U.S.Dept. of Agriculture,
ifI6LISHED SEMI-MONTHLY BY
BUREAU OF IMMIIGRATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Vol. 4 MARCH 3, 1930 No. 19
SERVING OUR DAY AND POSTERITY
Speech by NATHAN MAYO, Delivered to the State Press at Orlando Fair, Feb. 21, 1930
Mr. Toastmaster, Ladies and Gentlemen of
the Florida State Press:
ST IS usually considered now that one has
the greatest audience when talking from
a radio broadcasting station; I am of
opinion, however, that when a speaker
addresses a meeting of newspaper editors he is
really reaching the largest and most influential
audience. Potentially one is talking to all the
readers of all the papers edited by the mem-
bers of the audience-not once, but any num-
ber of times of future issues.
The press changes in its form and functions
as the years go by, just as does everything else,
but withal it is the mouthpiece of the most
active thinkers of the day. As a means of the
dissemination of knowledge it has but one
rival-the classrooms of the schools and col-
Meeting here as you have, with the inspira-
tion of a splendid fair exhibit, you will doubt-
less gain information and inspiration which in
turn will be reflected in the columns of your
several papers. Were it not for the high lights
which flash on us along the pathway of life we
would miss much that instructs, elevates and
The exhibits at this fair show forth in bold
relief the possibilities and opportunities of this
section of Florida. It is the task of each genera-
tion to go forward with the heritage which has
been handed to it from the past. I am quite
sure that when judged by this standard the
people of this part of Florida can justly be
proud. You inherited a wilderness and have
transformed it into a veritable Eden of beauty.
You inherited no accumulated wealth in the
materials of civilization and you have exem-
plified the power of energy, intelligence, per-
severance, cleverness, common sense and in-
As though a supreme test was to be made of
your strength, fortitude, skill and capabilities,
a dangerous pest recently came in and bid fair
to play havoc with the main industry of the
State. If we come out of this dilemma success-
fully it will be a victory worthy of the highest
honors in the accomplishments of this country
and agriculture. Men cannot win battles with
such foes as the fruit fly singly and alone; it
must be a battle of man, orderly and directed.
Civilization cannot-endure unless each succeed-
ing generation takes into account the welfare of
If the human race is to survive the millions of
pests in the way of insects and bacteria the
fight must be waged with the same energy and
wholehearted support that is thrown into the
terrible wars which we have waged in the past
with each other.
The great task before our age is to practi-
calize science, put it to work effectively for con-
structive work. Knowledge unused is of little
value. The combatant and destructive forces
in man have ample field for operation without
turning them loose on himself in military con-
THE WORLD INTERESTED IN FLORIDA
Perhaps there is no single state anywhere
that is quite as largely in the eyes of the world
as Florida. From every quarter of the globe
we receive inquiries concerning our state and
its resources. From our sister states to the
north and west we are still the subject of in-
quiry of investigation. Only last Wednesday I
met a delegation of farmers from Pennsylvania,
New Jersey and Maryland. They came to
Florida to learn first-hand what we are doing
and what can be done. We are fortunate to be
able to interest these people in our common-
wealth. When they have toured Florida they
will carry back with them a first-hand opinion
2 FLORIDA REVIEW
of our state. Our exhibit at nine State fairs
last season carried our message to hundreds of
thousands who had never seen Florida products
We have received letters of inquiry from
people who plan large investments in industrial
projects provided they are convinced that we
have the proper location for the business con-
templated, such as distillation from pine stump-
age, canning of fruits and vegetables, establish-
ing of mills to make mixed feeds for stock and
poultry, manufacturing drugs from medicinal
plants, setting up of creameries, making things
from Spanish moss, manufacturing from fiber-
bearing plants, such as sisal, hemp, flax, ramie,
and manufacturing products from the nuts of
the tung oil tree, etc.
Last week we had a visitor from the dry
farming district of the west investigating the
advisability of undertaking power farming in
Florida, where a few hands with proper equip-
ment could cultivate thousands of acres of land.
This kind of farming bids fair to transform the
agriculture of the world.
Last week we had a representative of a large
life insurance company in the office. His com-
pany owns some $4,000,000' of Florida bonds.
He is a booster that is worth while. His com-
pany has not lost faith in Florida by any man-
ner of means. Insurance companies are con-
sidered very cautious, conservative investors.
At one time one-fourth of all the money loaned
on real estate was placed in Iowa. When the
slump came after the World War four hundred
banks of that state tumbled! No such ado was
made of it as was made of the bank failures in
Florida. Insurance companies are still invest-
ing in Florida bonds. They realize that we
have all we ever had except inflated values.
We are having the finest tourist season in the
history of the State. Where people like to
spend their vacations they also like to reside.
Frequent visits lead to permanent residence,
residence leads to investment, and investment
leads to citizenship.
It is up to the people of Florida to make the
best possible use of their opportunities. This
can be done only when the individual and the
State work hand in hand for the general and
specific betterment of our common country.
The Department of Agriculture is doing
whatsoever it can to promote the interests of the
farming industry of the State. We fully believe
that we are reaching a larger per cent of our
farmers directly than is being reached by the
state department of agriculture in any other
state. The Legislatures of Florida have been
exceedingly considerate of the department.
They have at no time since I have been in office
refused to enact any law sponsored by the de-
partment, for which I am profoundly thankful
and I am sure this feeling is shared by the
people of the State as a whole.
My time is largely taken up by duties which
are irrelevant to agriculture. This of necessity
limits me in the service I should be able to give
the farming industry. Whatever there is in me,
I am giving it all to the task of advancing my
state in every line of human endeavor.
WHO BEARS THE
By NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner of Agriculture
I wish to call attention to the article, "Statis-
tics on Citrus Crop, Season 1928-29," by the
State Marketing Commissioner, Mr. L. M.
This report is an exemplification of the oft-
repeated statement that a small crop nets the
producer more than a large one. Of course the
effect of a surplus on price depends upon the
particular circumstances surrounding each in-
The pack of peaches in California in 1928
was 15,000,000 cases, which brought six and
one-half million dollars. The 1929 crop was
eight million plus, which brought twelve and
one-half million dollars.
The following figures all relate to crops
grown and marketed before the fruit fly dis-
The citrus crop of Florida in 1927-28 was
13,635,360 boxes, which brought $51,424,000,
netting the farmers $25,151,000. The crop of
1928-29 was 23,239,645 boxes, with a total
value of $49,035,794, which netted the farmers
only $5,038,711. And hereby hangs a story.
The cause of this vast difference in the net profit
received by the farmers is not all attributable
to the difference in the size of the two crops.
The charges against the fruit are flat rate and
not percentage costs. Most grove owners turn
their groves over to the packing houses to pick,
pack, haul, grade, box, stamp and load their
fruit. A flat rate per package is charged
FLORIDA REVIEW 3
Published Semi-Monthly by
Bureau of Immigration, Department of Agriculture
NATHAN MAYO ................Commissioner of Agriculture
T. J. BROOKS.... ......Asst. Commissioner of Agriculture
Entered as second-class matter, June 25, 1926, at the Post Office
at Tallahassee, Florida, under the Act of June 6, 1920.
Will be mailed free to anyone upon request.
Vol. 4 MARCH 3, 1930 No. 19
against this fruit, which is a purely quantita-
This being true, the more fruit the packer
packs and sells, the more profit he receives, so
long as the fruit sold brings packing, transporta-
tion and selling charges.
Therefore it is impossible for the packer to
feel the same interest in controlling shipments,
enforcing grade and maintaining quality as the
grower feels, who must shoulder the risk and
stand the loss, on all fruit of poor quality that
sells for less than packing, selling and trans-
What is the remedy? If the packing house
business is so profitable, why do the growers not
own their own packing houses? If the objec-
tion is raised that these growers are not finan-
cially able to buy or build their own can they
not finance them under loans secured by the
plants at the regular rate of charges? There
have been splendid warehouses built by private
parties and made to pay for themselves in two
years-in a few instances in one year.
The Federal Farm Board has fully declared
its policy of advancing loans on crops only to
cooperatives, which means that the association
does not pay dividends on stock of over 8%.
The association must be producer-owned. Our
state law on cooperative corporations also has
these principles incorporated in its provisions.
The Intermediate Credit Banks are operated
on the same principles, as well as the Federal
Farm Loan Banks.
No unified marketing program can be carried
out so long as the interests of the growers and
shippers are antagonistic. The growers' safety
is in quality production, not mere quantity.
There are grades and sizes which can be de-
pended upon to bring him a good price and it is
folly to force on the market fruit that does not
command a profitable price. Control of ship-
ments can best be accomplished by making it
unprofitable to anybody to over-supply the mar-
ket with inferior grades.
STATISTICS ON ORANGE CROP 1925-26
O ranges ............ .. ..... ......... ... ... .. ...... 7,749,720
G rapefruit ............. ....................... ......... .... ...... 6,492,600
T angerines .............. .......... ............... .. ............ 451,800
Total................................ ... .......... ....... 14,694,120
($3.31 per box.)
Per Box Total
Cost of production per box: (Oranges 88c, Grapefruit 66c, Tangerines 99c)................ ... $11,552,151
C ost of selling, 20c per box ...................... ....... ................................................ ........................ .. ...... .. 2,938,824
Payroll in packing house, 17c per box .............................................. .......... ........ 2,498,000
Picking and hauling, 25c per box........ .... ..... ................................. ....... ..................................... 3,673,530
Salaries and paper, 17c per box ................................... ........................................ .................. ......... 2,498,000
Interest, taxes, depreciation, light, power, labels, paste, nails, straps, strips, cost of crates, advertising,
within the State, repairs, auto, miscellaneous................................................... 6,759,295
T o ta l ............... ............... ................................................................................................................ 2 9 ,9 1 9 ,8 0 0
Growers' net receipts approximately $1.27%c per box.................................. ............... 18,735,003
Transportation charges inside the State...................................................... ............................. .................. 3,599,859
Sold by truck, 250,000 boxes................................................................. ............. 437,500
U sed by cann ers, 435,000 boxes......................................................................................................... ........ .. 761,250
C onsum ed in State, 750,000 boxes..................................................................................... .......................... 1,312,500
Total to the State............... ..... .................... ............ ............. $ 54,765,912
R retailers' profit, $1.35 per box ........................................................ ...... ......... ... ................. 19,837,062
W holesalers' profit, 40c per box ...................... ......................................... ............................ ... ........ 5,877,648
Transportation outside the State, 90c per box. ................................................ ............. .. ........ 13,224,708
A advertising outside the State........................................................................................................... ....... .... 881,647
Total revenue from the crop......... ...... .................. : ...... ...... ............ $ 94,586,977
4 FLORIDA REVIEW
STATISTICS ON CITRUS CROP-SEASON 1926-27
Average Price to
Boxes Marketing Agencies Total Value
(F.O.B. Shipping Point)
Oranges ........... ........ 9,090,000 $2.75
Grapefruit ................... 6,958,800 2.30
Tangerines ....................... 540,000 3.49
T otal.................. .......... 16,588,800 ........
(General average per box, $2.585.)
Cost of production per box on tree: (Oranges 72c, Grapefruit
52c, Tangerines 81c.)
Total cost of production on tree ........................... .......................
Picking, hauling, all packing house charges, selling, advertising,
etc., at $1.30 per box........... ........... ....... .................... .......
T otal cost of production .............................................................
Balance to growers after producing, preparation for market and
selling expenses are paid....... ... ... ............... .. .. .......
(Approximately $0.6462 per box.)
Transportation charges inside State........ .......... ..........
Approximately 715,000 boxes grapefruit canned..... ......................
Value of fruit moved by truck and consumed in the State approxi-
m ately ............ ........................ .................... .... .....
Total revenue from citrus crop to the State............ ..............
STATISTICS ON CITRUS CROP-SEASON 1927-28
Average Price to
Boxes Marketing Agencies
(F.O.B. Shipping Point)
Oranges ............... 18,613 6,700,680 $4.16
Grapefruit .......... 18,147 6,532,920 3.28
Tangerines .......... 1,116 401,760 5.28
Total............. 37,876 13,635,360 ........
(General average per box $3.774.)
Cost of production per box on trees: (Oranges 72c, Grapefruit
52c, Tangerines 81c.)
Total cost of production per box on tree .........................................
Picking, hauling, all packing houses charges, selling, advertising,
etc., $1.30 p er box .................... ........ ......... ......... .............
Total cost of production .................. ......... ........ ........... ...... ..
Balance to growers after production, preparation for market and
all selling expenses are paid................................. ........
(Note: Approximately $1.84 per box.)
Transportation charges inside Florida......................... ..............
Value of fruit moved by truck and consumed in Florida approxi-
m ately .................... ....... .......................... .. ..........
Value of the fruit canned in Florida.................. ...............
Total revenue from the citrus crop of Florida.........................
STATISTICS ON CITRUS CROP-SEASON 1928.29
Oranges ...................................... ............... 12,992,540
Grapefruit ..... .............................. ........... 9,335,335
Tangerines ............................ ....... ........ 911,770
Average Price Per Box
T otals ......... ........... .. ......................... 2 3,2 39,64 5 ........
(General average price per box $2.54.)
Cost of production per box on tree, not including interest, depreciation and taxes:
(Oranges 72c, Grapefruit 52c, Tangerines 81c.)
Cost of production of total crop shipped......... .................... ..................................
Cost of picking, hauling, all packing house, clearing house, advertising, selling
charges, etc., $1.25 per box, or........................... ...............
Total cost of production and preparation for market and selling (an approxi-
mate average of $1.81 per box) ................................................... ........... 43,997,082.85 43,997,082.85
Balance to producers after production, preparation, and selling charges were paid 5,038,711.65 5,038,711.85
Transportation charges inside state............................................................................ ... .. 5,809,911.25
1,527,320 boxes of fruit used by canneries, approximate value ............ ............ 535,562.00
1,500,000 boxes moved by truck (estimated), approximate value ............................ 750,000.00
Total gross revenue to state.................................... ... ........... .............. ........ $56,131,267.75
Total value all fruit shipped, canned and moved by truck .................................. 50,321,656.50
Adding fruit consumed in the state, destroyed by hurricane and in the eradication of the fruit fly to the approx-
imate total of 26,266,965 boxes shipped, moved by truck and canned, the total crop would have been more than
FLORIDA REVIEW 5
LAND INFORMATION WANTED
Wilkes-Barre, Pa., Feb. 18, 1930.
Department of Agriculture,
Department of Forestry, or Any Other Well
Informed Agency of the State of Florida.
The writer has been appointed as chairman of a com-
mittee, appointed by a group of ex-service men, organ-
ized and equipped with machinery and engineering edu-
cations, to investigate the land situation in the State of
Florida, preferable along the ridge section south of Or-
lando and lying between the "orange belt" and the
These men are looking for a section or two of low cost,
undeveloped land, lying on a lake or river, yet high
enough to be free of any possibility of overflowing. They
wish to establish an aerial experimental station so they
will want a part of it level enough for an airport. This
level land should lie along the lake or river so that sea-
planes may be flown from the body of water, yet stored
in the same hangars that contain the airplanes.
Any information that you may be able to give us will
be greatly appreciated. We do not object if you turn
this communication, or the information contained therein,
over to any land-owners, chamber of commerce execu-
tives, municipalities or others who are seeking to attract
high-grade settlers to your state.
Some of our people have spent much time in your
state. We have people there now who are looking over
the situation. However, it remains for this committee
to make any decisions, so you may address your com-
munications to this office.
Yours very truly,
The Airway Engineers, Inc.,
F. P. Archer, Chairman.
107 N. Franklin Street.
"MORE MILK, FRUITS AND VEGETABLES"
Helps Florida Four-H Girl of Walton County
Not only the healthiest Four-H Club Girl in Florida,
but also the girl who carries the best program in "Food
Nutrition and Health" and makes the greatest improve-
ment in her own health wins a trip to the Boys and Girls
Club Congress in Chicago. This improvement contest in
Florida is open only to girls fifteen years of age who
have as a major project "Nutrition", according to the
program issued by the State Extension Department. This
program, as carried by the winner in 1929, included:
1. Improvement of her own food and health habit
2. Improvement in diet, and weight for height score.
3. Correction of defects.
4. Food production, selection, preparation.
5. Community service in "Better Nutrition."
Leila Mae Duke (age 16) Walton county, Florida, was
the winner. Her score in food and health advanced from
53 to 95. Every demonstration required in preparation
of home products, milk, eggs, fruit, vegetables was given.
"Salad demonstrations" has been her specialty. Using
the fresh fruits and vegetables from her own garden she
demonstrated many Walton county salads. She taught
five other club members to give salad demonstrations and
promoted a community contest in salads in her own com-
munity, thus furthering the slogan of Florida Four-H
Clubs, "More Fresh Fruits and Vegetables."
"A-Quart-of-Milk-a-Day" is another slogan Leila Mae
has put into effect. Not only has she consumed her own
quart, but she has put milk into the family menu. Her
"Home Garden" was for family use. It cost her $21.50,
supplied her with $50.00 worth of fresh vegetables for
family use and $13.00 worth for market. Her greatest
joy and satisfaction has been in using her own garden
products in the salad making.
Other club history this Four-H Club member has done
is listed as follows:
(1) Clothing, (2) dining room and kitchen improve-
ment and (3) exterior beautification of her home. She
has served as vice-president of the Walton County Junior
Council, and as a member of the State Council.
At present she is a junior in the DeFuniak Springs High
School, where with the small surplus she earns from her
garden and other work out of school hours, she is help-
ing to meet her own expenses. She is working with the
Walton County Four-H Clubs under supervision of the
Home Demonstration Agent, Miss Eloise Magriff, in carry-
ing out a nutrition demonstration with forty children in
the elementary grades. She will also assist with the
"Milk-for-Health Month" in April.
SETTING OUT TUNG TREES-FOUR ACRE
TRACT NEAR CITY
J. L. Gray Receives Stock from Gainesville for
Experiment in this Section
(Lake City Reporter, February 7, 1930)
State experiment farm at the University of Florida at
Gainesville has furnished J. L. Gray sufficient tung oil
trees free of charge to set out four acres of ground for
experimental purposes, and Mr. Gray went after the
trees, which are a year old, Thursday.
The trees will be set out today on the Burley farm on
the south side of State road No. 1 and in sight of the
road. Mr. Gray will take care of the trees and the state
agricultural college will furnish the necessary directions.
Next spring a man from the state experiment farm will
graft buds of a certain variety of tung oil tree on the
trees, which are of a different kind from that from which
the buds will be taken, in an experiment to improve the
quantity of tung oil nuts produced.
About a week ago Mr. Gray set out 100 3-year old
trees on the farm.
TOMATO CROP BRINGING MANY NEW
(Palatka Herald, January 31, 1930)
Towns have been deserted overnight or grown up in
the space of a year but "boom day" methods failed to
duplicate the growth of a nameless community of more
than 250 persons which has sprung up in six weeks along
the Tamiami Trail in Collier county. The new town is
located in the center of a mammoth tomato farm four
miles east of Carnestown. Since the new crop was
planted in Collier county, barracks, stores, tents and
filling stations have had mushroom growth at this spot
on the trail. The people are in the center of hundreds
of new green acres.
6 FLORIDA REVIEW
ALACHUA COUNTY BOY WINS
IN AGRICULTURAL CONTEST
Elmer Strickland Receives Two Hundred and
Fifty Dollar Trip as Champion Agricul-
tural Boy in Florida
(By G. W. Dansby, Agriculture Teacher)
Each year the Chilean Nitrate of Soda people give as a
prize to the crop champion agricultural boy in Florida,
an educational trip valued at $250.00. This trip is one
of. the most worth-while prizes that are offered to the
vocational students in Florida and all the boys that enter
this contest look forward with hopes of winning it. Last
year Paul Simmons of Plant City, in Hillsborough county,
was the winner and enjoyed a tour of the western states,
Champion Agricultural Boy in Florida
down into New Mexico and Old Mexico and back home
This year one of the Alachua agriculture students, be-
cause of his good work, was selected as champion crop
grower of Florida. Elmer lives three miles south of
LaCrosse and has had two years of vocational agriculture
work under Mr. H. E. Wood. In 1927-28 he was enrolled
as a student in the Alachua High School. He carried
cucumbers as his project, and although it was a cold late
spring, Elmer produced 235 hampers of cucumbers and
made a profit of $160.76 on two and one-third acres.
Last year, in the 1928-29 term, Elmer was in school in
the LaCrosse Junior High and enrolled as a unit day
student and Mr. Wood met with the boys each Monday
afternoon. He selected cucumbers and peppers as pro-
jects this year, planting 1 % acres of cucumbers and 1
acres of peppers. On his cucumbers he made $264.01
net profit, and on his pepper project his total income
was $1,040.20. Three-fourths of an acre of this pepper
project was entered in Chilean Nitrate of Soda contest,
Elmer using Chilean Nitrate of Soda as a top dressing
for these according to the rules of the contest. On this
pepper he used 1,200 pounds of 5-7-5 commercial fer-
tilizer put down in three applications and used at the
rate of 300 pounds of Chilean Nitrate of Soda in three
different applications. On this three-fourths acre patch
he sold 301 crates of peppers, which gave him a profit of
$330.48, or at the rate of $413.10 per acre. He pro-
duced the pepper at a cost of sixty-one cents per crate
delivered to the railroad station. It was with this project
and these results that Elmer won this trip.
The crop champions from the different states will meet
with Elmer at Jackson, Mississippi, on February 6th and
that evening will attend an annual banquet at which time
the Chilean Ambassador to this country will be the prin-
cipal speaker. On February 7th they will visit the
National Cemetary at Vicksburg and that afternoon will
take a train to New Orleans, where they will spend the
night. Saturday morning, February 8th, a sight-seeing
trip around New Orleans will be made; after noon they
will take a boat for Tampa, Fla., arriving there Monday
morning. February 10th and 11th will be spent sight-
seeing by bus, visiting some of the interesting sights of
Florida and the tour will end at Jacksonville, February
The Chilean Nitrate of Soda people will bear all of
Elmer's necessary expenses from the time he leaves
home until he returns, and will have some of the leading
men of the state with him to take care of him and to
supervise this trip.
Elmer is very proud of the fact that he has won this
prize and our community and every one that knows Elmer
joins in congratulating him upon his good work in doing
Elmer Strickland, a seventeen-year-old Alachua county
farm boy, lives three miles south of LaCross, Florida. In
1927-28 he enrolled as a student of vocational agricul-
ture at the Alachua High School and decided to grow
cucumbers as a project.
A cold wet spring was very discouraging to Elmer, but
by means of an application of Chilean Nitrate of Soda,
which started his plants to growing vigorously, and with
his continued work and care of his project he produced
on two and one-third acres 235 hampers of cucumbers,
which when sold and expenses of production subtracted
gave him a net profit of $160.76 or $196.31 labor income.
It required 237 hours of Elmer's labor, a lot of de-
termination and Chilean Nitrate of Soda for Elmer to do
this. His energy and good judgment, however, were re-
warded and from the results of this project the agricul-
ture teacher saw that Elmer was a real boy and was
made of champion material.
This project and his teacher's interest in him en-
couraged Elmer to carry on in his vocational agriculture
work, and although he did not return to the Alachua
High School he entered the LaCrosse Junior High and
enrolled in the unit day class of vocational agriculture.
In this class were nine other boys besides Elmer and the
agriculture teacher met with them each Monday after-
FLORIDA REVIEW 7
noon for ninety minutes during the entire term of eight
Being encouraged by his last year's result with cucum-
bers he decided to grow cucumbers again in 1928-29 and
to also add to his work a project of sweet peppers.
He prepared his plant bed, grew his plants, bought his
fertilizer for his peppers and did all the other jobs neces-
sary in the production of this crop. Although Elmer
carried on in a systematic way and strictly followed the
instructions of his teacher he again seemed faced with a
failure when his peppers refused to grow off as they
should. The agriculture teacher advised him to make a
top dressing to his peppers of Chilean Nitrate of Soda,
assuring him that it would give just as good, if not better,
results as he had experienced in using it on his cucum-
bers. After this application of Chilean Nitrate of Soda
his peppers turned green, commenced growing, the plants
put on a heavier bloom and matured earlier than any in
the neighborhood that were being grown by pioneer
growers who were doubtful as to the Chilean Nitrate of
Soda as a top dressing on peppers. The patch that was
top dressed with Chilean Nitrate of Soda made a larger
yield and held its fruit longer, giving Elmer a longer pick-
ing season than the fields that did not have the Chilean
Nitrate of Soda applied.
Elmer selected a dark hammock soil that was well
supplied with humus and rather damp. He planted his
seed in a protected bed on January 4 and on Ferbuary 22
put out 500 pounds of 5-7-5 commercial fertilizer. After
this he set his plants in the field, finishing this job
February 28. On March 27 he gave his peppers a top
dressing of 100 pounds of Chilean Nitrate of Soda and
on April 17 gave a second application of commercial fer-
tilizer, using at the rate of 500 pounds per acre. On
May 18 another application of Chilean Nitrate of Soda
was applied, using 100 pounds per acre. This was re-
peated on June 2nd after which another application of
commercial fertilizer was used.
.He began picking peppers May 6th and picked until
August 28th, when he made his last shipment.
On Elmer's other project for this year, 1% acres of
cucumbers, he produced 291 28-quart hampers of cucum-
bers at a cost of 53% cents per hamper. His total
charges were $154.40, total credits $418.48, net profit
$264.01. He paid himself $35.25 for his own labor, giv-
ing a labor income of $299.26. It took 235 hours of
THE POTATO HARVEST
(Florida Commercial, February 12, 1930)
Potato digging was started in the Homestead district
last week. The acreage in Dade county planted to pota-
toes is estimated at from 600 to 1,000 acres, probably
the largest ever planted to this crop in the county.
Growers calculated on a yield of 200 bushels an acre, but
initial digging showed a production nearer 300 bushels,
and the price was $3.50 a bushel. This gives a revenue
of a thousand dollars an acre, which means a million
dollars for Dade's potato crop if maximum calculations
are approximately correct. Whether this should be the
case or not, the growers of Dade county will have estab-
lished the fact that potatoes are a profitable crop, which
will be in the way of reaffirming faith in the land's pro-
ductivity and the successful marketing of a crop under
It is noted in connection with this success that the
growers made use of manganese sulphate in the propor-
tion of about one-fourth to the ton of commercial fer-
tilizer, to which they attribute much of the increased and
uniform production. A little manganese was used last
year but more of it was utilized this year, the value of
its peculiar qualities having become recognized. It has
the effect of releasing plant building elements dormant
in the soil and the fertilizer, thus making for increased
Progress in such vital enterprises as the growing of
food crops here cited is noted with interest by all con-
cerned in the welfare of this country. Potatoes are a
staple crop, and the demand for them is universal. It is
seldom that an order of food is served in restaurant or
hotel that potatoes are not included. If those who dine
do not order them they appear to garnish the steak or
the oysters, and in many other forms, and always are
There really isn't any good reason why the grower
should not receive a fair price for potatoes at all times,
because of this universal demand. Possessing the quality
of durability much beyond the life of such perishables as
beans, tomatoes and other fresh vegetables, the growers
have a better opportunity always of realizing fair prices
for potatoes. It would be a good thing if provisions were
made to keep them out of unprofitable markets. This
could be done, and if the present crop turns out as well
as the initial diggings promise, it should be done, for
undoubtedly the success of the venture this season will
lead to increased plantings.
Florida growers have had enough experience bringing
crops into glutted markets to cause greater care in pro-
tecting themselves from loss in the future.
BROWARD GROWERS GET FOUR MILLIONS
Beans, Peppers and Tomatoes Bring Largest
Percentage of Revenue to Farmers
(Miami Herald, February 8, 1930)
Fort Lauderdale, Fla., Feb. 7.-More than $4,000,000
was received by Broward county growers during 1929
for produce sold on northern markets, data compiled by
the Fort Lauderdale Chamber of Commerce revealed
today. Of this amount, approximately $2,632,800 was
received from freight shipments of the three leading
vegetables, beans, peppers and tomatoes. The pepper
shipment from Broward county was almost 50 per cent
of the entire output of the state.
Other produce sold to northern markets totals approx-
imately $750,000. Express shipments of produce from
Fort Lauderdale were $125,000, it being estimated that a
similar amount was shipped from the Pompano area and
from $50,000 to $75,000 worth shipped from Deerfield.
Other data on the income of this area included the an-
nual expenditure of the United States government at the
coast guard base. The coast guard station has a yearly
pay roll of approximately $250,000. A similar amount is
expended for supplies, and incidental expenditure is
$100,000. These expenditures give Fort Lauderdale and
Broward county a revenue of approximately $600,000
annually, it is estimated.
The largest number of tourists since 1926 is now win-
tering in Broward county. It is estimated that at least
10,000 northern visitors are here for an average stay of
45 days. Chamber of commerce data gives a daily ex-
penditure average of $5, giving the county an income of
$50,000 a day or a conservative tourist expenditure of
$2,250,000 during the winter season.
8 FLORIDA REVIEW
Apopka Future Farmers were awarded a cup at the fair yesterday for their judging of farm
products. They are, left to right, Sherwood Starbird, C. B. Ross, Jr., instructor; James Mahaffey
and Norton Wilkins.
Young Farmers Get Prizes for Fair Judging
Winners Are Honored at Annual Dinner
(Tampa Tribune, February 2, 1930)
The Future Farmers of Florida, 125 strong, gathered
at the fair grounds yesterday from 20 agricultural class
rooms in farming sections all the way from the Ever-
glades to western Florida, competed for honors in judg-
ing poultry, hogs, fruits and vegetables, and paid respects
to skilled winners at their second annual dinner at the
Hillsborough Hotel last night.
Sturdy young men, preparing to bring the best in
science into play in making a future living from Florida
soil, swung forks at the dinner with instructors and ad-
miring agricultural boosters. They were welcomed to
Tampa by Mayor McKay, and praised by W. G. Brorein,
president of the fair association, for the important part
taken in both aiding and deriving benefit from fair ex-
The young men, high school students who farm while
they study, a requirement of all members of the national
organization of Future Farmers, were cited by W. T.
Williams, chairman of the county commission, as in them-
selves the finest display at the fair and proof that Florida
was not suffering for need of a back-to-the-farm move-
Urges Market Study
W. T. Watkins, county commissioner, and like Mr.
Williams an active farmer and honorary member of the
Future Farmers of Florida, charged the young men with
the duty of studying marketing methods along with
methods of producing bigger and better crops. He
called attention to the state's tremendous losses in the
past because of disorderly marketing and predicted that
the problem would be solved for Florida by injection of
the state club's own type of enthusiasm and cooperation
in handling of crops after they were ready for market.
Brief talks were made by J. W. Lester, Sr., John T. Gunn
and James N. Holmes, the other county commissioners.
Other speakers included many of the future farmers
themselves who had shown remarkable judgment earlier
in the day in scoring points for rating products of the
farm on display at the fair, also Prof. A. R. Johnson, of
Canford, who had been adjudged master teacher; J. F.
Williams, Jr., of Tallahassee, state supervisor of agricul-
tural education, and George M. Wakefield, of Plant City,
state advisor, whose activities were largely responsible for
the Future Farmers' movement in Florida. Mr. Wake-
field presented a silver trophy to the winning team from
Apopka, which had come but one point ahead of the
Aucilla team that won the cup last year. Talks were
made by Prof. C. B. Ross, Apopka teacher, and T. A.
Treadwell, instructor at Aucilla.
Plant City Active
The organization enlists only high school students tak-
ing agricultural courses and farming their own projects
along with their studies. The Hillsborough agricultural
school at Plant City, with about 15 acres in cultivation
by students, is one of the most active Future Farmers'
centers in the state, supplying Gray Miley, president of
the state organization and vice-president of the big
nation-wide order, the Future Farmers of America, also
Morgan Shepard, chairman of the boys' state executive
committee, and Mr. Wakefield, state advisor.
The highest score in the judging contests at the fair
yesterday was made by Norton Wilkins of Apopka, the
town that supplied the winning team consisting of Sher-
wood Starbird, James Mahaffey, and Wilkins. Second
high score was turned in by Reuben Reams of Aucilla.
The student judges scored three breeds of hogs, three
breeds of chickens, sweet potatoes, grapefruit and
oranges. Winners were as follows: Hampshire hogs-
Broward Kinsey, Aucilla, first; James Coleman, Trenton,
second; Austin Martin, Bell, third. Duroc Jersey-
Claude Groom, Monticello, first; Franklin Smith, Monti-
cello, second; Leo Holbrook, Alachua, third. Poland
China-Norton Wilkins, Apopka, first; Reuben Reams,
Aucilla, second; Donald Davidson, Monticello, third. The
winning team judging hogs was from the Monticello
school, T. A. Treadwell, teacher.
Winning judges for poultry were: For Rhode Island
Reds-William Harvey, Sanford, first; Franklin Smith,
Monticello, second; Reuben Reams, Aucilla, third. White
Leghorns-Austin Martin, Bell, first; Franklin Smith,
Monticello, second; Ralph Sumner, Plant City, third.
Barred Plymouth Rocks-Norton Wilkins, Apopka, first;
Bernhard Fehmerling, Winter Haven, second; Francis
Worley, Hawthorne, third. The winning team judging
poultry was from Bell, J. E. McIntire, teacher.
Judging contests for fruits and vegetables were won
as follows: Sweet potatoes-Hoyt Ewing, Sebring, first;
Jake Gray, Pahokee, second; Douglas Walker, Aucilla,
third. Grapefruit-J. D. House, Turkey Creek, first;
Sherwood Starbird, Apopka, second; George Morris,
Sebring, third. Oranges-Marshall Hadley, Bradenton,
first; James Mahaffey, Apopka, second; Phillips Evans,
Palmetto, third. The winning team was from the Sebring
school, L. D. Stewart, teacher.
The largest satsuma orange grove in the world is near
Round Lake, in Jackson county. It covers 1,000 acres.
HENS AND HOGS
(Ft. Lauderdale News, February 8, 1930)
Florida buys hundreds of dozens of eggs outside of
this state-cold storage eggs. There was a time when
farmers did not believe that Florida hens were capable
of producing goods eggs-well-flavored-but they have
learned they were mistaken. Everywhere in this state
as you ride along its highways you can see poultry
farms-white chickens, red chickens, black chickens-
many of the speckled kind. The industry will,'within a
short time, become a big and profitable one-more profit-
able than beans at the present market prices.
The Gainesville Daily Sun says editorially:
"Gratifying news comes through the Florida State
Marketing Bureau to the effect that more than five thou-
sand poultrymen have already joined the new regional
cooperative association now being organized under the
joint leadership of the State bureau and the county
agents of north Florida."
With 5,000 poultrymen organized into a cooperative
association hens will be better; so will their eggs. And
better than these will be the increased wealth cooperative
selling will produce. Continuing, the Daily Sun says:
"Assisting in the work is Julian Langner, who has had
a wide experience in the organization of the poultry in-
dustry in California and has been devoting his energies
to the Florida field during the past two years.
"The North Florida Poultry Producers Cooperative is a
regional cooperative within the meaning of the policies
expressed from time to time by the Federal Farm Board,"
says Mr. Langner, and poultrymen from this and other
counties within the region are being asked to form local
units of the regional, which will market, without compe-
tition and under a pooling arrangement, all of the eggs
of the poultrymen in the district. "This means," says
Langner, "that poultrymen at all points in the Jackson-
ville territory will get the same for their eggs, regardless
of distance from Jacksonville.
"The new association will be federated for marketing
with the now famous Central Florida Poultry Associa-
tion under the general managership of C. Roscoe Ryan,
at present manager of the Central Florida body. Eggs
are picked up at the farm door of the members, regardless
of distance from Jacksonville and at a flat cost to the
association of one cent a dozen. From thence they are
taken to the association packing house where they are
candled, graded, packed and sold, the pooled returns be-
ing sent each week to the members on a basis of average
prices at which they are sold, less actual operating costs
for the week. The association is a purely non-profit
PINELLAS WINS PRIZE FOR GLADIOLI
(Tampa Times, February 7, 1930)
The South Florida Fair Association has awarded a
grand ribbon and a silver cup to Pinellas county for the
county's unique and beautiful exhibit at the fair. The
exhibit is made up of gladioli spikes in baskets.
In the exhibit there are 2,892 spikes of bloom, repre-
senting 34 varieties. It represents a new industry which
is making progress in Pinellas county. Sixty-five acres
of the flowers are being shipped this year to northern
markets. The exhibit is in charge of William Gomme,
10 FLORIDA REVIEW
UNDULANT FEVER-WHAT IT IS AND
HOW IT CONCERNS YOU
(By Frederic Damrau, M. D.)
This article has been approved by Dr. Walter H.
Eddy, Director Good Housekeeping, Bureau of Foods,
Sanitation and Health.
Years ago, it was almost impossible to stir mothers
from their apathy with regard to the need of good milk
for their children. Summer complaint was accepted as
an act of God. At any rate, hot weather was given the
entire blame. Education to higher standards of milk
consumption required years. But the modern mother is
so thirsty for health knowledge that a mere rumor of
danger in milk-often without scientific foundation-is
sufficient to alarm her unduly.
At a meeting of the American Medical Association in
Portland, Ore., in July, and of the American Public
Health Association in Minneapolis, in October, sanitary
experts discussed a common disease affecting cows-con-
tagious abortion-and its possible transmission to human
beings by means of raw milk. It was strictly a scientific
discussion and should have been kept within scientific
circles. The disease has been known in cattle for forty
years and reached its peak ten years ago. Today it is
well under control and has been eliminated from many
herds throughout the country.
But the young mother gained the impression that a
terrible "newly-discovered" disease-undulant fever-
lurked in the bottle of milk unless it was pasteurized.
Since certified milk is advised for Baby by her family
doctor and the child specialist, and certified milk is not
pasteurized, she insisted on knowing the truth with re-
gard to undulant fever.
"Tell me all about this new and terrible disease!" a
young mother-a university graduate-begged me re-
She was so frightened that she had taken her eighteen-
months-old infant off fresh milk entirely and was de-
pending on condensed milk.
In the first place-I told her-undulant fever is neither
new nor terrible. Only the name is new, and only the
mystery surrounding it makes it seem terrible.
More than two thousand years ago Hippocrates, the
grand old master of medicine, wrote a clear description
of long fevers with frequent relapses but eventual re-
covery. Authorities believe that this illness, with its
drenching sweats and aching joints, was none other than
After the Crimean War, British soldiers stationed on
the island of Malta were brought back to the hospitals in
England with a strange type of fever. They did not
seem very sick, yet the temperature rose to 104 degrees
or higher. Sometimes the symptoms were like those of
rheumatism. On other occasions they would suggest
severe neuritis. When the abdomen was examined, one
finding was fairly constant. As the doctor's hand pressed
gently below the left ribs, it felt the smooth edge of an
organ beneath it, and the patient winced with pain. Ordi-
narily this organ is protected by the ribs and can not be
reached by the fingers. The spleen was enlarged.
The fever would subside and the patient prepare to
leave the hospital, when lo! Up shot the mercury in the
thermometer, and he was hustled back to bed. These re-
lapses would continue for three or four months, some-
times longer, before recovery.
Because of its geographical source, the disease was
called Malta fever. But other sections in or surround-
ing the Mediterranean were affected-Gibraltar, Naples,
and Cyprus. Hence "Mediterranean fever" became the
In the early eighties, nobody knew what caused Malta
or Mediterranean fever, but Pasteur's proof that specific
microbes are responsible for numerous diseases was still
fresh in the minds of many. Carl Joseph Eberth had
identified a short, fat bacillus that swam around impishly
under the high power of his microscope as the cause of
typhoid fever. Edwin Klebs-and also Friedrich Loff-
ler-had tracked down the microbe of diphtheria. Even
the germ of the Great White Plague-the skinny, bent
microbe hidden in a waxy coat-stood revealed in vivid
scarlet, thanks to the ingenious staining method devised
by Robert Koch. The time was ripe for discovering the
microbe that sent the British Tommies to the hospital
with the fever for which Malta was notorious.
In 1886, young David Bruce (later Sir David), then
only thirty-one years old and an officer in the Royal
Army Medical Corps, came to Malta bent on discovering
the cause of the mysterious fever. Noting that the
swollen spleen is the most constant change found in vic-
tims of the disease, he removed this organ in a fatal case
and grew bacterial cultures from it, finding a plump, dot-
shaped microbe, which he later called Micrococcus
In the following year Bruce injected monkeys with the
newly discovered germs. They came down with fever.
The spleen was swollen as in the case of human beings.
When Bruce peered into these spleens, he found tiny
gray areas of disease just below the surface. He took
a loopful of material from them and put it in the incu-
bator. Eagerly he watched for the result.
Three days later, he found that little dewdrop colonies
had grown-the same as those observed when the culture
was taken direct from human victims. The platinum
loop was dipped into one of the dewdrops and spread in
a thin smear over a glass slide. Then the stain was
applied. In a few moments, Bruce had the final proof-
the same microbe injected beneath the monkey's skin.
Micrococcus melitensis was beyond all doubt the cause of
Malta or Mediterranean fever!
But how the disease was contracted was still a deep
mystery. It did not seem to be contagious, because
nurses and doctors-who were most closely associated
with the patients-did not catch it. It was not until a
special British commission went to Malta in 1904, and
worked on the problem for three years, that the mystery
was finally cleared up.
The commission proved that the disease was contracted
chiefly by drinking raw goats' milk infected with the
germ. Under the microscope this milk teemed with
Micrococcus melitensis, which Bruce had proved causes
undulant fever. When goat's milk was avoided or boiled
before use, no further cases developed.
Physicians now thought the mystery was solved. But
it was not long before further discoveries proved that
it was much deeper than had ever been suspected, and
more clues would have to be followed before all the facts
could finally be brought to light.
Mediterranean fever is not limited to the regions in
or surrounding this great sea. It is found in sections of
Africa, in India, the Philippines, China, and South Amer-
ica. In two large areas in the United States scattered
cases occur! The more important of these is in the
southwestern states. In Phoenix, Arizona, thirty-five
cases-all due to infected goat's milk-were reported in
1922. The other general area is in the southeastern part
of the United States, extending from the Atlantic Coast
to the Mississippi.
Hence it was soon realized that to apply a geographi-
cal name to the disease would be misleading, since its
distribution is practically world-wide. So a new name
was coined-undulant fever-because of the undulating
type of the fever curve when the temperature is taken
several times a day and recorded on a chart.
An accidental but important discovery was made by
Miss Alice Evans, in the Dairy Division of the United
States Department of Agriculture, while she was study-
ing the microbes found in routine specimens of milk sub-
mitted to the laboratory.
At that time, in 1918, contagious abortion-a disease
of cattle that causes the cow to lose its calf prema-
turely-was at its height. It made thousands of cows
unproductive and caused great financial loss to the dairy
industry. The cause was known; for in 1897 Bang, a
Danish scientist, proved "a small bacillus" to be respon-
sible. He called it the Bacillus abortus.
A Trio of Germs
Miss Evans discovered that the Micrococcus melitensis
of Bruce and the Bacillus abortus of Bang can hardly
be told apart from their growth on culture media or their
appearance under the microscope. But, because Bruce
had named his microbe a coccus-or dot-shaped organ-
ism-and Bang had called his a bacillus-or tiny rod-
their close relationship had never before been suspected.
The two germs are as like as twin brothers. Bac-
teriologists now classify them in the same group. But,
just as one twin brother may be a crook and the other a
respectable citizen, the goat microbe is highly dangerous,
while the cow germ under ordinary circumstances is rela-
tively harmless to man.
To complicate the situation, a third brother has turned
up. It is the bacillus of swine abortion, which Dr. Theo-
bald Smith-the great authority at the Rockefeller
Foundation for Medical Research-has proved to be the
most deadly of all and believes to be the probable cause
of the majority of those cases of undulant fever that
are not due to infection with goats' milk. This pig
bacillus was discovered in 1914 by Good and Smith; but,
like the cow microbe, it was not believed to have any im-
portance with respect to man until after Miss Evans had
proved the relationship between the Bruce and the Bang
As Miss Evans predicted, cases of undulant fever not
due to goats' milk finally appeared. They probably ex-
isted before but were not recognized.
The first case of a type of undulant fever due to the
cow germ was reported in 1924 by Dr. Keefer in Balti-
more; but it can not be proved to be due to raw milk,
because so many cases occur as a result of direct contact
with infected cattle.
In 1925 two other cases of undulant fever were ob-
served. The probable source of infection in each case
was handling hog carcasses in the slaughter-house. Many
similar cases have been found in France among men em-
ployed in abattoirs.
It is highly significant that among eight thousand em-
ployees in packing houses in Iowa there were twenty-
three cases of undulant fever up to June 1, 1929, more
than 10 per cent of the entire number; and that the dis-
ease occurred more than thirty times as frequently in
such employees as in the general population.
In the rural districts of Iowa, there were almost three
times as many cases in proportion to the population as in
the cities. Of 198 cases studied in this state, 134 of the
patients had had direct contact with livestock or the car-
No wonder so many students of the problem contend
that it is not so much the drinking of raw milk as con-
tact with livestock that creates the danger of contract-
ing undulant fever.
In 1927, eighteen states reported a total of 206 cases
of undulant fever due to other causes than goats' milk.
In 1928, thirty-eight states reported a total of 635 cases.
These are not large figures considering the population of
the areas from which they are taken. Nor is it fair to
assume that there are many thousands of cases in the
United States by calculating the number discovered in a
given area, because cases of undulant fever are widely
scattered throughout the country and affect certain occu-
True, the situation is important enough to receive care-
ful attention by health authorities. But it is extremely
unlikely that a human epidemic due to the cow bacillus
of Bang will ever develop, or that more than scattered
cases will occur, for effective steps are being taken to
wipe out the infection in cows.
In my opinion, there is no occasion whatsoever for
public alarm or reason why confidence in the wholesome-
ness of certified or other high-grade milk should be
A fact that stands strongly against the belief that the
cow microbe is a cause of undulant fever in more than
occasional cases is its relative harmlessness to man. Five
human volunteers bared their arms to the hypodermic
syringe containing 800,000,000 to 900,000,000 of the cow
microbes of Bang. Here, certainly, was the crucial test
to discover whether the germ that has been accused of
causing undulant fever is friend or foe.
Not one of the volunteers suffered any ill effect from
Children Are Rarely Affected
The most reassuring feature of the whole situation is
that children, the greatest drinkers of milk, are seldom
affected by undulant fever. Up to last June there were
only four cases in children of four or under, and sixteen
between the ages of five and nine. The great majority
of the patients are men, generally five to one woman;
and many of them are farmers, butchers, and workers
in slaughter-houses-people who are likely to have direct
contact with the infected animals and become contami-
nated through slight cuts. Many believe that the real
offender in such cases is the swine bacillus, of which
cattle may be an innocent carrier when the animals
According to Dr. Harris Moak, Secretary of the Amer-
ican Association of Medical Milk Commissions, great
weight must be given to the fact that there has never
been a case of undulant fever in a child proved to be due
to the use of certified milk, 90 per cent of which is con-
sumed by children.
The New York State Department of Health reported
a total of forty-five cases of undulant fever in 1928.
Thirty of them were in males, and there was not a single
case in a child under ten.
"As in previous years," the report read, "epidemiologi-
cal evidence of the milk-borne nature of the disease was
slight. In eight cases the occupation of the patients had
apparently brought them into contact with farm animals.
Five were farmers, one was a government meat inspector,
one a traveling salesman of cattle feed, while another
was a veterinarian who felt that he had been infected
through an abrasion ."
12 FLORIDA REVIEW
Perhaps the strongest argument of all against the
accusation that the cow bacillus of Bang is an important
cause of undulant fever is the fact that although many
millions of people drink unpasteurized milk, only hun-
dreds get the disease. With so many herds affected, why
are there not more cases? When goats' milk is infected,
almost every one who drinks it contracts undulant fever
The majority of health authorities do not look with
alarm upon infection of milk with the cow bacillus. While
they admit that it may possibly cause an occasional case
of pndulant fever of mild type, they have not closed their
eyes to other causes of the disease.
"It is true that an increasing number of cases are be-
ing reported in which the patients had had no direct con-
tact with animals but used raw dairy products from
infected cows," said Dr. A. V. Hardy at the meeting of
the American Medical Association in Portland, Ore., in
July, 1929. "All the facts, however, can not be satis-
factorily explained on the assumption that the infections
are transmitted from infected cattle only through the
use of raw dairy products. Moreover, when hogs are
concerned another mode of transmission must be con-
sidered Contact with infected stock must fre-
quently result in contamination of the hands, and this
followed by direct entrance of the organisms through the
skin has not, I believe, been given due consideration in
the study of the transmission of this disease."
This statement represents the scientific viewpoint of
today with regard to the cause of cases of undulant
'fever not due to infected goats' milk.
This Infection Is Under Control
Lest one get the impression that nothing is being done
to control abortus infection in cows, mention should be
made of some of the steps that are being taken to elim-
inate this disease of cattle. Already, by testing the
herds, dairymen in many sections of the country have
segregated the infected cows and kept the others free
from infection. A rapid method of detecting the disease
in cows, by which a herd of eighty animals can be tested
in six hours, is now being widely employed. It will make
segregation a simple matter.
The United States Department of Agriculture received
an annual appropriation of $93,500 for the study of
abortus infection, and their work is well under way.
Various states have undertaken important campaigns.
Iowa is working briskly to clean up all cattle infections.
A law forbids the bringing of infected cattle into the
state. Pennsylvania has a cooperative plan, which is
proving effective. In California, where contagious abor-
tion was once rife, the certified herds are now one hun-
dred per cent free.
I have been asked, "Why not pasteurize certified milk
to make it absolutely safe?"
The answer is that certified milk is guaranteed to have
so low a germ count-the milk commission will not per-
mit its sale if it exceeds the specified limit-that pasteuri-
zation would be superfluous.
Babies show a marked preference for unpasteurized
milk. Pasteurization changes the taste. The curd be-
comes less digestible, the vitamins are reduced, and the
form of the albumin is altered. It is well known that
rickets is more common in babies fed on pasteurized than
on certified milk. Also, many babies who can not gain on
pasteurized milk begin to thrive as soon as they are
changed to raw, natural milk.
Recognizing the importance of unpasteurized but
scrupulously clean milk for infants and invalids, the De-
apartment of Health of New York City recently issued the
"While the Department of Health has no intention of
altering its policy with regard to pasteurization, physi-
cians may rest assured that it likewise does not contem-
plate or look with favor upon any administration of milk
control in any community which eliminates the privilege
of securing a safe, high-grade, raw milk for those whose
lives depend upon it."
Since certified milk has not been proved to cause a
single case of undulant fever in a child, there is no reason
why we should allow a microbic bugaboo to frighten us
into discarding it.
Physicians insist that the best milk obtainable is none
too good for a baby. That is why they have set apart
natural, pure, clean milk-obtained, transported, and
tested under direct supervision of a medical milk com-
mission-as the standard food for infants.
BELIEVERS IN FLORIDA BACK THEIR
BELIEF WITH CASH
(Gainesville Sun, February 8, 1930)
Men of great wealth who are able to take advantage of
the superb Florida climate, continue to be attracted to
this State. From the Lake Worth Leader we learn that
the Phipps interests of Pittsburgh, and W. K. Vanderbilt
of New York, are planning extensive investments in
winter homes along the Atlantic ocean front at Boynton,
a few miles south of Palm Beach. The Vanderbilts have
already awarded a contract for a winter palace that is to
cost more than two million dollars, while two others in
this group have started work on homes and estates that
will represent an investment of more than four million
If Floridians will pick up their end of the program by
development of the agricultural resources of the state, a
well balanced source of revenue will always be available.
We must push ahead with our own plans in our own way;
the attracting of these men of vast means should be con-
sidered merely as "extras" in Florida's list of assets.
Again-if the people who are permanent residents had
half as much faith in their state as do those who live
here only a small portion of the year, Florida would have
no financial problems worth mentioning.
TOMATO SEASON FORMALLY OPEN
Hallandale Ships the First 1930 Carload from
(Ft. Lauderdale News, February 8, 1930)
Hallandale's tomato season was formally opened by
the shipment of the first carload of tomatoes this season,
from the packing house operated by H. E. Rogero and
H. A. Barnett. The tomatoes were from the fields of
H. A. Barnett and Charles Ericson, pioneer growers of
this section. This season marks Mr. Barnett's re-entry
into the ranks of tomato growers of the East Coast.
Hallandale bids fair to regain its former prestige as one
of the largest shipping points of tomatoes along the
coast, which it occupied in former years, as all of the
available land is planted this year. The growers are very
optimistic over the prospects of a good crop due to the
unsettled conditions and decreased acreage in Mexico and
FLORIDA REVIEW 13
CHICKEN MEN EXPECT TO DO A BIG
Poultrymen of Section Anticipate Receipts of
(Florida Times-Union, February 9, 1930)
Business aggregating $1,000,000 in scope is expected
to be done by the Federated Poultry Associations of Cen-
tral and North Florida through cooperative marketing of
eggs during the next year, according to an estimate made
public yesterday in connection with the plans to open the
cooperative packing house here February 24.
A large part of this business will center at the local
packing house which will employ between fifteen and
twenty persons, it was stated by C. H. Magoon, county
poultry specialist. The packing house will be located at
1801 West Beaver street, adjoining the warehouse of
Wade, Faris and Wade. It will handle the eggs of a
majority of the poultry farms of this area.
Owners of nearly fifty thousand hens already have
joined the new North Florida Poultry Producers Coopera-
tive Association, most of them from Duval county, includ-
ing the Pine Breeze Farm Corporation of Callahan.
Another fifty thousand will be signed up by March 1,
it is expected by the organizers, bringing the total to
around 100,000 by that date.
Roberts Is President
J. P. Roberts of Riverview has been elected president,
H. T. Wheat of Lynwood, vice-president, and C. Roscoe
Ryan, secretary-treasurer and manager. An executive
committee including Roberts, Wheat, W. L. Stover of
Dinsmore, and J. R. Martin, of Jacksonville Heights, also
has been named. Two more vice-presidents are to be
elected from other counties and another member of the
executive board from some other county.
Election of officers took place Friday night, it was
announced yesterday. At the same time agreements were
signed federating, for marketing purposes, the North
Florida Association with the Central Florida Association.
The latter has achieved national recognition, it is stated,
for its successful operation under Mr. Ryan and is re-
garded as the outstanding success in cooperative farm
marketing of Florida. Owners of nearly 100,000 hens
compose its membership.
"This means that the federated organization will thus
market this spring the eggs of nearly 200,000 hens," it
was said yesterday by C. H. Magoon, Duval county
poultry specialist. "Its volume will approach $1,000,000.
At the Jacksonville warehouse between fifteen and
twenty persons will be employed, including the trucking
men and office help necessary for such a large organiza-
Industry Now Organized
"This," he added, "puts Duval county's largest agricul-
tural industry on an organized basis. With orderly mar-
keting we should have 1,000,000 hens in Duval county
within the next five years. Central Florida poultrymen
have increased their industry 100 per cent within the
last year, since they organized. Poultrymen of this dis-
trict are already talking of increasing their flocks.
"The only problem in the past has been one of orderly
marketing which an organization of this character solves.
Instead of peddling eggs direct to the retailers as the
local poultrymen have done in the past the association
will strictly candle, grade and pack the eggs in standard-
ized cases and guarantee the eggs to the consumer as
being exactly as represented.
"The Gulf Coast poultrymen are also organized on a
similar basis to those of Central Florida and the Duval
group. Friday night the Duval members voted to invite
the Gulf Coast to also join the federation. Their six or
seven organized counties added to the twenty counties
already in the federation will make Florida the best or-
ganized egg-producing state in the Union, except Cali-
fornia and Washington.
"These associations comply with all state and federal
laws and requirements and by federating are complying
with the expressed policies of the Federal Farm Board.
"Both producer and consumer benefit through this type
of marketing. The producer, instead of dumping his
eggs on the market and creating artificial surpluses which
ruin him, delivers eggs in all markets.
Circulates New Money
"Last year Central Florida even shipped eggs to At-
lanta and New York, where they secured extra premiums
because of extra quality of fresh Florida eggs. This puts
new money into circulation in Florida. The consumer
benefits because whenever he sees an association label
he is guaranteed that the eggs are strictly graded for
quality and size and content, and these eggs cost the con-
sumer no more than he is paying today for the type of
eggs he buys. No matter how careful a farmer may be,
unless eggs are candled no one knows what is inside, until
the egg is opened."
"It will, perhaps be interesting to know that, accord-
ing to Prof. E. R. Stoneburn, international authority on
poultry, Florida is the most ideal state in the Union, ex-
cept a small portion of it, for egg production.
"Florida eggs, according to the chief executives
of the biggest egg-buying companies in the country, are
far superior to California eggs in quality and keeping
ability-far superior, and when that statement is made
by the big Chicago and New York buyers it really means
a whole lot more than a statement from some local man."
The poultrymen adopted resolutions of thanks at their
Friday night meeting for assistance rendered by Mr.
Magoon, L. M. Rhodes, state marketing commissioner; Dr.
A. P. Spencer, director of state extension service, and
by the Jacksonville Chamber of Commerce.
THIRTY-FIVE SOUTHERN DIRT FARMERS
Group to Observe Methods in Florida
(DeLand Sun, February 10, 1930)
Tampa, Feb. 10.-(A. P.)-Thirty-five southern dirt
farmers selected in competition arrived here today by
boat from New Orleans for a tour of the state to observe
Florida farming methods.
The party included Elmer Strickland of Gainesville,
Fla.; R. P. Burson, Monroe, Ga., and A. P. Johnson,
Toccoa, Ga., and one or more farmers from Arkansas,
Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina,
Texas, and Virginia, prize winners, and a number of
county and district agents, including L. J. Sjinner, dis-
trict agent of Experiment, Ga., and S. D. Truitt, county
agent of Sparta, Ga.
Florida has- the finest beaches in the world where all
automobile records are broken. Some of these beaches
are 1,000 feet wide at low tide.
14 FLORIDA REVIEW
BERRIES FROM PLANT CITY IN HEAVY
Total Passes 2,000,000-Quart Mark; Cash Re-
cepits Thus Far, $725,000
(Florida Times-Union, February 9, 1930)
Plant City, Feb. 8.-Strawberry growers of the Plant
City area hit their seasonal stride again this week to
market more than three hundred thousand quarts of ber-
ries and pocket approximately $110,000 therefrom. The
daily movement alternated in the sixty and forty thou-
sands and the week was culminated tonight with a move-
ment of 70,000 quarts in six express refrigerator cars
and two hundred pony refrigerators.
The price held to the forties during the first two days
of the week, dropped into the thirties the middle of the
week and ranged around twenty-eight cents per quart
during the latter half. The heavy rains of Thursday and
Friday not only hampered picking of berries, but also
affected the quality. A considerable amount of fruit was
made unmarketable by the heaviest January rain in sev-
The two million quart mark was left behind by a hun-
dred thousand quarts this week and the season's shipping
figures from this point sent on the road to the first three
million quarts, with the close of the week. A total of
$725,000 is the estimated return to growers, for the
strawberry crop of this section thus far.
With fair weather conditions prevailing, next week is
expected to open with an avalanche of berries Monday
to be followed by heavy forwardings throughout the
(Tampa Tribune, February 4, 1930)
Florida as a pulp and paper manufacturing state is a
leading item on the schedule of the Florida State Cham-
ber of Commerce Industrial Committee. The committee
is giving close study to the opportunities offered by
Florida in this field of industrial activity.
A study of paper manufacture and the possibility of
establishing the industry in Florida presents some very
forceful facts, according to the State Chamber of Com-
merce. During the last 10 or 15 years the trend of the
pulp and paper making industry has been toward loca-
tions in the south. In 1929 there were 36 paper mills in
the south having a total capacity of a million tons per
annum, an increase of over 600,000 tons since 1921,
when the total production in the entire south was but
The State Chamber of Commerce Industrial Committee
sees in this migration southward of the paper industry
a great and profitable opportunity for Florida. The
state has its pine and hard woods, together with an ever-
growing quantity of sugar cane bagasse to furnish the
source of supply for raw materials; it is in close proxim-
ity to all basic materials needed in the manufacture of
paper; its mild climate gives every opportunity for max-
imum production under the best of working conditions;
and its rail facilities and ocean and Gulf ports furnish
ample transportation at reasonable costs for distribution
throughout the country.
In a recent tabulation showing the average cost of
producing a ton of wood pulp the lowest figure was
credited to the southern states. Southern woods were
given as costing only one-third what woods in New York
and New England cost and were lower than in the lake
states and western states.
Florida is preeminent in this future line of industrial
development because of its slash, loblolly, short and long
leaf pine trees producing three distinct-crops, pulp, naval
stores and lumber. The fact that there is little com-
petition from agricultural demands for land, the state
growing heavy crops on small acreages, leaving a great
bulk of land open for reforestation, will also be a factor
in the future of comprehensive and integrated wood pro-
OIL FROM PEEL NEW BY-PRODUCT AT
(The Howey Tribune, February, 1930)
Oils from grapefruit peel and orange peel are being
recovered from fruit used at the Howey Juice Fruit Plant.
The value of this by-product is approximately 20 cents
a box, and ordinarily goes to waste.
The W. J. Howey Company is one of the few outfits
in the state owning and operating a citrus oil recovery
plant. With the installation of this equipment, the
Howey cycle runs like this: rough lemon root stock; pedi-
greed budded trees; quality fruit; modern packing plant;
independent sales at premium prices; juice plant for
canning by secret process grapefruit juice and orange
juice; oil from peelings; fertilizer from refuse.
The oil reclamation machinery adjoins and is connected
with the juice plant and consists of a grinder, a large
tank where the ground peel is subjected to live steam
for a period of a few hours and this mass then is placed
in an atmospheric distillery for distilling off of all essen-
tial oils, which are collected in glass containers and these
go into cold storage at Tampa before shipment to the
About five gallons of oils are recovered from 200 boxes
of oranges and three and one-half gallons from 200 boxes
of grapefruit. The output of the Howey plant has been
sold. These oils are used in making perfumery and per-
fumed soap. The oil is used in preparation of extracts
and as concentrated syrup for beverage purposes.
The equipment was installed here by the By-Products
Corporation of Tampa. The Howey-in-the-Hills outfit is
one of four in Florida.
POULTRY COOPERATIVE BEING FORMED
(Union County Times, February 7, 1930)
In the organization of the North Florida Poultry
Cooperative is another instance where the producers are
organizing to save themselves. Only producers can be
members, and they run the business themselves. The or-
ganization is organized under the state and federal laws
and is sure to succeed, according to L. T. Dyer, county
agent, who is seeking to get every person with 50 or more
hens to sign up.
Several of the largest poultrymen of the county have
already signed, Mr. Dyer said, and he believes that
enough will have signed by February 15th so that the
trucks will start picking up the eggs and carrying them
into Jacksonville to the packing houses to be graded,
packed and sold cooperatively.
FLORIDA REVIEW 15
PAPAYA PLANTS POSSESS PECULIARITIES
Expert Gives Instructions as the Planting Time
(By Scott Stambaugh, in Vero Beach Journal, February
As planting time approaches for the papaya a discus-
sion of the peculiarities of the particular strain of
papaya that is being offered for trial is probably in order.
The first point that commonly causes confusion is the
matter of a name for the type that will be descriptive.
The terms, bi-sex, hermaphrodite, and perfect flowered,
have been used interchangeably and are in fact synon-
ymous, but nevertheless are a trifle confusing. What
they mean in the way of papaya type is a single plant
that bears flowers containing both stamens and pistils,
therefore, capable of reproducing itself without pollen
exchange from another plant. For the purpose of this
article the term perfect flowered will be used.
Seed stock from perfect flowered plants produces three
sex types in the following percentages: About thirty-five
per cent perfect flowered, about fifty-five per cent female
and about ten per cent male. From the perfect flowered
specimens come the desirable fruits. These plants com-
monly produce two to three hundred pounds of fruit in
their first season. The fruit will be of the same general
character as to shape, quality, thickness and texture of
flesh, sugar content and flavor as the fruit of the parent
plant. The females of this seed stock vary tremendously
as to fruit character. A small percentage of the female
plants will make large, thick-fleshed, fine flavored fruit,
which, however, must be used locally as it is too soft to
ship. A large percentage of the females will make fruit
inferior in size, flavor and sugar content.
The ten per cent of males do not fruit and must there-
fore be discarded. Right here is the most serious diffi-
culty the layman encounters in growing perfect flowered
papaya. All perfect flowered plants when they first com-
mence to flower throw male blossoms. In the past season
in Miami thousands of good perfect flowered plants were
pulled up and thrown away by growers who thought they
The grower who is unfamiliar with the perfect flow-
ered type should not attempt to pull out any plants at all.
In small plantings all the plants that come should be
allowed to grow, as the males make handsome ornamental
plants and the immense quantity of small flowers will
perfume the whole neighborhood. In commercial plant-
ings the services of the writer will always be available
for culling out undesirable plants.
In commercial plantings two plants are set to the hill
and in about ninety days they show character. At this
time the poorest of the two can be pulled out. Bearing
in mind that only thirty-five per cent of these plants will
be type it would look as though the proper thing would
be to set four or five plants to the hill, so as to be sure
of a type plant in each hill. This, however, is not possi-
ble for the reason that in ninety days more than two
plants to each hill will become large enough to compete
and will acquire a permanent tendency to leg up rather
than to bear fruit with the result that the plants will be
tall and spindly with a few fruits at the top.
This is the limiting factor that prevents yields of two
hundred and fifty to three hundred pounds to the hill
annually. Writers have often assumed that because in-
dividual plants showed crops all the way up to five hun-
dred pounds in their first fourteen to sixteen months that
perfectly outlandish quantities of fruit could be taken
from a single acre. Of course if it were possible to have
a solid planting of nearly five hundred plants on an acre
that produced two hundred and fifty pounds of fruit on
the average, the results would be staggering. However,
the writer's experience is that a hundred pounds, count-
ing blanks and poor hills, is an excellent average.
CANTALOUPES MAY NOW BE GROWN TO
Plant Quarantine Administrator Extends Time
by 10 Weeks for Host-Free Product
(Orlando Evening Reporter-Star, February 9, 1930)
Information has just been received from Lee A.
Strong, chief of the plant quarantine and control admin-
istration at Washington, to the effect that the Mediter-
ranean fruit fly quarantine has been modified as to per-
mit the cantaloupe growers in Florida to continue the
production of cantaloupes until June 15, thus allowing
ample time for the Florida crop to move to market.
Cantaloupes are classified by the,administration as a
host of the Mediterranean fruit fly. They are also classi-
fied as a fruit. Under the restrictions imposed by quar-
antine No. 68 the host-free period for host fruits starts
on April 1. This would mean that the cantaloupes, fruit
and vines, could not remain in the fields after April 1,
which date is several weeks earlier than the normal ripen-
ing period of this class of fruit. The production of canta-
loupes under such conditions would be impossible.
Realizing this, the possibility of modifying the regulation
insofar as cantaloupes were concerned was taken up with
the administration by the federal fruit fly board in Or-
lando with the result that the shipping period for this
commodity has been extended until June 15.
(From "Better Crops")
A great preacher said the other day that the way to
get on in this modern age and to attain happiness is to
specialize and cooperate.
Without doubt, this is true. The developments of
science and invention, together with added facilities in
the world of financing, all tending towards mass pro-
duction, have made it very necessary that a large part
of the nation's work can best be accomplished when work
is divided up, each worker specializing in a definite field.
Our whole tendency is in this direction. But it means
that each worker becomes a part of a larger whole; that
to accomplish anything he must fit in; that he must be
able to work with others and cooperate, with the result
that some of the best work in the world is done by
people known to only a small and intimate group.
Witness, for instance, the editorial page of the great
newspapers of the world, much of the work in new
buildings, and in a variety of other fields; all done by
specialists in one field, working in the group as a whole.
Only the group is known to the general public.
To specialize is not difficult, if one makes up one's
mind to do it; but to cooperate is harder, because it
means the suppression of self. This is the hard lesson
that the modern worker has to learn if he is going to
get on and be happy.-The Citrus Industry, January,
16 FLORIDA REVIEW
HARVESTING OF FIRST TEN ACRES OF
POTATOES SHOWS HEAVY YIELD
Growers Astonished at Production of from 250
to 300 Bushels Per Acre on First Plantings
(Homestead Enterprise, February 7, 1930)
Although Irish or "white" potatoes have been planted
here before on several occasions, notably by B. H.
Edwards, Fred Loomis, Charles V. Barnes and others, the
first really large commercial venture into potato pro-
duction here was made by the Florida Produce Packers,
an organization of "Eastern Shore" Virginia farmers,
cooperating with a New York commission house.
These farmers planted about 275 acres of potatoes
with the most modern equipment available, and used
the fertilizers thought best for the purpose, generously
mixed with manganese.
Last Monday the first fruits of their labors rewarded
them generously. George MacMath, the head of the or-
ganization, and J. S. Horton, local manager, had ex-
pected a yield of about 200 bushels as a maximum. The
ten acre patch yielded 3,000 bushels of potatoes that
ran very close to 90% of No. 1 grade when packed.
After being dug iith a potato digger that excavated
about 15 acres per day, and does it with a minimum of
damage and expense, the tubers were taken to the pack-
ing house of the Goulds Growers and washed. This re-
moved the dirt, but it is believed that in the future some
process will be used whereby the surplus dirt is brushed
or blown off, to prevent decay from rot in the damp
Prices are exceptionally good at this time, being from
$3.00 to $3.50 for the first grade potatoes. At this rate
the acreage harvested will gross around $1,000 per acre,
or far more than the average for tomatoes.
While it is recognized that this price is higher than can
be expected most years, the heavy yield shown-about
300 bushels-is far more than in districts which have for
years been producing tubers, and the fresh new potatoes
should bring good money every winter.
PENSACOLA'S NEWEST INDUSTRY
(Pensacola Journal, February 7, 1930)
Another Pensacola industry, financed by Pensacola
capital, is about to be launched. J. E. Taylor is to estab-
lish a $200,000 brick manufacturing plant at Barth. This
location is on the L. & N., not far from Pensacola.
Here is good news indeed. Pensacola has brick build-
ing plants, it is true. But there is room in this county
for another plant, well financed. For many generations
Escambia clay has been worked to good profit, but full
advantage has never been taken of the possibilities of
the clay deposits of this county.
There are a number of varieties, and not only common
building brick, but tiles and various ceramics could be
Besides the brick building plants that have been estab-
lished here from time to time, the Kohler's once had a
pottery in the northern part of the county. This was
not a paying business at the time, as the market was not
what it would be today.
But there was nothing the matter with the clay, and
the Kohler's knowing this, for many years shipped clay
to St. Petersburg, and it was used in a pottery there.
Eventually some of this clay came back to Pensacola in
the form of exquisite pieces of ware.
Mr. Taylor should have every encouragement in estab-
lishing his brick manufacturing plant and an effort should
be made to get a tile plant and a pottery for Pensacola.
The day is past when isolation shuts us from the world.
Many roads from many directions are converging here,
and this means better opportunity for getting markets
FIRST PLANTING OF SLASH PINE
Reforestation Trial Made in Zellwood-May
Lead to Huge Undertaking
(Orlando Evening Reporter-Star, February 10, 1930)
The first county demonstration of the planting of long
leaf pine in South Florida by the American Forestry
Association and the Florida Forest Service was made
Saturday at Zellwood in Orange county by George L.
Dally, district forester.
This planting consisted of 8,000 seedlings grown at the
state nursery at Raiford and sent to Orange county.
These young trees were planted through the active coop-
eration and financing of the Jas. Laughlin, Jr., estate
and the Pirie estate, which are managed by William
In addition to the demonstration plantings of seedlings
two seed beds were put in, one on each estate, and each
will produce between 13,000 and 14,000 trees.
The plan of the national and state forestry authorities
provides for demonstration plantings in every county of
the state eventually, but through the activity of the
Orange County Chamber of Commerce the first planting
in South or Central Florida was made in this county, the
Laughlins and Piries buying the seedlings and seeds for
The forestry program in Florida has brought more than
a million acres of timber under fire protection in the
past two years, and this work is expanding continually
until all the timber of the state will be protected from
the ravages of fire, and under such protection much of
the land will readily retimber itself.
INQUIRIES ABOUT BLUEBERRIES ARE
(Okaloosa News-Journal, February 7, 1930)
Several letters to people residing in Okaloosa county
have been received the past week from different sections
of the country, inquiring about the blueberries grown in
this county and asking the name of the author of "Blue-
Besides wishing to know how the berry is grown and
cultivated a number are asking for berries. Mr. Guy
Mathis, who originated the idea to get the song broad-
casted over the Nashville station, is giving the names he
receives to Fiddlin' Brown, who is sending an auto-
graphed copy of his song to all who wish one.
HOTEL RECOGNIZES FLORIDA ADVERTIS-
As a result of our advertising of Florida winter vege-
tables we have a letter from "The Golden Rule" Hotel of
St. Paul, Minnesota, to the effect that "Florida cabbage"
is listed on the bills of fares.
We wish to thank "The Golden Rule" Hotel for its