U. S,Dept. of Agricultrse,
PUBLISHED SEMI-MONTHLY BY
BUREAU OF IMMIGRATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
NOVEMBER 18, 1929
THE SUN AS THE SOURCE OF EARTHLY FORCES
By JOHN TYNDALL
S SURELY as the force which moves a
clock's hands is derived from the arm
which winds up the clock, so surely is
all terrestrial power drawn from the sun.
Leaving out of account the eruptions of vol-
canoes, and the ebb and flow of the tides, every
mechanical action on the earth's surface, every
manifestation of power, organic and inorganic,
vital and physical, is produced by the sun. His
warmth keeps the sea liquid and the atmos-
phere a gas, and all the storms which agitate
both are blown by the mechanical force of the
sun. He lifts the rivers and the glaciers up to
the mountains; and thus the cataract and the
avalanche shoot with an energy derived imme-
diately from him. Thunder and lightning are
also his transmitted strength. Every fire that
burns and every flame that glows dispenses
light and heat which originally belonged to the
sun. In these days, unhappily, the news of
battle is familiar to us, but every shock, and
every charge, is an application, or misapplica-
tion, of the mechanical force of the sun. He
blows the trumpet, he urges the projectile, he
bursts the bomb. And remember, this is not
poety, but rigid mechanical truth. He rears, as
I have said, the whole vegetable world, and
through it the animal; the lilies of the field are
his workmanship, the verdure of the meadows,
and the cattle upon a thousand hills. He forms
the muscle, he urges the blood, he builds the
brain. His fleetness is in the lion's foot; he
springs in the panther; he soars in the eagle; he
slides in the snake. He builds the forest and
hews it down, the power which raised the tree,
and which wields the ax, being one and the
same. The clover sprouts and blossoms, and
the scythe of the mower swings, by the opera-
tion of the same force. The sun digs the ore
from our mines; he rolls the iron; he rivets the
plates; he boils the water; he draws the train.
He not only grows the cotton, but he spins the
fibre and weaves the web. There is not a ham-
mer raised, a wheel turned, or a shuttle thrown,
that is not raised, and turned, and thrown by
the sun. His energy is poured freely into space,
but our world is a halting place where this
energy is conditioned. Here the Proteus works
his spells; the self-same essence takes a million
shapes and hues, and finally dissolves into its
primitive and almost formless form. The sun
comes to us as heat; he quits us as heat; and
between his entrance and departure the multi-
form powers of our globe appear. They are all
special forms of solar power-the molds into
which his strength is temporarily poured, in
passing from its source through infinitude.
Presented rightly to the mind, the discoveries
and generalizations of modern science consti-
tute a poem more sublime than has ever yet
been addressed to the intellect and imagination
of man. The natural philosopher of today may
dwell amid conceptions which beggar those of
Milton. So great and grand are they, that, in
the contemplation of them, a certain force of
character is requisite to preserve us from be-
wilderment. Look at the integrated energies of
our world-the stored power of our coal fields;
our winds and rivers; our fleets, armies and
guns. What are they? They are all generated
by a portion of the sun's energy, which does not
amount to an infinitesimal part of the whole.
Multiplying our powers by million or millions,
we do not reach the sun's expenditure. And
still, notwithstanding this enormous drain, in
the lapse of human history we are unable to
detect a diminution of his store. Measured by
our largest terrestrial standards, such a reser-
voir of power is infinite; but it is our privilege
to rise above these standards and to regard the
sun himself as a speck in infinite extension-a
mere drop in the universal sea. We analyze
the space in which he is immersed, and which
is the vehicle of his power. We pass to other
2 FLORIDA REVIEW
systems and other suns, each pouring forth
energy like our own, but still without infringe-
ment of the law, which reveals immutability in
the midst of change, which recognizes incessant
transference and conversion, but neither final
gain nor loss. This law generalizes the apho-
rism of Solomon, that there is nothing new
under the sun, by teaching us to detect every-
where, under its infinite variety of appearances,
the same primeval force. To Nature nothing
can be added; from Nature nothing can be
taken away; the sum of her energies is con-
stant, and the utmost man can do in the pur-
suit of physical truth, or in the application of
physical knowledge, is to shift the constituents
of the never-varying total, and out of one of
them to form another. The law of conversion
rigidly excludes both creation and annihilation.
Waves may change to ripples, and ripples to
waves-magnitude may be substituted for num-
ber, and number for magnitude,-asteroids may
aggregate to suns, suns may resolve themselves
into florae, and faunae, and florae and faunae
melt in air-the flux of power is eternally the
same. It rolls in music through the ages, and
all terrestrial energy, the manifestations of life
as well as the display of phenomena, are but
the modulations of its rhythm.-From "Heat as
a Mode of Motion."
The preceding article is an epic, an exalted
panegyric, on the rays of the sun. It is an
example of how readable a gifted scientist can
make prosaic facts.
The value of the sun's rays on plants and
animals has long been recognized. The partic-
ular effect of rays coming through a medium
like ordinary glass, through foggy atmosphere,
coming direct or by deflection, coming at long
intervals and at an oblique angle, as in the
Artic Circle, or perpendicularly, as in the
tropics, is just being worked out by scientists.
It has been noted that rickets occur more fre-
quently in northern than in southern climates,
also more often in winter and spring than in
summer and fall. It is known that the greater
length of time the sun has unobstructed access
to plants the greater the influence on the plant,
giving it more stability and storing elements in
it by the same process that determines the in-
tensity of the coloring. The more sun rays we
can get stored in our food the better.
Vegetables grown in Florida in the fall and
winter months have more of the effects of sun
rays than those grown anywhere else in the
United States during the same months.
The soil needs some two dozen elements to
properly feed plant life and give it all the
chemical reaction it should have under the
alchemic force of the sun's rays. These min-
erals are unevenly distributed over the earth.
Florida has in some sections more calcium than
the average soils. This is as necessary as any
other mineral known. Iodine can be introduced
in any soil. But, aside from all this, the effect
of the sun's rays on plants in the process of
taking in carbonic acid gas from the air and
transforming it in the leaves and fruit of plants
is a great field for scientific investigation. The
mineral constituents in the plant respond to the
rays in different ways and the food quality is
The long days in the winter and the short
days in the summer make for the evenness of
the Florida climate. It also affects the physical
organism of plant life, of human food and the
Florida has more sunshine in winter and less
in summer than the northern states. In Florida
the shortest day in the year is only about three
hours shorter than the longest day, but along
the northern border of the United States there
is a difference of nearly eight hours. This, in
part, accounts for the mildness of Florida
winters and the coolness of Florida summers.
The Gulf Stream brushes the southeastern
shore of the State and also modifies the climate.
It lies between 240 30' and 31 North lati-
tude, and 790 48' and 870 38' West longitude.
It has a thousand miles of coast line.
Its rainfall is fifty-six inches-nearly five feet.
Its elevation is from tidewater to over three
Its mean annual temperature is from 68.80 to
Its highest temperature for thirty years was
Its lowest was 0.20, 1899, at Tallahassee.
Florida is in the same isothermal zone as the
Madeira Islands, southern Spain, Sicily, Egypt,
southern Palestine, northern Arabia, northern
India, southern China, the Hawaiian Islands,
northern Mexico, southern California, southern
Arizona, southern New Mexico, southern Texas,
and southern Louisiana.
Florida is the land of romance, legend, song
and story, from "Way Down Upon the Suwan-
nee River" to "The over-sea route along the
keys," and from Perdido's bordered valley to
St. Augustine's templed shrines.
It is bathed in the passionate caresses of the
southern sun, laved by the limpid waves of the
embracing seas, wooed by the glorious Gulf
FLORIDA REVIEW 3
Published Semi-Monthly by
Bureau of Immigration, Department of Agriculture
NATHAN MAYO ............. Commissioner of Agriculture
T. J. BROOKS ......... Asst. Commissioner of Agriculture
Entered as second-class matter, June 25, 1926, at the Post Office
at Tallahassee, Florida, under the Act of June 6, 1920.
Will be mailed free to anyone upon request.
NOVEMBER 18, 1929
Stream, whose waters, warmed by the tropical
sun, speed northeastward to temper the climate
An emerald kingdom by southern seas,
fanned by zephyrs laden with ozone from
stately pines, watered by Lethe's copious liba-
tion, decked with palm and pine, flower and
fern, clothed in perpetual verdure and lapt in
the gorgeous folds of the semitropical zone.
-T. J. B.
RECORDS INDICATE BIG WINTER SEASON
Check Kept by Guards on Quarantine Line Very
(Vero Beach Journal, October 22, 1929)
Orlando, Fla., Oct. 22.-(Special)-The prediction
freely made in many quarters that the coming winter
season will be a record breaker in point of tourist visitors
to Florida apparently is borne out by a check-up of the
number of foreign automobiles already pouring into the
A glance at the tabulated records of the National
Guard units on fruit quarantine patrol duty under the
command of Lt. Colonel Preston Ayers shows a remark-
able inpouring even this early of visitors from every state
in the Union excepting one. These records come from
fifteen guard posts along the northern patrol lines and
may be said to cover every automobile passing south-
bound on to the peninsula. They constitute perhaps the
most comprehensive such record that has ever been
Figures for the week ending October 7 as compiled at
fly eradication headquarters show during that week
southbound cars from other states entering upon the
peninsula totaled 6,222 and that every state in the Union
excepting South Dakota was represented in the tally.
The number coming from each state was as follows:
Alabama, 812; Arizona, 23; Arkansas, 176; California,
131; Colorado, 22; Connecticut, 20; District of Columbia,
7; Delaware, 14; Georgia, 2,591; Idaho, 4; Illinois, 134;
Indiana, 81; Iowa, 21; Kansas, 30; Kentucky, 74;
Louisiana, 128; Maine, 41; Maryland, 44; Massachusetts,
61; Michigan, 125; Minnesota, 39; Mississippi, 64; Mis-
souri, 18; Montana, 10; Nebraska, 26; Nevada, 4; New
Hampshire, 29; New Jersey, 55; New Mexico, 19; New
York, 226; North Carolina, 81; North Dakota, 11; Ohio,
227; Oklahoma, 19; Oregon, 11; Pennsylvania, 116;
Rhode Island, 10; South Carolina, 102; South Dakota,
none; Tennessee, 342; Texas, 105; Utah, 8; Vermont, 6;
Virginia, 59; Washington, 9; West Virginia, 50; Wis-
consin, 26; Wyoming, 1; Canada, 10.
During that same week a total of 48,552 automotive
vehicles passed the guard lines, but 42,330 bore Florida
licenses. Inspection of these located 420 carrying pro-
hibited host fruits and vegetables contrary to the quar-
antine regulations. This explains, it is said, the reason
for continuing the National Guard patrols. The per-
centage of violators of the quarantine regulations is
small, but remains very persistent.
RABBIT ASSOCIATION HOLDS FIELD MEET
(Orlando Reporter-Star, October 29, 1929)
The second of a series of field meetings of the Central
Florida Rabbit Association was held Saturday afternoon
at the estate of Mr. and Mrs. Charles L. Graham, Weltin
and Altaloma avenues, Orlando, and was well attended
by members of the association and friends.
Mr. Graham has a fine herd of New Zealand reds, and
blue and white Beverns.
The most interesting feature of the event was a bench
show of some fine specimens of different breeds of
rabbits. They were judged by O. B. Hiller of the Long-
wood Rabbitry, president of the association. The animals
shown were white Beverns from Longwood Rabbitry,
Longwood; New Zealand red and blue and white Beverns
by Charles L. Graham, Orlando; New Zealand red raised
by Brookside Rabbit Ranch, Winter Park, shown by H. L.
Dumars of Winter Park; New Zealand white from David-
son of California, shown by H. L. Dumars, and standard
Chinchilla by E. L. Mette of Winter Park.
Mr. and Mrs. L. E. Dyke and Mr. and Mrs. Charles L.
Graham had charge of the affair.
The rabbit industry is virtually growing by "leaps and
bounds" and negotiations are under way at the present
time, it is understood, for marketing warehouses near
Orlando and on the east coast. It is the plan of the
committee to hold these field meetings and bench shows
once a month during the winter and thus create a big
interest for the showing of a large number of rabbits at
the Central Florida Exposition in February.
MILK FROM MANATEE COW TESTS 176 IN
CONTENT OF IODINE
(Tampa Tribune, October 23, 1929)
Bradenton, Oct. 22.-(Special) -Samples of milk from
a cow fed on Manatee county grazing foods, as analyzed
in a chemical laboratory reporting today to the Braden-
ton chamber of commerce, showed an iodine content of
176. The nearest record for comparison purposes was
one from Nebraska milk, with an iodine content of 25.
Committees in charge of the state-wide iodine con-
ference to be held here Thursday and Friday, announced
that through the courtesy of the St. Petersburg cham-
ber the proceedings of the conference Thursday night
between 8:30 and 9:30 o'clock would be put on the air
over station WSUN. The radio program will include the
speech of Governor Carlton and the report of the special
The Hillsborough county commission sent word today
it would be represented. Other advices from different
parts of the state indicated a large attendance, due to
the widespread interest in the movement and its value
to the citrus and vegetable industry.
ACTIVITIES OF THE MARKETING BUREAU
SINCE AUGUST FIRST
The 1929 Marketing Act, extending the activities of
the Marketing Bureau, placed many extra duties on the
Marketing Commissioner. As a member of the new
Agricultural Board, he has helped to find and employ
new people for the office, including marketing specialist
in poultry products, dairy products, live stock and field
crops, fruits and vegetables and market news. To secure
men trained in these lines, who were available at the
price we could pay, was no small task, and required a
4,000 mile trip and a careful survey of all the market-
ing departments in the south and east, and a number
of conferences with the Federal Bureau of Agricultural
By August 10th all these specialists were on the job
except the dairy specialist, who began September 1st.
Since July 1st, the Marketing Commissioner, in addi-
tion to office duties, has travelled 9,253 miles; attended
23 conferences; delivered 21 addresses; assisted in or-
ganizing a number of marketing associations, and in
locating one new market news station; given personal
advice to a dozen or more associations in regard to
marketing present crops; travelled a great deal with
marketing specialists, assisting them in starting their
The fruit and vegetable marketing specialist travelled
6,836 miles during August, September and October;
assisted in organizing, securing charter, furnishing by-
laws and market contracts to two new cooperative asso-
ciations; attended conferences with the officials of
seven associations; attended meetings and gave market-
ing information to different associations, at their regular
meetings; made 12 talks at other additional farmers'
meetings, with a total attendance of 2,975; compiled
information regarding all fruit and vegetable coopera-
tives in the State. Furnished market contract to a
number of associations contemplating organization. Made
a personal survey of conditions in a number of town
and city markets in company with the poultry specialist,
and assisted in the arrangement for market quotations
in Tampa and Miami. Rendered service to individuals
and organizations, in grading, packing, marketing and
government inspection service, and assisted in one or
more cooperative hog sales.
The poultry marketing specialist has travelled 3,946
miles during August, September and October. Has
visited a number of cooperative egg shipping associa-
tions, giving advice as to grading, packing and market-
ing; attended 13 public meetings, making talks on
marketing. Held cooperative poultry sales at Pensacola,
Crestview, DeFuniak Springs, Bonifay, Chipley, Mari-
anna, Sneads, Newberry, Williston, Chiefland, Trenton
and Gainesville; assisted in the sale of a number of less
than carlots of poultry from office; cooperated in plan-
ning sales and meetings with University Extension
Service. Assisted in cooperative sales of ten cars of
live stock. Met many representatives of poultry and
egg marketing associations, as well as individual pro-
ducers, in conference in office.
Most of the duties of the market news specialist are
in the office, but he has travelled, since August 1st, 3,331
miles, making market news connection, arranging for
market quotations and arranging for an extra market
news station. He has attended 17 meetings and con-
Our market news department is mailing, without
charge, daily market news bulletins to more than two
thousand people interested in the marketing of fruits
and vegetables from Florida. We are also covering
Tampa and Miami with market quotations. Market news
also goes to associations by wire. Beginning early in
November, market reports will be given over radio.
All arrangements have been made for market news
stations to be continued this season at Winter Haven on
citrus fruits; on celery at Sanford; Leesburg on melons;
West Palm Beach on vegetables; Hastings on potatoes,
and a new station at Bradenton for vegetables. Mis-
cellaneous market reports will go out all the time from
the Jacksonville office. Everything is ready for the most
complete net work of market news service ever given
Florida, or perhaps any other state.
The dairy specialist has devoted September and Octo-
ber to making a survey of the State, to find out condi-
tions in existing markets. He has travelled 3,296 miles,
attending meetings in 10 different counties, and con-
ferences in a number of different communities; has met
and conferred with county and home agents and dairy-
men; and has arranged for numerous meetings and has
assisted in 11 cooperative hog and poultry sales. He
found the Jacksonville, Miami, Palm Beach and Fort
Lauderdale markets well supplied with whole milk, with
much cream, butter and other milk products being im-
In Santa Rosa and Okaloosa counties there is being
shipped more than $1,500.00 worth of butter fat
monthly, and the shipments are increasing.
In the vicinity of Ocala 30 fine new dairy barns have
been erected recently that would meet the requirements
of any city inspection.
Florida's greatest need in dairy products, and one
easiest to meet under present conditions, is butter supply.
Approximately seven-eighths of our butter is imported.
Under the expansion program of the State Marketing
Bureau, the Assistant Commissioner, being familiar with
Florida marketing conditions, has aided the various mar-
keting specialists in initiating their service and handles
their work in the office in their absence and while on
duty in the field. Practically all the general correspond-
ence and telegraphic inquiry is handled by the Assistant
Commissioner, and special claim work has been most
ably conducted by him in the past few months. The
additional market news station for the lower west coast
this season in Florida, as well as the additional market
news service for Miami and Tampa markets, were secured
and arranged for under his direction. He is now trying
to secure a market news service for poultry, live stock
and dairy interests -to give these industries the same
service as is given to fruit and vegetable interests. Has
managed the issuing of the semi-monthly "For Sale,
Want and Exchange Bulletin," and has also served as
business manager for the Bureau in its many lines of
The Assistant Commissioner has put forth every effort
to make the Florida State Marketing Bureau the out-
standing bureau in the United States, and the service
it renders growers is second to none. In addition to the
work the poultry, dairy, live stock, fruit and vegetable
and market news specialists are doing, he has been
establishing all possible contacts for producers of gen-
eral products and has written more than twenty-nine
hundred letters since August 15th to buyers and dealers
in such special crops as syrup, sweet potatoes, pecans,
peanuts, honey, Satsumas, chayotes, moss, poultry, cotton
and vegetables, etc., in an effort to expand Florida dis-
FLORIDA REVIEW 5
tribution and to compile for the shippers lists of repu-
table, active dealers or buyers who specialize in these
products, and more than two thousand letters on other
bureau business. The Assistant Commissioner has a
fundamental, basical working knowledge of not only all
the specialists' work, but he knows every detail of the
bureau's activities, so that everybody's work depends, to
a large extent, on his work. He has specialized in office
administration in the absence of the Commissioner and
one requirement of his always is: It must be done the
most efficient and prompt way possible to give service
He is now preparing a grade booklet which will in-
clude all the official Florida grades for fruits and vege-
tables, and these will soon be ready for distribution. He
has prepared market and crop data so that not only cur-
rent, but marketing information for past seasons is
readily available on a moment's notice. Many favorable
expressions of appreciation of the prompt service have
come to the Bureau. He has been too busy in the twelve
years he has been with the Bureau to take a vacation.
He has lost no opportunity to make the Florida State
Marketing Bureau of the greatest possible service to
Floridd producers and shippers.
The live stock marketing specialist has travelled,
August 1st to November 1st, 7,003 miles; attended 18
meetings with a total attendance of 1,850 people; at-
tended 20 conferences with 66 people present; served
1,256 people in cooperative hog sales; 52 with coopera-
tive cattle sales; 33 with cooperative corn sales. During
August, September and October there have been 104 cars
of hogs, 16 cars of cattle and 10 cars of corn marketed
cooperatively in Florida.
The 104 cars of hogs brought a total of $102,515.94.
The 16 cars of cattle brought $14,202.08. The ten cars
of corn brought $3,900.00.
The live stock and field crop specialist assisted and
encouraged cooperative shipping associations and coope-
rated in every way possible with producers, shippers,
county agents and other agricultural extension workers,
to bring about better marketing conditions for live stock
The multigraph and mimeograph department has been
enlarged, clerical help increased, the mailing list of the
Want, For Sale and Exchange Bulletin is increasing by
leaps and bounds, and hundreds of calls for marketing
advice, information and assistance are coming to the
Bureau from all sections of the State, and receiving a
RECORD MADE IN COCOANUT IMPORTS
(Tampa Times, October 21, 1929)
While a slight decrease in Tampa's port business was
registered during last week with the arrival and de-
parture of 21 ships, a new record for this year for the
importation of cocoanuts was established when 51,000
cocoanuts were unloaded at the municipal terminal from
Honduras. The motorship Louis Geraci brought the
The passenger and freight ship Cuba of the Peninsular
and Occidental line on her two trips into port, discharged
262 bales of tobacco, 471 packages of tobacco, 51 barrels
of tobacco, 263 crates of pears, two crates of plantains,
nine crates of vegetables, 26 crates of pineapples and
14 packages of miscellaneous merchandise.
The fruit ships Louis Geraci and Utowana that entered
port from Honduras and Baracoa unloaded a total of
61,000 cocoanuts, 15,000 bunches of bananas and 25,000
Bonded cargoes were brought into port on the
freighter Commercial Orleanian, Moore and McCormack,
and Alamo of the Mallory line. The Commercial Or-
leanian discharged 20 sacks of black beans and the
Alamo 10,000 packages of miscellaneous merchandise.
Other ships bringing cargo into port was the schooner
Gamble, 65,315 feet of cedar logs, and the oil tanker
Herbert G. Wylie, 40,989 barrels of fuel oil. The Italian
steamer Clara discharged 1,103 bags of bone meal and
3,000 cases of peeled tomatoes. Only four 'hips entered
port in ballast or with intransit cargo.
Four freighters loaded a total of 16,137 tons of phos-
phate for Italy, Spain, Germany and Japan. The Holm
loaded 4,528 tons of phosphate for Germany; Clara
4,000 tons for Italy; Gonzenheim 4,000 tons for Germany
and the Sheaf Crown 3,609 tons for Japan.
The only steamer loading lumber was the Monte
Cemis. She loaded 25,000 feet for Spain.
SCRUB CATTLE END IS NEAR
None But Pure Bred Stock Will Survive, Says
(Tallahassee Daily Democrat, October 20, 1929)
"If the same progress which has been made in the
past six months is continued, there will be no scrub bulls
in Leon county within six years," C. C. Hodge declared
Friday night at the fifth meeting of the Leon County
Farmers Association held at the Woodville school house.
"As in all other matters, it is one of education and
cooperation," Mr. Hodge continued. He pointed out that
soon there would be beef inspection in all towns and that
none but purebred cattle would survive.
There was a long dsicussion on the disadvantages of
the present "open range" method of pasturing cattle
which allows the small landholder to fatten a large num-
ber of cattle on the large landholders' land.
T. J. Brooks brought attention to the fact that there
were other products which could be raised in this section
other than the customary corn, peanuts, hog and cattle
raising. He said that the state was sending cars through
certain territories to pick up small lots of poultry, pay-
ing the producer a larger sum because of the advantage
of carload lot shipments.
Mr. Brooks stated that the same thing could be done
in this territory with other products if the farmers
B. K. Eaton of the Griscom farms followed up this
statement by saying that he had found grapes, on a small
scale, a very profitable crop. Mr. Eaton stated that there
was not only a market out of the state but also a large
Thomas P. Turner, secretary of the local chamber of
commerce, stated that G. E. Lewis of Tallahassee was
interested in a variety of cotton known as "red foliage
cotton," and that Mr. Lewis was willing to furnish seed
for two acres to twelve white farmers of Leon county
that they might try it as an experiment.
The cotton has a small leaf and so lets a great deal
of sun penetrate the cotton. Numerous letters recom-
mending the cotton were read by Mr. Turner.
Two farmers from the Woodville district were added
to the agriculture committee of the chamber of com-
merce. They were W. A. Register and G. W. Rhodes,
with S. I. Smith as alternative.
FIRST STRAWBERRIES REPORTED NEAR
KATHLEEN-INITIAL BOX BRINGS
(Plant City Courier, October 22, 1929)
Over in Lakeland they are already planning for the
arrival of the first quart of strawberries of the season,
according to the Lakeland Ledger and Star-Telegram.
And the person who totes in the initial quart will be
rewarded to the tune of a five-spot. The Ledger and
"The first ripe strawberry of the season was reported
north of Kathleen Saturday, Louie Vautrie gathering a
sample from his field. He said his crop had a heavy
bloom. On Mr. Vautrie's farm there is a peach tree in
full bloom and if the winter is not severe, he will be
offering peaches in the next few weeks. The trucker in
Lakeland territory will receive $5 for the first quart of
berries brought to Lakeland, the Rotary Club authoriz-
ing this premium. The berries may be left at the office
of the Ledger and Star-Telegram, where the money will
POULTRY PRODUCERS FIND CONDITIONS
Mr. and Mrs. W. F. Wachter of Washington
Take Great Interest in Industry
(Orlando Evening Reporter-Star, October 20, 1929)
"We have seen better land on which to raise poultry
here in Orange county than we have seen anywhere since
leaving our home at Bellington, Washington," so state
Mr. and Mrs. J. F. Wachter, who are now in Orlando
after touring the country for many miles.
Their first interest was in the Central Florida Poultry
Producers Cooperative Association since they fully realize
and appreciated the fact that proper marketing was the
vital factor in the successful raising of poultry in any
section. Mr. Wachter talks instructively of this work
accomplished by the Pacific Egg Producers Cooperative,
Inc., which is known in the egg markets of the world.
An association that sells "Pep" eggs everywhere and one
whose cases can be found here in Florida and in the
foreign markets. They tell of the time when their state
of Washington used to have in its markets eggs from
China and now it is exporting under the brand "Pep"
millions of dollars worth of eggs and poultry products
annually in addition to supplying their own needs.
The poultry producers who make this the big business
that it is have learned that the production of the feed
required and the marketing of the product produced are
each separate businesses, therefore they devote their
time and energy to keeping their egg laying machine pro-
ducing to the utmost.
They have visited the Orange hatchery at Apopka, stat-
ing that the hatching of the chicks is a distinct and sepa-
rate branch and each year they have brooded 6,000 baby
chicks. They impressed the importance of this branch
of the business and stated every successful poultryman
must know that his chicks are from good stock and that
they must be hatched carefully and amid the most cleanly
They also visited the poultry establishments of the
Pleasant View Poultry Farm, where 3,000 pullets are
cared for by John T. Lancaster and Herbert H. Peiners;
the model five are units of the Pickard Development
Company and the fine flock of E. B. Stocking at Gotha,
where parent stock was obtained from a strain of leg-
horns developed in Washington, and they praised, fully
the fine individuals they saw here and the capable and
intelligent breeding methods employed.
Orlando should become the greatest poultry distribut-
ing city in the United States and Central Florida its
greatest producing center. They will be if such of its
people are properly and intelligently encouraged.
EVERGLADES AREA PRODUCES
ABUNDANT WINTER CROPS
Nearly a Million Acres in County Available
(By M. U. Mounts, in Palm Beach Times, Oct. 26, 1929)
Palm Beach county has approximately 800,000 acres
of peat or muck soil in her borders. The main Ever-
glades drainage district comprises 4,370,000 acres in
south Florida. The soil rests on a base of limestone,
which tends to give the soil overlying it an alkaline or
neutral reaction. The soil itself is vegetable matter in
various stages of decay. The soil has three general class-
ifications, "Custard Apple," "Elder or Weed," and "Saw-
grass." The first type lies near the shores of Lake Okee-
chobee and is nearly all located in Palm Beach county.
The elder or weed land is more distant from the lake
and the sawgrass, comprising the major part of the Ever-
glades soil, is the land lying back of the first two men-
tioned soils. Sawgrass muck is really a peat and is a
very raw type of land.
The majority of the present farming is done on the
first two soil types. The custard apple land, because of
its nearness to the lake, enjoys the advantage of greater
frost protection and is therefore largely used for plant-
ings of perishable vegetables. The elder land makes ex-
cellent land for vegetable planting, holding its moisture
well and being friable and easy to work into good farm-
ing condition. It is preferred for plantings of cabbage,
English peas, late Irish potatoes, etc.
The sawgrass land requires treatment with certain
chemicals and fertilizers before becoming productive. On
receiving these treatments it can produce high yields of
an abundance of crops economically. Research along
these lines by employes of the Brown Company planta-
tion and experts at the branch of the Florida Experi-
ment station located near Belle Glade has been of great
value in demonstrating the potential richness of this vast
area of sawgrass muck.
The Southern Sugar Company has under development
a huge area of land along the eastern and southern
shores of Lake Okeechobee. It is their plan to have
50,000 acres of Everglades land planted to sugar cane
within the next year. Their plantings are largely con-
fined to areas protected by ditches and pumps, so that
the damage of flooding will be cut to the minimum.
Not only has this tremendously rich area proven its
worth as a trucking section, shipping over 2,000 cars of
perishable vegetables in a single season, but it gives
promise to be a successful livestock section. Feed stuffs,
such as pastures, forage crops and corn can be grown
easily and in abundance. When successful protection
from floods is provided it will not be long before Florida
can boast of an area where "the cow, the sow and the
hen" are important and necessary factors in economic
FLORIDA REVIEW 7
PINELLAS COUNTY FAIR SHOWS LARGE
VARIETY OF PRODUCTS
Agricultural Outlook for the Coming Growing
Season Very Good, Says Manager
J. A. Walsingham
(St. Petersburg Independent, October 19, 1929)
Clearwater, Oct. 19.-The outlook for the Pinellas
county free fair is the best in the past five years, ac-
cording to J. A. Walsingham, manager. "The people,"
he declared, "seem to realize the merits of the county
exposition and see the advantages of it more than they
ever have before.
"The agricultural outlook for the fair is beyond all
expectations, because of the fact that everybody realizes
that this is the one year, beyond all others, that they
should make the greatest showing they ever have. The
demand for space for agricultural purposes and of all
other industries in the county is far more at this present
time than at any other. The demands for exhibit space
for machinery, automobiles, all manner of farming tools
and utensils, is far greater than it has been at any cor-
responding period in the past.
"The lower end of the county, including St. Petersburg
and vicinity, is far in the lead in demand for show
space, both in an agricultural way and in machinery.
St. Petersburg has shown the last two years great in-
terest in the fair and it has been greatly appreciated by
the management and the entire county, and prospects are
that they will exceed themselves by a great margin this
year. The Sunshine City has shown a great willing-
ness, now and in the past, to assist in a cooperative way,
which has been greatly appreciated, and this year, 1930,
will see St. Petersburg day the biggest attendance the
fair has ever had.
"Tarpon Springs, in the north end of the county, has
also shown good cooperation and has added greatly to
the Pinellas county fair in the past, for which they have
promised also to do greater things this year than ever
before. The center of the county is also making the
greatest preparations and we also have assurance that
Clearwater, the Springtime City, will outdo herself for
the Pinellas county fair by far in the coming fair.
"The individuals throughout the entire county are
showing great interest this year and everyone expresses
an anxiety to cooperate and make it the best fair ever.
Everything at the present time is in readiness. The fair
grounds are in perfect shape, all buildings are in condi-
tion and there will be practically no work to do except
the actual putting on of the fair-everything is ready.
"The country as a whole is showing a great gain in
prosperity within the past few months and Pinellas
county, like the whole of the State of Florida, has prac-
tically begun a new era in the way of business and ex-
pects to make the greatest showing in the next year in
any time of the state's history.
"We expect to have a wonderful stock show, and the
poultry display promises to be the biggest ever, as the
Pinellas Poultry Association has taken hold of the poul-
try department and the Rabbit Breeders' Association of
the county is also going to show as an organization. The
Beekeepers' Association has joined in as an association
and is to put on one of the biggest displays of honey and
the like ever shown in Florida. The woman's department
is also coming strong, through the county demonstration
agent and the Woman's Club of Pinellas county. The
Strawberry Association is also expected to make a good
showing as an association. This, however, includes all
classes of vegetables, which will add considerably to this
"The floral hall expects to take on the greatest line of
flowers and ornamental shrubbery of any time in the
past. We will also broadcast from our studios in the fair
grounds, 'Pinellas county to the world,' through the
courtesy of radio stations WFLA at Clearwater and
WSUN at St. Petersburg.
"And last of all, we will have for our midway attrac-
tion the famous Johnny J. Jones and his wonderful shows.
We intend to especially feature St. Petersburg day,
Clearwater day and Tarpon Springs day. These three
days have always been a great attraction for the Pinellas
"Further, this will be a free fair and no admission
charge is made. The fair is owned and controlled and
put on by the Pinellas county board of county commis-
FLORIDA HENS SHOW UP WELL IN STATE
Chipley Poultry Men Enter One of Ten Leading
Pens in Contest
(Pensacola Journal, October 20, 1929)
Chipley, Fla., Oct. 19.-(A. P.)-At the end of the
eleventh month of the third Florida national egg-laying
contest, 194.3 eggs was the average of the 820 hens in
the contest, according to reports issued by E. F. Stanton,
This was nine eggs higher than the second, and 12
eggs higher than the first contest, the report showed.
A total of 159,355 eggs had been produced by the 820
hens this year up to that time.
Of the ten leading pens to date, three are Florida
entries. Lathwood Poultry Farm, Jacksonville, was first,
with 2,398 eggs; Pinebreeze, Callahan, sixth, with 2,326
eggs, and Webb, Wells and Cain, Chipley, tenth, with
The highest producing bird in the contest is owned by
Lathwood Poultry Farm, Jacksonville, which laid 293
eggs with 30 days left in which to complete a year's
record. Seven other hens shown on the reports laid over
The hens were said to be in good health, and will be
returned to their owners in good condition, Mr. Stanton
said. A few pens are still vacant for the fourth contest,
which begins November 1, he stated.
10,529 CARS FLORIDA VEGETABLES
EATEN IN NORTH DURING SEASON
(Hollywood News, October 31, 1929)
In December, 1928, and January and February, 1929,
the dining rooms of the north enjoyed green vegetables
and red strawberries from Florida in the following num-
ber of carloads: String beans, 754; cabbage, 1,658; cauli-
flower, 26; celery, 2,917; cucumber, 21; eggplant, 1;
lettuce, 887; green peas, 28; peppers, 326; potatoes, 43;
turnips, 7; sweet potatoes, 20; strawberries, 848; toma-
toes, 2,211; mixed vegetables, 787. The total December
shipments were 1,275 cars; January, 2,900; February,
6,254. Grand total for three winter months, 10,529 cars.
8 FLORIDA REVIEW
Farmers Loading Poultry at DeFuniak Springs, Florida, October 15, 1929
Hogs Sold in Cooperative Sale at Trenton, Florida, October 23, 1929
FLORIDA REVIEW 9
COOPERATIVE SALES ARE PRODUCING
Great Interest Manifested by Farmers at Every
In connection with the resume of activities of the
State Marketing Bureau, which appears in this issue of
the Review, the reader will be impressed with two scenes
reproduced on the opposite page showing the actual
marketing program in operation.
The first cooperative carlot sale of poultry was con-
ducted October 14th and 17th, and loaded at the follow-
Monday, October 14th-Pensacola................... .. .. 1,500
Tuesday a. m., October 15th-Crestview........... ... 1,200
Tuesday p. m., October 15th-DeFuniak Springs.. 1,700
Wednesday a. m., October 16th-Bonifay............ 700
Wednesday p. m., October 16th-Chipley........... 1,273
Thursday a. m., October 17th-Marianna.............. 1,200
Thursday p. m., October 17th-Sneeds................ 1,100
Total............................ ...... ................... 8,673
The amount paid to the farmers for this poultry was
Fifty farmers delivered poultry to a sale held at
Trenton, October 24, aggregating 2,200 pounds, for
which they received $550.00, and some of them advised
that they received five cents per pound more at the
cooperative sale than they had been receiving previously
in their local communities. As evidence of the value of
these cooperative sales being conducted by the Marketing
Bureau, one farmer stated that as the result of his
failure to learn of the sale conducted in Trenton he
experienced a loss of $5.35 on 107 pounds of poultry,
which he had sold to a private truck the day prior to the
A cooperative sale was conducted at Trenton October
23, at which time 31,000 pounds of hogs were sold,
netting the farmers $2,511.13.
CITRUS FRUIT SHIPMENTS
The number of boxes of citrus fruit shipped during
the last half of October, 15th to 31st, inclusive, as re-
ported by the Citrus Fruit Inspection Division, is as
Grapefruit ................................ 378,211 boxes
Oranges ..................................... 112,237 boxes
Tangerines ................................. 9,661 boxes
Total.................................. 500,109 boxes
$7,200 FROM FOUR CARS HOGS RAISED
IN CHIEFLAND DISTRICT
(Gainesville Sun, Octber 19, 1929)
The Dixie County News prints the following:
"Hogs are beginning to roll from the Chiefland neigh..
borhood in carload lots.
"During the past ten days there have no less than four
cars rolled from Chiefland and Hardeetown and the
prices paid on the hoof at the railroad have averaged
from seven to eight and one-half cents.
"Figuring at these prices the hogs shipped thus far
have brought no less than $1,800 a car, which means
that growers in this section are beginning to realize on
their hog crop.
"The hogs are beginning to be fat and fine and buyers
are glad to get them at these prices.
"The feed and fattening crops of the Chiefland sec-
tion this year have been fine, which means that the many
hogs in the district will be fine too. Growers are feel-
ing good and the money is beginning to circulate
throughout the usual trade channels, making business bet-
ter, thank you, in the Chiefland section of Levy county."
THE SATSUMA ASSOCIATION IS SHIPPING
Panama City Chamber of Commerce Reports
Sixteen Cars in Preparation for Marketing
The following letter, sent to the Review by the cor-
responding secretary of the Panama City Chamber of
Commerce, furnishes some interesting information rela-
tive to the tremendous progress being made in growing
and marketing satsumas in that section:
Florida Review, Tallahassee, Fla.
"Gentlemen:-The St. Andrews Bay Satsuma Associa-
tion which was organized here recently begun opera-
tions first week in October, all machinery and supplies
being installed in the warehouse to be used as packing
plant, located near the intersection of the A. & St. A.
B. Railway and Harrison avenue.
"The St. Andrews Bay Satsuma Association will pack
and ship some sixteen cars of this delicious golden fruit
within the next few weeks, shipping their fruit through
the American Fruit Growers, Inc. Every box will bear
the stamp of the 'Blue Goose,' and will find a ready
"After visiting all groves in this section, fruit in-
spectors have announced our satsumas free of pests and
that the fruit is of a superior quality."
PANAMA CITY CHAMBER COMMERCE,
Pearl Strickland, Corresponding Secretary.
TUNG IN GILCHRIST COUNTY
(Scenic Highlands Sun, October 31, 1929)
It is announced that 1,000 acres of tung trees
will be planted in Gilchrist county this winter. Asked
for an opinion I replied "Planting tung trees is a safe
venture, providing you have heavy production trees."
In general, it may be added that the tung tree, as a pro-
ducer, has a pretty well defined range and as a high
producer a well proved strain in Florida. While it will
grow well to the south and well to the north it can
hardly be expected to produce heavily either where the
dormant period is too short or the freezing danger too
It seems as if everyone should now know the signifi-
cance of tung tree culture, but at the risk of wearying
those who know, I will explain that it is the source of
tung oil, the substance in good varnish which resists
water. China has been our unsatisfactory reliance. We
spend millions a year for their poorly handled and fre-
quently impure product. The question is as to whether
American ingenuity can overcome the disparity of wages
between there and here. The apostle of the cause in
Florida is B. F. Williamson of Gainesville.
10 FLORIDA REVIEW
BEANS BRING BIG PRICE IN EASTERN
Prominent Farmer Living Near Lake City Re-
ceives Nice Sum for Bean Shipment
(Lake City Reporter, October 25, 1929)
Mr. L. W. A. Rivers, well-known and prosperous
farmer living near Lake City, was advised today that his
shipment of 30 hampers of beans last week received top
price of $2.75 per hamper on the New York market
yesterday. The beans, young and tender, were classed
as "fancys" and were eagerly bought.
Mr. Rivers has two acres in beans this year, from
which he will receive approximately 175 hampers.
Mr. F. R. Faulkner, of Mikesville, also sold seven
hampers through the chamber of commerce, as did Mr.
Rivers, and Mr. W. E. Cushman of this county has made
two or three shipments direct to Miami.
EDUCATIONAL VALUE OF THE ORANGE
(Winter Haven Chief, October 24, 1929)
While there are many things that may be said in favor
of the Florida Orange Festival, which will be held
January 21 to 25, 1930, probably the best speaking
point is that it emphasizes the educational side of the
Florida citrus industry. If there is one feature of Flor-
ida's life that has been neglected it is the educating of
the masses in things citrus. Florida has been growing
oranges and grapefruit and tangerines for many years,
natives and visitors have been enjoying the delicious
fruit, and poets have sung about it and artists have
painted pictures of the product-but very few have
learned much, if anything, about the industry which is
the backbone of the State industrially. So the orange
festival held here annually is out to do one thing above
all others, and that is to educate the people in the grow-
ing of citrus fruit. This should appeal especially to
growers and shippers who have staked many millions of
dollars on the future of the industry. Three hundred
millions of dollars are represented in the citrus groves
and packing houses of Florida. With such an invest-
ment at stake, growers and shippers should be most
vitally interested in the dissemination of knowledge on
citrus growing to the general public. The public does
not know what it costs to grow citrus. Some have an
idea that mere possession of a grove will cause the
dollars to roll in without very much cost and effort in
dollars and energy on their part. On the other hand
we find a certain type who, seeing only the unsatis-
factory prices in one season, argue that citrus growing
is too expensive and too risky a proposition for anyone
to engage in. Both these groups need enlightenment
on what it costs in dollars and cents to plant a grove,
cultivate it, take proper care of the trees, fertilize it
properly and market the fruit. They need to know
what kind of oranges and grapefruit to plant and the
kind of nursery stock to select. The public in general
also needs to know what enters into the picking, haul-
ing, packing and shipping of the fruit. Many complain
about the cost of getting fruit to market without know-
ing just what is involved. Of course, some of the criti-
cisms are just, but in many instances they are not and
reveal only a lack of understanding of the situation.
This, too, is a matter on which many people need to be
enlightened. The shippers will also welcome an exhibit
that acquaints the public with the cost of packing house
machinery and equipment, the amount of machines neces-
sary and the improvements that must be made from
year to year to keep the various houses in running con-
dition. So it should be easy to interest the shippers
and the growers in general in this exposition, dedicated
to the proposition that education along the lines of the
citrus industry is imperative and' sorely needed in order
to increase the demand and sale for the products of
Florida groves. That is the primary purpose of all the
citrus displays, all the booths to be devoted to citrus by-
products and the allied industries, and unless each ex-
hibit achieves that objective it will have fallen short
of the purpose for which it was intended. Manager
Guthrie urges that everyone interested in the festival
make its educational value the theme of their conversa-
tion concerning it and that everything- be done to make
the exhibits conform to that standard. Florida never
needed a thorough education along these lines so much
as now and the forthcoming festival can be made to
serve a particularly useful purpose through the proper
cooperation of growers, shippers and the general public.
PROSPECTS FOR GOOD BEAN MARKET IS
Hooker's 120 Acres of Beans to Show Gross
Return of $60,000
(Clewiston News, November 1, 1929)
With prospects of a shortage in the bean market this
year, bean farmers in the Clewiston section of the
northern Everglades will realize handsome returns on
their investment, it was seen in a statement of his activi-
ties made by W. C. Bill Hooker, Hendry county commis-
sioner and a prominent farmer of this section.
In the Clewiston area Mr. Hooker has 120 acres of
Bountiful beans, to be ready for shipment to northern
markets about November 20.
From years of experience in farming in this section,
the county official estimates that he will pick approxi-
mately 100 hampers to the acre, or a total of 12,000
hampers from the 120 acres.
Keeping in close touch with market conditions through
his agents in New York, Mr. Hooker believes that the
bean market late in November for Florida Bountifuls will
be at least $5 per hamper, so that on his 120-acre farm
he will gross some $60,000. Of this, he said, there will
be about 50 per cent net profit.
The beans, which are now several inches above the
ground, drew high praise from Edward Balentine, mem-
ber of the firm of Robert T. Cochran and Company, New
York produce merchants, who spent a few days in
Clewiston last week on a tour of the state. The New
Yorker, referring to the Hooker bean farm, said that
conditions in this section look better than in any other
section of the state.
Mr. Hemphill, another local farmer, has five acres in
eggplants; F. W. Matthews has a small acreage in egg-
plants; L. L. Lowe this week put in five acres of beans;
W. S. Harvel and Sam Davis are putting in five acres of
onions; Mrs. T. J. Aikins has four acres of beans and
Elbert L. Stewart is putting in five acres of beans this
FLORIDA REVIEW 11
NATION'S AGRICULTURAL HEADS MAKE
STRONG APPEAL FOR FRUIT FLY
Ask Congress to Provide Additional Appropria-
tion for Fly Eradication and Indemnification
for Those Who Have Sustained Loss
During Government Activities
At the meeting of the National Association of Com-
missioners, Secretaries and Departments of Agriculture
in Washington recently, Commissioner Nathan Mayo suc-
ceeded in getting full cooperation of the members in the
interest of Florida growers, and as the result of such
fine cooperation, was enabled to secure the adoption of
the following important resolution:
Whereas, The National Association of Commissioners,
Secretaries and Departments of Agriculture, in conven-
tion assembled in the City of Washington, appreciates
the notable results obtained to date in the Federal and
State efforts to effect the elimination of the Mediter-
ranean fruit fly in Florida, and believing that a continua-
tion of these efforts will effect the eradication of this
fruit fly; and
Whereas, It is the desire of this Association that ade-
quate funds be provided to prevent the spread and to
complete the extermination of this pest; and
Whereas, This Association believes that in connection
with such prevention of spread and eradication means
can be provided for the orderly marketing of Florida
fruits and vegetables under regulations of the United
States Department of Agriculture; and
Whereas, The fruit growers and others in Florida have
suffered serious losses in the national interest occasioned
by the destruction of fruit and vegetables and the pro-
hibition of the growing of the same; and
Whereas, The eradication effort and the cost to the
State and its losses to individuals is in the interest of
protecting the United States as a whole from the menace
of a new and very serious fruit and vegetable pest;
Now, therefore, be it resolved:
(1) That this Association appeals to Congress to pro-
vide at the earliest possible time funds for the United
States Department of Agriculture adequate to carry
forward and complete the campaign of eradication in-
augurated with reference to the Mediterranean fruit fly;
(2) That this Association urges the Secretary of Agri-
culture to extend the markets for Florida fruits and
vegetables as rapidly as is consistent with safety;
(3) That this Association recognizes and heartily ap-
proves a policy of reasonable indemnification or reim-
bursement of persons whose crops have been, or may
hereafter be, destroyed as a necessity of the eradica-
tion campaign; and
(4) That this Association transmit a copy of these
resolutions to the President of the United States, to the
Secretary of Agriculture, and to the members of the
Congress of the United States.
HALF MILLION CITRUS DEAL IS CLOSED
(Apopka Chief, October 24, 1929)
Citrus grove property of an estimated value of
$500,000 changed hands Monday in a deal closed at the
First National Bank at Tampa, whereby Kenneth H. Day,
president of Sgobel & Day, of New York, and associates,
took over 428 acres from the Lake Garfield Nurseries and
Vet L. Brown, of Bartow. The deal was handled by
John A. Snively, of Winter Haven, and has been in
negotiation for some time.
Snively has been working recently obtaining options
on citrus land for a New York syndicate. It has been
reported that options to the amount of at least $10,-
000,000 were sought and that a large part of this had
been obtained. Closing of other deals under the op-
tions awaits only appraisal of the land, Snively said.
The tract sold Monday is in Polk county, about six
miles from Bartow. The crop now on the trees is taken
over by Sgobel & Day in the deal. The New York con-
cern is one of the largest citrus and perishable goods
houses in New York.
PUREBRED CATTLE IS ON INCREASE IN
Can Raise as Good Cattle in Western Florida
as in Any Section of Country
(Gadsden County Times, October 31, 1929)
Considerable progress in the introduction of purebred
cattle into West Florida is being made, states Dr. R.
L. Brinkman, of the Florida State Live Stock Sanitary
Dr. Brinkman writes, from Holmes county:
"It now appears that in this one county we are going
to place a half carload of purebreds. To date, five
farmers and cattlemen have placed deposits for a pure-
bred bull each and another man plans to purchase 10
"We brought seven purebred registered heifers and a
bull down for this man about a year ago. I saw them
recently, and they certainly look good.
"Any person who has the mistaken idea that we can-
not raise as good cattle in Florida as in any section of
the country should see how these cattle, imported from
Tennessee, are getting along.
"In addition to the above, several other farmers and
cattlemen have indicated that they were interested and
are planning to make financial arrangements to purchase
purebred bulls. The Bank of Bonifay is taking much in-
terest in the project and will assist any reliable farmer
to purchase a purebred bull, and well they might, for
the woods are getting dotted with the half-breeds, which
look so much better than the scrubs that one has to see
them to believe the extent of the improvement brought
about in the first. cross. These half breeds are in
splendid condition and worth from one and a half to
twice as much as scrubs of the same age."
Dr. Brinkman states that plans are on foot in Liberty
and Okaloosa counties to arrange for placing more pure-
breds on farms and range in those sections.
In the July, 1929, issue of the Quarterly Bulletin,
issued by this Department, was published an article on
"Eradication of the Sweet Potato Weevil in Florida,"
the authorship of which should have been credited to Mr.
B. L. Boyden rather than to Mr. L. C. Howard, of the
Bureau of Entomology of the United States Department
of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. As the copy for the
next issue of the Bulletin was in the hands of the
printers when this error was brought to our attention we
are glad to make this correction in the Review.
12 FLORIDA REVIEW
LARGE POULTRY FARM-EXCELLENT
Commercial Hatching Main; Feature-Thirty-
five Hundred Laying Hens--Twenty-
five Years Experience
(Suwannee Democrat, November 1, 1929)
Driving through the country Sunday afternoon we
came upon the poultry farm owned and operated by Mr.
and Mrs. J. S. Stevers, north of the city. It is well worth
your time to visit this farm. There are 52 acres under
fence with all the necessary houses for the proper tak-
ing care of poultry, besides a nice home for the owners.
We found both of these genial people at home, and
with a degree of pride they showed us over their farm.
Mr. Stevers has a hatching machine of the Blue Hen
make, with a capacity of 14,000 eggs, which he will start
up now pretty soon, as he informed us that he proposes
to start in so that he can obtain a December hatch this
year. He also has a Buckeye hatcher of 10,000 capacity,
giving him a capacity of 24,000.
Right here let us state that Mr. Stevers has a capital
idea. He explained that a December hatch would give
pullets that would start laying about the time older
hens would begin to molt, thus keeping up the egg crop
at a time when they are most needed, besides giving a
longer season for hatching.
Looking over the farm we discovered 3,500 beautiful
White Leghorns of the Tancre-Morgan strain. All birds
looked healthy and had the appearance of being mighty
good layers, bringing some two cases of eggs per day at
present, notwithstanding the fact that quite a large
number of hens are being used for breed-laying. On the
East Coast, as far down as Miami, Mr. Stevers is ship-
ping eggs, and while he is not giving out the price he
gets he is well satisfied.
On this farm we found a bunch of roosters bred from
hens of 300 and over egg-laying capacity. This large
egg-laying percentage taken with the high bred stock
gives this farm a name that should spell a large trade
all over the state.
Mr. and Mrs. Stevers are both interested in the work
they are doing, and they are exceedingly interesting in
their talks on poultry. Mr. Stevers has been in the
business for more than 25 years, especially in the breed-
ing department, having come here from the East Coast
where he was connected with the best poultry plants in
the nation. His idea of kind of stock,, care of fowl,
marketing of eggs, etc., are large and varied, and as a
consequence his business is building up at a rate that is
most gratifying, and even now Mr. Stevers is making
plans to greatly enlarge his plant and remodel his entire
outfit, which work he plans to start as soon as the rush
season is over.
In feeding, Mr. Stevers uses the high-grade laying and
growing mashes, and in addition he keeps his yards
sowed down with oats at all seasons, so that the hens
may have plenty of green and at the same time get the
exercise of digging this feed out of the ground.
Asked if he thought it was a paying business he re-
plied: "I have been here now four years. I was twenty-
five years in the business, and if I did not think it was a
good business I would make an effort to get out of it,
but like every other business it must be conducted on a
business basis. Everybody who enters the poultry busi-
ness does not make a success. The poultry business is
just like any other business, and scientific measures must
be used, with common sense. It is my idea that a person
starting in the business should not expect it to be a
money-maker unless he carries at least 500 laying hens.
Then if he will buy his chicks so that one brood will come
into laying when another is molting he can have good
layers the year around, and if he markets his fowl well,
which is all important, he will likely make a success of
his venture, but many people go into the business think-
ing that all they have to do is to put the chickens on
the yards, feed them corn two times a day and the eggs
will flow and money come rolling in, and the large
majority are doomed to disappointment, blame the busi-
ness for their own lack of business and sell out or go
broke. You cannot run any business that way."
We want to say that the poultry interests around Live
Oak are a source of revenue coming into the county and
they should be encouraged on all sides, for the day is
coming and is not far distant when the poultry business
will be Florida's money making enterprise and it will
be ahead of them all.
CALVES ARE SOLUTION OF FLORIDA
(DeFuniak Breeze, October 24, 1929)
The dairyman who goes out to buy mature cows has
about a three to one chance of getting cull animals that
the other dairyman doesn't want, Hamlin L. Brown, ex-
tension dairyman of this state, remarked recently.
The one practical solution for herd replacement is to
grow calves from the best cows, Mr. Brown stated. He
said by all means these cows should be bred to a proven
Good heifer calves offer one of the best markets for
surplus skim milk, Mr. Brown said, and the calf raised
on skim milk, when the ration is balanced with grain and
roughage, has a better chance to develop into a good
dairy cow than the calf grown on whole milk.
The lower price of milk in Florida almost makes it
imperative that the dairyman raise calves, and develop
better cows, if the industry is to expand, he said.
Stomach worms and other intestinal parasites have pre-
sented one of the greatest drawbacks to dairymen, Mr.
Brown said. He said that generally the answer to this
trouble was less grass, more range on cultivated lands,
and plenty of fresh water and shade, and a liberal ration
of skim milk, ensilage, dried roughage as peavine hay,
and some grain until the calf is nine months old.
Mr. Brown suggests that those interested write for
circular number 9, by the Florida Agricultural Exten-
sion Division for valuable suggestions on calf-raising.
KISSIMMEE CRATE MILL BUSY
(Orlando Sentinel, October 21, 1929)
The crate mill at Kissimmee is now running in full
blast. The force of workers is to be increased to 100.
Dr. P. Phillips and the Kissimmee Citrus Growers Asso-
ciation have both agreed to purchase their crates from
this concern for the present season. The veneer mill of
the same city now has a force of 40 men at work to fill
orders for crates and boxes now coming in from various
parts of the state. In estimating the value of the citrus
industry to Florida, we sometimes fail to figure in the
investment and wages of supporting industries.
FLORIDA REVIEW 13
BROWN PREDICTS LARGE TOMATO CROP
FOR COLLIER COUNTY
Says County Destined To Be Largest Tomato
Growing Section in State
(Ft. Myers Press, October 31, 1929)
Mr. D. C. Brown, of South Jacksonville, who reached
Everglades last week to take charge of the operations at
what is known as the Brown Farm, is very optimistic-in
fact, very enthusiastic over the outlook for a large to-
mato crop from Collier county this season. Mr. Brown is
a man of many years of experience in the raising of
tomatoes, having been engaged in this type of farming
on the lower East Coast for a number of years, and he
states that it is his opinion that Collier county is destined
to be one of the greatest tomato growing sections in the
Mr. Brown, when interviewed last night, was very high
in his praise of Collier county, particularly from a
standpoint of tomato growing. He states he finds the
soil and climatic conditions ideal for this purpose.
He was very much pleased, upon his arrival in the
county, to find the ground so well covered with water, as
this is very beneficial and he states we are very fortunate
indeed in Collier county in getting the most of our rain-
fall in the summer season, due to the fact that, in
getting our heavy rainfall at that time of the year it
generally assures our having dry weather during the
tomato picking season. Also, as long as we have the
moisture in the ground, we are reasonably certain of
not having the crop killed by the cold.
He immediately set to work sowing his first seed bed,
which consists of approximately fifteen acres. He is
now engaged in sowing the second seed bed and will
continue sowing a seed bed each week until the work of
sowing the entire one hundred acres, of which the farm
consists, is completed.
With normal weather conditions, Mr. Brown expects
to begin picking tomatoes about February 1st, and states
that his crop should begin moving to the northern mar-
kets not later than the tenth of February. The bulk of
the crop, however, will be picked in March and April.
He estimates a crop from his farm of approximately
one hundred cars of tomatoes.
Mr. Brown is an authority on the raising of tomatoes,
and with the large acreage to be farmed in Collier county
this season by various others, it is safe to assume that
his prediction of a record breaking crop will be realized.
FLORIDA SQUAB FARM ADDS NEW BIRDS
(Delray Beach News, October 25, 1929)
Purchase of 150 pairs of pigeons was the result of the
trip of three local squab raisers to Sumter, South Caro-
lina, last week. The squabs will be added to the Florida
Squab Farm recently organized by J. S. Wuepper and
O. Helland, of this city. Mr. C. N. Johnson, owner of
the Delray Squab Plant, accompanied the other two to
The purchase of the additional birds brings the total
birds now located at the new squab farm up to about
430 pairs and the amount of money invested to a sum
of about $7,500.
The plant is at present located at the Wuepper resi-
dence on the North Dixie Highway, but additional space
will be used, it was stated, as the farm is enlarged, and
use will be made of the Helland property on West
The plant is divided into units which care for 25 pairs
of birds each. The units for caring for the 430 pairs
are now complete but additional units will be built as the
.Mr. Helland has spent his time the past summer in in-
specting some of the larger squab farms in the north
and forming contact with northern markets. It is event-
ually hoped to make this plant as large as any in the
The 150 pairs of birds recently purchased came from
the Palmetto Pigeon Farm at Sumter, S. C.
LARGE NUMBER OF FARMERS GREET
STATE MARKETING OFFICIALS
Meeting Was Specially Called-Regular Meet-
ing of Association Will Be Held at
Largo Friday Night
(Largo Sentinel, October 24, 1929)
That an organization is a necessity for successful
farming and marketing in this county, is a fact appre-
ciated by those interested in the industry, as is evidenced
each week by the increased attendance at the association
Also, that an association must have something more
tangible than mere membership is manifested by the in-
creased acreage and plantings of farmers, recorded re-
One strawberry farmer, with more than five acres
already planted, has announced that he will need better
than fifteen laborers when the harvest, time comes.
At the meeting to be held Friday-tomorrow-night,
matters of vital importance to real dirt farmers will be
discussed, and it is expected that results of the recent
move to secure buyers at the platform in Largo for the
crop when it is ready for marketing, about Christmas
time, will be reported by those instructed to make the
More than one hundred farmers attended the meet-
ing of last Friday night and a great many more people
are expected to be present tomorrow night.
A large attendance of townsmen is desired, as it is
recognized that the movement to make Largo the real
agricultural center of the county will need the support
of business men in general.
LAKE COUNTY TO HAVE POULTRY SHOW
(Umatilla Tribune, October 25, 1929)
At the regular monthly meeting of the Lake County
Poultry Association held in the county agent's office at
Tavares, the show committee made a report that all plans
were underway for one of the best poultry shows to be
held this year since the association has been holding a
show. This committee is making plans for some enter-
taining features every afternoon bf the show. A poultry
show is an educational institution and every poultryman
in Lake county should plan to show some of his or her
birds. Make your plans now, look over your flock and
pick out what you think are the best and bring them
in to the contest to be held December 11, 12, 13 and 14,
at Eustis, Florida.
14 FLORIDA REVIEW
HOG SALES HELD HERE BROUGHT GOOD
PRICES-151 HEAD SOLD
Georgia Firm Buys Lot for Shipment to Cuba-
151 Head Were Sold Here
(Lake City Reporter, November 1, 1929)
Lake City's first cooperative hog sale went over fine
here Wednesday, when 151 head of hogs were sold on
the cooperative market, tops bringing $8.36 per hun-
dred pounds. The hogs were purchased by Harper Horse
& Mule Company, Albany, Ga., and will be shipped to
Cuba, it is said.
The largest number placed on the market by any one
participant was 50 head, sold by Roscoe Carver. There
were 61 tops, 40 No. 2's and 50 roughs, or a total of
25,143 pounds. Twenty-one farmers participated in the
sales, of which number approximately 15 were Columbia
There were seven bidders in the field, four of which
number were on hand, and two wired in their bids.
The participants received cash for their hogs, the
checks being written by the chamber of commerce, and
the bank remaining open until six o'clock in order that
the participants might get their money while they were
Two high school boys, Alfred Cristol and Winston
Shelton, assisted the chamber of commerce in checking
up the clerical work, thereby helping to do away with any
delay in settlement.
The next hog day will be held in something like
twenty days, or sometime after the 15th of November,
according to Secretary Karstedt, who is instrumental in
securing the cooperative market here. Mr. Karstedt has
worked like a Trojan on the project for the last several
weeks in order to-bring the sales here and also to secure
best prices. Mr. Karstedt's services were given in
cooperation with the State Marketing Bureau, who had
a representative on hand during the sales.
A large number of farmers were on hand to witness
the sales, and numbers of them stated that they would
go into the hog business right away, as the prospect for
a money crop in this connection are evidently very
BEEF CATTLE IN WAKULLA COUNTY
(By D. M. Treadwell, in Wakulla County News, October
Since the eradication of the cattle tick, quite an in-
terest has been manifested in the production of beef
cattle. Several purebred bulls of the Angus and Here-
ford breeds are in the county. The farmers are looking
forward to the coming calf crop of the half breeds. They
know that they will bring more money if cared for, and
that is what they intend to do.
The farmer who has a few female cattle and does not
feel able to buy a purebred bull of the beef type should
be glad to cooperate with his neighbor in purchasing a
bull. Two or three farmers could pool their interests
this way; one farmer say pay $25, another pay $30 and
another pay the balance, according to the number of
female cattle each one has on hand. This is cooperating
with your neighbor and getting the desired results and
everybody interested in the animal.
Then when your calves of this bull become of breed-
ing age, you can swap with another neighbor, not inbreed,
and increase the vitality of your cattle right along.
Wakulla county will be a beef cattle county in a few
years and if you are in on the ground floor, you get
started quicker than the other fellow. Everybody will
agree now that beef cattle will pay in this county. The
range is fine and could be made one hundred per cent
better by sowing carpet and dallis grass seed in the low
spots anywhere. All the under brush should be cut and
put your cattle on to keep down the native grass. This
will give the carpet grass a chance.
The farmers who own the purebred bulls now should
be sure that the animal is well taken care of this winter.
See that he is on good feed, so he will be in good shape
for the spring breeding. An animal of strong vitality
produces good calves and will pay you well to keep
the bull in good flesh. Buy you a few heifers and get
into the beef cattle game on this range. It will be
money in the county and an industry worthwhile.
TO PLANT 1,200 ACRES TUNG NUTS NEAR
(DeFuniak Breeze, October 17, 1929)
Howard Steele, representing a large Jacksonville syn-
dicate, is in the county planning a 1200 acre tung nut
orchard. The planting will be near the highway be-
tween Valparaiso and Crestview.
The 1200 acres will not be planted for the purpose of
re-sale, but will be maintained and operated by the syn-
dicate, it is stated.
Since Mr. Steele came to this county, reports of many
more hundreds of acres to be planted by other develop-
ers have been in the wind. All to be in the same locality.
Tung oil is destined to be Florida's greatest money-
making crop. The trees are hardy and need very little
care compared to oranges, grapefruit or any other crop.
The demand for tung oil is increasing rapidly. Millions
of gallons are being imported yearly from China. The
oil is used in the manufacture of high grade paints and
varnishes. It has been discovered recently that it is
used in the waterproofing of cloth.
As tung oil gains in popularity there will be hundreds
of other products in which this oil can be used. In China
it is used in painting boats, and waterproofs many
The by-product of the tung nut is used as a fertilizer,
and has the same value as cotton seed meal.
Two years ago several paint and varnish manufac-
turers formed a syndicate to plant several thousand acres
to tung nuts in the vicinity of Gainesville. At present
there are in the neighborhood of 4,000 acres planted in
Florida with about 2,000 acres already bearing.
American tung oil is far superior to the oil imported
from China.-Valparaiso Star.
SUBSTANTIAL INCREASE IN FLORIDA
(Vero Beach Journal, October 22, 1929)
Florida ginned 20,200 bales of cotton from 1929 crop
prior to September 15, which is quite an increase over
1928, when only 4,295 bales were ginned during the same
period and fifty per cent greater than 1927 when 11,238
bales were ginned. The total number of bales of cotton
ginned in the United States from the 1929 crop prior
to September 15 is given as 3,353,038 as compared with
2,500,781 for 1928, a gain of 852,257 bales.
FLORIDA REVIEW 15
FARMERS BUSY PREPARING LAND FOR
Acreage Will Be Held to Minimum-30 Acres
(Hastings Herald, October 18, 1929)
Farmers throughout the potato belt are busily en-
gaged turning and preparing their land for another crop.
It is impossible at this time to make an estimate on the
acreage which will be planted to potatoes this year, but
it is believed by those who are closely connected with
the deal that the acreage will not exceed that of last
Most farmers are going into the deal in good shape
with plenty of corn and hay to feed their stock and
arrangements already made for fertilizer and seed pota-
toes. Prospects look bright for a good season, but the
distributors and growers are working together to prevent
an over-production and with this in mind the acreage
will be held to a minimum.
Last year hundreds of acres were planted to cabbage,
pepper and other crops, but that will not be the case
this year. One concern reported this week that they
would plant only a few acres to cabbage, and about thirty
acres to celery. The celery seed have been planted in
beds and with no set backs will be ready for transplant-
ing about the first of next month. It is said that the
celery raised in Hastings soil is far superior to that raised
in other sections of the state and brings highest prices in
the northern markets.
Farmers are having ideal weather for working their
fields and the merchants are doing good business; this
coupled with the prospects of a good season leaves but
very little to worry the minds of the people throughout
the Hastings section.
GRAPEFRUIT SHIPMENTS 200,000 BOXES
AHEAD OF SAME DATE IN 1928
(Florida Times-Union, October 30, 1929)
Tampa, Oct. 29.-(A. P.)-The Florida Citrus Ex-
change today said that shipment of grapefruit out of
this state this year was 200,000 boxes ahead of the same
day last year. Exceptional quality had brought good
prices and a good market, it was said.
The total number of boxes sold to date is 861,180
against 662,722 at this time last year. In the past forty-
eight hours 50,964 boxes went forward, including 37,200
of grapefruit; 11,904 of oranges and 1,860 of tangerines.
PAINT COMPANY PICKS CITY FOR PLANT
(St. Petersburg Times, October 29, 1929)
Location of a new and basic industry, which is the
first of its kind in this section of Florida, completion of
arrangements for beginning of operations by December
1st, the leasing of a building on Central avenue, and the
passing of a check for the first payment of money on
the year's lease, all inr one day, was the record of the St.
Petersburg Industry Board Monday. According to the
details of the transaction given Monday evening the
Capital Paint and Varnish Manufacturing Company,
manufacturers of paints, varnishes and enamels, with its
plant at Lansing, Mich., will locate a southern plant in
St. Petersburg. Machinery and equipment for this plant
is already on hand to be shipped here.
Negotiations were carried through in conferences be-
tween B. F. Gitchell, head of the Michigan manufactur-
ing concern, and Aloysius Coll, corresponding secretary
of the local industry board.
The plant, Gitchell said, will employ 50 people. Ar-
rangements were completed to lease one-half of the en-
tire Monroe block at 1124 Central avenue. This build-
ing, erected in 1926, is of substantial construction, with
heavy walls and buttresses, and is ideal for the purpose
for which it is leased. In the half leased there are two
floors, with adjustable windows front, rear, and to the
east side. The building extends all the way through from
Central avenue to a 30-foot alley in the rear, and the
new company will occupy both.
THE FIRST CUCUMBERS OF SEASON AT
ARCADIA BRING HIGH AS $4.20
(Florida Times-Union, October 31, 1929)
Arcadia, Oct. 30.-The first of the cucumber crop of
the DeSoto Cooperative Association was sold on the plat-
form yesterday when fifty hampers of cucumbers brought
$4.20 for fancy, $3.20 for choice and 95 cents for No. 3
grade. More than half of the cucumbers were of the
fancy grade. The first shipments were grown by Arthur
Williams and Cary Carlton.
This is the first shipment from sixty acres which the
DeSoto Association has planted. More of the cucumbers
are being planted and with favorable weather condi-
tions the marketing will continue until spring, it is said.
The first pickings were from plants which weathered the
The remainder of the cucumber crop is reported in
excellent condition and several more large patches will
come into maturity in the next few days. Buyers are
here daily and the demand for cucumbers, squash, beans,
eggplant and peppers is said to be larger than the
growers can fill.
SOME DAIRY CATTLE NOW REGISTERED
(Perry Herald, October 31, 1929)
The importance of a camera on live stock farms was
emphasized by the recent decision of two dairy breed
associations to accept photographs in lieu of color
sketches of animals intended for registration. The
breeds concerned are Ayrshire and Holstein-Friesian.
Dairy specialists in the United States Department of
Agriculture anticipate increased interest in animal pho-
tography as a result of this decision, and call attention
to Department Circular 371-C, which discusses the use
of the camera in studying the growth and development
of dairy animals. This circular gives many practical
suggestions and may be obtained by writing the Depart-
ment of Agriculture at Washington.
Photographs have been used by research workers in
the Bureau of Dairy Industry for a number of years,
and it has been found that they furnish a prolific source
of information which could hardly be secured by any
other method or record keeping. These specialists are
hopeful that the new ruling of the breed associations
will stimulate a much wider use of the camera on dairy
farms throughout the country.
16 FLORIDA REVIEW
CANADA REMOVES BAN ON FLORIDA
(Lakeland Ledger, October 23, 1929)
Shipment of fruit into Canada from all except nine
small zone areas has been announced from quarantine
headquarters at Orlando. The mails today brought a
letter from Senator Trammell announcing immediate
action in prospect and E. E. Callaway, who resigned as
chairman of the Republican state committee, told the
directors of the chamber of commerce last night that the
ban on Florida fruit would be removed as soon as the
department of agriculture could place the matter before
the Canadian authorities. Mr. Callaway was advised of
this action in Washington 10 days ago, he said.
A director of the chamber of commerce, Mr. Calla-
way told the board of plans for further lightening the
restrictions with the coming of frost in southern states.
FLORIDA PAYS BIG TOBACCO TAX
Over Two Millions Are Paid on Cigars in Nine
Months of 1929
(Winter Haven Chief, November 1, 1929)
Jacksonville, Nov. 1.-(Special) -Florida paid $2,-
109,904.52 into the United States treasury during the
first nine months of 1929 as taxes on cigars manufac-
tured in the state. This represents the third highest tax
payment made on this commodity in the United States
during the period as shown by figures released through
the Bureau of Internal Revenue, says the Florida State
Chamber of Commerce. Tobacco taxes paid by Florida
covering all sources, which includes cigars, cigarettes,
snuff and other tobacco products, as well as cigarette
papers and tubes, totals $2,119,804 and places Florida
thirteenth on the list of tobacco tax paying states.
During the period of 1926-28, inclusive, says C. V.
Rahner, director of research of the State Chamber of
Commerce, the Bureau of Internal Revenue reports an
increase in the tobacco taxes paid throughout the coun-
try of $39,338,514.95 with an increase of $31,463,691
for the first nine months of 1929 over the same period
in 1928. These figures indicate a substantial increase in
the manufacture of cigars, cigarettes and sundry to-
bacco products during the current year.
The Florida Industrial Survey, published by the Flor-
ida Department of Agriculture in 1928, according to
Director Rahner, placed the manufacture of tobacco as
second in rank in the state's industrial background pro-
ducing cigars almost exclusively. Figures compiled by
the Blue Book of Southern Progress for the year 1926
credit the state with 297 cigar factories, 3 cigarette fac-
tories and 11 concerns engaged in the manufacture of
other tobacco products. This industry is centered at
Key West and Tampa with a widespread distribution of
factories over the state. Because of the fact that the
consumption of tobacco is not materially effected by in-
dustrial depression the industry can be relied upon to
utilize a considerable number of workers during a gen-
eral unemployment period.
In addition to its tobacco manufacture industry, con-
tinues Mr. Rahner, Florida has developed a good sized
tobacco producing belt which has expanded until it now
covers eighteen counties in the north and north central
section of the state. The belt grows flue cured Sumatra
and wrapper types of tobacco. In 1928 the crop covered
a total of 12,000 acres and produced an average of 768
pounds to the acre, according to the United States De-
partment of Agriculture, and brought an average price
of 29.1 cents per pound.
Florida's tobacco crop has become a recognized factor
in the industry and with the establishment of tobacco
warehouses in the state the producers are not forced to
transport their crops to the Georgia markets entirely.
The raising of tobacco in Florida is being assisted very
materially by the Tobacco Experiment Station at Quincy,
under the supervision of W. B. Tisdale, plant pathologist
of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. At this
station experiments are annually conducted with various
types of fertilizers and study of tobacco diseases are
given thorough attention.
Florida counties producing tobacco in order of acre-
age are: Gadsden, Madison, Hamilton, Suwannee, Jack-
son, Alachua, Holmes, Jefferson, Lafayette, Leon,
Liberty, Washington, Walton, Taylor, Calhoun, Columbia,
Gilchrist and Marion, the latter being a beginner in the
production of the crop on a commercial basis.
PAPAYA TREE LOADED WITH MATURING
(Ocala Banner, October 18, 1929)
Something unknown to this part of Florida is going on
in the back yard of Mrs. G. W. Adkins' residence at
Tenth and Lime streets. A large Papaya tree is bearing.
fruit. The female tree, which has beside it two smaller
males, has about fifty papayas on it, the more mature of
which are as large as a cantaloupe.
Webster has this to say about it:
"The oblong, yellow fruit is very large, and has a pulpy
flesh and a thick rind. It is eaten raw, boiled as a vege-
table, pickled, or preserved. The seeds are anthelmintic.
All parts of the plant abound in milky juice containing
Of papain Webster says: "A proteolytic enzyme
present in the juice of the green fruit of the papaya, and
apparently intermediate in action between pepsin and
trypsin. The commercial preparation, used as a digest-
ant, is a grayish pepsinlike powder."
Among other horticultural curiosities in Mrs. Adkins'
collection are two cacti; one (which she calls a corn-
cob cactus) is about seven feet tall and an inch and a
half in diameter, and the other (which she calls snake
cactus) is nine feet tall and, like clinging vine, sends
tendrils out to support itself.
THIRD SATSUMA CARLOAD IS OFF
(Pensacola Journal, October 30, 1929)
Escambia county's third carload of satsumas was
shipped to northern market yesterday. More cars will
go at the rate of one per day until the packing plant at
Ensley gets under full operation, when two a day will
The second car, which left the packing plant Monday,
was decorated and bore signs two feet wide, reading:
"Satsuma Oranges from Escambia County, Pensacola,
Florida." The signs were placed on the car by the Pen-
sacola Chamber of Commerce.
All cars which have been sent iorth thus f aSave
been sent to East St. Louis, Ill. Others will go to 'Chi-
cago, Cleveland, Philadelphia and New York. More than
200 will be sent before the end of the season.