The outgrowth of an idea

Group Title: Florida review (Tallahassee, FL)
Title: Florida review
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00049005/00086
 Material Information
Title: Florida review
Physical Description: 5 v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Bureau of Immigration
Publisher: Bureau of Immigration, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1926-1930
Frequency: semimonthly
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Industries -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (June 7, 1926)-v. 5, no. 9 (Oct. 20, 1930).
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00049005
Volume ID: VID00086
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001744570
oclc - 01279992
notis - AJF7332
lccn - sn 00229569

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    The outgrowth of an idea
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Full Text
U.S.Depto, ao A-riUlEatwr
Washington, D.C.

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Vol. 4 DECEMBER 16, 1929 No. 14


By T. J. BROOKS, Assistant Commissioner of Agriculture

J N February, 1912, the writer was in Wash-
ington, D. C., as the spokesman of the
Farmers' Educational and Cooperative
Union of America. The organization was
deeply concerned with the problem of market-
ing farm products. At that time the writer occu-
pied the chair of Markets and Rural Economics
in the Agricultural and Mechanical College of
Mississippi. There was no textbook on the sub-
ject, so he wrote one for class-room use.
As a means of centralizing the discussion on
something definite I wrote a bill providing for
the establishment of a Federal Bureau of Mar-
kets. The bill was introduced in the United
States Senate by Senator Hoke Smith and in the
House by Webb of North Carolina and Callo-
way of Texas. Neither Webb nor Calloway
turned their hands to push the bill to passage.
Senator Smith did and passed it through the
Senate three times--twice as a rider and finally
as a separate bill. The writer appeared before
the House Committee in charge of the bill as in-
troduced by Webb and Calloway, in its advo-
cacy, which was the first speech ever made
before a committee of Congress on the subject.
The Senate bill was pigeonholed in the House
by the chairman of the Agricultural Committee,
Hon. Asbury Lever. He put a clause in the
agricultural bill appropriating $50,000 and au-
thorizing the Secretary of Agriculture to insti-
tute experiments in marketing, without specific
directions as to just what to do.
This was the beginning of the work of the
Federal Government in undertaking to help in
the solution of the farm marketing problem.
Since then the idea has been adopted in some
forty states.
During the World War the Federal Bureau
of Markets was vastly enlarged and its busi-
ness greatly augmented. Since the war there
has been a consolidation of the Bureau of Mar-

kets and of Economics and today the Bureau of
Agricultural Economics is the outcome of the
Farmers' Union idea promulgated by that or-
ganization in Congress seventeen years ago.
According to Mr. Nils A. Olsen, Chief of the
Bureau of Agricultural Economics, in his ad-
dress before the recent convention of State
Secretaries of Agriculture, the present activities
of this Bureau include the-following:
"The Bureau of Agricultural Economics is an
infant among the department's bureaus. 'While
the establishment of some of the work now in
the present bureau dates back several decades,
the Bureau of Markets, upon which the present
institution was primarily built, dates back only
to 1914. The appropriation for the Bureau at
that time was less than four hundred thousand
dollars. Today it is more than six and d
quarter million dollars. The Bureau of Agri-
cultural Economics now has a personnel of
2,427 people; more than half of that number
are stationed in field offices outside of Washing-
ton. The Bureau has built up a group of com-
modity divisions that devote their entire re-
sources to the interests of special commodities.
At the same time it has organized several gen-
eral divisions primarily devoted to economic
service and research that cross-section all com-
modities. The Bureau has 210 branch offices in
104 cities of this country, and during the heavy
crop-moving seasons it establishes approxi-
mately 40 additional temporary field stations.
All of these offices are bound together by a net-
work of leased telegraph wire radiating from
Washington and totalling 10,459 miles.
"With the ever-expanding market news ser-
vice of the Bureau you are all familiar. It has
helped take the merchandising of farm products
out of the realm of darkness. Daily statistics
on shipments, arrivals, stocks, prices, and the
like, provide information without which it is not


possible to market commodities intelligently.
This service is now provided daily for the major
commodities produced in this country.
"A complete market news service is given on
22 of the most important fruits and vegetables,
and daily shipments and unloads of cars are re-
ported for about 15 more. The news service
covers all of the principal classes and grades of
livestock and meats, as well as dairy and poul-
try products, grain, hay, feeds and seeds, and
other commodities. The service on the various
products covers 35 of the most important cities
of the United States, and in addition, the news
is made available to state officials at many
points, for local distribution. Temporary branch
offices are opened at about 40 points each year
in important producing districts where the mar-
ket information is published during the heavy
movements of crops. Approximately 20,000,000
copies of mimeographed news reports are re-
leased annually.
"The Bureau's leased wire telegraph system
extends from coast to coast-embracing New
York, Philadelphia and Boston in the northeast;
Atlanta, Jacksonville and New Orleans in the
southeast; Chicago, Minneapolis, Kansas City,
and other large markets in the middle west;
Forth Worth, San Antonio, in the southwest;
Denver, Salt Lake City, San Francisco, Portland,
Spokane and Seattle in the west. The leased
wire news service is hooked up with the radio
stations throughout the country, making it pos-
sible for a farmer anywhere to obtain daily the
latest market information, prices, and condi-
tions. The service is growing every year and
evidently the end is not yet. Here, too, the
problem of adequacy and accuracy is an im-
portant one. As the routing of a commodity
changes, as central markets for some commodi-
ties become less important than before, radical
adjustments must be made in our methods of
collecting and reporting current information.
"But our fact-collecting activities cannot stop
at the edge of the ocean. Most of the products
produced in this country feel the impact of for-
eign competition. On the other hand, the pro-
ducers of many of our major commodities must
seek outlets abroad for a considerable part of
their products. We need estimates of produc-
tion in foreign lands, appraisals of foreign
competition in competing countries, and market
information regarding the important countries
that take our products. To date, only a small
beginning has been made in the development of
a foreign agricultural service. An office at
London, another at Berlin, and still another at

Shanghai, cooperating with the Department of
State and Commerce, are already providing a
body of information that is invaluable to our
producers. But this is not sufficient. Our
farmers must have more comprehensive and
accurate information on conditions abroad, and
the Federal Farm Board has requested that the
Bureau of Agricultural Economics build up a
thoroughly adequate foreign service for agri-
culture, cooperating in every way possible with
other federal departments that have offices sta-
tioned abroad. This service of the Bureau is
now being further developed. It will provide
information which will enable producers to bet-
ter adjust their production plans to competition
abroad and to more effectively merchandise
their products in foreign lands."


(Winter Haven Chief, November 26, 1929)
The Chief, the Orange Festival and all of Winter
Haven wish to express their appreciation of the coopera-
tion being given the Orange Festival by Hon. Nathan
Mayo, Commissioner of Agriculture for Florida. In the
current issue of the "Florida Review," published semi-
monthly by the Bureau of Immigration of the Depart-
ment of Agriculture, there is reproduced the Chief's
editorial on the "Educational Value of the Orange Fes-
tival," which appeared in this column on October 24.
The editorial covered half a page in the Florida Review
and was prominently featured. This was entirely volun-
tary on the part of the editor of the Review and goes
to show conclusively that the State Department of Agri-
culture is solidly back of the festival. The Chief and
all of Winter Haven greatly appreciate such fine cooper-
ation from the Mayo administration and realize that
there would be a more substantial expression of that in-
terest if it were at all possible.


(By L. M. Rhodes, State Marketing Commissioner)

A cres
Field crops................. 997,751
Including poultry,
dairy and livestock
products ............ .. .... ....
Total, field crops and
livestock, dairy and
poultry products .. ...............
Fruits, nuts and mis-
cellaneous crops...... 764,346
Total value, all crops
not including live-
stock, poultry and
dairy ...................... 1,762,097
Including livestock,
total ................... 1,762,097
O ranges ..................... ............
G rapefruit ................. ......... .
T angerines ............. ..... ....
S atsu m as ...................................

Total Value Per Acre
$16,036,000 $16.16

30,225,000 .......

46,261,000 46.36

89,086,019 116.40

105,122,019 59.71

135,347,019 76.21

....... .. 169,483 acres
.............. 105,912 acres
............... 17,416 acres
............. 2,943 acres
295,754 acres


irtriba fRiebifn
Published Semi-Monthly by
Bureau of Immigration, Department of Agriculture
Tallahassee, Florida

NATHAN MAYO ............ Commissioner of Agriculture
T. J. BROOKS .......... Asst. Commissioner of Agriculture
Entered as second-class matter, June 25, 1926, at the Post Office
at Tallahassee, Florida, under the Act of June 6, 1920.
Will be mailed free to anyone upon request.

Vol. 4

DECEMBER 16, 1929


West Palm Beach, Nov. 24, 1929.
Hon. Nathan Mayo,
Commissioner of Agriculture,
Tallahassee, Florida.
Dear Mr. Mayo.-I have just returned from Louisiana
and I am impressed with the breeding up of certain par-
ticular sugar cane. Louisiana of course has been making
a very intensive study and the United States Govern-
ment has cooperated particularly. The thought has oc-
curred to me that syrup growers of North Florida should
get the benefit of this and, accordingly, I have suggested
to the American Sugar Cane League, with headquarters
in Louisiana, that they could do nothing better than to
offer to cooperate with our Florida growers and, accord-
ingly, I would appreciate any views you might have, for
the officials of the League I have spoken to have ex-
pressed a warm spirit of cooperation. This morning's
Palm Beach Post has a clipping under a date line from
the College of Agriculture, Gainesville, which reads,
"Growers of sugar cane should secure uninfested seed to
prevent damage from the cane borer, J. R. Watson, en-
tomologist of the Florida Experiment Station, warned in
a statement here." I do know that the American Cane
League makes a habit of distributing cane and I would
welcome any suggestions of yours as to how we might
have the cane growers of Louisiana and North Florida
cooperate in developing a fine strain of sugar cane stock.
With best wishes, I am,
Yours very sincerely,


(Milton Gazette, November 22, 1929)
Pensacola, Fla.-Tradition tells that the crooked streets
of Boston were laid out by the wabbling legs of calves
zig-zagging from side to side. Be that as it may, straight
paths of progress in the live stock industry will be traced
by the feet of two bull calves given this week to Tate
Agricultural School, Gonzalez, Fla.
These two calves, both purebred Jerseys, were pur-
chased from Magnolia farms by G. J. Emmanuel, as
chairman of the agricultural committee of the Pensacola
Chamber of Commerce. Introduction of purebred sires
is recommended by the Florida State Live Stock Board.
The two calves given to Tate school are the first of many
to be distributed to all sections of Escambia county, Mr.
Emannuel said.


(Manufacturers Record, November 28, 1929)
Florida grapefruit and oranges of unsurpassed quality
even in the best years of the past are crowding into
eastern markets, but at present are selling at a lower
price than the fruit ought to command. The Mediter-
ranean fly having been stamped out, the Department of
Agriculture has lifted the drastic quarantine from the
shipment of fruit from Florida and now announces that:
"No infested fruit has been found in the state for the
past ten weeks, nor have any of the fruit flies been found
in the thousands of traps that were placed for that
The citrus crop of Florida, and of California also, is
smaller than in former years. Measured by this condi-
tion the fruit ought to bring a much better price than
for the last few years.
A notice sent out by the Department of Agriculture
"The shipment of Florida fruit into the southern and
western states under sterilization is authorized for the
period from November 21 to January 31, subject to possi-
ble extension of this period through February if such
extension is warranted by fruit fly conditions at the end
of January."
Some time ago the quarantine was lifted on shipments
to the north and west. Further:
"All citrus groves in Florida are kept under intensive
inspection and all fruit in any block or area in which in-
festation may be determined is to be promptly destroyed.
No fruit known to be infested will be permitted to be
shipped, whether sterilized or not."


(Gainesville Sun, December 2, 1929)
The impression has been general in Florida that this
state cannot produce the cauliflower, delicious vege-
table, in commercial quantities because of supposedly ad-
verse climatic conditions.
According to the Perry Independent, some of Taylor
county's farmers are meeting with success in the raising
of cauliflower. The Independent says:
"L. H. Lynn, progressive farmer and trucker of San
Pedro district, was in town one day this week with a fine
lot of cauliflower plants which he had sold to some friends
in another part of the county.
"The plants are about six inches high and a healthy
fine look. Mr. Lynn has set out about 6,500 and esti-
mates that about eight acres will be planted in Taylor
county this season. Mr. Lynn has about an acre in cauli-
flowers, the plot having previously produced a fine growth
of peanuts.
"It is estimated that the cauliflowers will be ready for
market within ninety days from the time of planting.
The raising of cauliflower in Taylor county is a new
project and the results will be watched with much in-
terest as this season is well adapted to raising cauli-
"Other sections of the state have made good money
on this product and while this year it is an experiment,
those who profess to know conditions and markets are
of the belief that it will prove a fine addition to the
already growing produce in this section of Florida."



(Manufacturers Record, November 21, 1929)
Though the Wall street panic has crippled many in-
dividuals and caused great suffering, the country will go
forward in its industrial and general business develop-
ment on a scale commensurate with its limitless re-
Every day during the past week great enterprises have
been reported as being organized or established in the
South and Southwest just as though a Wall street panic
had never been heard of. The list covers a wide variety
of diversified industries-great plants of many kinds. We
believe, as stated in a previous issue, that the collapse in
security prices in New York will to some extent halt the
wild gambling mood or fever which had taken possession
of the whole country, and that it will cause our people
once more to realize that man must earn his daily bread
through the sweat of his brow. It may be either the
sweat of the brain, or the sweat of the body, but work
and not gambling is the lever which will lift the individual
and the country to a higher plane of prosperity than
could possibly be produced by the wild speculation which
has raged for the last few years.
We have never been able to see how any sane man-
banker, merchant or manufacturer-could fail to see
that a collapse was inevitable. From time to time we
were told by supposed economists that this boom was en-
tirely unlike any other and that the enormous wealth of
the country justified the enormous prices to which securi-
ties were being rushed. During the Florida real estate
boom we were repeatedly told there could not possibly
be a collapse because the Florida situation was unlike
that of any other section of the country and, therefore,
its continued expansion far beyond the conditions pre-
vailing during the height of the boom was inevitable.
No one appreciates more highly than the editor of this
paper the almost boundless advantages of Florida and
no one has a higher opinion of its future; but repeated
warnings were given, to all who inquired of him, that
the boom as it then existed in the sale of town lots far
away from any development or any city could not sur-
vive. In a public address two years before the boom he
gave warning that even the prices then prevailing for
town lots could not possibly be sustained unless there was
great industrial development.
In the boom of the early 80's in Kansas City the
boomers told the story that the wonderful grain-growing
possibilities of that region, and the assurance of Kansas
City becoming a great city, justified the speculation then
going on. When Birmingham and other places broke
loose with a boom which in intensity surpassed that of
Kansas City, or later of Florida, we were repeatedly told
that conditions were entirely unlike any other boom be-
cause there was in the South the foundation of a great
iron and steel-making business. Over and over again we
said to those who took this view that the South would go
forward, but the real estate boom would collapse.
As Kansas City and Birmingham and other boom
towns of the early 80's have now more than fulfilled the
expectations of those who looked forward to their becom-
ing great business and industrial centers, as Florida will
in time surpass in the solidity of its growth even the
expectations of some of its most enthusiastic and honest
developers, so the time will come when most of the sub-
stantial securities of this country will move from the
Slough of Despond of the present into a higher range of
values. No one need for a moment imagine that panic

conditions can continue indefinitely and that all good
securities will drop to lower and lower prices, for the
growth of the United States will again bring back an
advance from the present depressed condition and people
will wonder how they became so panicky as to throw
overboard at slaughter prices billions of dollars of good
securities which doubtless many of them could have car-
ried if they had not become crazed by fear.
But turning to the industrial and commercial ad-
vancement of the South, here is a list of enterprises re-
ported during the last few days, and every day since
the Wall street panic began, as showing what the South
is doing in carrying forward its industrial development.
Southwestern Bell Telephone Co., St. Louis, has an-
nounced plans for expending $50,000,000 for extension
and improvements to its system in the southwest during
1930. Work will begin about December 1 on a $2,500,000
administration building at San Antonio as part of a
$5,000,000 improvement program there. At Kansas City,
Mo., work will start soon on the first $1,000,000 unit of
a 14-story structure to house long distance telephone
facilities, the building ultimately to contain 949,000
square feet of floor space. Work is under way on a
$1,000,000 telephone building in Dallas.
Chesapeake & Potomac Telephone Co., Baltimore, will
expend $4,200,000 for improving its system and for un-
derground conduits in Maryland.
Contract has been let for a reinforced concrete elevator
and appurtenant structures for the Galveston Wharf Co.
to have a capacity of 6,000,000 bushels and to involve
the expenditure of more than $2,000,000.
American Tobacco Co., New York City, will award
contracts this month for a cigarette factory and storage
buildings at Richmond, to involve an estimated expendi-
ture of $3,500,000. Five warehouses are being built by
the company at Durham, N. C., at a cost of $500,000,
while major improvements are under way at the Reids-
ville, N. C., plant.
A subsidiary of W. P. Brown & Sons Lumber Co.,
Louisville, Ky., has started work on a large creosoting
As part of a general program for providing cold stor-
age facilities in the southeast, Swift & Co., Chicago, will
begin work soon on a packing plant at Birmingham.
National Portland Cement Co., with main office at
Dallas, has acquired a site near Vicksburg, Miss., and will
erect a plant to produce 3,500 barrels of cement daily.
Surveys are being made by a nationally known firm of
engineers with a view to establishment of a cement plant
near Tulsa, Okla.
A combination drainage, irrigation and hydro-electric
project estimated to necessitate the expenditure of
$6,000,000 will be undertaken shortly by Maverick
County Improvement District No. 1, Eagle Pass, Texas.
The Hightower interests of Thomaston, Ga., have ac-
quired the textile plant of the Griffin (Ga.) Manufac-
turing Co., and will modernize at a cost of close to
Spartan Mills, Spartanburg, S. C., will install 25,000
new spindles.
The Southwestern Public Service Co. has awarded
contracts for extension to its Amarilla, Texas, steam-
electric plant to bring the total capacity to more than
25,000 kilowatts.
Management & Enginereing Corp., Chicago, is con-
structing a hydro-electric project near Lebanon, Mo., for
the Central States Power & Light Corp., Chicago, to
develop 3,000 kilowatts.


The Grand Hydro Corp. has been organized by Tulsa
and St. Louis interests to develop a hydro-electric project
on the Grand river in northeastern Oklahoma.
Nantahala Power & Light Co., recently organized by
interests associated with the Aluminum Company of
America, will extend a railroad 10 miles as the prelimi-
nary step in construction of several dams and power
plants in North Carolina and Tennessee.
Public Service Company of Oklahoma, Tulsa, will ex-
tend its Weleetka plant at a cost of over $1,000,000, and
will add to its mileage of high tension transmission lines.
Alabama Power Co., Birmingham, has announced plans
for expending $1,000,000 in 1930 for rural transmission
lines in 40 Alabama counties.
Interstate Natural Gas Co. has awarded contracts for
loops paralelling its line from Monroe, La., to Baton
Rouge, La.
Additional data is being compiled with a view to ob-
taining a War Department permit for the erection of
the Hero-Hackett bridge over the Mississippi River at
New Orleans at a cost of $10,000,000.
West Coast Bridge & Tunnel Co., St. Petersburg, Fla.,
has tentative plans for a $6,500,000 combination bridge
and tunnel project seven miles long across Tampa Bay.
Road and bridge construction will be undertaken in
volume next year according to present indications.
Nueces county, Texas, has voted $2,500,000 bonds to be
supplemented by $717,000 in state funds. Liberty
county, Texas, has voted $2,250,000 bonds for roads. A
$3,500,000 road bond issue is proposed in Brazoria
county, Texas.
The State Highway Commission of Kentucky will offer
$9,000,000 bonds in December to finance building toll
bridges and acquiring several existing privately owned
toll structures.
Alabama will offer $2,500,000 highway bonds this
Hamilton county, Tennessee, plans expending the sum
of $1,000,000 for eight road projects.
A few of the major building projects announced re-
cently in the south and southwest include the following:
Three schools are proposed at St. Joseph, Mo., to cost
$1,000,000 and architects are now preparing plans.
Dreyfus & Son, Dallas, have awarded contracts for a
$500,000 store building.
Architects have been selected for a state hospital for
nervous diseases, authorized by the Arkansas Legisla-
ture, to cost not more than $3,250,000.
Excavation is under way for a $1,000,000 office build-
ing at Fort Worth, for R. O. Dulaney and associates.
An 18-story annex to the Republic National Bank,
Dallas, will be built at a cost of $1,000,000.
Martin Weiss and associates have made public plans
for an 18-story building in Dallas, to be used exclusively
by lawyers.
The Investment Construction Co., Baltimore, will erect
a $1,000,000 apartment building.
Louisville, Ky., has voted $3,000,000 bonds for school
Supreme Forest Woodmen Circle, Omaha, Neb., will
start work soon on a $500,000 home for aged and or-
phans at Sherman, Texas.
Plans are being prepared by Phelps & Dewees, archi-
tects, for a $1,000,000 apartment hotel at San Antonio
for the Swiss Plaza Co.
Villa Dosa Investment Co. has been organized at Tulsa,
Oklahoma, and will begin developing a subdivision for

high class residences entailing a total expenditure of
Richmond county, Ga., has voted $1,000,000 bonds for
school building improvements.
Dallas Power & Light Co. has selected Lang & Witchell
to prepare plans for a $1,250,000 office building in
The Tampa postoffice is to be improved at a cost of
A 2,000-room apartment building is proposed by B. R.
Warner, Jr., and associates of Washington, in Mont-
gomery county, Maryland, at a cost of several million
Contracts will be let this month for a hotel for the
Barringer Hotel Co., at Florence, S. C., estimated to cost
Plans and specifications are being considered for a
$5,000,000 main unit of the State Capitol at Charleston,
W. Va.
Many other enterprises, both large and small, are be-
ing reported every day from nearly every part of the


(Ft. Myers Press, November 19, 1929)
Florida sunshine in candy and jelly form are on their
way from Fort Myers to the White House.
The gift to President Hoover is from a distant relative
of his predecessor, Mrs. W. C. Coolidge of Fort Myers.
Mrs. Coolidge forwarded to Mr. Hoover jars of papaya
jelly and a delicious candy made from the juice of the
same fruit. Both articles were prepared by Mrs.
Coolidge especially for the president and the fruit from
which they were made came from Mr. and Mrs. Coolidge's
own papaya grove.
Mr. Coolidge's grandfather and the grandfather of the
ex-president were brothers, coming originally from
Bangor, Maine, where members of the family for many
years were engaged in shipbuilding.
The delicacies sent to President Hoover by Mrs.
Coolidge of Fort Myers were from her own recipes and
made with her own hands. The delicious flavor of the
papaya jelly and candy, which has been attested by many
of Mrs. Coolidge's friends, may lead to the products be-
ing placed on the market.


(Marianna Floridan, November 29, 1929)
On Tuesday, November 12th, an even 200 hogs were
offered for sale on the Malone cooperative sale market,
selling for a total of $3,039.40. One hundred and sixty-
four of these hogs graded tops and averaged a little over
200 pounds each.
W. C. Faulkner was the successful bidder at 8.05,
bidding for the White Provision Company, Atlanta, Ga.
The next Malone sale will be held on Tuesday, Decem-
ber 10th.
On Tuesday, November 19, 224 were sold on the
Marianna cooperative sale market, for a total of $3,-
120.45. Mr. L. R. Robinson, bidding 8.15 for Swift and
Company, of Moultrie, Ga., was the successful bidder.
The next Marianna sale will be held on Tuesday, Decem-
ber 17th.



(The Florida Dairy News, December 1, 1929)
A thirty or forty gallon barrel, a few bricks, a few feet of water pipe, and a stove pipe properly arranged and
put together will supply an abundance of hot water for the dairy, and the cost will be very small.
The diagram below shows how to arrange this equipment. This equipment will not supply steam for sterilizing
the buckets, etc., but it will give all the hot water necessary to wash all equipment.
Dairymen who are milking less than 10 or 12 cows and who do not feel that they can afford to purchase a
small boiler will find that this hot water equipment will give valuable service at small cost. The dairyman milking
twenty cows or more should by all means install a boiler. The size will depend largely on the number of cows he
is milking.

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The following is a bill of material and an estimate of
the cost of each item. These prices may vary in different
parts of the state. Many dairymen have a supply of
sand on the farm so that this item can be eliminated. On
many farms it is possible to secure old bricks from a
chimney or foundation that will do just as well as new
bricks. This will reduce the cost:
1 Iron Barrel......................... ............$ 3.50
250 B ricks ..................... ............ ......... 4.00
% Bushel Lime .................. ............. .50
% Sack Cement .................. .... ........ .50
% Yard Sand ............... ........... 1.50
15 ft. W ater Pipe............. ......... .......... 1.20
4 Lengths of stove pipe............................. .60
1 H ose B ib ......................... ..... ........... 1.00
1 Safety V alve ................................... .... 3.50

Approximate cost ............................$16.30
The Average Cow
It is not so much how many gallons of milk a dairyman
sells each day that counts; the big problem is how much
milk does each cow in the herd produce. Does she give
enough milk to pay for the feed she eats, or does she

* I__'A-- .~.s-yy

depend on her stable-mate to bring up the average so as
to make dairying profitable?
The average dairy cow in Florida today is causing a
great deal of trouble for Florida dairymen. This is due
to the fact that the average cow does not produce enough
milk to make the business profitable. Cull out the aver-
age cow. Better milk and feed fewer cows-it will be
more profitable for you.
There is no place in the dairy herd for the average
cow. She does not produce enough milk; neither is she
good enough to retain in the herd for breeding purposes.
She is worth only what she will bring for beef.
Increase Production by Culling
One of the problems that every dairyman has to face
is how to increase the production of every cow in the
Every herd has its percentage of poor producing cows.
Every dairyman is anxious, or should be, to get as much
milk from as few cows as it is possible. When a dairy-
man is milking 15 cows and getting twenty to twenty-two
gallons of milk a day, something is wrong.
There are a number of dairymen in the state who are
milking cows that have the above record. Milk is not
selling at as high a price today as it was some years ago.

L '

_/PE _
/-)// r *_4.~~ ~ ~ ~


Hence it is absolutely necessary for the dairyman to
increase the production per cow so as to make up for the
difference in price. Any dairyman knows that the cow
that gives him 2 to 3 gallons a day is much more profit-
able than the cow that produces less than 2 gallons a day.
Good feeding is a big help in this direction; but a
combination of good feeding and good breeding will work
The records of one dairyman here in Florida show that
by the use of a good bull and the raising of heifer calves,
the production of the heifer calves raised, when they
came into milk, was almost double that of their mothers.
During a conversation with a diaryman, a few days
ago, who had purchased a purebred bull calf about five
years ago, he stated that this bull had been worth
$1,000.00 to him. The initial cost of the calf was be-
tween $25.00 and $50.00-a mighty good investment.
In choosing a sire it is not only necessary that he be a
purebred sire, but it is just as important that he come
from a strain of good milkers. By this we mean that
the dams and grand dams of the new sire must have had
good records for milk production.
Keep Down Labor Costs
A few years ago the question of labor costs in the
dairy was not such an important consideration as it is
today.. Today every business man knows that a dollar
saved is a dollar made.
The question as to how many cows one man can feed
and milk depends to some extent on the arrangement of
the barn with reference to the feed room and the milk
room. If care and judgment have been used in planning
the arrangement of the barn, so as to avoid unnecessary
steps or to make as few steps as is absolutely necessary
to perform the work, then each laborer will be able to
perform more work.
Someone may say that it is none of our business how
much labor a dairyman may employ. This is quite true;
yet we are expected to do everything to assist the dairy-
men of the state to make their labors more remunerative.
We have visited some dairies in the state that we be-
lieve are employing too much labor for the amount of
milk that they are producing.
One man should be able to take care of 14 to 16 cows
a day. Some men are doing more than that. Some few
dairies are using a man to each six to eight cows.
Each dairyman should check up on his labor account
and if it runs above 30 per cent of his total production
costs, he should take up the slack. To put it another
way, the feed cost is usually about two-thirds of the
total cost and the labor cost about one-third. The dairy-
man who can keep his labor cost down to 25 per cent
of the total cost of production will make considerably
more money than the man whose labor cost runs 35 to
40 per cent of the total cost of production.


(Columbia Gazette, November 28, 1929)
The turkey sale sponsored by the State Market Bureau
at Branford Wednesday was a huge success, in the opin-
ion of those who attended. One thousand, three hundred
turkeys from Lafayette and Suwannee counties were sold
and cash for them paid out to the turkey raisers. Gross
proceeds from the sale are estimated to be between
$3,500 and $5,000.
County Agent D. C. Geiger, who was instrumental in
having the sale held by the bureau, spent the day at the
sale and reports that more turkeys were carried to Bran-

ford Wednesday than had been expected. The market
bureau had expected to fill a car at Branford and two
other places, for shipment to a dealer in Miami, but the
car was filled at Branford and fully 150 turkeys were
there that could not be handled as the car had been
filled. These were taken home by the owners.
The price received at the sale, 25 cents per pound for
young hens and toms, is somewhat lower than was re-
ceived for turkeys last year, but most turkey raisers were
satisfied with the price, we are told. This year has been
very favorable for the raising of turkeys, with the result
that the supply is more ample than usual and a drop in
price is the natural consequence.
About half the turkeys in the car were furnished by
Lafayette county farmers.
This is the first sale of this nature ever held in this
immediate section, but Mr. Geiger stated Wednesday
that he hopes to have others in the future. There are
many turkeys left on the farms of this county and it is
probable that another such sale will be held before
Christmas. Mr. Geiger was well pleased with this method
of selling farm produce of this kind, and stated that if
the farmers of this county were interested enough in the
proposition, a similar sale for chickens might be arranged
at stated intervals.-Mayo Free Press.


Ideal Weather Conditions Offset Drop in Bean

(Clewiston News, November 29, 1929)
With 12 carloads of beans from the Clewiston section
of the northern Everglades shipped during the past week
to northern markets in addition to several hundred
hampers shipped by express, farmers of this section were
settling down to another busy week of bean picking and
with weather conditions ideal, all indications point to a
prosperous season despite the drop in northern prices
early this week.
W. C. Bill Hooker was the heaviest shipper in carload
lots during the week and other shippers included M. H.
Crouch, Lake Harbor Farms, Tom McBride and W. G.
Brown of Ritta. Seminole Farms shipped several hundred
hampers by express and it is expected that beans from
this farm will be rolling in carload lots late this week or
early next week.
Bean picking on many other Everglades farms in the
Clewiston section will be started next week.
The 60-acre Beardsley farm three miles east of Clewis-
ton will be planted to potatoes within the next few days
by H. H. Sherwood and associates of Fort Myers. This
is said to be the first truck farm in this section which
has been mole-drained. The mole-drain, a bullet shaped
piece of metal dragged through the soil at a depth of
from two to four feet, leaving a subterranean canal by
means of which drainage and irrigation may be con-
The mole drain is used extensively on lands of the
Southern Sugar Company, and in this case the subter-
ranean drain runs from canal to canal, but the mole
drain on the Beardsley farm is bored from a buckeye
ditch to a dead end at the opposite end of the field.

A 40-acre tract on Lake Apopka is being prepared for
rice growing. The quality of this rice assures a demand
for all that could be raised.



Agricultural Imports of
Group 00-Animals and animal products, edible..
Group 0-Animals and animal products, inedible
Group 1-Vegetable products, edible.................
Group 2-Vegetable products, inedible................
Group 3-Textiles ........................................
G roup 4- W ood ................................. .............
Other Imports


5-Non-metallic minerals ......................
6- M etals ................................ ..............
7-Machinery ....................................
8- Chem icals .............. ..... ..............
9-Miscellaneous ..................................

Total imports ........................
Total agricultural imports, as above.....................
Deduct coffee, tea and cocoa..........
Deduct rubber...........................

3 Years Ago

' dollars



All other agricultural imports.................................
Deduct wood products.................... 372

Competitive Agricultural Imports..................







2 Years Ago
of dollars

356 $3,216,000,000

142 745,000,000
185 185,000,000

315 699,000,000

356 356,000,000


Last Year
of dollars

369 $3,231,000,000

146 858,000,000
202 202,000,000

238 619,000,000

369 369,000,000


All figures for fiscal years ending June 30. All figures from official statements, U. S. Department of Commerce.


More and More and Still More Coming in to
Displace the Production of American

(Farm Journal, November, 1929)
With Congress in the throes of trying to get the
Hawley-Smoot tariff bill whipped into shape, this may be
a good time to remind everybody of the vast propor-
tions which the import of farm products has attained.
As can be seen from the table printed above, more
than three-fourths of our total imports are of an agri-
cultural nature. Some of these, notably tea, coffee,
cocoa and rubber, are not produced in this country-
probably can not be produced here for a considerable
time to come-and do not displace a similar product
which we do or can produce. In other words, they are
not now competitive with the products of our own farms.
But after we have deducted these four commodities,
and have also left out wood products, to be on the safe
side, the figures show that for each of the last three
years the "competitive imports" have exceeded $2,000,-
000,000 each year. And moreover, the figure for the
last fiscal year was $2,243,000,000-the highest point yet
This is an enormous volume of goods. Expressed in
terms of farm land acreage, these imports displace or
throw out of production at least 50,000,000 acres of
farm land, or roughly 1,000,000 farms of average size.
There is no use in entering on an argument as to
whether these two billions of imports are or are not
"competitive." Opponents of proper protection to farm-
ing, and those who are interested in importing these
products, point out that the largest three items are sugar,
silk and furs, and they declare that these do not really
compete with our beet-sugar, or with our cotton, wool
and rayon. And to the claim that the banana is a direct
competitor of our orange, apple, pear, peach, grape and
fruits in general, they are disposed to retort "ridiculous."
What Imports Are "Competitive?"
It is a waste of time to argue the point, since it hinges
on the meaning to be given to the word "competitive."
Those who want the domestic market for the American

farmer, like ourselves, will give the word the broadest
meaning and application. Those who want free imports,
to keep the prices of foods and fibers depressed, will try
to confine the word to its narrowest sense.
But even then, by ruling out every possible import, and
resolving every doubt against the American farmer, the
imports that are "competitive" in the strictest sense can
not be reduced below seven or eight hundred million
dollars per year.
That is an enormous sum. And with due respect to
the Marketing Act and the Federal Farm Board, it seems
certain that the exclusion of even this limited amount of
farm produce from our country would.do more for the
prosperity of agriculture than the Board's $500,000,000,
and do it far more quickly.
Enemies of farming and of protection to farming are
apt to pooh-pooh an item of $800,000,000, although they
show a certain respect for $2,000,000,000, as well they
may. They point out that $800,000,000 is only from 5
to 7 per cent of the total farm income, and that these
increased sales would amount only to an increase of
about $125 per farm per year.
Nothing could be more misleading. For such state-
ments completely ignore the cumulative effect which
variations in the supply of a commodity have upon its
Small Change in Supply, Large Change in Price
Studies have been made of this phenomenon, and with
various results. But it may be established as a general
principle that a small surplus of a standard product de-
presses the price, and a small shortage advances the
price, both far beyond a proportionate amount. In some
extreme cases, a variation of supply only 5 per cent from
normal has advanced or depressed the price as much as
30 per cent.
Consider, then, the probable effect of a shrinkage of 5
per cent in the supply of farm commodities, if that
amount of imports were to be excluded by the new tariff.
It would operate in different ways on different com-
modities, no doubt. A given product might or might not
advance in price. Or it might advance immediately, and
then slowly fall again as increased home production made
up the deficit from the loss of imports.
But no ingenious course of reasoning can show that


farming would not be better off, at the least by increased
sales to the value of the products excluded, and more
likely by an advance in agricultural prices of many times
that amount.
This is especially probable if the new tariff bill results
in important shifts in production, as it should. Herein
is the hope for growers of products of which we produce
a surplus for export, the classic example of which is
wheat. These farmers may expect to profit, not by an
expansion of their sales, but by a reduction of the supply
of these particular crops. There will be an irresistible
attraction tending to draw individuals out of such fields
into lines where there is a relative shortage, caused by a
drop in imports.
As to what this would probably amount to, in dollars,
there is no way of knowing except by trial. And it is this
trial which we are still hopeful that Congress and the
President will provide, by the new tariff schedules now
being worked out.


(Collier County News, November 28, 1929)
For every dollar spent for fertilizer in Florida, growers
receive in return nearly two and a half dollars in in-
creased value of the crops grown.
This statement is based on estimates of 779 Florida
farmers who were personally interviewed regarding their
experiences, opinions, practices and results from the use
of commercial plant food. Their answers developed the
fact that nearly half of the total crop of citrus grown in
Florida in 1927, for instance, was produced by fertilizer.
This means for citrus alone in Florida an increase in
value of $2 for each dollar spent for fertilizer, with even
larger returns for money spent for fertilization of other
crops grown in the state, averaging $2.44 for all crops.
The added yield for citrus-39.8 per cent of the total
yield-resulting from the use of commercial plant food
has a money value of $19,303,000, of which $9,605,000
is returned over and above the cost of fertilizer, $9,605,-
000 having been spent that year for this crop-producing
These facts, along with other valuable information re-
garding fertilizers and fertilizer practices in Florida and
32 other states, based on a recent survey conducted
under the supervision of the National Fertilizer Associa-
tion, were brought out in a paper presented by H. R.
Smalley, director of soil improvement work of the asso-
ciation, before the annual meeting of the American
Society of Agronomy in Chicago.
Consumer Survey
Farmers all over the country-more than 48,000 in 35
states-were personally visited by representatives of
fertilizer companies doing business in the states. This
"Consumer Survey," as it is called, was made to obtain
facts regarding fertilizer practices on American farms.
Of the total number interviewed, 779 were Florida
The information developed was utilized in connection
with data made available by the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture and shows the results indicated for
citrus, nearly half of the total crop produced by 241,260
tons of fertilizer, with the estimated increase in the
value of the citrus crop of nearly 200 per cent for every
dollar spent for commercial plant food.
For the corn crop in Florida, 40 per cent of the total
crop was produced by fertilizer, the added value pro-

duced in this manner being $2,962,000. Total tonnage
of fertilizer used on corn in Florida in 1927 was 53,840
tons, bought by farmers at an estimated total cost of
$1,615,000, and resulting in an increase in the value of
the crop of $1.83 for every dollar spent for fertilizer.
On tomatoes the increase in value of the crop in Flor-
ida, for each dollar spent for fertilizer was estimated at
$3.09. The percentage of the total tomato crop pro-
duced by plant food is given at 45.2, which return is
worth $4,020,000, from the 34,230 tons of fertilizer used
at a cost of $1,301,000 to the Florida tomato growers.
On potatoes the increase in the crop, for which fer-
tilizer was responsible, was 49.9 per cent, valued at
$3,317,000 from 27,540 tons of fertilizer costing $1,-
102,000, with $3.01 increase in the value of the crop for
each dollar spent for fertilizer.
The percentage of the total yield produced by fer-
tilizer for other crops is given at 37.8 per cent and the
added value at $8,900,000, with an increase of $4.28 in
the average value of the crops for each dollar spent for
fertilizer. For other crops than citrus, corn, potatoes
and tomatoes, 60,510 tons of fertilizer were used, costing
Taking all crops considered, it was found that the
percentage of the total crop produced by fertilizer in
Florida was 40.5, with an added value of $38,502,000
from the use of 417,380 tons costing $15,748,000, and
returning $2.44 for each dollar spent for fertilizer.
Farmers' Own Estimates Used
The foregoing figures and conclusions are based on
Florida farmers' own estimates of the increase in yield
obtained by the use of fertilizer, the percentages of
acreages fertilized, the value of crops as reported by the
United States Department of Agriculture, the approxi-
mate quantities of fertilizer used on certain crops, an
estimate of the average price paid by farmers for fer-
tilizer on cotton as shown by figures of the United
States Department of Agriculture, and an estimate made
by the National Fertilizer Association on the average
price paid for fertilizer used on other crops.


(Tallahassee Daily Democrat, November 27, 1929)
Atlanta, Ga., Nov. 27.-(INS)-Formation of a $15,-
000,000 dairy interest to serve ten states in the south
became known here today with the announcement of the
merger of the Foremost Dairy Products, Inc., with the
Southwest Dairy Products Company.
The new concern will serve Georgia, the Carolinas,
Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas
and Missouri.
Negotiations for the merger had been under way for
some time in New York, and plans were announced com-
pleted today.

M. F. Bacon, retired capitalist of Detroit, Mich., called
on Capt. Fred Menge in Fort Myers the other day to
thank him for a shipment of papayas from the captain's
patch. The Fort Myers Press says Mr. Bacon has been
coming to Florida for the past fifteen years, and accredits
his hale and hearty old age to a steady diet of papaya
products. "Years ago the doctors gave me up for a bad
job and I went to Hawaii to die. Instead I discovered
papayas, and they cured me," Mr. Bacon told the Press.-
Florida Times-Union.



Lupfers Realize $1,610.75 from One Car of
Beans--Many Acres Planted to Truck and
Berries Throughout County

(Kissimmee Valley Gazette, November 21, 1929)
While agriculture, according to stories related by old-
timers in Osceola county, is not what it once was, the
decrease in acreage and production is no fault of either
the soil or climate, as is clearly shown by the results ob-
tained by those who farm and truck who are equipped
with money enough to procure the necessary fertilizer
and equipment and with experience enough to see that
both are used as they should be.
The Lupfers have 28 acres in north Kissimmee planted
to beans, peppers, cucumbers and potatoes. They have
already shipped two cars of beans and the returns from
one of the cars amounted to the neat sum of $1,610.75.
Returns have not been received on the second car of
beans shipped to the northern market, but as the market
is fairly steady, good returns are expected.
Whittmore & Fullam will begin picking beans from
their 20 acres, which is planted to beans, lettuce, endive,
celery, strawberries and tomatoes. This entire tract is
showing up well and will give good returns for the work
and money expended in its cultivation.
Cal Buckels has planted two acres to strawberries and
is giving the crop expert attention. Needless to say, his
returns will be large, as he is experienced in this work
and always enjoys the distinction of raising the largest
and best crop in this section.
Mrs. Annie O. Pledger has one of the finest truck
farms in this section, and strawberries raised by her have
received many prizes at county fairs and exhibits. She
has one and one-half acres planted to strawberries this
year and the crop is showing up fine. She is also exten-
sively engaged in growing paper white and Chinese Nar-
cissus bulbs and expects to get good returns from two
acres planted to cabbage.
Phillip Vergilio expects to harvest a fine crop from
his 20 acres planted to cabbage, and Joe Gerra has 30
acres planted to beans, English peas, peppers and Irish
potatoes. He already has shipped one car of beans, but
has not yet received returns from this shipment.
Wade Lanier has planted 4 acres to cabbage, eggplant,
peppers and strawberries. Mr. Lanier has had much ex-
perience in growing truck in Osceola county and this
year will, as in the past, be well repaid for his effort.
The Star Farm, formerly known as the Nave place,
is being operated by two energetic Chinamen, Rex
Bylew and Charlie Young. They have 14 acres of tiled
land planted to Chinese cabbage, Chinese turnips and
peas. This is one of the best improved truck farms in
this section and always returns large rewards for the
time and money expended in intensively cultivating the
crops planted. Another Chinaman, Mowchang, has 4
acres in cultivation. This tract is located near the mouth
of Shingle Creek and is planted to Chinese cabbage and
turnips and English peas.
The Partin settlement, located in one of the finest truck
sections in the entire state, is represented by Fred
Barclay, who has planted one acre to eggplant, and the
crop is showing up fine. Clay and Lawrence Partin and
Will Simmons are very popular people with the entire

neighborhood at the present time as they are grinding
ribbon cane from a 7-acre tract and expect soon to have
a big supply of genuine sugar cane syrup on hand.
P. H. Higley has two acres planted to strawberries in
the Campbells Station neighborhood while Horace Brown
and Dan Lanier have marketed a fine crop of cucumbers
from a 3-acre tract in the same section.
Will and Art Bronson have three acres planted to
peppers in the Shingle Creek neighborhood from which
they expect generous returns.
S. B. Aultman has 15 acres planted to beans, potatoes,
tomatoes and squash. L. H. Ingram is preparing to put
in 20 acres in potatoes.
And last, but not least, in beauty, anyway, Uncle
George Taylor exhibits with much justifiable pride, the
city lot next to the Fraternity building, which he is cul-
tivating and also using as a baby-sized chicken ranch.
He has converted an unsightly weed patch into one of
the finest and most productive home gardens imaginable.
It is well worth a visit-just call around and look it over.


(Ocala Star, November 29, 1929)
The Florida State Industrial School for Girls, located
near this city, was among the exhibitors at the fair,
having its booth in the individual farm exhibit building
and during the fair was in charge of the various mem-
bers of the staff of teachers.
On display was a collection of canned goods, about 65
jars of products, which included canned and preserved
vegetables and fruits put up by the inmates of the school.
The display was very good, although it was only a sample
of the work done, as a majority of the preserving and
canning is done in large containers, mostly for the use
of the institution.
There was also a display of sewing and some interest-
ing collections were made of the many kinds of stitches
and sewing which are taught. The samples were neatly
bound in cretonne covered books.
There was also a display of bread rolls, cakes and pies
and articles of clothing occupied one wall of the booth,
with an excellent display of fancy work articles, among
which were amusing toys and animals which the girls
have been making to send some younger members of
their family or a little friend.
There was also a display of school work, but on account
of the limited space a number of the articles for exhibit
were not shown.

Two rows of sweet potatoes, 110 steps long, produced
thirty-two and one-half bushels of fine tubers at Bronson
this season, according to the Journal of that city. One
hill, the product of which is now on exhibition in Bronson,
produced fifteen potatoes, which, when placed on a pair
of scales weighed ten pounds. These potatoes were pro-
duced by J. L. Horn. The land on which they were grown
is sandy loam and was not cow-penned, though a small
quantity of garden fertilizer was used on them. The
variety of the potatoes is the Golden Porto Rico. Pota-
toes are now selling at a dollar a bushel, and the two
rows, measuring 220 steps over all, would have brought
$32.50 had Mr. Horn sold them on the market. That
would figure up over $400 an acre.-Florida Times-



(Apopka Chief, November 28, 1929)
Florida, like other states, is beginning to realize the
vast importance of diversified agriculture. This is
brought about oftentimes by an outbreak of some pest
or some unstable condition arising. The cotton boll
weevil caused the cotton-growing south to realize the
importance of diversified farming. To an extent the
Med-fly situation has opened the eyes of the Florida
farmer to realize the necessity of a rounded out program
of agriculture in order to stabilize the agricultural in-
dustry of the Sunshine State. Other factors have played
their role in indicating an era of diversification.
What is diversified farming? Diversified farming is a
program of farming where the farmer has several
sources of income throughout the year, though the
sources individually may be on a small scale.
Is there any advantage in diversification? Yes, it will
avoid a complete failure for the year, since one crop or
enterprise may fail. Another is that the farmer's income
will be coming in at various times throughout the entire
year instead of in one sum. Too, diversification gives
a more even distribution of labor during the year.
Labor distribution is a big problem of the Florida farm
under the present system. The farmer has too much idle
time, or time in which he is not engaged in productive
labor. For example, the truck farmer has nothing to
do on the farm from June 1st to August 15th when he
starts preparation for fall truck. Diversification avoids
such a condition and at the same time brings an in-
creased income.
Is Florida a diversified agricultural state? We can
answer this by referring to statistics. According to the
Florida Marketing Bureau in the year 1928, Florida's in-
come from agricultural products was approximately
$137,000,000, but the same year Florida paid out ap-
proximately $121,000,000 for agricultural products such
as: Meats, dairy products, poultry, feed stuff of various
kinds, etc. Does this not indicate a great need for in-
creasing the scope of Florida agriculture?
The major agricultural enterprises of the state at
present are citrus, truck and lumber, with minor enter-
prises, such as cotton, livestock, poultry and ornamentals.
In order for Florida to decrease her enormous output
for agricultural products, she must develop her minor
enterprises to rank with the major ones and add other
minor enterprises.
Indeed, Florida is capable of diversifying its agricul-
ture. Florida climate affords a longer growing season
than other states. It has a sufficient rainfall to produce
most any crop. Our soils are adaptable to a large num-
ber of crops. Florida has no more crop or animal pests
than other sections. Through the efforts of the cattle
tick eradication campaign of the state, beef and dairy
animals can be produced profitably. Florida has no pest
but what has a control and natural enemies.
Florida must produce more beef, hogs, dairy products,
poultry, cotton, corn, pasture, hay, etc. The goal of the
diversification of Florida agriculture can only be reached
through the cooperative efforts of the Department of
Agriculture, Experiment Station, County Agents, Voca-
tional Agricultural Teachers, other agricultural agents,
farmers, and the business men of Florida.
There isn't a community in the state that needs diver-
sification more than Apopka. We all know that business
and progress in our community now depends largely upon

the citrus and fern enterprises. Each of these, has been
crippled with the Med-fly situation and an overproduc-
tion, respectively. Shall we introduce new enterprises
to replace our present ones? No, but introduce others
to supplement the present ones. How many of us realize
that a very small percentage of the farms of this section
have more than one source of income, a flock of poultry,
milk cow, or a home garden? Perhaps the milk cow, the
poultry, or home garden on your farm is a nucleus for
What can the community of Apopka do to diversify
its agriculture? These are possibilities: The growing of
poultry, cotton, strawberries, corn, livestock, truck,
various ornamentals, etc. Questions we must consider in
this matter are adaptability, profitability of crops and
then the establishment of a market for the commodities.
For the solution of these problems let me refer you to
that of the state, namely, cooperative effort. Let's strive
for diversification.
Farmers and citizens of Apopka, to this end I am at
your service in every way possible.
C. B. ROSS, Jr.,
Vocational Agricultural Instructor.
Apopka, November 26.


(Tampa Times, November 27, 1929)
Announcement of the purchase by Foremost Dairy
Products, Inc., a branch of which is operated here by
the Tampa stock farms, of the Southwest Dairy Products
Company in a deal involving $15,000,000 was announced
in New York yesterday by Burdette G. Lewis, president
of the Foremost organization.
The Foremost Dairy Products Company, through the
acquisition of the Southwest Company, becomes the
largest dairy organization in the United States south of
the Mason and Dixon line with activities covering Vir-
ginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida,
Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Okla-
homa and extending into Missouri where the Southwest
organization operates one of the largest dairies in the
J. C. Penney, founder of the J. C. Penney Company,
and a leading figure in southern agricultural circles, con-
tinues as chairman of the board of the enlarged Fore-
most group.
The newly announced consolidation is in line with
statements made by Mr. Penney during a recent trip
through the south when he spoke at several leading
centers on dairying and its relation to southern pros-
In one of his addresses he said: "There is a $300,-
000,000 undeveloped dairy potential in the south alone.
The activities of the Foremost Dairy Products organiza-
tion will be devoted to the development of this potential
source of income."
August Van Eepoel, Jr., is manager of the Foremost
branch here, which has an average yearly output of milk
and milk products amounting to $600,000.
Mr. Van Eepoel and his father, August Van Eepoel,
Sr., a member of the advisory board, who have known
of the negotiations for some time, said they were con-
fident the purchase would mean much to the Tampa com-
pany. They invited the public to inspect their modern
and up-to-date plant.



This Industry, Although Very Young, Has
Proven Profitable to Those Who Have
Tried It Out

(Nassau County Leader, November 29, 1929)
Mr. F. W. Sadler, of this city, is arranging to plant
2,000 acres of land in Tung oil trees. He is now having
the trees raised for the project. Mr. Sadler has nine
other parties interested. The trees are to be planted on
Amelia Island, Nassau county, Florida.
The Tung tree originally grew in China and has been
in use there for many years. Chinese lacquer is known
the world over for its brilliancy and durability and it has
just been found that Tung oil is that oil used in the
making of the lacquer; this fact has not been known
generally until lately. Tung oil has many uses and is
indispensable in the making of varnishes; it is also used
in the making of oil cloth and linoleum.
Approximately $20,000,000 worth of Tung oil is
shipped into the United States annually, and up until
recently it has all been imported from China. Florida
has taken up the raising of these trees in recent years
and now has the greatest acreage in the United States.
The majority of it is raised near Gainesville under the
management of Mr. B. F. Williamson, of Gainesville,
Florida. It is one of the biggest coming industries in this
country and one that should be promoted with great
Every man that plants a Tung tree is planting him-
self, so to speak, a little oil well, only this is an oil well
that he doesn't have to gamble on, it is a sure thing and
it is a branch in the cultivation of trees that will grow
and will demand a large market. This we know is true
when we think of what is imported into this country
yearly from just China alone, because it amounts to
several millions.
There is an average income of $60.00 per acre where
60 of these trees are planted to the acre, because sixty
trees produce on an average of 400 pounds annually at
the average price of 15 cents per pound. The quality of
oil gotten from the Tung oil seed is better than that
gotten from cotton seed, but the public must be warned
that the fruit from the Tung tree is deadly poisonous and
must not be eaten.
The tree gets its name from the shape of its leaf,
because "Tung" is the Chinese word for heart, and the
leaf is heart-shaped. The tree when in blossom in the
spring of the year resembles the dogwood tree and is be-
decked in white and pink flowers.
During this season thousands of trees will be planted
in this state as well as all over the south and in a few
years the importation from China will be much decreased
and the cotton and peanut oil mills will have changed
their equipment to accommodate the Tung nut as well.


(Tropical Sun, November 29, 1929)
The sale of another purebred Hereford bull has just
been announced by the Florida College of Agriculture.
The sale was made to H. A. Wilson, a well known farmer
and merchant of Lake City. Five other purebred beef
bulls have already been sold during the past year; one

Aberdeen Angus to Columbia county, two Angus to
Manatee county, and a Hereford to each Alachua and
Marion counties.
These bulls came from some of the best breeding to
be found in the south, according to Professor C. H.
Willoughby, animal husbandry professor at the College
of Agriculture, and in a few years will have a marked
beneficial effect on improving the beef industry in Florida.


State Well Fitted for Industry, Says Knapp

(Tallahassee Daily Democrat, December 1, 1929)
"Florida has an opportunity to develop a profitable
sheep industry, especially in the counties where land is
rolling and in the dry sand-hill sections," says Dr. J. V.
Knapp, State Veterinarian. North Florida has open
ranges with water, a good climate, and is free from sheep
scab which is a great problem in most sheep grazing
Because of its texture and quality, Florida wool has
been known to sell at a premium over wool produced in
other sections of the country generally considered more
adaptable to sheep raising. Approximately 90,000 sheep
are in North Florida, averaging between 7,000 and 12,000
sheep per county west of Madison county. Wool and
lambs from a flock of 300 bring more than $100 profit
each month to one Tallahassee sheep owner.
That Florida is free from sheep scab is due probably
to the fact that Florida is not an importer of sheep, but
maintains its own supply. The original stock is from the
old Dorset sheep which were among the first brought to
the United States and which are well adapted to this
Most of the several thousand goats raised in each of
the western counties are shipped to eastern markets be-
tween Christmas and Easter, as kid meat is highly prized
by many foreigners. Solid car shipments are sent from
this state.
"The veterinarians employed by the State Live Stock
Sanitary Board, which are stationed in various counties,
are glad to assist any sheep owner in the administra-
tion of medicine for the internal parasites which are re-
sponsible for the greatest loss among sheep and goats,"
Dr. Knapp says.


(Ft. Pierce News-Tribune, November 21, 1929)
Negotiations for the construction and lease. of two
additional shrimp packing houses will probably be com-
pleted within the next few days between the Fort Pierce
Port Corporation and the operators of two large shrimp-
ing fleets, it was announced this afternoon.
Applications for construction and lease of the build-
ings were received by the Port Corporation today and
the applicants are coming to close up the deal.
A large double packing house to serve two operators
is now under construction immediately west of the houses
erected last year along the causeway bridge.
All indications are that the coming season's local
shrimping fleet will be by far the largest ever operating
here. The season is expected to open within the next
few weeks.



(Ft. Myers Tropical News, November 24, 1929)
In the first week of the winter vegetable shipping
season Lee county growers have sent more than $20,000
worth of their new truck crops to market, packing house
officials and buyers estimated yesterday. Counting ex-
press shipments the movement for the week totaled
about 12 carloads and the average car was estimated to
be worth $1,800 f. o. b. Fort Myers.
The Geraci Packing Company led with seven carloads
of cucumbers, eggplant and peppers. J. G. Preston,
buyer, said prices continued to be "very good" and pre-
dicted that the movement would be heavy next week.
Other carload shippers were the Lee County Coopera-
tive Growers, Elmo Ballard and Leonard Santini, Smith-
Padgett and Biggar & Biggar.
Cucumbers have formed the bulk of the shipments to
date. The movement is later than it was last year, but
the returns to the growers are much more satisfactory.


Twenty-two Purebred Bulls Added to Cattle

(Suwannee Democrat, November 29, 1929)
If Suwannee county has a right to feel proud over
one thing more than another it is cattle. Beef cattle
and dairy cattle are among her prize winners. An inter-
view with Dr. Brinkman, government veterinary, work-
ing in conjunction with State Live Stock Sanitary Board,
is proving this right along.
Under the direction of this able veterinarian all the
counties west of the Suwannee river have been cleared
of ticks, and according to his further statement on the
first of December Suwannee will be so declared along
with Columbia, Union and Baker. This would have been
done some time ago but for the fact that the government
now makes this release but once a year, and December
first is that time.
Soon the government officials will enter Levy, Gil-
christ, Bradford, Clay, Duval and Nassau for the purpose
of tick eradication, and as fast as work can be accom-
plished, eradication will be pushed to an ultimate end,
which will mean Florida is clear of the awful tick.
So much for that. This article is intended to touch
more definitelyupon cattle raising in Suwannee, but the
above is good information and we wanted you to have it.
At the present time Suwannee can claim upwards of
14,000 head of cattle, from the report of Dr. Brinkman,
all in good condition.
It is the purpose of those engaged in the tick eradica-
tion to go further, and to that end, Dr. Brinkman, who
has just returned from a trip to Tennessee, in company
with Mr. Dan Hughes, of Ponce De Leon, Holmes county,
who is deeply interested in producing high bred cattle.
These gentlemen purchased close to two cars of pure-
bred bulls of the shorthorn and Angus breeds, which will
arrive here in a few days. This lot will contain 11 bulls
for this county, Mr. C. W. DeLong receiving four Here-
ford bulls, C. T. Baisden receiving one pure-bred short-
horn cow, with calf at side, and one pure-bred short-horn
bull, thus making up the shipment of eleven.
In another issue we are going to give the official state-
ment as published by Dr. Brinkman, also another state-

ment which is going to prove of interest to the cattle
raisers, hence we advise cattle raisers to keep an eye
upon the Democrat, for let us tell you we are interested
in the development of the cattle industry in this county,
and you are going to get all the information at our com-
Summing up the situation Dr. Brinkman states that
there are now on the ranges of Suwannee county 21
pure-bred bulls, and as time goes on more will be added.
Just in closing let us say we have interviewed the banks
on the subject of more and better cattle in Suwannee
and they stand ready to finance the enterprise when a
man shows the capability of carrying on. In our mind
that is a long step toward the ultimate building up of an
industry that will certainly mean big money for the cattle
raisers of this county. Then, too, the Democrat is ready
to lend a hand on all occasions, and would invite the
cattle raisers to send in correspondence along that line,
that we might be able to spread whatever good news
we can to those interested. We must build up a cattle


(Polk County Record, November 26, 1929)
The grapefruit canning factory of the Hills Brothers,
on West Main street, will open again Friday morning,
and full crew is wanted by the management.
The factory was opened for a week or two earlier in
the season, but was forced to suspend because of in-
ability to secure a supply of fruit to keep it going steadily.
It is believed now, that fruit will "be had in quantities,
which will make possible the continuous operation of the
plant until the close of the shipping season next spring.
Owing to the scarcity of the fruit, this year, the can-
neries are paying the highest prices ever paid since the
discovery of the processes which make grapefruit canning
possible. This redounds to the benefit of the growers,
it is said, and adds to the profits of the groves. In the
meantime, the pay roll of the cannery adds to the profits
of the merchants of the community.


(Sarasota Herald, November 26, 1929)
Fort Myers, Nov. 24.-(Special)--The first two car-
loads of cucumbers shipped this week by the Geraci
Packing Company brought $4.25 per crate f. o. b. Fort
Myers, is was reported. The price dropped to $4 per
crate later when four additional carloads were dispatched
to vegetable markets in eastern and midwest cities.
Four local packing houses shipped a total of 12 car-
loads of Lee county vegetables during the first week of
the 1929-30 trucking season. The largest share of the
movement was cukes from the farming sections close to
Fort Myers. Last year at this date the farmers had
already survived a light frost and had dispatched 10 car-
loads of green truck. Lee county has more than 800
acres planted to truck crops this season.

Approximately $4,000,000 of Miami Beach real estate
transactions handled since the first of the year by Miami
Beach First National Bank have been cash, according to
F. W. Lowry, vice-president.



(Perry Herald, November 28, 1929)
Lake .City.-According to a statement given by Mr.
T. W. Karstedt, secretary of the Chamber of Commerce,
W. C. Burch, tobacco specialist, has booked 85 acres for
tobacco in this county next year, to be grown by farmers
who have never before grown tobacco. This will mean
the installation of 17 new barns to take care of the addi-
tional acreage secured.
This addition of 85 acres for farmers who have not
heretofore planted tobacco will mean that approximately
600 acres of tobacco will be grown in this county next
Mr. Burch is a specialist in the tobacco work, and
interested parties now have the privilege of growing their
tobacco under expert supervision by a man who has made
a success of growing bright leaf tobacco.
Mr. Burch's office will be located in the Chamber of
Commerce room, and all who are interested should visit
and interview him there.


J. A. Bistline Reveals Interesting Facts About
His Industry

(Sanford Herald, November 23, 1929)
Within the bounds of Seminole county there exists an
industry which is internationally known as one of the
foremost shippers and producers of pigeons and highly
rated game cocks in the United States. The Longwood
Squab Farm, located near Longwood, about 10 miles
south of here, is owned by J. A. Bistline, who disclosed
interesting facts concerning the growth of that particu-
lar business to the Herald this morning.
"The climate of this state is better than that of the
northern section of the country for the production of
fowls," Mr. Bistline stated, "as the year-round sunshine
and the warm winters here offer a better chance for the
birds to exist in the open. This results in larger growth
and better colors."
Mr. Bistline further made it known that his farm
ships, each year, large numbers of pigeons to the northern
states, explaining that this particular fowl is classed
highly in that section as table delicacy, and that at the
present time the people of Florida have only recently be-
gun to appreciate its real value. His farm has at all
times approximately 2,400 of these birds in stock, he
On visiting the farm, one will likely marvel at the
number and arrangement of the birds in the different
cages, each pen containing a different type of pigeon.
There are about 40 or 50 such cages on the farm, each
containing about 50 birds.
While the pigeons are raised as a food, the game cocks
and hens, known as "Bistline's Silver Wyandottes," are
shipped to shows and exhibitions as fancy breeds of stock,
the owner further stated, saying that last October at
several exhibitions his stock was awarded the highest
honors. In the St. Louis National Club meet his cocks
took first, second, third and fourth places; cock birds,
third and fourth places; cockerels, male birds under one
year old, first place. His farm also won the prize for
having the best display of all breeds competing, he said.
Each year, Mr. Bistline explained, the farm raises

about 1,000 fowls, consisting of game cocks, cockerels,
and pullets, to be shipped to points all over the United
States and in foreign countries. He said that last year
he shipped several birds to South Africa, to be entered
in a show; others to South America, and at present he
has an order for a shipment for Australia.
From time to time breeders from other parts of the
country have bought birds from the farm in Longwood
to be entered in exhibitions, according to the breeder of
birds, saying that at present he was holding four birds
for a Chicago firm, to be entered in the Coliseum show;
five for the Madison Square Garden event, and two for
another firm to be entered in the Pacific Coast meet.
Mr. Bistline said that he has been operating his squab
farm for the past 18 years, and has experienced a steady
growth of business.
The farm is about 20 acres* in size and is situated on
the short-cut running from the new Orlando Highway to


(Gadsden County Herald, November 22, 1929)
While there has been no appreciable increase in the
acreage of farm products in Gadsden county this year,
the yield of corn, peanuts, sweet potatoes and other
articles of food, the yield per acre has been wonderful.
The season for the growing of sweet potatoes has been
all that nature could provide. It requires a great deal of
moisture to produce the sweet potato successfully and
showers fell at the right time the past summer. There
are many acres planted to sweet potatoes in Gadsden
county this year that will yield from two to three hun-
dred bushels per acre.
The yield of corn surpasses any record of past years,
and on many farms storage has been a difficult problem
to solve. The peanut crop is unexcelled, and while it has
not been made a strictly commercial farm product in this
county there will be several thousand bushels placed on
the market. Peanuts have been used in the past years for
fattening hogs, but this year there are more peanuts
than hogs and the excess yield will probably be disposed
of for other purposes.
The manufacture of syrup from sugar cane is now
in process and the yield of juice from the stalk is said
tt be splendid. Disappointment in the cane crop is not
expected. The market price for syrup is equal to that
of last year and a profit to the producer is assured.
The market price for hogs is a disappointment to the
raiser and leaves him only a small margin of profit for
his livestock, if there is not an upward turn in the market
before the close of the present selling season.
"It is an easy matter to produce," said a gentleman
in speaking of Gadsden county's splendid farm yield this
year, "but finding buyers is often a difficult task. It is
not necessary to instruct the farmer as to what to plant,
how to cultivate and how to harvest, but he wants to
know how to sell and when to sell to the best advantage.
Acquaint the farmer with the best method of disposal
of his products and he will do the other things necessary
to create prosperity."

Thousands of pounds of the small new potatoes usually
a total loss to the potato growers are now canned at
Bunnell by the Southern Potato Products Company. A
ready market is waiting for all that can be produced.



(Okaloosa Messenger, November 21, 1929)
The cooperative beef cattle sale held at Crestview on
October 28th was quite a success in every way. Six beef
cattle producers of the county entered cattle in the sale
to make a carload of a total of 54 head. The sale was
conducted under the supervision of Mr. L. H. Lewis, live-
stock marketing expert of the State Marketing Bureau,
and County Agent Malone. The cattle were bought by
Swift & Company of Moultrie, Ga.
Cooperative marketing is coming into its own in Oka-
loosa. Neither of the six men who entered cows in the
sale were in position to load a car. Collectively, they
loaded a car with ease. A similar sale is to be held about
the 15th of December.


Spirited Rivalry on Between U. S. and Foreign

(Winter Haven Chief, November 26, 1929)
Tallahassee, Nov. 26.-(A. P.)-Increasing competi-
tion between American and foreign producers of winter
vegetables to satisfy the greatly enlarged demands of
American consumers in recent years is reported by the
Bureau of Agricultural Economics, U. S. Department of
Among the vegetables referred to by the Bureau are
tomatoes, green peas, peppers, potatoes and celery, the
east coast of Florida being mentioned as one of the Amer-
ican areas in competition with foreign sources of winter
Imports of winter vegetables from the Mexcian west
coast, Cuba, Bermuda and the Bahamas amounted to
approximately 161,000,000 pounds in 1928-29 from No-
vember 1 to June 30, as compared with 125,000,000
pounds in 1925-26, the Bureau reported. Tomatoes, it
was stated, have been the most important item in the
winter vegetable imports, an average of more than
110,000,000 pounds of that vegetable having been im-
ported per year in the last three years.
Most of the tomatoes come from the Mexican west
coast and compete with the American product mainly in
the central and western markets, although large quanti-
ties are shipped also to eastern markets, the report added.
The Bureau said imports of green peas have increased
in the last three seasons, practically all shipments coming
from the Mexican west coast and aggregating more than
19,000,000 pounds last season. Mexico and Cuba ship
practically all of the green peppers imported into the
United States in the winter months. Most of the celery
comes from Bermuda in March, April, May and June, and
shipments from there in 1928-29 aggregated 4,500,000
pounds, the yearly average for the three years, 1926-27,
1927-28 and 1928-29 being 3,800,000 pounds. An in-
creasing import trade in early potatoes from Cuba and
Bermuda is reported, the imports in the last three sea-
sons having averaged 10,843,000 pounds, or about
181,000 bushels per year.
In addition to Florida as an American area competing
with foreign sources of winter vegetables, the Bureau
listed the lower Rio Grande Valley, in Texas, and the
Imperial Valley in California, which it was stated, have
become important in production of winter vegetables as
a result of improvement of transportation and refrigera-

tion and increase in consumer demand in recent years.
The shipping seasons of the Mexican west coast, Cuba,
Bermuda and Bahama coincide with those of the Amer-
ican areas, but movement in volume from the foreign
sources begins somewhat earlier than from the domestic
areas, it was stated.


Land Purchased Near Brooksville for Setting
Out Trees

(Plant City Enterprise, November 26, 1929)
Brooksville, Nov. 25.-In a deal closed last week, the
Florida Tung Oil Corporation of St. Petersburg pur-
chased 2,500 acres of Hernando county land near Brooks-
ville, part of which will be planted immediately in tung
trees. J. B. Thomas of St. Petersburg is secretary-
treasurer of the corporation.
This tract is at Lake Lindsay, five mlies north of
Brooksville, and tung trees will be set out on it in Jan-
uary, February and March, when the trees are dormant.
The young trees will be supplied from the company's
nursery at Lake Lindsay.
The purchase of the Lake Lindsay tract follows closely
on the heels of a deal recently completed in which the
Florida West Coast Tung Oil Company of Sebring pur-
chased 4,400 acres in this county, 1,240 acres of which
are at Garden Grove and Masarykton on state road No. 5,
six miles south of Brooksville on the road to Tampa.
The other 2,300 acres are in the western section of the
The Florida Tung Oil Corporation some time ago pur-
chased land at Lake Lindsay, starting a tung nursery.
With trees from this, a 250-acre tract at Bell, Gilchrist
county, was set out. Although these trees are less than
two years old, some of them are said to be 10 feet high.
The officers of the corporation are: George A. Tuckey,
president, Springfield, Mass.; George T. Lemelin, vice-
president, also of Springfield, and Mr. Thomas, secretary-
treasurer. Mr. Tuckey expects to move to St. Petersburg
this winter. Lemelin is an officer in the United States
Envelope Company of Springfield. Directors of the cor-
poration are: H. J. Felix, Springfield; Judge Atkins,
Trenton; C. Gay, Trenton; Dr. I. P. Philpot, Bell, and
other officers named.

West Florida is receiving a couple of carloads of pure-
bred cattle from Tennessee upon which will be built
better herds in that part of the state. Florida is greatly
improving its herds and increasing its income from this
feature of agriculture.-Plant City Courier.


(Florida Times-Union, November 27, 1929)
Crawfordville, Nov. 26.-A 50,000-egg capacity incu-
bator will be installed at once in this county near Sop-
choppy, according to J. Henry Myers, who has just pur-
chased $250,000 worth of land in that section, with the
announced intention of developing a large number of
small poultry farms.
The hatchery will be built primarily to serve the poul-
try colonists who are to be located on the lands which
will be cut up into ten acre tracts, but commercial hatch-
ing will also be a regular feature.



Tomatoes, Potatoes and Beans Comprise Bulk
of Winter Planting

(Ft. Pierce News-Tribune, November 22, 1929)
St. Lucie county's winter truck crop, exclusive of addi-
tional spring acreage, will exceed 2,000 acres in extent,
according to figures compiled by County Agent Alfred
Warren during the course of a personal survey, stated
today. This will considerably exceed last winter's acre-
age, it was stated.
Tomatoes, potatoes and beans in the order named will
constitute the bulk of the acreage, with cucumbers,
peppers, eggplant, strawberries and squash following in
order. Except for tomatoes, practically the entire acre-
age has been or is now being planted. Planting of the
tomato crop will get under way the latter part of Decem-
ber, although there are a few small patches already in
and some fruit even approaching maturity.
The acreage figures as compiled by the county agent
are: Tomatoes, 916; potatoes, 600; beans, 237; cucum-
bers, 93; peppers, 57; eggplant, 29; strawberries, 25;
squash, 18; miscellaneous, 32; total, 2,007.
Crops are said to be in good condition throughout the
county, with an excellent yield indicated if weather con-
ditions continue favorable. Shipment of a number of
products should get under way within the next few weeks.
This season's strawberry acreage, while not large as
compared with that in sections where the crop is grown
extensively, shows a decided increase over previous sea-
sons. Berries will begin coming in very shortly from
some of the fields.
Indications are that a good spring acreage will also
be planted in watermelons and other favored spring crops.


Florida Looks Toward Considerable Production
of Plants

(Sanford Herald, November 15, 1929)
Jacksonville, Nov. 15.-It will be of interest to
Floridians who, as a result of the successful experiments
conducted in the growing of tung trees and the produc-
tion of tung oil in the past few years, can now look
forward with confidence to a considerable production of
tung oil locally within a short period of years, to learn
that the British Government is actively engaged in the
conducting of experiments for the cultivation of tung
oil trees in a number of British colonies. This informa-
tion was received by the Jacksonville district office of
the United States Department of Commerce from its
chemical division at Washington.
This report further states that Ceylon was selected as
one of the experimental locations and under the super-
vision of the Department of Agriculture (British), tung
oil trees have been growing there for the past two or
three years. So far, the experiments have not been par-
ticularly successful on account of climatic conditions.
At the experimental station of Kakgala, plantings failed
to survive the high winds of the southwest monsoon.
Progress made in the growing of trees at Peradeniya and
Heneratgoda Gardens has likewise been unsatisfactory.
Seedlings of the Aleurites Fordii, planted in 1929, are at

present only two feet high, while the species Aleurites
Montana has grown to a height of ten to twelve feet,
but the trees are not considered healthy and robust.
Seeds have been distributed to different sections of the
country, and it is reported that at Etnawala, Ambepuss,
plantings of the Aleurites Fordii in dry soil on an open
hillside are doing well.
The Island of Ceylon, which lies just off the southern
end of India, is about the same size as West Virginia,
and is a British Crown Colony. The climate is tropical.
The mean temperature in the low country is 80 degrees.
The mean humidity is 76 degrees. Rainfall averages
about 80 inches per year. In the interior are mountains
rising to a height of 8,200 feet, where the average tem-
perature is about 60 degrees.


Peanut Shelling Concern Turning Out Carload
Peanuts a Day and Employing Large Force

(Lake City Reporter, November 29, 1929)
Branford, Nov. 26.-The recently organized Branford
Peanut Shelling Company has opened a plant here, giv-
ing employment to 30 workers. The machinery for
shelling peanuts is said to be highly efficient and turns
out 1,400 pounds of nuts from a ton of nuts in the hulls.
The company owning this business has a large ware-
house with a capacity of 500 tons. All peanuts stored
in this warehouse are bonded by the federal government,
which will enable owners to borrow money from banks
based on official receipts showing the value of the por-
tion of their crop which they have on hand at the ware-
From the warehouse building, a conveyor carries the
peanuts into the shelling plant. They first pass over a
"jigger" which serves to grade them and carries off the
trash. The nuts are then raised to the third floor by
means of a strong air suction pipe and there they enter
the machine which tears off the shells. Sliding down a
chute is done and husks practically eliminated. The nuts
are then conveyed on long belts passed over two sorting
tables, where are seated women who pick out the split
The nuts are then run into shipping bags, weighed up
and made ready for tiuck delivery to the wharves at
Jacksonville, where ships take them to northern markets.
The husks and other waste are blown through a pipe to
the boilers of the plant, where they serve as ample fuel
for the power necessary in operating the machinery.
This company was organized during the spring and
summer months and does credit to Branford and all of
Suwannee county. Out of $30,000 authorized capital,
more than $15,000 has been paid in, and most of this
amount has come from Branford. The officers of the
company are: C. F. Mizell, president; W. F. Howell, vice-
president, and R. E. Kemp, secretary and treasurer.
The Branford Peanuts Shelling Company anticipates a
capacity production of a carload of shelled nuts daily,
at which time 10 or 12 men and 40 women will be worked
every day. A survey of this immediate territory shows
there are about 3,000 tons in the crop this year. The
prices offered at Branford are as good as will be found
on any market, and now dealing with a number of grow-
ers in Marion county, hoping to secure their crops for
the Branford plant.

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