U.S.Dept. of Agriculture,
PUBLISHED SEMI-MONTHLY BY
OF IMMIGRATION, DEPARTMENT OF AdGR CULTURE
Vol. 4 JANUARY 20, g980 No. 16
By T. J. BROOKS, Assistant Commissioner of Agriculture
HIS is a protest against the practice of
sardonic cartoonists and strabismus-eyed
publishers who misrepresent the farmer
in the pictured impersonations of the man
behind the plow.
Pick up any periodical and find a charac-
teristic picture of a farmer and notice what it
is like-a scarecrow. If you are thinking that I
have a chip on my shoulder for the farmer just
have the cartoonists and illustrators of feature
articles and stories of farm life turn their gaff
of caricature on some other calling and see if
there is not a protest. Try it on bankers,
doctors, lawyers, merchants and others.
I do not have reference to his work clothes-
however he sometimes wears tailor-made
clothes. Then to what do I object?
I object to the farmer being pictured as a
plain fool. It seems that the average illustrator
and publisher are of the opinion expressed by
Bismarck concerning the people as a whole:
"The stupidity of the masses cannot be over-
I object to epithets carrying with them the
inferiority complex. "Uncle Reuben" is not
meant as a compliment.
Look at the composite representation of the
farm hand, "Hank, the hired man." What im-
pression does it make on the youths of the land
when they see that brainless moron represent-
ing farm laborers? And look at the girl asso-
ciates of Hank! Do they appear to be of the
kind that a man of quality would want to
marry? Do you think that Hank and any one
of his farm daughter associates would ever be
parents to a President of the United States?
Abraham Lincoln's mother was Nancy Hanks
Lincoln, but do you believe that she looked like
Hank the hired man's sister, or that Bob Lincoln
looked like Hank himself?
The families of farmers are furnishing their
percentage of the leaders in all the various
vocations and professions. It has always been
so. Abraham was a rancher. Moses was a
shepherd and leader of a pastoral people. Ruth
gleaned in the fields for her daily bread and
was a progenitor of Christ. The parents of
George Washington were farmers and he was
a tiller of the soil. Ninety per cent of our
presidents and governors, fifty per cent of our
railroad presidents, sixty per cent of our bank
presidents, sixty-six per cent of our senators
and sixty per cent of our congressmen were sons
of the soil.
The painting by Millet and the poem by
Edwin Markham do not apply to this age. They
reflect the ancient days of servitude and the
feudal serfdom of the Dark Ages.
Does it make any difference how the public is
fed upon the thought that "Rube" is a mutt, a
dolt, a dunce, an ignoramus, a molly-coddle, a
moron, a fool? As a matter of fact it does.
Self-respect is the first requirement for inde-
pendence, for self-dependence, for rectitude,
for aggressiveness, for leadership. When the
inferiority complex is drummed into the minds
of any class for generations it gives the in-
feriority complex to that class. It is the rarest
exception that a person is not affected by it.
I speak as one who was born and reared back
in the "sticks," who plowed for twenty years,
not by proxy; who knows the handicaps of farm
life as well as its freedom and privileges; who
organized farmers, represented them before
committees of Congress on eight occasions,
seven of which were successful; who was a
member of an American commission which
studied rural organizations in Europe, a dele-
gate to the International Institute of Agricul-
ture, and a member of the faculty of an agri-
cultural college. Never have I failed to feel a
resentment at having myself pictured as a
2 FLORIDA REVIEW
"Hank," for well do I remember being a hired
hand on the farm, as well as a renter and land-
owner. I am not different in my farm psy-
chology from the average. What offends me
offends the millions on the farm.
No longer "The Man with the Hoe" is he
Who tills the soil. In his place, in this day,
Is the Plowman who looks the world in the
Face unafraid. Forged steel turns the stubborn
Glebe. Tractors do his bidding when he calls;
Sunshine and showers come with the seasons,
And nature laughs a bountiful harvest
To feed the few millions of earth.
No longer "bowed by the weight of centuries,
The emptiness of ages in his face,"
He mounts his iron steed, commands, and Lo!
Renders lighter the burdens of the world.
Responsive to rapture and despair-
As are the royal, the rulers and lords-
He claims dominion o'er land and sea, traces
The stars and searches for power.
"The creature dreamed by Him who shaped the suns
And pillared the firmament with light;"
Familiar with nature's wondrous secrets,
"Conversant with Plato and Pleiades;"
Last fruitage of time's many tragedies
And upward climb of turbulent mankind;
The future must reckon with this Plowman,
Who holds his hand on the throttle of the world.
(Melbourne Times-Journal, December 6, 1929)
One of the most fascinating and instructive bulletins
which has come to our desk recently is entitled "Rural
Culture," volume 39, number 4, issued by Nathan Mayo,
of the Florida Department of Agriculture, Tallahassee.
It is published for the purpose of showing how to pro-
vide for a satisfying life, especially in the agricultural
districts. It is intended to give a stimulus to the cul-
tural side of farm life. Mr. Mayo states that one of the
reasons why people have been going from the farm to
every other work known to man, is a lack of cultural life
on the farm. "Rural Culture" certainly gives a true
stimulus to the cultural side of farm life, and we might
add, our own personal home life. We thoroughly enjoyed
reading and reviewing the many principles of reading,
writing, speaking, and the stimulating poetry with which
it is concluded.
Some of its topics are related to classes of public
speaking, organizing and conducting debating societies,
parliamentary rules, outlining debates, rules of the
Florida Senate, essay writing, essay and book clubs,
writing poetry, and other refreshing food for the mind.
It is well to care for the body and feed it regularly, but
the mind and soul are two of the most essential elements
in life, and must be satisfied, if man is to live contented
with his accomplishments.
Twenty-one million, six hundred and fifth-eight thou-
sand, four hundred and fifty-one dollars in assets of
Florida Building and Loan Associations was announced
by the State Banking Department recently.
OUR SWELLING NATIONAL INCOME
(The Literary Digest for January 4, 1930)
A revelation of. the growth of the United States in
wealth and power that interests newspapers in all parts
of the country is seen in the recent report of an eminent
statistical authority on the increase of the income of the
people of the nation.
In the last Presidential election, as The Wall Street
Journal remarks, "an army of young citizens voted for
the first time. When they were a year old, the national
income was about $29,605,000,000, and when in 1928
they went to the polls it was $89,419,000,000. Thus, in
twenty years the realized income of the nation increased
207 per cent." The Wall Street Journal points out that
the phrase "realized income" means that the sum men-
tioned does not include income "arising from exchanges
in the value of property, odd-job employment, or services
rendered by persons for their own family, which if in-
cluded would have greatly raised the total."
The figures are given to the press by the National
Bureau of Economic Research, being a preliminary re-
port of an investigation which has been carried on under
the direction of Willford I. King, more than four years.
The average per capital income, in the United States
according to these figures, more than doubled, continues
The Wall Street Journal, between 1909 and 1923.
Since then it steadily increased until in 1928 the in-
come for all persons in the United States averaged $749.
It must be remembered that this would be a distribution
to every man, woman, and child. Assuming that the
average family consists of five persons, the family in-
come would be $3,745. More than one person in a
family is apt to work, and dividing the income among
those who work for a money return, the average was
$1,898 in 1928.
This enormous spending power is reflected in business.
A great consuming power, as is indicated by this in-
come, assures an enormous consuming market, with con-
sequent increase in the incomes of those businesses that
furnish goods and services. Mercantile business, for in-
stance, had an income in 1909 of $3,685,000,000. Ex-
cepting the deflation period, that income increased year
after year, until in 1928 it was $13,137,000,000. Another
great increase was in the manufacturing industry. In
1909, that business had an income of $5,481,000,000,
and in 1925, which is the last year covered, it was
The figures for the total realized income of the people
of this country for the years 1909-1928 are reprinted as
follows in The Wall Street Journal:
1917. ..... 51,831,000,000
1913... ...... 35,723,000,000
1912 ........ 33,977,000,000
1910...... .. 31,430,000,000
1909 ........ 29,605,000,000
The remarkable way that average salaries and wage-
earnings have been increasing is shown by the National
Bureau of Economic Research in another tabulation
which the Chicago Journal of Commerce reprints:
FLORIDA REVIEW 8
Published Semi-Monthly by
Bureau of Immigration, Department of Agriculture
NATHAN MAYO.... ........... ..Commissioner of Agriculture
T. J. BROOKS............Asst. Commissioner of Agriculture
Entered as second-class matter, June 25, 1926, at the Post Office
at Tallahassee, Florida, under the Act of June 6, 1920.
Will be mailed free to anyone upon request.
JANUARY 20, 1930
It seems that total wages increased from $24,553,-
000,000 to $32,235,000,000 between 1922 and 1928; total
salaries rose from $12,050,000,000 to $17,823,000,000.
Income of entrepreneurs, which includes persons con-
ducting small businesses and also professional men, rose
from $28,225,000,000 in 1922 to $38,296,000,000 in
1928. On the other hand, one class of incomes seems to
have decreased a bit between these two years, that under
the head of "pensions and compensations" dropping from
$1,097,000,000 to $1,065,000,000. Comparing the in-
comes from different classes of businesses, it is pointed
out in the press summaries of the report that the rela-
tive importance of agriculture declined slightly between
1909 and 1914, decreased during the war period, dropped
between 1919 and 1921, and has since failed to increase,
agriculture now producing less than 10 per cent of the
national income, compared with 18% per cent in 1918.
The Wall Street Journal reprints this incomplete table,
showing, in millions of dollars, the incomes from differ-
ent businesses during the past two decades:
1 9 2 8 ... .......... ... .... .
1927 .............. .. ...
1 9 2 6 .......... .. .. .....
1925..... .......... $16,866
1924.............. .... 16,276
1923....... .......... 16,835
1922............. .. 13,957
1921.. ................ 13,274
1920 ............. ..... 19,531
1915 ................... 7,362
1914.............. ... 6,914
1911........... ....... 6,251
The figures showing the disparity between the growth
of farm and industrial incomes impress the New York
Times as giving supportt for part of the case presented
by the farm organizations in calling for parity between
industry and agriculture," since the report "discloses a
three-fold increase in the national income since the year
1909, but the increase in farm income is only two-fold."
The fact that the per capital realized income of $749
"would mean an average annual income of $3,745" for
a family of five does not mean that the average family
of five receives such an income, observes the Kansas City
Star. The Missouri paper takes the occasion to reflect on
the persisting inequality of income. "The ideal condi-
tion would be enough for all and an excess for none."
But it would take the millennium to attain this. In the
meantime, we are told, "there are compensations."
It can hardly be shown, as frequently and quite easily
is contended, that the poor are all the time getting
poorer and the rich are getting richer. In general, the
positions of both have been improved, certainly in
America. Acute poverty, it has been found repeatedly
by those so situated as to learn definitely of the matter,
is much less of a problem than it was only ten or fifteen
years ago. The disappearance of the saloon and legalized
liquor has helped to bring the change, although there
have been other constructive factors at work, among them
more intelligent efforts here and there to relieve unem-
ployment. But the evidences of a wider diffusion of
economic well-being are obvious. They have been noted
in the improved status of the average worker, in the
wide-spread possession of conveniences and comforts of
life. But there still are the less fortunate to be con-
sidered. The betterment has not been absolute. That,
however, is no excuse for a lack of effort to bring still
STATE CALENDAR THING OF BEAUTY
Agricultural Department Advertises Florida in
(St. Petersburg Independent, January 3, 1930)
Issued under an act of the legislature authorizing state
advertising, the Department of Agriculture at Tallhaassee
is mailing out a calendar for 1930, which local adver-
tising and printing experts are complimenting highly be-
cause of the variety and beauty of the pictures in colors
and the decorative backgrounds for typical Florida.
Each month of the year is given a special illustration,
beginning with a beach scene for January, a tourist
scene in a casino garden for February, truck gardening
in Florida for March, April motorboat racing, a spring
arbor in May, an ocean driveway among the palms for
June, bayou fishing for July, a map in colors showing the
principal cities of the state for August, an aviation scene
for September, a putting scene on an October golf course,
duck hunting in November, and Santa Claus in Florida
Other features is a thermometer showing temperatures
for the year and the monthly calendars themselves, which
give the phases of the moon and the principal holidays
and anniversaries celebrated each month. Copies of the
special state calendar and other information about Flor-
ida may be obtained, the calendar announces, by address-
ing the Department of Agriculture at Tallahassee, the
4 FLORIDA REVIEW
EIGHT NEW MILK BARNS BUILT
IN COLONY NEAR LOWELL POINT
John Pfeil Says Advantages Here Are Highest
Prices When Feed Is Available and Cows
(Ocala Star, December 31, 1929)
Marion county's new status as an agricultural section
based upon the dairy cow is well indicated by the general
change taking place on the farms in the German colony
west of Lowell. The trend is away from trucking as the
outstanding feature of the farming in the colony and
towards live stock as the basis of operation. From the
start of the colony some years ago live stock has figured
prominently in the yearly programs of the farmers on
the hills near Lowell, but from now on much greater
emphasis will be placed upon it. It will be the controlling
feature of future development in this district.
During 1929 eight new dairy barns have been com-
pleted or started in the colony, with capacities ranging
from 8 to 20 cows each. Jerseys predominate in the
district. Five registered bulls head the herds. An in-
crease in the number and quality of the dairy cattle on
the farms will follow the eradication of the tick-during
1930. The new barns have been built by John Pfeil,
A. F. Freimuth, E. O. Schmidt, Fred Ziegler, Adolph
Krietemeyer, H. Kroll, John Reiff and Matt Reiff. A. S.
Gerhart has built a new milk house.
John Pfeil, vice-president of the State Dairy Associa-
tion and president of the North Marion Dairy Associa-
tion, is building a 20-cow dairy barn on his farm. Mr.
Pfeil is a dairy enthusiast and his strong conviction that
Marion county has outstanding dairy possibilities is well
indicated by the fact that his new barn is being con-
structed with thick walls of stone and concrete.
"Dairy possibilities in Marion county are as good as
they are any place," declares Mr. Pfeil. "Florida's ad-
vantage is that here we have the highest prices when we
have the most feed available and the greatest flow of
Mr. Pfeil has 20 Jerseys, grades and pure-blooded
animals. He is producing on his farm 90 per cent of the
feed for his cows, as are most of the farmers in the
colony. Like most of the other farms, also, he supple-
ments his dairy herd with hogs and poultry.
Compost piles, which are so infrequently found on the
farms of Florida, are characteristic of the sort of farm-
ing that is carried on in the colony near Lowell. Mr.
Pfeil states that his herd of 20 dairy animals give him
something like 150 wagon loads of manure a year. All
of it is spread on his lands. About three years ago he
purchased a one-acre tract immediately adjacent to his
home. The land, he says, would not produce as much as
10 bushels of corn. Its soil was badly in need of humus.
The first year after his purchase of the property he gave
it one application of manure from his compost piles, and
planted cabbage. As a result, Mr. Pfeil says that he pro-
duced on what had been poor soil the finest quality and
largest cabbage he has seen in Florida, and since then
everything has grown well on his farm and he makes good
use of it.
A. F. Freimuth, whose farm is near that of Mr. Pfeil,
says that the richest agricultural counties in the country
are dairy sections and he, too, believes that agriculture
in this section of Florida can attain its greatest develop-
ment only if placed upon a livestock basis. He is com-
pleting an 8-cow dairy barn, maintains a flock of leg-
horns, raises hogs, produces most of the feed for his
stock and spreads manure of a compost pile on his lands.
One of the big advantages of dairying, he says, is that it
makes the land richer each year.
"Tick eradication and the no-fence law are the two
biggest steps forward that have been taken in Florida,"
Mr. Freimuth says, and following the eradication of the
tick from this county during the coming year he plans
to build up the quality of his dairy herd. He now has
good grade and registered animals on his place.
FLORIDA'S INCOMES FOR 1929 PASS THOSE
OF PREVIOUS YEAR
U. S. Collector's Report Shows Citizens Paid
$547,000 in Excess of 1928-Total Runs
(Florida Times-Union, January 2, 1930)
Figures issued by the office of Peter H. Miller, collector
of internal revenue for the state, indicate that incomes
in Florida during the year just passed were substantially
more than in the previous year.
The annual report of the collector of internal revenue
shows that Floridians paid approximately $547,000 more
in income tax in 1929 than was paid in the previous year.
The report shows that Florida people paid $13,087,-
035.34 to the government for tax on incomes during 1929
as against only $12,540,768.10 paid in in 1928.
Additional Tax Heavy
Floridians paid an additional $6,893,811.01 to the gov-
ernment in the form of miscellaneous taxes, principally
for taxes on estates, the report further reveals, making
the total government tax for the year $19,980,846.35.
The collector of internal revenue considered the high
payment of income taxes as an indication that Florida
has enjoyed an unusual year of prosperity.
"Even in boom days, when real estate transactions
considerably boosted the amount of tax paid into the
government, the figure was only $32,000,000," the state-
ment said. "This year's payment of tax indicates that
the state is well on the road to recovering whatever
ground might have been lost by that boom period."
Tax Rate Is Cut
Florida's income tax payment next year will show a
material decrease, not because of decreased incomes, but
because of decreased tax for 1929, it was stated at the
collector's office. The new tax rate, accepted by Con-
gress, decreases the income tax rate for the fiscal year of
1929 and refunds on the basis of the new tax are to be
made to Florida people, it was pointed out by the
There will, however, be no reduction of the tax in 1930
unless Congress acts to make the new reduction perma-
nent and the old rate will prevail during the new year.
Officials at the collector's office here believe that Con-
gress will take steps to make the tax rate for 1929 per-
manent, materially reducing income taxes.
The Clewiston sugar factory has begun operations.
It will continue grinding for 100 days, using the product
of 12,000 acres of sugar cane, with an output of 2,000
tons of raw sugar, 2,000 tons of cane fiber and 2,000,000
gallons of molasses.-Tampa Tribune, January 8, 1930.
FLORIDA REVIEW 5
125 FARMERS FROM PENNSYLVANIA WILL
MAKE EXTENSIVE TOUR THROUGH
STATE IN FEBRUARY
Party Will Visit All Points of Interest, Including
(Ocala Star, December 30, 1929)
Tampa, Dec. 30.-(A. P.)-A party of 125 Pennsyl-
vanians, composed of the outstanding farmers throughout
that state, will make an extensive tour of Florida in
February, it was announced yesterday by Frank Willis,
division passenger agent of the Seaboard Air Line Rail-
way, which will handle the touring party.
The Pennsylvania party will remain in Florida about a
week, studying agricultural methods of the state. They
will arrive in Jacksonville the morning of February 19
and will be guests of the Penney Farms for the day,
making a tour of the Jacksonville section by automobile.
From Jacksonville they will go to Ocala to visit Silver
Springs. The next day the party will go to Plant City,
where the east Hillsborough county chamber of com-
merce has arranged an automobile sightseeing trip
through the strawberry section and the phosphate mines.
The visitors will come. to Tampa from Plant City,
spending the night of February 20 here, and the morn-
ing of the next day will be taken in automobiles on
sightseeing tours of city and suburbs. Their stay here
will be concluded by a trip to St. Petersburg by way of
Gandy bridge, a visit to the gulf beaches, returning to
Tampa through Clearwater and Tarpon Springs. They
will leave Tampa that night for the Manatee section and
spend Washington's birthday on sightseeing trips around
Ellenton, Terra Ceia and Palmetto truck growing centers,
visiting the citrus groves and canning plants. Later they
will go to Sarasota to visit Ringling brothers' winter
circus quarters and museum.
From Manatee the party will go to West Palm Beach
and the Everglades to inspect the government experiment
station and the sugar industry, thence to Miami for an
extensive sightseeing tour of that immediate section.
The party will leave Florida February 24, returning to
their homes by boat from Miami.
LENGTH OF DAYLIGHT EXPLAINS
UNUSUAL BEHAVIOR OF PLANTS
(Clip Sheet, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture)
A giant type of tobacco, more profitable than the
ordinary variety, is now grown in southern Maryland as
a result of a discovery made a few years ago by workers
of the United States Department of Agriculture. This
plant does not mature seed in Maryland because the days
are too long in late summer. When the days get short
enough, frost usually prevents development of seed.
When grown in southern Florida, this plant produces
abundant flowers and seed.
When this new type of tobacco was first discovered
in Maryland, several years ago, observers saw that the
plants were not going to mature seed in the field before
cold weather came, so several plants were removed to a
greenhouse. Here they flowered and made seed during
the short days of winter. It was then evident that this
plant required a short day for flowering.
Experiments conducted by Dr. W. W. Garner and H. A.
Allard, of the Bureau of Plant Industry, show that the
length of daylight plays an important part in the flower-
ing of plants. They have succeeded in getting chrysan-
themums to bloom in midsummer. They have caused
annuals to behave as biennials and vice versa, by finding
the length of day required for flowering and giving the
plants the correct amount of light. To lessen the amount
of light the plant is kept in a dark house for a few hours
in early morning and late afternoon. To make the days
"longer" the scientists merely turn on electric lights of
Their work with the Maryland tobacco is an illustra-
tion of how this knowledge may be used in practical crop
production. Nurserymen, too, may make use of this
work in controlling the blooming season of greenhouse
plants. This knowledge is also useful in explaining the
behavior of plants introduced from other countries, es-
pecially the Tropics, where the length of daylight is much
different from that found here.
487 BUSHELS POTATOES ON ONE ACRE
Harvested by T. Q. Jones in Eagle Bay on
(Okeechobee News, January 3, 1930)
One of the best crops for this county is the sweet
potato. Some time ago mention was made of E. J.
Wilson's single hill of potatoes yielding better than nine
pounds, then comes T. Q. Jones with a potato weighing
8 3/16 pounds. But these potatoes were not to hold the
record long for Dr. Young from Ft. Drum sends in one
weighing better than 10 pounds. So it can readily be
seen that muck land is not the only soil for the produc-
tion of sweet potatoes.
Sweet potatoes are usually worth about $1.00 per
bushel, and average land will produce around 100 bushels
per acre, some times even more. There are many, many
acres in the Ft. Drum and Bassenger section, as well as
Okeechobee and Upthegrove Beach, that will yield better
than 100 bushels of potatoes. Why not give it a trial?
Nature has done its part, give us the soil, climate and
moisture. Now let's do our part-plant the potatoes and
watch them grow. There is one thing certain, you can
make money growing potatoes, and another thing is, it is
almost impossible to lose.
Just to show you what can be done, I want to tell you
about T. Q. Jones. He did not make so many big pota-
toes, he says the market does not want large ones, but he
did make a record yield of medium size ones.
We gathered and weighed up one acre, and two dis-
interested parties, J. M. Scott and Ross Holly, did the
weighing, and from one acre we weighed up 29,276
pounds or 487 14/15 bushels. So far as I know this is
the best yield ever produced in Florida.
These potatoes were planted July 22nd and harvested
December 26th. Mr. Jones estimates the cost of pre-
paring and planting, including the price of slips, at
$24.99 per acre. Then the cost of digging is added, which
would put the total cost at around $55.00. Assuming that
potatoes are worth $1.00 per bushel, Mr. Jones walks off
with a neat little profit of $433.00 per acre.
The fact that Mr. Jones has a partner in his potato
growing venture is not to be overlooked. Any time you
visit the Jones' field you will find Mrs. Jones lending as-
sistance and encouragement to the project. The truth is,
I don't think Mr. Jones could handle the acreage that he
does without the aid of his partner.-C. A. Fulford,
6 FLORIDA REVIEW
The Future Farmers of Florida and America
PRESAGE THE DAWN OF A NEW DAY IN AGRICULTURE WHILE QUALIFYING FOR
The Review is glad to devote considerable space in this
issue to the activities of the Future Farmers of Florida,
an organization that is all that its name implies. Its
members are the boys of Florida who are standing by
the farm and staying on it. Boys who have vision enough
to look ahead a few years and understand what the
future opens up to them for their abiding faith in the
greatest business institution in the world, which their
forefathers honored and which honored them. It is not
only a great business institution, but furnishes an oppor-
tunity for real service that will make them not only
benefactors of mankind but creators of thought as well.
For in no profession nor business is there more of a
place for the functioning of the mind than on the farm.
There was a time when it perhaps was thought that
any sort of an individual possessing hands and feet was
sufficiently equipped for farm work and farm life. But
that is among the days that have passed and which in the
passing have revealed the fallacy of the belief that lived
in them. The farmer is no longer a clodhopper, as he
was designated at one time, but rather he is a business
man with a profession that stands at the head.
There is no cut and dried daily program for the pro-
gressive, forward-going farmer such as these boys are
preparing to be, in fact are, even now. Every day is
different, every product is different, the atmospheric con-
ditions are different, the soil is never the same, the
method of cultivation must be changed, and the wisest
judgment applied in the selection of the things he will
produce. He must not only understand the soil, its
fertilization, the cultivation and the proper time for har-
vesting, but he must constantly be in touch with the con-
sumer so as to be fully acquainted with his whims and
his ever-changing tastes and the consequent consump-
It may be that last year he was marvelously successful
in raising and marketing potatoes. This year he has
kept an observing eye on consumption and is warned
against confining his production to the one crop, changes
to tomatoes, is abundantly rewarded, and enters another
year with the same degree of intelligence, ready at all
times to nieet changing conditions, whether in the whims
of the people or in over or under-production.
O, yes, the farmer has plenty of thinking to do, and
the more he thinks, the greater are his winnings. For,
after all, every field of endeavor carries with it the ele-
ment of chance, that lures and inspires us all.
So, the Future Farmers of Florida are building for the
future and are selecting a fine, passable, conquerable
roadway over which to travel. They are enticed by the
clean element of chance that attaches to the attractive
features they find along the way that is so filled with
opportunity to accomplish wholesome things. They are
enthused, their minds are charged with ideas that are
whole-heartedly thrown into action. For, let us remem-
ber that the boy acts. He does things and he does them
today. On another page of the Review will be found the
story of Gray Miley's trip to Kansas City to attend the
National Convention of the Future Farmers of America,
of which the Florida organization is a part and a very
important part. Young Miley, who is the president of
the Future Farmers of Florida and lives in Plant City,
was elected a vice-president of the national organization
and was otherwise prominent in the Kansas City meeting.
Notice how he fills his narrative with things about the
farm and yet does it in a modest, unassuming way.
Somehow the boys these days who are recognized for
their accomplishments are modest about the whole
matter, and so are the girls, as evidenced in the manner
in which Miss Florence Smock accepted the homage of the
nation as Florida's healthiest girl, a tremendous tribute
to the worth of the boys and girls of today.
Gray Miley is but one among the thousands of fine
boys in Florida possessing the capability with which to
do things that are worth while. In this organization are
hosts of boys doing just what he is doing, though not
quite as effectively in every case. But they are suc-
ceeding as future farmers. Under the guidance of Mr.
J. F. Williams, Jr., who is at the head of farmer voca-
tional work in this state, and Mr. Woods, his assist-
ant, these boys of the 'teen age are laying the foundation
for carrying out a farm program in Florida that will
astonish and enlighten the world. They will not be
satisfied with anything less than the best. They will
know how to do and with their commendable enthusiasm
will have the will to do. They will carry with them
all of the sound advice of their parents, to whom they
are a great credit, gathering and storing of their rich
experience that which will make of them agricultural
In the past few years almost unthinkable discoveries
have been-made of Florida's vast agricultural possibili-
ties, the numerous products of field and grove that are
hers, the great demand in the markets of the world for
her products and the tremendous yield of these necessary
articles of food that has been proven in her broad fields
and unequaled groves. Nowhere can the farmer look and
expect to find where the hand of the Infinite has so un-
sparingly blessed the land and given it everything in soil
and in atmospheric helpfulness as has been showered
upon Florida. In poetry and in prose we have written
volumes of praise of Florida's climate, her beautiful
waters, her stately forests, her glorious sunshine and her
scenic highways, but all these are but natural contribu-
tions from the Infinite Bounty to a program that func-
tions to give profit and charm to her unlimited agricul-
tural resources and activities.
And what we know now are but the surface findings
compared to that which is to come. These boys are
digging deep and they are going to uncover astounding
facts. Through the parent organization, The Future
Farmers of America, which operates in substantially
every state in the Union, the Florida boys will make
known the superior advantages offered in Florida, the
privilege of farming throughout the year, abundance of
sunshine and rain, the public educated to consume home
products, easy access to all the markets of the world,
fertile soil that may be cultivated with ease, friendly
cosmopolitan people, health, comfort and happiness.
These they will offer to the fine people of the north,
forcefully and convincingly, out of their own unfailing
knowledge gained from profitable experience.
The Review offers the Future Farmers of Florida its
congratulations for what they have in such a short period
accomplished and looks to the future in happy contempla-
tion of the greater achievements that are to be theirs.
Nov. 12, 1929-Gray Miley, President Future Farmers of Florida, presenting Florida Planter Keys to Governor Carlton and State Superintendent Cawthon
8 FLORIDA REVIEW
Gray Miley, Plant City, Fla., Hoeing Strawberries
A STORY OF MY TRIP TO THE NATIONAL
CONGRESS, FUTURE FARMERS OF
AMERICA AND AMERICAN
LIVE STOCK ROYAL
(By Gray Miley, President, Future Farmers of Florida)
It was on Monday morning, November 11th, at nine
o'clock, that I left home for Kansas City, Mo. I joined
Mr. Smith and Mr. Wakefield, my agricultural instruc-
tors, in Plant City. In their company I went to Talla-
hassee, Fla. We spent Monday night in Monticello, Fla.,
and went on to Tallahassee Tuesday morning, November
12th. Arriving in Tallahassee, we met Mr. Williams,
State Supervisor of Vocational Agricultural Education,
and went to his office to prepare for the conferring of
the Florida Planter Degree upon Governor Carlton and
Superintendent of Public Instruction Cawthon. This
ceremony came off at 9 A. M. The Governor and Super-
intendent being made honorary Florida Planters, pledged
their support to the Future Farmers of America organ-
This ceremony being completed, my instructors re-
turned home and I joined Mi. Thos. A. Treadwell of
Aucilla, and the Florida State Live Stock Judging Team,
composed of Donald Davidson of Monticello, Roy Hewett
of Sneads and Clyde Clark of Greensboro, to really begin
our trip. We left Tallahassee, Fla., at 3 P. M., in a
Chevrolet car. Traveling across the country we went
through Thomasville and Columbus, Ga., crossing the line
8 FLORIDA REVIEW
into Alabama at the latter place. In Alabama we went
through Auburn and on into Dadeville. Put up at Miller
Hotel in Dadeville for the night, which was Tuesday,
Wednesday morning, November 13, we went to Annis-
ton and Gadsden, Ala., and across the northwest corner
of Georgia into Tennessee; then went around the moun-
tains into Chattanooga. We spent Wednesday night at
the Savoy Hotel, Chattanooga. On Thursday morning at
9 o'clock we left Chattanooga behind us and set out
through the mountains. -During the day we went over
Signal Mountain, through Nashville and Clarksville,
Tenn., and across the line into Kentucky. Stopped at
Hopkinsville, Ky., Main Hotel, for the night, Thursday,
The trip growing more interesting as we went on, we
were out and on the road bright and early Friday morn-
ing, November 15th. In Kentucky we went through the
tobacco country and before we got out of this section
we stopped a few minutes at a tobacco barn where the
people were working, and learned something of the art
of tobacco curing. These good people of the mountains
presented us, before we left, with several leaves of real
old homemade tobacco and to be sure it wasn't long be-
fore we were "kinda dizzy" from the effects of a sample
which we all were persuaded to take, even though we
didn't have any use for tobacco in any shape. Leaving
Kentucky we went into Indiana and the corn and wheat
section of the Ohio River Valley. Crossing the Ohio by
ferry at Evansville, we went on to Vincennes, Ind., then
turned due west and went through the corn, wheat and
live stock sections of Illinois into Missouri; crossed the
Mississippi at the line. When we were across we found
ourselves in St. Louis and the "you have to show me"
state. Before retiring in the Missouri Hotel in St. Louis
we went on a sight-seeing trip of St. Louis, which we
found to be the biggest city that we'd ever been in.
Saturday morning, November 16, we found ourselves
traveling through the wheat fields of Missouri and enjoy-
ing the ease with which we traversed the good roads of
that state. While going through Columbia, Mo., we de-
cided to visit the University of Missouri, situated in
Columbia. We did, and I think none of us will ever
forget it, because it is a large, beautiful university. At
6 o'clock we arrived at our destination, Kansas City, Mo.
We hadn't been there long before the cops of that city
had to show us a few things relative to parking and
traffic laws. Registering at the Hotel Baltimore, we put
up for our stay in that city.
On Sunday, November 17, we rested from our travels
the entire day and on Monday, November 18, we were in
fit shape to enjoy the things that were prepared for us.
On Monday morning came the National Vocational Live
Stock Judging Contest and of course we had our team
there to take part. While they were judging I visited the
show. I saw the best live stock of all types that the
United States has to put up, and believe me, they were
worth looking at. Our team was successful in winning
second place in judging beef animals. After the contest
was over, the first meeting of the National Congress of
Future Farmers of America was held in the Hotel Balti-
more. As a delegate to this convention and a candidate
for the American Farmer degree, I was present with
spirits high to represent Florida. In this first meeting,
Dr. C. H. Lane, National Adviser, read the records of
the boys who had been accepted as candidates for the
American Farmer degree. They were: Boyd Waite,
Winfield, Kan.; Hershel Hecker, Prospect, O.; Philip
FLORIDA REVIEW 9
Alampi, Glassboro, N. J.; Edward Burford, Amherst, Va.;
Elmer Williams, Dixon, Ill.; Howard Hill, Albion, N. Y.;
R. B. Storey, Courtland, Va.; Jesse Woodward, Daville,
Ark.; Carlton Patton, Wooster, Ark.; Ronald Ford,
Helena, Okla.; Lowell Edington, Napa, Cal.; Jewell
Biswell, Claremore, Okla.; Oscar Schiene, Salisbury, Mo.;
Charles Pinkney, Webster, N. Y.; Paul Zinman, Salisbury,
Mo.; Horace Smith, Davidson, Tenn.; Bryce Tucker,
Dennison, La.; Jay Winkleman, North Sanpete, Utah;
Edwin Johnson, Assumption, Ill.; Alvin Raimer, Beatrice,
Neb.; Don Godsey, Yuma, Colo.; Gray Miley, Plant City,
Fla.; Wade Turner, Lillington, N. C., and Harry Will-
housen, Twin Falls, Idaho.
Each candidate made a response speech of one minute
immediately following his nomination. Their names were
accepted by the convention as American Farmers.
Tuesday, November 19, the convention was in session
all day, during which time the delegates made the re-
ports from the various states. These reports showed that
the organization is growing very fast in about 35 states.
In the evening the nominating committee made the re-
port for the officers of the coming year. They were:
Wade Turner, North Carolina, president; Charles Pink-
ney, New York, first vice-president; Harry Willhousen,
Idaho, second vice-president; Gray Miley, Florida, third
vice-president; Boyd Waite, Kansas, fourth vice-presi-
dent; Paul Zillman, Missouri, student secretary; Dr. C.
H. Lane, Washington, D. C., adviser; H. C. Groseclose,
Virginia, executive secretary-treasurer. This report was
accepted by the convention and the new officers took the
place of the old at the evening meeting.
At 6 P. M. Tuesday the vocational students were given
a free buffet supper at the American Royal Live Stock
building. After this the boys paraded in the arena before
about 12,000 people. Carlton Patton, of Arkansas, was
announced as the Star American Farmer and was pre-
sented with $1,000 cash money by the Kansas City
Weekly Star. There were about 2,000 boys in the
parade. After the prade we were given free seats in the
grand stand to witness a horse show.
Wednesday, November 18, we were carried on a sight-
seeing tour of Kansas City. Some of the places we saw
were the Ford Assembly Plant, Sears-Roebuck & Co., and
the Armour Packing Co. Wednesday night, the last
night, came the banquet. Everybody had a grand time
and the American Farmers were presented with their
Having had a wonderful stay in Kansas City, we left
there Thursday morning, November 21. Went back
across Missouri to St. Louis, turned southeast across
Illinois and spent the night in Cairo.
Friday morning we woke up and found plenty of snow
on the ground-quite a sight to us Florida boys. In
spite of the snow we came across Kentucky into Tennes-
see, through Nashville and to Pulaski, where we spent
Friday night. Saturday we hit the slick roads of Ala-
bama again, and they were really slick because it had
been raining about two weeks in those parts, but we
reached Dadeville before stopping.
I left the party Sunday morning, November 24, and
caught a bus for Plant City. Rode all night Sunday night
and reached home at five o'clock Monday morning, No-
I want to take this opportunity to publicly thank the
State Board for Vocational Education for making it
possible for me to take this trip. And also I want to
thank the Kiwanis Club, the Lions Club, the Buick Com-
pany and Mr. I. D. Shore for making contributions for
the paying of my hotel bills. I assure you that these
kindnesses were greatly appreciated and that they were
treated with the greatest of respect.
PROJECT WORK DONE BY GRAY MILEY,
PRESIDENT OF FUTURE FARMERS
In September, 1927, I entered Plant City High School,
and as I was interested in farm work and had to make
my way to school, too, I decided that there was no better
thing for me to do than enter the Smith-Hughes agri-
culture school of Hillsborough county.
After having enrolled, I took as my project for the
first year one-half acre of strawberries. It happened that
the dry weather set in about setting time and it was late
when I got them set, and when I did, about half of them
didn't ever make anything because it was so dry. But in
spite of the drouth, I made about $150.00 from the half
The second year I decided to take three projects in-
stead of one as before, which I found to be a mistake.
I planted one-quarter acre of strawberries, one-half acre
of cucumbers and one-half acre of tomatoes.
In carrying these projects I found that even though I
made money on them, the scope wasn't enough to bring
in a large sum of money from any project. I also found
that there isn't much money in cucumbers where a fellow
(Continued on Page Eleven)
Gray Miley, Plant City, Fla., Fertilizing Strawberries
AMERICAN FARMERS-FUTURE FARMERS OF AMERICA
Reading from Left to Right: Top Row-Philip Alampi, Williamstown, N. J.; Herschel Hecker, Prospect, Ohio; Carldon Patton, Wooster, Ark.; Oscar- Schiene, Salisbury, Mo.; Jewel
Biswell, Claremore, Okla.; Ronald Ford, Helena, Okla.; Boyd Waite, Winfield, Kan.; Albert Sosebe, Epworth, Ga. Second Row-Henry C. Groseclose, Blacksburg, Va.; H. O.
Sampson, New Brunswick, N. J.; C. H. Lane, Washington, D. C.; Horace Smith, Antioch, Tenn.; Elmer Williams, Dixon, Ill.; T. F. Kidd, Jr., Rural Retreat, Va.; Wade Turner,
Lillington, N. C.; Charles Pinkney, Webster, N. Y.; Alvin Reimer, Beatrice, Neb.; Lowell Edington, Rutherford, Calif. Front Row-Paul Zinnman, Salisbury, Mo.; Don Godsey,
Yuma, Colo.; Howard Hill, Knowlesville, N. Y.; Edward Burford, Amherst, Va.; Harry Wlllhousen, Twin Falls, Idaho; Jess Woodard, Danville, Ark.; Gray Miley, Plant City,
Fla.; Edwin Johnson, Assumption, Ill.
(Continued from Page Nine)
hasn't got troughs to protect them from the cold and
wind, so as to get them in on the early market.
I didn't lose money on any one of the three projects.
In fact, I made about $100 from the three, but if I had
had one project, or a larger area of the ones that I had,
would have made a great deal more.
I found that it pays to use nitrate of soda or some
other quick-acting nitrate as a side dressing for such
crops as tomatoes and cucumbers. These quick-growing
crops will put on a very quick and stout growth, if side-
dressed with some nitrogen fertilizer at the right time.
This year, which is my third year, I have one acre of
strawberries that are looking good at present. In this
project as well as the others I've done the greatest part
of the work myself in my odd hours from school. If
nothing happens to my berries this year I'll make about
$300.00 from them. I'm going to plant tomatoes in the
berries in March. By doing this I will get the use of the
fertilizer that may be left in the land from the berries.
This year I have made all my berry plants, which cuts
down the cost of growing. Before setting the berries I
put on an application of hardwood ashes in the ground
at the rate of about 1,500 pounds to the acre. After the
plants were set I put 1,000 pounds of 5-7-3, known as
Strawberry Grower, to them, and about three weeks later
I put the same amount of 5-7-5, known as Strawberry
Grower, to them. Now they're full of bloom and I've
picked quite a few berries.
I plan to plant a tomato seed-bed next week and about
the last of February or the first of March set them out in
my berry patch, so as to get double use of the land by
rotation of crops. The way things look now I'll have the
best project year this year that I've had and I'm plan-
ning to increase my farming activities as much as possi-
ble in the future.
GRAY MILEY, President,
Future Farmers of Florida.
PENSIONS URGED FOR OUR AGED
(The Pathfinder, January 4, 1930)
Legislative activity in 26 of the 48 states indicates a
widespread desire to relegate the poorhouse with the
debtors' jail as an abandoned American institution. Nine
states now have old-age pensions in one form or another
and similar laws in two other states were declared un-
constitutional. However, the United States still stands
with China and India in not adopting old age pensions,
according to Representative William I. Sirovitch of New
York, who is working for passage of a national act.
It is estimated that there are 2,000,000 old people in
this country who have no means of their own and that
$220,000,000 is being spent annually to maintain the
poor farm system. Representative Sirovitch presents a
black picture of present conditions.
Every state of the Union, with the exception of New
Mexico, has almshouses for the poor. In 40 of our states
the almshouses are county institutions. Hire in these
almshouses are huddled together the feeble-minded and
the epileptic, the cripple and the maimed, the idiot and
the imbecile, the abandoned child of the prostitute, the
broken-down criminal, the chronic drunkard, the victim
of loathsome and contagious diseases and general infec-
tions, and last but not least, the superannunated toilers
of labor and industry, our fathers and mothers. Veterans
of dissipation and veterans of peace and industry living
together under one roof. Is it fair? Is it just? Is it
humane? To me it is a pitiful and tragic indictment of
the civilization of our times.
A summary of measures introduced in state legisla-
tures of late show proposals of pensions ranging from
$20 to $50 a month for persons with minimum ages of
60 and 70. Argument against such legislation is that it
will burden the United States with the dole system,
something it has not yet had; will militate against thrift;
will introduce laziness, carelessness and shiftlessness;
will increase taxation; will destroy initiative; will bring
us nearer socialism, and will relieve children of the
proper burden of caring for parents.
On the other hand, it is argued that old-age pensions
would be no more socialistic or otherwise harmful than
the widows' pensions and workmen's compensation acts
in effect in many states. It is pointed out that changed
conditions are throwing more men of 60 out of employ-
ment than ever before in history. Also it is said that old-
age pensions will eliminate the almshouses.
FLORIDA'S FARM RECORD
(Orlando Evening Reporter-Star, January 3, 1930)
Florida's gross income from crops and live stock for
the five-year period from 1924 to 1928 was $1,940 per
farm, with a per capital, based on farm population, of
In gross income per farm, Florida led the states of
South Carolina, Georgia, North Carolina, Alabama and
The Florida average is $100 higher than that of the
entire United States.
The total average of Florida's gross income from crops
and live stock for the five-year period was $114,912,000.
The average cash income for the same five years was
$102,404,000, of which $87,062,000 was derived from
These figures are given out by the United States De-
partment of Agriculture.
And this is a state which has less than one-tenth of
its available productive land under cultivation.
A state which has scarcely more than scratched its soil,
Florida has a higher average of farm production than
the average for the entire nation.
A FULL-TIME JOB
(Country Gentleman, January, 1930)
A group of landowners in one of the best farming
sections of Illinois have pooled their holdings and put a
manager in charge. These owners are mostly good busi-
ness men of long familiarity with farming. But now, as
one of them expressed it, "after regularly running behind
in our attempts to operate our land, we are glad to find
someone with ability, knowledge and judgment, who will
endeavor to see whether it is possible to make our farms
pay a profit under present conditions."
What is becoming increasingly clear is that farming in
this day is a full-time job. It requires study, technical
knowledge and close attention to details on the part of
someone. These essentials are best supplied where the
land is occupied and farmed by the owner. In the case
of a great deal of the land that is held otherwise the
best alternative is the one these Illinois landowners have
chosen. For the farm manager's function, as F. E.
Fuller has aptly put it, is "to do what the owner himself
would do if he knew how and had the time to do it."
SPUD GROWERS ARE ORGANIZED
First Purpose Is to Get in a Good Acreage of
Big Stem Jersey Sweet Potatoes
(Arcadian, January 2, 1930)
A new agricultural organization came into being at a
meeting held Monday night at the office of Secretary
L. E. Eigle of the chamber of commerce. It is the DeSoto
County Potato Growers' Association, and W. A. Neal,
premier grower of the Big Stem Jersey Sweet Potato, is
the president. Other officers chosen were Adrian Walker,
vice-president, and L. E. Eigle, secretary-treasurer.
The first and primary purpose of the new organization
is to promote the interest in the growing of the Big Stem
Jersey Sweet Potato and in the marketing of the crop,
but it may also function in the handling of other types
of potato-the Porto Rico yam and Irish potatoes.
There was some discussion as to attempting to handle
the potato situation through either the Nocatee Growers'
Association or the DeSoto County Cooperative Market-
ing Association, but it was finally decided that for the
present it would be best for the potato growers to main-
tain a closer contact through an organization of their
own. Later, it was admitted, some other manner of
meeting the requirements might be devised.
Much Interest Shown
Considerable interest is being shown in the growing of
the Big Stem Jersey, which made its initial appearance
in this county about a year ago. W. A. Neal and Adrian
Walker, who were the pioneers in testing out the value
of this type of potato on DeSoto county land, were plied
with many questions by the group of growers who as-
sembled to find out more about the new crop. Mr. Neal
planted the larger acreage a year ago, and he also has a
sizeable patch of ten acres or more which he is just now
harvesting, and he has pushed his test to the extent of
discovering that this potato is what seems to be an ideal
As to the feed value, Mr. Neal told of his experience
with his first planting of a year ago. After taking off of
a patch of about ten acres an average of about 275
bushels per acre, and taking off vines sufficient to plant
thousands of hills of a new crop he turned under the
remainder of the vines to grow a "volunteer" crop. This
was in June and July of this year. For some time past
he has been running hogs on this field, and he estimates
that the ten acres has produced enough potatoes to fatten
500 head of hogs.
Hogs Fatten Rapidly
He buys chiefly the young "piney-woods" shoats, turns
them into the field, and in about four weeks they are
ready for market. This does not mean that in this short
time he develops a porker of 200 pounds weight. The
market now demands pigs weighing not over 100 pounds,
but Mr. Neal says it is nothing short of marvelous the
way the skinny little woods hogs will fatten up when they
are turned in on the potatoes.
Mr. Neal has recently been trying the experiment of
cooking the potatoes before feeding to the hogs, as this
process has been highly recommended. He has not yet
had time to give this method a fair test in comparison
with the plan of turning the hogs in on the field to root
out their own feed.
Mr. Neal and Mr. Walker have both made a careful
study of the growing of the Big Stem Jerseys. Last
summer they made a trip up to Lyons, Ga., where these
potatoes have been grown for several years, and ex-
amined into every detail of growing and marketing. This
little town handles many carloads of potatoes each year,
and has worked up a good market for them, but it is
stated that this section of Florida grows better potatoes
and more to the acre, and can get them on the market
from two to four weeks earlier than South Georgia.
Made a Good Profit
Last year the market was "off" on these potatoes, but
even at that Mr. Neal reported that he made $203 an
acre on his patch and Mr. Walker $175. In the opinion
of Mr. Neal, judged by the short experience he has had
with growing these potatoes, they offer better returns for
the effort and expense than any other vegetable crop.
He is anxious to get more people here interested in grow-
ing them, so that the output may be sufficient to attract
platform buyers and to warrant the government in as-
signing an inspector to this point and make it possible
to send the carlot shipments forward all ready to go
to the distributor in the northern markets.
F. M. Connor of Fort Myers, and T. U. Green of
Arcadia, representing the agricultural department of the
Seaboard railway, attended the meeting and offered any
possible assistance in interesting more people in the
growing of sweet potatoes or in any other way in fur-
thering the development of this industry. Mr. Connor
really initiated the industry in this section of Florida. He
stated that he believed he would be able to bring down
here a little later a man who is a large buyer and shipper
of Big Stems, who might be of assistance to the men who
are just getting a start in this business. The meeting
unanimously extended an invitation to the gentleman
Mr. Connor had in mind to come down, and it is planned
to call another meeting of the growers to hear what he
has to say.
At the meeting Monday night it was estimated that
there would be around 100 acres of Big Stem Jerseys
planted this winter. While Mr. Neal had expressed a
hope that the acreage might go higher than that, he said
he believed that with this start it would be possible to get
buyers interested in coming here to buy the crop and to
get an inspector here.
A Coming Industry
The experience which has been had in this county with
this sweet potato, which is in great demand all through
the north and east but is little known in the south, is
sufficient to justify the hope that has been expressed
that it may develop into the greatest industry in this
county, not excepting the citrus fruits. The soil of this
county seems to be especially adapted to this plant. The
production is two or three times that of South Georgia,
and although the price last summer was said to be lower
than for several years, the potatoes still yielded the
growers a handsome profit.
As Mr. Neal pointed out, even if the market for the
crop was low, there was still a chance to cash in by
feeding the potatoes to hogs. This might result in the
establishing .of a pork-packing plant here. The idea has
unusual possibilities. Much interest is being manifested
in the business of potato growing, and there is every
indication that there will be a sufficient acreage this
winter to give the business a most thorough test.
Twelve thousand acres of water front property near
Apalachicola has been purchased by Alfred I. DuPont,
adding to his already immense holdings in northwest
FLORIDA REVIEW 18
A WILDERNESS SIX MONTHS AGO TURNED
INTO GARDEN OF CELERY AND
Charles Stewart Cuts Way Through Difficulties
to Point the Way
(Titusville Star-Advocate, January 3, 1930)
Florida is still making history.
Ponce de Leon discovered the fountain of youth.
The process used in manufacturing ice was discovered
And Charles Stewart, of Indian River City, discovered
that celery and other truck crops can be grown success-
fully in Brevard county.
Which of these discoveries has meant the most to
Florida and the rest of the world is a question. The
majority would no doubt cast their ballots in favor of
ice as the Florida discovery that meant the most to the
rest of the world. Of all the discoveries that have been
made in Brevard county that benefit Brevard county,
Walter E. Ziegler and A. F. Cronquist would cast their
ballots in favor of Stewart's discovery that celery and
other truck crops can be grown successfully and on large
scales. In company with a representative of the Star-
Advocate these two men were taken over the tract of
land that six months ago constituted one of Brevard
county's most engaging wildernesses. It is a tract of ap-
proximately 50 acres, a mile and a half west of Indian
River City to the north of the Cheney Highway. Flat
land, rich muck, and surrounded on all sides by ditches
that supply the water that is pumped through smaller
ditches that run at intervals through the celery and cab-
bage fields that now take the place of the wilds of six
"But what else could I have done with this land?" Mr.
Stewart asked, as he explained how he realized that he
was taking a chance when he started clearing it. "It was
a dead loss to me as it lay there absolutely idle. The
only thing for me to do was to convert it into land that
would produce something."
And if anyone in the community is skeptical about
whether this former wilderness will produce, Messrs.
Ziegler and Cronquist said, "Send them to us!"
A mile and a half out on the Orlando road one sud-
denly comes into sight of a wooden bridge that spans the
large ditch to the right of the highway. A dirt road
leads on and winds around for about a quarter of a mile,
when a person following this route suddenly comes in
sight of a flat stretch of country comprising in the neigh-
borhood of a half section of land. Fifty acres of it have
been converted into land that looks like the Valley of
the Nile. The balance of it, or as much of it that belongs
to Mr. Stewart, will soon lose all semblance of a wilder-
ness, just as the fifty acres now under cultivation did.
Mr. Stewart is one of the real pioneers of the county in
the development of truck farming. All recollection of
how long ago it was when he began talking about the
agricultural possibilities of this section of the county has
been lost. But it dates back even farther than the time
when the people were making subdivisions out of the
citrus groves. Mr. Stewart has had many reverses in his
ventures in truck growing, but each time he came up
smiling and tried it over again. Only last spring his
crops were flooded and he was forced to plant again.
Now the fruit of his efforts is on display for everyone
who cares to journey out the Cheney Highway a mile
and a half and turn over this bridge to the Stewart celery
and cabbage farm.
The celery plants looked wonderful to Messrs. Ziegler
and Cronquist, both of whom have had experience in
various kinds of farming. "Next year-I don't know
yet," said Mr. Stewart, "I may have a hundred or any
number of acres."
There will be carloads and carloads of celery. Last
year Mr. Stewart was in partnership with B. R. Gorgas
in the Indian River Celery & Produce Company. This
year the two men decided to go it each on his own hook.
Both are meeting with splendid success in celery. In a
way it appears that there is a sort of a race on between
them-an effort by each to outdo the other in the produc-
tion of celery and other crops, aid they are both win-
ning by leaps and bounds.
HARDEE COUNTY SHIPMENTS TO DATE
TOTAL 285,994 PINTS
Average Price Received to Date Around Twenty
(Florida Advocate, January 3, 1930)
Strawberry shipments were slowed up considerably by
the holidays and cold spell of last week, according to
shipping records, which yesterday revealed that only
66,840 pints left the county during the past week.
Total shipments to date are 285,994 pints, with the
prospect of the 300,000 pint mark being passed by last
Two cars were being loaded yesterday for shipment
last night, one at Wauchula and one at Bowling Green.
Bowling Green sent out three express cars this week,
and 95 reefers besides, making the total shipped from
that point 66,090 pints.
Zolfo Springs and Wauchula cooperatives loaded into
the cars at Bowling Green.
The price ranged around eighteen to twenty cents a
pint this week, some dropping to fifteen and some going
to twenty-three cents.
There was little else doing in shipping circles this week,
with the volume of vegetables being cut down consider-
ably by frost last week. Only about 300 packages of
vegetables went out by express, including the following
for the week ending January 1st: Pepper, 152; eggplant,
42, oranges, 36; beans, 34; peas, 19; squash, 18; kum-
quats, 15; tomatoes, 3; potatoes, two crates.
Most growers are now putting out fertilizer materials
and preparing to plant cucumbers, corn, potatoes, toma-
toes, etc., for the spring market. Indications are that a
large crop of roasting ear corn will be planted, with the
usual acreage of cucumbers and tomatoes. There will
also be some potatoes, beans, squash, etc., planted.
130 BUSHELS OF IRISH POTATOES FROM
(Kissimmee Valley Gazette, January 2, 1930)
Ninety-seven crates of peppers have been shipped from
the Lupfer truck farm since the cool weather of Christ-
mas. It is expected that more than seventy-five pepper
crates will be shipped in the near future from the same
patch. The new crop of peppers will be ready to move
in about six weeks if the weather is favorable.
From one acre of Irish potatoes the Lupfers have dug
130 bushel crates, which have been shipped.
14 FLORIDA REVIEW
FARMERS OF PINELLAS ORGANIZE FOR
COOPERATIVE BUYING AND SELLING
(Largo Sentinel, January 2, 1930)
The Pinellas Farmers' Cooperative Association, oper-
ating under letters patent from the State of Florida, a
grower-owned and controlled farmers' cooperative, is now
operating in Pinellas county, which offers to the farmers,
truck and berry growers a complete service which com-
prises the purchase of fertilizers, seeds and other necessi-
ties at cost regardless of the quantity required, as well
as the sale of the farm products of its members at a
minimum of expense.
Charles L. Jones, 649 East Turner street, Clearwater,
has been appointed business manager, and while the asso-
ciation has been operating only a short time, he has been
unable to keep up to the demand and is calling upon the
members for more vegetables and small fruits to supply
the local dealers who are depending upon the association
for their supplies.
The high grade of "Peerless Pinellas Products," and
the fact that it is being marketed in a fresh and whole-
some condition is rapidly strengthening the demand of
the residents of this county for home-grown produce, and
in order to protect the purchasers, arrangements are be-
ing perfected to have the packages marked with the brand
of the association or the bunches identified by means of
tags so that the truck loads of second-grade produce
brought in from neighboring counties will be sold as such.
Every parcel of produce brought in to the business
manager to date has been eagerly purchased by the re-
sponsible dealers on a fair price basis, and already two
carloads of fertilizer have been purchased and distrib-
uted, and arrangements will be made as soon as possible
to provide a warehouse, where fertilizer, seeds, packages
and other supplies may be had by the members as re-
quired without profit to the association, and the commit-
tee in charge is endeavoring to locate a suitable building
for this purpose, as well as to provide more adequate
facilities for handling produce.
Membership in the association is open to all responsible
farmers, truck growers and raisers of small fruit in
Pinellas county,- and many growers not already members
are realizing the worth of the service it can render to
them and making application for admittance as a full-
fledged member or under the certificate plan, which costs
but one dollar, and which will entitle the holder to bring
his produce to the business manager to be sold under the
rules and regulations applying to full-fledged members,
and also to purchase supplies at member prices.
The association seeks the membership of every grower
in the county as only by the wholehearted support of the
farming community can the best results be obtained, and
such encouraging strides have been made already that
they will be in position within a short time to be entitled
to financial assistance from the Federal Farm Board,
which is essential to successful truck farming and small
fruit raising in Pinellas county.
The directors of the association are all growers and
have been elected by the association to represent its
members, so that it is absolutely grower-owned and
grower-operated, free from any prejudice or influence
that is not for the sole benefit of the grower as a whole,
but with the sole idea in view of advancing the material
prosperity of the community.
The officers of the association are as follows: C. E.
Fisher, president; Emil Aveldson, vice-president; Charles
K. Coit, secretary-treasurer. Directors, W. W. Baker,
F. J. Lobell, C. L. Hayes, C. W. Peck, C. C. Morton, Wm.
Gomme. Any of whom are ready at all times to render
assistance or any service that will promote the best in-
terests of the growers of this county.
Arrangements are being made to plant a large acreage
of potatoes and cucumbers, and more than sufficient
will be under cultivation to insure shipments in carloads,
and in addition to this growers are being encouraged to
plant other produce to take care of the local needs, and
every responsible grower, no matter how small his acre-
age, is urged to affiliate himself with the organization
and avail himself of the opportunity to join and have the
same part in the success and the profits of the asosciation
as the original charter members of the Pinellas County
Farmers' Cooperative Association.
$5,500.00 WORTH OF HOGS ARE SOLD BY
(Marianna Times-Courier, December 19, 1929)
The hog sale held at Marianna on Tuesday of this
week surpassed anything held in the county this year,
states County Agent Rountree, who weighed and graded
the hogs, for the Marianna Cooperative Live Stock As-
Three hundred and ninety hogs selling for $5,500.00
were handled at this sale. Mr. W. C. Faulkner of
Dothan, bidding for White Provision Co., of Atlanta, pur-
chased the hogs at 7.75 basis tops. Considering prices
brought at other sales held throughout three states and
the recent market crash, this price proved most satis-
factory to all parties concerned.
Much credit for the success of the Marianna sales is
due to the splendid efforts of Mr. F. M. Holbrook, secre-
tary, and Mr. S. A. Daffin, president of the Jackson
county chamber of commerce.
The association wishes to thank the farmers of Green-
wood, Sneads, Marianna, Kynesville, Cottondale, Altha,
Blountstown, Grand Ridge and Forks of the Creek for
their patronage and cooperation. The next cooperative
hog sale to be held at Marianna will be conducted on
Tuesday, January 21.
WORK BEGINS ON WAKULLA TOWER
Structure Will House Lookout to Guard Against
Fires in Forests
(Wakulla County News, January 3, 1930)
Work began Saturday on construction of an 85-foot
steel fire lookout tower at Wakulla station, under super-
vision of the State Forestry Service, which recently took
over for protection against wood fires jointly with the
federal government, approximately 140,000 acres of tim-
ber lands in Wakulla, Jefferson and Taylor counties.
The tower at Wakulla is one of three which it is pro-
posed will be erected on the unit coming under fire pro-
tection, and is at the junction of the St. Marks and New-
port highways, on land of the Singletary Investment
H. B. Culpepper, of Newport, has the contract to build
the Wakulla tower, and also one in Jefferson county,
which will be built within the next two weeks. A local
man will be employed at once as observer to look after
the tower and watch for fires in the forest area under
protection. Telephone lines will also be strung through
FLORIDA REVIEW 15
AGRICULTURE AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES
(Orlando Sentinel, December 29, 1929)
The extent to which agricultural industry has its
allied supporting industries is not appreciated to the full,
even in Florida. Only in very recent years has there
been any considerable attempt to capitalize to the full
on these allied industries. There is a great future ahead
in this field.
We cite two cases in point, confining our attention
mainly to the second. Last year Orlando witnessed the
establishment of a canning plant for citrus products that
had a phenomenal success within its limits. This season
will probably witness canning of both citrus and vegetable
products here. The second case in point is the A. D.
Zachary crate mill at Sanford. This plant was estab-
lished fifteen years ago. It consumes over ten million
feet of raw crate material each year and has a daily out-
put of 10,000 crates, according to Sanford Herald sta-
tistics. Last year it shipped 42,000 crates to New Jersey
and sold 500,000 celery crates to Central Florida. To
the East Coast went 200,000 orange crates. One Plant
City grower used 100,000 crates, while 250,000 more
went to growers at various other points in South Florida.
As cooperative poultry enterprise transforms Florida
into a great poultry state, the demand for crates of this
type will rise. The same observation holds good for ferns
and plumosus. Gradually we are canning a good part of
our citrus fruit. We need more citrus fruit canneries,
more vegetable canneries to take care of surplus and
stimulate greater truck production. The principle works
both ways. Agriculture creates allied supporting indus-
tries. In the case of canneries, at least, allied industry
If we have hardly scratched the surface of agricultural
development in Florida, by the same token we have
hardly started allied industrial development. Upon the
growth of the dairying industry, dependent very largely
upon eradication of the cattle tick, depends the estab-
lishment of creameries and cheese manufacturing. With
the establishment of factories of this type, dairying will
be increased. So works the principle. The inevitable
result will be the making within the next few decades of
a new Florida, beautiful and prosperous beyond the
dreams of many at the close of this year 1929.
LARGEST SHRIMP CATCH NOW BEING
(Palm Beach Post, January 3, 1930)
Fort Pierce, Jan. 2.-Shipment of the biggest catch of
shrimp this season, comprising around 500 barrels, was
being completed Thursday. It represented the catch of
20-odd boats that arrived in port Tuesday, Wednesday
Three carload shipments were made Wednesday night,
with a number of barrels forwarded by express during
the past three days. The season's total movement is
approximately six carloads.
Announcement was made Thursday that the Atlantic
Sea Food, Inc., Brunswick, Ga., shrimp canning firm had
closed negotiations for the location of a branch heading
and skinning plant at Fort Pierce. The company ar-
ranged with the Fort Pierce Port Corporation for the
construction and lease of a building, construction of
which has already been started and which is to be com-
pleted and ready for use by January 8. The company,
which operates a number of boats of its own and buys
the catch of others, will head and skin shrimp here and
truck them to its St. Augustine cannery, it was said.
This increases to 11 the number of shrimping firms
LEVY AND GILCHRIST COUNTY HOGS AND
TURKEYS BRING $25,000.00
(Dixie County News, January 2, 1930)
An estimated $25,000 in new money was brought into
the county this week through the sale of hogs and
turkeys, according to J. E. McIntire, county agricultural
teacher and advisor.
Twelve carloads of hogs averaged $1,200 a car. Mr.
McIntire figures they brought in nearly $15,000 of the
estimated amount, while the remainder is accounted for
in turkey sales.
An estimated four carloads of turkeys, shipped by
train and truck, left the county during the week, bring-
ing an average of $2,600 a car, Mr. McIntire figures.
More than $10,000 of the amount came in on Tuesday,
the peak day of shipping, according to unconfirmed re-
ports of bank officials.
Ten of the twelve carloads of hogs and practically all
of the turkeys were loaded at Trenton, the other two
carloads of hogs going from Bell.
While a large percentage of the birds and hogs leaving
here were produced in and credited to Levy county, a
considerable percentage of those produced in this county
north of Bell and near the Alachua line were loaded and
shipped from Newberry, Branford and Fort White.
A conservative estimate of the capital gain for Gil-
christ county alone during the week from these sources,
in view of equalization between sales coming into and
going out of its territory, has been placed at $20,900.
Of the twelve cars of hogs, eight were bought and
shipped by J. B. Stockman, prominent local livestock
broker; two at Bell by Mr. Means, Gainesville broker, and
two others loaded and sold by the Gulf Cooperative
One of the carloads of turkeys was bought through the
State Marketing Bureau at $20 a hundred; another by
J. B. Stockman, at $21 a hundred, and the others by
various smaller purchasers, mostly at $20.
Hogs brought for tops from $7.52, the price secured
by the marketing association on Thursday, through $7.50,
Stockman's prevailing price, to $7.25, the price at Bell
on Wednesday. While the price for tops ran low at Bell,
the lower grades prices stopping at $6.25, overcome that
somewhat.-Levy County Journal.
FLORIDA MOSS SELLS FOR $1,500,000
(Bristol Free Press, December 12, 1929)
Picturesque Spanish moss, growing wild all over north
Florida, is now being gathered for market. Sales of this
typical Florida product are authoritatively estimated at
a million and a half dollars a year.
Several moss factories have been established in this
state, which receive the raw product, dry it, gin it and
ship it north to be used for the stuffing of chairs, sofas
and automobile cushions.
And just think what Liberty county is missing in not
gathering the thousands of pounds that are hanging on
trees in its forests.
16 FLORIDA REVIEW
GOOD WORK BEING DONE IN ESCAMBIA
COUNTY IN POULTRY LINE
West Florida Farmers Get $11,750 in Sales
Through State Bureau
(Pensacola Journal, December 29, 1929)
During the first three months of operation of the
poultry and egg marketing division of the State Mar-
keting Bureau sales were made for 400 farmers in
Escambia and other counties of West Florida, netting
them $11,750, it was announced yesterday from Jackson-
ville by F. W. Risher, specialist.
The Marketing Bureau was established by act of the
1929 legislature in an act providing for making available
to farmers of the state a medium by which they may
market to better advantage the produce accumulated on
In addition to the poultry and egg division, there are
bureaus of the state bureau which assist in handling the
fruit, vegetable and dairy output of state producers.
Sales of poultry and eggs are done on the cooperative
basis. Where enough farmers can be interested in the
sales to justify the running of a railroad car to handle
their output, a schedule is established. For the first 90
days of operation of the poultry and egg bureau cars
were run for producers of Newberry, Gainesville, Willis-
ton, Pensacola, DeFuniak Springs, Bonifay, Chipley,
Marianna, Lake City, Trenton, Archer, Branford and
Sneads. The farmers in those sections were said to have
obtained substantial prices for their poultry. Of the
$11,750 worth of poultry sold, $8,000 went for turkeys
prior to Thanksgiving day.
The bureau is planning to run the schedules in other
parts of the state on definite dates. Mr. Risher and his
associates obtain a market for the poultry and eggs and
then run the cars. The prices are advertised a week in
advance of the day of the sale, enabling the farmers to
know in advance what price they will receive.
Poultry of some kind is found on 84 out of every 100
farms of the state, but at that, it is estimated that Florida
is importing from 20,000,000 to 25,000,000 pounds of
poultry, costing $6,000,000 or $7,000,000, Mr. Risher
said. Importations of eggs amount annually to 20,000,-
000 to 25,000,000 dozen, valued at a like amount, he
stated. The eggs, he added, are coming from as far as
Missouri and California.
POLK COUNTY'S EXHIBIT AT THE SOUTH
FLORIDA FAIR PROMISES TO BE GOOD
(Ft. Meade Leader, January 2, 1930)
Forced to install a roof ventilator to protect them-
selves from the importunities of friends below when the
appetizing odors from their department are wafted down
instead of upward, Miss Godbey and Miss Preston, of
the county home demonstration department, are spending
long hours in their cooking apartments on the third floor
of the county court house preparing Polk county's ex-
hibit from this department for the Tampa fair.
The exhibit when completed will comprise some 300
individual containers, each filled with a different product,
and will include canned meats, fruits, vegetables, pre-
serves, jellies, jams, marmalades, pickles and relishes.
The list has been revised since last year and a number
of attractive new exhibits added. The entire collection
is made up of meats and fruits and vegetables produced
in Polk county.
Among the novelties will be tangeloe preserves, made
of fruit which is a cross between tangerines and grape-
fruit; candied citron, made not from the melons, which
is the popular conception of the foundation fruit from
which this preserve is made, but from the real citron fruit
grown in Polk county on trees resembling grapefruit
trees. The commercial citron used in this country is
shipped here from Greece, packed in barrels of sea water,
and preserved after it reaches the states.
The guava exhibit was not entirely depleted by the
destruction of the green fruit, according to plant board
regulations early in the year, since friends of this depart-
ment, in zone 3, below Frostproof and Fort Meade, were
able to contribute canned and preserved fruit.
The preserved lemons do not put one's teeth on edge
as might be supposed, but are delightfully tender and
sweet, being cooked for several days in a syrup until they
Pectin for the jellies is extracted from the white inner
skin of oranges.
Miss Godbey and Miss Preston are assisted in their
work by Miss Martha Clark, one of the 4-H club girls of
Barron G. Collier, New York capitalist, with extensive
holdings in Florida, now proposes to purchase seven
hotels in the state, at West Palm Beach, Tampa, Braden-
ton, Sarasota and Lakeland.
RIDGE GROWERS PLEDGE 600 ACRES OF
(Tampa Tribune, January 2, 1930)
Haines City, Jan. 1.-(Tribune News Service.)-At
the meeting of the Ridge Vegetable Growers Association
600 acres of tomatoes were pledged, and F. A. Saparo
signed a contract to pay a minimum of 50 cents per crate
for choice fruit and $1.00 per crate for fancy. About
2,000 acres of land have been offered the growers, and
Engineer R. A. Sterzick was appointed to locate each
plot and furnish outline maps. Major W. C. O'Dell is
now planting a seed bed in the Holly Hill nurseries at
Davenport that will furnish a thousand plants for imme-
diate use. A thousand acres seems assured and work on
the packing house in this city begins soon. Estimated
cost per acre is fixed at $75 or $100 with an average in-
come of $200.
Frozen orange juice in solid form and put up in a pack-
age like a carton of butter is among the probabilities of
the future merchandising program of the ice cream man-
ufacturer. Extracted and solidified by a continuous
freezing process at plants located in the orange growing
centers, it will be shipped under solidified carbon dioxide
refrigeration, held in cold rooms by ice cream manu-
facturers and distributed by them through their dealers.
Orange growers in Florida are stated to have already
carried the project beyond the experimental stage and to
be prepared to begin large scale production at an early
date. From 25 to 30 per cent of the crop can be diverted
to this purpose in normal years. A field crate of Florida
oranges selling at 50 cents will produce five gallons of
juice which can be completely processed as a frozen
product for about 46 cents a gallon, says the Ice Cream
Trade Journal.-Florida Times-Union.