PUBLISHED SEMI-MONTHLY BY
BUREAU OF IMMIGRATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
JUNE 4, 1928
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Inspection and Grading of Perishable Products ...................
Two Hundred ar.i Flrr t '.Irl,~..l Br.-.ks R..:..rl
Florida Status Much Sounder, Says Expert................................
Florida Will Go on Show.............. ............ ................
Check for $83,109 Is Payment for Thirty-eight Cars Florence
V illa F ru it ....... ............................... .... .............. ........ ...............
Guava Plant Propagation Outlined ..... ........ .................
Test Vegetables Are Inspected.......................................................
One Million Tourist Cars Here in 1928.......................................
Miami Has Factory for Manufacture of Airplane Parts .............
Home Marketing of Home Products ..........................................
Erection of Memorial to Samuel Wilson Asked. ..........................
Carload of Watermelons To Be Shipped Today...........................
Hendry County Ships First Car of Watermelons........ ................
Florida Everglades Soil Is Adapted to Peanut Raising ...............
A ll E gg Sales R records B roken ............. ................................... .......
Picks First Watermelons, Weighing More Than Twenty Pounds.
H ow the People Com e and Go...................................... .... ...........
Seventy-five Per Cent of Fish Planted at Hatcheries Survive......
Florida as "Luxury" Producer...........................................................
Nassau Fertilizer and Oil Company Opens 1928 Season.............. 10
Producers Report a Profitable Year ............................................. 10
State Census Report Ready ........................................... ........ ... 11
Millions in Bananas Will Unload Here........ ................................. 11
Dress and Apron Factory Has Many Orders............................... 11
First Shipment of Beans This W eek.............................. .......... 11
Jones-Reid Flood Control Passed in House, 254 to 91............... 12
Tomato Day Is Set for Dania Thursday........................ .......... 13
M onster Sugar Beet on Display....... .................................... .......... 13
Profit in Cowpeas After Potato Crop......................................... 14
Celery Shipments Now Heavy From the Palmer Farms................ 14
Carload Shipments of Certain Fruits and Vegetables................... 15
South Florida's Great Highway........................................ ............. 15
Edison Finds Florida Sands Productive ........................................ 15
Bass Distributed in Local W aters................................ ............ 15
Nocatee Ships Two Carloads Corn................................. ........... 15
Watermelons Are Ripe in St. Lucie County.................................. 16
New Industry for Auburndale...................................... ............... 16
Vessel Brings Largest Cargo of Whale Oil..................................... 16
Traffic Via the Panama and Suez Canals.................................... 16
Ship 510 Cars of Tomatoes........................................ ................. 16
Inspection and Grading of Perishable Products
Address by L. M. RHODES, State Marketing Commissioner, to the Annual Meeting of the American Railroad
Development Association, at Miami, Florida, May 10, 1928
Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen:
HE perishable nature of fruits and vege-
tables is the cause of many of the serious
difficulties encountered in marketing
them. Careful harvesting, thorough
methods in handling, speedy transit and favor-
able weather conditions are necessary to secure
the best results.
Before discussing directly the inspection and
grading of perishable products, however, I wish
to call your attention to the importance of the
fruit and vegetable movement in this country,
with special reference to its magnitude and
value, and their tremendous increase in the last
The average annual carload shipment of our
thirty-three leading perishable crops, over a
period of three years, has been 968,025 car-
loads, with an annual value of more than
The carlot movement of fruits and vegetables
in the United States has increased during the
last ten years nearly seventy per cent.
The population of the United States and
Canada combined has only increased twenty
per cent during the sane time, or the carload
shipments of fruits and vegetables have in-
creased three times as rapidly as the population
who consume these perishables.
Of course, there is always the possibility of
exporting some of these crops, but the popula-
tion of the world has only increased ten per
cent during the last decade, so our movement
of perishables to market has increased three
and one-half times as fast as our population
and seven times as rapidly as the world's popu-
These accumulating surpluses continually
crowding into our markets challenge the most
fertile brains and foremost thinkers in the field
of economics today.
Prices for these surpluses are not always
fixed by American conditions, but they are sold
in competition with world surpluses, at prices
to some extent fixed by world conditions. In
other words, the world has grown small enough
that a bumper crop of tomatoes in Mexico af-
fects the price of Florida tomatoes, or a big
yield of grapefruit in Porto Rico reflects in the
price of Florida grapefruit. The over-produc-
tion of food products in the Eastern Hemisphere
2 FLORIDA REVIEW
causes price fluctuations in the Western Hemis-
The reason is obvious. The consumption of
food is limited to the capacity of the human
stomach, and all people do not consume the
same things. Some are satisfied with rice, milk
and fruit, while others prefer meat, eggs and
potatoes, but the limit of consumption is the
With practically every important market on
earth amply supplied with food products, the
competition is not in quantity but in quality.
In fact, it is the appearance of produce that
opens the consumers' pocketbooks, and quality
that keeps them open.
Highly specialized systems of production on
areas far removed from the great consuming
centers, coupled with improved transportation
both by land and water, have increased compe-
tition and changed the habits of consumers, and
made marketing conditions so complex that
good quality of products is imperative. There-
fore, grading and inspection have become wide-
Grading consists of separating a product into
groups or grades, of uniform sizes, kinds and
quality. Standardization, which must follow
grading, establishes the permanency of these
grades and defines the nature and character of
the commodity included in the grade, or the de-
fects which exclude them from the grade.
There are a number of factors which enter
into the grading of perishables. Among these
are variety, size, color, texture, maturity, and
freedom from injuries caused by insects, disease
or mechanical means, which affect the appear-
ance or impair the quality of the product.
Grading provides a definite basis for trade
and contracts, and has a tendency toward the
elimination of fraud and deception. It enables
the product to meet the particular requirements
of different markets and thus facilitates distri-
It furnishes the only sure basis for accurate
and comparable market quotations.
It furnishes a basis for advertising and pool-
It encourages better methods of production
by giving proper recognition to variations in
It reduces losses in transit, by requiring uni-
formity of maturity and packing.
It stimulates consumption and decreases the
number of disagreements between shippers and
receivers by improving quality.
It reduces cost of distribution, thereby in-
creasing marketing efficiency. Good products
often sell themselves, and are more satisfactory
to both seller and buyer.
Ten years ago a very small part of the per-
ishable shipments were marketed under specific
grades. Today, Federal grades have been rec-
ommended for thirty-eight different fruits and
vegetables, and it is estimated that seventy-five
per cent of the perishable products shipped at
the present time are marketed under recognized
grades. This beneficial service has been greatly
speeded up by the Inspection Service.
SHIPPING POINT INSPECTION
Generally speaking, inspection at shipping
point is an examination of a product to deter-
mine to what extent it conforms to grade or
standard, and to determine its qualifications for
certain markets, or its lack of qualification for
others, and to enable the shipper or receiver to
distinguish intelligently between the commer-
cial value of different lots or shipments.
It is a commercial service and an important
factor in merchandizing any perishable product,
on account of their highly perishable nature,
unfavorable weather conditions preventing har-
vesting at the proper time, over-ripe products
unfit for distant shipping, or any other condition
which may prevent the product from reaching
its destination in good condition.
It enables cooperative organizations to deal
equitably with their members.
It provides a way for large distributors, who
ship from many different points in the same ter-
ritory, to check up on the work of their different
It enables shippers to intelligently distribute
their products in accordance with the demands
of markets for products of different quality.
It often prevents rejections in the market.
It aids in securing adjustments on disputed
cars, and in presenting railroad claims.
In most cases it prevents questions being
raised as to the quality or condition of the ship-
The certificate of an impartial, disinterested
Federal-State inspector is not only taken as
prima facie evidence in Federal and most of
the State courts, but it furnishes a disinterested,
impartial way of settling misunderstandings be-
tween shippers and receivers, in case of unsatis-
factory quality and condition.
It protects the shipper in case of unwarranted
complaints, and furnishes protection to the re-
ceiver when produce arrives in poor condition
or when it is of poor quality.
Shipping point inspection costs from $3.50 to
$5.00 per car. It was started in 1922, and
72,466 carloads were inspected the first year.
FLORIDA REVIEW 3
Published Semi-Monthly by
Bureau of Immigration, Department of Agriculture
NATHAN MAYO..............Commissioner of Agriculture
T. J. BROOKS..............Director Bureau of Immigration
PHIL S. TAYLOR................................Advertising Editor
Entered as second-class matter, June 25, 1926, at the Post Office
at Tallahassee, Florida, under the Act of June 6, 1920.
Will be mailed free to anyone upon request.
JUNE 4, 1928
During the four years from June 30, 1923, to
June 30, 1927, the increase was 165 per cent,
or a total for the year ending June 30, 1927, of
193,512 carloads, or nearly twenty per cent of
the total movement; and an increase during
these four years of forty per cent per annum.
This proves the growth of the movement and
shows that the service has been satisfactory.
Its efficiency is established by the records.
Out of the annual inspection of 193,512 cars at
shipping point in the year ending June 30, 1927,
only 201 were re-inspected at receiving point,
and only 115 of these cars failed to stand the
test. In 86 cases out of the 201 the shipping
point certificates were sustained. Only one in
every 1,682, or one-sixteenth of one per cent,
failed to sustain shipping-point inspection.
RECEIVING POINT INSPECTION
Many changes can take place in perishables
during a long transit period. Extreme changes
in weather conditions, injuries due to poor
equipment or delays, or poor methods of hand-
ling can develop decay or damage that will
greatly reduce the market value of the product.
These changes in quality and condition which
take place in perishables in storage or in tran-
sit cause many differences between shippers and
receivers, or between either of these parties and
the carriers, which must be settled. The only
practical way to adjust these differences is by
the use of a certified report received from a dis-
interested person thoroughly familiar with the
grades and standards of the products in ques-
Such a service is receiving point inspection,
furnished by the United States Department of
Agriculture and maintained at the most import-
ant receiving markets.
This service started in 1917, and export ser-
vice has been given on request, and certificates
issued which describe quality and condition in
detail. This enables the responsibility for such
losses to be properly placed. When the self-
interest of buyers and sellers colors their opin-
ions on matters of quality and grade, the buyer
claiming that it does not come up to grade, it
can best be settled by a competent inspector
who is without prejudice in the matter.
Carriers are usually held responsible for any
deterioration of perishables which takes place
in transit, and they are considered liable for
damages if the losses are caused by delays,
rough handling, improper ventilation or refrig-
eration. Many of the defects found at receiv-
ing markets are the result of improper care in
production, harvesting, grading or packing, and
cannot be charged against the carrier. The
agents of the carriers are not experts in such
matters, neither will the shipper accept their
evidence as unprejudiced in the settlement of
these transit losses. So the Federal food prod-
ucts inspector at receiving point is the most suit-
able person to settle the controversy. When
these disputes must be settled in court, the cer-
tificates of the receiving point inspectors furnish
impartial evidence as to the facts in the case.
As proof that this service has been satisfac-
tory, efficient and beneficial, it has grown in
use until last year 31,794 cars of perishables
were inspected, and only twenty-three appeals
for re-inspection were made, and eighteen of
the original inspections were sustained, leaving
only five reversals in 31,794 carloads-one in
In closing, I will point out a few of the bene-
fits which carriers derive from inspection of
It helps to eliminate the difficulty claim
agents have in establishing the facts necessary
to a fair settlement, also in avoiding claims, and
in the settlement of those that are unavoidable.
On every car certified, an inspection of the
car and its equipment is noted. Any defects
found, where the railroads are cooperating by
the purchase of copies, are reported to the car-
rier's representative so that such defects may
be repaired prior to actual billing.
It is established beyond doubt that where
fruit or vegetables are picked at the proper
stage of maturity, graded, packed and loaded
in the proper manner, that there are fewer
claims. Inspectors assist shippers in each of
these. If the car is not properly loaded and
stripped, and a tight load secured, this is also
noted on the certificate.
On many justified claims it is difficult if not
impossible for the Claim Department to know
the amount the claim justifies. This is due to
the fact that there has been no inspection to
establish grade. A claim agent, making a set-
tlement on damage to an automobile, would not
consider doing so until he knew whether it was
4 FLORIDA REVIEW
a Ford or a Cadillac, as they vary greatly in
value, yet comparatively there is as wide a range
in the different grades of fruits and vegetables,
and without knowing the grade, even though he
knows the market for that day for each grade,
he cannot make a settlement based on facts.
Shipping point inspection establishes the fol-
lowing facts which are very important to the
The condition of the car and equipment of
the carrier so far as might affect the carrying
of the commodity.
The condition of the loading. Giving the
manner of loading, stripping, bracing, etc.
It establishes the grade, size, color, and cer-
tifies to the condition of the fruit or vegetable
at time of shipping. If any decay is present at
time of shipment, this is established.
These are the most pertinent points to the
carriers, but in addition to this, the grower and
shipper are educated to the proper manner to
do all of the foregoing through the Shipping
Point Service. It is a necessary service which
helps to establish fair dealing between ship-
pers, receivers and carriers, and a better busi-
ness understanding among them all.
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250 CARLOADS ON WEDNESDAY BREAKS
Total of 1,456 Carloads Out of District Up to
(Hastings Herald, May 4, 1928)
Following disheartening weather conditions that existed
over the week end, potato growers in this vicinity went
into the fields in a heavy way Monday and Wednesday.
All previous records for shipments of potatoes from Hast-
ings and from the state were broken when 125 carloads
went out from Hastings alone and 250 carloads from the
section. It was believed that Thursday's record would
fully equal that of Wednesday. Tuesday's record was
almost as high when 226 carloads were shipped.
The market opened Monday apparently with a strong
market at $5.50. Tuesday it broke to $5.00; Wednesday
to $4.50 and Thursday found the market at $4.00 f. o. b.
for prime No. 1's and $2.50 for No. 2's. Growers and
distributors were optimistic, however, and believed that
the bottom had been reached.
A total of 1456 carloads had been shipped up to Wed-
nesday night and many believed this represented about
one-third of the crop. The end of the week, it is believed,
will find about 2000 carloads shipped out of the Hastings
FLORIDA STATUS MUCH SOUNDER, SAYS
National Bank Examiner Chief Gives Views
Based on Banking in State
(Times-Union, May 4, 1928)
"Today Florida is in a much sounder economic posi-
tion than ever before," is the opinion of John W. Pole,
of Washington, D. C., chief of the National Bank Ex-
aminers of the United States Treasury Department, who
has written an article on Economic Factors Affecting
Banking in Florida, appearing in the current issue of
The Southern Banker. The edition is a special Florida
bankers' convention issue. The Florida Bankers' Asso-
ciation was in annual session at Tampa on April 14.
Mr. Pole attended the meeting and was one of the speak-
ers on the program.
"The sunshine of Florida so casts a spell over the
imaginations of newcomers to her shores that it becomes
difficult to make an impartial evaluation of her economic
position," Mr. Pole declares at the outset of the article.
"With the experience of the last few years has come
a greater sanity in considering Florida's possibilities that
bodes well for her future, and most of the froth being
eliminated we can now analyze carefully the function of
banking with relation to state development.
"Florida's economic growth is influenced by three major
factors: Natural resources, industry and climate.
"Outside of phosphate, the known mineral deposits
have no very important significance. On the other hand,
nature has so richly endowed Florida with a soil of great
fertility and adaptability that she is among the leaders
in the quantity as well as the quality of her fruit and
"Closely related to the foregoing is her industrial de-
velopment. While prominent in tobacco manufacture
and gaining ground in textiles and food products, the
industrial activity that can locate profitably within her
borders is more or less restricted. I do not mean that
Florida cannot grow industrially. On the contrary, there
is great room for development here. In the salubrity of
her climate and the beauty of her scenery, Florida has
advantages which brook but few rivals and no superiors.
By the thorough and systematic capitalization of her
natural advantages as a resort, Florida can increase her
wealth-producing capacity year by year. Now that the
feverish period of 1925 has passed and values are on a
more conservative basis, she can build substantially for
the future and expect steady and profitable growth.
"Despite the collapse in real estate values that came in
1926, Florida has lost none of her real economic advan-
tages. The phosphate beds, the rich soil, the wonderful
climate, the sea and the great playgrounds still remain.
The future, therefore, is bright."
Mr. Pole concludes his article with a lengthy discussion
of banking as it relates to Florida, bringing out compara-
tive figures which at one point in the article he declares
evince "the fundamental soundness of her economic posi-
FLORIDA WILL GO ON SHOW
Industrial and Agricultural Resources to Be
Told in West
(Palm Beach Times, May 7, 1928)
Tallahassee, May 7.-(A. P.)-The east and the west
are to know something of Florida's resources, indus-
trially, agriculturally and otherwise, before 1928 ends.
The Bureau of Immigration announces that arrangements
have been made to place Florida exhibits at two of the
principal expositions of the country during the fast of
The first display will be at the Iowa State Fair and
Exposition, to be held at Des Moines, August 22 to 31.
The other will go to the International Live Stock Ex-
position, at Chicago, which begins December 1 and con-
tinues for a week.
Booths have been engaged by the bureau at both
places. They will be located in the most advantageous
places the bureau has been able to obtain.
Two men who have had experience in handling the re-
sources of North and South Florida will be sent to the
two fairs to look after Florida's exhibits. Negotiations
are now under way to obtain their services, it was an-
The exhibits will include products of farms and groves
and displays from the game and fish departments. A
map 10 feet square picturing the location in Florida of
the various resources will also be on exhibition.
At Chicago, with zero weather prevailing, the bureau
expects to strike at the psychological time with Florida
exhibits of citrus fruits, truckage and other produce
raised while other sections of the nation shiver.
CHECK FOR $83,109 IS PAYMENT FOR 38
CARS FLORENCE VILLA FRUIT
(Winter Haven Chief, May 11, 1928)
The largest amount ever received in one check for
fruit shipped through the Florence Citrus Growers Asso-
ciation of this city was received last evening by Robert
Sands, manager of the packing house, and represented
a total of $83,109.00 for 38 cars of fruit sent into
northern markets recently. This was an average of
$2,187 per car, one of the highest averages for carload
lots made by any association in the state this year.
The 38 cars represented oranges and grapefruit, the
great majority being Valencia oranges. They also repre-
sented all grades of fruit, some of the boxes of the
highest grade Valencias going over the $10 mark. Sands
stated that never before had a check for so large an
amount been received by his association, the total re-
ceipts of which have gone beyond the million and a
quarter mark for the season, with some thousands of
boxes of Valencias still to go into the markets. Ship-
ments from the house are averaging four and five cars a
In the Tuesday markets, the Florence Growers Asso-
ciation sold a mixed car of the Gondola and Cat brand
of Valencias, which averaged $10.40 a box for the former
and $10.15 for the latter.
GUAVA PLANT PROPAGATION OUTLINED
Methods Are Set Forth in Article by Horti-
(By Harold Mowry, Assistant Horticulturist, Florida Ex-
periment Station, in Miami News, April 12, 1928)
Guavas may be propagated by seeds, root cuttings,
budding or grafting. As with most seedling fruits, it is
not possible to tell what sort of fruit will result until the
seedlings have fruited. It may sometimes happen with
the guava that seedlings will prove almost or entirely
In planting guava seeds, only those from large, choice
fruits should be planted. Plant as soon as mature, in
either flats or nursery row, where they can be kept well
watered, covering with soil to a depth of one-eighth to
one-fourth inch. Do not over-water at time seedlings
first show up, as they are subject to a damping off, which
may cause the loss of most of them. If in flats, trans-
plant when they have reached a height of an inch or two.
If pots are available, carry plants along in them until
large enough to set out in permanent planting.
When transplanting to permanent planting it seems
advisable to choose those seedlings which show a medium
growth, rather than a very vigorous or a poor growth,
as such are believed to give a better percentage of heavy
fruiting trees. When moved to permanent planting, set
about three times as close in the row as will be finally
wanted. After seedlings have come into bearing the
poorer ones can be taken out, so that remaining trees
will be spaced at from 20 to 25 feet.
When root cuttings are used the resultant plants will
produce fruit like that of the parent plant from which
they were taken. Such cuttings can be made of any ex-
cept very small or very large roots. Cut them into
lengths of approximately five to eight inches, lay flat in
seedbed and cover with soil to a depth of two to four
inches. Keep soil moist, but not wet. If weather is hot,
shade bed with a burlap or other shade. Make cuttings
preferably during winter months. At the experiment
station 70 per cent of cuttings made in this manner dur-
ing November have grown.
Another simple method of obtaining plants from roots
is to sever roots from larger trees at a distance of two
or three feet from the main trunk. In the cutting off
of such roots, they and soil about them should be dis-
turbed as little as possible. Sprouts will spring from the
severed roots and plants resulting may be transplanted
where wanted when they have attained the desired size.
Although budding is not practiced to any great extent,
both shield and patch budding are possible but difficult.
The former method seems the most desirable of the two.
The work is done during the winter months, using small
stock plants and budwood that is far enough advanced
to have lost the green color of bark. Cut buds long as
with the avocado. Mr. J. W. Barney, the introducer of
the Morris slot grafting into Florida, has found that
guavas can be successfully grafted by this method.
TEST VEGETABLES ARE INSPECTED
Experimental Carrot and Beet Crops Raised
(Miami Herald, May 11, 1928)
Vero Beach, Fla., May 10.-Inspection of the experi-
mental fields of stock carrots and Mangel beets, spon-
sored by the agricultural department of the Florida East
Coast Railway in Indian River and other counties, is
being made by Harry S. McLendon, agricultural agent of
the company. In December a number of small plots of
lands in Indian River county were planted to seed sup-
plied by the railway company through its agricultural de-
The experiments were conducted in an effort to provide
cheap feed for live stock and dairy cattle at a time when
pasturage might be short in this district. The results in
this and adjoining counties have been most encouraging.
It has been discovered that splendid yields may be ob-
tained and that the stock like the feed once they have
learned to eat carrots and beets. Yields from 25 to 100
tons an acre have been obtained in the experiment. Beets
have been grown that weigh from six to eight pounds
From a two-acre patch grown by the Vero Beach Dairy
Company sufficient feed was obtained to supply rations
for more than 100 head of cattle for 10 days when the
ensilage feed had been exhausted.
1,000,000 TOURIST CARS HERE IN 1928
(By John Lodwick, in Stuart News, May 12, 1928)
St. Petersburg, Fla., May 12.-(Special)-More than
1,000,000 motor cars owned by winter visitors came into
Florida during the season coming to a close, according
to estimates made by auto club officials here who have
kept a close check of the vehicles coming into the state
through the principal gateways located at Lake City and
Fifty per cent of the tourists who visited St. Peters-
burg during the winter season came by motor car accord-
ing to police, chamber of commerce and motor club offi-
cers. At police headquarters records show there were
72,675 foreign owned cars in the city during the winter,
while at the chamber of commerce out of 30,382 tourists
to register their names, 14,535 came to the city by auto-
mobile. Only 20 per cent register.
MIAMI HAS FACTORY FOR MANUFACTURE
OF AIRPLANE PARTS
Moore Aero Supply Company Plans Building for
(Miami Herald, May 5, 1928)
Manufacture of airplane parts has been started in
Miami by the Moore Aero Supply Company. An im-
proved type of water manifold for 90-horsepower Curtiss
motors, which are in use in commercial airplanes all over
the United States, are being manufactured from brazed
steel tubing and finished with polished nickel plate. The
new manifolds are supplied heavier than the old type and
are guaranteed by the Miami company.
Ray Moore, owner of the company, has been in busi-
ness in Miami for four years and ships aviation supplies
to all parts of the South. He recently supplied William
S. Brock and Edward F. Schlee with parts when the fliers
were attempting the endurance flight at Daytona Beach.
The present location of the company is at N. E. Second
avenue and Forty-ninth street. To take care of the in-
creasing business, a new building is being planned to have
about 6,000 square feet of floor space and special pro-
visions for storing airplane wings and control parts.
HOME MARKETING OF HOME PRODUCTS
(Times-Union, May 13, 1928)
Recently it has been noted in Jacksonville that there is
more of farm products marketing direct from farms to
consumers than heretofore. These products come from
Duval county farms, truck patches and poultry yards.
When they are properly classed as A-1 products they
find ready sale direct from the farm truck or automo-
bile, or animal-drawn vehicle, for that matter, at the door
of the consumer's home, the housewife being only too
glad to have delivered to her at her home fruits, vege-
tables, poultry, eggs, butter, all fresh from the farm and
sold by the producer himself or herself. Buyers of these
products even are well satisfied to pay the top market
prices, on which the producer, who also is the seller, gets
all the profit, not having to divide with the middleman.
One of these producer-salesmen farmers being asked
recently why he took the house-to-house sale method for
disposing of his supplies of milk and butter and eggs and
vegetables, said that it was the only way in which he
could get a fair price for what he had for sale. He said
further that he had "picked up forty regular customers
in no time at all" in the suburban section of the city that
now he is serving regularly with food products from his
Duval county farm. He says he gets the best market
price for what he produces and sells because he makes
it a point to have only first-quality products, all prop-
erly graded and guaranteed to be as represented. In
addition, house delivery counts in his favor. Of course,
this farmer, and others doing what he is doing, is not
crying and bothering congress about "farm relief," he
has found a way to provide his own "relief."
But there's another side to the picture. Not so long
ago a farmer was observed peddling eggs in Jacksonville,
eggs that, inquiry revealed, had been produced on the
farm-peddler's own place out in the country. He carried
his eggs in bulk in a large splint basket. They were all
colors and all sizes, ungraded, and many of them dirty.
The price this peddler-farmer asked was the top-notch
price at which the highest grade of eggs, guaranteed
strictly fresh, properly graded, were selling for that
day-85 cents per dozen-and such eggs! Did he sell
any? It was not noticed that he did. But he probably
practically gave them away later, or carried them back
home and then told his neighbors that "there wasn't any
market for eggs in Jacksonville," which was quite true,
not for eggs such as this particular farmer was offering
for sale, and in the manner in which he presented them
to those he thought would buy.
Yes, there are places for selling all. that is being pro-
duced on Duval county farms, and at prices that pay for
the producing, if only proper marketing methods are em-
ployed. And this applies to sale to stores as well as to
house-to-house sales. Stores will pay the producer more
for quality products properly graded than for inferior
products delivered in "any old way." House-to-house
marketing takes time if every individual producer takes
that method of selling his products. Competition between
rival farmers is ruinous, too many trying to serve a
limited community. Therefore, the plan of selling and
delivering direct from farm to consumer is not perfect.
But for a time, at least, it may be satisfactory to both
producer and consumer, or until a better plan is adopted.
ERECTION OF MEMORIAL TO SAMUEL
(U. S. Daily, April 14, 1928)
An appropriation of $25,000 for the erection of a
memorial to Samuel Wilson, by whose sobriquet, "Uncle
Sam," the United States is popularly designated, would
be authorized under a resolution (H. J. Res. 271), intro-
duced in the House, April 13, by Representative Hogg
(Rep.), of Fort Wayne, Ind.
Mr. Wilson, according to the resolution, was a typical
American citizen who accompanied Lewis and Clark on
their expedition in 1804-5 and was cited for gallantry
for work as a quarter-gunner on the "Constitution" in
her battle with the "Guerrere" in 1812. He was born
just after the opening of the Revolutionary War and
died in 1875.
The title of "Uncle Sam," the resolution says, was ac-
quired while he was employed as a government inspector
of provisions in the war of 1812. The bill was referred
to the Committee on the Library.
CARLOAD OF WATERMELONS TO BE
(Ft. Myers Tropical News, May 1, 1928)
The first carload of Lee county watermelons will be
shipped to a northern market, probably New York, today.
The melons were raised on the Nash and McCree farm
on Pine Island. The melon market has been slower this
year than usual, but local truck merchants believe that
the first carload will net the growers about $1,250.
More money is spent in cafes and restaurants and less
in grocery stores the farther west one goes. In Baltimore
only 11.11 per cent of the money expended for food
goes for prepared meals, in Providence 12.07 per cent
and in Atlanta 12.06 per cent. In Kansas City the pro-
portion jumps to 22.88 per cent, in Denver to 23.38 per
cent, in Seattle to 23 per cent, and in San Francisco
28.49 per cent. Baltimore spends 43.81 cents of its food
dollar for groceries, Providence 45.27 cents, Atlanta
47.21 cents, Kansas City 32.72 cents, Denver 35.20 cents,
Seattle 32.57 cents and San Francisco 26.36 cents.-
Trends and Indications, April 10.
8 FLORIDA REVIEW
HENDRY COUNTY SHIPS FIRST CAR OF
(Hendry County News, May 3, 1928)
The first cars of watermelons-two in number-left
Felda's gardens last Monday, April 30th. Come on
neighboring counties, what have you to say? Buyers tell
us, and we believe it, that this is the first shipment of
melons in carload lots to be sent out of the state. For
three consecutive years Felda, Hendry County, held this
honor. Since the coming of L. B. McEwen and the first
packing house in this part of the county, modern methods
are taking the place of pioneer efforts and Hendry county
is beginning to show what really can be done with her
fertile soil and favorable climate.
FLORIDA EVERGLADES SOIL IS ADAPTED
TO PEANUT RAISING
Maine Company Contemplates Planting Large
Acreages in Near Future
Tallahassee, May 9.-(A. P.)-Not only can peanuts
be raised to advantage and with profit in the Florida
Everglades, but the program of the Brown Company of
Portland, Maine, contemplates large acreages in peanuts
within the immediate future, provided a system of water
control is maintained. This information was given for
compilation in the forthcoming issue of the Florida In-
A possibility of 5,000 acres in peanuts in 1929, of per-
haps 20,000 acres in 1930, and 30,000 acres in 1931 is
"It has been proved beyond reasonable doubt to myself
that Brown Company's Everglades property, when given
water control and our methods of agriculture, can and
does produce peanuts," writes H. P. Vannah, chemist in
charge of the Everglades experiments.
According to O. B. Brown, vice-president of the com-
pany, experiments have been made for years in the Ever-
glades. Interest in the Everglades began several years
ago, it was stated, when J. C. Sherman, of the Brown
Company, spent a winter in Florida. He made an inves-
tigation and decided that the production of peanuts on a
large scale might be feasible there.
The Brown Company are manufacturers, for the most
part, of paper. In connection with this manufacture,
however, they found they had a waste by-product-hydro-
gen gas. It was being thrown o'ff in the air. To utilize
the waste, it was found it could be used in the treatment
of cottonseed oil, or peanut oil, to harden them. Manu-
facture of such a product was begun, the oil used com-
ing from Europe.
After the war, however, the company was compelled
to discontinue this product because of the difficulty in
obtaining the oil. Search was then instituted for a loca-
tion where peanuts, on a large scale, might be raised to
Experiments that followed in Florida proved that pea-
nuts could be raised successfully on Everglades sour-grass
land, as distinguished from custard apple and elderberry
Experimentations included the trials of the use of
chemicals in fitting the soil for production, and at present
copper sulphate, zinc sulphate and other chemicals are
being used for various crops. The experiments have
proved that not only peanuts but many other crops can
be raised successfully, according to Mr. Vannah, whose
headquarters is at Belle Glade.
"The Brown Company will grow peanuts in large com-
mercial quantities as a peanut oil source contingent on
the date of improved canalization," he said. "The Brown
Company has grown and is growing potatoes and other
truck crops advantageously in its amended soil."
Raising of peanuts in large quantities is regarded as
one of the industrial possibilities of the state wherein
there is no danger of overcrowding a market. It is be-
lieved likely that in the future a large area will be utilized
for that purpose.
In connection with the work in Florida, the Brown
Company evolved a planter which is capable of planting
240 miles of peanuts a day. Planting peanuts with a
small machine drawn by a mule was too slow a process
where several thousand acres were to be put into the
ALL EGG SALES RECORDS BROKEN
Volume of Local Business Handled By West
Coast Association Sets New Mark
(Bradenton Herald, May 6, 1928)
The volume of local business received by the Florida
West Coast Poultry Association during the past week,
which was designated as National Egg Week, broke all
records since the association started last September. Ac-
cording to W. B. Stinson, manager of the association, the
increased business is attributed to the fact that practi-
cally all the local merchants cooperated by handling Man-
atee county eggs instead of featuring shipped in eggs.
Up to last week the association had been handling ap-
proximately 150 cases per week and their total for
National Egg Week reached the 200 mark. Officials of
the association state that they feel very much encouraged
by the cooperation extended them among the merchants
of Bradenton, Palmetto and Manatee.
From the opening date of the association last Sep-
tember up until April 20 they had handled one million
eggs, and with the outlook of all local firms handling
local eggs, it is estimated that the business will be
doubled within the next six months. Mr. Stinson stated
that the only problem which has been confronting poultry
raisers of Manatee county is that they have never been
able until now to get local merchants to handle their eggs
All eggs handled through the association are indelibly
stamped "Westcoast," which is the trade mark used on
U. S. grade No. 1. The brand has become well estab-
lished in all of the larger cities along the west coast with
an increased demand locally. Members of the association
predict that their demand will in the near future exceed
CHITTUM PICKS FIRST WATERMELONS
WEIGHING MORE THAN 20 POUNDS
(Ft. Pierce Tribune, May 12, 1928)
With early watermelons coming in good and the pros-
pects of high prices in the market, John Chittum is
already picking melons that weigh more than 20 pounds.
One watermelon was brought to the city yesterday
from his nine-acre patch on the Header canal road and
it tipped the scales at 32 pounds. Chittum's patch is
among the largest watermelon acreages in the county.
FLORID A REVIEW
HOW THE PEOPLE COME AND GO
(Times-Union, April 21, 1928)
Writing to his newspaper, the Belfontaine (Ohio)
Examiner, Editor Horace K. Hubbard, who has been
spending some months in Jacksonville, tells that "every
day now hundreds of new faces are seen in Hemming
Park. Tourists who have spent the winter down the line
are returning by slow stages to their homes in the North,
and spend some little time in Jacksonville." He says "it
is easy to discern the old faces from the new, as the
'just in' tourists invariably stand around the alligator
pool or the Gen. Joseph Johnston monument located in
the center of the park. In a few days they become ac-
quainted with the new sights, and are soon to be found
sitting about conversing with others and sharing equally
the comforts and pleasures of those who were here be-
Editor Hubbard goes on to tell about the scurrying
crowds at the Union Terminal, where throngs come in
and other throngs go out, northbound and southbound,
in a steady stream. "They are leaving by the hundreds,"
he says, referring to the tourists and winter visitors, "and
more hundreds come in from the south and stop off
After spending fifteen winters in Florida, and a num-
ber of the visits being given mainly to places farther
south in the state, Mr. Hubbard has now decided that
Jacksonville is just what he wants in the way of climate,
accommodations and people, for a winter stay, and ex-
cepting a few short trips made down the two coasts he
has spent three months and more very pleasantly here.
In his last letter to the Examiner he said:
It never gets lonesome in Jacksonville. While great
numbers leave each day, they are not missed in the great
throngs to be seen upon the streets and in the parks.
Jacksonville is a city of 160,000 inhabitants, and the
thousands sojourning here give the city the appearance
of a great metropolis. There's much "pep" and activity
in evidence day and night, and there is entertainment in
abundance for the visitors and citizens. Like Columbus,
Ohio, this is a great convention city. Scarcely a day
passes that some big convention is not held here at one
or the other of the skyscraper hotels. Some of the con-
ventions bring brass bands with them, and, as a result,
music is frequently heard about the streets.
These facts are being discovered by many new people
every year. It was for a long time thought that in order
to enjoy a winter visit to Florida one must necessarily
go way down the state, or far into the interior, and there
are many good reasons for such a movement. But it is
not necessary to go any farther than Jacksonville, to be
"in Florida," with Florida's wonderful climate, sur-
rounded by agreeable and friendly people and with every
comfort and convenience that could be desired at hand.
Jacksonville offers every advantage that could be
thought of for the enjoyment of the outdoors in winter.
With several splendid golf courses, water sports, hunting
and fishing nearby, the finest beach on the Atlantic coast
within forty minutes drive from the city, Jacksonville
should be a great tourist resort-but as yet it is only a
fine, clean, well-arranged city, with rapidly growing busi-
ness interests, unexcelled transportation facilities and
A large part of the tourist travel into Florida passes
through Jacksonville, and thousands linger briefly, south-
bound or northbound. They should stay longer. Practi-
cally every day reports are read in the newspapers of
late cold and very disagreeable weather, North, East and
West. This, then, is a good time to spend at least a few
weeks in Jacksonville, where visitors "need never be
lonesome," and thus avoid going home too soon.
SEVENTY-FIVE PER CENT FISH PLANTED
AT HATCHERIES SURVIVE
Commissioner T. R. Hodges Reviews Work of
Department During Past Year
(Times-Union, May 5, 1928)
Tallahassee, May 4.-(A. P.)-Of the one million or
more baby fish distributed from the hatcheries of the
State Shell Fish Department during the past year among
the waters of Florida, 75 per cent have survived the
attacks of their natural enemies and have grown to
maturity, T. R. Hodges, commissioner of the department,
Mr. Hodges based his statement on reports from
various sections of the state where the young fish have
been placed after being taken from the department's
hatcheries. It was not expected, he said, that over 25
per cent would survive.
The fish distributed from the hatcheries have attained
a length of from eleven to twelve inches, and will be
"meat in the pot" for anglers when the fresh water fish-
ing season opens May 16, the commissioner said.
The 1928 hatching season for large mouth black bass
is already in motion at the Izaak Walton League Hatchery
No. 2, at Welaka, and John W. Martin Hatchery, at
Okeechobee, with splendid prospects for a record-break-
ing production, Mr. Hodges said. Over 350,000 advanced
fry were distributed from the two hatcheries up to the
first part of May, and at that time, the work had just
begun, it was stated. Both of these hatcheries are owned
and operated by the Shell Fish Commission.
The department is in receipt of letters from chambers
of commerce, American Legion posts and Izaak Walton
League chapters of various sections of the state advising
that the life and growth of the fish distributed from the
hatcheries has been excellent.
Henry O'Malley, United States Fish Commissioner, and
G. C. Leach, chief fish culturist, of Washington, person-
ally assisted in planting 20,000 young bass in the With-
lacoochee river at Yankeetown, and the latter stated that
at least 50 per cent of the fish planted would survive, Mr.
The commissioner, who declared that he is taking a
keen interest in the sport fishing of the state, is being
supported in that work by the commercial fishing organ-
ization, which he represents, as well as by the Izaak
Walton League and other sport fishing bodies.
The department has now turned its attention to the
artificial propagation of crayfish, Mr. Hodges said. The
equipment for the establishment of a crayfish hatchery
is now on its way to Key West, he said. The hatchery,
when established, will be the first of its kind in the United
States, it was asserted.
The Bureau of Fisheries, at Washington, has detailed
A. G. Adams, an expert lobster culturist, from the Booth
Bay Harbor, Me., station to assist the state in operation
of the crayfish hatchery. Mr. Adams has already arrived
in Florida and has reported for duty to the shell fish
FLORIDA AS "LUXURY" PRODUCER
(Times-Union, May 3, 1928)
Florida is advised by an authority in finance, C. W.
Barron, dean of American financial editors, to look for
future wealth in the production of what he designates as
"luxury food" and of other things in the "luxury" class.
He is quoted in the Newark (N. J.) Evening News as
saying that the future of Florida lies largely in the in-
creased production of tropical products, pointing to the
fact that "Florida is the only tropical country which is
near to great markets."
Of course Mr. Barron does not fail to appreciate the
value, to Florida, of its increasing numbers of tourists,
admitting, in the words of the News, that this state
always "will be a fine resort for the rich," to which ob-
servation he adds: "But they can occupy only a small
part of even the coast line. Preceding this reference to
Florida and its tourists, much appreciated in this state,
Mr. Barron is quoted in the News as saying:
"On the coast line east of the Alleghanies, is the major
wealth and luxury market of the richest nation on the
globe-a nation that has one-third of the wealth and a
majority of the world's income.
"This is what gives to Florida its value. The climate
and the soil were there when Ponce de Leon arrived. It
was not until wealth had accumulated in the North that
Florida could become of value. The food basket of the
world is already full. The demand-the increasing de-
mand-is for luxury, luxury in food, luxury in fruits,
luxury in flowers, trees and vegetables of all kinds. These
can be developed only in proximity to markets."
The foregoing sounds like practical suggestion, in ac-
cordance with which, without looking at "luxury" things
in just the way that Mr. Barron brings out, many Florida
people have been acting, as is indicated by the increas-
ing production of tropical fruits in variety in this state.
Mr. Barron says that "The way for Florida, and particu-
larly Southern Florida, to wealth is to coin her sunshine
and her soil into food, fruits and flowers for the great
markets of the North." This, it can be stated with all of
truth, is being done, increasingly in many directions, year
It has been found that the growing and marketing of
"luxury" products pays, and pays handsomely. Thus,
strawberries that are marketed early in the Florida
season, going to the great cities of the North and West,
bring growers the very best prices-in fact, the high
price at which strawberries are sold to consumers not
seeming to matter to purchasers, so they get the berries
when climatic conditions, in the places where they are
sold, make procurement of fresh strawberries impossible,
except they come from Florida. The same applies simi-
larly to Florida-grown potatoes and to other vegetables
produced in Florida at the time when in other sections of
the country winter still holds sway. Then it is that
Florida fruits and vegetables, fresh from vines and trees,
are most in demand. Then it is that these Florida
products are in the "luxury" class and command "luxury"
Mr. Barron, therefore, is quite within reason to recom-
mend that Florida continue "to coin her sunshine and
her soil into food, fruits and flowers for the great mar-
kets of the North," which, as the years go by, will want
to receive increasing quantities of each and all, to be
disposed of to consumers ready and willing to pay the
Here, then, is encouragement for Florida people to
speed up production of early food products, and of fruits
and flowers, also-and to perfect marketing facilities so
that full advantage may be taken of every available
"luxury" market as well as of markets to which the
people in general look for staple food products in Florida
season and out of their season, particular reference being
made here to fruits and vegetables for which there is
constant and increasing demand, and then new and im-
proved varieties in addition.
NASSAU FERTILIZER AND OIL COMPANY
OPENS 1928 SEASON
This Industry Means Much To This City As It
Employs Hundreds of Men with Families
(Nassau County Leader, May 4, 1928)
On May 1st the Nassau Fertilizer & Oil Co. began its
1928 season with three boats and about 100 men at work.
Within the next week or two the plant will increase its
force to five boats and about 200 men, with a monthly
payroll of approximately $30,000.00. The season usually
ends in late October for the full force, although fishing
is carried on until December. This plant produces fish
oil and fish scrap, which is used as a fertilizer base, its
product being shipped abroad as well as being used ex-
tensively in the United States.
New uses are being constantly found, and in one par-
ticular case at the recent State Fair, some prize hogs
and chickens were found to have been partially fed on
fish scrap meal, in bringing them to a condition of un-
The plant this season is partially new, as the disastrous
fire of last September made necessary the rebuilding of
several of the factory units and a portion of the dock at
an estimated cost of $15,000.00. The Nassau Fertilizer
& Oil Company is managed by Mr. J. R. McLellan, who
has as his aide, Mr. T. J. Corbett.
PRODUCERS REPORT A PROFITABLE YEAR
Prices Obtained for Indian River Fruit Uni-
formly High, Growers Say
(Miami Herald, May 14, 1928)
Vero Beach, Fla., May 13.-The past year has been
one of the most profitable in the history of the Vero
Indian River Producers' Association. While the volume
of fruit packed has not been as large as that of previous
years, the prices obtained have been uniformly high in all
the markets, it is reported.
For the season ending April 30 the sale records show
that the average sales of Checkers in New York outsold
the leading brands in the New York market by 46 cents
a box. In the Chicago market Checkers and Quality Tells
outsold competitive brands at an average of 60 cents a
The records at the packing house for the season of
April 19 show that there were 46,190 boxes of fruit
packed and shipped through the local house to that date.
The sale of oranges returned an average price of $4.54
a box f. o. b. packing house, and tangerine sales brought
an average of $5.38 a box. Grapefruit brought an aver-
age price of $4.56 a box.
From these prices the cost of picking, hauling and
packing average about $1.25 a box, which is to be de-
ducted in order to arrive at the net returns paid to the
FLORIDA REVIEW 11
STATE CENSUS REPORT READY
Gives Florida Crop and Industrial Figures for
(Ft. Pierce Tribune, May 14, 1928)
Tallahassee, May 14.-(A. P.)-The Bureau of Immi-
gration of the State Department of Agriculture is now
distributing the nineteenth census of crops and manu-
factures taken for the State of Florida.
The census is for the years 1926 and 1927, and repre-
sents the efforts of agricultural and industrial enumera-
tors in virtually all counties of the state.
The reports have just been issued from the press, and
will be available for those who desire them.
The report gives statistical information on the value
of the crop output for'the state; the approximate crop
area in acres for each county, and various production
figures, in covering the agricultural section, and the num-
ber of industrial establishments, capital invested, and
other data gathered in the industrial enumeration.
Receipts of the State Department of Agriculture and
information on the climatology of the state conclude the
An unusually interesting feature of the report is the
inclusion of statistics on the nativity population of Flor-
ida, and other figures showing the prevalent foreign-born
in the state.
The report was completed only after many months of
work on the part of bureau attaches.
MILLIONS IN BANANAS WILL UNLOAD
Pensacola Will Be Fifth Banana Port As Soon
As Line Begins
(Pensacola News, May 12, 1928)
Between $2,000,000 and $3,000,000 worth of bananas
will be imported through Pensacola within the next 12
months. That was the estimate made by C. J. Bergmann
today in announcing that the Tropical Planting Co., with
home offices in New Orleans, will begin the importation
of bananas here about May 20. The first boat is due then
with a cargo of 8,000 bunches from Mexico.
Local Offices Leased
Mr. Bergmann is vice-president of the Tropical Plant-
ing Co., which has large banana farm leases in Mexico.
With A. DeFaola, who will be local agent for the com-
pany, he has been in Pensacola for the past three weeks
making arrangements for the new line. Offices have been
leased in the American National Bank.
More Boats Coming
The schedule of the company calls for three small boats
carrying between 8,000 and 10,000 bunches, to come
here within the next 30 days. After that the schedule
will be six small boats and three large boats a month.
The cargo of the large vessels will be 20,000 to 25,000
About 70 men will be employed here in unloading the
perishable cargoes. Six experienced men will come from
New Orleans next week to supervise the unloading and
assorting of the fruit. A force of this size will be main-
tained at all times, and will increase as the shipping
schedule of the company goes up, Mr. Bergmann de-
clared. Freight for Mexican ports will be carried by the
large ships on their return voyages. This service will be
open to the public, it was said.
Fifth Banana Port
"When our schedule gets into full operation," Mr.
Bergmann said, "Pensacola will be the fifth banana port
of the United States. New Orleans is the largest port,
importing about 24,000,000 bunches every year. Then
comes New York and Philadelphia, with Boston and Bal-
timore in fourth place. Business at Baltimore is dropping
off steadily," he said.
"We selected Pensacola for our business because Pen-
sacola is the best banana port on the Gulf of Mexico,"
Mr. Bergmann said. A ship can cross the harbor bar at
morning, dock, unload its perishable cargo and be on its
way back to Mexico in one day. In Mobile it requires
five or six hours to get a ship into berth after crossing
the bar. In New Orleans, of course, a ship has to go 100
miles up the Mississippi river to get to the docks, and
time is valuable in the shipping of bananas. Our ships
will come out of the gulf, dock, unload and start out
again in less time than is required to dock a ship at
Mobile, and in less time than is required to even get near
the wharves in New Orleans."
Go 750 Miles
"Our port of origin is Frontera, in the state of Tabasco,
Mexico. It is about 750 miles from Pensacola. Our
ships will make the cruise in three and a half days, unload
in one day and immediately will start back for another
cargo. The small boats will not carry freight on their
return," Mr. Bergmann said.
A. Phinder, of New Orleans, who is president of the
Tropical Planting Co., will arrive in Pensacola next Wed-
nesday in connection with the new business of his com-
DRESS AND APRON FACTORY HAS MANY
(Sebring American, April 17, 1928)
Many visitors from surrounding communities have
called at the Nicolleli-Freedman house dress and apron
factory at Sebring. Sebring has provided the factory a
fine building with one year's free rent, as well as free
power and lights and paid for the installation of the
plant, writes an Okeechobee visitor to his home paper.
There were about 15 ladies at work turning out dresses
and aprons, and four had been laid off the day before
due to lack of cloth with which to work, he reports. Mr.
Nicolleli had gone to New York to buy more machines
and more cloth. Mr. Freedman showed us a large batch
of orders. The business is growing fast and the pro-
prietors are well pleased with the outlook.
FIRST SHIPMENT BEANS THIS WEEK
(Gadsden County Times, May 3, 1928)
The first shipment of beans from the 1928 crop was
made this week. Only a few crates were registered for
the opening of the bean shipments, but J. I. Reynolds &
Company, produce dealers of Quincy, feel confident that
within ten days shipments will go forward in large quan-
tities, possibly carload lots. The crop has been retarded
by unprecedented weather conditions, which may reduce
the yield to a minimum, but if good prices prevail the loss
in yield will be offset by the increased value of the
JONES-REID FLOOD CONTROL PASSED IN
HOUSE, 254 TO 91
Mississippi Flood Sufferers Aided During Year
By Extension Workers
(National Farm News, May 5, 1928)
The House last week passed the Jones-Reid flood con-
trol bill by a vote of 254 to 91. On the final ballot, 85
Republicans, 168 Democrats, and 1 Farmer-Laborer
voted for it, and 86 Republicans, 3 Democrats, 1 Farmer-
Laborer, and 1 Socialist voted against the measure.
President Coolidge now holds the fate of this legis-
lation in his hands, and there is a feeling generally on
Capitol Hill that he will sign it, despite the fact that he
strenuously objected to some of its provisions.
As passed by the House the act specifies the following:
Appropriation of $325,000,000 for flood control works
on the Mississippi river; $17,500,000 in addition for flood
control on the Sacramento river in California; also makes
available $10,000,000 previously authorized for a survey
of the reservoirs on tributaries of the Mississippi.
A planning board to consist of the chief of Army Corps
of Engineers, head of the Mississippi River Commission,
and a civilian engineer, is charged with the duty of re-
porting to the Chief Executive before any definite plan
of control is commenced. This section, which differs
from the Senate version, calling for two civilian en-
gineers, gives the President full control of the work.
Will Furnish Lands
The Federal Government is required to furnish lands
for control works which it is to build, except levees on
the main stem of the Mississippi, which will be turned
over by the local communities.
Federal Government to purchase flowage rights for
destructive floods, rather than land, this provision being
adopted to meet criticism by the President that the bill
as reported might have led to the exaction of "exorbi-
tant prices" for lands.
Federal Government protested against damages to
public utilities, by giving them the liberty to sue for loss
in accordance with their constitutional rights.
President directed to ascertain through the Secretary
of Agriculture the manner through which the floods of
the Mississippi river may be controlled by proper forestry
Reserves of reservoir sites on tributaries to go for-
ward simultaneously with work on the flood control
Funds provided in the recent agricultural appropriation
bill have made possible the continued employment of
county agricultural extension agents in the Mississippi
river counties affected by the 1927 floods. In many
counties where financial conditions resulting from the
flood have made it impossible for the counties to con-
tinue their usual contributions, the Exteiision Service of
the United States Department of Agriculture will assume
the obligation and where necessary will employ addi-
tional white and negro agents to give special aid to flood
sufferers during the next year.
In discussing plans for the season's work, C. W. War-
burton, director of Extension Work, said plans looking
toward the eventual reestablishment of permanent and
improved farming systems in the area are well under way.
Home demonstration agents are also aiding in the resto-
ration of houses and furnishings, and in the resumption
of homemaking activities.
"Flood waters do not take their troubles along with
them when they leave," said Director Warburton in dis-
cussing the plans for the year's work in the flooded re-
gion. "People away from the scene stop reading the
reports of devastation when the crest of the flood has
passed; the families whose homes lie in the path of the
water have to keep on living with conditions that are
left behind. It is this problem of living with the evils
the waters left after them that has been, since April,
1927, the primary concern of the men and women who
represent the cooperative extension service in these
Extension Workers Help
Stationed in the flooded territory are 199 county ex-
tension workers who had been at their posts from one
to ten years or more at the time of the high waters. This
number includes in some cases a county staff consisting
of a white agricultural extension agent, a white home
extension agent, and a negro man and negro woman ex-
tension agent for work with negro farmers. These
county workers are aided by specialists and administra-
tive members of the state and federal extension staffs.
These extension workers, say Director Warburton, are
emphasizing first the necessity for adequate food and
feed crops and then giving attention to cash crops. They
have recognized that home production of food for the
family for immediate use and for preservation for later
needs, is of the greatest importance from both health
and financial standpoints. Frequently they began work
on this before the people were able to return to their
homes, and encouraged the planting in the camps of such
varieties of vegetables as could be transplanted.
As feed crops have been produced to provide for them,
agents have established livestock demonstrations, cover-
ing selection of good stock, feeding and sanitation
methods. Approximately 25,000 horses and mules,
50,000 cattle, 148,000 hogs, and considerably over
1,000,000 chickens were lost in the 124 counties expe-
riencing the first overflow last year.
Work on methods of restoring homes and surround-
ings to a livable condition began at the refugee camps,
at which the extension agents cooperated with other re-
lief organizations, and continued as people were able to
return to their homes. It is expanding now as rapidly
as possible, Director Warburton stated.
The camp menus provided opportunity to teach some-
thing of a properly balanced diet and extension agents
endeavored to emphasize the importance of proper diet
under conditions left by the receding waters and the
possibility of providing for this diet by home growing of
Many returning refugees put to immediate use the
methods of mixing and applying whitewash, learned in
the camps. One extension agent in Louisiana reports
that the parish eventually became almost a whitewashed
parish. Estimates indicate that over 46,000 homes were
damaged by water, mud and debris in the 1927 floods,
the majority in rural districts. Home improvement
demonstrations adapted to meet the local conditions are
Ground Work Laid
"It should not be forgotten," concluded Director War-
burton, "that under the pressure of imperative executive
duties, surveys of conditions, estimates of needs and
similar emergency work in cooperation with relief
agencies, the extension agents on duty in the flooded
counties and parishes laid the ground work for the ex-
tension measures which are aiding the farm men and
women of that region to look confidently toward regain-
ing what they have lost and toward forcing disaster to
eventually pay them dividends of improvement through
better methods of farming, introduction of new crops,
and better living conditions."
Flood Talk Broadcast
Discussing the catastrophe over Station WTFF last
week, Rep. Heartsill Ragon, of Arkansas, spoke, in part,
Much has been said since that great flood of the
national aspect of any flood control project proposed
for the Mississippi River Valley. Control of destructive
flood waters in the Mississippi River Valley is no more a
national question today than it has been in the past.
For the purpose of navigation flood control has been
recognized as a national problem based principally upon
its effect on commerce and national defense, and the
government has for years made contributions to this
end. So flood control has been recognized as a national
problem, although it has been treated by the government
as incidental to navigation.
In order for it to come within the generally accepted
term of "a national problem" there must be found in
the Constitution provisions for expending money from
the federal treasury to encompass the purpose of flood
control. Article 1, Section 8 of the Constitution pro-
"Congress shall have powers to provide for the
common defense and general welfare of the United States
to regulate commerce, and to establish post offices
and post roads."
Under any one or all of these provisions of the Con-
stitution is provided ample authority for the government
to provide money for the control of destructive flood
waters upon any stream where conditions are of such
proportions as to justify.
The bill, which passed the House and the Senate,
recognizes these clauses in the Constitution as sufficient
authority for the expenditure of money for flood control
in certain parts of the Mississippi River Valley. These
bills are based upon the fundamental proposition that
if commerce is interrupted, postal facilities impaired,
and our national defense and general welfare are threat-
ened and imperiled, that the National Treasury may be
looked to as a source for relief.
The water congregated from Oklahoma, southeast
Kansas and southwest Missouri converged into a volume
of which passed Fort Smith, Arkansas, a distance of 165
miles northwest of Little Rock, with a registered flow of
750,000 cubic feet per second. Before the House Flood
Control Committee it was estimated that the damage
done to Kansas on the tributaries of the Arkansas was
approximately $12,000,000. The engineers from the
State Flood Commission of Oklahoma estimate the dam-
age done in 1927 by the Arkansas and its tributaries in
Oklahoma to be in excess of $20,000,000.
Business men and farmers of Arkansas, basing their
estimates upon the value of the real estate prior and
subsequent to the flood; damages to buildings and con-
tents; crop losses; damage to bridges and highways and
levees, estimate the damages in thirteen counties in the
Arkansas River Valley at $26,206,532. Twelve thousand
people were driven from their homes, 40 per cent of
whom never returned. There were 18 lives lost. The
Arkansas river destroyed 5,450 horses and mules, 11,460
cattle, 24,220 swine, 279,870 poultry, and inundated
910,000 acres of land. This represents a greater damage
than was done by the 1927 floods in the entire state of
Mississippi. These figures do not cover an area any
closer to the mouth of the Arkansas river than 100 miles.
Neither do they cover the great area overflowed by the
Arkansas river in Desha, Drew, Chicot, and Ashley
I have been advised by the highest engineering au-
thority in the United States that reservoirs on the tribu-
taries could be used successfully in the prevention of
local floods on the tributaries. If this is true, how can
it be reasoned that this would not influence the volume
of waters in the lower Mississippi?
Eminent engineers have surveyed out reservoirs in
the State of Oklahoma, which they contend would easily
take care of the surplus amount of this water. Within
100 miles of Fort Smith is the location of some of these
reservoirs could have been employed in keeping back
400,000 cubic feet per second of water that passed Fort
Smith, the Arkansas River Valley and the other sections
of Arkansas overflowed by the Arkansas river would
have been entirely protected. If this can be done on the
Arkansas and the White rivers, why can it not be done
on other tributaries?
(This bill was signed by President Coolidge May 15,
TOMATO DAY IS SET FOR DANIA NEXT
(Dania Record, May 11, 1928)
Celebrating the close of a prosperous tomato-growing
season for the farming section of Dania, the citizens of
the community are planning a general jollification, Thurs-
day, May 17, having been set for a general celebration
to be known as "Tomato Day."
Brilliant red and green posters, flaunting a red-ripe
tomato to the world as Dania's premier product, have
been scattered from Homestead to Palm Beach, advertis-
ing the big event. There will be band concerts afternoon
and evening by the Miami University band, a genuine
southern barbecue dinner at noon and all afternoon, ball
game and sports for the younger folk in the afternoon,
and a political rally and speech-making for those inter-
ested in saving the state and nation. The celebration
will wind up with a fireworks display in the evening.
The ball game is between the Coast Guards and Howatt's
Dania Colts, two of the best teams in South Florida.
MONSTER SUGAR BEET ON DISPLAY
(Bradenton Herald, May 6, 1928)
The Walker Rental Agency has on display in its show
window at 441 Twelfth street a monster sugar beet
weighing 161/ pounds, grown by W. M. Tallant of Man-
atee. This is the largest beet so far reported in Florida,
and shows what Florida soil and climate will do.
About 100 demonstration patches of sugar beets are
now being grown in Manatee county in the spring test
being conducted by W. J. Walker, committee on indus-
tries of the chamber of commerce, and reports indicate
that the spring test will equal if not exceed the tests
made last fall, and verify the conclusion that two crops of
sugar beets can be successfully grown and harvested in
Manatee county in one year, Mr. Walker states.
14 FLORIDA REVIEW
PROFIT IN COWPEAS AFTER POTATO
Much Money May Be Obtained from "By-
Products," J. H. Stallings Says
(J. H. Stallings, Head of Agronomy Department, in Farm
and Grove Section for May)
All the profits to be derived from the spring potato
crop need not necessarily end with the marketing of the
potatoes. Potato growers, like many large manufactur-
ing establishments, may find that a good portion of their
net proceeds may be obtained from what are usually
termed "by-products" rather than from the main product
for which the business was established. A few specific
examples taken from our last spring's farmers may
prove this point.
During the early part of last December, Mr. Ascherl,
after having turned under a crop of cowpeas, prepara-
tory to planting potatoes, applied 700 pounds of cotton
seed meal to the acre about six weeks before the pota-
toes were to be planted. This was followed with an
application of 1,500 pounds of a 5-7-5 fertilizer two or
three weeks before the potatoes were planted, which in
turn was followed with an application of 150 pounds of
nitrate of soda as a top dressing to the potato crop.
The potatoes were planted on the flat phase of Norfolk
fine sand and received the best of care throughout the
growing season, which proved to be a very unfavorable
season for potato growing on account of extreme low
rainfall. Notwithstanding the unfavorable conditions
this crop averaged 46 barrels of graded potatoes to the
Immediately after the last cultivation given the pota-
toes, Tennessee red cob corn was drilled in one side of
each potato row, thus getting it well started before the
potato crop was harvested. The potatoes were dug by
hand and the corn was unmolested during the operation.
With the potatoes out of the way the corn was carefully
cultivated, but did not receive any fertilizer other than
that applied to the potato crop. This crop produced 75
bushels of corn to the acre. Cowpeas were drilled in be-
tween the rows at the time of the last cultivation of the
corn and allowed to produce a good heavy growth of
vines to plow under to get the soil in shape for the
potato crop the following January.
Mr. Carmichael, working with Portsmouth loamy fine
sandy soil, produced a good yield of potatoes, 90 bushels
of Hastings prolific corn and a crop of soybeans per
acre on the same field in one year.
Mr. Carmichael's fertilizer treatment differed some-
what from that of Mr. Ascherl's mentioned above. He
applied 500 pounds of cotton seed meal and 2,000 pounds
of a 5-8-5 fertilizer per acre before planting the pota-
toes, and later added 100 pounds of nitrate of soda per
acre to the potatoes as a top dressing. The corn was
planted in the potatoes at the time of the last cultiva-
tion, as was the case with Mr. Ascherl. The corn also re-
ceived 100 pounds of nitrate of soda per acre as a top
Laredo soy beans were planted in the corn at the time
of the last cultivation. The soy bean crop was plowed
under for the purpose of building up the organic matter
and nitrogen content of the soil.
Mr. Williams, working with Portsmouth and St. Johns
loamy fine sand soils, applied 2,000 pounds of a 5-8-5
fertilizer per acre before planting potatoes and 150
pounds of nitrate of soda as a top dressing. At the time
the potatoes received the last cultivation corn was drilled
beside every other row of potatoes. Cowpeas were sown
broadcast between the rows at the last cultivation of the
The potatoes averaged 66 field barrels and the corn
36 bushels per acre and the cowpeas made an abundant
growth of green matter for building up the soil for the
At first sight the yield of corn in this instance appears
to be much lower than with Mr. Ascherl or Mr. Car-
michael; however, upon considering the fact that corn
was planted in every other row only and did not receive
any fertilizer other than that left over from the potato
crop the yield compares very favorably with those of the
first two men mentioned.
Mrs. Bascom Franklin, working with Blanton fine sand
and Leon fine sand (loamy phase) soils, produced 41
barrels of graded potatoes and 1.85 tons cowpea hay per
The potatoes received one ton of a 5-8-5 fertilizer two
or three weeks prior to the planting of potatoes, and 150
pounds of nitrate of soda per acre as a top dressing after
the potatoes were about 6 inches high.
After the potatoes were harvested Brabham cowpeas
were sown broadcast at the rate of 1 bushels per acre
and received no additional fertilizer; 1.85 tons good
quality cowpea hay per acre were removed and a con-
siderable quantity of vines left to turn under to enrich
The planting of corn in potatoes before the potato crop
has been harvested presupposes of course that the pota-
toes are to be dug by hand. Without careful hand dig-
ging the corn would be destroyed. Due to the heavy
damage done late corn by the corn ear worm it is essen-
tial that the corn be planted just as early as conditions
will permit. Consequently, it may be unwise to delay
planting corn until after the potato crop has been har-
CELERY SHIPMENTS NOW HEAVY FROM
THE PALMER FARMS
Seven Carloads Sent Out Tuesday Morning
(Sarasota Times, May 2, 1928)
The heavy shipments of celery and other vegetables
from the Palmer packing plant got underway yesterday
with a shipment of seven carloads of celery, two cars
of potatoes and one car of mixed vegetables, consigned
to northern markets. It is expected that the end of the
week will see the shipments increase to trainloads daily,
until the end of the spring harvest.
The seven cars of celery shipped yesterday represented
2,500 crates, the two cars of potatoes totaled about 1,000
bushels, and the car of mixed vegetables represented 350
Celery yesterday brought a price of $3.50 per crate
f. o. b. Palmer packing plant. Earlier in the season the
price quotation was $3 per crate. It is confidently ex-
pected that the price will mount higher as the season
advances. Sarasota will soon be without appreciable
competition in celery marketing, it is stated, as the har-
vest comes between the harvest of the northern crop and
the harvest of crops in other and older celery centers in
Florida. On account of climatic and soil conditions here
it is possible to raise celery much later here than in other
sections of Florida.
CARLOAD SHIPMENTS CERTAIN FRUITS
Average of the Three Years 1924, 1925 and
(Bureau of Railway Economics)
O ranges ....................
Mixed Citrus ............
L em ons ....................
String Beans ............
L ettuce ....................
P eppers ....................
Early White Potatoes
Tom atoes ................
Mixed Vegetables ....
Mixed Citrus ................
String Beans ...............
C abbage ........................
C elery .........................
E ggplant ....................
L ettu ce .............. ...........
Early White Potatoes....
Sweet Potatoes ...........
T om atoes ......................
SOUTH FLORIDA'S GREAT
.. ...... 13,134
........... 1,9 3 1
.... ..... 19 7
....... .. 18,656
...... ... 5,466
(St. Petersburg Independent)
The Tamiami Trail is open! The celebration of this
event, the culmination of years of persistent planning
and work, was successful and fully achieved its pur-
pose-the focusing of attention in all parts of the United
States on this great highway down the beautiful and
progressive west coast of Florida. An official motorcade
made a triumphant journey over the trail from Tampa
to Fort Myers and thence across that part of the Ever-
glades which has been called the "last frontier," to Miami.
The inception of the trail idea met with many obstacles.
Those who began to develop the idea were laughed at
and even derided. As usual there was the prolonged
chorus of "It can't be done." But, once well under
way, the project was swept along by Florida's growth and
completing it became merely a matter of expense and so
many days' work by road engineers and gangs of labor-
ers. It may almost be said that it could not help being
finished. Commenting on this phase of the making of
the trail, the Florida Times-Union says editorially:
"It doesn't seem long ago that a party of 'pioneers'
in rough-and-ready cars, followed a line made by sur-
veyors across the state-and were for a brief space of
time out of communication with the country. It was 'bad
sledding' in a considerable part of the Everglades, and
some friends and relatives of the men in this exploring
expedition were worried and nervous over the silence that
came when the cars did not drive straight through as
hoped. But the trail was 'blazed' and has since been
opened out and is now ready for the great movement
that is sure to be noted in the near future."
People of St. Petersburg, which is an important point
on a loop of the trail, may now enjoy a tour through new
and novel territory. After the more familiar parts of
the West Coast have been left behind, the trail cleaves
through virgin country and brings the motorist into con-
tact with strange and picturesque places and sights. From
Miami the drive may be continued all the way down the
southern point of Florida to the "jumping-off place"-
Key West. It is one of the greatest, as well as one of
the best, drives on the American continent. The Tamiami
trail is indeed a wonder.
EDISON FINDS FLORIDA SANDS ARE
(Plant City Enterprise, May 8, 1928)
Florida sands are surprising in what they will produce,
Thomas A. Edison told Grosvenor Dawe, of the Florida
Industrial Survey, in an interview recently.
"I cannot get used to this Florida sand that they call
'soil'," he said. "It looks poor, but it will raise almost
"Florida sand soil is abnormal in growing things," he
said at another time in the interview. "It is surprising."
BASS DISTRIBUTED IN LOCAL WATERS
(Perry Herald, May 3, 1928)
Twenty thousand young bass, from the WelaKa Fish
Hatchery, have just been distributed in the waters of
Taylor county through the agency of T. R. Hodges, Shell
Fish Commissioner, and Mr. Hodges has promised thirty
thousand more later in the month for re-stocking
The Shell Fish Department maintains three hatcheries
in Florida from which young fish are distributed to
various counties who make application for them through
some local organization. Senator Joe Scales, with his
usual alertness regarding everything for Taylor county's
good, applied for these just received in the name of the
Taylor County Chamber of Commerce.
NOCATEE SHIPS TWO CARLOADS CORN
(Tampa Times, May 12, 1928)
Arcadia, May 12.-Two carloads of "roasting ears"
were shipped to northern markets this week by the Noca-
tee Growers' Association from the packing house at
Nocatee, four miles south of this city. Each car con-
tained 456 crates of corn, of five dozen ears to the crate.
Besides being shipped in regular refrigerating cars,
iced as is customary for vegetable shipments, each car
of corn has 7,500 pounds of ice in addition, being packed
among the crates of corn.
16 FLORIDA REVIEW
WATERMELONS ARE RIPE IN ST. LUCIE
COUNTY-CROP PROSPECTS GOOD
(Ft. Pierce Tribune, May 8, 1928)
It may be snowing farther north, but watermelons are
ripe in St. Lucie county.
J. T. Ronan, who has four acres in watermelons on
Fort Pierce Farms, brought the first melons of the sea-
son into the city this morning. He expects to begin har-
vesting his crop in earnest next Monday.
According to Mr. Ronan the vines in his four-acre field
are heavily loaded with good-sized melons and he has
every prospect of a big crop.
NEW INDUSTRY FOR AUBURNDALE
(Auburndale Journal, May 11, 1928)
At the rear of his grove on Lake Ariana, close to Mac's
Beach, Marion G. Denton has started one of the best
equipped machine shops this side of Tampa.
The business will primarily be the manufacture and
assembly of wheels for tractors, but they will also make
ornamental iron work and will do general machine work.
The equipment includes a 200-ton wheel press and the
largest drill press in this part of Florida, besides large
lathes and the general machines in a large shop.
The shop is in charge of R. R. Luther, who has had
many years experience as master mechanic in the north,
but is a familiar figure in this part of the state, as for
the last few years he has been in the commercial aviation
VESSEL BRINGS LARGEST CARGO OF
Tanker Will Unload 10,000 Tons from Antartic
(Pensacola Journal, May 4, 1928)
The largest single cargo of whale oil ever to enter an
American port will arrive in Pensacola harbor little more
than a week from now when the tanker Spinager
An estimated value of $1,100,000 has been placed on
the cargo, which will total 10,000 tons.
Goes Into Soap
About 400 railway tank cars will be required to trans-
port the shipment, E. W. Speed, L. and N. freight agent,
The cargo will also make necessary installation of ad-
ditional unloading equipment at the Commandancia street
wharf of the L. and N., where the ship will dock.
Proctor & Gamble Co., a large soap manufacturing
concern of Cincinnati, Ohio, bought the entire cargo.
Representatives of that firm will be in Pensacola during
the time the ship is in port.
Due Next Week
The Spinager is scheduled to arrive in Pensacola harbor
between May 12 and May 15. Gulf Transit Co. is local
agent for the cargo and Frederick Gillmore & Co. is agent
for the ship.
"In addition to being the biggest cargo of whale oil to
enter an American port," Mr. Speed said, "the Spinager
also holds credit for carrying the biggest cargo of its kind
to ever cross the high seas."
The cargo comes from the Antarctic circle.
With the 3,600 tons of whale oil brought into port
February 10 by the Thoroy, the Spinager cargo will make
a total of 13,600 tons of whale oil to pass through the
port of Pensacola on its way to the inland already this
A full staff of oil experts from the purchasing house
will be in Pensacola while the ship is in port in addition
to officials of the firm who will come here at that time,
Mr. Speed said.
TRAFFIC VIA THE PANAMA AND SUEZ
From The Foreign Trade Review (Bankers' Association
for Foreign Trade)
The following figures show the increase in tonnage of
vessels and cargoes passing through the two canals, and
it is interesting to note that the Panama Canal, which
was not opened until August 15, 1914, has almost reached
the yearly figures of the Suez Canal. The unofficial
figures of the Panama Canal from January 1 to Decem-
ber 31, 1927, show a slight gain over those of the Suez,
but official figures will not be known until after June 30.
The tonnage in the first column is net; that in the second
nn is cargo tonnage.
Reg. Net Tons
........... ........... .. 3 ,7 9 2,0 00
............... ....... ..... 2 ,39 6,000
.............. .............. 5 ,79 8 ,0 0 0
.......................... 6,5 74,0 00
.......................... 6 ,1 24 ,0 0 0
............ ........... 8 ,54 6,0 00
.............. .............. 1 1,4 15,0 0 0
..... ....... ............ 1 1 ,4 1 7 ,0 0 0
............ ................. 18,60 5,0 00
......... .. ................. 2 6,14 8,00 0
............. ................ 22,8 5 5,0 00
............ ................ 24 ,7 74 ,000
............. ................ 2 6,22 7,0 00
Reg. Net Tons
................ ....... 15,4 0 8,0 00
.. ............. ............. 2 0,2 7 5,000
.............. ................ 16,0 14 ,000
.............. ............. .. 20 ,74 3,0 00
............. ........... .... 2 6,0 60 ,0 00
............. ................ 28 ,9 6 5,00 0
Tons of Cargo
Tons of Cargo
The growing importance of the Panama Canal is clearly
shown and the figures of the Suez Canal Commission
show that American net shipping tonnage passing through
the Suez Canal has declined from 723,716 tons in 1900
to 682,844 in 1927. The comparison of traffic via the
two canals, however, is not entirely correct, as the fig-
ures of the former are for the fiscal years ending June 30,
and those for the latter are for the full calendar years.
SHIP 510 CARS OF TOMATOES
(Bradenton Herald, May 6, 1928)
Seventy-three carloads of tomatoes were shipped from
Manatee county to the northern markets the past two
days. This brings the total shipments for the week up
to 270 cars.
The season has been under way now for two and a half
weeks and during that time a total of 510 carloads have
Growers state that indications point to this week's
shipments being about the same in amount as last week's.