PUBLISHED SEMI-MONTHLY BY
BUREAU OF IMMIGRATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
NOVEMBER 21, 1927
TABLE OF CONTENTS
S ou th F lorid a .............. ... ... ...................... .... ... ........ ........
Plant Immigrants Make Good in Florida's Warm Climate ...........
Am ericanizing Tropical Fruits ............................ ........................
Florida Can Be Greatest Garden Since Eden ................................
M athews Leases Land for Cane ..................................... ...........
Glades on a Boom, But Discretion Uses "Silencer"........................
Steffani Calls Attention to Small Tropical Fruits .......................
County to Ship First Peppers to Northern Markets .....................
Market Bureau and Experimental Farm Needed.........................
Farm Development of Huge Proportions in Mayaca Section .......
Everglades Now Making Ready for Big Season ................. .....
Early Beans Are Shipped... ...... ... ....... ..... .............. ..........
South Florida Looks for Prosperous Year, St. Lucie Man Says ...
Farmers Obtain Lead in Land of Manatee ................................
Cukes and Other Garden Sass Going Out of Wauchula................ 15
Sees Florida Sugar Cane .............................. .. ........................ 15
Edison Establishes Florida Laboratory .................. ................ 15
Glades Districts to Grow More Potatoes ...................................... 15
Lee Growers Start Large W inter Crop ........................................... 17
Rare Fruits A re D developed .................................... ................. .. 17
Timber Bamboo Grows a Foot a Day in South ........................... 17
M ore Car Space on F. E. C. Tracks .............................. ................ .. 19
H ialeah Boosts H om e Industry............. ... .................................. 19
Demonstration Field for Tropical Fruits Needed, Says Brooks ... 19
Florida Cucum bers ....................................... ................................... 19
Solid Carload of Beans Sent From Everglades................ ............... 20
Expects $500 Worth of Cucumbers From One Acre....................... 20
By NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner of Agriculture
HIS issue of Florida Review is devoted to
those counties comprising what is popu-
larly known as South Florida. There are
eighteen counties in this section of the
State, as follows: Broward, Charlotte, Collier,
Dade, DeSoto, Glades, Hardee, Hendry, High-
lands, Lee, Manatee, Monroe, Okeechobee, Palm
Beach, Sarasota, St. Lucie, Indian River and
Martin. In area, they make up thirty per cent
of the State; in population, twenty-one per cent.
The State Census of Florida taken in 1925
showed that South Florida had 8,404 farms,
averaging 105 acres, and the crops and live-
stock on these farms was valued at $25,024,527,
or about $3,000 per farm. It is interesting to
note that 93 per cent of these farms are oper-
ated by white farmers. The population of
South Florida in 1925 was 276,242, and its as-
sessed valuation was $111,465,523. Both of
these totals have doubtless largely increased
since the enumeration was taken.
The table below shows the percentage of the
total production in the State of the following
products which come from South Florida:
P in eap ples .................................
A vocados ..... .....................
M angoes ....... ..... .. ... .
C ocoan uts ................... ..........
E gg plants .............. ............
Lim a Beans .................................
L im e s .................. .............
T om atoes .......... ..... .... .........
B a n a n a s ................ ..............
G uauvas .............. .............
G rap efruit .............. .............
C ucum bers .... .. .. ... .... ....
The public has been hearing a great deal of
late relative to the Everglades. So much inter-
est attaches to this subject that we are giving it
considerable space in this editorial.
This geographical wonder is located in South
Florida. In the natural Everglades area there
are 2,682,000 acres; in the Everglades Drainage
District, 4,370,000 acres. Some 300,000 acres
have been partially reclaimed and 120,000 acres
are in actual cultivation.
In soil types the Everglades proper are not
all alike. There are four main classifications:
(1) the muck soils, (2) the marl lands, (3)
sandy soils, (4) lime rock lands. There are sub-
classifications of each of these divisions which
make the Everglades soils about as spotted as
the rest of Florida. The muck lands are sub-
divided as follows: custard apple land, elder-
berry land, willow land, dogfennel land and
sawgrass land. There seems to be a general im-
pression throughout the North that the Ever-
glades are all alike, and too little discrimination
has been made by investors because of this mis-
Some of the crops successfully grown in the
Everglades are tomatoes, potatoes, peppers,
beans, eggplant, onions, cabbage, cucumbers,
strawberries, beets, lettuce, celery, and other
vegetables; sugar cane, corn, rice, alfalfa, Kaffir
corn, millet, sorghum, milo maize, peanuts,
dasheen and many grasses and staple crops.
Cattle raising, dairying, hog raising and poultry
raising have been successful in many instances.
The greatest need of most southern soils is
humus. The Everglades region is one place
where there is a super-abundance of humus. In
2 FLORIDA REVIEW
fact, to a great extent the soil is made up of
humus. For untold ages aquatic vegetation
grew here and died, but as the land was covered
by water the dead vegetation did not decay.
That is why it must be aerated before bacteria
can perform their work of preparing the soil for
plant food. The marl land will grow tomatoes
the first year. The best grade of muck land will
grow any crop fairly well the first year. Corn
and Irish potatoes have been grown with some
success the first year even on the sawgrass lands.
Several years are required to bring some of this
land under proper cultivation. However, the
number of times it is plowed goes further toward
determining the rapidity of the reclamation than
the time element. Plowing hastens bacterial
The best quality of the Everglades shows
wonderful possibilities. Instances of astonish-
ing results can be cited. This fact has placed
a halo of romance around the Everglades, and
many who failed to investigate and who had no
previous experience thought they had a rainbow
with its proverbial pot of gold, and of course
suffered disillusionment. Men who are used to
hard work on the farm and are not looking for
a soft snap, who exercise sense in selecting their
land, and are willing to put the same amount
of labor and money into an investment in the
Everglades that they do in other lands, will do
well in the Everglades. On the other hand, if
they expect to find their holdings a honey pond
with pancakes hanging from the trees growing
around the edge, they are doomed to disap-
pointment and failure. It means work, and
hard work, to succeed in anything. Farming
is no exception even in the Everglades. The
sooner the public mind is disabused of this fal-
lacy the better for all concerned.
PLANT IMMIGRANTS MAKE GOOD
PLANT IMMIGRANTS MAKE GOOD
IN FLORIDA'S WARM CLIMATE
Wilderness Now Wonderland
(By Dr. Beverly T. Galloway, Plant Pathologist, United
States Department of Agriculture, in Christian
I recall a few years ago standing in the shadow of one
of the magnificent palaces at Miami Beach, called a hotel,
and talking with a plantsman and pioneer who had vision.
I remarked on the beauty of the scene, the blue sea, the
wonderful tropical vegetation, buildings that reminded
one of Arabian Nights stories, and over all an atmos-
phere of quiet and peace. The pioneer, with whom I
talked, landed on this practically unknown coast less than
three decades ago, and what do you suppose he did?
Planted cocoanuts-thousands of them.
The nuts often had to be floated ashore, as there was
no other way to land them. This intrepid man, with a
partner, traveled up and down the coast for 40 miles
planting cocoanuts. Later he began planting large groves
of other tropical fruits, such as avocados, mangoes, and
many tropical palms, and then came the great rush and
Miami Beach blossomed into a tropical wonderland, sur-
passing anything the Old World can show. The pioneer,
J. S. Collins, has lived to see all this come to pass.
The Florida Everglades have been the enigma
of the scientist and the developer. The tests
made of the agricultural, horticultural and live-
stock possibilities of the reclaimed lands show
that there are wonderful things in store when
the whole tillable area is finally mastered and
brought to full producing capacity. Thousands
of acres are now producing millions of dollars
worth of truck and other crops.
The canals and the proposed railroads, if
built, will furnish ample transportation facili-
ties for the products of the farm. Millions are
being spent on the harbors and ports of Miami,
Fort Lauderdale and other ports on the East
Coast which will furnish shipping accommoda-
tion for ocean traffic.
Poultry raising and dairying have both been
demonstrated to be capable of large develop-
ment. Avocadoes, mangoes, and citrus fruits
are grown commercially and promise large re-
turns in the future. That part of the Everglades
not brought under drainage has great possibili-
ties in the furnishing of fuel in the form of peat
bricks such as have been made of peat in Can-
ada. The growing of willows for the making
of wicker furniture has been demonstrated as
practical in much of the Everglades and may be
developed into a thriving industry.
The area within the Everglades Drainage
District within which farming has been carried
on is approximately 120,000 acres. Probably
not more than 25 % of this area has been under
cultivation at any one time. The principal
farming localities at present are along the lake
shore and the following canals: Miami Canal,
West Palm Beach Canal, North New River
Canal, Hillsboro Canal, Caloosahatchee Canal
and the St. Lucie Canal. The size and import-
ance of the areas from the standpoint of farm
products are in the order mentioned above.
But to come back to what the Government, through the
Department of Agriculture, has done in systematically
organizing plant introduction work, it may be said that
the first steps in this enterprise were taken something
over 25 years ago when James Wilson of Iowa was Sec-
retary of Agriculture. James Wilson, a man of broad
vision, saw the possibilities of this wonderful field and
put one of his young men, David Fairchild, at work on the
job. Agricultural explorers were appointed and sent into
the byways and highways of China, India, Japan, Africa,
South and Central America, and the islands of the seas,
in search of new crops. David Fairchild was one of these
explorers; in fact, he spent a good many years at it, came
back, and devoted the best part of his life to making it a
success. Even now, he is again in the field bound for
some of the little-known countries of the South Seas
where he expects to find many things for his adopted
In addition to the agricultural explorers the Govern-
ment sends out, there has been built up a corps of cor-
respondents and collaborators in all parts of the world.
This corps of valuable aids is made up of American con-
suls, missionaries, army officers of many nations, travel-
ers, soldiers of fortune, and all and sundry who may be
made useful. They are all working for Uncle Sam and
the story of a few things some of these good people have
accomplished would make a volume. Of course, the bene-
fits are not all one way, for in exchange for what the
FLORIDA REVIEW 3
Published Semi-Monthly by
Bureau of Immigration, Department of Agriculture
NATHAN MAYO..............Commissioner of Agriculture
T. J. BROOKS..............Director Bureau of Immigration
PHIL S. TAYLOR ................ ..............Advertising Editor
Entered as second-class matter, June 25, 1926, at the Post Office
at Tallahassee, Florida, under the Act of June 6, 1920.
Will be mailed free to anyone upon request.
NOVEMBER 21, 1927
countries they are in give us we try to give value re-
ceived in the shape of seeds or plants of our own develop-
Thus has been built up an Office of Foreign Seed and
Plant Introduction, an office that has introduced nearly
70,000 numbered new and promising plant immigrants
in the last 25 years. And, in doing this work, we be-
lieve we have gone ahead of our colleagues who have
looked after the human immigrants that have come to
our shores, for we have a record of every one of the
70,000 different lots that have come in, know how they
have behaved, and whether they have made good. The
record, known as Plant Inventories, containing descrip-
tions alone of our plant immigrants, consist of 74
volumes, each aggregating 50 to 75 pages. Every one
of these plant immigrants, upon arrival, is submitted to
rigid inspection and fumigation. We take no chance
of introducing new crop pests along with the crop itself.
When our plant immigrant gets into the country, we
are not through with it by any means. We have gar-
dens, sort of plant Ellis Islands, where our new friends
are placed on probation, as it were, so that we can keep
an eye on them for a time. For more than 20 years we
have maintained one of these plant introduction gardens
in southern Florida, most of the time in or near Miami,
and more recently at Chapman Field. The story of this
little garden alone would make an interesting one. Here
even now, can be found some of the old trees of avocados
and mangoes, Carissas, Surinam cherries, and other
plants that constitute the parents of thousands that have
been distributed in many parts of the State. We must
pass by the story of the garden, however, and what it
has done and speak more particularly of crops that have
been introduced and what has happened to them.
Plant Immigrants in Florida
We shall pass over some of the big money-making
crops, like the orange, grapefruit, and pineapple. These
are all established and are bringing to the State a good
many millions of dollars annually. The federal and
state governments have done much to foster these big
industries, but they are now on their feet and can take
care of themselves. We want to speak particularly of
some of the more important of what may be called our
struggling plant immigrants. That is, the plant immi-
grants that still have to make a place for themselves in
the sun or the land, whichever may sound best. And
may we pause for just a moment to say that it often
takes a long time and many ups and downs for a plant
immigrant to make good. Witness the tomato, long re-
garded as a mere curiosity, a "love apple," not suited for
food, and even sometimes poisonous. The potato, too,
had a long struggle before it was accepted as food in
The mango is a good fruit to start with because it is
a very old one, whose praises have been sung by men of
many kinds and many climes for hundreds of years. The
people of India were growing and singing the praises
of the mango long before the Christian Era. It was Dr.
Perrine, to whom we have already referred, who prob-
ably brought the first mangoes to Florida. They were
lost, and then about the beginning of the Civil War an-
other shipment came in. Along in the early 90s the
Department of Agriculture took a hand and introduced
some choice fruits.
Now, before going any farther, let us see what a mango
is and how it grows. It grows on a tree and the tree is
a beautiful evergreen with long, narrow, glossy leaves.
The tree in Florida is 15 to 25 feet high, has a rounded
symmetrical form, and even as a shade tree is well worth
while. The fruits vary according to variety, the best
ones, like the Mulgoba, Haden, and Amini, often weigh-
ing 9 or 10 ounces to more than 20 ounces each. The
best mangoes have a flavor and piquancy all their own.
They have sweet yellow flesh and a thick, tough, greenish
and sometimes beautifully colored skin. There is one
large seed in the center of the fruit. The fruits are
borne on long pendulous stems and a tree loaded with
them is a beautiful sight. The Department of Agricul-
ture has introduced a large and varied assortment of
mango varieties from all parts of the world where the
tree thrives. From the little garden on Brickell Avenue,
Miami, it has sent out many hundreds of plants.
Easy Fruit to Handle
Nurserymen and private individuals have not been idle
and have done much to popularize the fruit and bring
its good qualities to public notice. Since our people have
assumed responsibilities in the tropics, travel more, and
see more of the out-of-the-way places of the world, a
greater demand for such things as the mango has
developed. Mangoes from Florida are now shipped to
many of our northern markets where they sell as high
as 50 cents apiece. It is an easy fruit to handle, to ship,
and to market, but a rather messy one to eat. Some one
has said that the way to enjoy a mango is to eat it in a
bathtub. Florida has a monopoly on the production, for
the southern part of the State is the only region in the
United States proper where it has been grown in market-
able quantities. The mango, no doubt, has a future and
is another one of our immigrants of which we may well
It is fitting, in closing this little story of the mango,
that we should say a word about one of the children of
the mango immigrants. The Haden mango is believed
to be a child of the Mulgoba. The Mulgoba came from
India. More than 40 years ago there was a professor of
military science at the University of Missouri, where I
attended school. Captain Haden had been assigned to
this duty by the War Department at Washington. Cap-
tain Haden later moved to Florida and took up his resi-
dence in the wilderness where Coconut Grove is now
located. The Captain and Mrs. Haden were ardent plant
lovers and soon had a pioneer plant garden growing.
The Haden mango originated from a seed of the Mul-
goba planted by the captain. It was a good seed, for
mangoes, like apples, peaches, pears, and plums, do not
come true except where propagated by buds, cuttings,
scions, or other vegetative parts. One might plant
10,000 mango seeds and then get nothing but bearers of
worthless fruit. Captain Haden planted one seed and
the Haden is the result. Perhaps not everybody will
agree, but this native child of Florida appeals to me as
about the best all-around mango in the State.
4 FLORIDA REVIEW
(3) Picking Grapefruit in Highlands County.
(1) Cattle in Highlands County.
(2) Pineapples in Highlands County.
FLORIDA REVIEW 5
AMERICANIZING TROPICAL FRUITS
(By Hamilton M. Wright, in "America's Leading Food
Imagine your first taste of a new tropical fruit whose
flavor is at once so delicious and so elusive that you
cannot tell whether it resembles nicely ripe bananas,
fragrant fresh strawberries, or pineapples, whether it is a
combination of all of them, or whether it is a distinct
attribute of its own. Such is the fruit of a vine-like plant
scientifically known as Monistera deliciosa, a native of
Trinidad, which enjoys the rather unique distinction of
being described as "delicious" even in its botanical class-
ification. A four-year-old specimen of this plant, now
growing near Miami, Florida, is the marvel of visitors and
its fruits bring one dollar each. The plant itself has a
blossojn that suggests a large calla lily, and the fruit
requires about eighteen months to mature. But it is well
worth waiting for, for when it ripens, it suggests nothing
so much as a glorified ear of corn, whose great plump
kernels are so sweet and juicy that children prefer them
to candy. They are arranged about a central inedible
core much as kernels are arranged on the cob of an ear
The Monistera deliciosa is only one of scores of deli-
cious new fruits, many of which are totally unknown to
northern housewives and chefs, and introduced from the
tropical Orient, South Africa, and tropical America, have
been successfully fruited in the southern part of Florida.
Many of them have been introduced by the U. S. Plant
Introduction Garden. There are also root crops, grasses,
as well as soil enriching legumes and shrubs and trees
that are the source of valuable medicines. Some very
fine plant immigrants have been introduced by the Agri-
cultural Department of the State of Florida.
Much progress has been made in southern Florida in
the cultivation of the mango. This is the famous and
evergreen shade tree of which a specimen was presented
to Buddha that he might find relief in its shade. Some
of the oldest mango trees in the vicinity of Miami have
been cut down to make way for the real estate boom, but
the tree is cultivated as far south as the Redlands district
on the east coast. The mango is a native of South Asia
and the Malay Archipelago. Some of the best specimens
of the fruit raised in Florida have brought as high as a
dollar and a half each in the northern hotels, although
almost all of the product is consumed locally. The choice
budded varieties, with their rich, spicy flavors, tempting
fragrance, and beautiful coloring, make one of the most
attractive desserts that can be imagined.
Three varieties of mango are now being planted in
commercial orchards in the region of Homestead, south
of Miami. They are the Mulgoba, the Haden and the
D'Or. The quantity of these fine fruits has been so
limited that they have been sold at fancy prices, but it
is hoped in the near future to produce them on a com-
mercial scale. Growers are eliminating degenerate and
jungle varieties containing much fibre which have injured
the reputation of the mango. The government experts
by selective breeding have improved many of these stocks,
reducing the fibre and improving the quality generally.
A large variety of mangoes have been introduced and
The mango can be cooked and preserved in many at-
tractive ways. Green mango pie, ripe mango pie, fried
mangoes, mango dumplings, canned mangoes, mango mar-
malade (which is one of the most delicious of marma-
lades), mango jelly, mango sweet pickle, and its use in
chutneys are among the popular recipes recommended in
A very delicious and quite nourishing fruit is the star
apple. It has been introduced from Jamaica, Cuba, and
other nearby regions of tropical America. The tree
grows in Florida as far north as Palm Beach to a height
of about thirty feet, but, unfortunately, its range seems
limited by its tropical requirements. No tree of this
species, so far as is known, has ever grown to fruiting
size in California. Ordinarily the star apple fruit is
round, but it is sometimes oblate, ranging from two to
four inches in diameter, like a small to medium-sized
northern apple. In some varieties the somewhat glossy,
smooth surface is of dull purple hue, while others are
light green. The flesh is sweet, melting, and pleasantly
flavored, and is formed in eight translucent, whitish seg-
ments in which the seeds are embedded. When cut in
two, the segments present a star-like appearance, whence
the name. It is eaten fresh, but makes wonderful pre-
One of the Caribbean fruits that has spread all over
the tropical world, where it is now one of the most com-
mon in tropical countries, is the paw paw, or papaya
(Carica papaya, L.), which, however, must not be con-
fused with the northern paw paw. I have eaten it in
Hawaii, and it also furnishes one of the most popular
desserts in Brazil, and in many tropical countries is used
as a breakfast fruit in much the same manner as a musk-
melon or cantaloupe is used in the United States. When
sliced and served with sugar and whipped cream, it is
delicious. It contains a milky juice in which an active
principle known as papain is present. This enzyme
greatly resembles animal pepsin and has become an
article of commerce, being a valuable remedy in dys-
pepsia. The papaya can be grown in great numbers
wherever the climatic conditions are favorable. It
springs up everywhere in the Florida Keys, growing in
the hammock land and sandy soil in Florida as freely as
apple trees in the North. Its rate of growth is extremely
rapid. Dr. Fairchild, of the U. S. Department of Agricul-
ture, who has spent considerable time in Miami, found
that seeds of the papaya, when planted in a greenhouse
in February, produced young seedlings large enough to
graft some time in March. Indeed, papaya trees in
Florida have been know to spring from seed to blossom
in less than twelve months. The fruit oftentimes grows
in such heavy bunches that it kills the tree. Fifteen or
twenty papayas are not uncommon in a single bunch.
While entirely successful in the southern part of Flor-
ida, the papaya can also be grown in protected situations
where light frosts are experienced. Because of its high
productivity, rapid growth, and appetizing quality, it is
predicted that this fruit will some day be much better
known in the United States.
From South America comes the carissa or Natal plum,
which has become fairly common in southern Florida, and
has also been found to succeed in southern California.
The fruit is used for jellies and preserves, and the plant
itself is frequently used for ornamental purposes.
The sugar apple and rose apple must not be confused
with the star apple already mentioned. There is also a
fourth fruit called apple, the custard or alligator apple,
which grows in the Everglades and also in West Africa
and other countries. The custard apple, however, has
no value as a fruit, though it can be used as a stock for
grafting the sugar apple. The latter, Annona Squamosa,
is yellowish-green in color, two or three inches in diam-
eter, has a tender white pulp, and is sweet and slightly
acidulous in flavor. The sugar apple is a dessert fruit
Papaya Tree in Bonita Groves, Homestead, Dade County, Florida. Mr. Peterson, the owner, says the tree is seven months old and has over 200 pounds of fruit.
I Y ,
FLORIDA REVIEW 7
and in Florida ripens six months of the year. The rose
apple is an ornamental member of the myrtle family,
bearing a small apricot colored fruit one or two inches
long. The fruit exhales a delicious fragrance like that
of the rose; therefore, its name. The fruit is crisp,
juicy, and sweet when preserved, crystallized or otherwise
The white sapote, Casimiroa edulis, has been fruited
at the U. S. Plant Introduction Garden at Miami, but has
not been extensively cultivated yet. The fruit is de-
scribed as most delicious, of soft melting texture, and
sweet or slightly bitter flavor. The flesh is yellowish and
there are five large oval elliptical seeds.
The canistel is a rich, very sweet fruit of muskmelon
fragrance and the cashew, a relative of the mango. The
canistel is not as important as the cashew, which has the
distinction of furnishing both a fruit and also a nut
which is an important article of commerce.
The canistel has a yellow skin and bright orange flesh
which is soft and mealy in texture. The fruit is round
and oval in form and grows from two to four inches in
length. The tree grows as far north as Palm Beach. The
more important cashew is the source of a much prized
wine which is manufactured on a commercial scale in
Brazil. The fleshy part of the fruit is called the cashew
apple to distinguish it from the true fruit or cashew nut.
The apple reaches three and one-half inches in length,
and its skin, which is very thin and easily broken, is
commonly brilliant yellow or flame scarlet in color, while
the flesh is very juicy and light yellow. The nut, which
also has a commercial value, is about an inch long. It
must be roasted before the shell can be bitten into, as the
shell of the fresh cut contains acids which burn the mouth
Almost of greater interest even than the introduction
of tropical fruits is the propagation of tropical medicinal
plants, shrubs and trees. Among the most interesting
seedlings are those now being propagated from the chaul-
moogra oil tree, whose seeds were obtained by the agri-
cultural explorer, Joseph Rock, from the jungles of
Burma. Chaulmoogra oil for centuries has been used as
a palliative for leprosy by the natives, who took it inter-
nally and applied it externally. It was found, however,
that when certain derivatives of the oil were administered
to leprous patients in the earlier stages by intramuscular
injections, the best results were obtained. Leprous pa-
tients in Hawaii who had been thus treated were released
under parole as being no longer a menace to the com-
munity. The oil is obtained from the seeds of the adult
tree, which are contained in a nut or pod. It will be
some years, therefore, before it can be learned whether
the young trees now being propagated at the Plant Intro-
duction Station will bear. It is hoped that plantations
of the tree, which is known scientifically as Taraktogenos
kurzii, can be established. It is possible that some of
the medicinal value of the seeds is lost by the native
treatment, and if the trees can be artificially propagated
this wonderful remedy for the dread leprosy can be ob-
tained under the best circumstances.
The chaulmoogra oil specific is more efficacious at the
Kalihi receiving station, for its greatest effect is obtained
in the early stages of the scourge, and the leper colony
at Kalaupapa, on the isle of Molokai, receives only rela-
tively advanced cases. So highly does John D. McVeigh,
recently retired as superintendent of the Molokai colony,
regard the treatment, that he is reported to have pre-
dicted the close of the Molokai colony within twenty years
if diseased persons would surrender themselves and re-
ceive treatments in time.
The avocado, pronounced by some notable dieticians
to be "the perfect food," is now being grown successfully
in Florida and exported to an increasing extent to the
North. It is finding so much favor with growers there,
and the effort to popularize it has so advanced that an
"Avocado Day" was officially declared by His Honor, the
Mayor of Miami, about two years ago.
Many varieties of the fruit are grown-some of them
of large size, reaching two and three pounds. The avo-
cado is a real food. There is nothing in the definition of
the word fruit which prevents it also being regarded as
a food, except the fact that many fruits are limited in
the nutrition they supply. This is not the case of the
avocado. The U. S. Department of Agriculture provides
the following analysis and comparison between milk and
eggs and the avocado:
W ater ................................... 72.8
Protein .... ..... ............... 2.2
Carbohydrates ........................ 4.4
Fats ....................................... 17.3
Crude Fiber ......... ............... 1.4
Ash ....................................... 1.9
Further comparison is furnished in the following state-
ment from the same department:
"Eggs contain a combination of substances intended by
nature, with the action of heat and moisture, to revert
into life and activity; milk contains the natural substances
in the most correct proportions to build, sustain and re-
pair friction from action in animal life, especially in its
infantile stages; the avocado contains the elements of
food intended by nature to build, sustain and repair
animal life in its advanced stages, when friction is
greatest by the activities of life."
Natives of tropical countries think that avocado takes
the place of meat. The protein content is greater than
that of any other fresh fruit. While avocado growing on
a large commercial scale is in its infancy in Florida, the
tree flourishes in the Redlands district south of Miami.
The most desirable varieties bring from six to thirty dol-
lars, and even more, per crate of thirty-six to forty fruit.
Seventy trees can be grown on an acre, yielding from one
to three crates at six years, and while data on actual
profits in avocado growing are not readily available, many
individual trees have returned thousands of dollars to
FLORIDA. CAN BE GREATEST GARDEN
"No one knows the number of tropical and subtropical
plants now growing in different parts of the world that
may be adapted to Florida conditions," declared Dr.
David Fairchild, veteran chief of the plant-introduction
service of the United States Department of Agriculture.
"Florida, indeed, could be made the greatest garden since
There are some experiments going which indicate the
possibilities-with tung-oil producing trees from China,
carissas from Natal, pomegranates from Biblical lands,
Edison's rubber plant from Madagascar. And a long list
have proved their adaptation and are graduating into
more or less commercial importance, such as ferns, bulbs,
exotic foodstuffs like the avocado, chayote, mango, papaya
or tree melon, tamarind, kumquat and the crossbred lime-
quat, grapes, the small and delicious fig and the so-called
8 FLORIDA REVIEW
(1) Cocoanut Palms Growing in Lee County. (2) Carissa, Showing Heavy Crop of Fruit.
MATHEWS LEASES LAND FOR CANE
To Plant Groves Place for Dahlberg Sugar
A. L. Mathews, of West Palm Beach, has leased the
land opposite old Connersville known as the Groves place
and will plant it to sugarcane for B. G. Dahlberg, accord-
ing to George W. Brown, of West Palm Beach, one of
the owners of the land. Mr. Dahlberg is head of the cor-
poration now in control of the Florida Sugar & Food
Products Company of Canal Point, which operates the
plantation and has a sugar mill. The Canal Point prop-
erty is managed in connection with Mr. Dahlberg's oper-
ations in sugar cane at Clewiston. He is also president
of the Celotex Company.
Mr. Mathews is now in Chicago arranging the financing
of the planting of the Groves land to sugar cane. It has
been reported for several weeks that he will superintend
the planting of from 4,000 to 6,000 acres of sugarcane
in the Canal Point-Pahokee district, the acreage to em-
brace three or four sections on Pelican lake. The plant-
ing would be done, under the plan, to supply the sugar
mill that is projected for erection at Clewiston.
Expectation continues that the Seaboard Air Line Rail-
road will build from Indiantown to Canal Point as soon
as the planting of sugarcane in this territory has reached
an acreage that has been agreed upon.
The Groves land is on the north side of West Palm
Beach canal and about four miles southeast of Canal
Point. It is improved with a well built bungalow. Its
former owner was W. C. (Chauncey) Groves, of West
Palm Beach, whose widow sold it to Clarence Wilcox,
George W. Brown and Mrs. Huehle about six years ago.
GLADES ON A BOOM BUT DISCRETION
Twenty-Mile Motor Trip Exposes To View
Greatest Farming Country
The greatest farming country in Florida is exposed to
view on a trip from Canal Point through Pahokee to
Chosen and Belle Glade and on to South Bay, a distance
of less than twenty miles. The whole trip can be made
on a hard road, although two years ago there was nothing
more than a succession of trails through the muck.
There may not be anything striking in the view to
persons who make the trip for the first time, but persons
who know the country can see a marvelous transforma-
tion from jungle to high state of development.
Picking of beans, unprecedentedly early in the season,
is going on while closely adjacent there is under way the
clearing of land and tractors running down weeds and
plows turning the soil and planting machines moving
along long furrows and men and horses cultivating, each
of the several operations that represent the whole process
of truck farming going on simultaneously.
Labor gangs live in tents, plant the land as it is cleared
and erect temporary shacks, which in turn give way to
more substantial houses as the process of settlement pro-
Erection of packing houses, warehouses, stores and
dwellings parallels the labors of construction crews on
railroad tracks and highways. In its field and in its own
particular way it is as big a boom as the east coast saw
in its palmiest days-and far more substantial.
STEFFANI CALLS ATTENTION TO SMALL
Horticulturally has South Florida taken advantage of
the opportunities that have been placed before us?
Through the office of Foreign Seed and Plant Introduc-
tion of the United States Department of Agriculture,
practically all of the world tropical fruits have been dis-
tributed in South Florida. It seems almost a calamity
that at least our dooryards should be filled with a great
number of tropical fruits that are useful for home con-
sumption if not commercial.
By dooryards I do not mean a fifty-foot lot with a house
on it, although such places are alright for a few rare
palms and flowering plants or shrubbery. Throughout
the south part of Dade county there are homes where
from five to twenty-acre groves of citrus or avocados and
mangoes are growing, where ample space around the
house is available for a great variety of tropical fruits,
trees such as Achras Sapota (Sapodilla), the chicle tree
of Mexico. This handsome tree, with brown fruits the
size of apples and consistency of brown sugar, are cer-
tainly in demand on the local markets.
Casimiroa edulis (White Sapota), from Mexico, and a
distant relative of the citrus family, a green fruit the size
of a large apple with a bitter-sweet flavor when ripe, only
has to be put before the public to find a ready market.
Lecuma Nervosa (Egg-Fruit) is a small, handsome tree
with fruits the size of a peach and consistency not unlike
the yolk of a hard-boiled egg.
Eriobotrya Japonica (Loquat), a small, handsome tree
commonly called the Japanese plum, is not unknown to a
good many, but few seem to be planted, at least not
enough to be noticed greatly in the local markets.
Spondis Cythera (Oheitie apple), a tree with clusters
of golden yellow apples good for making pies or pre-
Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), a tree bearing clusters
of brown-pod bean-like fruits with a stringent flavor used
for making a refreshing drink and jam.
Macadamia Ternifolia (Queensland nut), a handsome
foliage tree from Australia, bearing a good-sized one-
kernel nut with hard shell and flavor not unlike the Brazil
Melicocca Bijuga (Spanish lime), a small fruit the size
of a plum, with edible acid pulp covered with a thin shell,
cultivated throughout the West Indies and South America
for its edible fruits.
Myrciaria Cauliflora, Garcinia Livingstonii, Averrhoa
Carambola, Litchii Chinensis, Blighia Sapida, Ceretonia
Siliquea, Cecropia Palamata and other useful fruiting
trees that would be useful for preserving or as a fresh
fruit eaten out of the hand.
The well-fruiting shrub or small tree, Annona squamosa
(sugar apple) and Annona hybrids, is certainly deserving
of more attention when its delicious fruits are in demand
on the market.
Carissa grondiflora (Natal plum). This beautiful shrub
with sweet-scented star-like flowers and handsome sub-
acid, red fruits that make excellent jelly, resembling rasp-
berries and sauce not unlike cranberries, is deserving of
a space for a hedge around anyone's place.
Eugenia jambo (rose apple), a tree or large shrub
with yellow fruits two inches in diameter, suggesting the
flavor of crushed roses, used for preserving or candied.
Eugenia uniflora (surinam cherry). Its dark evergreen
foliage and showy red fruits are useful for jellies, jams
or sherbets, or delicious to eat when thoroughly ripe.
Fiacourtia ramontchi governorss plum), a large shrub
or small tree bearing sweet, black, plum-like edible fruits;
good for making jelly.
Strychnos spinosa (Kaffir orange), a large, shiny green-
leaved spiney shrub bearing hard shell green fruits the
size of oranges, the pulp being used to make an astringent
drink, and flat seed containing a form of strychnine.
Punica granaturn (Pomegranate), an ornamental shrub
with scarlet flowers and large red fruits with small seed
and red acid pulp, eaten out of hand or making a refresh-
ing drink. The rind contains tanning and is used in the
manufacture of morocco leather.
I might go on and mention numerous others that are
fruiting shrubs such as Monstera Deliciosa, Eugenia,
Ziziphus, Mauritana, Carissa Carandas, Antidisma bunius,
and not unmindful of the fact that as well known as the
papayas and guavas, maybe we certainly should have more
We should not overlook the great variety of ornamental
trees and shrubs that could be planted. We of Dade
county pride ourselves in living in a tropical country-
why not have the south part of the county a real tropical
aboratum so that the future generation, who not so far in
the distant future, will be taught tropical horticulture in
the University of Miami, will have the benefit of seeing
the rare plants of the tropics and point with pride at the
far-sightedness of their forefathers in getting these plants
established for their education.
COUNTY TO SHIP FIRST PEPPERS TO
NORTHERN MARKETS MONDAY
Crop in Excellent Condition Says Wright; Car-
loads of Cukes to Go Forward Shortly
from Local Truckers
(Ft. Myers Press)
Lee county's first shipment of peppers will leave the
lona section next Monday by Seaboard railroad for north-
ern markets, it was announced this morning by County
Agent C. P. Wright, who explained that this early ship-
ment is several weeks in advance of last year's first ship-
The peppers, which came from the Cook brothers and
the Santini farms in Iona, are being marketed through the
lona Produce Association and are among the first fall
vegetables to leave the state for northern markets.
Whether the consignment will go to eastern or western
markets is yet to be decided, as the price has not yet been
determined for the first fall crops.
The vegetable is in excellent condition, Mr. Wright
said, and should bring top prices in the northern markets.
With the early fall shipments started by the car of
peppers, several cars of other produce will start rolling
from Lee county within the next few weeks, and local
farmers will keep a steady stream of produce pouring
into the northern cities from now until the middle of
December, and after a short lull, the winter crops will be
Two cars of cucumbers are also being prepared and
will be shipped from the lona section some time next
week, it was said, and several more will follow the week
of October 31.
First tomatoes for the north will be shipped in about
three weeks, and several cars of eggplant will be ready
at the same time, it was said.
Crops throughout the county this year will be earlier
and considerable better and more abundant, Mr. Wright
Cabbage and Carrots grown in the muck soil of Palm Beach County.
FLORIDA REVIEW 11
MARKET BUREAU AND EXPERIMENTAL
Speaker to Manufacturers Cites Way to Miami
An experimental and demonstration farm, a research
laboratory and a marketing bureau were held by B. F.
Davis to be the requisites for Miami's ultimate success in
realization of its potentialities, according to his address
Tuesday before the Greater Miami Manufacturers' Asso-
ciation in the Miami Chamber of Commerce lobby.
In an analysis of the present economic, agricultural
and industrial condition of Dade county, Mr. Davis
showed by charts and figures that idle workingmen, vacant
apartments, hotels and homes are due "to our having
built and depended upon 200,000 population when we
have only slightly over 100,000." The answer to ques-
tions on regaining lost population, he stated, is "through
creating the opportunity for newcomers to make a decent *
"In view of the fact that practically every present line
of business endeavor, as it now exists, is overcrowded,
we can find ways for our added population to make a liv-
ing through development of industry, including agricul-
ture, manufacturing and marketing, encouragement of
tourist travel, and enthusiasm in developing our natural
resources of soil and climate."
Immediate attention to the development of the re-
sources Miami has at hand, is necessary, Mr. Davis said,
"because we have spent in the past year more than we
have produced and still are in debt for what we consumed
Basing his estimates on government figures, Mr. Davis
stated that the cost of modest living for 35,000 families
yearly is $87,000,000. Miami's income at present, "in
unexaggerated figures," was said by him to be: tourist
business, $20,000,000; dairying and milk products,
$7,000,000; fruit growing, vegetable cropping and fishing,
all of which are said to be below normal, $900,000,
$3,500,000 and $1,250,000, respectively; poultry products,
an increasing industry, $200,000. An estimate was not
given on the income from locally manufactured articles,
this being impossible without a survey, he said.
Mr. Davis gave detailed information on the possible
development of about 20 other industries other than those
now a part of Greater Miami's industrial life. He
pointed out that tests by nationally-known chemists and
other authorities have shown where pharmaceutical herbs,
dairy grasses and tropical growths, many native to this
country, are thriving here now, can be utilized for bring-
ing in millions to the city.
Soil in the shallow water of the bay, dried and com-
bined with certain chemicals, would allow for extensive
manufacture of cement here, he stated. He listed also
patent plaster, terra cotta and material for crockery.
Paint pigments, sisal hemp, other valuable fibres, essential
oils for medicines, dyeing materials from native plants,
paper products and tanning extracts were given as avail-
able products for the advancement of Greater Miami
A lumber industry from the eucalyptus, Australian pine
and pashas beard was discussed, along with the commer-
cial possibilities of tropical-fruits grown here which have
not been popularized in outside markets. These include
karandas, used by candy makers for coloring their pro-
ducts, and commercial citron, which is said to bear in 18
months and can be produced on the same ground space
and at the same cost as grapefruit. Its commercial value
is said to be $200 a ton, in comparison with grapefruit
prices at $25 a ton. Dates, Jamaica ginger, 60 varieties
of forage grass, cocoanuts, castor beans, soy beans and
mangrove bark also were discussed for their potential
The effect these would have on the manufacturing in-
dustry in southeastern Florida, according to Mr. Davis,
can be determined through the experimental and demon-
stration farm, a project to be brought by the manu-
facturers before the county commissioners, it is said; the
research laboratory, probably operated in connection with
the University of Miami, and the marketing bureau.
FARM DEVELOPMENT OF HUGE PROPOR-
TIONS IN MAYACA SECTION
Sixty Acres Now Under Cultivation-To Be
(South Florida Developer)
C. O. Pittman reports that in making his county survey
for the state he found a remarkable development of 120
acres at Mayaca, on Lake Okeechobee, where the Phipps
interests are planting 120 acres of land.
Sixty acres have already been planted, chiefly to egg-
plant, tomatoes, beans and cabbage. The company is not
planting this land for the purpose of selling it out in
farm allotments. The crops are being raised for ship-
ment to northern markets, the Phipps people having
learned that one of the most profitable things they can
do is the winter shipping of produce to New York and
Chicago when there is nothing green that can be pur-
chased for the table in those cities.
Paul M. Hoenshal, formerly of Virginia, is the resident
manager in charge of this great development. He is a
farmer of scientific knowledge and practical experience.
Mr. Pittman reports that the firm has spent $18,000 on
the development thus far, and plans to spend additional
sums before the end of the season. This he considers
farming on a gigantic scale.
The company has a great open ditch running through
the place, which drains it most effectually. The lowest
part of this ditch, as well as the lowest part of the tract,
is three feet above the highest water level of the canal.
A large control pump is set where it can empty the
overflow from excessive rains, or pump from the canal in
dry seasons for irrigation.
The entire tract is cut into ten-acre sections with irri-
gation ditches around each. Smaller ditches with road-
ways separate these into four smaller tracts. Driveways
run through all tracts and sections of the great develop-
Day labor was employed on construction work and the
opening of the place. Each employee who was found par-
ticularly efficient, and was the head of a family, was
given permission to set apart two acres for himself and
"farm" it on sharing terms. Many are thus employed at
present in this great 120-acre beehive.
The company will be able to ship beans to New York
in November, and expects to be shipping heavily by the
first of December.
Stuart people who think it worth their while to drive
34 miles to see this great Martin county agricultural de-
velopment on the shore of Lake Okeechobee will be richly
repaid for the effort thus put forth.
12 FLORIDA REVIEW
*~~ ___ s
Scenes from Sarasota County.
F L R D R V E
EVERGLADES NOW MAKING READY FOR
Activities of Larger Scope Than Ever Before
Injects New Life Into Truck Growing
District As Fall Planting Nears
The upper Glades or black gold coast country as it is
known, now has in what is said to be the largest amount
of crops ever planted in that part of Florida. On every
hand fields have been cleared, cultivated and planted.
From Canal Point around the south end of the lake agri-
cultural activity is in evidence. Old timers remark that
it is the greatest amount of work they have ever seen
under way at one time in the country.
It is estimated that "in sight" there are at least 3,000
acres that are now in cultivation, ranging from the newly
planted field to the actual picking of some bean crops.
There is no way of estimating how much more land will
be under cultivation the coming winter, but it is known
that hundreds of acres of rich muck will be producing
that are now awaiting the coming of the farmers.
The following resume of crops under way and general
activity is made by the Everglades News:
From Canal Point to South Bay is twenty miles; a
mile is the length of a section of land, and a section con-
tains 640 acres, hence this mile wide strip equals 12,800
acres gross. As appeared from a loose check-up made
Saturday by the editor of The Everglades News in com-
pany with W. H. Vann, commission house representative,
around 3,000 acres is in the varying degrees of cultiva-
tion, from plowed land to blooming vines. How much
more land in this area will go in cultivation this winter
cannot now be estimated.
The first large acreage to be seen south from Pahokee
is in section 32, township 42, range 37, where Tom Cran-
ford and C. W. Bell have several share croppers. There
are more large operations on the west side of the road,
along the lake front dike, but sight of those fields is shut
off by vegetation on raw land. These fields and others
are best seen from the dike road.
In section 5 of the next township (43), on the east side
of the road, J. A. Hughes has 140 acres, all of which is
plowed and part of which is planted in corn and okra.
On the other side of the load, in section 5, J. E. Cochran
has beans, eggplants and corn growing and is still plow-
ing and planting. South of Hughes, still in section 5,
O. B. McClure and Frank Friend are preparing land, evi-
dently to take all the rest of the 640 acres of the section.
Immediately south of section 5, is Louis G. Freeman's
section 8, where more of his land is being prepared than
in any previous year. Mr. Freeman owns all of that sec-
tion and also owns the section 7 adjoining on the west.
These sections 5 and 8 are just six miles north of the
section 8 near Belle Glade which is referred to in the
opening paragraph of this article. The fields in the two
townships help make up the estimated 3,000 acres now in
All along the road from Canal Point to south of Belle
Glade farmers are cultivating small patches of beans, in
addition to the large fields referred to above. From
Freeman's section 8 southward there is a good deal of
land not yet cleared but which will be in cultivation this
winter, as it was in the spring.
Returning to Canal Point from Belle Glade, a detour
was made at Freeman's from the rocked road to the dike
road, on the lake front west of the rocked road, and this
gave sight of the west sides of sections 5 and 32. Keen,
Jones, Arrington, Cone and others are farming land in
section 31, outside of the dike; on the lake front, and
their crops, chiefly peppers and beans, look fine. T. Lane
Moore and John S. Gray have what seems to be about 250
acres plowed in section 30 on the lake side of the dike.
A good deal of it has been planted to beans and toma-
toes. All of the farmers in sections 31 and 30 joined in
putting a bridge across the dike canal to get to their land
from the dike road. Share-croppers on A. E. Zimmer-
man's land in section 30 have tractored a good deal of
land. Charlie Moran has a considerable acreage in that
locality, which he gets to through section 29 from the
rocked road on the east as well as from the dike road.
There are hundreds of acres of beans in sections 29,
30, 31 and 32, that cannot be seen from the rocked road
and sight of which is missed by the touring motorist out
to see the country.
The dike road extends to the Pahokeen drainage dis-
trict pumping station in section 19, just north of section
30 in which Zimmerman, Moore and the Grays are farm-
ing. There is no public road from the pump station to
the rocked road, but there is a trail along a river bank,
where the Hull brothers have tomatoes set and other
North of section 19 is the section 18 in which the
Town of Pahokee is located. From the pumping station
the Bacom Point rocked road can be reached by follow-
ing the dike road, and there is a big acreage in that
locality. A conscientious investigator could leave the
Pahokee-Belle Glade rocked road at the middle of the
north line of section 20 and turn north and follow a
muck road into section 17, on the edge of Pelican Lake,
where a big acreage is going in, or go straight out east
from the middle of the north line of sections 21 and 22
and see hundreds of acres of land being cleared and
plowed with many fields of beans and into sections 15
and 16 and on to section 10, where beans were picked
this week. But even a cursory survey shows that the
Palm Beach county section of the upper Everglades
already has as large an acreage seeded as was the total
area cultivated two years ago. This is the Everglades'
greatest fall crop.
The full 640 acres of section 8, township 44, range 37,
running one to two miles south of Belle Glade and three
miles east of South Bay, is being cleared and plowed
and will be planted solid to vegetables. In section 7,
just west of it, 80 acres is being planted by members of
the firm of N. F. Powers Construction Company who have
made up a pool to finance the operations. North of sec-
tion 7, in section 6, the northeast corner of which touches
the Belle Glade townsite, Louis Creech has in 100 acres
of potatoes and 60 acres of fordhook lima beans. H. H.
Hart in the same locality has seed potatoes in the ground
on 40 acres and is still planting.
EARLY BEANS ARE SHIPPED
(Palm Beach Times)
Beans are being shipped from the Everglades, the
earliest in several years, according to County Agent S. W.
Hiatt, who reported that the first carload for the northern
market left the Belle Glade-Chosen station last Saturday.
He said that another carload is being loaded to be
shipped from Canal Point and Pahokee this week. At the
same time, numerous express shipments and truck-loads
are being sent out all the time, he said.
Mr. Hiatt reported that there is considerable activity
in the Glades, with much land being cleared and a great
amount of planting taking place. He said that one
grower reported that he would be prepared to ship toma-
toes this week.
14 FLORIDA REVIEW
Picking Cucumbers in Hardee County.
SOUTH FLORIDA LOOKS FOR PROSPEROUS FARMERS OBTAIN LEAD IN LAND
YEAR, ST. LUCIE MAN SAYS MANATEE
With a bumper citrus crop already being moved, bright
prospects for a heavy tourist season and conditions great-
ly improved generally, that portion of South Florida in
the vicinity of Ft. Pierce has forgotten its troubles and is
on the broad highway to a greater prosperity.
This was the cheering news brought to Jacksonville
today by F. G. McMullen, president of the St. Lucie
County Bank and Trust Company, a visitor at the At-
lantic National Bank to confer with Edward W. Lane,
The citrus crop this year in the Indian River country
will exceed 3,500,000 boxes, Mr. McMullen declared, mak-
ing it the greatest production year in history for that
"And in addition to an excellent crop, which, as I have
said, is our greatest, we are obtaining better prices for
our fruits. Indian River oranges and grapefruit are
known throughout the nation as among the best, if not
the best, Florida produces, and there is a big demand for
them thiS year. As a result, prices received by growers
are higher than last year.
"This is only an indication of the prosperous condition
of our section of the state. We, of course, have had our
troubles, but they are now a thing of the past. We have
liquidated all our troubles, wiped them off the slate, and
have our faces confidently toward bigger and better
Mr. McMullen expects to return to Ft. Pierce tonight,
he said, after spending the day here.
Favorable Conditions Mark Beginning of
(Manatee County Advertiser)
Bradenton, Fla.-R. L. Rogers, general field manager
of the Manatee County Growers Association, expects the
association to increase its tonnage of shipments over last
year and believes the increase will amount to twenty-five
per cent, based on acreage and present outlook and crop
The farmers and truckers got a good start, says the
field manager, and should have their products ready as
soon as the northern markets are ready for the southern
vegetables. Shipments of peppers will begin about the
first of November, which will be as early as the market
The fall crop of tomatoes is in excellent condition, in
bloom and with fruit forming. Celery is about two weeks
advanced over the ordinary season.
Fall showers without heavy rains, and growing weather
throughout September and early October, have conspired
to produce results above the average.
The Manatee County Growers Association has in past
years and since its organization demonstrated its superi-
ority as a marketing bureau, which incidentally aids
farmers through the obtaining of loans to aid in financing
FLORIDA REVIEW 15
CUKES AND OTHER GARDEN SASS GOING
OUT OF WAUCHULA
Last week's Wauchula Advocate says:
The 1927 vegetable shipping season got under way in
Wauchula in earnest this week, more than one hundred
crates of cucumbers, squash, peppers and eggplants being
shipped out the first eight days of the season.
Express office records show that 85 crates of squash,
29 crates of cucumbers, 10 crates of peppers and one
crate of eggplant have already been shipped up to and
including Wednesday. Last year the first vegetables were
shipped about October 10th, but the season will be well
under way before that time this fall.
The following prices were quoted for vegetables at the
cash platform Wednesday: Cucumbers, $4.00 (some sold
for $5.00, $4.00 and $2.00 for fancy, choice and culls this
week); peppers, $2.00 and $2.25; eggplant, $2.25, and
squash, $1.50 and $1.00.
Peppers were the first vegetables to be offered for sale
here, some being brought in on September 19th by A. S.
The first cucumbers were brought in by V. S. Polk
on last Thursday. More were brought in Saturday and
some this week.
SEES FLORIDA SUGAR CANE
(Ft. Lauderdale Greetings)
Clewiston, Fla., Oct. 3.-"Nowhere in the world can
sugar cane be grown so economically as on the 'custard
apple muck' of the upper Everglades."
Twenty-four years ago Prof. F. S. Earle established
the first government agricultural experiment station for
the Cuban government at Santiago de las Vegas. In the
intervening years he has come to be regarded as one of
the foremost authorities on sugar cane in the world.
During the last ten days Prof. Earle visited various
points in the Lake Okeechobee region, observing develop-
ments and the results that have been attained in sugar
Shortly before he left Clewiston Sunday afternoon to
return to Cuba he made the statement with which this
article starts, and he added others equally significant.
"There are two other great factors," he remarked,
"that have affected the efforts to introduce sugar cane
on a large scale in this region. One is drainage. The
other is 'saw grass muck.'
"I believe, from my observations, that the great drain-
age operations at Clewiston and Canal Point are solving
the problem of drainage and water control.
"And now I discover the remarkable results being
effected on saw grass muck in the application of copper
sulphate. Of course I have had no opportunity to observe
these crops exhaustively, but what I saw at Canal Point
shows that remarkable results have been obtained and
points a way to methods to get raw saw grass muck land
into condition quickly for growing high-grade crops."
Prof. Earle was enthusiastic in his comments on the
cane he saw growing at Clewiston and Canal Point. "I
have never seen finer cane," he stated.
"Great strides are being made in this country in im-
proving sugar cane. I have recently visited the Louisiana
fields, where introduction of special varieties and other
improvements in methods are doing great things for the
industry. Then when I came here my observations con-
vinced me that a great sugar cane development in Florida
is under way-something that will mean a tremendous
new source of wealth to the state.
Prof. Earle has had an extraordinary career as an
agriculturist and expert. He was growing strawberries
in Illinois when he was twelve years old. Before he went
to Cuba he was at the Alabama State Experiment Station.
For many years he has conducted experiments and study
of cane varieties on his own plantation at Herradura,
Cuba, that have attracted wide attention among sugar
At the meeting of the International Society of Sugar
Technologists in Havana, Cuba, in March of this year,
Prof. Earle's high standing in the profession was fittingly
demonstrated by the whole-hearted applause of his hearers
and the clearly evident affection in which he is held by
his coworkers in the field of sugar technology. Another
evidence of his eminence is the fact that he is specialist
in charge of propagation of sugar cane varieties of the
Tropical Research Foundation.
EDISON ESTABLISHES FLORIDA
Inventor Ships Equipment for His
Fort Myers, Oct. 18.-(Tribune News Service)-
Carrying out his plans to completely equip a chemical
laboratory in Fort Myers for his extensive rubber experi-
ments, Thomas A. Edison has shipped a carload of
machinery from his laboratories at East Orange, N. J.,
to be installed in the workshop on his estates here.
The machinery arrived today and is being removed to
the inventor's home on McGregor Boulevard. One of the
inventor's representatives is expected in the city next
week to supervise the installation.
Although no definite word has been received by Fort
Myers friends, it is believed that Mr. Edison will arrive
at his winter home several months earlier than usual to
be able to devote more time to his rubber work. It is
expected he will celebrate his 82nd birthday here.
GLADES DISTRICTS TO GROW MORE
(Lake Worth Leader)
Crop experts say that the black gold coast country will
rival Hastings in the production of potatoes the coming
season. There are hundreds of acres of spuds under cul-
tivation now and these should come off in advance of the
The Brown country has about 1,000 acres of potatoes
in. These were planted with 50 carloads of seed potatoes.
Louis Creech is reported to have 100 acres of spuds
planted in 6-44-37. H. H. Hart is also said to have a
large acreage of potatoes in the same locality. In addi-
tion to this the Lake Delta Farms Company is making
plans for a big crop.
Heavy receipts of the sale of seed potatoes, which is in
evidence at the seed houses in Belle Glade and Pahokee,
give some idea as to how extensively the farmers are
going in for the planting of spuds this season.
It has been shown that spuds planted in October can
be harvested before the first frost. In addition to this,
the fact that potatoes can be grown without fertilizer in
soil that is not suitable for beans and tomatoes, has made
this crop attractive.
(1) Packing Tomatoes. (2) Packing Green Peppers.
These are shipped in January, February and March from Charlotte County.
LEE GROWERS START LARGE WINTER
Nearly 2000 Acres in Wide Variety of
Fort Myers, Oct. 1.-(Tribune News Service.)-Lee
county planters are just getting a flying start with winter
crops, it was revealed today when County Agent C. P.
Wright announced nearly 2,000 acres are planted in
vegetables in Lee county. A survey of farming in the
county shows 1,435 acres already planted in tomatoes,
peppers and potatoes, with approximately 300 acres in
cucumbers and 250 acres in general truck crops.
While the county agent's survey shows 442 acres of
tomatoes already in the ground, it reflects Lee county's
soil adaptable to a number of crops, and the list shows
peppers, eggplant, potatoes, cucumbers, squash, beans,
onions and watermelons now under the process of pro-
duction. Most of the crops will be ready for harvest be-
The report shows tomatoes to top the list in acreage
planted to date, with peppers running a close second.
The agent reports 414 acres of peppers already planted.
Potatoes cover 127 acres and there are 40 acres in water-
melons, with the acreage to be increased ten times before
the end of the season.
RARE FRUITS ARE DEVELOPED
"Strawberries on Cob" Only One of Many Soon
To Be Produced Commercially
(St. Petersburg Times)
"Strawberries on the cob! There ain't no such a
That's the echo that joined the reverberating thunders
of the shower in St. Petersburg Tuesday morning when
Times readers learned about the monstera deliciosa, a
new tropic fruit which some day is going to be a real
mouthful in the Sunshine City.
"Food for thought-that's as far as that story will
ever get," said one of the doubting Thomases.
Nevertheless, the plant that grows "strawberries on the
cob" is on view in the group of fine palms, plants and
shrubs shown by the Royal Palm Nursery, of Oneco, in
connection with the nursery show here for clean-ip and
beautification week. The plant may be seen in The Times
exhibition room on Fifth street. Hundreds of people
called to see it there Tuesday.
"They all want to see one of these plants actually
hung up with the cobs and the strawberries," The Times
man said to J. B. Hinson, in charge of the exhibit.
"Well, this one is a bit too young yet to produce," said
Mr. Hinson, "but if the doubters will make a trip over to
Oneco we will show him a bigger plant with the fruit
getting ready to mature. We have two plants, in fact,
with the fruit now formed and ripening. I wanted to
bring one of these over to St. Petersburg, but hesitated
to load it, because of the danger of setting it back in
maturing what fruit is now formed."
Other Rare Fruits
There are at this time many rare fruits which are being
grown and developed in the Florida nurseries which some
near day will be shown on the stands with the mango,
avocado, surinam cherry, papaya, sapodilla, sugar apple,
kumquat, mandarin, tangelo, date and fig, cocoanut and
other tropic and semi-tropic fruits which Florida is grow-
ing and will put on the market.
Mr. Hinson mentioned a few of the new fruits which
St. Petersburg could well afford to grow. "There is the
Florida Marvel, or the so-called Australian blackberry,
giant of the species, and a winner. Some have found
difficulty in growing it because they do not follow instruc-
tions in the culture. Since it is attacked by a thrip some-
times, the canes should be cut to the ground each season
after bearing. The old canes should be sprayed and
burned to destroy all the thrips which have been work-
ing. These thrips cause blanks in the core of the berry
and make them one-sided. When the new canes sprout
up, as they do, big and strong, for the next season's
growth, these should be sprayed just before the blossoms
Big Gooseberry Bush
Of another fruit recommended here, Mr. Hinson said:
"We should grow the Otahite gooseberry, botanically
known as phyllanthus disticus, a native of Asia. The
bush here becomes a tree, in height, up to 25 feet. It is
highly ornamental, with fine pennant leaves fringing out
in a new growth that is pink. The fruit is small, but of a
very fine acid flavor, and is excellent for preserves, pickles
and other uses. The fruit, strangely enough, grows in
clusters not from the twigs, but all over the trunk of the
tree and larger branches. It is a tremendous producer.
Why not plant it in parkways and have a crop for
The eugenia currandi is a form of cherry which will
do well here, Mr. Hinson said. It is used in the Philip-
pines for jellies and preserves and it is much prized
TIMBER BAMBOO GROWS A FOOT A DAY
(Ft. Lauderdale News)
Describing the timber bamboo, which the United States
Department of Agriculture recommends for culture in
most of the cotton states of the South, B. T. Galloway
writes in a leaflet which has just been issued as a sepa-
rate from the Year-book of Agriculture, 1926:
"Eventually, when a grove is fully established, mag-
nificient stems shoot up to a height of 60 to 70 feet,
furnishing poles 4 to 5 inches in diameter at the base.
The plants have the remarkable faculty of reaching their
full size in a short time, usually in two to four weeks,
depending on the age of the parents. The new shoot
suddenly bursts through the ground in the spring and
then grows a foot or more a day. As the cane shoots
skywards, the leaves, branches and branchlets unfold,
producing a most striking and beautiful effect. There is
a majesty and grandeur to these plants that makes a
strong appeal to the imagination."
After attaining full size, the plants may require three
to five years to fully harden and ripen. Aside from its
beauty timber bamboo has commercial value and is con-
venient on the farm for light fences, fence posts, trellises,
water-carrying pipes, baskets, crates, poultry coops and
houses, and light ladders. Commercial uses include fish
rods, furniture making, curtain and rug rods, and many
other purposes. It is reported to thrive in most localities
where deep well-drained soil is available and where tem-
peratures do not fall below 10 to 15 degrees above zero.
The timber bamboo is such a recent importation that
small plants are rarely if ever available in nurseries. The
department has been furnishing plants to cooperators in
the South willing to guarantee adequate care.
* a.-.-'u^ ^E^^
Scenes in DeSoto County: (1) Picking Beans in January. (2) Orange Grove.
JP~I'Y~~i : I ~~ .14~
MORE CAR SPACE ON F. E. C. TRACKS DEMONSTRATION FIELD FOR TROPICAL
FRUITS NEEDED, SAYS BROOKS
Railway Company Makes Provision for Big
An additional 1,000 feet of side track now being laid
at Belle Glade-Chosen by the Florida East Coast railroad
will make a total of 5,000 feet, a space sufficient for 125
cars, an amount double the requirement of many towns
of 2,000 to 3,000 population. The addition to the car
space at that point, present terminus of the Okeechobee
branch, is called for by the estimate of the number of
cars of vegetables to be loaded there this winter.
A work train has been running for a week hauling
sand from St. Lucie canal borrow pit for fill on the muck
sub-grade. Construction Engineer R. L. Langford esti-
mates that ten days to two weeks will be required to com-
plete the new siding.
From Canal Point to Belle Glade-Chosen, inclusive, a
distance of less than 15 miles, the F. E. C. railroad has
five sidings and loading stations. The car space likely to
be needed during the winter shipping season probably
will require the construction of a passing track at Belle
Glade-Chosen to supplement the present facilities for
movement of the crop.
Construction Engineer Langford said he had not heard
the rumor that the F. E. C. track was to be extended
down Hillsboro canal fourteen miles to the Brown Com-
pany's plantation. Vice President H. N. Rodenbaugh,
general manager of the railway company, is on his vaca-
tion and could not be communciated with as to the rumor,
but other officials at the St. Augustine general offices said
there was no basis for the rumor that an extension would
HIALEAH BOOSTS HOME INDUSTRY
Committee Named to Work with Cuba and
Pan-American industrial committee to encourage small
industries in Hialeah through cooperation with Cuba and
other Latin American countries was appointed Wednes-
day night by the officers and directors of the Hialeah
Chamber of Commerce. G. W. Peace, acting chairman of
the board, was made chairman.
Mayor J. P. Grethen, A. Quiglos and A. M. Menocal will
assist Mr. Peace in cementing Pan-American relation-
ships, active work being started Thursday. The directors
look with approval, it was said, on establishing small
plants for the manufacture of cigars and Panama hats.
The possibilities of Hialeah industrially were discussed
by Mayor Grethen and E. M. Reisman, owner of the
Miami Butcher & Provision Co., who operates his plant at
Twenty-third street and the railroad, Hialeah. He is
planning to enlarge his equipment to manufacture
sausage, he said, and will change the name of his firm to
the Dade County Packing & Provision Co. The mayor
urged citizens to buy Florida and Hialeah products.
Decision was made to hold an open forum the second
Wednesday of every month, the first to be in November
when John A. Campbell, chicken expert, will talk. J. S.
Rainey, county agent, will speak at the December forum.
Commissioners To Be Asked Aid in Establishing
Farm at Redland Farm Life School
Acting on the suggestion of Chas. I. Brooks, chairman
of a committee from the Miami Realty Board, which is
seeking sites for demonstration farms where tropical
fruits can be grown and exhibited, the chamber of com-
merce authorized its agricultural committee on Tuesday
night to look for a proper site adjacent to the school, and
to work with the central committee.
"Florida has such wonderful opportunities," Mr.
Brooks said, "not only for growing the staples which many
other states can produce, but for producing as well the
things which we alone can grow in America. We know
that the orange, the avocado, the grapefruit and many
other fruits will grow here. They can be grown in other
states, too. But there are many tropical fruits which
can be found now only in the botanical gardens at Miami,
at the Johnston place or scattered at a few isolated places
in Dade county.
"There is no place there these things native to the
tropics can be shown in proper style to the visitor. We
tell people that this and that can be grown commercially,
but rarely can we show them any figures to prove the
"It is therefore my suggestion that your organization
endeavor to secure the donation or lease of a tract of
land near the Farm Life School, and plant on that tract
under the supervision of a capable man the papaya, the
akee, the citron, and other fruits with commercial possi-
bilities. The school children would care for them as a
part of their regular school work, and the cost would be
low. They would be required to keep accurate records, so
that in the course of a few years we would know exactly
the conditions which effect each type of fruit. In addi-
tion to this the pupils would be getting a liberal educa-
tion in horticulture, and would realize they were making
a definite contribution to the upbuilding of this section."
There is a similar plan on foot at the Lemon City high
school, and it is hoped that the two can be worked in
The local committee will co-operate with the agricul-
tural experimental committee of the Miami Realty Board,
composed of Chas. I. Brooks, chairman, Vance W. Helm,
Raymond E. Donnelley, P. D. Larrimore and Frank J.
Pepper. They also hope later to tie up this work with the
University of Miami.
Testimony to the productivity of Florida soil and to
the profits that may be made from an intelligent use of
Florida soil, is furnished by the instance of one farmer
of Hardee county-V. S. Polk, whose story is told in the
Mr. Polk has a one-acre tract planted in cucumbers.
He has made three pickings from this acre thus far, and
has received $108.75 for those pickings. His product
brought as high as $7.75 a crate. In another week he
expects his receipts to exceed $200-and he has many
more pickings in sight before the season ends.
This same acre is not limited to cucumbers. During
the year it will produce other crops, all profitable.
20 FLORIDA REVIEW
iisiapiiagijp.^aiijaL-U^^p ~~ aii
Field of Carrots in Manatee County.
SOLID CARLOAD OF BEANS SENT FROM
(Palm Beach Times)
A solid car of beans, loaded under ice, rolled Sunday
morning from the Belle Glade-Chosen station of the
Florida East Coast railroad, consigned by P. H. Walker,
of Chosen, to V. A. Stewart & Co., commission merchants
in New York. It was the first solid freight car shipment
of the 1927-28 season from the Everglades.
Last season the first car from the lake region was of
beans grown at South Bay and forwarded from Moore
Haven the last week in November. The comparison
shows that this year the season opens six weeks earlier
than last year. Following the initial shipment that was
made last year from South Bay, Turner & Gum, of
Kraemer Island, rolled a car in November, 1926, from
J. S. Aly, F. E. C. agent at Belle Glade-Chosen, says
the outlook is for two or three cars a week from that
section for the next three weeks, after which the ship-
ments will be heavier.
Most of the beans in the solid car that rolled Sunday
morning from Belle Glade-Chosen were grown by Powers
Construction Company on the A. L. Noble land in section
6, township 44, range 37. Other growers who contributed
to the shipments were Kelley & Thompson.
The car that rolled Sunday morning, although it was
the first iced car, was not the first shipment of beans in
amount that equaled the contents of a car, for on the
preceding day, October 11, Mr. Walker, acting as broker,
had distributed 450 hampers by express to southern mar-
kets. The first picking of the Powers beans from the
Noble land in section 6 was on October 8, when 200
hampers were expressed to Jacksonville, Tampa and Cin-
cinnati. On the following Monday 250 hampers were
sent to Lexington, Ky., Atlanta and other southern points.
Then on Tuesday followed the 450 hampers expressed to
southern markets, with the car by freight loaded on the
15th and rolled the next morning.
N. F. Powers states that the net returns on the 900
hampers averaged $1.25 a hamper.
EXPECTS $500 WORTH OF CUCUMBERS
FROM ONE ACRE
(Vero Beach Journal)
Cucumber growing has been long recognized as one of
the most profitable crops to be grown in Indian River
county. This delicacy finds a ready market in the north
in competition with the hot house products. While sur-
prising records for production have been published in a
number of papers over the state it remains for Col. R. G.
Mudge, of Fellsmere, to challenge other growers of cukes
for the prize this season. From one acre of thrifty vines
Col. Mudge has picked and sold to date $123.18 worth of
cucumbers and expects to reach the $500 mark before his
vines are through yielding marketable cukes. The abund-
ant yield of cucumbers obtained from the rich soil around
Fellsmere is only typical of the yields made by other
vegetables. Nearly every variety of vegetable suscepti-
ble to production in the state gives surprising yields in
gardens in the Fellsmere district.