steam
consumption the system of vapor heating was utilized to
a large degree. The vapors given off by the evaporators
are used two, three and sometimes four times in the con-
centration of juices and for boiling the incoming raw
juices and then are further utilized for boiling down the
syrup to sugar in the vacuum graining pans.
Three new 13-foot diameter vacuum pans were added
to the graining station. The original station had one
10-foot and one 13-foot pan. Beneath the pan floor, con-
venient for gravity flow discharge from the vacuum pans,
were installed a battery of fourteen crystalizers. To the
original installation of ten centrifugals, which will be
used for the drying of "A" and "B" sugars, there has
been added another battery of fourteen centrifugals for
drying "C" sugars.
The sugar from the "A" and "B" sugar centrifugals is
conveyed through an elevator into a hopper and through
an automatic weighing and sacking machine into the bags
ready for shipment.
Happily we have already made a start. B. G. Dahl-
berg is establishing in Florida what will eventually be
one of the largest sugar producing communities in the
world and I believe intends to manufacture his waste
into Celotex and paper pulp. An increasing number of
canneries are being located in Florida, using surplus
grapefruit among other things. Key West and Tampa
are important cigar manufacturing centers. Tampa has,
in the Florida Portland Cement Company, one of the
most modern factories of that kind to be found; in

Tampa also the American Cyanamid Company is con-
structing a $5,000,000 chemical plant based on the use
of phosphate. Perry, Florida, is the site of the new
Graham-Page automobile body plant. It is quite proba-
ble that at least two paper mills will be located at West
Florida points in the near future. The Foremost Dairy
Company, a Florida institution, is already one of the
largest concerns of its kind and we hope soon it will be
making all possible things from milk.
The establishment of industries will increase our tax-
able values immediately even though these industries
themselves, for a brief period, may not be taxed. In-
dustries also mean more non-producers of foodstuffs
and therefore more mouths to feed. They mean pros-
perity for our farmers and truck gardeners, and cus-
tomers for our merchants.-Manufacturers Record.


(Evening Reporter-Star, May 31, 1930)
Fort Myers, FIa., May 30.-(A. P.)-The greatest
need in Florida today is for more farmers, in the opinion
of Thomas A. Edison, 83-year-old inventor.
Bending over vials and chemicals in his laboratory
here, the aged inventive genius did not interrupt his ex-
periments with plants and weeds to discover a way to
produce an emergency rubber crop, as he talked with a
newspaper correspondent today. He kept steadily at his
task, talking as he worked.
"On my field trips through south Florida, and espe-
cially in this county, I have noticed men clearing land
and preparing it for next fall. That is working in the
right direction.
"There is an unlimited field for the farmer in the
south. The early bird gets the agricultural worm, and I
am pleased to see the farmers waking up to their oppor-
tunity down here."
With his health improved, and spurred on by a desire
to hasten his rubber research program, Mr. Edison has
been working overtime during the past few weeks. He
declared his health was much better now than when he
came here last fall and said he had enjoyed the period
spent in working with goldenrod, one of his rubber pro-
ducing plants, and searching the fields for uncatalogued
variety of local floral.


(St. Petersburg Times, June 1, 1930)
Pinellas county benefited to the extent of a million
dollars from the hard rains of Thursday night and
Friday, according to J. S. Hill, manager of the Clearwater
Growers' Association, who said the trees had been suf-
fering considerable during the past month from a lack
of rain-fall, but the heavy rains came just in time.

St. Petersburg recently held a City Industry Exposi-
tion, and never before was there such a wide range of
home manufactured products, says the Independent of
that city. Goods on display ranged from beauty products
to tombstones, every day essentials, plumbing fixtures,
mattresses, telephones, palmetto, clay and wood products,
boats, canoes, pictures, vegetables, canned products and
hundreds of other things. The exposition was a great
success.-Florida Times-Union, May 1, 1930.



Quality of Product Is Said To Be of Best Grown
in This Section

(Titusville Star-Advocate, June 2, 1930)
Shipment of the early summer crop of celery at the
Indian River City Celery Farms has begun to the mar-
kets of the north, and five cars are leaving daily, the
first five cars going out yesterday.
The quality of the crop is said by persons who have
investigated to be of the best that has been grown in
this section and is adding further to the reputation that
Titusville has gained in the past two years as a leading
Florida celery center. A five car a day schedule will be
kept up for some time in the shipping.
Other truck crops in this section are reported to be
unusually good this year, with weather prevailing that is
adding to the yield per acre. Such crops as beans, celery
and bulbs are growing well, is the report, although some
crops could not be cultivated for a time on account of
excessive water. Watermelon season has also arrived in
this section, and loads of melons have been seen on the
streets of Titusville this week.
The celery land in this section is being put in better
condition this year by the addition of better drainage
facilities. A greater acreage of celery is contemplated
next year.


(Scenic Highlands Sun, May 31, 1930)
William Overton finds that an Avon Park punk tree is
not a "punk" tree after all. He had a letter last week
from President George B. Elliott of the Atlantic Coast
Line making inquiry about a wonderful new Australian
tree growing in south Florida, and said to be promising
for quick lumber production. Mr. Overton soon found
one of these trees growing in the Mall, in the very center
of the Crimson Lake Bougainvillea trellis at the west end.
He also found it labeled Melaleuca Leucadendron, the
Cajeput or punk tree. It is planted there to grow tall
and slender, thus "breaking the sky line" and setting off
better the arbor of Bougainvillea. This punk tree will
grow on a hilltop and withstand a long drought, also
hurricanes. It will also grow in swamps. It is not sub-
ject to borers or other pests, and the foliage remains
fresh and green every day in the year.
President Elliott was especially interested in the tree
for reforesting wild lands and creating a new source of
wealth in Florida.
"It should grow into a good timber tree in fifteen
years, whereas it takes a long leaf pine sixty years or
more to be worth cutting for timber," says C. S. Donald-
The Cajeput or punk tree in the Mall was planted only
three years ago of a needle size and is now 20 feet high,
and Mr. Overton finds it is five inches in diameter. The
outside bark is soft and spongy, but so impervious to
water that it is used for packing grapes and other fruit
and for packing many articles for shipment.
The leaves of the tree are used to make the well known
Cajeput oil. D. G. Perry was asked the use for the oil,
and quickly responded that the oil had varied adaptations,


including as a liniment for rheumatism, for skin diseases,
and had been used internally for bronichial and also other
troubles, as it is said to stimulate heart action, etc.
It had been reported to President Elliott that the wood
is very durable and hard, which is evidently true, be-
cause it belongs to the myrtle family, and that it takes a
fine polish. One great difficulty, however, in growing
the Cajeput as a timber tree in large forest tracts, would
be that its papery bark will catch fire easily, and burn so
intensely that the tree would quickly be destroyed. Fire
wardens would have to patrol such forest plantings con-
stantly, which would add to the expense.
"Nevertheless, the punk tree may become one of Flor-
ida's greatest assets with such big corporations as the
Atlantic Coast Line becoming interested in its culture,"
said Mr. Donaldson.
The Avon Park punk tree has not bloomed as yet.
The bloom is creamy white with flower spikes several
inches long, making a pretty effect. The seed is like
fine powder, and is scattered by the wind far and wide.
There are some handsome punk trees growing wild on
wet lands near Estero, Florida, which is half way be-
tween Fort Myers and Naples. The seed evidently blew
there from some such place as Dr. Nehrling's famous
gardens at Naples.
This punk tree, M. Leucadendron, is only one of one
hundred species of Melaleucas, all of which are from
Australia, and inhabit the salty shores and swamps on up
to the semi-arid slopes of the interior.


(Tampa Tribune, June 2, 1930)
Zephyrhills, June 1.-(Special)-The first three cars
of watermelons shipped from Zephyrhills brought $600
each on the local track the last week. The melons were
the Stone Mountain variety, and averaged 36 pounds.
Heavier shipments are forecast for this week.
Estimate of the crop for the season has been raised to
75 cars by Ernest Mills, veteran packer, who handled the
initial loadings.
A survey of this locality indicates the acreage will
reach something approximating 1500 here next season,
compared with the present planting of 125.


(Tampa Tribune, May 31, 1930)
Arcadia, May 30.-(Special)-The first carload of
watermelons this season was sold this week by the De-
Soto Cooperative Growers Association for $470 on the
platform here. There were 1020 melons in the car, most
of them grown by Dove & Markett and N. E. Norwood.
A few came from Punta Gorda, raised by A. F. Dewey.
Another car was loaded today and the cooperative ex-
pects to ship a third car Monday. Melons are late and
the acreage in this county is smaller than usual.

The U. S. Department of Agriculture is often asked as
to the advisability of nipping or pruning muskmellon to
increase the size of fruit or to hasten development.
There is no advantage in pinching or heading back
muskmellon vines, but the practice is not advisable when
the melons are to be shipped, as most varieties produce
fruit large enough, and sometimes too large for a stand-
ard pack.-Citrus County Chronicle, May 22, 1930.

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