/ PUBLISHED SEMI-MONTHLY BY
UREAU OF IMMIGRATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Vol. 4 ': FEBRUARY 17, 1930 No. 18
THE -COLOSSAL FAILURE OF STATESMANSHIP
By T. J. BROOKS, Assistant Commissioner of Agriculture
HE one colossal failure of statesmanship
of all the ages past has been the failure
to solve the problem of the relationship
of Capital and Labor. Labor troubles
date back to prehistoric ages. The statesmen
of all governments in all ages have failed when
they tackled this issue.
There is nothing new in the controversy be-
tween the two forces. How much equity has
each in the output of the business or the profits
accruing from its operation? The settlement of
a strike is only an armistice. It settles nothing.
What is needed is statesmanship of sufficient
grasp to meet the issues and settle them. There
is a law of industrial warfare and a law of in-
dustrial peace. Governments have always fol-
lowed the law of industrial warfare. Such
legislation as has been attempted has always
failed. In a few instances palliatory measures
have been adopted, but no law has been enacted
that took cognizance of all the elements in-
volved in their proper relative proportions.
The South has been practically immune
from strikes and general labor troubles, but as
soon as industries moved southward the same
troubles came that have existed in industrial
centers elsewhere. The differences arising from
the conflicting interests of master and slave cost
millions of lives, billions of property and untold
suffering. Chattel slavery is gone, but indus-
trial slavery is still a menace to the safety of
the state. Industrial slavery has numbered
more victims than chattel slavery. Capitalistic
feudalism held sway for a thousand years while
civilization slept, but labor organizations and
strikes flourished through it all.
In the archaeological records of Egypt it has
been found that they had labor organizations
and strikes. In ancient Greece and Rome labor
unions played a very important role in the
economic life of the people. The building of
Solomon's temple was directed by organized
During the Middle Ages there were labor or-
ganizations that afterward evolved into specu-
lative societies, quite different from their first
All through the ages labor and capital have
played shuttlecock and battledore in the eco-
nomic drama of organized society. During
recent times there has been a decided advance
of labor, both organized and unorganized. In
the public mind the one thing that union labor
stands for is "shorter hours and more pay." I
happen to know that there have been numerous
other things wrapped up in the union labor
movement. Better working conditions have
been brought about by the strong arm of organ-
It is regrettable that the method of warfare
that has long characterized the struggle be-
tween capital and labor has affected the public
adversely. The strike has been the weapon of
organized labor and the lock-out and black-list
have been the weapons of capital. In every
struggle of this character the public suffers as
well as the parties directly involved. For this
reason there grew up a strong prejudice against
union labor and against capitalists. Much of
this prejudice has disappeared of late, I am
glad to say, and neither capital nor labor are
looked upon with the suspicion nor the con-
tempt that was prevalent a few years ago.
However, were there to be pulled off a few
big strikes there would immediately flare up a
distinct averseness for those who brought it
about, regardless of the merits of the case.
There have been cases where capital did not
grant the requests of labor because it was
thought undesirable to allow union labor to
realize it could win in a strike.
I think it would be a calamity for either labor
or capital to abandon all efforts at self-protec-
tion. Neither would be entirely fair to the
other if left alone in all affairs of relationship.
Were the positions reversed the capitalist
2 FLORIDA REVIEW
would become union-labor-minded and the
laborer would become capitalist-minded. Of
course there would be a few exceptions, but as
a rule where one's livelihood is, there is his
I have been in favor of cooperation among
the farmers for a long time and if it is good for
them I see no reason why it should not be good
for the industrial worker to be organized.
The number of men reported by the U. S. De-
partment of Labor as directly involved in
strikes in 1916 was 6,000,000; in 1917 the num-
ber was only 1,227,254; in 1918 it was 1,239,-
989; in 1919 it was 4,160,348; in 1920 it was
1,463,054; in 1921 it was 1,099,247; in 1922 it
was 1,612,562; in 1923 it dropped to only
756,684; and in 1925 there were only 428,218.
This shows a wonderful decline during the last
This can be interpreted in two ways; one way
is to say that organized labor has lost numeri-
cally and is therefore unable to direct strikes as
it used to do. Another way is to interpret it as
meaning that labor has secured its demands
until there are no further measures to ask for,
so that the strenuous demand for union labor
action is not as great as it was, therefore strikes
were not necessary.
Human nature is the same in all ages and in
all vocations. There is no reason for people
taking it for granted that there is no justifica-
tion for the view held by those who differ from
them. This is the cause of many a struggle
that has brought untold suffering to thousands
of victims of disputes between capital and labor.
When society as a whole is considered, in-
stead of profiteers on the one hand and pro-
fessional agitators on the other, strikes and
lock-outs will be fewer and the country relieved
of the perpetual strain of strife that follows
these industrial battles. The greatest strike in
modern times was staged in England a few
years after the World War. For sheer self-
protection the public stepped into the breach
and saved the country from a nation-wide
tragedy. The strike was broken by all manner
of substitution for the services of organized em-
ployees. This incident taught labor the lesson
that even though the entire working force of
employees may go on a strike there can be a
way found to proceed with every-day affairs.
Strikes, however, though costly weapons,
have been the means of bringing about numbers
of needed reforms. Some of these reforms were
voluntarily adopted by employees after the
strike had brought forcibly home to capital that
they were needed and just; others were brought
about by legislation compelling the employers
to accede to the demands of labor.
I am of opinion that at present one of the best
results of organized labor is the effort to get
uniform legislative measures passed throughout
the various states and even throughout the
As a result of the pleas of organized labor in
the various belligerent nations represented at
the peace conference after the World War a
separate section, quite apart from the covenant
of the League of Nations, was set up establish-
ing the International Labor Organization, the
purpose being to improve and harmonize labor
legislation so far as difference of race and
climate made it possible.
Labor creates capital and capital furnishes
the means of employing labor. The percentage
of wage-earners to total population is constantly
on the increase. This would indicate that the
welfare of the future will be considerably in the
keeping of a truce between employers and em-
ployees. Nothing short of an inexcusable
blunder can wreck the future of this country
and labor must assume its share of the respon-
sibility of guiding the course of events for the
glory of our common country.
WHAT A BIG FARM THIS STATE HAS
(Tallahassee Daily Democrat, January 5, 1930)
It is interesting to know that Florida's largest farmer
is the State of Florida itself. A summary of the big
state farm at Raiford is given by the Tampa Times:
"The Florida state farm embraces 18,000 acres; 15,000
acres fenced; 2,000 acres under cultivation; 1,000 acres
in horticulture; 1,200 head of Jersey, Angus and grade
cattle; 600 head of Poland China and grade hogs; 3,000
laying hens, Leghorns, Reds, Rocks; 100 head of mules
and horses; 1,167 average daily prison population; 23.82
cents average cost per day per inmate for food and to-
bacco; $166,579.82 earned on farm and in industrial
plants and turned over to State Treasurer; 5,000 bushels
of corn housed; 7,000 bales of hay put up; 10,500
bushels of sweet. potatoes made; 7,000 crates of vege-
tables sold; 500 head of hogs butchered; 250 35-gallon
barrels of syrup made; three 180-ton silos filled.
LARGEST FRESH WATER TROUT CAUGHT
(Wakulla County News, January 10, 1930)
John Strickland was in Tallahassee a few days ago ex-
hibiting the mounted head of a thirty-seven pound fresh
water trout he caught near Spring Creek a few weeks
ago. This fish was first reported by our correspondent
to have weighed fifty-six pounds. It has now been de-
termined that the fish actually weighed thirty-seven
pounds. Mr. Strickland, who lives near the coast, has
turned the head over to authorities in the state capitol,
who called it a fresh water trout, and probably the largest
ever landed in Florida.
FLORIDA REVIEW 8
Published Semi-Monthly by
Bureau of Immigration, Department of Agriculture
NATHAN MAYO ........ Commissioner of Agriculture
T. J. BROOKS........... Asst. Commissioner of Agriculture
Entered as second-class matter, June 25, 1926, at the Post Office
at Tallahassee, Florida, under the Act of June 6, 1920.
Will be mailed free to anyone upon request.
FEBRUARY 17, 1930
MUSEUM OF SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY
The following message from Mr. Waldemar Kaempffert,
director of the Museum of Science and Industry, founded
by Julius Rosenfeld in Chicago, will be of interest to
many Review readers and is reproduced in the interest
of the splendid cause which the institution to which it
The Museum of Science and Industry is now in the
course of construction in the City of Chicago at a cost
of over $5,000,000. It will have about 400,000 sq. ft.
of exhibition space and will compare favorably, we hope,
with the best technical museums in Europe. Unless un-
foreseen obstacles are encountered we intend to open the
museum in 1932. It is the purpose of the museum to
trace the technical ascent of man; in other words, to show
the evolution of science, engineering, and the major in-
dustries from their primitive beginnings to the present
time. In furtherance of this object some of our leading
universities, engineering laboratories, and manufactur-
ing companies have donated relics of great historic value
and technical interest.
Approximately 52,000 sq. ft. of space will be de-
voted to agriculture and forestry. We wonder if we may
count upon you to aid us in presenting these subjects.
Possibly there may be interesting agricultural implements
and machines in your possession which have outlived
their usefulness so far as you are concerned, but which
would still be of great educational value in a museum
such as ours. Specifically we need such things as very
early plows, particularly a Jethro Wood plow; hand tools
and harrows for preparation of a seed bed; hoes and
planters; early drills and seeders; cultivating tools; har-
vesting machinery, particularly sickles, scythes, cradles,
twine and wire knotters; a Hussey reaper, or pictures of
it; early cutter bars; hand or horse rakes; flails and flail
machines; home dairy equipment; horticultural tools;
fencing materials; early cotton gins; a small respiration
calorimeter or model; digestion apparatus; early ranching
equipment; sheep-shearing equipment; home-packing ma-
terials and samples of raw materials, such as cotton,
hemp, wool, etc.
Will you not have the kindness to call this letter to the
attention of all interested persons in your department in
the hope that it may result in the discovery of material
that otherwise would be lost in the lapse of time?
Naturally, the museum will properly acknowledge any
gifts on its labels and in its printed matter.
Nearly $17,000,000 in construction is the total since
January 1st in the Tampa immediate territory, accord-
ing to a survey made by the Tampa Board. Home build-
ing totals for August $300,000.
CREATE FOUR ZONES FOR FERTILIZER
Assign Inspectors to Each Section Designated
(St. Augustine Record, January 14, 1930)
Tallahassee, Fla., Jan. 14.-(A. P.)-Creation of four
"fertilizer zones" in the winter fruit and vegetable sec-
tion of Florida to afford more efficient service to fer-
tilizer users was announced by Commissioner of Agri-
culture Nathan Mayo.
The "zones" with counties follow:
Zone No. 1-Clay, Putnam, St. Johns, Flagler,
Alachua, Levy, Marion and Sumter.
Zone No. 2-Polk, Pinellas, Hillsborough, Hardee and
Zone No. 3-Orange, Lake, Volusia, Brevard, Semi-
nole and Osceola.
Zone No. 4-Manatee, Sarasota, Lee, Charlotte and
Inspectors have been assigned to the four sections with
instructions to devote themselves exclusively to the col-
lection of fertilizer samples during the months of January
and February, the commissioner said.
To further speed up the work of inspecting fertilizer
ships, the inspection bureau during those months will
telegraph to inspectors in the field notices received from
fertilizer manufacturers regarding shipments of the
product, in order that the inspectors may be on hand
when the consignment arrives.
Consumers of the fertilizer themselves may also draw
samples and send them in to the state chemist for an-
alysis, following instructions regarding the drawing to
conform to regulations.
Mr. Mayo has also notified the fertilizer manufac-
turers that they may have one of their representatives
on hand when the samples are drawn, to see that the
drawing is in accordance with the law.
(Milton Gazette, January 28, 1930)
A profitable sheep industry is entirely possible for
Florida, according to State Veterinarian J. V. Knapp,
who points out that the rolling and sand-hill sections of
the state are admirably suited for sheep raising. One
great advantage, according to Dr. Knapp, is that sheep in
Florida have always been free of "sheep scab." The
comparatively small output of Florida wool has brought
better prices than that produced elsewhere. An estimate
reveals that there are approximately 90,000 sheep in
north Florida. One flock of 300 has brought a monthly
profit of $100.
The above editorial from the Pensacola Journal is of
especial interest to Santa Rosa county readers, as this
county is possibly the leading sheep raising county of
the state. There are a number of sheep growers in this
section, whose flocks number well up in the thousands in
the aggregate. The annual clip from Santa Rosa county
ranges from fifty to an hundred thousand pounds, which
always commands top price in the market.
While there are many sheep grown here, there is still
room for thousands more, and at the present price of
lands, money might profitably be invested in sheep
4 FLORIDA REVIEW
VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IN HIGH
SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA
(By J. F. Williams, Jr., State Supervisor Vocational Agri-
Vocational agriculture, as an elective subject in the
high schools of the State, offers an opportunity for voca-
tional training in agriculture to the boys who are in-
terested in learning the "business of farming."
In the high schools where departments of vocational
agriculture are established, men who are agricultural
college graduates and are specialists, both from the
standpoint of theory and practice, are employed to teach
the boys "farming." One-half of the salary of this
teacher of vocational agriculture is reimbursed by the
State Board for Vocational Education to the County
School Board from Federal and State funds. These
teachers of vocational agriculture are employed on a
twelve months basis.
Our National Congress, under the provisions of the
Smith-Hughes Act, which makes available the Federal
funds for carrying on this work, set up certain require-
ments that must be met by all pupils enrolled in voca-
tional agriculture classes. One of the most important of
these requirements is the one relating to "Supervised
Practice or Project Work."
1. Each pupil shall be required to take supervised
work for a period of not less than six months each year.
2. For the supervised practice work preference will
be given to home projects, but other work may be sub-
mitted whenever it is found necessary.
3. Cost account records will be kept by each pupil and
a final report made to the teacher.
4. The agricultural teacher will visit each pupil as
often as the kind of work shall require for the purpose of
The 1,750 pupils enrolled in vocational agriculture
during the fiscal year 1927-28 (statistics for 1928-29
not yet available), in addition to their regular classroom
work, carried their supervised practice or project work
in almost every conceivable field of agriculture in the
State, including citrus, field crops, truck crops, floricul-
ture, bulbs, ornamentals, dairy cattle, beef cattle, hogs,
poultry and bees.
The total income from this project work was $132,-
801.98. This amount was more than the total cost of the
salaries of all the agriculture teachers of the State for
the same fiscal year.
Since the purpose of the high school vocational agri.
culture course is to so prepare the pupils that they may
pleasantly and profitably engage in the business of farm-
ing in the community in which they live, the agriculture
teacher must necessarily base his teaching around the
type of farming adapted to that community.
In order that this may be done to the best of the
teacher's ability, each teacher is required to make fifty
individual farm surveys and summarize the data obtained
on the surveys, so that he may definitely know the
major, minor and contributory farm enterprises in that
community. With this information as a basis for the
course of study and the pupil's project for the testing
ground-the teacher is able to successfully teach the
pupil to be a happy and prosperous farmer in his com-
In order that everyone in the community who is in-
terested in "Farming" may benefit from the services of
the teacher of vocational agriculture, the following types
of classes may be taught:
1. All-Day Classes: The instruction will be given to
pupils fourteen years of age and over who are attending
school. Ninety minutes daily will be given to instruc-
tion in agriculture and a like amount of time given to
supervised practice work.
2. Day-Unit Classes: The instruction will be given in
small rural schools to pupils fourteen years of age and
over. Not less than one ninety-minute period per week
shall be given and the instruction will be given on the
3. Part-Time Classes: These schools will be organ-
ized for pupils who are fourteen years of age and over
and who are out of school, but who are interested in
preparing for farming.
4. Evening Classes: These schools will be organized
for people who are engaged in the business of farming,
but who feel the need of instruction in some specific
phase of it.
All teachers of vocational agriculture teach all-day
classes, and in addition when the opportunity arises, they
teach the other types of classes.
During the past fiscal year there were fifty teachers
of vocational agriculture employed in thirty-three coun-
ties of the State. They had 1,867 pupils enrolled in
their classes. When we realize that this work was just
begun in 1917, and that departments are only placed in
high schools in counties where the agricultural need is
justified and where the county school boards are willing
to pay one-half the expense of the teacher's salary, we
can realize that the value of such instruction is making
itself felt in the State.
It would be impossible for me to discuss vocational
agriculture without mentioning the "Future Farmers of
Florida." Active membership in this organization is con-
fined to pupils who are actually enrolled in vocational
agriculture classes and are carrying acceptable supervised
practice programs. The purposes of this organization
1. To promote vocational agriculture in high schools
2. To create more interest in intelligent agricultural
pursuits in the various counties of the State.
3. To create and nurture a love of country life.
4. To provide recreation and educational entertain-
ment for students in vocational agriculture through state
agricultural and athletic contests, vacation tours, father
and son banquets, and the like.
5. To promote thrift.
6. To afford a medium for cooperative marketing and
7. To establish the confidence of the farm boy in him-
self and his work.
8. To promote scholarship and rural leadership.
Each high school in the State where vocational agri-
culture is taught has a local chartered chapter, Future
Farmers of Florida, affiliated with the state organization,
and the state organization, Future Farmers of Florida,
is affiliated with the national organization, Future
Farmers of America.
The national, state and local objectives of the Future
Farmer Organization are:
For the National Chapter
1. Encourage and help unorganized states perfect a
2. Encourage and help foster national judging con-
FLORIDA REVIEW 5
3. To work out a ritual for use in local, state and
4. To provide, through the National Congress of Voca-
tional Agriculture Students, larger opportunities for the
development of leadership and for giving national recog-
nition to the outstanding achievements of the Future
Farmers of the different states.
For the State Chapter
1. Ninety per cent completed supervised practice
2. Fifty thousand dollars in savings bank or invested
in farming. (To be prorated for various chapters ac-
cording to enrollment.)
3. One Father and Son banquet for every chapter.
4. Every chapter to cooperate in some cooperative
5. One hundred per cent members who have paid
annual state and national dues by October 1st.
6. One summer camp or farm tour.
For Local Chapters
1. Members of local chapters will work toward enlist-
ing boys in the community and secure enrollment in the
2. That the local chapter assist the agriculture in-
structor in the making of farm surveys in order that
first hand knowledge be obtained as to the relative merits
of the various phases of farming and check the progress
of the vocational instructor.
3. That at least one meeting a year be held on out-
4. That each chapter hold: (a) A Father and Son
banquet; (b) At least one camping trip in a body; (c)
A project tour and the class score the projects.
5. A thrift program in every chapter.
6. That at least one cooperative project be conducted
in one of the following lines: (a) Production; (b) Mar-
keting; (c) Buying; (d) Financing.
7. That local chapter should encourage all members
to take such projects and pursue such activities in super-
vised practice as will help develop confidence in the
handling of complex farm problems.
8. That the executive committee of each local chapter
check the vocational plans of the prospective candidates
for election, help those in the chapter to carry out their
plans and ask for the minimum standard.
9. That the local chapter encourage leadership
through: (a) Debates, public speaking; (b) Membership
of working committee; (c) Community activities.
With these objectives set up and with an active chapter
in each department of vocational agriculture striving to
meet these objectives, it is readily understood what a
vital part the Future Farmers organization actually plays
in the success of vocational agriculture in the high
schools of the State.
In speaking to the agriculture teachers in a sectional
conference recently, Mr. W. H. Cassels, supervising prin-
cipal, Plant City schools, made the following statement:
"I have heard the statement that the vocational agricul-
ture class was the dumping grounds for pupils unable to
pass in other classes. This would imply that the type of
students who enrolled for vocational agriculture were
exceedingly dull. This should not be the case in any
school and I am glad to say that in our school system
this situation does not exist-in fact, many of the out-
standing pupils in our school are enrolled in the agri-
culture classes and I would say that these classes as a
whole are composed of pupils of high mentality and
pupils who are making excellent grades in their other
high school subjects." When we realize that the Plant
City High School has the largest department of voca-
tional agriculture in the State (having this year enrolled
more than one hundred and fifty pupils from farm
homes), we can more fully appreciate the value of Mr.
Statistics in the office of the State Superintendent of
Public Instruction show that fifty per cent of the farm
boys who enroll in the high school vocational agriculture
classes of the State, return to the farm and actually en-
gage in the "business of farming."
Florida is primarily an agricultural state and there
are great possibilities for improvement and progress
along agricultural lines in Florida. It is a recognized
fact that in the near future only the intelligent, well
trained and efficient farmers will be able to succeed at
the business of farming. Thus it becomes the function
of the departments of vocational agriculture in the high
schools of the State to train our "Future Farmers."
MRS. BURGESS HAS BEST GARDEN IN
FLORIDA TO WIN ALL-YEAR CONTEST
(Perry Herald, January 15, 1930)
Tallahassee, Fla.-The award for the best garden in
the 1929 All-Year Garden Contest, in which 29 Florida
counties competed, was recently won by Mrs. H. M.
Burgess, of Holmes county. Besides feeding her family
with vegetables she sold $150.35 worth of vegetables, and
filled 1,140 containers, some of which were exchanged
for products needed in the home. For the achievement
she was given $50 by the Chilean Nitrate of Soda Educa-
Second place in the contest was won by Mrs. G. G.
Fletcher, Gadsden county, for which she received $25
worth of perennial plants given by the Glenn St. Mary
Nursery. Third place went to Mrs. A. W. Paul, Holmes
county, who received $15 worth of plants from the Royal
Palms Nursery, and for fourth they gave Mrs. John
Tyson, Alachua county, $10 in plantings.
A utilization card and complete records were kept, and
at least two fresh vegetables served each day by the
contestants. A budget of the canned vegetables was also
Awards of $25, $15 and $10 was given by the Chilean
Nitrate of Soda Educational Bureau to the best Home
Demonstration Clubs entering a minimum of 85 per cent
of their members in -the contest. They were won by
Providence, Federal Roads, and Sycamore clubs, respec-
tively. All are in Gadsden county, and Miss Elise
Laffitte is the home demonstration agent.
PLENTY OF ROOM FOR DEVELOPMENT
(Orlando Evening Reporter-Star, January 29, 1930)
There is comparatively little danger of Florida over-
doing the tung oil business, when the report of the United
States Department of Commerce is considered. It shows
that for eleven months this year imports were in excess
of those of the same period of last year, attaining a total
of 112,244,383 pounds, value $14,057,179, as against
96,327,381 pounds having a value of $12,037,522 during
the eleven months of 1928. Shipments of oil from
Hankow to the United States represent about 83 per
cent of the total eleven months imports.-Tallahassee
6 FLORIDA REVIEW
SWEET POTATOES PRODUCE LARGE YIELD
AT FT. DRUM
(By C. A. Fulford, Okeechobee County Agent,
in Okeechobee News)
One of the best crops for this county is the sweet
potato. Some time ago mention was made of E. J. Wil-
son's single hill of potatoes yielding better than nine
pounds; then comes T. Q. Jones with a potato weighing
8 3-16 pounds. But these potatoes were not to hold the
record long, for Dr. Young, from Ft. Drum, sends in one
weighing better than 10 pounds. So it can readily be
seen that muck land is not the only soil for the produc-
tion of sweet potatoes.
Sweet potatoes are usually worth about $1.00 per
bushel, and average land will produce around 100 bushels
per acre, sometimes even more. There are many, many
acres in the Ft. Drum and Bassenger sections as well as
Okeechobee and Upthegrove Beach that will yield better
than 100 bushels of potatoes. Why not give it a trial?
Nature has done its part-given us the soil, climate and
moisture. Now let's do our part-plant the potatoes and
watch them grow. There is one thing certain, you can
make money growing potatoes; and another thing is, it
is almost impossible to lose.
Just to show you what can be done, I want to tell you
about T. Q. Jones. He did not make so many big pota-
toes. No! He says the market does not want large ones;
but he did make a record yield of medium size ones.
We gathered and weighed up one acre, and two dis-
interested parties-J. M. Scott and Ross Holly-did the
weighing, and from one acre we weighed up 29,276
pounds or 487 14-15 bushels. So far as I know, this is
the best yield ever produced in Florida.
These potatoes were planted July 22 and harvested
December 26. Mr. Jones estimates the cost of preparing
and planting, including the price of slips, at $24.99 per
acre. Then the cost of digging is added, which would
put the total cost at around $55. Assuming that potatoes
are worth $1.00 per bushel, then Mr. Jones walks off with
a neat little profit of $433 per acre.
The fact that Mr. Jones has a partner in his potato-
growing venture is not to be overlooked. Any time you
visit the Jones field you will find Mrs. Jones lending
assistance and encouragement to the project. The truth
is, I don't think Mr. Jones could handle the acreage that
he does without the aid of his partner.-Plant City
Courier, Jan. 28, 1930.
SAVING THE WASTE OF OUR FARMS
(Tallahassee Daily Democrat, January 27, 1930)
The Daily Democrat recently printed an editorial on
the value of the corn stalk. Since then a million dollar
corporation has been organized to develop it into the
useful things suggested. Science is doing much to con-
vert the waste and dross of the field into farm income.
If agricultural research has proved anything at all
during the past few years, it has proved that the farm
is now casting aside, as waste, materials which cannot
only be adapted to the uses of industry, but which will
eventually return to the farmer sums reckoned in the
hundreds of millions. Casein, which is made from skim
milk, can be used in the manufacture of scores of articles
and offers an excellent illustration of what may be ac-
complished in this field. The manufacture of wall
board from sugar cane is another. The manufacture of
insulating material from flax straw provides still an-
other example of the uses to which the by-products of
the farm may be put.
The million dollar corporation, according to the an-
nouncement, is to manufacture not only wall-board from
cornstalks, but machine gears, pressed board, imitation
wood, and other products. At present it has a plant at
Dubuque, Iowa, which has a daily capacity of 100,000
square feet of insulating wall-board. This plant pays
$10 a ton for cornstalks baled and delivered, a price
which is said to return a profit of $3 a ton to the farmer
for cornstalks standing in the field.
It is interesting to conjecture what a full utilization
of all the cornstalks of the country on some such basis
would mean in terms of increased agricultural income.
Estimates of the cornstalks which now go to waste in the
United States run between 100,000,000 and 200,000,000
tons a year. A profit of $3 a ton obviously would mean
the conversion of this waste into income running some-
where between a conservative $300,000,000 and a liberal
$600,000,000. In addition to that the cost of disposing
of cornstalks, which has been estimated to be in the
neighborhood of $3.80 an acre, would be eliminated at a
No one, of course, is optimistic enough to believe that
the time is near at hand when factories will consume
200,000,000 tons of cornstalks annually and when the
farmer can count on $3 profit for every ton of cornstalks
in his field. There must be a good deal of research,
and a rather thorough reorganization of our industrial
processes, before such an extremely desirable goal is im-
minent. The trend, however, towards a salvaging of
dollars from the agricultural heap is definite and
marked. Granting research is encouraged and financed
on the scale it deserves, it can only 'be a matter of a
few years before industry is purchasing the by-products
of the farm on a vast scale, and paying handsomely for
MIAMI MAN WINS TWO PRIZES FOR
(Tampa Tribune, January 31, 1930)
F. F. Finzell of Miami, who entered some of his best
rabbits in the rabbit show at the South Florida Fair,
yesterday was awarded the two grand champion prizes.
The grand champion prize for the best buck was
awarded on an English spot rabbit, and the big award
for the best doe on a blue-eyed White Bevern, which
also took the highest award for the best-furred animal.
Breeders represented this year have about twice as
many rabbits in their hutches as they had a year ago,
said S. E. Britton, of Tampa, superintendent of the
Following are the principal winners of awards as an-
New Zealand whites, Tampa Fur Farms; New Zealand
senior does, H. G. Geesink, Brooksville; New Zealand
junior does, Black and White Ranch, Tampa; New Zea-
land special does, Tampa Fur Farms; Havanas, Seminole
Rabbitry, Tampa, and G. L. Mears, St. Petersburg;
Flemish Giants, Seminole Rabbitry, and H. Dohle, Tampa;
Chinchillas, Y. Briddell, St. Petersburg.
The show was judged by Charles J. Adams, of Deni-
son, Texas, who is considered an outstanding authority
on rabbit farming. Mr. Adams spoke at a meeting of
rabbit breeders last night in the chamber of commerce
FLORIDA REVIEW 7
CLUB BOYS' EXHIBITS PROVE FLORIDA
(Tampa Tribune, January 31, 1930)
Young Florida is presenting for the first time at the
South Florida Fair, proof positive that this state can
whip the great corn producing states of the middle west
at their own game as measured in bushels per acre.
Boys of the 4-H clubs of 18 counties, headed by
Hillsborough county, have on exhibit in the fair's first
corn show visible evidence of yields of from 30 bushels
to 112% bushels an acre, as against a Florida average of
only 18 bushels to the acre, and a national average of
28 bushels to the acre.
The highest yield was made by Vernon Simmons of
Plant City, who is one of almost 100 young exhibitors
in the show.
R. W. Blacklock, boys' club agent for the state, and
other club leaders, are enthusiastic about the show and
the splendid exhibits, which actually comprise about 100
bushels of selected corn.
"Why, you could almost knock a mule down with some
of these ears, and some people don't know what Florida
can do in corn production," said Blacklock.
C. P. Wright, Hillsborough county's farm agent, has
a big show of his own in the same building, with exhibits
from about 60 boys, as well as an educational display
showing how to fight the corn weevil. Wright already
has spoken for the prize-winning bushel at the show, to
be distributed to his boys so they will have a better
chance to clean up again next year. The leading varieties
being shown in the display, which occupies a space 90
feet long and 12 feet wide, exclusive of Hillsborough's
exhibit, is Tisdale and Watleys.
The display is decorated in green and white, with
four-leaf clover, club emblem, setting the show off.
POULTRY IS VERY PROFITABLE TO THE
(Marianna Times-Courier, January 30, 1930)
Hens of American farms in 1929 produced eggs at the
rate of 45,600 a minute, U. S. Government statistics
show, while poultry as a whole created a net income of
more than $1,181,000,000 for the farmers of the Nation.
This places poultry well above wheat, oats, fruit, pota-
toes, and a long list of other farm products in rank as
money-makers for farmers.
Growing realization of the profits to be made from
greater attention to the farm flock is responsible for the
increased interest the farmer is now taking in the old
hen coop. Once the chickens were left to the "women-
folks" by the farmer, who felt that poultry was a "pin
money" proposition. Now, with farm poultry in the "big
money" class, the head of the house is beginning to take
upon himself a large share of the work necessary to suc-
cessful poultry raising.
This greatly awakened interest in poultry as a major
farm product has resulted in constant improvement of
farm flocks during the past few years, particularly since
leading hatcheries of the country banded together under
the slogan, "Hatchery Chicks for Greater Profits," to
pledge improved stock to farmers.
Increased egg production is the first step to gather
profits from the poultry flock. Hens must lay 140 to
170 eggs a year to return a good profit to their owners,
while the average for American farms is only 70 eggs
per hen per year. Replacement of low-grade stock, and
improved methods of caring for hens offer the two quick-
est methods of securing best results from the poultry
flock, poultry experts advise.
BRADBURY'S POULTRY FARM WINS AT
Twenty-eight Birds Entered Place in Winnings
(Dunedin Times, January 31, 1930)
Bradbury's Poultry Farm, operated by F. A. Bradbury
and his uncle, Dr. N. E. Mighell, entered twenty-eight
of their White Plymouth Rocks and Light Brahmas at
the South Florida Fair, now going on at Tampa, and re-
port every bird entered being placed among the win-
ners and in strong competition.
On White Plymouth Rocks they have won 1st cock,
1st and 2nd hens, 1st and 4th cockerels, 1st and 2nd
pullets and 1st breeding pen.
On Light Brahmas 1st cock, 1st, 2nd and 4th hens, 1st,
2nd, 3rd and 4th cockerels, 1st, 2nd and 3rd pullets, and
2nd breeding pen, losing only one first premium out of
ten competed for.
This winning, in addition to the almost clean sweep
made at the Pinellas County Fair just past on the breeds
shown at Tampa as well as Rhode Island Reds, is evi-
dence that this poultry farm near Dunedin has birds of
This farm last summer increased their incubator
capacity to 8,000 eggs and have been hatching every
week since October 15 and expect to run until well into
the summer as the demand has been good and will get
stronger as the weather warms up. Their show record
this winter will make a greater demand for their stock,
and it is their intention to raise more and better birds
before another show season arrives.
SATSUMA CROP BRINGS $46,000 TO
(Holmes County Advertiser, January 31, 1930)
Mr. W. A. Sessoms, secretary of the Satsuma Growers,
is closing out the accounts of the cooperative sales at
the Round Lake packing house during the past season.
It proves to be an arduous task, as many accounts are
involved and many thousands of boxes of fruit were
The total pack for the season was 25,000 boxes. These
brought $46,000, or about $1.46 per box, or half strap.
The handling of the fruit was done most economically
and satisfactorily. While profits were not as great as
hoped for, there is no indication that any fault can be
laid at the door of the growers, packers, or sales agent.
It was simply the "off year" in regard to timing of
shipment, and market conditions generally. Strained
financial conditions and slow business in northern mar-
kets at that particular time caught all shippers of luxury
products. But even so growers realized on their product
and are assured that they can grow a standard product
and put it on the market in standard form at low pro-
duction figures. With more favorable market conditions
and the natural increase of yield with growth, nice profits
seem to await the "stayers."
8 FLORIDA REVIEW
OKALOOSA BOY MAKES BIG POTATO
(Okaloosa Messenger, January 30, 1930)
Proof of the slogan of Vocational Agricultural
boosters, that "It pays to earn while learning," is shown
by a yield of 343.8 bushels of sweet potatoes per acre
made by Robert Moore of Laurel Hill while taking a
course in Vocational Agriculture, according to a report
A charter member of the Laurel Hill Chapter, Future
Farmers of Florida, and it's first vice-president
made to the State Supervisor of Vocational Education,
Mr. J. F. Williams, Jr., Tallahassee, Fla.
Robert planted one and one-fourth (1%1) acres on a
sandy loam that had been in cultivation for thirty years,
and used as his sole fertilizer, twenty-four wagon loads
of compost, for which he paid one dollar and a half per
load; a total of $36.00 for fertilizer. Robert harvested
25,738 pounds of marketable potatoes, most of which
sold for Ic per pound, bringing him a total of $249.88.
His total expense, including fertilizer, potato draws, man
and mule labor, truck hire and land rent at $5.00
amounted to $88.65, leaving him a net profit of $161.23,
which, plus the value of the labor charged to himself,
brought his total profit to $173.93.
According to Robert's agricultural teacher, Mr. G. W.
Pryor, Robert's work shows an improvement, as he took
potatoes for a project a previous year and made 300
bushels on an acre and a half, while this past year mak-
ing a total of 428.6 bushels on one and one-fourth acres.
He is a charter member of the Laurel Hill Chapter,
Future Farmers of Florida.
THE GROWERS HAVE FIELDS READY FOR
(Haines City Herald, January 30, 1930)
Tomato growing in the section which embraces Daven-
port, Haines City, Lake Hamilton, Dundee and other
nearby towns, is now taking definite form as many fields
are plowed and harrowed in preparation for the tomato
plants, while a number of growers are planting seed,
starting the biggest planting of tomatoes this section has
seen for many years, comprising over 700 acres.
Out at the Holly Hill Nursery, eight seed beds have
been planted and already four of them are showing plants
one to two inches high and the other beds are showing
signs of the plants. The last two beds were planted last
week by Major W. C. O'Dell, who is in charge of the seed
beds. As soon as the thousands of plants are ready, the
first of which should be in a couple of weeks, growers
will be supplied at the rate of $1.50 a thousand plants.
Wynn W. Scott of the Humite Company of Haines
City has booked orders for about 60 tons of the special
tomato fertilizer, and nearly every day growers are
arranging for their supply. Those who have not as yet
bought their fertilizer should get in touch with Mr. Scott
at the office of the Humite Company, in the Polk Hotel
building on Hinson avenue. Orders for plants should be
placed direct with Major O'Dell.
Those who desire any information about the propo-
sition should get in touch with either J. D. Walters,
secretary of the Ridge Vegetable Growers' Association
at Haines City, or the joint secretary of the association,
W. S. Allen, at Davenport.
Two of the largest growers in the Davenport section
are H. H. Brenner, who is planting 25 acres of tomatoes,
and S. W. Smith, formerly of Ocala, and a tomato grower
of 12 years experience, who is also planting 25 acres.
CELERY A YARD LONG IS GROWN BY
(Sarasota Herald, January 31, 1930)
A bunch of celery came into the Herald office yes.
terday from the farm of County Commissioner J. F.
Miller. It was as beautiful a bunch of celery as ever
grew in Sarasota county or in any other county. It was
fully a yard long and must have had over 30 stems. Its
flavor was excellent. Mr. Miller shipped 836 crates of
just such celery during the present week. With celery
as fine as this going out of Sarasota county to supply
northern markets it is only natural that there should be
a big demand for it and that it should command a top
price. Celery will yet make Sarasota famous.
THE BIGGEST BOOK IN THE WORLD
(Lake Wales Highlander, January 28, 1930)
A book in the office of the State Marketing Bureau
contains 4,500 pages, three long columns to the page. It
is the Thomas Register of Manufacturers, and gives an
idea of what this country does in manufacturing, all
classified from A to Z. It starts with the manufac-
turers of Abattoir machinery and ends with the makers
of Zwiebacks. It also has a classified list of all trade
names of leading commodities.
FLORIDA REVIEW 9
BULB EXHIBIT MAKES SHOWING AT THE
County Agent and DeLand Mayor in Charge of
(DeLand Sun, January 29, 1930)
Volusia county's vast flowering bulb industry is credit-
ably represented in an exhibit at the South Florida Fair,
now in progress at Tampa, according to reports reach-
The exhibit was taken to Tampa late Saturday by T.
A. Brown, Volusia county agricultural agent, who was
joined there early in the week by E. W. Brown, mayor of
DeLand and secretary-manager of the Volusia county
fair. While in Tampa, the Volusia fair manager will at-
tend to a number of business matters, including the book-
ing of exhibits and attractions for the fair here February
11-15. Keeps Identity
In other years Volusia placed a general county exhibit
at the South Florida Fair and won many laurels in citrus
and agriculture, as well as in its elaborate display of
products of home demonstration clubs. Due to lack of
funds the county display is omitted this year. However,
the space allotted to Volusia retains its identity and is
being used for individual displays of citrus fruit.
Volusia's bulb display includes specimens from the ex-
tensive narcissus and Chinese sacred lily plantings at
Talmage Gardens; a large variety of bulbs such as
gladioli, freesias, tulips, iris and narcissus from the
Drury estates at Ormond; gladioli from the plantings of
Glen A. Tyler, county commissioner, at Osteen, and mis-
cellaneous assortments from various bulb farms and
gardens in many sections of the county.
The bulb industry of the county is rapidly becoming
one of importance with annual turn-over running into
hundreds of thousands of dollars and growers are con-
centrating on a campaign to advertise Volusia as the
center of the industry.
FOREST PLANTING IN FLORIDA-48,000
PINE TREES WILL BE PLANTED
(Clay County Times, January 24, 1930)
"I'se worked in turpentine all my life, but never set
out pine trees before." These words are heard as the
Florida Forest Service men supervise the planting of
With only 6,000 trees set out last year, the interest in
forest tree planting has increased tremendously, as nearly
one-half a million will go in the ground this season. The
majority of these are from the Florida Forest Service
nursery maintained at the State Farm at Raiford, Fla.
About 310,000 slash and longleaf are being sold at $4.00
per thousand to land-owners who wish to make their idle
acres productive. Private seed-beds or nurseries super-
vised by the Forest Service have an output of 170,000.
These sturdy young pines are from seed or "pine mass"
planted last January.
These pines are furnished by the Forest Service at
cost of $4.00 per thousand. This number will plant from
one and one-third to three and one-third acres, depending
on the spacing used. The labor charge covering the
planting of these trees is about equal to the cost of the
trees as two common laborers can easily plant over 1,000
pines in a day. No watering or fertilizing is necessary,
the only care being protection from fire. This is
especially essential in the early life of these trees. Last
year a survival of 85% resulted from the plantings, which
is very satisfactory. Ordinarily a 75% survival is con-
sidered a success, according to Mr. C. H. Coulter, forest
assistant, who is in charge of this work.
Over 100 separate plantings will be made this season,
forty-five of which will be demonstration plots located
adjacent to well traveled county roads or state highways.
The plans for next year call for doubling the capacity of
the State Nursery to supply the increased demand.
FLORIDA'S MARKETING PROBLEM
(Sarasota Herald, January 29, 1930)
Florida's marketing problem is in a fair way to find
its solution. Out of the revolving fund of $500,000,000
in the hands of the Federal Farm Board, $3,000,000 has
been appropriated to the Florida Citrus Exchange. This
exchange controls the situation in 86 Florida Citrus
Growers' Associations, and is the first large scale coopera-
tive organization to be recognized by the Federal Farm
Board in this state. Not only farmers who produce
citrus, but also those who grow vegetables, melons,
poultry, etc., should join their local cooperative associa-
tions, as this is the first step in order to secure recogni-
tion from the Federal Farm Board. Many Florida
farmers will be in a far better position to finance the
growing of their crops by becoming members of local
associations, as they will aid themselves and their cowork-
ers in regulating the marketing of their products.
Organized farm activity is no longer an experiment.
In the past ten years cooperative farming has become a
big business. In 1928, some 2,000,000 farmers marketed
$2,000,000,000 worth of farm products through 12,000
local cooperative associations. About 45 per cent of
Florida's citrus production is now organized, about 25
per cent of the vegetable and melon industry df Florida
is marketed through cooperative associations, and just
recently a large per cent of the poultry and berry in-
dustry became organized. Thus we see that a solid and
permanent structure is being built behind Florida's agri-
cultural development. The individual farmer who cannot
see, and is not disposed to take advantage of coopera-
tive organization, simply stands in the way of his own
HOG MARKET PRICES UP TO 73/4 CENTS AS
26,875 POUNDS ARE SOLD
(Ocala Banner, January 31, 1930)
Twenty-six thousand, eight hundred and seventy-five
pounds of hogs came into the weekly market Tuedsay as
the price climbed from the previous top of 7% cents a
pound to 7% cents. It was one of the largest ship-
ments that Martin & Taylor have made.
Of the twenty-two who brought in hogs, the largest
contributor was Milton Sanders of Cotton Plant, whose
twenty number ones totaled 4,820 pounds. H. M.
Sherouse of Reddick had twelve number ones that
weighed in at 3,065 pounds, while S. G. Lovell of Sum-
merfield had ten number ones, weighing 2,330 pounds.
Sam Martin, manager, observed that the grade of
hogs, usually high, was this week even better. A large
percentage of them were number ones. He also pre-
dicted that February and March would probably find
the hog market reaching a peak, and urged local farmers
to take advantage of this.
10 FLORIDA REVIEW
POTATOES AND UNCLE SAM
(Palatka News, January 21, 1930)
Plans for the development of central marketing pro-
grams for potatoes as presented by representatives of
cooperative associations handling this product have been
approved by the Federal Farm Board.
To carry out the recommendations of the potato in-
dustry, a potato group was selected, one member of
which is H. L. Robinson, manager of Hastings. Other
members are the managers of the potato growing asso-
ciations of Colorado and Michigan, the Eastern Shore of
Virginia Produce Exchange, the South Carolina Produce
Association, and W. R. Thompson, of Caribou, Maine.
The personnel shows the comprehensiveness of the
plan, which is intended to weld together for the best
interests of all, the organized potato growers of the entire
Urging that potatoes be treated as a major commodity
by the Federal Farm Board, the potato group recom-
mendations were as follows:
"A nation-wide farmer-owned and controlled coopera-
tive marketing system, founded basically on community
locals grouped into district or regional organizations and,
through them, into a national system, must come into
being as the only marketing agency that has no interests
that are antagonistic to either the producers' or con-
sumers' needs. Such a set-up should be clearly set forth
as the complete plan preliminary to the formation of
local and regional organizations which should come into
being simultaneously. At the same time the existing
cooperatives should establish a central committee repre-
sentative of those already in operation and upon which
new cooperatives should have representation. This com-
mittee should act as a coordinating body to secure all the
nation-wide benefits inherent in collective merchandising
"A system of production credit under the proper con-
trol and management of farmers' cooperatives and for
the farmers' benefit should replace the present credit ex-
tended by the speculative potato interests. It is the
opinion of the cooperatives represented that this is an
essential means to secure and maintain cooperative mem-
"That there is no help for the farmers through the
present uncoordinated system of production and distri-
bution; that the farmers should realize that they must
help themselves through the opportunity now made possi-
ble for them under the Agricultural Marketing Act; that
production can be adjusted to a profitable level only
through organization; that effective merchandising can be
carried out only through nation-wide cooperative mar-
keting. This entails a recognition among the member-
ship of the usefulness of the individual member to his
cooperative organization and his responsibilities therein
and, with it, the usefulness of the organization to the
"These things are now possible for the farmers through
a definite plan which is being developed and will be pre-
sented to them. Additional help must be extended from
other sources which we believe will involve both Federal
and State agencies as essentials to the building of an
effective working organization."
Adoption of the plan should place the potato industry
on a new and more profitable basis. It means, in prac-
tical effect, a partnership with Uncle Sam. It should
result in a better system of financing and in an im-
proved system of marketing. Its success will, of course,
depend upon the attitude of the individual grower. If a
sufficient number of growers are signed by the various
regional and local co-ops, there is every reason to be-
lieve that over-production can be avoided and the menace
of low prices removed.
CANNIBAL MOSQUITO PROTECTS MAN
Honolulu, Jan. 24.-(A. P.)-Discovery of a new
weapon for exterminating mosquitoes is disclosed in a
campaign to rid Hawaiian sugar plantations of this pest.
A newly found race of mosquitoes destroy the biting
kind by millions, yet themselves lack the boring tool
necessary to bite man.
The cannibals are whoppers, an inch long, brightly
colored in blues, greens and browns.
It sounds like a fairy tale to add that in adult stage
after they have destroyed their quota of mosquitoes, they
live on the nectar of flowers and juices of crushed or
broken fruit, but that is the plain, scientific dietary fact
reported by their discoverer, C. E. Pemberton, a Hawaiian
Pemberton found these mosquitoes while hunting for
the most effective of all methods of insect control-
namely, a parasite, a bug which lives on the pest, and in-
cidentally kills him.
He found in New Britain the answer in the larvae of
the large, bright-colored mosquitoes, whose scientific
name is Megarhinus Inornatus.
These larvae were feeding on other larvae, with prefer-
ence for the wigglers of blood-sucking mosquitoes. Pem-
berton found that each big mother cannibal mosquito laid
about 60 eggs, and each wiggler developing therefrom ate
about 250 larvae.
Arithmetic shows that the young of one mother might
destroy about 15,000 mosquitoes, and her grandchildren
more than 50,000,000.
Recently Pemberton turned loose among the planta-
tions 300 of the big larvae to see whether they would
multiply in their new home.
'Transporting them from New Britain required ento-
mological legerdemain. The steamers take more than 21
days for the trip, but after 21 days the wigglers turn into
Pemberton needed them to be still in the wiggler stage
He learned how to delay their maturity by underfeed-
ing. At each steamer stop he went ashore, catching mos-
quito larvae for his flock of 300, and brought them
COUNTY HAS 2,000 ACRES WINTER TRUCK
(Hollywood News, January 30, 1930)
Fort Pierce-St. Lucie county's winter truck crop, ex-
clusive of additional spring acreage, will exceed 2,000
acres in extent, according to figures compiled by County
Agent Alfred Warren. This will considerably exceed last
winter's acreage, it was stated.
Tomatoes, potatoes and beans, in the order named, will
constitute the bulk of the acreage, with cucumbers,
peppers, eggplant, strawberries and squash following in
order. Except for tomatoes, practically the entire acre-
age has been or is now being planted. Planting of the
tomato crop will get under way the latter part of De-
FLORIDA REVIEW 11
TEN TUNG TREES BRING BIG SUM
Planted at Dowling Park Six Years Ago; Trees
Moved to Lake County
(Suwannee Democrat, January 31, 1930)
Ten full-grown tung oil trees, planted in this county
six years ago, have been sold at a total price of $1,000.
In 1924, one of the enterprising citizens of Dowling
Park community, R. M. Leonard, now deceased, bought
ten trial tung oil trees from the Experiment Station,
Gainesville. These trees, then one year old from seed,
have done exceedingly well with ordinary fruit tree care.
The largest, when last measured, was over 27 inches in
circumference and as many feet tall, with a spread of 30
feet. All are of good size. These trees averaged, for
1929, about 34 pounds of dry nuts in the shell.
Just before his death, Mr. Leonard sold the trees to
Trimby Properties, Clermont, at $100 apiece. They are
now being moved for the Trimby people by Mr. Miller
of the Summit Nursery. The moving of the trees is a
rather interesting job, the two largest being boxed with
probably between 60 and 70 cubic feet of undisturbed
earth about the roots and with scarcely any trimming of
branches. The reason, of course, for not cutting back
is to preserve the bearing possibilities. Only the four
largest trees have made their 160-mile journey so far.
It is unfortunate that old Suwannee must lose her
oldest tung trees, but our loss is Lake county's gain.
These ten trees show what the county can do with tung
trees and the deal shows the interest that is being taken
in this young industry-for the trees will cost the Trimby
Properties a neat sum by the time they are set.
ATTACKS ON THE FARM BOARD
(The Country Gentleman, February, 1930)
The recent attacks upon the Federal Farm Board by
private business interests were to be expected. When
Congress enacted the Agricultural Marketing Act it com-
manded the Board to set up farmer-owned and farmer-
controlled marketing agencies. This the Board is pro-
ceeding to do.
But in order to carry out the expressed wish of Con-
gress it must displace existing agencies either by pur-
chase or by competition. Naturally enough neither the
prospect of selling their businesses nor of facing govern-
ment-fostered competition is pleasing to the people who
now perform the marketing of farm produce.
They object to many of the acts of the Board. Among
other things they say lending money to cooperatives at a
lower rate of interest than competing lines of business
have to pay is unfair discrimination in favor of one class
of citizens against another. Another complaint is that
the Farm Board in lending Federal funds to cooperatives
is usirig the tax money which private businesses have to
pay the government to force them out of existence.
Even granting that these complaints may be true, there
is no escaping the fact that Congress commanded the
Farm Board to do exactly what it is doing. For example:
In the declaration of policy of this act, laying down the
rule of practice for the Board, is the statement "That it
is hereby declared to be the policy of Congress to pro-
mote the effective merchandising of agricultural com-
modities in interstate and foreign commerce by
encouraging the organization of producers into effective
associations or corporations under their own control, for
greater unity of effort in marketing and by promoting
the establishment and financing of a farm marketing
system of producer-owned and producer-controlled coop-
erative associations and other agencies."
The foregoing statement is very plain and is free from
limitations. There is nothing in it or in the body of the
act to sustain the position of those who hold that the
Board or its cooperative wards should confine themselves
to a certain percentage of any crop. If the Board tres-
passes upon the territory of private business its warrant
for so doing seems plain enough in the passage cited.
Equally distinct are the provisions regarding the lend-
ing of money from the huge revolving fund set up for the
Board's use. Loans are to be made to cooperatives and
stabilization corporations at approximately the lowest in-
terest rate of any current government obligations. And
since the government is a preferred borrower it can al-
ways get money under the prevailing commercial rate.
As to the authority to make loans, the able counsel who
was called in to give the Board legal guidance at the out-
set has this to say, "The making of loans is in the sound
uncontrolled discretion of the Board. Congress in appro-
priating the funds for this purpose squarely places the
power and the duty to act upon the Farm Board."
In connection with another of the Board's powers he
states that "The only limit is the ingenuity and desires of
the Board," and he sums up with this statement: "With
the broad policy declared and the powers conferred the
Board can find a way to act and to do most anything
which its considered judgment believes will bring about
the desired objective of farm relief."
These elements are in the Agricultural Marketing Act
by the will of Congress and the approval of the President.
The Board has no choice but to apply the powers dele-
gated to it for the purpose to which it is committed. If
agriculture is to have its own machinery for marketing
there is no alternative but that private agencies must be
displaced. Whenever a sweeping change is made in an
established procedure large numbers of people are likely
to be affected. Presumably Congress gave due considera-
tion to this when the bill was passed.
$8.10 IS PAID FOR HOGS IN BONIFAY
(Holmes County Advertiser, January 31, 1930)
The hog sale on Wednesday of this week scored an-
other success. There were 103 hogs listed, making a
total weight of 17,771, and bringing cash, $1,355.49.
There were 55 number ones, 28 number twos, and 20
number threes and fours. The car was bought by the
White Provision Company of Atlanta, Ga., at the splendid
price of $8.10.
This was one of the very best cooperative sales put on
here. This fine price means more than it would other-
wise since it is net to the farmers. There is no charge
for weighing, selling, or any other service to be paid by
growers who list their stock in the Bonifay cooperative
The cooperation of the Bank of Bonifay in cashing
checks the day of sale has contributed another factor
to the success of the plan. There is now no delay at all
in getting settlement.
Dr. Vara announces that there will be another sale
about the middle of February. Growers are urged to
list their hogs at once. The sooner a full car is listed the
earlier the sale will come off.
12 FLORIDA REVIEW
NEW AND UP-TO-DATE PLANT KISSIMMEE
NAVAL STORES CO. TO BEGIN
(Kissimmee Valley Gazette, January 30, 1930)
M. D. Price, a naval stores operator of many years'
experience, is a new resident of Kissimmee, and is
making his home at the corner of Brack and Lake
streets, while he is developing 4,000 acres of turpentine
timber, located just north of the city limits. He is build-
ing a commodious still shed, a commissary and a number
of houses for workmen, 50 of whom will be steadily em-
ployed. A Pan-Am gas station also is being installed.
About 25 men already are employed and a 10x10 well is
being sunk near the still shed. It is expected the still
will be started Saturday, as dipping the 65,000 cups
already up was begun Monday.
Mr. Price is from Bunnell and has been a resident of
Osceola county for several months past, moving to Kis-
simmee the latter part of December. He has secured
the services of B. H. McClellan, who will be in charge
of operations in the woods, while Mr. Price will have
charge of the commissary and the still, which is located
on the Orlando road. A company, known as the Kis-
simmee Naval Stores Company, already has been organ-
ized with Mr. Price, president and manager.
The Gazette is pleased to welcome this new industry
to Kissimmee, and the wages of 50 men will be a fine
addition to the money to be spent in this city.
FLORIDA'S SUGAR INDUSTRY
(Florida Times-Union, January 30, 1930)
If properly encouraged, the growing of sugar cane
and the manufacture of sugar will become one of Flor-
ida's greatest industries, adding immensely to the wealth
of the State.
The Dahlberg interests have made a fine start toward
fostering this industry, investing millions of dollars in the
enterprise. They have erected at Clewiston one of the
largest sugar mills in the United States, and have plans
under way for other large mills. The Clewiston mill is
now producing sugar.
But sugar making in Florida is an infant industry. It
needs and should have protection. Why not a reasonable
additional protective tariff on sugar?
In advocating such protection, the Tampa Tribune
"Floridians have been active in asking tariff for Florida
products. They have insisted on increased duties on
certain vegetables with which foreign products are in
direct competition. In the pending tariff bill they have
urged other protective rates. In this they have been
actively assisted by Florida senators and representatives.
Why omit sugar?"
The start made by the Dahlberg interests will en-
courage extensive planting of sugar cane, not only in the
Everglades, but throughout Florida, also the establish-
ment of many other sugar mills, if the industry be en-
couraged and protected by Congress.
If the small additional protective tariff on sugar asked
for be granted, it is safe to assume that in a few years
sugar making would become one of the most valuable in-
dustries of the State.
This would benefit not only Florida, but the entire
United States, for sugar is a necessary food product, and
if Florida be permitted to produce it in sufficient quan-
titles, the demands of the nation could be supplied at
Writing further on the justice of such tariff increase,
the Tampa Tribune says: "All Florida's agricultural
products are entitled to equal recognition in tariff bene-
fits. They are also entitled to equal recognition with
that given manufacturing states in the north. Give
Florida sugar production a reasonable chance, and it will
become a big, profitable industry."
Of the possibilities of the sugar industry in Florida,
the Tampa Tribune says:
"South Florida can produce 2,000,000 tons of sugar
annually, according to conservative estimates made by
experts who have studied the situation and prospects.
This sugar output, with the by-products which come with
it, would give Florida an annual revenue of approxi-
mately $200,000,000. It is one of the biggest and best
outlooks for real industry, bringing in real money."
The tariff makers should heed and.grant the request of
the Florida sugar producers, for it would mean added
prosperity for the whole Nation.
CANE HARVEST SHOWS SIXTY TONS PER
Heavy Tonnage Shown in P. O. J. Canes in Bare
Beach and Benbow Areas
(Clewiston News, January 31, 1930)
Completion of harvesting two 40-acre fields of sugar
cane in the Bare Beach area showed an average yield of
60.1 tons per acre, it was announced yesterday by of-
ficials of the Southern Sugar Company.
The cane which gave this heavy yield was of the
variety known as P. O. J. 2714, and was 12 months cane.
In a field on the Benbow farm west of Clewiston, har-
vesting of the same variety of cane showed a yield of
48.7 tons per acre. It was explained however that the
cane in the Benbow zone was planted in March while
that in the Bare Beach area was 12 months cane.
Sugar cane operations in the northern Everglades, now
completing the fourth week since the launching of the
1930 season, continue to attract the attention of the
entire state and during the past week hundreds of visitors
have visited the 4,000 tons a day sugar factory at Clewis-
ton, while newspapers of Florida have been brimful of
news and editorial comment on the activities here.
NEW FULLERS EARTH PLANT FOR
(Gainesville Sun, January 29, 1930)
Tallahassee, Jan. 28.-(Special)-F. W. Bruch, presi-
dent of the Acme Manufacturing Company, Cleveland,
announces the contemplated completion by April first of
a $75,000 fullers earth refinery building at Midway, Fla.,
near Tallahassee, which will double the capacity of the
"Business last year was the best in the history of the
company and this winter instead of the usual seasonal
drop is showing a constant increase," according to Mr.
The capacity of the finished plant will be 200 tons per
day. It is an all-steel structure, designed by the Osborn
Engineering Company of Cleveland.
FLORIDA REVIEW 13
CITRUS PRIZE IS GIVEN MANATEE AT THE
Lake County Is Second-Polk Takes the Third
(DeLand Sun, January 31, 1930)
Tampa, Fla., Jan. 31.-(A. P.)-Manatee county, im-
mediately south of here on the west coast of Florida,
today was awarded the first prize for the best citrus
display at the South Florida Fair, according to General
Manager P. T. Strieder. Manatee also won the highest
award for its vegetable display this year. Lake county
in the north-central section ranked second in both ex-
hibits, and Polk, to the east of this county, took third
prize in the two products. Other awards were expected
WEALTH SOURCE IN HONEY SHOWN BY
Florida Vies with Other States at Fair
(Tampa Tribune, January 31, 1930)
More than 2,500 jars of honey from apiaries in all
parts of Florida and from other states, ranking in color
from the palest products of Idaho to almost black buck-
wheat honey from New York state, are arranged in long
shelving in the South Florida fair's first national honey
show, which is creating wide interest.
This is probably the first time that Florida's growing
importance as a honey state has been thus brought to
the attention of the nation, and Florida honey, in almost
100 varieties, has left its rich memory in the mind of
many a visitor for years.
"The honey industry here is going right ahead, with
possibilities that may be measured in dollars to any-
one who goes into the business intelligently," said
Ernest M. Macomber, superintendent of the show, who
with Robert E. Foster, state apiary inspector, and W.
K. Lott, assistant inspector, are on hand to give first-
Room for More Bees
There are already about 500,000 colonies of bees in
Florida, but the pasture is large, and there is room for
60 times as many. The industry has been growing
splendidly during the last few years.
"The exhibit is an opportunity for all who are inter-
ested in an interesting and profitable industry," said
Macomber, who pointed out nine of the leading kinds of
honey in the large state exhibit, which is a feature of
the show. First, of course, is orange honey, the flavor
tourists like most to remember, but Tupelo honey is a
close second, as not so many folk know. Black man-
grove, saw palmetto, wild sunflower, gallberry, partridge
pea, wonder honey plant and many blends of wild flower
honey are outstanding Florida flavors. There are, in
fact, as many kinds as there are nectar-producing flowers.
Bees in Big Cage
In a large wire cage at the entrance of the show bees
are busy, and this exhibit includes a section of the trunk
of a black mangrove tree which is pretty well filled with
honey. Bees take the honey from the tree and store it
in the trunk when they get a chance.
The apiary inspection department of the State Plant
Board has an exhibit dealing with brood diseases, and
the United States Department of Agriculture has an ex-
hibit showing the process of making honey from the
flower to the table. The Nation's income from honey is
$75,000,000, with $3,000,000 in wax, the exhibit shows.
Florida is getting more and more of that big pay.
Florida Shows Its Stuff
Some of the finest of exhibits are from the colonies of
big Florida producers, with others by producers in other
states. A Manatee county producer has a splendid ex-
hibit showing something of the development of honey
extraction, and all sorts of bee-keepers' paraphernalia.
The big day for the bee-keepers will be February 4,
when they will be especially honored in a program at 10
o'clock at the grand stand. There will be talks by
Governor Carlton, W. G. Brorein, president of the fair,
and J. W. Barney of Bradenton, president of the State
Hundreds of bee-keepers have exhibits in the big show,
from Idaho, New York and Georgia, as well as Florida.
The Georgia display is in charge of J. J. Wilder of Way-
cross, a writer on bee subjects.
The exhibits are set off on shelves lighted from be-
hind so that the rich coloring of each jar is shown.
Demonstrations in the handling of bees will be given
BROWARD COUNTY PRODUCTS FOR LAST
Ralph A. Horton Presents Interesting Figures
from Marketing Bureau-County Among
Largest Vegetable Shippers in State
(Ft. Lauderdale News, January 30, 1930)
More than $3,500,000 was poured into Broward county
during 1929 from agricultural products, figures sub-
mitted to Ralph A. Horton, local business man and drain-
age expert, by Commissioner Hyatt, of the State Market-
ing Bureau, indicated today.
The major part of this tremendous sum was paid to
the farmer-producers of winter crop vegetables. The
State Marketing Bureau statistics show that of the 4,109
carload lots of beans shipped out of Florida in 1929, a
total of 658 cars went from Broward county. The aver-
age value per car of the bean shipment was $1,200. In
other words, this county received $789,600 last year from
solid carload lots of bean shipments.
Of the 8,042 carload lots of tomatoes shipped from
Florida, 668 went from Broward. Allowing $1,200 per
car, the value to the producers was $781,600.
Of the 1,965 carloads of peppers shipped last year,
Broward county shipped 868, or almost half. The value
of the pepper shipment is estimated to have been
The combined value of other crops, such as eggplants,
potatoes, cucumbers and citrus, represents another
$1,000,000 for Broward county.
Aside from the carload shipments of vegetables last
year, officials of the express company estimate that a
daily average of from 250 to 600 packages of vegetables
was shipped out by express during the winter season,
which lasts usually from November 15 to April 15.
During the height of the season these individual package
shipments go as high as 700 or 800 per day. This repre-
sents a tidy sum in itself, to the smaller shippers, Mr.
14 FLORIDA REVIEW
AFRICA FINDS FLORIDA PINE ONLY ANT
RESISTING WOOD-SHIP SAILS WITH
(Tampa Tribune, January 12, 1930)
The ravenous appetite of red ants in black Africa,
where none of their building lumbers withstand the an-
nual attacks of insects, has opened up a new market for
Florida pitch pine, recently discovered by African
builders as the one cheap kind of wood that the ants do
The new demand for Florida's product was reflected
here last week with the sailing of the Barber line
freighter West Humhaw carrying a cargo of pine for
distribution along the West African coast at 21 different
The towns are not yet classed as ports, according to
Capt. M. Hawkins, master of the West Humhaw, because
with but few exceptions there are no harbors or protec-
tion from storms. The lumber and other supplies are
loaded onto skiffs manned by dusky natives, and poled
to small docks, sometimes half a mile from the ship
riding at anchor. Tampa lumber is their principal de-
mand, but the ship also will discharge into the skiffs case
oil from Texas, flour and general grain foods and meat
from New Orleans, Mobile and this city.
Regular Service Planned
The new service is being started out of Tampa by the
Barber line, for whom Lykes Brothers are Tampa agents.
There will be regular service through here as cargo offers.
The big freighters sail from Tampa direct to Horta, in
the Azores, then to Teneriffe, with Las Palmas the first
contact on the continent. Dakar in the Senegal division
of French West Africa, is the first city of importance,
and next comes Bathurst, in British Gambia, a city of
40,000 population. Others, in order, are Bissao in Portu-
guese Guina, Freetown and British Sierra Leone, Grand
Bassam and Takoraki on the Ivory coast, Cape Coast on
the Gold coast, Salt Pond, Winnebah and Akkra, also on
the Ivory coast, Lome, Cotonau, French possessions,
Lagos and Port Harcourt in British Nigeria, Kribi, Duala
and Saint Isabel, in Cameroon, where the coast turns
south toward the Congo river.
Frequent stops are made in Liberia, at Monrovia, but
this port is being skipped on the present trip of the
West Humhaw. An American rubber company has opera-
tion rights on 1,000,000 acres of land in Liberia and is
spending millions, creating entire cities, in development
of world's greatest rubber area.
"As soon as we come within 100 miles of the African
coast, off the desert of Sahara, we don our special African
sun helmets to keep off the terrific glare of refracted sun
rays that come through the overheated air above the
desert," Captain Hawkins said.
No Drinking in Daytime
"These rays have the same effect on the human system
of ultra-violet rays, and exposure for a considerable
length of time will put one completely out of business
and have been known to have fatal results. It is a pecu-
liar thing, too, that drinks, while plying down the coast,
have to be limited to the night time. Drinking in the
daytime will put you in bed every time.
"Our real work of loading and discharging cargo
begins at Freetown. Here we take on about 70 black
natives, who work for 50 cents a day all the way down
and back to Freetown. They are small fellows, the
largest being not over five feet six inches tall and weigh-
ing about 140 pounds, but are good workers.
"They handle huge mahogany logs, and know their
business. We unloaded just one log at New Orleans on
our last voyage that weighed about 15 tons and had a
sale value of $22,000. It was a prize log, of mottled
grain, used for veneering.
Twelve Ships in Service
"There are 12 ships in this African service, some of
them on the New York run. Now that the Africans have
found out that your pine lumber will withstand their
ants Tampa will become a regular port of call for heavy
cargoes. The steamship West Campgaw is due here next
month to follow us."
The pine timbers are treated here with a soda wash,
which gives the pitch a property that drives ants away,
solving a problem that has made wooden construction a
hazardous proposition heretofore in Africa.
Tampa is but 3,500 miles to the nearest West African
port, but the West Humhaw is making a round trip
voyage of more than 12,000 miles, covering the Azores
and Canary islands, then down to the equator in Africa,
back over nearly the same route and around to various
ports in the gulf before going outward bound again
through Tampa bay.
CANNED FRUIT TO PACIFIC ON INCREASE
Forwardings from Tampa Five Times as Large
as for Preceding Year
(Florida Times-Union, January 11, 1930)
Tampa, January 13.-Canned citrus fruit ship-
ments to California and other Pacific coast states were
nearly six times greater during 1929 than the total for
the preceding year, according to figures announced today
at the local customs office.
Last year a total of 122,837 cases of canned grape-
fruit and grapefruit juice were shipped to the Pacific
coast, while in 1928 there were only 22,013 cases. Among
the cities that received large shipments last year were
Los Angeles, San Francisco and Seattle.
The largest month for shipments during 1929 was
February, during which 26,168 cases were exported, the
second largest month was April with 24,208 cases being
shipped. The smallest month for last year was August
with 643 cases, but that was a gain of 543 cases over the
same month of the previous year.
The cargoes are loaded at the Tampa Union Terminal
and are carried through the Panama Canal Zone to the
Pacific. Ships dock here once a month for shipments to
the Pacific. They are operated by the Gulf Pacific Steam-
ship Line. The Point San Pablo is now in port, loading a
Figures for the last four months of 1929 for shipments
to England are not available, but for the first eight months
of last year 42,271 boxes of oranges and grapefruit were
shipped. One shipment is made a month to Liverpool
and London, on the Tampa-London line.
Florida oranges and grapefruit are barred from Cali-
The cattle industry is growing in leaps and bounds in
this section.-Marianna Floridan. Evidently the little
calves are getting playful.-Perry Herald.
A MILLION BULBS
(DeLand Sun, January 9, 1930)
One million and a half of narcissus bulbs have been
estimated as the year's crop for the Talmage Gardens,
owned by Samuel Horner, Jr. When production reaches
up into the millions of bulbs the industry has achieved
the nature of a big business. Already the operator of
this interesting development in the DeLand area is in a
position, because of increase in output, to deal directly
with his market. The business has every earmark of
success and DeLand takes pride in the progress of the in-
dustry. For those of us who have gone through that
period of nightmare, which began some time back in
1926, these straightforward announcements from local
concerns should be heartening and ought to be a de-
termining factor in pointing out to us that we are not
bogged in an eternal morass, but that we are actually
moving forward. There is no foolish optimism in the
announcement from Talmage Gardens. It is just plain
business talk founded on facts. What has been done at
Talmage Gardens can be repeated in other lines of en-
deavor if we are determined enough to take advantage
of the opportunities this state and county possess.
FLORIDA'S FOREIGN TRADE
(Tampa Tribune, January 15, 1930)
Florida exported $14,000,000 worth of goods to Europe
during 1928, which represented approximately 26 per
cent of the state's total exports, according to government
figures, says William L. Wilson, chairman of the Florida
State Chamber of Commerce Industrial Committee. Dur-
ing the same period European goods valued at $7,100,000
and representing about 25 per cent of the state's im-
ports, passed through Florida ports.
Exports to European countries flowing through the
ports of the Gulf coast customs districts, of which Florida
is a part, have increased 79 per cent during the past 15
years, while the increase for the United States as a
whole shows an increase of 60 per cent. Imports of
European origin arriving at ports of the Gulf coast dis-
tricts show a gain of 115 per cent in value since 1914,
the Florida district showing the greatest percentage of
change during the 1914-1928 period. The Florida and
Mobile districts are exceptional in that, with the Maine
and New Hampshire districts, they are the only ones in
which the proportion of imports from Europe are larger
than in 1914 in comparison with the total imports
In the Latin-American field, says Mr. Wilson, Florida's
export trade increased approximately 26 per cent over a
period of 14 years. The trend of Latin-American trade,
according to government statistics, is shown to be swing-
ing to the south and west, which should be of great
interest to Florida. In 1928 Florida was second in
volume among the Gulf coast districts with a total of
$37,560,000 in exports, and $20,356,000 in imports, based
upon shipments cleared and received through Florida
ports consigned to and originating in Latin-American
These figures, said Chairman Wilson, while revealing a
healthy growth of foreign business passing through the
ports of the state, should not be confused with the actual
manufacture and foreign marketing of Florida goods.
The fact that Florida goods are but slightly represented
in the large amount of foreign trade handled through
the ports of the state is a condition that the industrial
committee of the State Chamber of Commerce expects
to give special study and consideration.
Florida has an outstanding opportunity, continued Mr.
Wilson, to become a leading factor in the country's field
of foreign trade, especially that of the Latin-American
countries. To capitalize this opportunity Florida must
take advantage of its industrial possibilities. A large
amount of the goods now handled through the ports of
Florida from other states could be manufactured in this
state profitably. To expand Florida's foreign trade, both
European and Latin-American, is going to require con-
structive industrial development within the state.
That Florida can increase its foreign trade is well
demonstrated in the recent report of over $100,000 in
new business for the state during the last six months of
1929 by the Jacksonville Bureau of Domestic and Foreign
Commerce. While comparative figures for 1929 are not
now available, all indications from partial figures tend
to show that 1929 was a banner year in foreign trade for
Florida ports. With the launching of the campaign pro-
posed by the State Chamber of Commerce committee
looking to the establishment of industry in the state,
1930 can be made the most progressive year ever re-
corded in both the industrial and foreign trade fields.
MANY POTATOES GOING INTO GROUND
(Arcadian, January 9, 1930)
DeSoto county's first real effort to establish itself as a
potato center is being made this winter, and at the
present time it looks like there would be well over 200
acres of Irish and sweet potatoes planted in this imme-
diate vicinity. At least there is a record of about this
many, and it is quite probable that there are others who
contemplate putting out a crop who have not made any
As has been previously stated, quite a number of
farmers are planning to make a try at the Big Stem
Jerseys, which have turned out so well during the past
year in this county. More than 100 acres of these are
going in, and seed are being planted now.
It seems likely that about the same number of acres
of Irish potatoes will be planted in this community this
winter, and perhaps a good many more. J. L. Dishong,
secretary and manager of the DeSoto County Cooperative
Marketing Association, has about this much listed among
the members of the association and others.
The potatoes have been going into the ground for the
past week or more and some of them are reported as
coming up nicely. The county needs a good rain now to
start the spuds along their way.
FLORIDA'S TRAPPING INDUSTRY
(Wakulla County News, January 3, 1930)
The importance of the trapping industry in Florida is
brought out forcefully by the following figures found in
"Florida's Woods and Waters." During the past season
Florida citizens have trapped 22,000 raccoons, 140,000
opossums, 7,000 foxes, 40,000 skunks, 5,000 wildcat and
6,000 civet cats. These furs brought into the state better
than a million dollars, which, with $15,000 received for
about 60,000 alligator skins, makes the imposing total
of $1,150,000. This is no insignificant contribution to
the state's income.
16 FLORIDA REVIEW
MIXED CARLOADS OF VEGETABLES ARE
Plan Is Proposed at Parley of Seminole Agri-
(Sanford Herald, January 30, 1930)
Sanford and Seminole county growers will be shipping
mixed vegetables in carload lots to scores of medium
sized cities throughout the United States within another
year, if the plans which were proposed by the Seminole
Agricultural Club, which met last night in the high school,
are carried out, according to W. M. Haynes, secretary
of the club.
A large gathering of farmers were present last night
to discuss with S. W. Hiatt, of the Florida State Market-
ing Bureau, the possibilities and profits centered in the
shipment of mixed vegetables.
While plans are only tentative, it was the consensus
of opinion among those present last night that such ship-
ments, consisting of celery, cabbage, beets, carrots,
turnips, bunched green onions, supplemented at times
with such other vegetables as may be available, in car-
load lots could be worked up in the Sanford-Oviedo sec-
tion to a point where it would become a steady and re-
liable source of income to the growers. By the cultiva-
tion of an assortment of vegetables it was pointed out
that the land would become more suitable for obtaining
the best celery crops.
Several members made it known that for years some
of the older farms in this section have been planted year
after year with celery. They further explained that the
time had come when the grower must realize that he
must rotate his crops in order to cultivate the best celery.
Over 500 acres are expected to be cultivated with
mixed vegetables next year, and two packing houses are
proposed to be built at convenient points, where the
vegetables may be washed, bunched and crated in strictly
first-class shape. Mr. Haynes further said that it was
pointed out that each year between January and June
there is a demand for mixed vegetables, and that if this
section could raise enough to supply the market it would
be a great advantage to the growers oT the county.
A committee, composed of the following, was appointed
to assist in working out plans for the execution of the
club's plans: C. M. Berry, Stewart Dutton, Ed Meisch,
R. B. Chapman, T. F. Adams, D. J. Garrett, Fred Zer-
ranner, Ed Cameron, W. M. Haynes and S. W. Hiatt.
CITRUS OILS RECOVERED BY THE HOWEY
By-Product, Ordinarily Wasted, Has Value of
Abount 20 Cents Per Box
(Florida Times-Union, January 31, 1930)
Howey, Jan. 30.-Oils from grapefruit peel and orange
peel are being recovered from fruit used at the Howey
juice fruit plant. The value of this by-product is ap-
proximately 20 cents a box, and ordinarily goes to waste.
The W. J. Howey Company is one of the few outfits in
the state owning and operating a citrus oil recovery plant.
With the installation of this equipment, the Howey cycle
runs like this: Rough Lemon root stock; pedigreed
budded trees; quality fruit; modern packing plant; inde-
pendent sales at premium prices; juice plant for canning
by secret process grapefruit juice and orange juice; oil
from peelings; fertilizer from refuse.
The oil reclamation machinery adjoins and is con-
nected with the juice plant and consists of a grinder, a
large tank where the ground peel is subjected to live
steam for a period of a few hours and this mass then is
placed in an atmospheric distillery for distilling off of
all essential oils, which are collected in glass containers,
and these go into cold storage at Tampa before shipment
to the market.
About five gallons of oils are recovered from 200 boxes
of oranges and three and one-half gallons from 200
boxes of grapefruit. The output of the Howey plant
has been sold. These oils are used in making per-
fumery and perfumed soap. The oil is used in prepara-
tion of extracts and as concentrated syrup for beverage
The equipment was installed here by the By-Products
Corporation of Tampa. The Howey-in-the-Hills outfit is
one of four in Florida.
MANY AUTOS PASS THROUGH CAPITAL
Alabama Leads in Foreign Tags Checked Here
(Florida State News, January 29, 1930)
Automobile traffic through Tallahassee from Decem-
ber 1 to January 21, shows that a total of 6,463 cars
bearing out-of-state licenses visited this city, according
to figures compiled by Secretary Thomas P. Turner of
the chamber of commerce.
The heaviest traffic for any 10-day period was recorded
from December 21 to 31, when 1,557 automobiles passed
through Florida's capital city. Most of the automobile
traffic into Tallahassee comes from the west and north-
west over the Old Spanish Trail and Bee Line highways.
912 Cars Come
There were 912 incoming cars from January 14 to 21.
The greatest number of out-of-state automobiles were
from Alabama, the records show. A total of 177
machines were listed from that state.
From the far western state of California 33 machines
passed through this city, a majority of them en route
down the Florida east coast. Six automobiles bearing
Maine license plates were included in the total, while one
car from the state of Washington made its way here.
Illinois supplied 72 machines in the procession, while
other midwestern states helped swell the total. The
records list 37 cars from Indiana, 9 from Kansas, 42 from
Ohio, and 29 from Michigan.
One car from Nevada, four from North Dakota, two
from Montana and eight from Nebraska were included in
the figures compiled by the commerce secretary.
Among other states represented, with the number of
cars from each from January 14-21, follow:
Colorado, 1; Idaho, 2; Kentucky, 7; Louisiana, 32;
Mississippi, 24; Oklahoma, 15; Tennessee, 24.
Secretary Turner said that automobile clubs at Pitts-
burgh and Chicago had written the local chamber and
requested information about this section of the state.
The Pittsburgh automobile club requested the chamber
to send photographs of Tallahassee and vicinity, stating
that "from time to time we have occasion to write a news
story or a magazine story about automobile routes which
pass through your city, and as a rule these stories are