Is the farmer's case hopeless?

Group Title: Florida review (Tallahassee, FL)
Title: Florida review
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00049005/00056
 Material Information
Title: Florida review
Physical Description: 5 v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Bureau of Immigration
Publisher: Bureau of Immigration, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1926-1930
Frequency: semimonthly
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Industries -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (June 7, 1926)-v. 5, no. 9 (Oct. 20, 1930).
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00049005
Volume ID: VID00056
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001744570
oclc - 01279992
notis - AJF7332
lccn - sn 00229569

Table of Contents
    Is the farmer's case hopeless?
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Full Text

Jloriba 3Rebtelt


SEPTEMBER 17, 1928


Is the Farm her's C(ase H hopeless ? ..............................................
Storage Plant Will Aid Polk Farm Products ...........
Mr. Hodges Expects Record-Breaking Oyster Season .............
Canning Firm to Locate in Orlando .............
Bulb Growing New Industry .......
Ports of the World Reached by Florida's Sea-Trade-1926 .......
Cucumbers .... .. ..
Five Tlhousand Cattle Shipped Fromi Hendr ('County Recently
Over Half-Million Pounds of Honey Made During Year .........
First Herd of Cattle in United States Found in Florida .........
Great Airport for Orlando
Sanford Ships State's First .. .[r Bull.-
A accurate and G ood ................. ......... ...........
Before and After ..............
Weathered the Storm
Tourist Cottage Ca'mn A -.1,1. I'l. I, 'l..II. .. ll tr liil,..
Graham-nPaige Motor Co. to Start Construction Work on New
Dimension Mill Here ... ..........
Prison Farm Makes 100,0()00 in Year ........ ..............
Moss Factory Is Doubling Capacity ............
City Can Get Cash for M oss ....... .........................
Muskrat Run Planned for Hillsborough .............
"There's Gold in Them H ills .......... ...........................
A n Industry of Im portance ......................... .............. .........

B ananas ..... ......... ... . ... ....... ..... ..... . ............ 10
A M anatee R record ......... ................................ ........... ..... 10
Increased Use of Industrial Machinery in Latin-America ........ 10
H ow Late to Plant Vegetables .................... .... .......................... 11
Big Plants Turning Out One-Quarter of State's Citrus Boxes .... 11
Arcadian Job Department Delivers a Giant lob .............. ....... 11
Finds Gainesville Dairies To Be 0. K. ..... ...... ......................... 11
Bartow Industry Has Payroll of $f2,200,276 a Year ................... 12
Water Hyacinth Has Ready Market in North ......................... 12
I)eSoto Grower to Sell 2,000,000 Berry Plants .................. ......... 12
'. C. Cook, of LaBelle, champion n Apiarist. Visitor in This City.. 12
Work Started on New $100,000 Tampa Plant ............................. 13
Florida Fifth in Birth Per Cent ..... ............... ..................... 13
Florida Ranks Third in U. S. Playground ............................... 13
$8,750,000 Spent in July for Building .. ........................ .......... 13
First Frisco Train Leaves September 2nd .......................... 14
Honey Grading Plant To Be Under Government Control ......... 14
lax to Get New Rendering Plant .. .......................... .... ...... 14
More Gum From Fast-Growing Pines ....... ...... ................... 15
Clay Brick 'ill Be Main Product of Development ................ 15
Satsum a Crop W ill B e Good ......... .................. ...... ........... ....... 15
State Second in Coast Line............... ...................................... 15
Agricultural Revolution ................... ........................................ 16
Brains and Business ............. .. .. .. ................................ 16
Jackson County Leading in Delicious Fruits ....................... i1
N ew Candy Firm to Open in City................ .......... ........................ 16


By NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner of Agriculture

EAN MUMFORD of the University of
Missouri recently stated the case of the
farmer as being desperate. His figures
showed that farm indebtedness could not
be liquidated from farm incomes. His article
appeared in the August 20th issue of Florida
If the case is as desperate as he states, what
is to be the future of American agriculture?
Are the farmers of the future to be peasants in
fact? Are we drifting back to "The Man With
the Hoe" as pictured by Millet and sung by
Edwin Markham? Have we gone in a circle
and lifted the farmer from his lowly estate dur-
ing feudalism to the high plane occupied by the
independent American farmer, only to circle
back to feudalistic bondage? It is true that
agriculture is carrying a heavy debt. So is al-
most every other kind of industry. It is also
true that the average farmer can rent his farm
and home for about what a similar home alone
will cost in rent in town. It is also true that no
man can live in town and hire himself out to
work on the farm for a wage sufficient to pay
his family board bill in town, much less house
rent. It is true that for many years the approxi-
mate price indices show that the purchasing

power of the farmer's labor is the lowest per
day of any class of workers listed among gain-
ful pursuits.
Now, what is to be done about it? First, find
out the cause. Second, apply the remedy.
That sounds easy, but it is not. There is no
one cause, but there are numerous interlocking
causes for the farmer's plight. The consuming
power of the world has been so greatly in-
creased during recent years that all kinds of
manufactured articles have been put on the
market at good prices. This has called forth
millions from farms to industrial centers. The
fact that more efficient methods of farming
have enabled those left on the farm to produce
as much per capital as before the exodus from
the country accounts for the purchasing power
of farm labor per day being lower per hand
than before.
When the relative number of people on the
farm gets low enough to reduce production to
a point below normal consumption, then will
the price increase until the purchasing power
of labor on the farm will equal the purchasing
power of the average of other vocations.
The few who stand head and shoulders above
the average in efficiency of production on the

Vol. 3

No. 8


farm are the only ones who are making money.
If every one on the farm were as good as the
best, no one would make anything-production
would overtake consumption and pile up a sur-
plus that would throw prices below cost of pro-
As was pointed out by Dean Mumford, taxes
are unjust to farmers. A man with farm prop-
erty enough to earn an income of $4,000 per
year would pay several hundred times as much
taxes as the salaried man drawing $4,000 a
year. However, the salaried man with nothing
but his salary has nothing to leave his family
when he dies, while the owner of property,
whether in town or country, has the property
which earns the $4,000 to leave as a patrimony.
It takes a great deal more of his salary for the
$4,000 wage-earner to live that it takes for the
$4,000 farm-owner to live.
At the rate lands, both farm land and other
lands, are being allowed to sell for taxes there
will be very little land-tax revenue in a few
years in Florida.
Taxes have been a bone of contention since
taxes were invented, and always will be. If
those in the position of statesmen do not realize
that taxation that confiscates destroys the gov-
ernment that imposes it, sooner or later, then
statesmanship is dead and the end is in sight.
We do not want a peasant-minded people as
any part of our population. The only way to
prevent it is to have no peasants economically.
It was found years ago, both in Europe and
America, that farming could not pay commer-
cial rates for loans nor meet commercial terms
as to the length of loans. The Rural Credit
bank, for both long and short-time loans, was
provided. But in many localities neither of
these facilities is available because of the ina-
bility of the farmer to comply with the require-
ments. There should be an extension of this to
accommodate a wider scope of farmers.
Efficient marketing is needed. Finding new
customers for one product ofttimes crowds out
some other product-there is nothing that has
not a possible substitute. However increased
consumption per capital is limited only by the
power to purchase. Wants multiply as the
means are acquired to accommodate them. The
writer believes a halt will be called before it is
too late in the rush toward general bankruptcy
of agriculture. The case may be desperate, but
not hopeless. Red-blooded Americans will not
be crowded beyond a given point. The reme-
dies applied will be a shock to some, inevitably;
but humanity, justice and self-preservation will
demand measures, though drastic, that will

place farming on as remunerative a basis as
the average of other vocations.
No, the farmer's plight is not hopeless unless
this nation is hopeless. This nation is not hope-
less unless civilization is hopeless. For if and
when the farmer is crushed by the weight of
economic injustice, no other part of the republic
will stand. He will bring down the temple on
which his hands rest.
Civilization must reckon with the man behind
the plow. He is the anchor of the republic, the
hope of the world. He holds in his hands the
material of life. Should he dodge his task one
season, famine would sweep off the inhabitants
of the planet. Law-makers, take heed, and
build prosperity where the fountain of economic
life springs from Mother Earth-on the farm.


Huge Jacksonville Project to Supply Storage
for Fruit and Vegetables

(Davenport Times, July 27, 1928)
Polk county's strawberry area, of which Kathleen and
Galloway are the center, will be interested in the an-
nouncement that the Commodores Point Terminal Com-
pany is soon to begin the erection of the largest cold
storage plant in all the south, at Jacksonville. The plant
will have an ultimate capacity of 1,000 cars. It is ex-
pected that the first unit will be completed and in opera-
tion by November 1.
The site occupies a frontage one mile long on the river
front, with deep water at the bulkhead. Already it is
provided with paved streets and railroad switch tracks.
Not only is the new storage warehouse to be made
available to take care 'of Florida products, but commit-
ments already have been arranged for apple growers in
Oregon to ship their fruit to this plant for ultimate dis-
tribution throughout Florida and all the southeast.
It is expected that the plant will be of vast import to
the vegetable growers of Florida, who are now forced to
dispose of their truck as soon as picked, but which, under
the new plan, may be stored until supply and demand
can be regulated. Moreover, it will be possible under
this arrangement to supply Floridians with Florida-grown
vegetables at periods of the year when these are not
available at present.
But, so far as the strawberry growers are concerned,
this new storage plant is expected to be of vast import-
ance in keeping up the demand for berries, even after
the demand for fresh berries in northern markets has
begun to be supplied from other sections of the country.
It is pointed out that there is a splendid demand for
strawberries in bulk and for preserving, which cannot
now be filled profitably by Florida growers. Under the
new plan, these berries will be shipped in barrels to the
Jacksonville warehouse, where they will be frozen and
shipped in this solid condition to the preserving plants in
the north.
It is expected, as well, that the project will aid the
citrus industry by extending the present shipping season
of nine months for grapefruit, at least, to twelve. It
has been demonstrated that grapefruit can be carried suc-
cessfully in cold storage.-Bartow News.


fonriba &Tnefu
Published Semi-Monthly by
Bureau of Immigration, Department of Agriculture
Tallahassee, Florida

NATHAN MAYO................Commissioner of Agriculture
T. J. BROOKS...........Director Bureau of Immigration
PHIL S. TAYLOR...............................Advertising Editor
Entered as second-class matter, June 25, 1926, at the Post Office
at Tallahassee, Florida, under the Act of June 6, 1920.
Will be mailed free to anyone upon request.
Vol. 3 SEPTEMBER 17, 1928 No. 8


Producing Season Will Open October 15 and
Close Next Spring

(Bradenton Herald, Aug. 14, 1928)
Tallahassee.-The State Shell Fish Department has
just closed out its oyster planting operations, with in-
dications pointing to one of the most successful produc-
tions in the history of the state, Commissioner T. R.
Hodges announced.
A total of 27,129 barrels of oyster shells was planted
on barren bottoms of the state, Mr. Hodges said. The
shells were planted, he said, for the purpose of catching
the oyster spawn or "spat," as it gravitates to the
bottom. Little oysters find themselves fixed firmly to the
shells, and develop into large bivalves in two years.
Florida is leading in oyster culture work, the commis-
sioner said, operating its own machinery for planting.
Last year, the state experienced one of the best, if not
the best oyster seasons on record, and prospects are good
for exceeding last year's shipments this year, he added.
The oyster producing season officially opens on October
1 and continues until April 15, next year.


B. F. Shaver to Build Factory on Sligh Boule-

(Winter Park Herald, Aug. 9, 1928)
Plans for the establishment in Orlando of a citrus can-
ning factory in which will be employed 300 persons and
will start operations this fall, were announced by B. F.
Shaver, who will own and operate the plant. Decision to
establish the plant here was made after a state-wide in-
vestigation had been made with the idea of locating such
a plant, and after the industrial committee of the Cham-
ber of Commerce, of which C. F. Batchelder is chairman,
had several conferences with Shaver and had presented
to him the advantages of being located in the central sec-
tion of Florida.
Plans for the plant are now being drawn by David
Hyer, architect, and Merle McElroy will erect the build-
ing on his property for Shaver. It will be located on

Sligh Boulevard, between Columbia and Gore avenues,
and will have trackage on the Atlantic Coast Line. The
building will be 110 feet by 125 feet.
Operations will be conducted for seven months in each
year in the canning of citrus fruits and will take a large
part of the crop of the growers of this section of the
state. In the off-season the plant will be used for the
canning of stringless beans, if the market at that time
warrants such, according to the management.
Shaver now has in operation a large vegetable canning
factory in Orangeburg, S. C. He stated that only a few
of the skilled laborers would be brought here from that
plant and that the rest of the 300 employees would be
taken from this locality.
Shaver was formerly connected with Shaver Brothers,
of Jacksonville, and has had many years' experience in
the canning business, a number of which have been spent
in the handling of citrus fruits. He has now severed his
connections with the Jacksonville firm and will devote his
entire time to the Orangeburg and Orlando plants. He
will make Orlando his headquarters and will bring his
family here within a few weeks.
According to members of the industrial committee of
the Chamber of Commerce, the establishment of the
citrus canning factory here will be a decided asset to the
commerce of the city and county and to the growers of
the district.
The product is to be sold throughout the United States
and committee members feel that this will be an added
advertising medium for Orlando.


(Times-Union, July 29, 1928)
Those who doubt that poultry, when given proper at-
tention, will pay handsome profits in Florida, will be in-
terested in the following from the Dade City Banner:
"An average net profit of $1.51 per pullet is the record
of John Q. Long with his flock of 520 White Leghorns
during the past thirteen months on his poultry farm
near Dade City. Mr. Long purchased 1,000 baby chicks
on April 20, 1927, and from this number now has 520
laying pullets, which produce in excess of one thousand
dozen eggs per month. He keeps an accurate record of
receipts and expenditures and a check of this on June 1,
1928, shows he has made a net profit of $785, plus the
value of the birds. Mr. Long has ten acres of excellent
land two miles north of Dade City. His poultry farm is
shaded with beautiful oaks and he has plenty of land
upon which to grow all kinds of grain and green things
for his chickens. He conducts his poultry farm on a
sanitary and efficient basis, lets nothing that can be
utilized go to waste and he loses very few fowls through
disease. It is the intention of Mr. Long to add to his
flock until he has one of the largest and most successful
poultry plants in this section of the state." The Banner
adds that Mr. Long moved to Dade City from Texas about
four years ago, and is delighted with this state. He is
only doing what others can do if they so desire-make
an easy living in Florida with very little work and capital.

Thousands of fountain pens used in the United States
are equipped with points manufactured in Florida. The
Waterman Company some years ago established a pen-
grinding plant at Eustis.



County Agent Interests Many in This Project

(Hastings Herald, July 27, 1928)
Among the forms of diversified farming now being
urged by County Agent Vance is that of growing nar-
cissus bulbs. Considerable time and effort has been
spent by the County Agent in working up interest in this
crop and as a result of these efforts this fall will see the
plantings of 2,000,000 narcissus bulbs in St. Johns
county. From all indications at the present time this
may be increased another million or two before planting
time is here.
Since the stopping of all shipments of European bulbs
into this country it has thrown open to American growers
a market of some $26,000,000 which previously had been
spent in Europe each year. The next ten or twelve years
promises a very rosy outlook for the growers of bulbs in
this country.
In this latitude, the land, climate and cultural practice
best suited to potatoes seems ideal for narcissus bulbs.
It has been stated by competent authority that within
a hundred mile radius of Jacksonville lies the best terri-
tory in the United States for the production of this
type of bulb. The growers of St. Johns county would do
well to give this their serious consideration.


(Florida Business, May 25, 1928)
(State Chamber of Commerce)
Africa-Tunis, Canary Islands, Accra, Axim, Sekondi,
La Palmas, Cape Coast Castle, Santa Cruz, Grand Bas-
sam, Konaky, Grand Lahou, Monrovia, Calabar, Idda,
Lagos, Pt. Harcourt, Bissoa, Dekar, Rufisque, Freetown,
Sherbro, Lome, Cape Town, Durbin.
China-Shanghai, Taku.
Japan-Kobe, Moji, Yokahoma, Nagoya, Nagasaki,
Java-Batavia, Cheribon, Pekalongan, Samarang, Sura-
Belgium-Antwerp, Selzaete, Riems.
Denmark-Kjoge, Kastrup, Norre Sundby, Aalborg,
Frederica, Hobro, Aarhuus.
Germany-Brake, Bremen, Hamburg, Nordenham, Son-
derburg, Harburg, Rendeburg, Stettin.
Holland-Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Delfzijl, Permis,
Norway-Oslo, Slemmestad, Brevik, Kjopsvik.
Russia-Leningrad, Murmansk.
Sweden-Gothenburg, Norrkoping, Oscarshamm, Pas-
kallavik, Stockholm, Helsingbord, Landskrona.
England-Bristol, Hull, Liverpool, London, Manches-
ter, Cardiff, Plymouth.
Scotland--Aberdeen, Glasgow, Greenock.
Italy-Messina, Cagliari, Fiume, Genoa, Civitavecchia,
Leghorn, Naples, Licata, Syracuse, Palermo, Port San
Stefano, Trapani, Trieste, Venice.
Jugo Slavia-Sebenico.
Roumania-Braila, Galatz.
Spain-Pasages, Barcelona, Malaga, Aviles, Coruna,
Palamos, Musel, Alicante, Valencia, Bilboa, Cadiz, Car-

tagena, Dania, San Juan de Nieva, Santander, Tarragona,
Vigo, Seville.
Canada Halifax, Vancouver, Montreal, Albert,
Bridgewater, Barnett, Campbellton, Fraser River, New
Westminster, Ingram Port, Carbonear, Linscomb, Corner
Brook, Victoria, Englewood.
Canal Zone-Christobal.
Mexico-Tampico, El Cuyo, Carmen, Progresso, Fron-
Honduras-Bonacca, Rotan, Utilla.
Nicarauga-Bluefields, Cape Gracias.
West Indies-Great Abaco, Port Au Prince-H, Port
Antonio-J., Port Maria-J., Nassau, B. I.; Turks Island,
Grand Cayman, Barbados, Azua, Dom.; Oruba, Trinidad,
Guadaloupe, Ft. de France, St. Christopher.
Cuba-Havana, Baracoa, Caibarien, Cananova, Guan-
tanamo, Sagua la Grande, Sama, Santiago, Cienfuegos,
Mariel, Santa Cruz, Matanzas, Cardenas.
Argentina-Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Compana, La
Plata, Rosario, Santa Fe, Concepcion del Uraguay.
Brazil-Bahia, Pernambuco, Santos, Rio de Janeiro.
Venezuela-Amuay, La Vela, Maracaibo.
Chile-Antofagasta, Caleta-Colosa, Iquique, Tocopilla,
Junin, Mejillones, Taltal.
British Guiana-Georgetown.
New Zealand-Auckland.


Imports .......................
Exports ........ ..................
Coastwise receipts ..........
Coastwise shipments ......
Internal, upbound............
Internal, downbound ......
L ocal ...... ................
General ferry .......... ......
Cargo in transit..............


Total tons ................. 15,421,949
Im ports ...........................$ 72,668,941
Exports .......................... 57,527,251
Coastwise receipts .......... 244,544,586
Coastwise shipments........ 102,959,111
Internal, upbound........... 21,356,024
Internal, downbound ...... 16,618,577
Local ......... .................. 17,152,226
General ferry ................. 242,041,560
Cargo in transit................ 291,835,539

Total ........................... $1,066,723,815



$ 54,060,323


Hides and skins Plate glass
Fresh meat Turtles and soup
Smoked meat Clay, gravel, etc.
Coffee, green Iron ore
Bananas Coal
Cocoanuts Crude oil
Rice Gasoline
Fir (lumber) Kerosene
Hardwood Lubricating oil




Shingles Manufactured iron
Paper, print Bone meal
Asbestos shingles Fertilizer
Asphalt Fertilizer material
Brick Nitrate of soda
Salt Creosote
Animals and animal Potash
products Cement
Beet pulp Tankage
Fruits, citrus Sand
Fruits, all other Tile
Sugar Structural steel
Vegetables Automobile parts
Tobacco Chemicals
Furniture Kainit
Logs, Spanish cedar Manure salts
Mahogany logs Muriate of potash
Cedar Sulphate of ammonia

Hides and skins Machinery
Canned foods Paper, wrapping
Groceries Automobile parts
Rosin Goat manure
Turpentine Phosphate, rock
Pitch Phosphate, pebble
Cotton Tobacco, unmanufactured
Logs Cotton manufactures
Crossties Iron, pig
Cypress Lumber and timber,
Mixed lumber staves, etc.
Pine Coal and coke
Fish Butter
Fruits Cattle
Vegetables Eggs
Furniture Horses
Lumber, pine Meats, fresh
Cottonseed meal Flour
Steel rails Grain
Syrup Hay and feed
Paper, print Linseed oil
Fuller's earth Soft drinks
Plate glass Cottonseed
Cast-iron pipe Textiles
Hardware Clay and gravel
Manufactured iron Lime
Structural steel Oil, crude
Agricultural implements Iron ore


(U. S. Official Record, Aug. 22, 1928)
The growing of cucumbers for fresh table supplies, in
contrast with pickling, is now one of the twenty most
important truck-crop enterprises in the United States.
In 1926 nearly 40,000 acres were devoted to the crop of
slicing or salad cucumbers. The crop that year was valued
at nearly $7,000,000. This was exclusive of the crop
grown in greenhouses. Cucumbers are grown for carlot
shipment in 29 states, but 14 states produce the great
bulk of the market supply, Florida being by far the most
important producer.

The State of Florida does not owe one cent, and its
people as a consequence are not taxed to provide interest
and sinking funds to care for indebtedness.


This Section of Florida Being Rapidly Denuded
of Cattle-Only 10 Per Cent Replaced

(Hendry County News, Aug. 23, 1928)
It is not generally realized that Hendry and Collier
counties are feeding and breeding grounds for thousands
of cattle that roam the free ranges of the uninhabited
acres of the Big Cypress and adjacent territory. The
News reporter finds that records show about 5,000 head
have been shipped from here within the last five months,
some going direct to the Tampa market and the rest to
Georgia's farms and ranches, which are said to have be-
come depleted at the time of the special efforts made
for tick eradication.
Local Ranges Becoming Depopulated
According to cattle owners interviewed, the ranges are
rapidly becoming depopulated, and as only about ten per
cent of the herds are being replaced with stock raised,
the price of meat will advance sharply within a year.
After the war, prices on cattle slumped so that owners
could get so little for their stock that herds were held
and numbers increased. Recently prices advanced and
owners let go of their stock, so that dozens of carloads
are steadily leaving here. "If cattle men don't wake up
to a realization of conditions," said the News informant,
"they will find it impossible six months from now to buy
breeding stock."
Florida Replenishes Oklahoma Ranges
"Miller Brothers, of Oklahoma," continued the News
informant, "came to Florida and bought thousands of
cattle at six and seven dollars a head for Oklahoma, and
by the time Florida restocks Georgia she is going to find
herself without cattle and paying high prices with meat
at prices almost prohibitive. Beef will be not far from
a dollar a pound in South Florida if present conditions


(Apalachicola Times, Aug. 25, 1928)
Approximately 500,000 pounds of honey was produced
in this section of Florida during the past season, accord-
ing to J. L. Morgan, who has been in the honey business
in this section for a number of years. The output this
year was less than the usual production, Mr. Morgan
stated, due to the rises in the river, but even this amount
is tremendous.
There are between seven and eight thousand beehives
in the area, which takes in approximately fifty miles in
the lower Apalachicola river, Mr. Morgan estimated. Each
hive produces, on an average, 70 pounds of honey during
the season, totaling for this season about 500,000 pounds,
or three-fourths of the usual amount.
This section is famous as the "Tupelo belt" and is the
only section in the world in which white tupelo honey is
produced. The United States government, making a test
about two years ago, found the white tupelo better than
any other honey for table and bottling use.
The honey industry is a very important one for Frank-
lin county and West Florida. It is one that has grown to
a great extent in the last few years, and offers wonderful
opportunities. Thousands of dollars are received an-
nually from the sale of honey.



(Florida State News, July 24, 1928)
The first herd of cattle established in the United
States was found in Florida, State Veterinarian J. V.
Knapp declared, in reviewing the growth of the livestock
industry in the nation.
The cattle placed in Florida was brought to the United
States by the early settlers of St. Augustine, according
to records covering that period of history. Those doughty
pioneers not proposing to be deprived of beef and milk,
brought over for the dual purpose a stock of small, but
sturdy type, such as was found in Spain and Portland
at that time, Dr. Knapp said. These cattle that ranged
around the colony, created by the Spaniards in 1565, and
later herds that ranged over what is now Nassau county,
were the beginning of those herds of what are now known
as "native scrub cattle," which number thousands of
head today, it was stated.
First at Vera Cruz
The longhorns of the far west, Dr. Knapp said, came
from the first cattle ever landed on the shores of the
western continent, information furnished by the U. S.
Department of Agriculture shows. Their coming pre-
ceded those brought to St. Augustine by but a few years.
They were brought by Gregoria Villalobos, of Spain, who
had been appointed governor general of New Spain when
he loaded the vessels that were to carry him to the realm
which he was to command, he had driven aboard cattle
which were landed at Vera Cruz, Mexico, in 1521. These
were the first cattle to touch shore in the New World, it
was explained.
From this herd came the far-famed "Texas Long-
horns" cattle that over-running Texas gradually spread
northward until, by the last of the nineteenth century,
they ranged from the Gulf to the Canadian border. They
supplied in pioneer days an important article of food
and of commerce, and yet, Dr. Knapp said, so completely
have they been swept away by the better beef cattle
movement that has made the West famous as the beef
production section of the nation that Congress, in 1926,
made a small appropriation to finance the collection of a
few animals of true longhorn type to be conveyed from
Texas to the Wichita National Forest, as the beginning
of a small herd of 200 or more, to be kept to preserve
the picturesque type that belonged to pioneer days of the
old west.
Good Foundation Stock
Florida's range cattle today offer a foundation stock
upon which can be built herds of superior beef type, Dr.
Knapp said. The one strain that has been used to modify
the original Spanish type is the Jersey. There is not a
herd of range cattle in Florida that does not show a
trace of that blood, the state veterinarian added. Though
the Jersey is not of beef type, their contribution to the
Florida range cow is a valuable one, insuring sufficient
milk flow for the calves of the range herd, and, Dr.
Knapp said, what is of greater significance, the range
cow when crossed with the beef type sire, transmits to
the resulting grade this characteristic which persists in
beef cattle from such stock even where grading up has
been carried to that point that but little of the scrub
stock is represented.
The ability of the range cow to rustle on the open
range is another valuable characteristic that carries over
to the grade. While the sturdiness of the stock, result-
ing both from this ability to maintain herself and from

climatic conditions which have made the Florida native
herd tuberculin free, have led those interested in the
development of better beef herds for Florida to urge
that cattle owners of the state who wish to grade up
their herds use these native cows for cross breeding up
with pure bred sires.
24,000,000 Per Year
The American market, Dr. Knapp said, has during the
past three years annually consumed 24,000,000 head of
cattle, U. S. department statistics show. The tendency
of the market is away from the heavy beef toward a
smaller type from blocky, smooth, young animals. The
federal department points out that while one need not
go back further than 15 years to find a market that in-
variably paid a higher price for cattle that would range
in weight from 1,350 to 1,500 pounds, that today cattle
that range from 700 to 1,100 pounds stand an equal
chance with those of heavier weight to bring top prices.
The housewives of Florida have shown a discriminating
taste in selecting the beef that they buy, Dr. Knapp said,
basing his assertion on reports of packers. Seventy-five
per cent of the beef consumed in Florida is of that
quality for which the.packer pays from 8 to 10 cents a
pound gross, but according to the same authority, 10 per
cent only of the beef consumed in the state is raised in
As is well known, the Texas fever cattle tick has here-
tofore made it impractical, if not impossible, for cattle-
men to raise beef of the better type, Dr. Knapp recalled,
but, he added, eradication of the pest in Florida, now be-
ing carried out, opens to the Florida cattle owner excel-
lent opportunities for producing beef cattle of high type.


Municipal Landing Place to Open in October

(Times-Union, Aug. 27, 1928)
Orlando, Aug. 26.-(A. P.)-Orlando will open a
$250,000 municipal airport on October 4 and 5.
It is expected that William P. McCracken, assistant
secretary of war for aviation, will make the dedicatory
address, according to Mayor L. M. Autrey, who is acting
as chairman of the airport committee.
A number of important government officials are ex-
pected to be in attendance, and numerous airplanes from
Maxwell field and other large concentration centers will
be on hand for the celebration.
The celebration will include, aside from the actual
opening exercises, a banquet and airplane show.
The Orlando airport has been inspected in its process
of creation by a government engineer and conforms in
every way to the requisites set out by the United States
Department of Commerce, it is announced. It is 2,600
feet long, 2,000 feet wide, and the arms about 500 feet.
It has been so designed and laid off as to allow taking off
in almost any wind direction.
The field is less than two miles from the center of the
city and is approached by five highways, three of which
are already paved.
As airmail service between Atlanta, Jacksonville and
Miami will be inaugurated in December, and as Orlando
is on the route, Mayor Autrey hopes that passenger and
mail service between these points may be possible for
Orlando at the same time. Already he has taken steps
to work out such an arrangement.



Dozen Growers Receive $15,164 for Narcissus

(Tampa Tribune, Aug. 27, 1928)
Sanford, Aug. 26.-(Special)-Seminole county's most
valuable carload of agricultural produce, possibly the
highest priced carload ever sent from Florida, left here
yesterday and a dozen local growers have pocketed
$15,164.62, the price the car brought.
The car is carrying to New York City some 502,000
paper white narcissus bulbs raised near Sanford, accord-
ing to C. M. Berry, secretary and treasurer of the Florida
Bulb Growers Association. The farmers who shared the
proceeds are E. B. Stowe, John Meisch, Edmund Meisch,
Ed Cameron, Ben Fish, J. St. Claire Whiter, Jr., John
Bolly, Clifford Walker, Henry Thurston, A. H. Stone and
D. Brussee.
The car was purchased f. o. b. Sanford by Stump and
Walter, seed and bulb dealers of New York. It was the
first full carload of commercial bulbs ever shipped from
this county, according to Mr. Berry. However, an order
for 375,000 bulbs placed by a Chicago firm will be filled
within a few weeks.
Seventy-five per cent of the bulbs sold in the United
States are retailed to home owners who grow them in
bowls filled with gravel during the winter, the secretary
said. The remaining 25 per cent is purchased by florists
who sell the cut flowers.
"While the growing of bulbs in Florida is a new in-
dustry," said Mr. Berry, "it gives promise of steady
expansion since its problems yield readily to scientific
solution. These growing problems need time and care-
ful experimental work, but a crop that will bring money
into Florida at this time of year deserves the considera-
tion of all growers, especially in this section.


(Everglades News, Aug. 10, 1928)
An Indiana man contemplated purchase of Everglades
drainage bonds and wrote to a resident of the Everglades
for information about conditions. Following is part of
the reply that was made to the Indiana man's inquiry:
"The truth about the Everglades situation is that only
such land as can be put under cultivation should be re-
claimed. The balance should be kept wet so as to pre-
vent its being destroyed by fire. The program which has
been followed for the past ten years has resulted in the
loss of more property from fire than has been reclaimed
by the drainage operations. By reclaimed, I mean put
in shape so that it can be profitably cultivated.
"The best way to keep posted on Everglades matters is
to take The Everglades News, published by Mr. Howard
Sharp at Canal Point. Mr. Sharp, I believe, in his
articles and editorials, fairly represents the majority of
taxpayers in the northern section of the Glades. He does
not profit by the bond sale; he does not own land that is
to derive special benefit from the proposed operations;
he is not a contractor, and therefore he can see the rights
of the taxpayer. You can count on the news published
by Mr. Sharp as an unprejudiced statement of facts."
The first paragraph is accurate statement. The second
paragraph is both accurate information and good advice.


(Clewiston News, Aug. 24, 1928)
We can all remember the pet copy for patent medicine
advertisements a few years ago with the "Before and
After" caption, where under the Before heading an
emaciated person was shown, while on the opposite side
the alleged same person, after a few swigs of some new
discovery, put on weight faster than an athlete out of
That the "Before and After" system of advertising
was attractive is evidenced in the fact that we still joke
about it, but if the same system were tried with reference
to the northern Everglades today, and we were to adhere
rigidly to facts, there is scarcely one person in ten in the
north who would accept it as the truth.
A prominent resident of Clewiston today says that a
few years ago he waded through water to his waist in
this section, on a duck hunt. Imagine, then, a "Before
and After" notice showing a spectral waste, while on the
opposite side of the page would be wide, attractive streets,
beautiful buildings and a busy hum of prosperity. Few
people would accept it as truthful.
We have, then, in the past few years' history of the
Clewiston section, development so startling as to make it
really too bizarre for the wildest type of advertising, al-
though it is gospel truth.
But even more interesting than this is the fact that we
are only started. It is true, the giant 1,500-ton a day
sugar mill is nearing completion, and thousands of acres
of cane are maturing in the fields, but this is practically
nothing when we consider that eventually this 1,500-ton
mill will be enlarged and new additions built until there
is a daily capacity of 7,500 tons, and year by year the
cane acreage will be expanded until the thousands will
be replaced by tens of thousands of acres.
Nor are we alone in optimistic outlook on the future
of the northern Everglades. The Atlantic Coast Line
railroad and the Florida East Coast railroad are spend-
ing a total of almost $1,000,000 in pushing their lines
out into the Everglades, encouraged by the extensive
and expanding operations of the Southern Sugar Com-
Some months ago, the Clewiston News in a story based
on plans for Southern Sugar Company activities here,
showed that Clewiston within the next few years will be
a city of 10,000 people and that within a 25-mile radius
there will be 25,000 people in the northern Everglades.
Let us take the period from 1925 to 1935 when the
complete program of the Southern Sugar Company will
have been an established fact, this country feeling the
effects of sound prosperity. Could there possibly be a
better subject for one of the well known "Before and


(Fort Myers Press, Aug. 23, 1928)
The 1928 crop of sugarcane in the Clewiston section
successfully passed its first weather test when a tour of
the cane plantations showed no ill effects from the two
days' storm which swept across Florida. Clewiston had
comparatively little bad weather, only 4.40 inches of rain
falling in two days, and following an inspection tour of
the Southern Sugar properties here officials reported that
the cane, which is now from eight to eleven feet tall, was
sturdy enough to withstand the 35-mile wind.




Subsidiary Plant of Great Automobile Company
Will Use Output of New Mill

(Perry Herald, Aug. 23, 1928)
Ground is now being prepared and work is to start
immediately on the erection of a $150,000 dimension mill
here, which is to be a subsidiary holding of the Graham-
Paige Motor Company, of Detroit. The plant will be
located adjacent to the new hardwood mill of the Wilson
Lumber Company of Florida and will utilize its entire
Construction plans provide for fifty thousand feet of
floor space with nine dry kilns, measuring one hundred
and fifty by twenty feet, and the finest of machinery and
equipment to be used. The mill will employ about
seventy-five or one hundred men.
Chas. Hastings, manager for the new enterprise, stated
at the Kiwanis luncheon Wednesday, that this is the first
unit of a possible great industry here, as the Graham-
Paige Company is rapidly expanding and the extra
quality of the Florida hard wood has attracted favorable
attention from its officials. Mr. Hastings added that the
mill now being constructed is planned for expansion on

every line and it is the intention of the company to
enlarge it as the demand for its output grows.
W. C. O'Bryant, engineer of Memphis, Tenn., who had
charge of the erection of the Wilson Lumber Company
plant, will superintend the construction of the dimension
The installation of this industry following close upon
the completion of the fine hardwood mill of the Wilson
Company is attracting new attention to the extraordinary
resources of Taylor county, and it is said that within the
last few weeks potential investors here have been more
active than in many months, which leads to the expecta-
tion that other developments will be announced at an
early date.


(St. Petersburg Times, Aug. 26, 1928)
Tallahassee, Aug. 25.-(A. P.)-Florida's average
daily state prison population during the fiscal year end-
ing June 30, 1928, was 1,375, according to a report re-
ceived here from J. S. Blitch, superintendent of the
prison farm at Raiford.
The state farm made money, too, a balance of profit
having been shown of $148,901.39. Nor are all the
prisoners who were incarcerated during the year paupers
by any means. The superintendent handled $62,726.12
of prisoners' funds during the year, the report showed.



(Times-Union, Aug. 23, 1928)
Palatka, Aug. 22.-The Southern Products Company,
A. J. Ammen, owner, is soon to begin the work of
doubling the capacity of its plant in Palatka to enable
the company to keep pace with the demand for its
This company has been a part of industrial Palatka
for approximately two and a half years, during which
time it has centered its efforts on the production of a
high quality of ginned moss, marketed under the brand
of Palatka Moss, with the result that its product is
handled exclusively by a large concern in the trade
located in the north, and so well is the Palatka brand
established that an extension is necessary to care for its
At this time the plant is working full time on a solid
car shipment of the product to its northern connection.
The present capacity of the plant is 1,200 pounds a day.
To produce the Palatka brand, this entails the handling
of 3,600 pounds of the raw material, as the moss is first
hand-ginned, then run through the power gin twice. The
finished product is of such quality and texture as to be
taken for curled hair very easily.
In an interview with Mr. Ammen, released through the
chamber of commerce, he calls attention to the fact that
Florida moss is coming into its own as an upholstering
material of greater sanitary quality and broader scope
of use than the much vaunted curled hair which has so
long held the place of prestige in that line of manu-


Eagle Lake Concern Offers $7 Per Ton for All
It Can Furnish

(Bartow News, Aug. 24, 1928)
The city of Bartow believes it has found a way to dis-
pose of the Spanish moss on the trees in the city streets,
and at a profit. It was anticipated that the city would
have to hire the work done, and that there would be no
use for the moss.
The opening of the Bodow Moss and Fibre Company's
plant at Eagle Lake has solved the problem. This com-
pany is paying 35 cents per 100 pounds, or $7.00 a ton,
for all the Spanish moss it can get, free and clear of
sticks, pine needles, or other foreign matter of this sort.
The moss is converted into curled hair at the Eagle
Lake factory. After it has been subjected to treatment,
which removes the outer covering of the fiber, it is baled
and shipped to New York City and to Grand Rapids,
Mich., in carload lots. It is utilized in upholstery for
furniture and for seat cushions in automobiles.
More than. 200,000 pounds of Spanish moss has been
handled by the company since it opened for business,
August 1.

It was reported on August 20 that the 960 hens in
the second Florida national egg-laying contest gave an
average production of 57.6 per cent for the month of
July, with 17.8 eggs each. The 740 light hens entered
laid at the rate of 19.3 eggs each or 62 per cent. The
total to that date had reached 159.8 eggs per-hen or 57.3
per cent, with almost three months to go before the end
of the contest.


Chicago Interests Experiment in Fur Production

(Tampa Times, Aug. 24, 1928)
An experimental muskrat farm will be established on
a 40-acre tract near Tampa by Chicago interests, it was
announced today following a visit to Tampa of Robert
E. Lee, representative of the Chicago group.
While here, Mr. Lee consulted "Believers in Tampa"
who put him in touch with the owners of the class of
property required for the project. Mr. Lee found what
he wanted, officials of the organization said, and has re-
turned to Chicago to confer with his associates and to
complete arrangements for the establishment of this
new industry.
The project will be conducted along experimental lines
for a year and if it proves successful and profitable as
is anticipated, operations will be carried on a much larger
scale, it was stated.
The bringing of this new industry to Hillsborough
county will mean its removal from one of the northern
states where conditions are not as favorable as those
which prevail here, officials of the Believers pointed out.
"There are thousands of acres of submerged land in
Florida which are said to be ideal for the habitat of the
muskrat, and the movement now on foot would seem to
indicate that south Florida is likely to have a new in-
dustry conducted on a gigantic scale and of a nature
heretofore not considered as natural to this territory and
climate," George R. McKean, executive vice-president of
the Believers, said today.
An experiment with two muskrats was made in Florida
a year ago. At the end of the year the family had in-
creased to 42 and the pelts were exhibited to furriers and
pronounced the finest that they had ever seen from any
part of the country.
The Chicago men interested in the project are well-
known in the business and financial world of America
and Europe, Mr. McKean said.


(Gainesville Daily News, Aug. 22, 1928)
Thousands of people trekked across the country to
follow the magic lure of gold in the days of '49. The
words, "There's gold in them hills," uttered by the old-
timers sent family after family into the rough country
with pick and shovel to prospect. Some found gold and
some did not.
Now in Madison county "There's gold in them hills,"
and Madison county farmers are finding it. The gold is
in the golden leaves of tobacco now being cured and
marketed in Madison by growers, white and black.
It has been estimated that the Madison tobacco crop
is worth a million dollars. This figure is roughly esti-
mated as follows:
Sun tobacco ........ .. ...... $250,000
Shade tobacco .... .......... ... $750,000
It is needless to say that when this million dollars is
turned loose in Madison county within the next few weeks
every citizen will feel the effects of it in some manner.
It means better times for the county and for the people.
It is not necessary to go to California and prospect in
the rocky hillsides for gold. There is gold in the soil of
Madison's gently sloping land which can be turned into
golden leaf and into golden dollars by Madison county
people.-Madison Enterprise-Recorder.





(Volusia County Farmer, Aug. 5, 1928)
A new industry is now in operation two miles south of
Orange City that is quite worth while. It is the Ox Fiber
& Brush Co.
This industry is quite unique, and is essentially a
Florida industry, in that it uses raw material that can-
not, we believe, be found in adequate amount elsewhere
in the United States.
This concern is located at Benson Junction, being
served by the Atlantic Coast Line and the Florida East
Coast railway. The material used is the bud and basic
stems of the fronds of the Cabbage Palm.
This material is obtained from adjacent sections and
brought in in car lots. The buds and stems adherent
are dumped into vats of water and allowed to digest
about 48 hours, when they are forked out and machined
in shredders. This shredded fibre is then further pro-
cessed, combed by large machines and then put through
dryers 75 feet long, and then further graded and combed
and put up in bundles to be shipped to Maryland, where
it is manufactured into brushes of all kinds.
The plant represents an investment of $150,000, and
employs 75 men all the time.
In the process of fabrication there is a large amount
of fibre not suited to brush making. This "combing" is
pressed into bales and sold to automobile upholsterers
for stuffing automobile seats and cushions. Henry Ford
is one of the customers for this excellent insect-resisting
The superintendent was asked how long the supply of
Cabbage Palm would hold out. His reply was, "forever,"
because the same territory can be gone over once in
three or four years.
To take the bud, of course, kills the palm tree, but
others grow to replace those thus taken.
It won't be long now before some industrial engineer
comes along and shows us how he can take palmetto
roots, of which there are enough in Florida to make a
pile as large as Mt. Vesuvius, and fabricate a textile with
tensile strength equal to cow hide and far more durable
and sanitary.
We have seen a "paper" made of palmetto roots that
could not be torn any more easily than a good grade of
calf skin, and it is absolutely waterproof, and about as
flexible as tanned calf skin.
There are 20,000,000 acres of palmetto scrub land that
would feed factories for years to come. One industrial
engineer to whom we sent samples of palmetto roots two
years ago is now experimenting in the manufacture of
automobile tire fabrics from them. If Henry Ford, Mr.
Edison and Mr. Firestone were to get their heads together
on the use of palmetto root fibre our rubber supply would
be stretched out some. It won't be long now.


(Sarasota Times, Aug. 21, 1928)
Pensacola, Fla., Aug. 21.-(A. P.)-The Tropical Im-
portation Company announced through local representa-
tives today that a 10-day banana ship service would be
inaugurated with the arrival of the Norwegian steamer
Stavangeran from Frontero, Mexico. On and after Octo-
ber 1, it was announced that a five-day schedule would
be inaugurated and continued through the winter.


(Palmetto News, Aug. 24, 1928)
From time to time we have stressed the fact that Flor-
ida is primarily an agricultural state. Beyond its own
borders the state is most widely known as a land of citrus
fruits, and the reputation is fully justified in the quality
and quantity of our oranges, grapefruit, etc. But our
citrus industry detracts nothing from our agricultural
products. The long growing season, the fertility and
adaptability of the soil, the economy in man power neces-
sary to till the ground, and an ever-ready market for
vegetables, all combine to make Florida the most prolific
and profitable farming country to be found anywhere.
An instance illustrative of what can be accomplished
by intelligent farming in Florida was the annual report
of the Manatee County Vegetable Growers Association,
rendered at a meeting held in the company's packing
house at Bradenton just a few days ago. That report
showed that $55,000, borrowed for the use of the member
growers during the past season, had been repaid in full;
that $831,043.12 was paid to the members during the
shipping season, exceeding all former records by almost
$200,000; and finally that an 8 per cent dividend to stock-
holders was declared.
What is being done in Manatee is being duplicated to
greater or lesser extent in many other counties. There
is, of course, variation in conditions that make one county
more suitable for the production of certain vegetables
than another; but there is not a county within the state
in which intelligent, industrious farming cannot be made
profitable, as demonstrated year after year by that class
of agriculturists.-Tampa Times.


(The United States Daily)
For the past three years Latin America has absorbed
a larger part of our machinery exports than has any
other section of the world, and particular attention is
called to the rapidity with which exports to Latin
America have increased-this expansion being from
$18,825,000 in 1913 to $52,433,000 in 1925. This in-
creasing use of modern types of machinery in Latin
America is quite significant. It is also a fact of some
importance that during the years when the exports of
machinery from the United States were at a maximum,
the participation of the Latin American countries in
this expanded volume was comparatively restrained,
while later demand increased. Development was evi-
dently in some degree interrupted by the abnormal con-
ditions of the war, but now that the world has been re-
lieved of some of these conditions, the countries to the
south of us are in a position to resume their natural
development, and, as a consequence, in the last three
years the Latin American demand for machinery from
this country has been more intense and more persistent,
possibly even more significant, than in any earlier time.
Latin America is now taking about 35 per cent of our
machinery exports.

For the year ending June 30, 1928, the United States
imported 48,764,000 pounds of shelled and 14,009,000
pounds of unshelled peanuts from China. And peanuts
grow in Florida and in nearly every other state.



(Progressive Farmer, July 21, 1928)
In planting the fall garden, it is well to plant a big
variety of vegetables-practically all of those planted in
the spring. It is usually best to make the last plantings
so they will mature just before frost, provided they are
kinds that will not withstand frost. The table herewith
lists some of the more common vegetables that will not
stand frost and the number of days it usually takes them
to mature under average conditions. This information
will enable us to determine how late we can wait to plant
these vegetables and have them mature before frost:
Days to

Bush lima beans... ............ ...... ............
Snap beans ........... ...... .......... ...... ..........
Black-eyed peas ................... ....................
L ady peas ......... ............. ..... ................
Irish potatoes ................... ... .................
Cucumbers .... ............ ..........
S qu ash ............ .....................................
Tomatoes ....... ..........

70- 80
45- 55
65- 75
60- 70
55- 80
60- 80

Vegetables which will withstand considerable frost, but
not very hard freezes, and the number of days it ordi-
narily takes them to mature are listed in the following
Days to
Vegetables- Mature
Mustard ..................... ............ 30- 45
Turnips ................................... 60- 80
C arrots ............................. .. .................... 65- 85
B eets .......... ........ ............... ..... ...... 65- 70
Swiss chard ................................... 45- 65
Radishes ...................................... 20- 30
L ettuce ............................... ........... ........... 60- 75
Onions from seed....................................... .......... 130-150
Onion sets for green onions................ ............ 35- 40
K ohl-rabi .............................. .. ...... .... 65- 75
English peas ....................... ... .............. 40- 70
Cabbage .................................. 90-120
Cauliflower .................................. 100-125
C hinese cabbage ................................. .............. 90-110
The following list of vegetables will stand in the open
throughout the winter in most sections of the south, and
may be planted well into the fall:

Spinach ........ ......... .......... ...... ....... ....
Kale ..................... ..................
R a p e ............. ......................................
Salsify ..... ........ .................... ...........
Parsnips ......... ............................
R utabagas .............. ...... ..... .......... ........
When to Plant Carrots for Winter Use

Days to
30- 60

The questions are asked as to when to sow carrots for
winter use, how long it takes them to mature, how much
seed is required to plant an acre, how much and what
kind of fertilizer to use, and what is the best kind of
soil for them. Carrots are not very tender. They can
stand considerable frost, but not very heavy freezes. It
takes 65 to 75 days for them to mature. Sow about nine
to ten weeks before first heavy freeze usually arrives. If
the first heavy freeze occurs about December 1, plant the
carrot seed between September 15 and 25. Five or six
pounds of seed is the usual amount needed to plant an


Employ 350 to 400 Men and Women Daily for
Next Ten Months

(Highlands County Pilot, Aug. 22, 1928)
Swinging into full operation after ten days of partial
operation, Avon Park's big crate mills are going about
their task of providing one-quarter of all the citrus crates
made in the state of Florida. And while in the process
the payrolls turned loose to men and women of Avon
Park will be about $25,000 per month scattered among
between 350 and 400 persons.
The output of the mills will total about three-quarters
of a million dollars in value.
Logging operations have been under way for more than
ten days and the sawmill at the Mutual has been operat-
ing since the first week in August. The Mutual and the
Avon both swung into full time Tuesday and are off on
their ten-months grind.
The mills are opening nearly twenty days ahead of last
year's opening, due to the increased demand for boxes,
and it is confidently expected that they will be run close
to two weeks later than last year, giving a full ten-
months' payroll instead of nine months as in past years.


(The Arcadian, Aug. 23, 1928)
It required the services of a one-ton truck to deliver
a printing job turned out by The Arcadian's job depart-
ment this week. The job consisted of one million slips,
printed on both sides, for the DeSoto Chemical Co. The
slips are to be used with the 'Gator Roach Hives manu-
factured by this company, one slip being wrapped with
each three roach hives. From this one can gauge the
magnitude of this local industry, as the million slips will
be enough for three million hives. This is the first
million order of printing ever turned out in Arcadia,
and the Arcadian is proud of the way its job department
has handled this gigantic task.


(Gainesville Sun, Aug. 26, 1928)
"Gainesville's dairies are in good condition at the
present time," declared Dr. J. T. Springston, of the
United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of
Animal Industry, following a several days' inspection
"There are 1024 head of cattle in the various dairies
serving Gainesville and not a single case of T. B. or
'reactor' as we call it," he asserted. "In fact, there
was not a single suspicious case."
Dr. Springston, who has headquarters in Tallahassee,
makes an annual inspection of the cattle in Florida cities.
"Children of Gainesville are now able to drink plenty
of milk," said Dr. H. N. Lawrence, city meat and milk
inspector, following Dr. Springston's statement. "Every
dairy in the city is in good condition and I wouldn't
hesitate to recommend any of them to the people of
Dr. Springston praised the work being done here by
Dr. Lawrence, saying that it was largely through his
efforts that the existing conditions here were so good.


$2,290,276 A YEAR

(Bartow News, Aug. 24, 1928)
The combined payroll of Bartow's industrial plants is
$2,290,976 per year, according to information presented
on the latest map of "Imperial" Polk county, issued this
past week by the "Believers in Bartow." The map car-
ries a wealth of other information, which should prove
of decided value to the Bartow Chamber of Commerce
and the publicity department of Polk county.
In addition, the map has been brought down to date,
and contains a number of towns and communities not
hitherto shown on Polk county maps. The map itself
was drawn by E. A. Plath, C. E., of Bartow, and the
engraving is by the Universal Map Company, of Tampa.
The "Believers in Bartow," comprise 64 houses in Bar-
tow, including The Bartow News, from any one of whom
copies of the new map may be had for the asking.


Long Regarded As a Menace to Florida Naviga-

(St. Cloud Tribune, Aug. 23, 1928)
That water hyacinths, long regarded as a menace in
Florida streams, have a commercial value is being proven
in Clay county, where a gang of more than a dozen men
is engaged in gathering, sorting and packing the plants
for shipment to Cincinnati, Ohio. The plants are bought
by a concern dealing in ornamental fish and aquatic
plants for bowls and ponds. About a half million of the
hyacinth plants are sold to the Woolworth stores, and
nearly 50,000 will be used by the Cincinnati firm for its
own trade.
The history of the water hyacinth reads like a romance
and is one of the strange stories of a plant becoming
more prolific in its adopted habitat than in its native land.
The first water hyacinth bulbs were brought to Florida
in 1886 by a brewer who had a winter home across the
St. Johns river from Palatka. He had a small pond of
aquatic plants and gold fish near the river and in this he
placed his plants in the hope of getting a few blossoms
for the pleasure of guests that frequented his home dur-
ing the winter months.
At that time the water hyacinth was a small plant
with a blossom spike about three inches long. The new
plants not only thrived in their new home but soon mul-
tiplied until they filled the little pond, and servants in
order to make room for other plants, which were being
choked out, cleared out about half of the hyacinths and
threw them into the St. Johns river, which was but a few
feet from the pond.
In the river the plants found a new home apparently
more to their liking than the little pond and soon multi-
plied so rapidly that they floated down the river in rafts.
Then came the boats churning through the beds of the
rare plants that were becoming an attraction to tourists
on the river, and carried them on their paddle wheel
boxes up and down the river until, in a few years, the St.
Johns river became one continuous hyacinth bed from
Sanford to near Jacksonville, where the salt water killed
From the St. Johns the hyacinths have been carried to
other waters of the state, apparently by birds, until many

years ago they became one of the great problems of
The U. S. government has tried various experiments
for their extermination. One inventive genius got up a
machine to tear them to pieces and deposit them on the
banks of the river, but the fact that there were millions
of tons of the plants and that the job could not be made
complete and that one plant would be sufficient to fur-
nish a new start, made the experiment impractical. An
experiment in poisoning was tried, but as the plants have
become food for the cattle along the river, resulted in the
death of a number of head of stock, which seemed to be
more affected by the poison than were the hyacinths.
Various attempts have been made to introduce parasites
into the plants that would kill them, but so far they
seem to be able to withstand anything that has been in-
troduced and so the water hyacinth continues to flourish
and to make the St. Johns river the most beautiful and
extensive aquatic flower garden on earth and a delight
to the tourist who lingers in Florida in the spring to be-
hold a plant that once had a little blossom, now become
a great plant, often two feet high, with great bloom spikes
sometimes eight inches long.


(Tampa Tribune, Aug. 23, 1928)
Arcadia, Aug. 22.-(Special.)-A. Horn, strawberry
grower of Nocatee and Chattanooga, is planning to
market 2,000,000 strawberry plants for the fall and
winter crop. Mr. Horn has 15 acres of strawberry plants
he will use for his own patch for fruit. Besides this 15
acres he has engaged to sell about one million plants for
south Florida planting to other growers.
Mr. Horn sold 40,000 plants to a grower near Miami
and the Fort Ogden growers plan to put out about 60
acres, distributed among several growers. Mr. Horn will
furnish about 100,000 plants for this acreage. He also
has a million plants in Tennessee which he will sell to
growers in the section around Chattanooga.
In addition to strawberries Mr. Horn plans to plant
peppers and tomatoes.


(Times-Union, Aug. 25, 1928)
Florida now claims as a citizen the world champion
C. C. Cook, of LaBelle, has won that honor by gather-
ing 230,000 pounds of honey from 872 colonies of bees.
The previous record was held by C. P. Dadent and Sons
of Hamilton, Ill., who averaged 250 pounds of honey
from 600 colonies, as compared with Mr. Cook's average
of more than 260 pounds per colony for a twelve months'
Mr. Cook, who was a business visitor in Jacksonville
yesterday, now has more than a thousand colonies of busy
bees. Previous to this year his sales have been confined
exclusively to Florida, but Mr. Cook announced that he
planned extensive exportation into other states.

The entire State of Delaware could be placed within
the confines of Palm Beach county, largest county in the
state, and there would still be nearly 100,000 acres of
land unoccupied.





Pine Products, Inc., to Begin Operations in
Sixty Days

(Tampa Times, Aug. 20, 1928)
Ground is being broken for the new $100,000 steel and
concrete plant which will be the home of the Pitch Pine
Products, Inc., recently organized, with D. C. Gillett as
The plant will be constructed on seven and one-half
acres acquired from W. F. Stovall and associates at the
corner of Forty-third street and the Atlantic Coast Line
tracks, a block south of East Broadway. Contracts have
been awarded for various phases of the construction.
F. P. Lyons Iron Works, Inc., will erect the steel work.
It is expected that the plant will be ready for operation
within 60 days.
In addition to Mr. Gillett, the official body of the or-
ganization includes J. E. Rogers, vice-president, and P.
B. Mott, secretary. Mr. Gillett will also serve as treas-
urer. Directors are James F. Taylor, George V. Booker
and John A. Snively, of Winter Haven.
The company will manufacture turpentine, pine oil,
tar, charcoal and other by-products from pine stumps and
dead timber.
Interested in the project are August Heckscher, Percy
Rockefeller, Barron Collier and R. W. Daniel, all of New
York, Mr. Gillett said, and local men include Mayor D.
B. McKay, H. T. Lykes, K. I. McKay and others.
Sid B. Luce will be superintendent and R. C. Holtzclaw,
chemical engineer. The plant will have a capacity of
300,000 gallons of turpentine, 100,000 gallons of tar oil,
1,500,000 gallons of tar and 75,000 bushels of charcoal
a year.
Between 60 and 80 men will be employed.


Twenty-five Born in 1927 for Every One Thou-
sand Residents

(Daytona Beach Journal, July 9, 1928)
Washington, D. C., June 8.-(A. P.)-Florida, in 1927,
stood fifth among thirty-seven states of the Union in
births for each 1,000 persons of the estimated popula-
tion, statistics just announced by the United States De-
partment of Commerce show.
The rate in Florida was 25.0. Only Alabama, with
25.8; Mississippi, 27.5; North Carolina, 28.8, and West
Virginia, 26.4, exceeded Florida in births per 1,000 per-
This showing, however, was, at that, a trifle lower than
the standing of the state in the same department in 1926.
During that year only two states, Mississippi and North
Carolina, led Florida in births per 1,000 of the estimated
population. While Florida's showing was 26.4, that of
Mississippi was 28.4 and North Carolina 28.8.
While the state made a good showing in births per
1,000, similar records were made with regard to deaths
in both 1927 and 1926, with the same ratio considered.
In the former year, deaths per 1,000 of the population in
Florida amounted to 13.3, with only California, with 13.8;
Maine, 13.7; New Hampshire, 13.8, and Vermont, with
13.9, having more than that number.

In 1926 the same death rate in Florida was 15.2, and
that state at that time held the somewhat uncertain
credit of being the leader for the thirty-seven states in-
cluded in the department's statistics.
Taking up the number of births altogether for each
state, the number of deaths in all ages and under one
year, and the infant mortality under one year per 1,000
births, the figures show that Florida stood twenty-second
among the 37 commonwealths in the number of births in
1927, with 24,126, being exceeded by Alabama, Arkan-
sas, California, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky,
Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, New Jersey,
New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennes-
see, Virginia, West Virginia and Wisconsin.
The number of deaths of all ages in Florida last year
was 18,175. Compared with the number in other states,
Florida stood twenty-first, being exceeded by the same
states, with the exception of Arkansas and West Virginia,
but adding Maryland to the list.
In deaths of those under one year for the same year,
the number in Florida was 2,304, which was twenty-
second among the 37 states. The same states exceeding
Florida in births for that year exceeded her in deaths
under one year, except Kansas, which was replaced by
In infant mortality per 1,000 births, in 1927 Florida
stood fourteenth, and sixteenth in 1926, or 67.5 for the
first year and 74.8 for 1926.


(Chipley Banner, Aug. 16, 1928)
Jacksonville. -Reporting an outlay of $3,167,143.44
for public recreation, Florida took third place in the
nation last year in provision for playgrounds and other
community recreation facilities, according to the Year
Book of the Playground and Recreation Association of
America, just issued.
The state's record was surpassed only by Illinois, which
was far in the lead with more than $8,000,000, and Cali-
fornia, second, with $3,763,166. New York State fell to
sixth place, with $2,256,188.
Coral Gables reported $2,330,000, the bulk of the
Florida expenditure, which was issued in bonds to pur-
chase recreation lands.


(Clearwater Herald, Aug. 17, 1928)
More than $8,750,000 was spent in Florida during July
for new building and engineering work, according to the
F. W. Dodge corporation. The exact figure was $8,795,-
000, slightly ahead of the preceding month, which had
permits of $8,712,000. The figures are a drop of 21 per
cent from July of last year.
Analysis of the July construction record showed the
following items of importance: $3,039,500, or 35 per
cent of the total, for social and recreational projects;
$2,310,600, or 26 per cent, for residential buildings;
$2,288,900, or 26 per cent, for public works and utilities;
and $387,500, or 4 per cent, for commercial buildings.
New construction contracted for in this state since the
first of this year reached a total of $45,665,900.



Through Passenger Service Pensacola-St. Louis
Starts on Sunday

(Pensacola News, Aug. 17, 1928)
Through passenger service on Frisco Lines from St.
Louis and Kansas City to Pensacola will be inaugurated
Sunday, September 2, Frisco officials announced today.
Trains will travel over the Frisco's new $11,000,000 con-
nection between Aberdeen, Miss., and Pensacola.
Sunday Travel
The first northbound train will leave Pensacola at 4
p. m. September 2, and thereafter will leave daily at that
hour. It will arrive in Memphis at 7:30 a. m. the next
day, St. Louis 3:15 p. m. and Kansas City at 8:30 p. m.
This means only 23 hours and 15 minutes of travel from
Pensacola to St. Louis. This will be the fastest railroad
connection available by about two hours.
Passengers Pensacola-bound from St. Louis will leave
that city on the "Sunnyland Special," crack Frisco de luxe
train, at 1:55 p. m., arriving at Memphis at 9:30 p. m.
The "Sunnyland" from Kansas City, also carrying Pen-
sacola cars, will pull into Memphis at 9 p. m. and join the
St. Louis Sunnyland, leaving there at 9:35 p. m. for the
run to Pensacola. The train will arrive here at noon, the
second day out from St. Louis.
Station Not Ready
The new Frisco passenger station, costing more than
$100,000, will not be completed for four months, but
some temporary arrangements will be made to care for
passengers, it was announced. Plans for this arrange-
ment will be discussed at a Frisco meeting soon.
Ticket sales forces of the Frisco will be marshalled
here within the next 10 days. Offices already have been
opened in the San Carlos hotel.
Fast Schedule
Both north and southbound, the Frisco passenger
trains, pulled by Mogul-type locomotives, will swing
through the countryside at an average speed of 32 miles
per hour for the entire distance between Pensacola and
St. Louis and Kansas City. This means the train must
average 41 miles an hour between St. Louis and Memphis
to make up for its slower speed on the new Aberdeen-
Pensacola line.


Federal Warehouse Bottling Plant to Be Located
in State

(Eustis Lake Region, Aug. 21, 1928)
On the 17th inst. there was organized at Gainesville,
Florida, a Honey Producers' Association or Federal
Warehouse Bottling Plant to be located somewhere in
the state, possibly near the center, where all the honey
will be delivered for grading and packing, which will be
done according to the United States government stand-
ards. This proposition is under the sole supervision of
the Florida State Beekeepers' Association and it directed
that the officers of the association, together with the
directors, proceed at once to work out plans to put the
Honey Producers' Association in operation. The bee-
keepers, to show their good faith, pledged their entire
output when the plant is operative. The State of Georgia,
which produces a large amount of honey, wants the

Florida Honey Producers' Association to market their
honey also; so that the new organization, only a few days
old, has more than two and one-half million pounds of
honey pledged and more pledges coming in every day
from beekeepers who were not present, as they hear of
it through their fellow beekeeper. This is one of the
greatest boosts for the State of Florida since the boom,
as it will take care of a product that to a large extent
is not being gathered from the various sources of supply.
Few grove owners and gardeners realize the great
benefit gained from the fertilization of the bloom by the
Much revenue will come into the state from outside, as
a large part of this honey will be packed for export
trade and also shipped to northern points. Such adver-
tisement will benefit the state as every package will not
only carry the name of the state, but the shipping point
as well.
It will give the beekeepers ready cash as soon as the
honey is produced instead of carrying it over from year
to year. Every beekeeper at the meeting returned home
full of enthusiasm for the new organization with a de-
termination of raising his own standard and adding to his
colonies of bees.
One firm in the state has agreed to buy and market
the entire output if the organization deems proper; other
firms have expressed a desire for many carloads.
The government at Washington, D. C., has been so im-
pressed with the bee culture of the southern states that
it has established what it pleases to call "The Southern
States Bee Culture Field Station, University Station,"
Baton Rouge, La., with an able corps in charge; a repre-
sentative of this station was at Gainesville at the bee-
keepers' meeting and gave some very interesting talks.
The officers of the Florida State Beekeepers' Associa-
tion are: J. W. Barney, president, Bradenton; W. C.
Williams, vice-president, Eustis; H. E. Rish, Wewa-
hitchka, secretary-treasurer.


(Jacksonville Journal, Aug. 17, 1928)
A new dry rendering plant to cost about $25,000 will
be constructed shortly by the Florida By-Products Com-
pany, Inc., on a three-acre tract along the Southern
Railway Line at Six Mile creek, a short distance beyond
Grand Crossing, according to C. E. Muller, industrial
secretary of the chamber of commerce. Work is to start
immediately on the new plant, which will furnish em-
ployment for 25 persons at the start of operations.
Soap manufacturers throughout the United States will
receive tallow manufactured at the plant, while the solid
matter will be ground and dehydrated for use in manu-
facture of poultry feed. The latter product is greatly
needed here, inasmuch as Duval county now receives
most poultry feed from Savannah and New Orleans, Mr.
Muller pointed out.
Plans for the plant provide for electrically driven
equipment throughout, power being supplied through an
extension of the city of Jacksonville electric lines. Ar-
rangements to completely deodorize the plant have been
made and no offensive odors will emanate from the place.
Materials used in the industry will be collected in
sealed containers on trucks, it was said. A vacuum sys-
tem will be used to melt the fats from the material col-
lected and other modern machinery will be used to utilize
all of the by-products of the substances brought to the
rendering plant.



(U. S. Department of Agriculture, Aug. 26, 1928)
Fast-growing pine trees yield substantially larger
quantities of resin than less thrifty trees, according to
figures compiled by Lenthall Wyman, of the Forest Ser-
vice of the United States Department of Agriculture.
Mr. Wyman's figures are based on measurements of the
growth and gum yield of second-growth slash pine
worked for naval stores under his direction at Starke,
Florida. The rate of growth was determined by count-
ing the number of rings in the outer half-inch of the tree
trunk. The trees were worked uniformly, with 33
streaks during the chipping season, the streaks having a
maximum depth of one-half inch. The yields of gum
from trees in the various growth classes were as follows:
Number of rings in outer half inch
of wood: Ounces
2- 3 ................. .............. ..... .. .......... 150
4- 5 ...................... ...................... 159
6- 7 ....................... ..................... 129
8- 9 ....................... ..................... 107
10-11 ................. ................... ......... 104
It would appear that with a decrease of two rings in
the outer half inch there is a corresponding increase in
gum yield averaging about 16 ounces. The faster-grow-
ing trees were also the larger ones, and it was estimated
that their greater size accounted for about 7 ounces of
this 16-ounce increment. This estimate leaves 9 ounces'
gain to be accounted for by higher rate of growth.
These figures give an idea of the gains in yield of gum
that may be expected of turpentine orchards when their
growth rate is maintained at a high level by proper forest
management. This would possibly call for the elimina-
tion of the use of fire in the management of these stands.


To Be Manufactured Eight Miles from Bunnell

(St. Augustine Record, Aug. 16, 1928)
Daytona Beach, Aug. 16, 1928.-The Flagler Clay
Holding Company, of which H. E. Black, of this city, is
president, plans immediate development of 3,200 acres
of land fourteen miles west of Ormond and eight miles
southwest of Bunnell, with the manufacture of clay brick
as an important industry in the utilization of the land,
Mr. Black has announced.
Plans for the manufacturing phase of the development
are based upon the fact that the tract is underlaid or
surfaced with a high-class brick clay found in few places
on the east coast, and that experiments have already
showed that it can be successfully used in the manufac-
turing of brick and tile for irrigation and building pur-
poses, Mr. Black said.
Tests of the clay have already been made by E. W.
Roberts, an experienced brick maker of New York and
Pennsylvania, and orders have already been received for
1,250,000 brick without solicitation, according to the
president of the firm. Drainage and building tile will
also be manufactured.
A part of the area will also be developed for agricul-
ture with the aim of giving the agricultural settlers work
in the brick plant during dull periods between the grow-

ing season, according to the announced plans of the
The output of the kilns can be shipped over the Florida
East Coast Railway and the Atlantic Coast Line, the plan
of the company being to make connection with the latter
road at Pierson by the improvement and operation of a
tram road built several years ago.
Mr. Black says he estimates the operation of the brick
and tile plant will save Florida builders a vast sum of
money in the purchase and shipping of this material.
"In one year alone," he said, "brick to the number of
375,000,000 were shipped into Florida from Georgia.
Now that we have discovered the kind of clay deposits
needed for brick, we intend to use this resource to our
advantage and that of Florida builders as well."
Construction of the plant and other phases of the
development of the land are expected to be under way
by fall, he said.


50 Carloads To Be Shipped from Gulf District

(Pensacola News, Aug. 9, 1928)
Between 50 and 65 carloads of Satsumas will be
shipped from the Gulf Coast district this fall, according
to Dr. O. E. Winberg, of Silver Hill, Ala. He is president
of the Gulf Coast Citrus Exchange.
Groves in this county are in excellent condition, George
Emmanuel, a member of the citrus exchange, said. Despite
the freeze of five days in January, the crop is about 75
per cent of normal. The oranges will be of excellent
Harvesting will begin late in October and early


Michigan Has More Than Florida, But This
State Leads in Beaches

(Ft. Pierce Tribune, Aug. 15, 1928)
Tallahassee, Fla., Aug. 15.-(A. P.)-Contrary to
general belief, Florida has not the most coast line of any
state in the country. It is second to Michigan, statistics
reveal, but aside from the desert states, Florida probably
has the most beaches and stretches of sand of any other
Miscroscopic examination of Florida sand reveals that
its mineral composition is vastly different from most of
the other sand to be found in the country, according to
Dr. James H. C. Martens, assistant geologist of the
Florida Geological Survey.
Florida's four principal types of sand, based on mineral
composition, according to Dr. Martens, are quartz sand,
shell and calcite sand, phosphatic sand, and ilmenite sand.
Studies by Dr. Martens, who has made a survey of
sand and gravel of many parts of the state, and the
beach deposits of ilmenite, zircon and rutile, show that
there are many varied species in Florida alone.
About 30 minerals have been found in Florida sands.
Some of these are never present in more than a few one
hundredths of one per cent, and often are lacking en-
tirely. Several, however, such as ilmenite, staurolite and
rutile, which are minerals responsible for the dark streaks
often observed in dunes, beaches and stream beds, always
are noticeable in Florida sand.



(Leesburg Commercial, Aug. 7, 1928)
To the fact that agriculture is in the grip of a revolu-
tion, similar to that which changed completely the trend
of industry in the eighteenth century when the machine
began to take the place of hand labor, are attributed
many of the difficulties now confronting the American
farmer by William Harper Dean, manager of the agri-
cultural service of the Chamber of Commerce of the
United States.
What the machine did to industry, he said in a recent
address, it is now doing to agriculture. Motorized farm
equipment, the tractor, the combine, the cotton picker,
overhead irrigation, improved roads and higher produc-
ing animal units are increasing farm output, while the
farm plant is being reduced.
Among the significant changes he points out:
That horses and mules on farms decreased by 3,000,000
in the period 1920-25. During the same time tractor
population increased 260,000.
That farm population has decreased by 3,000,000 in
the past eight years.
That the farm plant has been reduced by 13,000,000
acres, but its crop production has increased 5 per cent
and that of animal products 15 per cent.
"There is no question," Mr. Dean said, "but that the
level of farm prices will continue to rise. Population is
increasing over the entire world and there is an absolute
limit to the amount of land from which the world's popu-
lation will be fed and clothed. But it will require a pro-
gressively decreasing number of operators to produce this
food and clothing as improved methods displace hand
"American agriculture is becoming in all its branches
one of the most highly specialized industries known."


(By Dr. Henry Mace Payne, of Washington, D. C., Con-
sulting Engineer and Director of the Bureau of
Mining Economics of the American Mining Con-
Evansville, Ind., Aug. 23.-"The ultimate and eco-
nomic development of our resources calls for their fabri-
cation near the point of origin, thus affording higher
class freight to new and larger centers of consumption,"
he said. "No nation and no state ever became rich
through the shipment of raw materials alone." Dr. Payne
illustrated his point by referring to the present shipment
of natural products to distant points for fabrication.
"We ship bauxite selling at $8 per ton in Arkansas to
North Carolina, where it is fabricated and shipped back
as aluminum ware at $700 per ton," he said. "Georgia
barytes at $7 per ton returns as lithopone at $100 per
ton. Arkansas and Mississippi novaculite at $80 per ton
goes to northern New Hampshire to be cut, and we buy
it in St. Louis as razor hones at $2.50 to $8 apiece.
Florida clay comes to Evansville, Chicago and East Liver-
pool, where the magic touch of industry transmutes it
into porcelains and spark plugs at 100, 200 and 400%
increases. Mississippi paint pigment comes to East St.
Louis, where it is roasted and ground and returned to
Mississippi to color tile of local manufacture and to
paint box cars and telegraph cross arms. A decentrali-
zation of industry would result in a thousand weekly pay-
rolls being expended locally in store and market. The
farmer would find a steady market for his products and

the railroad would profit through an equable distribu-
tion of traffic on all portions of its line, with increased
tonnage of wide diversity and general prosperity in the
territory it serves. The difference between well-balanced
industry of this type and raw material industry alone is
noted in Illinois in the effect on business when the coal
mines are idle. If Illinois did not include in its industrial
life a number of factories, business in the State would
have been stagnant."


Blueberry Farm of J. B. Spann Furnishes Object

(Marianna Floridan, Aug. 3, 1928)
Jackson county has been making master strokes along
many lines. Taking the lead in watermelons, corn, pea-
nuts, figs, peaches and blackberries, it is destined to lead
the world in the cultivation of satsuma oranges.
Then, too, a visual lesson of importance is shown in
the successful growing of blueberries on the blueberry
farm of J. B. Spann, just outside of Marianna to the
Blueberries was the one outstanding crop that put
Okaloosa county on the map and put new life into Crest-
view, and blueberries can be just as successfully grown
in Jackson county as any place in the world. This is
proved in the Spann blueberry farm near Marianna.
Mr. Spann's blueberry farm, adjoining this city, com-
prises 22 acres and is one of the healthiest and most
prosperous in West Florida. It is only five years of age,
and while more than 5,000 quarts have already been
gathered, not one-half the crop has been touched. Fresh
berries from this farm have been shipped to Chicago,
Atlanta and other points and the supply never equals the
From the Spann blueberry farm the Chipola Preserving
Company will can 6,000 cans. This will comprise the
surplus from the highest class of berries shipped.
Jackson county can easily be made the richest fruit
county in the South, and it is coming fast in this direc-
The grape experiments show good profits and abundant
crops. This is true of plums also. Fruits will add much
to Jackson county's prosperity. The time is rapidly ap-
proaching when Jackson county will be famed for its
fruits. These make good money crops. While plums,
peaches, oranges, grapes and blueberries are just starting
in this county, the proofs are sufficient that no section
can produce better quality.
Mr. Spann's blueberry farm is indeed an object lesson
-one that should furnish example for emulation.


(St. Petersburg Independent, July 24, 1928)
Clearwater, July 24.-Wholesale distribution of candy
will be started here by the L. and S. Candy Company,
a new firm, about August 1, it was learned today, which
will open its new store here on South Garden avenue
about that time. The new company was formed by W. S.
Landess and W. E. Spitler. Mr. Spitler is a new resident
here, but Mr. Landess has lived here for several years.
Mr. Landess was in this business for 13 years in Indiana
before coming to Clearwater. Candy in every form will
be handled, Mr. Landess said.


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