U.S.Dept. of Agriculture,
Weington, D r
PUBLISHED SEMI-MONTHLY BY
BUREAU OF IMMIGRATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
JUNE 16, 1930
By T. J. BROOKS, Assistant Commissioner of Agriculture
IFE is filled with experiments and expe-
riences. Nothing is final in the domain
of research. Ultimate knowledge is a
myth; therefore we always have transi-
tion-progression or retrogression. An experi-
ment is supposed to reveal a truth, a principle,
a fact. Sometimes it does and sometimes it does
not. The revelation may be there but not un-
The world moves forward on the wheels of
experiments. Experiment stations, shops and
laboratories are continually upsetting old
theories and introducing new facts and making
new revelations of inter-relations. Research is
The child begins life by experimenting and
gaining concepts therefrom. As it begins to
classify its knowledge it gains assurance, confi-
dence and power. In youth the gain of knowl-
edge linked with the development of the in-
tellect turns into account past experiments.
Many things keep things in the experimental
stage. Even when a demonstration has proven
a thing to be a success there may arise a con-
tingency that will upset all calculations.
Nothing is more ancient than tilling the soil
in some form. Yet agriculture is still a subject
for experiment. Perhaps there are more agri-
cultural experiment stations than there are ex-
periments of any other character. Florida has
such a variety of crops and soils that it requires
more experimentation to establish farming on a
scientific basis here than in any other part of
the United States. According to governmental
soil surveys so far made there are approxi-
mately one hundred varieties of soils in the
State. So much depends upon the subsoil that
a superficial examination of the top soil is of
little value, even where coupled with a chem-
ical analysis. The physical condition of both
the soil and subsoil are of as much importance
as the mere plant food content of same. The
water level, drainage, capillarity, texture, tilt,
mineral and vegetable content and availability
of the plant food elements must all be taken
into consideration in estimating the quality of
There are some three million acres of muck
lands in Florida of varying qualities and de-
grees of availability for farming. There are
the muck soils deposited over sand, over rock,
over clay, over marl, over a combination of marl
and coral, etc. Where the muck is sufficiently
rotted to render the plant food elements therein
available for growing plants the best results
may be expected from crops. This is the case
around the edge of Lake Okeechobee. The
wild growth on these lands indicates the avail-
ability of these soils for the growing of crops.
The order runs as follows: Custard apple,
elder, willow, saw grass.
These Everglades muck soils are for the most
part deposits of dead aquatic vegetation above
limestone rock. In other parts of the state
small areas of muck are found mixed with min-
eral soils of varying types. Usually these de-
posits are not so deep as the Everglades deposits,
but are not on rock. The great need of the soils
of southeastern states is humus. Muck is
humus. But when a soil is exclusively humud
it lacks proper minerals just as an all mineral
soil lacks humus.
When nitrogen is introduced into the soil ,
from the air by any process it is fixed or con-
fined in the soil. When nitrogen is collected
from the air by plants or by a mechanical or
chemical process it is fixed or put into the soil
and retained in a tangible way for use.
Nitrogenous plants collect nitrogen from the
air by means of nodules on the roots, which are
2 FLORIDA REVIEW
caused by certain parasites feeding on the roots.
Strange as it may seem, these parasitic bacteria
are beneficial to the plants on which they
There is another way by which nature fixes
nitrogen from the air in the soil, but not by an
organic process. Years ago the writer found
out by accident that lands broken deeply in very
dry weather and very cloddy, and allowed to
lie in this cloddy state through an extended dry
spell produced much better crops than lands
plowed in good order and crumbled perfectly.
I did not know the scientific secret, but I
knew the fact. A man up in Montana found
out this same fact and applied it to dry farm-
ing successfully. He went exploring and found
cheap lands in the Panhandle of Texas just
suited to his purpose. He tested out his theory
and it worked. Having some cash he bought
and leased an extensive acreage, introduced
power farming, plowed his land as dry and
cloddy as possible, let it lie in that rough state
through the hot dry summer, thoroughly baked
by the summer sun and aerated by the air, then
drilled in his wheat in the fall to catch the
winter snows and such rain as fell. The drilling
process combed down the rough surface and
mulched the top soil so as to conserve moisture.
In a quarter'of a century he was a millionaire-
from dry farming. His crops yielded on the
average 100 % more than did those of his neigh-
bors who plowed only when the ground was in
The secret of his success was in the fixation
of nitrogen from the air during the time the
land lay torn up loose and rough, baring to the
sun and air a thousand times more surface than
any smooth plowing would permit.
It is common knowledge that clearing heavily
timbered land in the spring and summer when
the sap is all up in the trees is very damaging
to the soil. It is also well known that to plow
land wet has a very bad effect on it. When you
make brick from clay you "work it"-knead it
in some kind of mill that stirs it. This hardens
and toughens the clay. When ground is plowed
when it is muddy it has a tendency to lock up
the plant food in an unavailable form in the soil.
Fertilizer manufacturers are still experiment-
ing in the manufacture of the commercial
product, in the formulas to be used on different
soils for the same crop, on the same soil for
different crops, on soils of the same analysis
but in different physical condition, etc.
Experimentation goes on in every branch of
human activity. The human race has been ex-
perimenting for aeons of time in the art and
science of healing with slow progress. For
thousands of years the practice of medicine was
pure empiricism. There was no science of
medicine until the germ theory of disease was
advanced. Doctors are still experimenting.
In the domain of government man has experi-
mented through cycles of history and grada-
tions of civilization. Various races, nationali-
ties and types of people are still experimenting
with a number of forms of government.
DOCTOR SEES GREAT FUTURE FOR CAN-
Money in Vegetables as Well as Citrus, Says
(Tampa Times, April 26, 1930)
A golden opportunity to increase the wealth of Florida
on an enormous scale lies in the canning of citrus fruits,
declared Dr. Fred Albee, noted New York surgeon and
fruit-canning pioneer of Venice today. Dr. Albee, who
is visiting Tampa, sees the canning industry in the state
some day equalling in proportions the scale on which
citrus fruits are raised and shipped from this state an-
The physician has been in Florida, off and on, since
1916. Virtually all the time spent in the state has been
at Venice, in which he has played an important part in
founding. Last year he began experimenting in the can-
ning of citrus fruits, and has proved so successful that
he has found the work a serious undertaking.
Not only does Florida possess unlimited possibilities
in the citrus-canning line, Dr. Albee believes, but there
also is a great future in the canning of vegetables. For
instance, Dr. Albee pointed out, take potatoes. That
one vegetable alone could net a fortune, since the small
new potato known as the No. 3 potato deteriorates be-
fore many of them can be shipped. If canned, they could
find their way to northern markets with the additional
value of having their most important food values pre-
"Canned vegetables are really 'canned sunshine'," Dr.
Albee declared. "Vegetables contain vitamins so im-
portant to people's health. Iodine, another life-giving
substance, is found in them. In fact, the vegetables get
these two substances from the sunshine. When vege-
tables are freshly cooked, you will find that most house-
wives leave them boiling a great lenth of time in open
vessels that goes to destroy the important substances. On
the other hand, vegetables eaten right after being taken
from the cans have most of these substances preserved."
A novel idea in this comparatively new industry, es-
pecially in this state, that Dr. Albee contemplates carry-
ing out is the canning of celery juice. The juice is
health-giving, and can be made into very palatable soup,
he said. Just add a little meat and water, and then boil
for a few minutes.
"A few years ago I made a study of bone and joint
tuberculosis in the Scandinavian countries," Dr. Albee
said. I found that a vast number of cases are found
there simply because those people are cut off from
vegetables raised in southern Europe. They thrive for
the most part on fish. Also, those people do not get the
FLORIDA REVIEW 8
Published Semi-Monthly by
Bureau of Immigration, Department of Agriculture
NATHAN MAYO Commissioner of Agriculture
T. J. BROOKS Asst. Commissioner of Agriculture
Entered as second-class matter, June 25, 1926, at the Post Office
at Tallahassee, Florida, under the Act of June 6, 1920.
Will be mailed free to anyone upon request.
JUNE 16, 1930
THE DAIRY COW AS AN AID TO FARM
(By J. M. Burgess, in State Marketing Bulletin, May 15,
In looking for some means to aid the farmer in his
fight for farm relief the dairy cow must not be over-
looked. Very few people know to what an extent the
dairy business has grown, and when they see the dairy
cow under the shade tree quietly chewing her cud, they
do not realize that she is a part of one of the largest
industries in the United States. Some comparisons will
help to illustrate this. While the value of the products
of the automobile industry in 1928 was $3,500,000,000,
the dairy products manufactured the same year were
valued at $4,000,000,000. The combined value of the
wheat and cotton crops is just a little more than the
dairy crop. At the present rate of gold production in
the United States, it would take fifty years to produce
the annual value of the product of the dairy cows of the
Measured in terms of people employed, capital in-
vested, or value produced, dairying is our greatest agri-
cultural pursuit. Dairying accounts for 16% of the
gross income from all agricultural pursuits. One out of
every five dollars spent for food in the United States is
spent for dairy products. Every dollar's worth of dairy
products produced in Florida competes with three hun-
dred dollars worth produced elsewhere.
If Florida should attempt to produce the dairy products
used in the state, other than fluid milk for drinking pur-
poses, it would require:
14,400 cows to produce the condensed milk
3,360 cows to produce the powdered milk
11,400 cows to produce the cheese
110,000 cows to produce the butter
Or 139,160 more cows than are now in the state.
There was a time when it was thought that only cer-
tain sections of the state could be used to advantage in
the production of milk. Now we know that there is not a
county in the state in which dairy cattle can not be kept
at a profit. A few years ago Miami imported nearly all
of its milk supply. Now Miami has the only condensary
in the state and has a real milk surplus problem.
The dairy industry has grown in Florida to such an
extent that while in former years most of the milk for the
tourist trade had to be imported, the past winter not
enough milk was imported into the entire state to last
the city of Miami two weeks.
With these facts before us what should be the pro-
gram for dairying in Florida?
The Florida State Marketing Bureau would suggest the
(1) That the herds around the cities and elsewhere
that produce milk for drinking be not increased for there
is now a surplus of fluid milk being produced in the
(2) That a program urging the dairymen to cull out
the poor producers and to thus raise the average produc-
tion; that they grow, as far as possible, the feed needed
by their herds and thus cut down the cost of the ration
fed and thereby increase profit.
(3) That the farmers who do not now keep dairy cows
be urged to keep enough cows to furnish the home with
milk and butter and thus cut down the cost of living and
add to the health of the family.
(4) That as prosperity has never followed any one
crop system, that the farmers be urged to add as many
dairy cows to their farm as they can grow feed for and
take care of without buying but little concentrates and
having to hire any labor.
(5) That the cream from these cows be sold for
butter-making and the skim milk be fed to poultry and
pigs, thus adding another source of income to the farm.
(6) That no farmer who does not expect to grow at
least 75% of the feed needed be advised to try dairy
farming on a butter fat basis, for unless the feed is
grown, failure will almost be sure to follow.
Florida has the climate, the soil, the grasses and other
feed crops that tend to make dairying profitable. Why
then not use the dairy cow as she is being used in other
states to help bring prosperity?
The production of milk for the retail trade and the
production of butter fat for churning are two distinct
types of dairy farming. As a general rule those sections
where the greatest help has come from the dairy have
been where butter fat is produced. Here the farmer de-
pends upon his profit to come from selling feed to the
cow and the increased fertility of his farm, more than
upon the check from the sale of the cream.
The following are some of the ways in which the dairy
cow can help:
(1) Will convert feed that can be grown on the farm
(2) Pays a higher price for feed than can be obtained
on the regular market.
(3) Brings a cash income each day.
(4) Returns 50% of feed eaten back to the farm in
the form of manure to build up and maintain its fer-
(5) If purebred bulls are used the herd will increase
(6) Furnishes skim milk for pig and poultry feeding.
CORN BRINGS $3.67 A CRATE
(Fort Meade Leader, May 1, 1930)
Green corn time is here. "It won't be long now" until
crates of "roasting ears" will be sent out in carload lots.
Already individual crate shipments have been sent
out, and the financial returns are most encouraging. In
addition to quite a number of corn sales last week, one
grower sent to Jacksonville two crates of corn from this
Sunday Mr. Barnett, general manager of the Fort
Meade Vegetable Growers Association, received a check
for these two crates in the sum of $7.35; $3.67 per crate
-a price most satisfying to the grower.
4 FLORIDA REVIEW
CARE OF MILK IN SUMMER
(The Florida Dairy News, June 1, 1930)
The true test of all theories of the proper care of
milk comes in the summer. In the winter, with the
temperature ranging from 50 to 64 degrees Fahrenheit
and sometimes lower, it is easy for the careless dairyman
to discredit the proven theories of the proper care of
milk, but when the summer comes with its increased
temperature, the boastful and careless dairyman comes
to grief. Having never taken any time to acquaint him-
self with the valuable knowledge of the proper care of
his milk, his milk sours, his returns decrease, and havoc
is his share.
To properly produce milk at any time, and more par-
ticularly in summer, it is necessary for a dairy to be
properly equipped and proper methods employed.
A properly constructed barn, so built as to be easily
and thoroughly washed twice each day, is essential.
Running water under pressure of not less than 65 pounds
to the square inch should be provided. Cows must be
curried and washed before each milking. Provision must
be made in the barn for hose attachment and for places
for milkers to wash their hands before milking each cow.
When a new milk house must be built, build it not
farther nor less than twenty feet from the barn. This
distance facilitates the rapid removal of milk from the
barn to the milk house for purpose of cooling, bottling,
and storage, and eliminates entirely the dangerous pro-
cess of straining and pouring milk in the barn after
Milk must not be strained more than once, nor shall
a strainer cloth be used for more than one milking, after
which it must be burned or destroyed. The most advis-
able kinds of strainer cloths for this purpose are those
commercially manufactured with this end in view, such
as cotton discs or rolls of cotton flannel gauze put in
sterile rolls, which can be cut in sizes necessary for the
purpose of straining at each milking time. These rolls
must be kept wrapped between milkings and protected
from flies and dust. Dirty strainer cloths will always
produce dirty milk. Strainers are used not for the pur-
pose of making dirty milk clean, but to prevent the pass-
ing of any foreign object into the milk. The only method
to use in producing clean milk is to keep the dirt out
in the first place by providing clean cows, clean utensils,
clean barns, and clean milkers. After the dirt is in the
milk, there is no way to get the invisible bacteria out,
and bacteria always accompany dirt.
Each and every milk house must be equipped with a
cooler for immediate reduction of the temperature of the
milk from 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit to not more than 50
degrees. And, by "immediate" is implied the exact mean-
ing of the word, not twenty minutes or ten minutes after
milking the cow, but immediately after milking.
Every dairy must have small-top milking pails. No
dairy can produce clean milk without them, and no dairy
is entitled to produce milk for the purpose of consump-
tion in its raw state if not equipped with them.
Every milk house must be equipped with a boiler of
not less than 6-H.P. capacity for the purpose of produc-
ing steam and hot water. Every milk house must be
equipped with a sterilizing room into which the steam
from the boiler can be turned, and into which cans,
bottles, and utensils are placed to be sterilized with the
steam. Without this equipment no dairy can produce
milk that is safe to consume in its raw state. Steam
pressure in the boiler must not fall below 80 pounds and
must continue to pass into the sterilizing room at not
less than this pressure for a period of not less than thirty
Storage boxes, tanks, or rooms must be provided for
the storage of milk providing a temperature of not less
than 50 degrees Fahrenheit.
Each and every one of these points mentioned must
be included in any system that considers producing milk
for consumption in its raw state.
In summing up: The requirements necessary for the
production of safe milk, which are clean, healthy cows,
clean, healthy milkers, clean utensils, and cooled milk
kept cold, are dependent on the three fundamentals,
heat (or steam), ice, and water.
The Ice Cream Industry An Important One
According to information sent out recently by the
Chief of the Bureau of Dairy Industry, U. S. Department
of Agriculture, "about 6,000,000,000 pounds of milk are
utilized annually in the United States in the commercial
manufacture of this food (ice cream), which was once
regarded as a luxury, but which now holds a well-
established place in the American diet.
"There are about 4,000 ice cream factories in the
United States today, and in 1928 they manufactured
more than one and three-fourths billion pounds, or
about 348,000,000 gallons of ice cream. These manu-
facturers required the product of about one and a third
million dairy cows."
Ice cream was first advertised for sale in the United
States about 1777. Since that time the demand for it
has increased so that today the making of ice cream is
one of the important industries of the United States.
Ice Cream Consumption
The average per capital consumption of ice cream in
1905 was 1.04 gallons, and in 1928 it was 2.9 gallons.
In three states, Pennsylvania, California, and New
Jersey, the per capital consumption was 4.98, 4.57, and
4.24 gallons, respectively.
The consumption of ice cream in Florida is far below
that of the states mentioned above. The new Ice Cream
Law in Florida was passed for the express purpose of
insuring a good quality of ice cream for the people of
Dr. E. V. McCollum, of Johns Hopkins University,
says: "There is no more attractive way of serving milk
to your family than in good ice cream. The serving
of ice cream at the family table is one of the best ways
to get milk into the diet." Ice cream is no longer a
confection or luxury, but is regarded as a wholesome and
There should be no surplus milk in Florida during the
summer if the per capital consumption of ice cream in
Florida were equal to the consumption of Pennsylvania
or California, providing of course that the Florida ice
cream manufacturers used Florida-produced milk and
cream in the making of their ice cream.
A good deal is being said these days about patroniz-
ing home industries. Mr. Ice Cream Maker, how about
using Florida milk and Florida cream during the sum-
mer time to make ice cream for Florida folks?
We often hear people say if we plant more vegetables
and berries we'll glut the market. Well, Louisiana ships
in 50 days over three times as many strawberries as
Florida does in four months. Other states ship more
vegetables in a week than this section does in a month.
It isn't overproduction; it is poor distribution.-Wauchula
FLORIDA REVIEW 6
ACTIVITIES OF THE FLORIDA STATE
MARKETING BUREAU, MAY, 1930
The Commissioner and Marketing Specialists have
traveled during May, 8,647 miles; visited 45 farmers'
meetings, attended by 2,665 farmers; delivered at these
meetings 70 addresses. Visited 59 marketing confer-
ences, attended by 552 farmers and shippers. Held 65
conferences with county agents and 33 with cooperative
associations. Organized two new cooperatives. Assisted
in establishing United States grades and inspection with
12 shipping associations. Prepared outline for commit-
tee action in setting up statewide vegetable cooperative.
Attended 20 cooperative sales, assisted in selling 39 cars
of cattle, 1 cars purebred bulls, 3 cars sweet potatoes,
1 car straw, 2 cars syrup, 150 cars vegetables.
Held seven cooperative poultry sales and sold other
poultry amounting to a total of 105,326 pounds, which
brought producers $21,691.00. Assisted in marketing
terrapins, pigeons, squabs and dressed ducks. Sold first
solid car of white Leghorn broilers ever shipped out of
Assisted in the purchase of 1,000 feeder pigs, 25 pure-
bred pigs, 1 car purebred bulls, 8 purebred sows. As-
sisted in dehorning two cars of cows and one car of
calves. Prepared 112 articles for newspapers and wrote
1,564 personal letters. Field assistance was rendered in
the sale of $236,091 worth of poultry, livestock, etc.
Cooperating with the United States Department of
Agriculture, the Florida State Marketing Bureau in-
spected during the month of May 1 car mixed vege-
tables, 3 cars green corn, 19 cars cucumbers, 109 cars
tomatoes, 399 cars celery, 1,029 cars white potatoes;
total, 1,560 cars at Florida shipping points.
Advised by letter and wire small express shippers daily
of outlets for beans, cucumbers, peppers and other mis-
cellaneous vegetables aggregating several carlots, and
have placed several miscellaneous offerings, such as one
lot of 200,000 tomato plants in New York state; 1,200
pounds chickens; 10 cases eggs; 115 hampers beans;
1,000 pounds onions; several hundred hampers field peas;
100 bushels sweet potatoes.
Have collected two claims on poultry shipments; two
claims for bulb shippers; one claim for fern shipper, and
secured an adjustment on a large shipment of cans.
Have placed two cars syrup; two cars sweet potatoes;
and have arranged contacts for a number of other
products. Secured quotations and arranged details for
shipment two cars squash from west Florida. Advised
one party by long distance of buyer for 40 acres of
watermelons in the field. Suggested best marketing plan
and arrangements for one shipper for 150 cars of water-
melons. Advised another shipper by long distance de-
tails as to diversion and routing to the best markets for
beans and squash. Placed one car of small watermelons.
Made arrangements with carlot buyers of castor beans
to handle carlot quantities for grower in the Everglades
section. Advised Florida grape grower as to proper
labeling of lugs and baskets in containers to comply with
the Federal Food and Drug Act. Advised carlot grape
shipper in west Florida proper container to use, proper
loading methods, etc., for grapes, and also supplied him
with an active list of carlot grape buyers and dealers in
the principal markets. Have arranged for the sale of
several carlots of moss.
Following communication with ice cream manufac-
turers, canners and preservers regarding cold pack Flor-
ida strawberries, received in May from reputable buyers'
solicitation for prompt offers of cold pack strawberries in
solid carlots, several of these larger buyers being in-
terested in more than one car.
Arranged to supply market information to Florida
summer vegetable shippers. Concluded the special
potato reporting station at Hastings and the miscel-
laneous vegetable reporting station at Bradenton during
May. Have averaged about 25 daily telegrams to ship-
pers of various vegetables in Florida, giving information
as to shipments, passing and quotations, in addition to
all the usual regular mail reports. Arranged for Jack-
sonville jobbers operating trucks over the state to pick
up at shippers' loading stations or in the field large
quantities of green corn, lima beans, potatoes, etc.
Supplied Florida shipping associations with list of
manufacturers of mixed feeds.
Have secured from authoritative sources carlot vege-
table acreage by the counties of Florida for the season
1929-30, which is the first time acreage information of
the various vegetables in complete authentic form for the
current season has ever been compiled.
Sent out 78,000 pieces of mail, on every phase of mar-
keting; made 26 radio talks, announcing market news,
and sent out market news and marketing advice and in-
formation by wire amounting to 1,040,000 words, which
was available on 7,616 cars and hundreds of smaller ship-
There were during May 403 different people who ad-
vertised in the "Want, For Sale and Exchange Bulletin."
The products advertised amounted in value to $114,855.
Past records show that approximately. 75% of the
products advertised in bulletin are sold or exchanged.
CITRUS CULTURE PAYS
(Evening Reporter-Star, May 22, 1930)
The Davenport Times, published in the midst of the
Polk citrus groves, has been a consistent advocate of
citrus culture as a paying investment. In a recent issue
it produced figures that are out of the ordinary but are
illustrative of what can be done. The reference is as
"R. S. Caudle reports the unusual net yield of $12,-
414.09 from the season's crop on his 10-acre grove in the
Highlands. The grove has 438 grapefruit, 16 Valencias
and 25 young tangerines. The grapefruit trees are 18
years old. He computes the crop as follows:
"Five thousand, eight hundred forty-six boxes grape-
fruit at $2.15, $12,668.90; 570 boxes to the canners at
75c, $327.50; 55 boxes Valencias, $167.69; total income,
$13,164.09. From this he deducts $750 as the cost of
keeping the grove in good condition, making the net
amount from the crop, $12,414.09, an unusually gratify-
ing figure. Four hundred boxes of grapefruit were de-
stroyed before the canning factory was in operation."
Here are actual figures that make a showing that
stands out as a real challenge. Yet Orange and Lake
counties have growers who can make equally good show-
ing. Not all, of course, meet with such unbounded suc-
cess; some make a failure of the citrus industry, while
others meet with moderate success. Much depends on
how the grower selects his soil and his trees and on
how he cares for the trees. It is not a game of chance.
But any who will devote average energy and intelligence
to citrus culture will make a worthwhile success of it.
6 FLORIDA REVIEW
WEST FLORIDA CLIMBS 17,209 IN PAST
Number of Farms Much Greater Than in 1920.
Enumeration Work in This District Pro-
ceeded at High Speed
(Pensacola Journal, June 1, 1930)
West Florida showed a gain of 17,209 in population
and 2,143 in farms during the past 10 years, complete
census figures announced yesterday by J. H. Varnum, in
charge of district enumeration, showed.
Population of the 13 west Florida counties in 1930 is
213,530. The figure for 1920 was 196,321.
Ten years ago there were 11,341 farms in this section.
Today there are 13,484.
Walton Comes In
Complete figures were obtainable yesterday when
Walton county's final returns were received. Walton
showed a population of 16,649, an increase of 4,530, or
37.3 per cent, over the 1920 figure, which was 12,119.
West Florida's percentage of increase was around 13
per cent, while the farming increase was about 16 per
Mr. Varnum's district is believed to be the first of its
size in the southeast to complete enumeration. Census
taking in west Florida was pushed throughout and figures
from this section of the state were the first to be an-
Few Kicks Received
Only a few complaints from anywhere in the district
were made against the returns and these complainants
received satisfactory explanations, whereas in several
other districts some cities and towns have demanded re-
The west Florida figures show that Escambia is the
most populous county, with 53,408. Jackson showed the
greatest number of farms, 3,793. Escambia county has
1,290 farms, a great increase over the 1920 figure, which
Complete figures on west Florida population are:
B a y ........... ............ ....... .
C alh ou n .................. ............. .
G u lf ........... .......... .
E scam bia ....... ......... ... ..
F franklin .......... .. ...... .. ...
G adsden ............... ..... ..
H olm es ... ....... .... .. .....
Jackson ...... ... ....... .. .
Liberty ...... ..... ...
O kaloosa .......... .. .... .
Santa R osa ...................... ...
W alton .............. .
W ashington ............. ....
Figures for 1930 on farms are:
Bay, 205; Calhoun, 586; Gulf, 66; Escambia, 1,209;
Franklin, 6; Gadsden, 1,367; Holmes, 1,605; Jackson,
3,793; Liberty, 296; Okaloosa, 971; Santa Rosa, 1,149;
i Walton, 1,113, and Washington, 1,118.
Mr. Varnum declared that he appreciated cooperation
given him by all citizens and officials and declared that
he owed thanks to his enumerators and clerical force for
their efficient work. His clerical force was composed of
Charles W. Gray, chief clerk; Mrs. Vernon Lowell,
Letcher Lamkin, Catherine Nolan, Nora McKinley and
(Plant City Courier, May 23, 1930)
Newspaper men of Florida were guests of prosperous
and hospitable Quincy Friday and Saturday of last week.
Those from far south Florida in particular were im-
pressed greatly with the versatile character of the state
as reflected in the topography, products and industry of
this western Florida empire.
Too many people are prone to think of west Florida
as backward and unprogressive. Any such would do
well to banish this ignorance and provincialism by a few
days sojourn in the red hills and verdant valleys which
extend westward from the Suwannee river to Perdido
Bay, of which Quincy is about the center. Let no one
believe that because this region has been boosted and
boasted less than other sections of the south that it is
backward or behind the times. As a matter of fact the
real progress which much of this country is making sur-
passes that of some more widely advertised sections of
In the development of natural resources nothing is be-
ing intentionally overlooked. Shade tobacco is grown in
huge slat and cheese-cloth covered fields even more ex-
tensive than the strawberry farms of Plant City, and
usually not greatly behind them in net profits per acre.
Fine pure blooded and graded cattle and hogs are to be
seen in large and rapidly increasing numbers, and under
fence-not on the highways. This section of Florida is
even ahead of south Florida in the excellence of its main
highways. This has been achieved in two ways: first,
political cooperation to achieve results beneficial to the
public; second, good common sense in building princi-
pally with well laid concrete. The natural sand clay
roads predominate as lateral feeders and are in the
main serviceable and inexpensive. West Florida counties
generally, have not loaded themselves heavily with bonds
for poor types of asphalt, block and brick. Such roads
as they have bonded for promise to last until the bonds
are paid-as is pitifully not the case in some counties
not far from Hillsborough.
GADSDEN MAKES MASTER STRIDE IN
PORTO RICO YAMS
(Marianna Floridan, April 18, 1930)
Gadsden county is setting a most admirable example
for Jackson and other counties in this district. It is
shown in the work of C. W. Williams, secretary of the
Quincy Chamber of Commerce, in largely securing the
expansion in cultivating sweet potatoes. Mr. Williams
reports that over 800,000 Porto Rico yam draws have
been ordered through the chamber of commerce and it
is expected many more thousands will be spoken for
during this week.
Since getting in touch with so many growers who
have raised Porto Rico yams during previous seasons,
Secretary Williams finds that there are now numerous
seed beds of this particular type of sweet potato in
Gadsden county that can be brought in soon enough to
set out in the field, and will produce sweet potatoes soon
enough to participate in the marketing program about
August 5th. In this case growers are urged to pay un-
usual attention to this crop.
FLORIDA REVIEW 7
CONTINENTAL CAN COMPANY
CONSUMMATES DEAL TAKING
OVER MANUFACTURING SITE
Shipment of Machinery to Begin Shortly, Logan
Advised By Firm
(Florida Times-Union, May 22, 1930)
Consummation of the deal whereby the Continental
Can Company takes over the motor export building in
the western section of the city for use as a local manu-
facturing plant was announced yesterday by J. J. Logan,
Jacksonville realtor, who handled the transaction.
The property, consisting of a concrete building one
story high and 70 by 300 feet in dimension, and thirty
acres of land, is located on the Southern railway and is
bounded by Ennis avenue and Fifteenth and Seventeenth
streets. It was purchased by the Continental Can Com-
pany from the owners, 0. P. Woodcock, H. L. Anderson
Price Not Announced
While the purchase price was not made public, it is
known to be one of the largest real estate transactions
closed here in recent months. The deal was for cash.
Immediately upon completing the transaction, Mr.
Logan telegraphed the can company, which, he said, was
expected to begin shipping machinery to Jacksonville
within the next few days with the view of beginning
manufacturing operations as quickly as possible. Prod-
ucts of the plant will be used to supply canners of Flor-
ida, the southeast and Cuba.
Approximately 160 workmen will be employed in the
plant, it was stated, all of whom will be local men except
the supervisory personnel. The annual payroll is ex-
pected to range around $175,000.
Announcement was made some time ago that the Con-
tinental Can Company would establish a plant in Jack-
sonville, following a survey of the field. In that an-
nouncement credit was given largely to Charles E.
Muller, manager of the industrial bureau of the chamber
of commerce, for the decision of the company's officials
to locate a branch plant here.
Muller Assembles Data
After originating the idea that Jacksonville would be
an excellent place for a can manufacturing plant, Mr.
Muller assembled voluminous data on freight rates and
the number of cans used in Florida, Georgia, Alabama
and Cuba, the territory that will be served by the new
plant, and presented it to the Continental Company, a
$200,000,000 corporation, the second largest in the world.
"That data was checked by the company's representa-
tives," Mr. Logan stated yesterday. "Before finally de-
ciding to locate in Jacksonville, however, the officials
of the company interviewed Alfred I. duPont, and it was
the encouraging information they received from him as
to his views about the future of the canning industry in
Florida, which was probably the final determining factor.
"Mr. duPont advised the company that his investiga-
tions of the great citrus industry in this state had con-
vinced him that 20 per cent to 30 per cent of each crop
of oranges and grapefruit should go into cans or be con-
verted into by-products, which would keep it off the mar-
ket as fresh fruit.
DuPont Makes Study
"He further advised the company that for some time
he had been investigating this industry; that he was hav-
ing extensive research work done in an effort to solve
the problems of how best to process it, and that the
probabilities were that he would become interested in
that phase of the citrus business in a large way.
"The company officials also were given the opinion of
Mr. duPoint that whereas Florida now raises a very large
quantity of winter vegetables, that the state could, if it
had a market, produce vegetables practically every month
of the year; that the reason it did not do it was lack of a
market except for the winter varieties. He thought that
a cannery located in the state and paying to the farmer
a profitable price for these vegetables every month would
be an excellent thing for Florida, as well as for the can-
"Immediately after the interview with Mr. duPont the
Continental Can Company's representatives instructed me
to go ahead and close for the property."
The company also is expected to move its southeastern
sales offices from Albany, Ga., to Jacksonville.
Those informed on the subject believe location of the
plant here will result in many more canneries of various
kinds being established here to take advantage of the
EVERGLADES SOIL IS LIKE BLACK MAGIC
Brief History of Agricultural Endeavor Is Set
(Plant City Courier, May 23, 1930)
Magical in its productiveness, the soil of the Ever-
glades inspires Edna Thomas Barrett to write thus in the
"The gods must have been smiling when they made
the beautiful country called the Everglades, with its
dark, rich soil, only equaled by the black earth region in
Russia. Surely, this must be the place called Fairyland.
Flowers of pastel shades, delicate as rare lace in design,
a few Seminoles, the remains of an ancient race, with
their quaint dress and frank, open countenances, sugar
cane that grows overnight, rich soil that will produce
anything, an abundance of shell in some of the soil re-
mains, in all probability, of a former time when this
region was submerged. Lake Okeechobee, second largest
fresh water lake in the United States, with an elevation
of 21 to 22 feet in 1906 and now with an elevation of
19 feet since the lake has been diked.
"This lake is 42 miles north and south and 39 miles
east and west, with a paved road practically all around
its edge. In days gone by the water's edge was up to
the ridge with fishing camps fringing the shore line.
Conditions were very primitive, the fishermen tieing
their boats to trees around the ridge.
"The beginning of active cultivation and development
of the upper Everglades along the east shore of Lake
Okeechobee started in the fall of 1916. The people were
formerly fishermen. In 1917 the West Palm Beach canal
was finished. This gave a direct outlet to the East
Coast, and in those days helped conditions considerably.
Since that time the upper Everglades have advanced in a
way that has been surprising.
"Today this region furnishes the north with a greater
part of its fresh vegetables and fruits in midwinter. Like
the Nile valley was to Egypt, so are the Florida Ever-
glades to America. They are truly the nation's great
8 FLORIDA REVIEW
VOLUSIA COUNTY'S BULB INDUSTRY IS
GREATER THAN MANY GROWERS
(By J. O. Hassell, in DeLand Sun, May 21, 1930)
In recent years Florida producers have built up a
flowering bulb industry that seems destined to become
one of the state's most important assets.
A survey of activities reveals rapid development, and
that the acreage planted to this type of flora is far
greater than even those in closest touch with the in-
dustry had realized.
While scattered plantings of narcissus, gladioli, free-
sias, Easter lilies and other bulbous flowers have been
grown in Florida for many years, it was only about five
years ago that efforts to establish culture on a commer-
cial basis were started. An impending embargo on im-
portation of bulbs from Japan and other foreign coun-
tries inspired jobbers and growers to seek suitable lands
in this country. Climatic and soil conditions made Flor-
ida attractive. Experts in floriculture found good con-
ditions in Volusia county, and today this section is the
center of the state's bulb industry.
One grower who a year ago planted an acre of freesias
in central Florida stated that before deciding upon this
location he investigated possibilities of California and
Texas. A similar experience is related by another grower
who now has a large acreage of narcissus in this section
after making experiments in other states that seemed to
offer opportunities for this bulbous culture. One of the
nation's leading producers of Easter lilies recently
demonstrated that he could produce a blooming plant
from a lily scale in seven months, a process that required
more than two years in his native state of Indiana. In
the DeLand district there is a planting of paper white
narcissus and Chinese sacred lilies that will harvest ap-
proximately ten million bulbs.
An advantage to the grower in Florida is the fact that
flowering bulbs can be matured in time to get them into
the northern markets for Christmas and early spring
forcing in greenhouses, where they bring attractive
While rapid development has been a fact, leaders in
the industry have proceeded cautiously, making experi-
ments on a small scale at the beginning and guarding
against heavy loss by unwise plunging into the business.
Like any other venture, ill-advised investments will re-
sult in a loss, and entry into the business should come
only after careful investigation.
With the industry well established, the producers have
started a movement looking toward orderly marketing
conditions. This accomplished, the growing of flowering
bulbs will be a permanent asset of the Sunshine State.
238,267 FLORIDA CATTLE DIPPED DURING
APRIL IN TICK ERADICATION
(Winter Haven Chief, May 23, 1930)
Jacksonville, Fla.-(A. P.)-During April, 238,267
cattle were dipped or inspected in systematic tick eradi-
cation work being conducted in twelve counties of Florida
and part of a thirteenth, the U. S. Bureau of Animal In-
dustry announced here.
At the same time, the eradication workers found in-
fection among 36,815 cattle, and 109,365 were held for
The systematic work is being carried out in Alachua,
Bradford, Clay, Duval, Flagler, Gilchrist, Levy, Marion,
Nassau, Putnam, St. Johns and Volusia counties, and a
part of Lake.
The bureau also reported that during April final work
in Columbia, Martin and Union counties resulted in the
dipping or inspecting of 1,702 cattle, with no infection
found and with 156 cattle being held for systematic work.
30,000,000 POUNDS OF SUGAR PRODUCED
BY GLADES FIELDS
(Tampa Tribune, May 22, 1930)
Clewiston, May 21.-(A. P.)-Termination of the
sugar cane grinding season in the northern Everglades
has been set for next Monday, it was announced today
at offices here of the Southern Sugar Company.
During the season, which started January 6th, there
were 200,000 tons of sugar cane ground, resulting in the
production of approximately 30,000,000 pounds of raw
sugar, a like amount of cane fiber and a million and a
half gallons of molasses.
Tractors and other equipment used in the harvest will
be employed in cultivation work in the cane fields during
the summer, is was said.
Vocational Agriculture and Domestic Science Departments
An exchange of classes between the Vocational Agri-
culture Department, taught by R. L. Cunningham, and
the Domestic Science Department, taught by Miss Goff
of the St. Cloud high school, proved to be very beneficial
and pleasant to both students and teachers.
The girls of the domestic science class spent some time
planning a home garden, by making notes on what to
plant, when to plant, how to fertilize, how to plant, con-
trol of the major insects and diseases and the possible
date of harvest. Then several days were spent in plant-
ing a number of vegetables and learning the names and
uses of others that were growing in the school garden at
The boys of the agriculture class learned, on successive
days, to make candy, prepare a brunswick stew of vege-
tables they had grown in the school garden, bake a cake,
sew on buttons and darn socks.
This phase of vocational agriculture is sponsored in
the state program by encouraging an exchange of classes
between the teacher of agriculture and the teacher of
home economics for approximately ten lessons during the
school year. This not only establishes a spirit of friend-
liness and cooperation between the two departments, but
broadens the knowledge of each, concerning the other's
responsibilities and duties in the home and on the
FLORIDA REVIEW 9
Members of the classes in Home Economics and Vocational
Agriculture of the St. Cloud School.
4k-%.: 4.-,1 --.. -_ -,
Members of the Home Economics Class, with Mr. R. L. Cunningham, Agricultural Teacher, who is preparing to give
the girls practical instruction in gardening in the St. Cloud School farm plot.
10 FLORIDA REVIEW
CITRUS PAYROLL FOR EIGHT MONTHS
Six Packing Houses and Canning Plant Employ
910 People at Monthly Earning of $92,500
for Eight Months in Year
(Highland News, May 23, 1930)
Frostproof's population may not be as large as some
others, and when it comes to making comparisons in re-
gard to the census reports, Frostproof does not have a
lot to say, but when it comes to a matter of payrolls
this citrus town has plenty to say, and it is doubtful if
there is a town in Florida under the city class that can
approach the figures in payrolls that Frostproof presents.
This citrus center, with a population of 2,468, in the
precinct, has an annual payroll of $997,600.00, or
$405.02 for every man, woman and child in it, on a per
capital basis, and in addition to that its citrus crop of
921,200 boxes brought in $1,842,400.00 or $746.51 each
for every man, woman and child in the Frostproof dis-
trict. How many towns of less than 5,000 population can
submit such figures?
The citrus industry, comprising the payrolls of six
packing houses and a canning factory paid out to its em-
ployees $92,500 a month for eight months, or a total of
$740,000 for the fruit season, and they employed during
this time an average of 910 people at full time.
The other business concerns of the town made pay-
rolls of $18,475.00 a month for a total annual payroll of
$221,700.00. The citrus payroll through the summer
months was $9,000.00, making a total monthly payroll for
the summer of $27,475 a month or $109,900.00. Totaling
the combined citrus and commercial payrolls for the
citrus season with the combined payrolls for the summer
season, Frostproof has combined annual payroll of
These figures are not newspaper estimates, but are
actual figures submitted by the various packing com-
panies and business houses, and are as nearly accurate
as can be obtained without having an actual audit of the
book of every concern in Frostproof.
STEM-END ROT CAN BE CHECKED
(Clay County Times, May 22, 1930)
Leesburg, Fla., May 21.-Stem-end rot should not be
allowed to cause a further loss of melons when they
mature, since treating the stems with Bordeaux paste
will prevent the disease, Dr. M. N. Walker, associate
plant pathologist with the Florida Experiment Station,
and stationed at the watermelon disease laboratory here,
Stem-end rot fungi enter bruises and cuts caused by
rough handling in the field or poor packing in the car, but
the most common point of entry is the cut stem, he ex-
plained. The melons should never be pulled from the
vine, but should be cut with as long a stem as possible.
When they are being loaded in the car the stem should be
cut closer to the melon, and Bordeaux paste applied to
the fresh cut. A small brush is handy here, he added.
The importance of this treatment cannot be over-empha-
sized, and many buyers are demanding the treatment.
A commercial Bordeaux paste may be used or a mix-
ture may be made cheaply at home. In either case the
protection is worth more than the cost of treatment, he
stated. It is convenient to place a row of melons at one
end of the car, and treat them while another row is being
put in the other end.
To make the Bordeaux paste at home, place eight
ounces of copper sulphate or bluestone and 21 quarts
of water in an enamelware pan, and boil until the blue-
stone is dissolved. Add a mixture of starch made by
mixing 4 ounces of laundry or corn starch in one pint of
cold water. Thoroughly mix the two mixtures and boil
until they reach the consistency of a smooth paste-about
SHEEP HUSBANDRY PROGRESSING FAST
IN HOLMES COUNTY
(Holmes County Advertiser, May 23, 1930)
Dr. J. J. Vara, assistant state veterinarian, wishes to
call attention of all sheepmen in Holmes county to the
fact that the State Live Stock Sanitary Board, which he
represents in this work, stands ready to demonstrate the
work of treating flocks for stomach worms. Those wish-
nig to benefit by this offer should get in touch with Dr.
Vara at once.
Infestation by stomach worms is the most serious
problem of the west Florida sheepmen. When this is
solved, as it may readily be by cooperating with Dr.
Vara and the State Live Stock Sanitary Board, our
all-year range makes possible a most profitable sheep in-
dustry. Worms cause general debility resulting in lack
of growth, poor and light fleece and large loss in win-
But the most serious handicap is the loss of lambs.
In healthy flocks the increase should be from 70 to 80
per cent. In many of our worm infested flocks the in-
crease is near the vanishing point-indeed many flocks
actually die out. The intestinal worm is the cause in
A Remedy Found
Fortunately there is a cheap remedy available. It is.
the systematic treatment suggested by the State Live
Stock Sanitary Board, which they stand ready to demon-
strate in your flock, in all the flocks of the county for
that matter. There is very little cost involved, indeed,
the trouble and expense of gathering the sheep for treat-
ment is the only considerable trouble or expense. This
is not a new remedy, even in our county.
Treatment Paid Last Year
About 5,000 Holmes county sheep were treated for
this parasite last summer. The results were as predicted.
Lamb loss was materially reduced. The growth and
vigor of the stock was much increased, with a resulting
reduction in loss in wintering. The full benefit of treat-
ment was not realized by our sheepmen last year because
the treatment was too late. Dr. Vara urges sheepmen to
attend to this important matter at once and thus receive
the full benefit.
6,000 SHEEP FEEL SHEARS IN COUNTY
(Pensacola News, May 27, 1930)
Shearing of more than 6,000 sheep is well under way
in Escambia county, according to E. P. Scott, county
The yield of wool will be excellent, he says, and prices
are fair. IDemonstrations of "drenching" to kill internal
parasites have been given and growers are expected to
have increasing herds and better wool in the future.
FLORIDA REVIEW 11
CASHES IN ON CANNED BLUEBERRY
Crestview Grower Sells Sixty Cases for $240.00
(Okaloosa News-Journal, April 25, 1930)
Sixty cases of blueberries brought a Crestview berry
grower $240 ready cash this week.
The blueberries, canned in glass fruit jars, were sold
one dozen jars to the case, netting the seller an average
of 33 1-2 cents per quart, or $4 per case.
William B. Sapp, grower-specialist, shipped the canned
berries to Tampa and banked the $240.
The 60 cases were only a portion of 4,000 quarts, which
were canned from the Sapp Orchards here last season, in
addition to many thousands of quarts of fresh berries
which were readily disposed of.
In canning it is stated that there is no loss from
shrinkage and that it is a very simple operation consist-
ing only of filling the glass jars, adding a teaspoonful of
granulated sugar, a little water, sealing, and bringing to
a boil, all at little expense and no trouble, and spoilage
is an unheard of rarity.
Mr. Sapp plans to can a great many quarts of berries
this season in addition to selling his fresh crop from the
It is preferable to can the first few berries at the be-
ginning of the season when the yield has not yet started
to ripen fast enough to encourage large shipments, and
again in late season when the supply is becoming de-
"Therefore, there is no water," he explains. Every
berry is utilized.
"We even use the first few spindling ones for our per-
sonal pies," he ejaculated.
CANADA LIFTS BAN ON FRUIT
One of Florida's Important Markets for Citrus
(Tallahassee Daily Democrat, April 24, 1930)
Good news for Florida citrus interests is contained in
a communication received by the Florida office of the
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, United
States Department of Commerce, from its division of
foreign tariffs at Washington. The message reads as
follows: "The import restrictions imposed in Canada
July 2, 1929, on all non-canned fruits or other plant
products originating in sections of the State of Florida
infested with the Mediterranean fruit fly have been re-
The Canadian restrictions of July 2, 1929, provided
the "non-canned fruits or other plant products are pro-
hibited from importation into Canada from the sections
of Florida where infestations of the Mediterranean fruit
fly have been found. Importations from other parts of
Florida must be accompanied by a certificate issued by
the United States Department of Agriculture, stating that
such fruits or other plant products were grown in non-
The significance of the removal of these restrictions to
the Florida citrus industry is made obvious with the state-
ment that Canada is the most important foreign market
for United States oranges (taking nearly 2,000,000
boxes annually), and is the second largest importing area
for our grapefruit, taking approximately 250,000 boxes
of this fruit yearly.
(Umatilla Tribune, May 2, 1930)
Come all you people if you want to know,
Of a wonderful state that is bound to grow;
And all of us surely want to learn
About this state of such concern.
It begins with an "F" for flowers so green,
Then "L" is for lakes with silvery sheen.
Don't forget "0" for oranges enough and to spare.
And "R" for richness of climate so rare.
Then comes the "I" for industrial all year,
And "D" for the days that are each so dear.
Last and best agricultural "A"
The greatest thing in our state today.
It all spells Florida, the State Supreme;
(Yet there's things we have not seen.)
Perhaps you know-but I dare say not,
That parts of the state were inhabited by sharks,
We furnish the world with its melon seed,
While on our plains more cattle feed
Than in any state of the whole southeast.
Nor in grape products do we rank least.
Produces more grapefruit than any state;
Had a postoffice building in 1598.
Our naval supplies from many a station
Furnish one-third that's consumed by the nation.
As a winter resort by no state we're excelled,
We do not care how the state may be spelled.
The Fountain of Youth of which you sing,
Is found in this land of perpetual spring.
At Daytona Beach there lies unfurled,
The finest beach in all the world.
No wonder, you see, that we are proud
Of our land of flowers with never a cloud.
If it's sport you want, or fish, or game,
It doesn't matter, it's all the same.
We have these and more for to please you.
So abide with us for work or leisure.
You may swim in the lakes or in the seas;
It's no matter to us; just as you please.
Just tune up your car, and pack your trunk;
Come on down, we'll find you a bunk.
$15,000 RESIDENCE PERMIT RECORDED
Miami Beach Building Permits for Month of
(Miami Herald, May 17, 1930)
Miami Beach building permits aggregating $36,500
were issued Thursday by J. J. Farrey, building inspector,
raising the May total to date to $438,085.
The largest permit was to Fred Hoerger for a $15,000
residence and garage at 6444 Collins avenue. B. H. Kohl
will build a $10,000 bungalow and garage at 944 Meridian
Mrs. W. H. Selden, 1813 Washington avenue; D. Mc-
Donald, Palm Island, and Mrs. E. M. Morrison, 1531
Drexel avenue, will erect $3,000 additions to their resi-
A permit was issued to the Miami Beach Bay Shore
Company for a $1,500 addition to a cottage on Collins
Island and the Community Theater will spend $1,000 for
12 FLORIDA REVIEW
TUNG PLANTER SPOKE FRIDAY
Joseph L. Gray, of Pine Royd Farm, Speaks on
Tung Industry Before Lake City Rotary
(Columbia Gazette, May 27, 1930)
Mr. Joseph L. Gray, of Pine Royd farm, west of Lake
City, who recently established a large tung tree nursery
on the farm, responded to an invitation of the program
committee and made a most concise and interesting talk
before the Rotary Club last Friday, giving salient facts
as to the tung oil industry and its future in Columbia
county and north Florida.
He said in part:
"On account of a general demand for more definite
information as to the new industry on tung oil, I shall
endeavor to set forth answers to some of the main ques-
tions commonly asked about the subject.
"Tung oil is the product of a tree of the Aleurites
species which had its beginning in China. The oil is a
nearly clear liquid, more technically spoken of as a com-
pound of organic acids.
"There is a good market for tung oil at present and
the demand for it is steadily increasing. As it is an im-
portant ingredient in the making of varnish and paint,
the companies manufacturing those products alone will
be able to consume all the American production of tung
oil for many years.
"The oil is also used in the following ways: Manu-.
facture of automobile tires, dressing leather, making ink,
electric insulation work, waterproofing of automobile
brake linings, undercoats on most automobile finishing
work, making of oilcloth, waterproofing fabrics, etc.
"The immediate market for the nuts or the oil is the
Benjamin Moore Paint Company, Gainesville, Florida.
"Tung oil trees grow and do well in this region. Gov-
ernment bulletins show that they do best in the northern
part of Florida. The oldest tree in the state, planted in
1906 near Tallahassee, is living and has borne fruit very
"Tung oil, being of a poisonous nature, has no pests
and accordingly there is no necessity for spraying.
"The cost of planting a grove is the next problem. It
depends on how many trees you wish to plant to the acre.
Putting them twenty-five by thirty feet it should cost ap-
proximately twenty-five dollars an acre, where you own
the land and hire the work done. It should cost about
twenty or twenty-five dollars an acre more, over a period
of six years, to bring the trees into complete commer-
cial maturity. The life of the tree thereafter is said to
be about thirty years.
"Tung oil trees begin bearing fruit the third year from
the time they are set in the grove, but no profits may
be expected until they are six years of age.
"At the end of the sixth year they should have paid
for the original installation cost of twenty-five dollars
an acre plus the fertilization and care cost of twenty or
twenty-five dollars an acre and have some left over.
"After the sixth year, with the price of the fruit re-
maining at two cents a pound or forty dollars a ton as
at present, it is very conservatively estimated that one
may be very certain of a net return of at least forty
dollars per acre per year.
"During the 1929 harvest last winter some acre squares
taken from the center of grove produced a net return
of a great deal more than this amount.
"Some have suggested that we make large plantings
of tung oil trees without giving the matter a second
thought. From the figures given in the paragraph on
the cost of planting a grove one can easily gauge his
possibilities in the production of tung oil.
"For example, if one were to set out three or four
hundred acres of tung oil trees he might find that he
could not raise the peak capital at about the fourth year
to complete the development. Many people have made
and are still making this mistake by making huge plant-
ings which they never will be able to bring into com-
"Some are even planting out trees in wooded sections
and in stump fields. This is to be discouraged as it does
not permit ample cultivation and fertilization.
"What to plant is as important as how to plant. At
present the cluster type tree is the only one to set for
commercial purposes. Plant the trees on well drained
land that is cultivatable and that has been tested and
approved by the State Agricultural Experiment Station
"Some people have suggested planting the seed where
they want the future tree to be. But such procedure
has been found to be faulty as some of the seed make
good healthy trees and some do not.
"In closing let me say that it would be well for every
farmer and every owner of idle land in the northern part
of Florida to put into their next year's farm program
the planting of one or more acres of tung oil trees dur-
ing the dormant months of December, January and
TUNG OIL SEEN AS MAJOR INDUSTRY IN
Florida Grown Product Vital Need in Paint
(Miami News, May 25, 1930)
Florida grown and produced tung oil has been proven
as a necessity to the paint industry, and the growing of
the tung trees promises to become one of the largest of
the state's activities in the future, according to John A.
Gaddis, manager of the Miami branch office of the
Glidden Paint Co., 150-152 S. W. First street.
Mr. Gaddis said his company is heavily interested in
the tung oil industry in northern Florida, and that it has
been proven beyond a doubt that the oil can be produced
successfully in this state.
The Glidden Co. is the second largest paint manu-
facturing concern in the world, Mr. Gaddis continued,
having advanced from thirteenth to second place in 11
years. Its officers and directors are leading financiers
and business men of the country, and its products are
now shipped to every part of the world. The company
has established factories throughout the United States
The company maintains a large warehouse and sales-
room in Miami from which it serves the entire eastern
portion of Florida as well as the Bahama Islands. There
are 19 such distributing houses in various parts of the
country. The Miami division has led the entire list in
percentage of budget reached for the last 18 months,
having won prize money last year for this distinction.
The company owns its own lead, zinc and lithophone
mines from which it draws raw materials for its own
use and for use of other manufacturers.
FLORIDA REVIEW 18
MORE TUNG TREES
(Evening News, May 24, 1930)
Live Oak.-Capt. W. J. Hillman, pioneer builder of
Suwannee county, is the latest to see the advantage to
be derived from growing tung oil trees in that section.
He has ordered seed for the planting of nursery stock,
and this stock will be transplanted next spring. He plans
to plant his trees in a prominent location on one of the
main highways out of Live Oak, so that the grove may
be seen by hundreds passing by. Mr. Hillman has fol-
lowed carefully the many tung tree developments
throughout the state, and is satisfied that there is good
money to be made in this new branch of agriculture.
NEW PACKING HOUSE TO BE ERECTED BY
BURCH AT DADE CITY
(Tampa Tribune, May 25, 1930)
Dade City, May 24.-(Special) -Anticipating greatly
increased truck farming activities in the Dade City area,
and to save long hauls on citrus crops that are packed
by the company promoting the new enterprise, arrange-
ments have been completed for the construction of a six-
car capacity packing house for vegetables and fruit near
the Seaboard station. The'site chosen has been held by
the Dade City Kiwanis Club for park purposes and some
beautification work had been done there by the club. At
a recent meeting, however, the Kiwanis directors voted
to release the property in order that construction of the
packing house might not be delayed.
The house will be operated by R. W. Burch, Inc., fruit
and vegetable buyers with headquarters in Plant City.
The building will be of semi-fireproof construction, 249
feet long. The Burch firm owns and controls a number
of grove properties in this area and the installation of a
branch house here will save long hauls to other points
for packing. The contract calls for completion of the
new plant by September 1.
The new concern will have cash platform buyers for
truck crops and will encourage strawberry production,
in particular, in the Dade City territory. It is said a con-
certed effort will be made in the near future to induce
local farmers to increase their operations next year.
The company had been figuring on coming to Dade
City for some time, but only two suitable locations for
the plant could be found. One of these was a Seaboard
property known as Edwinola Park; the other was the site
(Palm Beach Times, April 28, 1930)
Continuation of building and construction activity in
16 southern states at high level is indicated in reports
that close the week of April 19, as reported by the
Manufacturers Record. A compilation of major projects
having a total valuation of more than $71,000,000 is
given. For the previous week such projects amounting
to $70,000,000 is given. For the last week the most im-
portant undertaking listed was a $10,000,000 kraft paper
mill to be erected at Panama City, Fla., for the Southern
Kraft Corp., a subsidiary of the International Paper Co.
The plant will be one of the country's largest paper mills,
designed for a daily capacity of 200 tons. The announce-
ment assumes added significance when it is considered
that only recently the International Company completed
a $5,000,000 plant at Mobile, Ala., and a few years ago
built at Camden, Ark., a $5,000,000 plant, each with a
capacity of 100 tons daily. The company also has large
mills at Moss Point, Miss., and two mills at Bastrop, La.
In addition, at Camden, Ark., and Mobile, Ala., through
subsidiaries it has erected paper bag plants costing about
$1,500,000 each. It is reported that the company is look-
ing for a site for a kraft mill in the Carolinas.
TWO CARS OF CELERY DAILY LEAVING
Celery Growers Come from All Parts of State to
See Avon Product-Will Ship 25 to 30
Carloads from Beach Farm
(Scenic Highlands Sun, May 24, 1930)
Two or three cars of celery moving per day from the
Rex Beach farms east of Avon Park are attracting wide
attention among celery growers, who are making per-
sonal trips in groups to check up on stories that have
gone out regarding the quality of the Highlands muck
produced celery, especially its freedom from burn and
Meanwhile the market is holding up exceptionally
well, the lowest price received yet being $3 f. o. b. Avon
With only a small portion of the 300 acres of the tract
in celery, the output this spring will total between 25
and 30 cars.
Maturing in 70 days as against 90 days required almost
universally elsewhere in Florida, the crop from the Avon
Park farms is reaching the market practically without
Superintendent Warren Atkinson reports visitors from
Oviedo, Sanford and Sarasota, a number of whom ad-
mitted some neighbor who has been to Avon Park had
told them of results here which, to quote one visitor from
Oviedo, "I couldn't believe."
Before Superintendent Atkinson got through showing
this grower around, he was in a mood to believe most
anything, he stated, and admitted that he hadn't heard
half of the story.
BARTOW TO GET $65,000 COLD STORAGE
(Lakeland Ledger, May 22, 1930)
Bartow, May 22.-(Special)-A $65,000 cold storage
plant will be erected in Bartow in the near future, ac-
cording to the announcement made Wednesday night.
The plant will be erected by F. Pupura, of Bartow,
well known in business and financial circles in this sec-
tion of Polk county. Construction work will, it is un-
derstood, start at once. Mr. Pupura has bought from
the city of Bartow, a strip of land including several feet
of the south side of the present ball park on the Lake-
land-Bartow highway just north of the Seaboard railway.
The purchase price of $1,000, it is understood, will be
used to improve the ball park.
Another innovation made recently by the city fathers
includes plans for several up-to-date tennis courts. These,
it is understood, will soon be under process of construc-
tion, much to the delight of the progressive element of
14 FLORIDA REVIEW
POMPANO, BEAN CITY OF STATE, CENTER
OF FARMING AREA
Community of 2,500 Has Bank, Schools and All
(By Bob Marshall, Daily News Staff Correspondent, in
Miami News, May 25, 1930)
Pompano, Fla., May 24.-This thriving little city of
Broward county claims to be the bean city of the south.
Annually, from 4,000 to 5,000 acres of beans are grown
here. They are the major portion of agricultural activi-
ties in this section.
Wax, bountiful and several other species are used in
plantings, which yield hundreds of carloads of the
product for northern markets. Millions of dollars are
annually cleared through the bank here, and residents
as a whole are prosperous.
The city maintains an average year-round population
of 2,500, has modern schools, paved streets, electric
lights, sewerage system and water works. Situated on
the Federal highway, one and one-half miles inland from
the ocean beach, many winter homes have been erected
by northern tourists, in or near the city. Sol Beville
was the first mayor. J. W. Walton, B. F. Bailey, W. S.
Kester, R. A. McNab, W. H. McNab and Gene Hardy
were named as the city's first councilmen. The city is
also situated on three other main highways. Rocked and
paved country roads have taken the place of the blazed
trails of pioneer days.
W. H. Shufford is the present mayor, with W. H.
McNab president of the council. H. H. Power, R. F.
Hilton, E. E. Hardy and J. R. Keene are other members
of the council. The city maintains a modern fire depart-
ment. A bond issue of $375,000 has been passed for city
improvements. The city has been able to meet all out-
It is on record that farmers in this section netted over
$3,000,000 for farm products during the season of 1927-
1928. Wild game abounds in the section. Packing house
payrolls annually bring thousands of dollars to the city.
The city has gained national recognition for its activi-
ties in the bean industry, and a large number of commis-
sion men, vegetable brokers and other buyers make their
home here several months out of the year. During the
past farming season it was not rare for commission men,
in one day, to pay $10,000 to bean growers at the rail-
While not actively engaged in tourist business, the city
has good hotels and restaurants. Citizens here are proud
of the fact that the city is known as the greatest ship-
ping point for beans in Florida.
PROPOSED MIXED CAR PACKING HOUSE
SHOULD BE BOON TO BARTOW
(Polk County Record, May 24, 1930)
The plans of the Pupura Packing Company, as out-
lined in the news columns of The Record, Friday after-
noon, if carried out, as now seems sure, should have the
effect to greatly stimulate the production of vegetables
and the consequent conversion of idle acres in the vicinity
of Bartow into revenue producers.
And when we say revenue producers, we define that
term in its broadest sense. The planting of small areas
to vegetables which will find a market at the new pack-
ing house will give employment to hundreds of men,
women and children and the money received for the vege-
tables produced will find its way into the money drawers
and bank accounts of grocers, druggists, dry goods men,
amusement caterers and others, adding to community
If and when the new plant is ready for business, it
is to be hoped that fruit growers as well as producers of
vegetables will give it their heartiest cooperation for
community good. This is not to be construed as advis-
ing anyone to make any changes in marketing arrange-
ments unless they find it to their advantage to do so,
but if fruit and vegetables which now go elsewhere to be
packed for shipment can be packed in Bartow it will be
just that much more to be added to Bartow's payroll to
be spent in Bartow.
CORN IN GLADES IS ESTIMATED TO BE
Condition of Crop Made Good By Hot Weather
(Everglades News, May 23, 1930)
There are fully 2,000 acres of corn between Canal
Point and the western line of Palm Beach county, says
Sam R. Cooper, an employee of Everglades Drainage Dis-
trict, who is making an enumeration of upper Glades
crops. This is the biggest acreage of corn ever planted
in this region. In addition there is a considerable acre-
age of corn in Okeechobee county and at other points.
Weather conditions continue favorable for corn and
the crop promises a good yield, supporting the belief that
thousands of acres of land in drainage districts, now idle,
can be used profitably for corn and cattle.
There are reports that farmers from the interior of
the state who have seen this year's Glades corn crop
have stated their intention to lease land on which to
raise corn to feed to cattle in the field.
While S. R. Cooper was in section 29, township 42,
range 37, three miles south of Pahokee, he found a
patch of wheat and from one stool collected 38 heads,
which he exhibited at the office of The Everglades News.
LEGUME CROPS SHOULD BE PLANTED IN
(Chipley Banner, May 22, 1930)
Some legume crop should be planted in every acre of
corn in Florida, J. Lee Smith, district agent, recently
Legumes, he states, furnish a home for friendly bac-
teria that entrap nitrogen and add vegetable matter to
the soil, as well as furnish feed of commercial value.
Peanuts, cowpeas, velvet beans, beggarweed, soy beans,
and Crotalaria are the principal ones being used. Local
conditions and use will determine the one that is best
suited to a given farm, he added.
Mr. Smith stated that he knew of no better way to
winter the 14 head of cattle on the average north Florida
farm than a field of velvet beans and corn. The beans
will stay in the field well without rotting and make
splendid late hog fattening feed. As for soy beans, they
may be cut for hay, in which case Crotalaria or beggar-
weed should be grown for soil improvement.
One ton of cow peas will add nitrogen equivalent to
244 pounds of nitrate of soda, velvet beans 290 pounds,
beggarweed 178 pounds, and Crotalaria 322 pounds.
FLORIDA REVIEW 15
N. D. MILLER'S POULTRY BUSINESS
(Holmes County Advertiser, May 16, 1930)
The rapid expansion of the poultry industry in Holmes
county is demonstrated by the expanding business of one
of our merchants. Mr. N. D. Miller has specialized in
poultry and poultry products for many years and natur-
ally profited when the industry finally came to its own.
Last week he tried a new market with his truck traffic.
He marketed in New Orleans a truck load of 3,000 pounds
of chickens. From now on this market will divide with
Jacksonville in future shipments.
This week he will take to one of these markets the
accumulation of five and a half days poultry products.
His load will include 112 cases of eggs and 3,500 pounds
of chickens. The outlook indicates an even increasing
volume of the trade throughout the coming summer,
reaching the peak in the Thanksgiving and Christmas
DAIRYING IMPORTANT AGRICULTURAL
(Miami Herald, May 25, 1930)
The dairy industry has come to be one of the im-
portant and substantial branches of south Florida's agri-
culture. Its development from a mediocre beginning 15
years or more ago, when it was said by many that a cow
could not live here, to a magnitude of 70-odd dairies and
approximately 8,000 cows, in what is known as the Miami
dairy region, embracing the south half of Broward and
all of Dade counties, is evidence of the inaccuracy of the
Singularly fluid milk has been the main dairy product
here. As yet we make almost no butter and continue to
ship in all the cheese consumed in the state. To the
heavy demand for pure fresh milk during the winter
tourist season since the inception of the dairy industry
here, and relatively higher costs of milk production, may
be attributed the present absence of development of the
butter and cheese phases of the local dairy industry. In
spite of the heavy annual consumption of both of these
latter dairy products, their development still remains an
The climate and long growing season in Florida are
both highly favorable to dairy development, a fact that
has long since been proven. Naturally the increasing
demand for milk in the winter at a relatively higher
price per quart than obtains in most dairy regions of
the country has been an inducement to the dairyman to
depend on shipped in concentrates and hay rather than
develop his own pastures or grow his own forage crops
to the extent practiced by the average northern milk
However, the increasing summer surplus of milk-
following the departure of the tourist-has become a
problem that is now taxing the best intellect of the local
industry. A few have made some progress in cutting
production costs through the growing of pasture and
forage crops. This practice, however, appears not to
have become adequately universal to justify the establish-
ment of a sufficiently lower retail price to encourage
enough greater milk consumption to absorb this increas-
ing summer surplus. The condensary and powdered milk
processes have not as yet entered the local dairy picture
to an extent that bridges the gap between the prosperous
winter and a lean summer for the local dairymen.
But as in most other activities of food production, the
dairyman who best understands the business, who culls
closely, maintains a high production herd and carefully
watches his feed and other overhead expenses, has an
advantage over his less careful and less efficient brother
who is carrying a less productive herd.
While the manufacture of butter and cheese are yet
scarcely discernable on Florida's dairy horizon, yet until
one or both are accomplished there appear to be possi-
bilities for their ultimate development. In the meantime,
however, it is patent knowledge that south Florida has
some of the best blooded dairy stock in the country. The
same applies to the modern equipment of a number of
its dairy plants, while the quality of milk produced is
unexcelled anywhere according to the sanitary and health
standards of the country.
FLORIDA SPENDS THREE MILLIONS FOR
(St. Petersburg Times, May 25, 1930)
April construction contracts in Florida aggregated
$3,871,200, according to F. W. Dodge Corporation. When
compared with the total, $2,388,500, for the preceding
month, there was a gain of 62 per cent, but when com-
parison was made with the April, 1929, total, $5,317,300,
there was a loss of 27 per cent. The month's total in-
cluded the following active classes of construction:
$2,415,800, or 62 per cent of the total, for residential
buildings; $810,700, or 21 per cent, for public work and
utilities; $236,800, or 6 per cent, for commercial build-
ings; $179,800, or 5 per cent, for industrial projects, and
$228,100, or 6 per cent, for all other classes (educational,
hospitals and institutions, public buildings, religious and
memorial buildings, social and recreational buildings).
Since the first of this year there has been $10,813,600
worth of new building and engineering work started in
this state compared with $14,409,200 for the correspond-
ing period of last year, the decrease being 25 per cent.
New work planned during the month of April in
Florida amounted to $15,036,400, being more than double
the amount planned in April of a year ago. The April,
1929, was $7,111,200.
PORK FROM PEANUTS, DISTINCT IN
FLAVOR, NOW ON THE MARKET
(Taylor County News, May 22, 1930)
Gainesville.-Peanut-fed pork has a flavor all its own,
and the fact should be capitalized instead of penalized,
is the belief of H. G. Clayton, extension district agent.
Swift & Company, large pork packers, has recently
begun boasting a special peanut brand of pork as having
a distinct flavor and unusual sweetness. The meat is
very attractively wrapped in cellophane, which overcomes
the oily difficulty, and the product is finding favor with
the trade, Mr. Clayton said.
Consumers everywhere are beginning to appreciate the
value and quality of the peanut flavored meat, which
offers considerable encouragement to hog production in
the peanut areas of the south. Hogs are one of Florida's
best money crops, and peanuts furnish the best and
cheapest source of feed.
16 FLORIDA REVIEW
ORR IS PLANTING 40,000 PALMS ON REX
(Scenic Highlands Sun, May 24, 1930)
Planting of 40,000 cocos plumosus palms is under way
on a part of the Rex Beach farms tract, which has been
leased by L. M. Orr, Avon Park nurseryman.
Mr. Beach tried palms on a portion of his Highlands
mucklands east of Avon Park last year, and the experi-
ment has proved so successful that Mr. Orr has gone
into this angle on a large scale.
The palms have been raised from seed in pots the past
12 months and Mr. Orr has a crew busily engaged this
week in transplanting them to the open field.
Mr. Orr has more than 100,000 plants growing in his
nursery aside from several thousand bulbs with which he
is experimenting for bulb growing.
The Rex Beach forces are also experimenting with a
planting of 100,000 gladiolus and narcissus bulbs on a
corner of his muck tract.
PROPER ROTATION OF CROPS ESSENTIAL
FOR BEST PRODUCTION
(By J. M. Purdom, in Jasper News, May 23, 1930)
For several years the Georgia Coastal Plain Experi-
ment Station at Tifton has been growing tobacco in a
three-year rotation following the various field crops
common to this section. The crops in this rotation in-
clude peanuts, cotton, sweet potatoes, tobacco, bunch
velvet beans, Brabhain cowpeas and Clay cowpeas, and
also rested land and fallow land, each of these crops
being grown two years on the land and then the land is
planted to tobacco. The object of these experiments is
to determine the influence that each of these crops has
on the tobacco crop that follows.
It is a very useful experiment and one that it would
pay as many tobacco growers as possible to see. The
crops of tobacco that follow peanuts, corn, bunch velvet
beans, Brabham cowpeas and on the rested land are
growing off very much better than those which follow
tobacco, cotton, sweet potatoes, Clay cowpeas and on
the fallow land, and indicate conclusively that it is only
a question of time if these latter crops are planted for
a number of successive years on a piece of land that the
possibility of making a crop of tobacco on it is very
much lessened, and particularly so in a year when sea-
sons are more or less adverse.
I have seen a number of cases this year where to-
bacco was planted on land that had been so treated, and
the growers were at a loss to understand why they could
not make it grow off satisfactorily. Their usual explana-
tion was that it was caused by the cold wet spring, but
in some cases they had crops of tobacco planted on land
where had been practiced a more favorable rotation
preceding the crop of tobacco and these crops were grow-
ing off very nicely, and as they knew both crops were
grown under the same conditions and treatment they
were still more puzzled.
There is no question but on the majority of our lands
a rather rigid system of crop rotation must be main-
tained if we expect to continue to grow profitable crops
of tobacco. The crops that have an adverse effect on
the land are those that help to increase the nematode
infestation and those that deplete the humus content
and those that do both. The main difficulty of getting
this fact generally recognized is that occasionally we
have a year of ideal growing seasons and satisfactory
crops of tobacco are grown under almost every con-
ceivable condition, and, also, there are some of our lands
which are so ideally suited for the production of tobacco
that they can stand abuse for a good many years and
continue to make good crops of tobacco. When con-
ditions such as these obtain, a great many are entirely
too quick to jump at the conclusion that crop rotation
is not necessary.
The experiment at the Georgia Central Plain Experi-
ment Station clearly demonstrates the adverse of some
of our crops and the beneficial effects of others on crops
of tobacco that follow them.
CORN SHIPMENTS STILL ROLLING ON
Mr. Moore Is Sending Out Two Cars of Green
Corn Daily-Vegetable Association Com-
pletes Marketing with Six Cars
(Ft. Meade Leader, May 22, 1930)
Corn crop was late this year about two weeks. The
first gathering of the roasting ears, it is stated, was
sorry, and some of the best and finest green corn ever
grown anywhere is now being harvested and sent to the
hungry eastern markets.
Mr. Moore and son are busy every day loading an
average of two cars of corn, and it is understood they
pay the grower a net price of $1 per crate. Mr. Moore
understands the marketing of corn thoroughly and is
making a success of the venture, much to the benefit of
the growers and community.
The local Vegetable Growers Association has com-
pleted its shipments of the corn crop for the present.
The membership having corn is limited and not enough
can be gathered now to make it worth while to load full
cars and they are not shipping any more now. The asso-
ciation has six carloads to its credit, making a splendid
beginning, and it is anticipated that another season will
find the membership acreage greatly increased.
ONE 4-H BOY
(National 4-H Club Magazine)
There is a man in an eastern state who, when a boy,
was a poultry club member. He joined so that the boys
in his community could have a club. At that time he
didn't want to farm but thought he might have a good
time. The home farm on which he lived had never paid
much profit and anyhow he was going to be an engineer.
To this boy's surprise, in addition to having a good time,
he made a small profit on his chickens by using good
methods and kept on in the club until he finished high
school. He had made enough by that time to pay part
of his college expense from his chickens.
At the college the Kiwanis Club had built a poultry
house for the use of worthy club boys so this chap took
his birds to college with him and they helped give him a
four-year college education in agriculture. Today this
lad, now a young man, is owner of the home farm, has
increased its earnings from a livelihood to a labor income
of over $2,000 in these seven years. He is a master of
the local grange, developing a local fair, a successful
dairy and poultry farmer; is married and his wife is local
leader of a successful 4-H Club in their community.-
From a radio talk by Robert G. Foster, field agent in
club work, U. S. Department of Agriculture.