Supreme faith in one another our...
 Florida one of leading and coming...
 Marketing fruit and vegetables

Group Title: Florida review (Tallahassee, FL)
Title: Florida review
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00049005/00082
 Material Information
Title: Florida review
Physical Description: 5 v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Bureau of Immigration
Publisher: Bureau of Immigration, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1926-1930
Frequency: semimonthly
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Industries -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (June 7, 1926)-v. 5, no. 9 (Oct. 20, 1930).
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00049005
Volume ID: VID00082
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001744570
oclc - 01279992
notis - AJF7332
lccn - sn 00229569

Table of Contents
    Supreme faith in one another our main source of strength
        Page 1
        Page 2
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    Florida one of leading and coming agricultural states
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Marketing fruit and vegetables
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
Full Text
U. S.Dept. of Agriculture,

VJashington, D.C.

Jlortba Rebiet

OCTOBER 21, 1929

No. 10

Supreme Faith in One Another Our Main Source

of Strength

Commissioner Mayo Tells Motorcade Visitors in Tallahassee

HE members of the Spanish Trail motor-
cade party, starting October 2, were wel-
comed and banqueted in Florida cities as
they proceeded over the route opened in
the long ago. At the reception given them in
Tallahassee they were addressed by Commis-
sioner Nathan Mayo as follows:
Ladies and Gentlemen:
The motor trip which you are beginning is
one which will not only commemorate the
courage, resourcefulness and pioneering spirit
of the Spanish trail-blazers whose choice of this
route gave to it a name surrounded with histor-
ical interest and romantic legend, but which
will cement the ties of friendship between
Florida and her sister states of the south and
west through which you shall pass. Perhaps
an even more important result of this motorcade
will be its demonstration of the fact that dis-
tance is rapidly becoming annihilated by the
facilities for travel which modern science and
invention have provided for us, and that now, as
never before, the interests of each state are
closely bound up with the interests of all others.
The commonwealths which are most remote
from us share many of our needs and are con-
fronted with many of our problems, and we
have become neighbors in a newer and more
sympathetic sense than ever before.
The citizens of Florida's seat of government
welcome you today on behalf of the larger citi-
zenship of the State, and bid you godspeed on
your journey. You have the privilege of bring-
ing our great state to the attention of others,
and of blazing a new trail of mutual interest
and helpfulness along the route selected years
ago by old Spanish adventurers and explorers.
In State Road No. 1, Florida contributes 435
miles of paved highway, at a cost of approxi-
mately $13,000,000, to this great cross-country

travel route, and you who are traversing it will
bear witness to the intelligent planning, en-
gineering skill and careful construction which
have been employed in bringing this highway to
its present economic and recreational import-
We have in Florida 7,345 miles of hard-
surfaced road, much of which is embraced in
nine main highways connecting with interstate
highways in Georgia and Alabama, and this
mileage, together with connecting roads and
parallel thoroughfares, affords transportation
facilities for purposes of business and pleasure
which are all the more remarkable because of
the short time in which they have been estab-
lished. We recall, with mingled feelings of
astonishment and amusement, that twenty years
ago a president of the American Automobile
Association was presented with a beautiful cup
by Florida citizens because he had accomplished
the hitherto impossible feat of touring the
length of our state. Twelve years ago it took a
motorist of courage, driving a car of proven en-
durance, to safely conclude a fairly comprehen-
sive tour of the state. At that time there was
little more than 1,000 miles of improved road in
the state, and roads which were considered ex-
cellent highways at that time would not measure
up to the standard demanded by present-day
freight and passenger traffic. The progress
which has been made in a comparatively short
period can only be realized by one who has
recently traveled the length and breadth of our
state on roads of superior construction, with
smooth roadbeds, advantageous routing, ade-
quate road marking and scenic attractions to
render the trip memorable for its comfort and
pleasure. Detours, rickety bridges, stretches of
deep sand or mud, inconvenient and round-
about routes, desolate and unmarked lengths of

Vol. 4


lonely road-all these are gone with other eco-
nomic handicaps of an earlier day, and our
growing system of highways and lateral roads,
intelligently planned, well constructed and care-
fully maintained, is one of Florida's greatest
assets today.
With the solution of our transportation prob-
lems in view as highway construction, railroad
extension, port development and airport estab-
lishment materialize, we turn to the fuller em-
ployment and utilization of our agricultural
opportunities. We produce annually over
$135,000,000 worth of field, truck and fruit
crops, livestock, poultry and dairy products, but
we have only 1,485,054 acres in cultivation, or
4.23% of the land area of the state. The fact
that Florida ships ten per cent of all fresh fruits
and vegetables of the United States from less
than 300,000 acres may be considered as an in-
dication of the possibilities for agricultural
development which our state possesses.
Much has been said about the Mediterranean
fruit fly in Florida. It is one of thousands of
living things which are enemies of man. A
survey of the insects, fungi and bacteria that
are enemies of man shows that no part of the
world is exempt from them. Most of our crop
pests are importations from the Orient. The
San Jose scale came across the Pacific to Cali-
fornia. The Mediterranean fruit fly arrived by
some unknown route in Florida. The corn borer
came the same way to New England. The wire
worm has caused heavy losses to potato and
grain growers of Idaho. The Hessian fly has
been a menace for many years to the wheat
growers of the north central states. The corn
root worm in the east and west central states
presents a serious problem. The Oriental fruit
moth is combated from Connecticut southward
to Georgia and westward to Illinois. The Mex-
ican bean beetle is a serious pest in most of the
southern states. The cotton boll weevil is a
detriment to 90 % of the cotton-producing area.
The potato bug is doing damage in northern
California and the cucumber beetle in southern
California. The Bertha army worm is menac-
ing the grain fields of North Dakota.
Pests to livestock are numerous and per-
sistent. The foot and mouth disease threatened
the very existence of the cattle industry in Cali-
fornia, but prompt and drastic action stamped
it out. The cattle tick has hindered the cattle
industry in the entire south for years. The
sheep botfly is seriously infesting flocks in
Arizona; one flock lost 1,200 from it.
Whole forests are being destroyed by various
pests. The chestnuts of the Allegheny regions,

pine in the south and fir in the northwest are
all affected.
In all the organized efforts to stamp out any
of these pests there has been greater headway
made in Florida in eradicating the Mediter-
ranean fruit fly than any of the other pests in
the same length of time.
The fruit fly was discovered in Florida on
April 6, 1929, and was positively identified a
few days later. The machinery of the United
States Department of Agriculture together with
that of the Florida State Plant Board and other
official and private agencies, was set in opera-
tion as soon as possible, and the cooperation
which they received from Florida citizens was
such that a very remarkable clean-up was
effected within a few weeks' time. Although
there have been approximately 7,000 fly traps
set and 6,000 men directed by from 200 to 300
trained persons, constantly searching for the fly,
no specimens have been found since August 7th,
and very few in the last sixty days. At the
beginning of our eradication peroid, for the
sake of caution and the protection of the people
of other states, practically all fruits and vege-
tables were classed as hosts, but investigation
of the vegetables has eliminated all but five,
which are still classed as questionable. There
were shipped from infested areas during the
1928-29 season in Florida 34,141 cars of citrus
fruits, 6,384 cars of which moved from the
county which is the seat of infestation. There
were 18,622 cars of citrus fruits moved from
territory which was partly infested, and the
total movement by rail from infested and partly
infested territory last season was 52,773 cars
of citrus fruit. In addition to this we shipped
28,370 cars of vegetables, making a total of
81,143 cars. Approximately 75% of this ton-
nage was moved before we knew we had the
fruit fly. We also moved approximately 1,500,-
000 boxes by truck to north Florida, Alabama,
Georgia, South Carolina and other nearby states
last season, much of which was drops. The
greater portion of this came from the northern
part of the fruit belt, which is now the infested
area. We also sent out hundreds of carloads in
bulk, many of which stood on the sidetracks of
Jacksonville and other southern cities, from
which fruit was sold in open packages and car-
ried all over the country in automobiles, and
hundreds of carloads which were shipped by
express to all the southern states, as well as
those of the north and east. Tourists and
visitors carried fruit daily in automobiles. In
spite of all this movement of fruit, however, we


joriba icbiefti

Published .Semi-Monthly by
Bureau of Immigration, Department of Agriculture
Tallahassee, Florida


.. .. ..Commissioner of Agriculture
Asst. Commissioner of Agriculture

Entered as second-class matter, June 25, 1926, at the Post Office
at Tallahassee, Florida, under the Act of June 6, 1920.
Will be mailed free to anyone upon request.

Vol. 4

OCTOBER 21. 1929

have had no infestations in north Florida or in
any other state.
Let us all remember that man has reached his
present state of mastery over nature by constant
struggle, and it may be that it is necessary for
us to master these pests of both vegetable and
animal life in order to properly equip the race
for still greater tasks that Providence has in
As you make this journey across the conti-
nent, take with you everywhere the message of
good will of Florida for all other states in their
efforts to render man's mastery of the forces of
the universe more complete.
We hope that these exchanges of visits will
encourage a livelier interest in each section of
our common country for every other section.
The homogeneity of our population is one of its
greatest assets. Without it our Republic could
not stand the test of adversity. A supreme
faith in one another is our main source of
strength. A keen sense of our interdependence
is a wholesome reminder of our obligations, and
our mutual confidence is our greatest patriotic


(Everglades News)
A carload of young Brahma bulls, apparently about
two years of age, were received at Okeechobee from
Texas, where J. H. Bright went to purchase them about
a month ago. They were on the road nine days and
arrived in fine condition. They presented a most un-
usual and attractive sight as they were being driven
down State Road No. 8 to Brighton, the Okeechobee News

Sanford.-A national advertising campaign involving
expenditure of $100,000 is one of the features of an
orderly marketing program of the Florida State Celery
Association, which plans to have a clearing house func-
tioning before the next crop season. Assurance that
the clearing house will be a going enterprise was given
officials of the state association here by grower-shipper
interests from Sanford, Manatee, Oviedo and Sarasota
districts.-Bradford County Telegraph.


Some Kind Expressions of Appreciation from
Florida, Georgia and Virginia

The Department is grateful for letters from readers of
the Quarterly Bulletin, in which assurance is given of the
value of the publication to the agricultural interests of
the state. The latest issue, Volume 39, No. 3, presents
an exhaustive discussion on "Plant Diseases and Pests
and Their Treatment," and is believed to be one of the
most important and helpful that has been issued by this
department. The Commissioner of Agriculture will be
glad to forward a copy of this issue to any address with-
out charge, upon request. The following communica-
tions will be read with interest by those receiving the
Mr. Nathan Mayo, September 24, 1929.
Commissioner of Agriculture,
Tallahassee, Florida.
Dear Mr. Mayo.-Permit us to compliment you on
recent issue of your bulletin on "Plant Diseases and
This is one of the most unique books that we have ever
seen and we are quite sure that it will bring about the
desired results.
Thanking you for sending us a copy of this splendid
book, we are,
Cordially yours,

Hon. Nathan Mayo, September 24, 1929.
Commissioner of Agriculture,
Tallahassee, Florida.
My dear Mr. Mayo.-I thank you for No. 3, Volume
39, Florida Quarterly Bulletin of the Department of
Agriculture. This is an excellent number and I take
pleasure in congratulating you.
I operate two farms and the publications of your de
apartment are very useful to me and my farm foremen.
With kind personal regards,

Mr. Nathan Mayo, October 3, 1929.
Department of Agriculture,
Tallahassee, Florida.
Dear Sir.-It is a pleasure to note in this time of
rather prosaic publications, a bulletin so comprehensive
as your Quarterly Bulletin, Vol. 39, No. 3, entitled
"Plant Diseases and Their Treatment." Please send me
a copy. Very truly yours,
Plant Pathologist.

Florida State Department of Agriculture is using a
new slogan. It is, "Florida, Feed Thyself." That's a
mighty fine slogan as well as good advice. To begin
with, we are not producing the milk and eggs we use in
Florida.-Florida Times-Union.



(Florida Times-Union)
Coming out of Washington as the advice and urge of
the interstate early potato committee is the suggestion
that Florida give greater acreage to production here in
order to meet what is expected to be considerably in-
creased demand. With the prospect of having on hand
eighty million bushels of old potatoes at the beginning
of the new year, the committee apparently considers that
this supply will not interfere with the demand for extra
early potatoes-at least not in any great degree. The
estimates are made for the coming season through study
of the records of last year, and the prices paid and
inquiry as spring came on and the supplies were being
offered well along the coast and to the interior. Florida
gets the opening market almost without competition.
The few potatoes brought in from Bermuda, as early as
Florida products appear, rather serve to assist in the sale
of the latter through advertising the fact that they are
The committee is reported as basing its recommenda-
tions upon probable market conditions of next year,
potato growers of the five Atlantic seaboard states being
asked to increase acreage to the extent that would add
about two thousand carloads to the crop produced last
spring. This increase, it is said, would make the total
crop from the region indicated measure up to about
39,000 cars. Extension and marketing officials of the
various states and the department of agriculture have
asked that Florida bring its potato fields up to about
26,000 acres, anticipating production of six thousand car-
loads of potatoes as compared with five thousand cars
reported last year.
Indicating the advisability of increasing the acreage in
South Carolina and North Carolina, it was thought best
to urge increased acreage only in the Norfolk section of
Virginia, while the potato growers of the eastern shore
of that state were advised to decrease production. It was
thought best to suggest no increase for Maryland potato
fields, and the explanation of these latter recommenda-
tions clearly indicated the probability of heavy compe-
tition for the section that would enter the market when
New Jersey, Long Island, and the Mississippi valley were
ready to offer potatoes.
Florida has in the past several years had a great deal
of experience with early Irish potatoes, and while every
year a number of growers have made big money with
the crop, it is always a rush, and with several important
details and possibilities that keep the interested farmers
very much "on the job." That it should pay handsomely
is evident from the records made by those who under-
take the work armed by experience and having pluck and
enterprise. When the Florida new potato is about ready
for shipment the people of the country are very con-
siderably using what are called "potatoes" in the east
and west and north, and "Irish potatoes" in the south.
But the vegetable appearing daily on the tables of
millions as the year opens have been kept since the
summer. They are "old potatoes" when the new year
appears, and they are good food. But anything new has
a call with the multitude. The announcement of "new
potatoes" thrills the housewife, and the humble "spud"
gets a line on the most fashionable and expensive menus.
Everybody wants to get them.
Florida growers are shown by the agricultural depart-
ment records to receive more money for fewer potatoes,
grown on half the acreage occupied by the crop in states

farther up the coast. The figures are not recalled at the
moment, but they have been shown as proving that in this
state the production per acre is not only greater, but the
price per bushel or barrel received is so much larger that
the balance in actual money is in favor of Florida. Vir-
ginia growers, with more than sixty thousand acres in
potatoes, get less for their crop than Florida with half
the acreage. The invitation to extend activities along
this line is something that should greatly please all who
are interested in agriculture in this state.


(Winter Haven Chief)
Jacksonville.-Figures compiled by the U. S. Departs
ment of Agriculture, says the Florida State Chamber of
Commerce, credit Florida with being the leading state
of the Union in the carlot shipment of grapefruit, toma-
toes, mixed citrus fruit, green peppers, string beans,
cucumbers and eggplant.
The schedule of Florida carlot shipments as given by
the department includes the following: Grapefruit,
15,618 cars; 8,668 cars tomatoes; 6,050 cars mixed citrus
fruits; 1,780 cars string beans; 1,572 cars cucumbers;
132 cars eggplant; 18,071 cars oranges; 9,195 cars
watermelons; 8,390 cars celery; 7,718 cars potatoes,
1,165 cars cabbage; 546 cars strawberries; 14 cars canta-
loupes; 16 cars cauliflower; 618 cars lettuce; 21 cars
grapes; 20 cars onions; 8 cars peaches; 6 cars green peas;
2 cars pears; 79 cars sweet potatoes.
This record does not include the hundreds of ship-
ments that go out of Florida each year on a less than
carload basis.


(Everglades News)
Clewiston.-Tom, Wash, Rob and Clarence Waldron
and Tom Geiger, Milt Crouch, L. L. Lowe and W. C.
Hooker have begun planting operations for fall truck
crops. Hooker has beans on the Dayton place at Liberty
Point in bloom and is setting peppers and eggplants. He
has fifty acres in beans at present and will plant before
the first of the month about fifty acres more, mostly in
the Bare Beach section.
Seminole Farms, under the direction of John Mowry,
who recently returned with Mrs. Mowry and their son
from an extensive trip through the farming sections of
the Great Lakes states, will plant twenty acres of beans
in the next week. They will have a considerable acreage
of potatoes, planted to harvest in January, frost protec-
tion being warranted through the overhead irrigation
system now being installed on over sixty acres of the
land of the company.
Bishop and Archer and Walter Brown, at Ritta, are
setting plants now and preparing additional land for
winter crop. Some land is being turned on the South
Shore Farms property east of the Miami canal, but from
the Wells place west of South Bay to Clewiston there is
at present no growing truck crop planted in sight of the
There is an increased demand for frost-free land in
operative drainage districts for trucking use, and a dis-
position to sell or lease because of the high taxes, on the
part of owners.



Akron, Ohio, Manufacturing Concern Believes
in Our Great State and Its Future

Akron Ohio, September 27, 1929.
Secretary of State,
Tallahassee, Florida.
Dear Sir.-Believing that your state has a bulletin
that is sent out to the various chambers of commerce in
Florida, we are appealing to you for the benefit of those
towns or cities that might be interested in the local in-
dustry to insert the following information in the next
The Amazon Rubber Corporation has been building
good tires and other products for over fifteen years. It
has equipment for a production of a thousand tires per
day; employs about two hundred people when running
Due to a greater portion of our business coming from
the south and due to the fact that the big rubber com-
panies are making it very uncomfortable for the smaller
ones in Akron, we are looking for a new location where
conditions will be more favorable, the field not so con-
gested and where the community that invites us to join
them will have something sufficiently interesting to offer
to pay us for moving.
We believe in your state and its future and sincerely
hope that something develops from this letter that will
be of mutual benefit to Florida and Amazon.
Thanking you in advance for your cooperation, we are,


(St. Cloud Tribune)
Thirty-one county and state fairs and expositions are
listed for Florida during the 1929-30 winter season, ac-
cording to the State Department of Agriculture at Talla-
hassee, which has just released data on the various events.
This is the first complete list of fairs for Florida to be
released this season. Included among them are the
Florida Orange Festival at Winter Haven, January 21 to
25, 1930, and the South Florida Fair and Gasparilla
Carnival at Tampa, January 28 to February 8, 1930.
The complete list of the fairs includes the places where
they are held, the date and the name of the secretary.
This list is given below with the name and the other data
following in the order given above:
Alachua County Fair, Gainesville, November 19-23,
1929, J. W. Sessions; Brevard County Fair, Titusville,
March 20-22, 1930, B. W. Bres; Broward County Fair, Ft.
Lauderdale, March 1930 (exact date not determined), C.
E. Matthews; Calhoun County Fair, Blountstown (date
not determined), J. G. Kelly; Central Florida Exposition,
Orlando, February 18-22, 1930, Karl Lehmann; Citrus
County Fair, Lecanto (date not determined), Minor L.
Smith; Dade County Fair, Miami, February 24 to March
1, 1930, J. S. Rainey; Florida Orange Festival, Winter
Haven, January 21-25, 1930, Jay Stull; Florida State
Fair, Jacksonville (date not determined), Sam Ellis;
Hardee County Fair, Wauchula (date not determined),
J. A. Shealy; Highlands County Fair, Sebring, February
25 to March 1, 1930, L. H. Alsmeyer; Indian River County

Fair, Vero Beach, February 10-15, 1930, George T.
Tippin; Industrial and Agricultural Exhibition, Sarasota
(date not determined), J. E. Coad; Jefferson County
Fair, Monticello, November, 1929 (exact date not deter-
mined), W. M. Scruggs; Lake County Poultry Associa-
tion, Eustis (date not determined), Dr. Charles Demko;
Lee County Fair, Ft. Myers, February 18-22, 1930, John
M. Boring; Madison County Fair, Madison (date not de-
termined), B. E. Lawton; Manatee County Fair, Braden-
ton (date not determined), O. A. Spencer; Marion County
Fair, Ocala (date not determined), J. A. Tolton; Martin
County Fair, Stuart, February, 1930 (exact date not de-
termined), F. E. Britten; Palm Beach County Fair, West
Palm Beach, March 4-8, 1930, secretaryship vacant;
Pinellas County Fair, Largo, January 14-18, 1930, F. A.
Bradbury; Satsuma Orange Festival, Marianna, Novem-
ber 14-16, 1930, Chas. O. Reiff; South Florida Fair and
Gasparilla Carnival, Tampa, January 28 to February 8,
1930, P. T. Streider; State Line Fair, Laurel Hill (date
not determined), Mrs. L. Hughes; Suwannee County Fair,
Live Oak (date not determined), secretaryship vacant;
Telogia Community Fair, Telogia, October 4-9, 1929,
Robert Kiley; Taylor County Fair, Perry (date not de-
termined), secretaryship vacant; Volusia County Fair
and Citrus Exposition, DeLand, February 11-15, 1930,
E. W. Brown; Wakulla County Fair, Crawfordville,
October or November, 1929, J. G. Pigott, Jr.; Walton
County Fair, DeFuniak Springs, November 7-9, 1929, W.
I. Stinson.


(St. Petersburg Times)
The Florida citrus crop is so rapidly supplying the
world with a fruit juice of the most natural and healthful
qualities that it is already certain never before in the
history of the industry in this state has a grove been of
such worth as it is today. Neither the Mediterranean
fly nor any other factor can offset the fact that Florida
has the soil, the sunshine and the natural rainfall, first
requisites for successful cultivation of citrus fruits in a
climate mild enough for their culture. To these has now
been added the first statewide recognition of the fact that
the crop must be marketed intelligently, else the fanciest
of fruit and in the greatest abundance may bring only
returns in the red ink and discouragement that was the
blunder of men, not the damage of the elements or any
other factor on earth.
More than this, the citrus tree is at home in Florida.
The Spaniards centuries ago planted the first trees.
When they perished others sprung up and when, after a
lapse of 300 years the white man returned to take up
the development of the state with energy and enthusiasm,
these wild orange groves were found so intermingled with
the forests of pine and other woods that the orange was
practically as much a native of the state as any other of
the well known trees. There is in this fact one of the
much overlooked elements in the natural success of the
Florida citrus fruit of any name or variety. Here the
orange, the grapefruit, the tangerine, the lime and the
lemon can be developed to endless perfection. We have
already the King orange, the Temple orange, the many
other varieties, and the opportunity to make the season
earlier in the buds and later by scientific selection and
hybridization is merely a question of patience, botanical
knowledge and an earnest desire to make the state more
and more the greatest citrus area in the world.



Employs 490 People and Has Invested Capital
of Nearly Half Million

(Apopka Chief)
"Orange county sells $400,000 worth of ferns an-
nually. The fern industry employs 490 people and repre-
sents a capital investment of a half million dollars," is
the fact set out on the sixth of a series of desk cards
issued by the Orange County Chamber of Commerce and
furnished to 100 representative business and professional
men of that county as a part of a "Know Orange County
Better" campaign. These cards and a holder in which to
place the cards are supplied free to those requesting
them by writing this Chamber of Commerce in the State
Bank building at Orlando.
The size and importance of the fern industry to
Orange county is emphasized in the letter which accom-
panied these cards. Here is a half million dollar agri-
cultural industry that has grown up in the midst of this
central Florida county without any blare of trumpets or
hip, hip, hurrah. It has been just a steady natural
growth because the soil and climate of this county was
adapted to the culture of ferns.
Orange county ferns, produced both in the Apopka
section from Lockhart through to Zellwood and in the
Winter Park-Maitland section, are shipped to all parts of
the United States and Canada. They are sold largely
through the chain stores. The Boston and similar ferns
are taken out of the ground, the roots wrapped in air
moss and oil paper and fastened with a rubber band; they
are packed in case lots of two hundred. The Asparagus
Plumosus ferns are sold to florists as cut ferns and are
used in making up bouquets, sprays and set pieces. The
large shipments of ferns from Apopka and Zellwood make
these among largest shippers of express in the state.
While the fern business has been a profitable one in
Orange county, the industry has reached the place where
additional acreage of ferns would cause overproduction
and make the business unprofitable to all engaged in it.
The Orange County Chamber of Commerce urges farmers
not to plant more Boston ferns as there is an abundant
supply now.


(Largo Sentinel)
Tallahassee, Fla.--(Special)-With letters written to
every state in the Union asking modification of the re-
strictions against shipment of Florida farm produce, and
the state represented at the Southern Agricultural meet
at Memphis last week, Florida is officially doing its bit
to bring about a more satisfactory shipping regulation
for fruits and vegetables coming under the list of Medfly
hosts. Governor Doyle E. Carlton and Commissioner of
Agriculture Nathan Mayo are taking an active part in
the campaign, and caused the above mentioned letters to
be dispatched. Mr. Mayo, at Memphis, put Florida's
problem sensibly before the southern states, and while
he did not succeed in getting them to lift restrictions
against shipping, he made friends for Florida and ac-
quainted them with the real facts of Florida agriculture.
Another step which was taken by the Governor to aid
in the fly campaign was the appointment of C. C. Mem-
minger, prominent Florida enthusiast and agricultural
expert, to study conditions at the "home town" of the

pest, the European citrus belt of the Mediterranean sec-
tion. Mr. Memminger is giving his services to Florida
and will make a report of his findings, which, it is hoped
by Governor Carlton, will be of benefit to the State
Plant Board. At a meeting held here September 16,
plant board members adopted a more lenient set of regu-
lations for Florida farmers, which permits them to ship
additional crops. The board also petitioned the Federal
government to take official action in lessening the re-
strictions for the present marketing season.


Marianna Making Great Preparations for a
Spectacular Pyrotechnic Display-Satsuma
Parade to Feature the Festive Occasion

Marianna, Oct. 21.-What promises to be the most
spectacular display of fireworks in Florida's history has
been contracted for the Satsuma Orange Festival to be
held in Marianna November 14, 15, and 16.
Among the many set pieces and gigantic aerial bombs
it has been definitely decided each evening to have a
mammoth Satsuma orange tree in fire in the municipal
plaza in the center of the city.
The trunk of the tree will extend eight or ten feet
above the earth, when the limbs and leaves in vivid green
will occupy a space fifteen feet higher and of the same
width. After the green tree is exhibited in fire then
will come thousands of orange blossoms, which after a
short time will merge into thousands of golden Satsuma
oranges, all in fire and most realistic, presenting a scene
that has never been introduced in pyrotechnics before in
the south. This display will take place every evening
during the festival and form a part of the fireworks
program which includes a large number of set pieces
unique in character and exhibited for the first time in
North and West Florida. Among the aerial bombs each
evening will be explosions several hundred feet in the
air and throwing out hundreds of Satsuma oranges in
The Satsuma Orange parade, which takes place at
noon on Friday, November 15th, will immediately follow
daylight fireworks, among which will be shown an
enormous American flag across the heavens. This parade
will be headed by the Thirteenth Coast Artillery band
of Fort Barrancas, Florida. Other musical organizations
will be in line and the floats, it is believed, will be not
only the most magnificent but greater in numbers than
on any other occasion in the history of North and West

Tallahassee, Fla., Sept. 24.-The first fifteen days of
the 1929-30 citrus fruit season in Florida found federal
and state inspectors clearing nearly 50,000 boxes of
grapefruit, Commissioner of Agriculture Nathan Mayo
was advised by inspection headquarters in South Florida.
Figures on the initial shipments supplied the commis-
sioner showed that 49,595 boxes of grapefruit had been
sent out, including 20,320 from Dade county; 4,957
from Lee; Manatee, 23,448, and Pinellas, 1,452. The
figures were for the period of September 1 to 15. At
the same time, the inspectors cleared 582 boxes of
oranges which had been held in cold storage from last
year. Mr. Mayo expressed optimism over the outlook
for citrus fruit production for the coming year, based
upon first shipments.-Key West Citizen.



(Flashes of Florida Facts, by Moses Folsom, in Florida
The Medfly Situation.-Prof. H. Harold Hume, in the
September issue of the Citrus Industry, says that the
situation in Florida today is but a part of man's scrap
with the living things that has been going on down
through all the ages. Man for a long time was at a dis-
advantage with the larger animals, but by inventions he
has conquered. With the smaller ones he is still at a
disadvantage, from rats, mice and on down to flies, fleas,
mites and a multitude of minute forms of life, not only
personally annoying, but often carriers of disease and
destroyers of clothing, buildings and other material
Professor Hume, while traveling in Spain, had his first
chance to see the destructive work of this particular
member of the fly family. It seems to confine its opera-
tions mostly to ripe fruits and has been known in Medi-
terranean countries for a hundred or more years. How it
secured entry into Florida is not known, but for the first
time in its history it has encountered the opposition of
red-blooded Americans and if determined and concen-
trated effort count for anything it will be checked if not
Insect Pest Survey.-The United States Bureau of
Entomology collects and distributes information on in-
sect conditions throughout the United States. No part of
the country seems to escape trouble and loss. The
September report shows that no less than fifteen differ-
ent kinds of pests are doing damage, of which the follow-
ing is a brief summary:
The Mediterranean fruit fly has caused a good deal of
loss in Florida to the citrus fruit industry in particular,
but energetic work by the forces of the State Plant Board
is limiting its territory and indications are that it will in
time be eliminated or checked.
Grasshoppers are generally destructive over the greater
part of the East Central, West Central and North Central
states, with rather heavy damage in localities throughout
the region of the Rocky Mountains and the Great Basin.
Wire worms are causing heavy losses to growers of
potatoes and grain in parts of Idaho.
Potato bugs have caused considerable damage in
northern California.
The Bertha Army worm is giving serious trouble in
grain fields in parts of North Dakota.
The Hessian fly is present in the wheat fields of sev-
eral eastern states.
The corn root worm is causing severe lodging of corn
in many localities in the East Central and West Central
The apple maggot is reported for the first time in
The Oriental fruit moth is generally serious from Con-
necticut southward to Georgia and westward to Illinois
and Mississippi. In many parts of this region the per-
centages of infestation are high.
The Mexican bean beetle is reported as generally very
destructive over the entire infested territory in the South
Mississippi states.
The banded cucumber beetle is quite numerous in
Southern California and is moving northward in that
The tussock moth is defoliating and killing fir trees in
parts of Idaho.
The bag worm this season seems to be one of unusual

abundance throughout the Middle Atlantic and East
Central states westward to Kansas.
The fall web worm is decidedly more abundant
throughout New England, New York state and Missouri
this year than last.
The sheep botfly is seriously infesting flocks in
Arizona. In one flock of 9,000 sheep over 1,200 were
Most of the destructive pests in this country are im-
ported from other lands and secure entry in ways un-
known, despite the vigilance of inspectors, as for ex-
ample, the coming of the Medfly to Florida. The Medfly
is only one of several hundred kinds of flies in the world
and its appearance in Florida this year has caused large
losses in some localities, but man is master of the earth
and he is not going to allow a fly to overcome him. Like
the citrus canker, the Medfly will have its day and go its


(Tarpon Springs Leader)
Incorporation papers for Tugwell & Wiseman of
Florida, Inc., owners of the canning factory being built
here, were received Saturday from Tallahassee by Archie
Clement. The company is incorporated for $30,000, and
all legal requirements have been met and the charter
Manager Frank Burkhart is pushing the building opera-
tions at the Disston avenue site in an effort to have
everything in readiness for the opening next month. The
early opening date was made necessary by the early ma-
turity of citrus fruits this year. The first plans were for
beginning operations in November, but packers of this
section expect to have fruit early in October. Several
shipments have been made from the state already, the
first from the Bradenton section.
The walls having been completed and the studding
being in, the laying of floors and roof is to be rushed as
much as possible. Installation of working equipment will
require some time after the building is completed and the
builders realize there is no time to be lost.
A continued drive to collect local subscriptions, the
first payments on which are due, is being continued, and
some of these first assessments are coming in. The $5,000
which has been sent here from the New York offices of
Tugwell & Wiseman has not been matched locally as yet,
but sponsors of the factory expect the money to come in
rapidly from now on.
Mr. Burkhart invites every one to visit the factory site
and see the work which is being done. He especially
urges subscribers to the fund to come out and see the
excellent progress made.


(Florida Advocate)
Seventy-two crates of pepper went out from Wauchula
this week, according to records of the local express office.
Twenty-five crates were shipped Monday and forty-
seven Tuesday. The pepper was grown this summer and
is being marketed in Tampa. Nine crates were sent
out a week ago. Many patches are reported almost
ready to pick and within another two weeks shipments
are expected to begin in earnest.




Florida One of Leading and Coming Agricultural


So Says Ralph W. Gwinn in the New York Herald-Tribune Magazine


"America's stepchild!" That is what a large number
of people must have said to themselves when they read,
three months or so ago, that Florida had been hit once
more, this time by the Mediterranean fruit fly; that
her golden harvest of grapefruit and oranges was
threatened by this insect blight.
When they picked up their papers a few weeks later
and learned that in less than three weeks twenty-seven
Florida banks had closed their doors, they probably came
to the conclusion, once and for all, that Fate had put a
"jinx" on this state. Every time the land with the happy
name, the sunny skies, the traditional waters of youth
lifted her head from one blow, she was immediately
struck in the face again. Land boom, hurricanes, insect
pests and bank failures-what country could survive this
succession of calamities?
The answer is that no country could survive them and
rise again triumphant-at least not for a long time-if
it were really just the beautiful plaything that Florida
has been pictured by the rest of the country and-it must
be admitted-by a large per cent of her own population.
For probably more false ideas have been disseminated
about this state than about any other in the Union. She
has had thousands of self-appointed publicity agents
broadcasting her undeniable charm and beauty, yet say-
ing hardly a word about her matter-of-fact, practical,
substantial qualities that support a very stout-hearted
citizenry. They are not nearly so romantic and airy
fairy to read about, but they are the solid bone and
muscle that make her able to stand up and come back
under all the buffets she has received, and are the surest
kind of foundation for her future economic prosperity.
The tourist agencies and railroad circulars, the resort
bulletins and chambers of commerce grow lyrical about
Florida's climate, endless seashores, constant sun rays
and other natural beauties. What they say is all true,
but to dwell on that side alone is like recommending a
stenographer only for her good looks. It isn't Florida's
beauty alone that is bringing back value to her land. It
is what is going on in the hills and flat woods, the inland
country behind the scenes, back of the seacoast stage
The history of every fallen nation points with gloom
to the time when the people began to desert the farms in
large numbers and to huddle in the cities. Abandoned
farms, choking cities were regarded by the historian as
the beginning of the end.
Why, then, don't the boosters broadcast this great fact
about Florida-that she is the only state in the Union to
show a continuous increase in her farm population? That
she is going into agriculture just as other states are going
out. That her program now is: "More emphasis on barns
and less on bathing beauties." This is the cheering fact
for the thousands of people all over the United States
who still own land there and are wondering if all they
hold is the hollow fragment of a broken boom.

It is possible to get plenty of impartial figures to prove
that Florida is one of the leading and coming agricultural
states. The United States Department of Agriculture,
which cannot be accused of the real estate agent's bias,
states that the average value an acre of Florida's farm
products is $109.75. This same even-handed authority
gives the value of Iowa's agricultural products as $12.22
an acre; Illinois as $12.48, and Ohio's as $13.26. It also,
going into detail, informs us that Florida supplies 61
per cent of the nation's peppers, 59 per cent of its egg-
plant, 41 per cent of its table cucumbers, 38 per cent of
its snap-beans and 32 per cent of its celery and table
Most persons imagine that the majority of our citrus
fruit comes from California. As a matter of fact, ap-
proximately 81 per cent of all the grapefruit grown in
North and South America comes from Florida, the
original home of that fruit. Nor are citrus groves and
market gardens the only big sources of her wealth. She
has a large timber industry, and though the first virgin
forest has been cut-with the usual waste and reckless-
ness, it must be admitted-the second growth is sub-
stantial and reforestation is going on at a good pace,
aided by a ten-month growing season.
In addition the state has a flourishing mining industry,
drawing a large revenue from Fuller's earth, kaolin, dia-
tomite, titanium oxide, and especially phosphate, of
which it produces 85 per cent of the world's supply.
All this, moreover, is saying nothing of her finny crop,
already worth about twenty-five million a year and grow-
ing every year more valuable. For from her coast line
of 2,278 miles (several hundred longer than our entire
Pacific Coast) she takes a wealth of Spanish mackerel,
pompano, clams and other fish.
All these are facts pointing to the fundamentally sound
condition of a state that has been hurt almost as greatly
by misguided publicity (much of it from outside) as it
has been harmed by the natural calamities that have
befallen it in the last few years. Encouraging as these
facts are, however, they pale before the even brighter
possibilities which the future holds for Florida agricul-
turally-provided she can learn three lessons.
These are: To develop to the fullest extent the ability
of her soil and climate to produce varied and unusual
crops in which she can have a practical monopoly; to take
full advantage of scientific agricultural methods; to learn
to work in cooperative units, instead of in individual
and often antagonistic units.
The last lesson seems to be the hardest. At present
the state is just a number of separate agricultural and
seashore communities, lumber camps and mining towns.
In the citrus industry alone there are about 154 separate
packing and marketing organizations, all shipping fruit
in competition with each other, sending to the same city
a number of cars when one or two are all the market


can absorb profitably. This is in vivid contrast to the
California citrus industry, which is so well organized that
one association of growers markets 85 per cent of the
state's entire crop.
This lack of agricultural unity hampers the farmer in
other ways, notably in making his voice heard in Wash-
ington. In the proposed tariff legislation scores of
different groups have been running to the capital, one
representing, let us say, the Sanford celery growers,
wanting one thing; another speaking for a different group
with a different theory. As a result, Florida is in danger
of getting no tariff relief at all.
The first lesson for the state to learn, the one which
holds the greatest hopes for the future and at which great
progress is being made, is to make the fullest use, agri-
culturally, of her really wonderful climate and diversity
of soils. Mr. David Fairchild, stationed for years in
south Florida, experimenting for the Federal Department
of Agriculture, has found that the state can grow most
of the fruit and medicinal and perfumery plants found
in the Old World, especially those native to India and
China. A good example of the commercial possibilities
of this fact is the Tung oil tree, or China wood oil tree, a
cousin of our well known poinsettia. This plant bears
an oil nut from which we import annually from other
countries about $20,000,000 worth of oil for use in paints,
varnishes and general insulation. After experiments and
plantings had been made in various states, it was dis-
covered by B. F. Williamson and the University of Florida
at Gainesville that the Tung oil tree grew particularly
well in this locality in northern Florida. Thousands of
acres of it are now under cultivation there by the Amer-
ican Paint and Varnish Association, and at the Penney
Farms near Green Cove Springs. This tree may prove
as valuable to north Florida as a field of oil gushers;
it grows in the whitest, most worthless looking soil and,
because of its oily nature, is free from insects and fungus
Its story illustrates some of the scientific work that
is going on to adjust the plant life of the Old World to
Florida's soil and climate. For successful farming in
Florida depends, perhaps more than anywhere else, on
choosing the right crop for the soil. The soil in Florida
is so varied, even within a small radius, that guesswork
almost always fails. Railroad and land promoters cannot
dump their colonists on the sidings, as they did when the
Middle West was settled, secure in the knowledge that
the pioneers could not go wrong if they planted corn or
wheat in the black prairie sod.
Farmers who contemplate moving to Florida, there-
fore, should first provide themselves with accurate data
on soils and crop treatment at the State and Federal
experimental stations or from dependable, well organ-
ized private projects; or they should move into a com-
munity where knowledge of the local crops and soils
has been thoroughly worked out from experience. For
instance, at Penney Farms, near Green Cove Springs, a
soil and crop map is made for each farm by a staff of
experts maintained for the purpose. Many of these maps
show five distinct types of soil on a single twenty-acre
farm. They indicate exactly what crops will grow, in
which fields, what fertilizer is needed and the kind of cul-
tivation found most successful.
It is lack of knowledge of this kind that has driven
many would-be settlers in Florida away from her borders
after they have failed to make good. They have come
to the state with no knowledge of conditions and no
expert guidance on arrival. Left to their own resources,

they naturally have attempted to practice agriculture as
they had done it back home, and they have not succeeded.
Bitter and disappointed, they have fled the state and
spread ruinous and untrue stories about her agricul-
tural possibilities.
However, not only must Florida experiment, as she is
now doing, to find out the greatest diversity of valuable
crops which will succeed within her borders; she must
learn, whenever she has made a new crop discovery, to
sell the product to the rest of the country and to create
a demand and a market for it, if one does not already
The state can and does produce many new varieties
of fruits of delicious quality and great food value which
it scarcely markets at all, except as luxuries. Among
these are mangoes, avocados, papayas, guavas, Japanese
persimmons and a dozen others.
In creating this market and in transporting its agricul-
tural products, Florida should be greatly aided by the fact
that it is "transportation minded." It already has forty-
five seaports, 1,200 miles of inland waterways, a net-
work of railways in almost every county, and 7,858 miles
of one of the finest hard surfaced road systems in the
country. It is even a leader in air transport. In 1914
Anthony Janus opened a flying boat ferry from Tampa
to St. Petersburg, the first air transportation line in the
United States. There is a daily air mail route from
Atlanta to Miami, connecting with all parts of the
country, a daily passenger line between Miami and
Havana, and a mail and passenger route between Miami
and Nassau operating three times a week. The Pan-
American Airways station at Miami, built in anticipation
of a great South American trade, reminds one of busy
European air stations, with their bustle of passengers
and baggage. There are twenty-six other airports in as
many cities and towns in the state.
Florida's population has doubled in the last eight years,
most of the new-comers being people of modest means
who have not come to frolic on the beach, but to build
homes and till the soil. They are the backbone of a new
prosperity, and they cannot easily be broken by calamity.
Their heads bent before the hurricanes, but they remem-
bered that California has had its earthquakes; Ohio, Ver-
mont and the whole Mississippi Valley their floods,
Kansas its tornadoes. They were worried over the fruit
fly and hysterical for a while when their banks failed, one
after the other.
But soon they took courage with the thought that the
Mediterranean fruit fly had never really met Uncle Sam
before, and the government began to grow optimistic
about curbing the pest. The Federal scientific pest
fighters promptly spread a sweet poison paste on the
ground and sprayed the trees with a special gas. Possibly
Nature herself helped by feeding the invaders a deadly
fungus growth. At any rate, no flies have been found
alive in the last six weeks. The heads of Florida's fruit
growers are raised again, and the whole state feels re-
Then, too, they realized that failures of small country
banks brought on by the fly scare are not confined to
their state (more failed last year in Nebraska) and are,
fundamentally, the result of an outgrown system of
country banking rather than an indication of general
So the Florida farmers and growers look at their
climate, their rich soil, their abundant sunshine and rain-
fall, their wealth of natural resources, and say to them-
selves: "While these last, Florida cannot be beaten."



Clearwater Markets a Total of 10,980 Boxes

(Clearwater Sun and Herald)
C. H. Taylor, federal permit agent, said today that up
to this morning he had certified for shipment to northern
markets thirty cars of grapefruit from this district,
which includes Elfers. The fine weather of the past few
days has greatly facilitated picking, and there is general
activity both in groves and the packing houses.
Only grapefruit has been shipped. All of it came
from zone two of the Medfly quarantine, and did not
require sterilization.
According to the latest Clearing House Association re-
port the average price for No. 1 grapefruit was $4.95,
freight-free. The packing house and other charges would
amount to $1.25, leaving for the grower $3.70 a box,
assuming, of course, that all his product is No. 1 without
The average car consists of 366 boxes. In thirty cars
there would be 10,980 boxes. If all commanded a net
of $3.70, that would mean a total of $40,626 for the
growers of this section. The total shipment from Florida
so far this season is 346 cars, practically all grapefruit.
David Bilgore, of David Bilgore & Company, who
through his New York plant is one of the largest citrus
handlers in the country and who is now in Clearwater,
said today: "The fruit is fine and the market is excellent.
We are confident that quarantine regulations will soon be
modified, and then all will be well."
No fruit grown in Zone One and requiring sterilization
has as yet been shipped from the Clearwater district.
One carload is now undergoing sterilization by cooling at
the plant of the West Coast Company, and another is
being processed in similar manner by the Tampa Union
Terminal Company. Neither of these will be ready for
shipment before next week. A test car has gone out
from Cocoa and the results will probably be known in a
few days.
The citrus industry was greatly encouraged by the
letter of Dr. C. Marlatt, federal chief of the quarantine,
to United States Senator Duncan U. Fletcher, of Florida.
Dr. Marlatt in this letter says:
"Consideration is being given to the authorization of
the movement of unsterilized fruit from the areas there-
tofore known as infested zones to the northeastern states.
It is in fact the expectation that means will be provided
for the shipment of all Florida fruit of this coming crop,
even though there may be some of the crop for which no
sterilization facilities are available."


Estimate of 600 Acres for Picking Within Next
Sixty Days

(Everglades News)
Picking will be under way within 60 days on between
600 to 1,000 acres of beans in the South Bay territory,
by the estimate of V. C. Denton, who operates general
merchandise stores at South Bay, Belle Glade and Pa-
A part of what is regarded as the South Bay territory
lies east of North New River canal and that area is served

by two pumps in a unit of South Florida conservancy
district, in consequence of which it has a measure of
water control that is expected to prove sufficient.
Another part of the South Bay territory is west of
North New River canal and is embraced in the South
Shore drainage district, of which Mr. Denton is one of
the three supervisors. The South Shore district has
authority to issue bonds for a pumping plant, but the
supervisors see no need for exercising their bonding
authority at this time.
In the coming season South Bay will have what it has
never had before-railroad service and a good main
road, additional to the improved drainage facilities.


Two Cars, with Like Shipment from California,
First on Sale

(St. Petersburg Times)
Tallahassee, Sept. 21.-(A.P.)-Two cars of grapes
each from Florida and California opened the 1929 grape
season, the United States department of agriculture
bureau of agricultural economics announced.
The initial shipments were made in June, with those
to August 17 totaling 2,522 cars as compared with 4,430
to the same time last season, the bureau said.
The bureau forecast better conditions among the grape
growers, largely, it was stated, the result of lower volume
of production of grapes and other fruits as compared
with crops of the last few years. Present prospects, it
was added, were that the total production of grapes in
1929 would be about one-fifth less than that in either
1927 or 1928, and nearly 200,000 tons below the five-
year average. The condition of the crop on August 1
indicated that the 1929 crop of grapes would be about
2,060,778 tons for the country as a whole.
In states other than California, prospects early in
August pointed to a crop about one-tenth less than last
season, the bureau added. Michigan, New York and
Pennsylvania reported the grapes generally of good
quality. Considerable damage by hail and black-rot in
the Ozarks was reported.
Total carlot shipments of grapes filled more than 80,000
cars last year and 82,566 the season before, in addition
to a rather heavy movement by motor truck, the report
The bureau also said the market outlook for table
grapes seemed comparatively good, in view of the fact,
it was explained, that it is a light year for most other


There has been on display in one of the Arcadian win-
dows the past few days what is called a sugar apple,
which was raised by P. H. Hooker of this city in the
yard at his home and brought to the office. It has at-
tracted wide attention, and very few people who have
stopped to see it have ever seen one before. It is nearly
round, three inches in diameter, and its surface consists
of wart-like protuberances, which gives it much the
appearance of a small bunch of green grapes. Mr.
Hooker says the apple is edible, cooks into an appetizing
dish, and is quite popular as jelly material.



Work of Constructing Building to House Baling
and Ginning Machinery Already Under
Way-Industry to Furnish Much Em-
ployment in This Section

(Citrus County Chronicle)
Inverness is at last coming into its own in an in-
dustrial way. The first major industry to be established
in this section is now in the process of developing and
will be ready for business in record time.
The Fleming brothers, W. S. and J. A., of Miami, and
Cleveland, Ohio, will furnish Inverness its first big in-
dustrial activity and people in every walk of life here are
lending every support to the new institution, which gives
every promise of furnishing employment to a great num-
ber of people, and putting this city on the map as it
should be.
All of the above has reference to the moss industry.
Doesn't sound very big just to say "moss industry," does
it? But it really is a big business. Several institutions in
various parts of Florida have been in operation for a
number of years, and have proved in every way that the
moss business is a big business, and this section, that is
the immediate section around Inverness, will furnish a
bountiful supply of moss, if the necessary pickers can be
found to bring it in.
The Fleming brothers have secured a location on the
Seaboard "Y" just west of the Inverness Manufacturing
Lumber and Mill Work Plant, and construction has
already been started on the first unit of the factory,
which is to be 40x60 feet. Baxter Morrison has charge
of the construction work and has been instructed to rush
the building to completion in the shortest possible time.
The factory building will be modern in every respect,
with special attention being given to light, ventilation and
other features that will make it pleasant for the em-
ployees, and give the greatest efficiency in ginning and
baling the moss product. Machinery for ginning and
baling has been ordered and is expected to arrive here
in the next few days.
The Flemings have decided to call the institution The
Inverness Fibre Company, and will operate under that
name. When the plant gets into full capacity, they ex-
pect to ship a car of ginned moss every day, providing
sufficient pickers can be had, and the best part of this
is, the cash is always on hand for those who bring in
cured moss in any quantities.
What It Is Used For
It is not generally known, but moss that has been
cured and properly ginned makes the very best material
obtainable for upholstering both furniture and automo-
bile seats, and is in great demand in the furniture and
automobile manufacturing centers.
Of course the factory will not buy green moss. Those
who pick it are expected to cure it before bringing it to
the plant, and many have been employed in this work
already. After the work of cleaning, curing and ginning
has been completed, nothing remains of the moss except
the very small black hair, or fibre that runs through the
center of the green moss. This is called moss, or vege-
table hail, and is very strong and durable, as well as
being sanitary in every way.
The owners of this new industry are spending con-
siderable time in various sections of the county lining

up employees to pick moss and cure it against the time
when the plant opens, and they are desirous of getting
a large supply ahead in order that the plant can be kept
in continuous operation, and it will require a great
amount of moss to accomplish this purpose. Those who
want to work and who will spend time gathering moss
can make good money at it and are assured of a cash
market for the cured product.
This is the first real industry to become interested in
Inverness, and the Chronicle joins with every citizen in
the county in wishing every success for the Fleming
brothers in this new enterprise.


Offers to Finance 300 Acres of Tobacco in
Columbia County

(Columbia Gazette)
A decided impetus to the bright leaf industry in Co-
lumbia county is fully expected from the decision to
locate here of W. C. Burch, tobacco expert, formerly of
the Piedmont section of North Carolina, and now an ex-
tensive bright leaf grower in the Jasper and Jennings
section. He will have desk room at the Chamber of
Commerce and will arrange, to the extent of 300 acres,
to furnish farmers with seed and fertilizer for plant bed,
and shingles, brick and flues for the barn, 1,000 pounds
of fertilizer per acre, and do all demonstration work in
return for 50 per cent of the crop. Already sixty acres
have been signed up and Secretary Karstedt fully expects
to have the total 300 acres signed up in the not distant
Mr. Burch is not only an expert in growing and curing
the tobacco, but is exceptionally competent on the to-
bacco warehouse floor so far as judging grades and prices
is concerned, according to information secured by Secre-
tary Karstedt. Mr. Burch will not only see that the to-
bacco is properly planted, cultivated, harvested and
cured, but he will also see to its sale without additional
cost to the grower.
It is a significant fact that after having raised tobacco
in North Carolina for the past three years, and after
having made a survey of the entire bright leaf belt in
Georgia and Florida, that he selected Columbia county as
the best tobacco territory of them all.
Farmers desiring to raise tobacco where the element
of financial risk is reduced to a minimum are asked to
consult Secretary Karstedt at.the Chamber of Commerce
regarding Mr. Burch's offer.

The possibilities in growing the tung oil nut in Santa
Rosa county are practically untried so far, yet, from the
splendid growth that the few trees that have been set
out here are making it would seem that the soil and cli-
mate are ideal for the growth of this tree. There are a
few of these trees growing on Margaret Place, six miles
west of Milton, that taken as an average would indicate
great adaptability of this section to the growing of these
trees. Fifteen-inch stalks set out last spring have now
attained a height of from four to six feet and are still
growing. We suggest that a number of our prosperous
planters plan to set out at least an acre each to these
trees next spring. Let's give them a trial, at least.
Tung oil groves are making money for growers in other
sections. Why should they not do so for Santa Rosa
county farmers?-Milton Gazette.





Address by L. M. Rhodes to Agricultural Extension Agents' Meeting at Gainesville, Florida,
October 4th, 1929

Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen:
The subject assigned me has so many angles, is con-
fronted with so many problems, is affected by so many
factors and requires so many different activities, it would
take a week to thoroughly discuss the subject.
The fruit and vegetable industry of the United States,
including all its material aspects, is approximately a
$2,000,000,000 business.
There are in round number 1,000,000 carloads of fruit
and vegetables about equally divided. There are more
than thirty different commodities, many of them essen-
tially different in their marketing requirements.
That means that each 130 people in the United States
must consume a carload of fruits and vegetables annually.
This gigantic industry, producing commodities with a
value equal to $1.00 per capital for the entire population
of the world, is only a part of a world-wide fruit and
vegetable industry, many sections of which compete with
each other, in the world's leading markets.
The products of these two industries taken together are
increasing three and one-half times as rapidly as the
population of the United States.
And the conditions that affect the supply, demand, dis-
tribution, marketing and consumption of fruits and vege-
tables are nation-wide, sometimes world-wide.
The competition in production and marketing of any
commodity materially affects the sale and price of the
product, and the profit to the producer.
There is no denying that our citrus fruit exports must
meet citrus fruits from Spain, Palestine, Brazil, South
Africa, Porto Rico and the Isle of Pines (Florida ex-
ported 255,755 boxes last season-total exports from the
United States were 781,447 boxes), and that our winter
vegetables must meet with competition from Mexico,
Cuba; Bahama and Bermuda; and that developments in
world-wide transportation are bringing the produce from
the most distant producing regions into the large central
market, to be later distributed among all smaller markets.
This makes profitable outlets for our fruit and vege-
table products one of our biggest agricultural problems in
Florida produced 114,000 carloads of fruits and vege-
tables last season, which is more than 10% of our
national output.
Florida citrus fruits represents a $300,000,000 to
$400,000,000 industry. During the past five years, there
have been produced and shipped 87,329,365 boxes of
citrus fruits from Florida, which have brought to mar-
keting agencies $243,475,545 or an average of $48,-
695,109 per annum.
The production, picking, hauling, packing and selling of
these five crops cost the producers, not including interest
on investment, taxes, upkeep and depreciation, $167,-
988,576, leaving to the grower for the five crops $75,-
486,969 or an average of $15,097,394 per annum.
The cost of picking, hauling, packing and selling the
87,329,365 boxes shipped during these five years, in
round numbers, was $109,161,706, or $33,674,737 more
for picking, hauling, packing and selling than the grower
received; or the grower received an average over five

years of 86 cents per box out of which he had to pay
interest on investment, taxes, depreciation and upkeep;
and the packers and marketing agencies got at least
$1.25 per box.
To my mind this proves one thing-that we have
packed and sold too much poor quality of fruit, which
paid for packing, transportation and selling, but did not
make the grower a profit.
Let us compare our two last crops. During the season
of 1927-28 we shipped 13,635,360 boxes, which brought
to marketing agencies $51,424,099.20, and netted the
growers $25,151,097.60. During the 1928-29 season we
shipped 23,239,645 boxes, which brought to marketing
agencies $49,035,794.50 and netted the growers $5,038,-
711.65. The amount the growers received on the tree
was $19,986,238, but it cost them $14,947,526 to produce
it, leaving them only $5,038,711. The picking, hauling,
packing and selling amounted to $29,049,556.25, or more
than five times as much as the growers received.
Certainly we picked, packed, shipped and sold several
million boxes of fruit which brought the growers noth-
ing and in some instances less than nothing. I leave you
to form your own conclusion as to who is getting the
profit out of the citrus industry of Florida.
But I will say that with an industry running into hun-
dreds of millions in value of investment, with a gross
productive value of more than $50,000,000 annually, the
life, profit and continuation of which depends on a fair
profit to the producer, the growers should see to it that
quality and grade are maintained by efficient inspection
and the market properly fed, and that poor fruit, which
will bring only packing, sales and freight charges, is kept
off the market.
With the production of citrus fruits increasing much
more rapidly than the population, the maintenance of a
superior grade and quality, and the regulation of ship-
ments to the keen demand of the trade, is extremely
If those managing the marketing machinery are not
willing to maintain a grade, eliminate poor quality and
pack only such fruit as will bring a profit to the growers,
the growers will be compelled to save the industry and
themselves, by enforcing grade and eliminating the ship-
ment of unprofitable fruit.
Can growers do it? The California Fruit Growers Ex-
change, with 11,000 grower members, selling 73 to 75
per cent of the citrus fruit of that state, regulate ship-
ments, enforce grade and maintain quality.
Since nature does not produce anything of uniform
quality, but does produce people with varying taste and
peculiar preferences, careful grading and standardization
is becoming universal and Florida citrus must meet the
requirements. Culls and poor quality must be kept out
of the crate if we expect to meet competition and sell
at a profit to the grower.
Personally, I have always believed that the Citrus
Growers Clearing House should adopt U. S: shipping
point inspection, that its member packers should abso-
lutely be forbidden to pack and ship fruit below certain
specified grades, and I believe the contents and grade


should be stamped on every box of fruit shipped. This
would raise the standard of fruit shipped, increase the
price and income to grower, give Florida fruit a better
reputation in the markets, and increase the profits of the
industry as a whole.
Vegetables, which constitute one-half of the perishable
tonnage in the United States, also constitute a large and
important part of the perishable tonnage of Florida, and
is a very important link in our chain of marketing.
During the past five years we have shipped out of
Florida vegetables and fruits other than citrus, 221,485
cars, just 20,210 cars less than our citrus shipments for
the same period.
These shipments have had a total value of approxi-
mately $125,000,000, or an annual average of something
like $25,000,000.
Marketing these vegetables in Florida, as everywhere
else, is a system of exchanging our products to pur-
chasers who want them at prices fixed by conditions and
demand for them, by consumers of other sections, and
the supply from competitive sources at the time we are
The supply of fresh vegetables is almost unlimited;
so our truck crops must meet a regular supply and the
keenest kind of competitive selling.
The truck crops of Florida during the past eight sea-
sons have averaged 13,154,123 crates shipped from an
average of 81,562 acres, and have been forced to com-
pete in the market with 51,139,825 crates shipped from
282,556 acres in competitive areas in the United States
at the same time Florida shipments were going on the
There are 2,500,000 acres of vegetables produced in
the U. S. Some of the products from this acreage go into
cold storage to compete with Florida products, and, as I
said in the outset, we have strong foreign competition.
During the first two months of our last shipping sea-
son, Bahama, Cuba, and Mexico shipped 1,438 cars of
tomatoes, while Florida was shipping 580 cars.
Where competition exists between similar products
over vast producing areas, marketing during the same
period, these products must reach the market in the
quantities wanted, in the condition most desired at the
time they are needed most, and the grade must be en-
tirely satisfactory. In fact, under modern conditions
when the markets of the world are filled, and confronted
with ample supplies of fresh vegetables and often sur-
pluses rotting in the fields.
Excellence in quality is the keynote to successful sell-
For the unchangeable, ironclad, inexorable rule is for
produce to sell on its merits.
If we dump our truck crops on glutted markets re-
gardless of supply, demand or quality, we will meet dis-
And even though we produce a fine quality of vege-
tables and allow them to reach the market ungraded, in
poor condition, caused by improper handling, we will
suffer disappointment and loss.
Poor quality of produce causes dissatisfied consumers,
and dissatisfaction among consumers has a tendency to
decrease the demand and increase the supplies.
Waste must be eliminated through simplified stand-
ardization of both products and processes.
The marketing must be carried on with the greatest
degree of economy and efficiency.
Widespread distribution and continued demand at the
least expense, and securing a profit for growers at the

smallest outlay, are questions of vital interest to the
vegetable industry.
There is but one way to successfully obtain these re-
sults, and that is through some form of group action or
cooperative effort.
For after all is said and done, cooperative marketing
in its broadest sense is the producer's agency of united
action just as the corporation is the business man's way
of bringing about commercial unity.
Regulation of shipments, maintenance of grades and
quality, uniformity of pack, an accurate system of market
reporting covering the entire industry, are imperative.
A careful system of inspection, financing the grower
according to his need at reasonable rates of interest,
advertising, preventing mal-adjustments in production,
are all factors that can be put into practice easier by
organization than individual action. Competition among
growers themselves can only be avoided by producer
And while I realize that there are no leaps and bounds
in normal growth, and that permanent improvement or
substantial progress are never momentary, that blazing
new trails takes time and that lasting economic changes
come slowly, I believe the time is not far distant in
Florida when the leading vegetable growers cooperative
associations in the state should unite their efforts in a
state-wide grower-owned and grower-controlled purely
cooperative association, and run it for the benefit of the
growers and the industry and the development of this im-
portant branch of agriculture in the state.


(Cocoa Tribune)
Gainesville, Fla.-Florida has taken its place in the
commercial production of narcissus bulbs, according to
J. C. Goodwin, nursery inspector of the State Plant
Board. The storage inspection of narcissus bulbs has
just been completed, and, according to official figures,
145 Florida growers produced over 82,000,000 bulbs this
season, with paper whites predominating. This is nearly
43 per cent of the total of the United States production.
According to inspection reports, 64,500,000 paper
whites, 14,500,000 Chinese sacred, 2,000,000 Soleil D'Ors
and 1,000,000 miscellaneous bulbs were harvested. Ap-
proximately 20,000,000 of these were round, marketable
bulbs, although not that many will be marketed.
Mr. Goodwin says that Florida-grown bulbs are being
welcomed in the northern markets to replace foreign
bulbs formerly imported. Inspectors report that the
quality of Florida bulbs this year is quite good.
So far, Florida bulbs are free of the major bulb pests.
State and federal inspectors, after careful checks, have
not been able to find the greater and lesser bulb flies in
the state.


(Manatee County Advertiser)
Overstreet Brothers' packing house at Palmetto has
been completed and placed in commission at a cost of
$30,000. This is the newest packing plant in the Mana-
tee river district. It will handle fruit and vegetables.
The Overstreets have engaged in packing enterprises
in Florida and Cuba for the last fifteen years.



Says It Portrays Florida in All of Its Glory in
Paintings and Actual Products

(Muskogee, Okla., Democrat)
Florida is spending thousands of dollars advertising
immense land acreage and advantages to homesteaders
by displays at various state fairs throughout the United
An extensive exhibit is being placed here at the Okla-
homa Free State Fair by J. A. Mackintosh and J. P. Brown
of Tallahassee, state capital of Florida, representing the
State Board of Agriculture.
This display will occupy, according to Mackintosh, a
space 15 feet high, 400 feet long and 12 feet deep. Two
distinct booths will contain the display of the various
Also Show Sponges
One booth displays hays, grains and forage which is
grown in northern Florida. In this mammoth show will
be seen 109 varieties of forage plants, 49 varieties of
seeds, wrapper and cigarette tobaccos for which this sec-
tion of Florida is famous in producing. Tropical and
sub-tropical fruits and vegetables are shown in glass
jars, which the 4-H club girls put up for the State Board
of Agriculture to use in this booth. There are 180 varie-
ties in glass and 25 sub-tropical fruits preserved in
The second booth is given over to a varied lot of
products of the state, mostly horticultural and agricul-
tural, also fishes, sponges and seagrass. In this display
are sponges and coral displays well worth seeing.
The sponge industry of Florida is something peculiar,
Mackintosh said. Many people believe sponges grow like
any other sea plant, but this is not the case. They are
built up by myriads of sea larva or worms, the holes in
the sponges representing the place where the small animal
or insect was housed while the sponges were being pro-
duced. This is a gelatin-like mass which is squeezed out
of the sponges when they are brought up from the depths.
Greeks Do Work
The coarsest sponges grow near the surface from a few
feet down to 30 feet and those of the better quality and
finer texture which bring the most money grow some-
times 60 or more feet down and are attached to the
coral reefs.
At Tarpon Springs the greatest amount of sponges are
produced. The sponge industry amounts to $7,000,000
annually and the villages which are occupied by the
sponge divers and their families are indeed picturesque.
Even the ships they sail for this work are of ancient type,
coming from the Mediterranean sea, and with their gay
painted sails making up a variously tinted picture on the
sea of this sponge community.
Greeks wholly are employed in this work. They get
$5 an hour and work in relays of five for two hours a
day with huge baskets lowered to the bottom of the
sponge fields. These divers go about working fast with
big long knives, cut the sponge off and throw them into
the baskets. The life of a sponge worker is seldom over
15 years when they retire, Mackintosh said.
Fishing Big Industry
The villages have their own schools, restaurants and
churches and other places of amusement as they do in

Greece and of the same type. Four thousand men are
employed in this industry.
Florida has more than 400 varieties of edible fish on
the west coast, which is the Gulf of Mexico proper. They
shipped more than 137,000,000 pounds of fish last year
from this section.
Florida is 107 years old since statehood and now has
37,000,000 acres of land of which only 4.23 per cent is in
use and all of it is capable of being used, Mackintosh
Twenty-six counties which are more specifically repre-
sented by booth No. 1 are devoted largely to dairying
and general farming, while the remaining of the 67
counties which the state has are more strictly belonging
to the east coast and tropical regions of the state.
Tallahassee, the capital, is located 32 miles from the
coast and half way between Jacksonville and Pensacola;
has rather a romantic history as to its origin. When the
state capital was to be located three men were chosen
from each, Jacksonville and Pensacola, leaving at the
same time and the capitol was to be built where they
met. They were met by Chief Tallahassee of the Semi-
noles and conducted to the seven hills where now stands
the City of Tallahassee, named in honor of this chief.
Many of the names of towns, counties and townships in
Florida have Indian names.
Those attending the Oklahoma State Fair will miss a
treat if they do not see this display. It is the best oppor-
tunity they have ever had to see Florida in all of its
glory portrayed in both paintings and actual products.


(Florida State News)
Seventy-five hogs ranging near 200 pounds in weight
were shipped this morning to an Atlanta, Ga., concern,
following the first Leon county cooperative hog sale of
the year, County Agent G. C. Hodge announced.
The shipment was bought f. o. b. Tallahassee at 8%
cents for tops, with a differential of 1 cent, according to
Five farmers furnished hogs for the sale, which was
consummated for prices lower than usual for this time
of the year, according to County Agent Hodge. J. H.
Lewis, state live stock and field crop marketing specialist,
helped market the shipment.


(Tampa Tribune)
Ocala.-Purchase of between 75,000,000 and 80,-
000,000 feet of lumber stumpage on approximately
35,000 acres of land in Palm Beach county by the Long
Leaf Lumber Company of York, Florida, was announced
here today. The tract was purchased from Percy
Thigpen, local wholesale lumber operator, and lies south
of the St. Lucie canal. Thigpen purchased the tract in
October, 1928, from the Land Company of Florida, a
subsidiary of the Seaboard Air Line railway.
The Long Leaf Lumber Company operates mills at
Indiantown and at York. Officials of the company said
that since their establishment in Florida in 1928, the con-
cern has invested more than $750,000 in the state.



Virgin Soils Are Being Put to Work in Collier

(Collier County News)
On the opposite side of the canal from the Janes-Gaunt
Farm on the Tamiami Trail, in Collier county, will be
located what is thought to be one of the largest tomato
farms in Florida. The Byrd Tomato Corporation has
already acquired a block of land one mile along the
highway and reaching 11/ miles north. West of tnis is
another 350 acres which will be set to tomatoes and
across the Tamiami Trail and west of the Janes-Gaunt
farm is a third block which is to be used for the same
purpose. The Byrd Corporation alone expects to have a
thousand acres under cultivation this winter.
This company has erected fifteen or twenty small
houses on their site, and in a few weeks is planning to
build a large boarding house and a sleeping hall. At the
rush of the season about 400 men will be employed on
this one field, and buildings must be had to provide for
them. This company plans to erect a packing house large
enough to handle all the tomatoes grown in this section,
with the exception of whatever may be grown on the
Janes-Gaunt farm.
This land is virgin soil. The public knew little about
what possibilities it offered until last year when the
Janes-Gaunt development started. This company put
under cultivation a farm of three hundred acres, from
which it packed 150 cars of tomatoes.
In speaking of this crop, a man who for 22 years has
been growing tomatoes in the muck lands of Florida,
stated that in all of his experience he had never seen a
more magnificent field of tomatoes. It is reported that
sections of it yielded as high as a car per acre. The fruit
sold at a price ranging from $1,500 to $1,800 per car.
After the improvements on the farm were paid for, and
all expenses were met, this company cleared $100,000
from land which has been scoffed at by hundreds of
people from over the United States.
But such scoffing does not come from Florida's greatest
tomato growers. They seem to be stirred with the en-
thusiasm of the man who had found just what he had
been hoping for. They often say, "If there were better
tomato land in the state we would be cultivating it." Or
again, "This is real tomato land." When it is realized
that these farmers have spent a lifetime in specializing
in this one crop, their judgment is to be respected.
In spite of the popular notion that muck soils are the
most fertile in the world, any farmer who knows his sub-
ject will say that they are far from ideal. They have
passed through only the first steps in the process of
manufacturing soil. These processes are carried through
ages of time. The creation of soil is nature's greatest
work for mankind, because it is a process which has re-
quired millions of years, and which has involved billions
of horsepower of energy. The soil in this section of
Collier county has passed through those chemical and
physical stages which assimilate the plant foods, the
humus, and the silt into a mature, high grade product.
Few places in the world provide more ideal tempera-
tures for agriculture than Collier county. The Ever-
glades weather sub-station reported the following for the
year 1928:
January mean temperature 63.3, February 69.3, March
69.5, April 73.5, May 75.5, June 81, July 82.1, August
82.4, September 81.5, October 77.5, November 71.4, De-

cember 66.4. The temperature which is most favorable to
life is around 70 degrees. The average for this year was
The corporations which have taken over the develop-
ment of these resources are so organized that it is
thought they will overcome any limitation which they
may encounter in this field. The organization is made
up of men who have spent years in specializing in tomato
culture. In this way the risk of mismanagement has
been reduced to a minimum. These companies will not
undertake this development until they have sufficient
funds to carry them over several years operation. Just
as it has been found in developing the oil fields that a
company must have money enough to distribute the risk
over a wide territory, an organization in this field must
be able to distribute the risk of uncertain markets over
several years time. These methods are the only means
by which the tomato industry has ever been placed on a
dependable basis.
These men, who know the tomato business, expect a
rush for this land following this year. They believe
that the county will become the greatest tomato grow-
ing center in the state.


Census of 1930 May Take Up Vital Question

(Lake City Reporter)
"How are you going to keep 'em down on the farm?"
This is the question that the census of 1930 may help
to answer, if a recommendation of the advisory com-
mittee of experts of the Census Bureau is followed.
The suggestion is that in the census of 1930 there
should be made the first comprehensive survey of migra-
tion from American farms to the industrial and business
life of the cities.
The proposed examination would be confined to the
simple question as to whether each person enumerated
in the population count of the country has left the farm
within the past year.
The information is expected by statistical experts not
only to give an exact answer to the question of migra-
tion, but to pave the way for supplemental examination
of the causes.
The information, it is declared, will provide oppor-
tunity for an answer to the question: "How are you
going to keep 'em down on the farm?"
Census experts know that there has been a strong
drift from the farm in the last decade, as revealed by
the difference between rural and city population, but
estimates have varied greatly.


(Everglades News)
The indicated total production of onions in the
northern states is slightly more than 18,600,000 bushels,
according to the reports received by the United States
Department of Agriculture as of September 1. This
is approximately the same production indicated a month
ago, and corresponds with an estimated production of
18,637,000 bushels in 1927. Compared with the pro-
duction of 1928, which was the lowest in the past five
years, the 1929 expected production, if realized, will
exceed last year's very short crop by more than 45 per



Well Known Technical Writer Gives Develop-
ments in Tung Oil and Orange and
Grapefruit Canning

(Lakeland Ledger)
Under the caption, "Ideas That Increase Prosperity,"
Floyd W. Parsons, who writes for the Saturday Evening
Post and other publications, on invention, economics and
kindred subjects, has an article in a recent issue of The
Shoe Retailer that will be of peculiar interest to Florida
people at this time. The following paragraphs are repro-
duced from his article:
We are only now commencing to understand that agri-
culture is a field rich in romance. Take, for instance, the
ancient tung tree of China. Who would have believed
a few years ago that the mere transplanting of this tree
in the soil of Florida would result in the development of
an entirely new industry that may reach large propor-
tions? The first tung seeds were planted in Florida
nearly 23 years ago. The first crop of nuts was gathered
recently, and through the operation of an interesting new
process a large quantity of tung oil was extracted. This
oil possesses qualities that make it valuable in the manu-
facture of paint, varnish, insulation materials, rubber
products and many other articles.
Strange as it may seem, the tung tree does better in
Florida than in its native China. It promises to give
Florida a permanent supply of oil above ground. More
than $1,000,000 have been expended in this experiment
and the future looks bright for a successful outcome. No
other oil is so satisfactory for many uses as that pro-
duced from the tung nut. Even where cellulose paints
and varnishes are employed, tung oil is generally required
as an undercoat to prevent the quick-drying materials
from peeling off.
A New Oil Industry
Here we have the makings of another new industry.
Several hundred thousand acres of American land will
soon be growing tung trees. China will lose an oil busi-
ness worth $15,000,000. Yankee ingenuity is already at
work modernizing this age-old business. The first little
tung-oil plant in Florida now produces only 60 gallons an
hour, but even this small output is equal to that obtained
from the crude efforts of 1,000 Chinese coolies.
Machinery similar to that in the handling of peanuts and
castor-oil beans has been modified to fit the processes
required in the extraction of tung oil. In Florida the
trees grow best in a slightly acid soil, and the tung nuts,
which ripen in the autumn, are allowed to dry and cure
on the ground just as they fall.
Turn for a moment to the citrus-growing industry.
For years it has been evident that tens of millions of
dollars would be saved if only a way could be found to
preserve the juice of oranges and grapefruit without
impairment of flavor or nutritive value. Now comes an
electric process that has a distinct advantage over the
heat-treating bacteria without affecting the flavor. The
bacteria comes into contact with the electrodes and the
vibrations set up in the tanks destroy them. The bottled
juice has no cooked taste and will keep indefinitely. The
first plant employing this process will soon be in opera-
tion in Florida and its entire output for the first season
has already been contracted for by dealers in New York
and other large centers.
Of almost equal interest is the discovery of a method

of producing dried citrus-fruit juice. The juice of
oranges and lemons is mixed with a little corn sugar
which aids the drying. Through the use of this product,
one may prepare instantly a high-grade lemonade or
orangeade that is healthful and in no wise synthetic. All
such plans are helping to remedy the tremendous losses
that the citrus industry has suffered in recent years
through not being able to market excess fruit, or utilize
undersized or discolored fruit, which while not attractive,
still possesses real food value. We are coming fast to the
time when the entire citrus crop of America will be mar-
keted in its raw form, converted into juice and powder,
or used in the production of such things as pectin, citric
acid and oils.


United States Imports $7,000,000 Pepper,
13,000,000 Pounds Mustard, and Others
in Proportion

(American Eagle)
Seven million dollars of United States money went to
foreign countries in 1928 to purchase 24,000,000 pounds
of black pepper used by our citizens. Our second largest
import-mustard-last year amounted to 18,000,000
pounds. We consumed 5,000,000 pounds of cloves, pre-
sumably for flavoring in the kitchen, and not to sweeten
or camouflage male breaths. About 8,000,000 pounds of
cinnamon bark were imported in the same year, with a
total of 5,500,000 pounds of nutmegs, together with
immense quantities of other supplies.
Brief perusals of history reveal as much romance and
exploration connected with the quest of spice shipments
and possible wealth as was ever written about forty-
niners and the California gold fields. And it would be
a strange and fortunate circumstance if Florida and its
climate would some day produce the spices consumed by
this nation, possibly even shipping great quantities to
the Old World, since Columbus originally set out to find
a nearer shipping lane to just such products.
Already there are in South Florida innumerable large
and small experimental acreages which include almost
every spice, condiment or fruit the world has striven and
bled for, with a great number still comparatively un-
known, merely awaiting some culinary explorer and pub-
licity expert to popularize them and release the resultant
wealth for distribution in this area.


(Winter Haven Chief)
Jacksonville.-Florida ginned 20,200 bales of cotton
from the 1929 growth prior to September 16th, accord-
ing to the U. S. Department of Commerce figures just
released, says the Florida State Chamber of Commerce.
This is quite an increase over 1928 when only 4,295
bales were ginned during the same period and approxi-
mately a fifty per cent increase over 1927 when 11,238
bales were handled.
The number of bales of cotton ginned from the growth
of 1929 in the United States prior to September 16th
are given as 3,353,038 as compared with 2,500,781 for
1928, a gain of 852,257 bales. Figures quoted are sub-
ject to revision by the department when checked against
individual returns of the ginners.



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