PUBLISHED SEMI-MONTHLY BY
BUREAU OF IMMIGRATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
NOVEMBER 7, 1927
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Floridta Poultry ('nulles .
$2.500 County Fudtl Askred to Help Egg Men .. ...
Poultry Raising in Florida .
Lake's Poultryintll Attemplt to Bring Industry to HIigher Plaine
Strong Boost for Poultlry Raitsing...
P'lllls Being, Malud for llitllr'stig rlogri .. ....
county y to Join Poultry Co-op.
I hult Poultry Associatiotl IHears Report
Mouv to Supply Locul Demanid for Eggs ........
c'o-op'erative a Marketillg is a Business .....
Another Egg Station To Ie Opened .. .. .. ..
Silver Cup Show Being P'lat id By Poultrymen ..... ........
Identifying E ggs .. .... ...... .. .. ......... .. .. .. .....
'IThe Poultry UGailn ............ .. .. .. . .. ..
'Poultrymen Hold (Orlhito t MePtillg ..... ...
IPlant for Dressing Poultry locates Here ............. ............
First Florida National E g I ying Contest .. ........
Poultry Produeers olte to Assist Retail Egg Dealers ..
Hargis Sending Prize FowIl to Fair in Atlanta ... .
Silver Cups to FIeauri Annual Poultry Exhibit ..
More Poultry in Ilighla ds ......... .
I'P nlry Raiser iscs is ss 'Progrl ll of' Asso'iation ..... ... 10
Egg-Laying Conttest Begins Stecolld Year on First of Novemlber.... 10
Ho We\V Have Built Our Florida Poultry Fairm ............ ..... 11
Sesbania Seeds Foutind Fatal t Farmit Poultry ................ 12
Yellow Corn Btetter Tlian W hite..... ..... .......... ................ .... 12
New Farm Developmei t I under Way.. . .. ....... ............. 12
Times Squab Story Brings Mary Queries .. ... ............. ...... ... 13
Poultry Co-olwerative Asso'iatio ls of Nation. ....... ....... ...... 14
Poultry en ii i ganiz .. .. .. .... ..... ............ ... 14
H ow Farlers Can Go Broke ... ......... ... .. .......................... 14
M ore H ens N etded .... ..... ..... .. ..... .... ......... ...... .............. 14
Both It cord Hells Beloing to Same Poultry Farm ................... 15
Soy Bean Oil Meal Is ian Excellenlt Poultry Feed.... ............ 15
Crowding During Winteir Is Harmful to Poultry... .................. 15
Fattenet d 'Poultry Best for Market... .. .............. ... .................. 15
Home Egg-Laying (Conltest Begins November First........................ 16
Bright Future for Florida PIoultry, Says Poultry Specialist...... 16
Poultry ..... ..... ..... ...... ........ .. .. .. ......... .. ...16
Volusia Poultrymnen Establiish Hatchery. .. ...... .............. 16
P'tultry men Enter Egg Layitng Contest .. ........................... 16
FLORIDA POULTRY CENTERS
By NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner of Agriculture
HEN will the poultry industry of Florida
reach the "saturation point"? Are we
coming to the time before many years
when we will be producing more eggs
and more chickens here in the State than we
consume? If so, will our poultry people be
ready to meet the situation and prevent great
loss to their industry? The poultry production
of our state has expanded more rapidly than
any of the other primary industries within the
past few years. Attracted by our natural adap-
tation and by the excellent market demand,
which advantages have been set forth in the
advertising campaigns of the State Department
of Agriculture and other organizations, many
hundreds have been drawn here from other
states to enter this business. Florida markets
have held high levels, home production has not
been equal to consumption, and millions of dol-
lars worth of poultry and eggs have been im-
ported each year. Very naturally, therefore,
we have had a steadily increasing number of
poultrymen in the state. As a result, the margin
between home supply and home demand for
eggs and chickens has narrowed. It is estimated
that we shall probably produce fifty to seventy-
five per cent of our requirements in eggs and
poultry in 1928. Before many years this margin
will have disappeared, we shall be supplying all
our local demands and producing a surplus.
When this day comes our poultrymen will be
faced with competition of the strongest kind
and will feel the need of ways and means to
meet it. It is believed by those who have studied
the poultry industry with regard to its future,
that Florida poultrymen should begin now to
plan for the building of organizations which will
direct this industry later on. To the end that
our state shall fully develop its possibilities and
maintain its standing as a producer of poultry,
we suggest that some such plan as the following
be tried out:
Let the poultrymen in the various areas
selected organize district associations;
these to federate into a state-wide associ-
ation to act as a clearing-house for all-
much the same as that proposed for the
Let poultry centers be selected at points
that will accommodate areas covering the
entire state. These centers should of course
be located with a view to their convenience
of approach from the surrounding territory
within a radius of fifty to seventy-five miles.
This implies a system of good roads radiat-
ing in every direction, making it possible to
collect rapidly and cheaply the products of
that territory and bring them into the poul-
try center for grading, packing and ship-
ping. These centers should be preferably
the places of small population in order to
avoid too high-priced land; should be
where connection may be had with an elec-
tric power line to supply light and motive
power; should be contiguous to enough
good fertile farm land to produce grain
and green pasture crops; and should by all
means be a section of sufficient altitude to
afford either natural or readily provided
drainage. This outlying land should be
available for purchase at not over $50.00
It would be desirable that these centers
have a plant owned by members of the as-
sociation, which plant should be equipped
to receive, grade, crate and market all the
poultry and eggs produced within the ter-
ritory surrounding. Facilities for cold
storage and for carrying stocks of feed and
other supplies needed by the membership
should be provided. A hatchery should be
operated at each of these centers so that
the membership might obtain their require-
ments of baby chicks when needed.
These poultry centers should be under
the management of the most competent
men obtainable. Properly organized,
backed up by a loyal membership and
guided by competent managers, there is
every reason to believe that these poultry
centers would work well in Florida. Within
a comparatively short time they have been
the means of building the poultry industry
of California up to its present high effi-
ciency and tremendous size. Our friends
on the Pacific coast, through their organi-
zations, have not only developed to the
point of supplying their large home de-
mands, but have likewise been able to ex-
tend their trade territory thousands of
miles. Even here in Florida we receive
every year carloads of California eggs pro-
duced, packed, graded and shipped by
their organizations and bought and con-
sumed by our own people.
We cannot hope to reach the fullness of our
possibilities as a poultry producing state until
the people organize. Our present fortunate
situation as regards prices will not continue in
the face of constantly increasing competition
from outside poultrymen. So strongly is this
felt and so thoroughly do we believe in the value
of organization that the State Department of
Agriculture has determined to offer its services
to the poultrymen of the State in working out
this problem. In connection with the Poultry
Division of our State Agricultural College, the
Division of Extension at Gainesville, and other
interested agencies, we hope to shortly begin an
investigation covering the entire state with a
view of suggesting in definite terms a workable
plan for Florida poultrymen. We are very
much encouraged to proceed with this work by
the response which we have had from leaders
in this industry whom we liave consulted. It is
going to take much hard work and patience, but
we believe that with the help of the forward-
looking poultry producers of the State their in-
dustry can be put upon a basis which will assure
its permanent success.
Further details will be given to the public as
they are worked out.
$2,500 COUNTY FUND ASKED TO HELP
Co-operative Poultry Marketing in 20 Counties
Plans for organizing the Florida Poultry Producers
Association, to embrace twenty west coast and central
Florida counties, in establishing a co-operative marketing
plan and regulating the distribution of poultry and eggs
to local and other markets, were outlined before the
county commission yesterday by a committee of the
Tampa Board of Trade and F. A. Howard, manager of
the poultry producers association of Polk county.
The commission took under consideration a request for
an appropriation of $2,500 toward a fund of $11,000,
proposed to be raised in twenty counties, to be applied in
establishing collecting and grading stations and in financ-
ing preliminary plans of the proposed association.
Idea Is Approved
Chairman Williams of the commission said an organ-
ization as proposed, or including a smaller number of
counties, would fill a long-felt need, eliminating middle-
men and insuring for the producers the best possible
prices for their poultry and eggs. Such an organization,
he added, would, in his opinion, safeguard the interests
of local consumers by insuring proper grading of products
and standardization of prices, by promoting the produc-
tion of poultry and poultry products, as well as giving
assurance of quality fowls and fresh eggs.
He assured the delegation that the commission would
give the matter serious consideration, in the hope of
reaching an early decision. The delegation included the
agricultural committee of the trade board, Major R. A.
Laird, Wayne Thomas, T. E. Malone and others, who
called on Mr. Howard to outline the organization plan.
Mr. Howard said that if plans to include the twenty
counties did not materialize the work would go forward
with a view to creating an association with a smaller
number of counties. He outlined the workings of the
Polk county organization and said that despite the extent
of the larger organization as to territory, ample provision
would be made to establish collecting and grading sta-
tions. The association, he said, would receive three cents
a dozen for grading, packing and shipping eggs.
Expects Big Growth
"While the association we propose would necessarily
be local in its operations for several seasons," Mr. Howard
said, "eventually the industry would reach proportions
that enough poultry and eggs would be produced to sup-
ply the local market and make heavy shipments to north-
ern and eastern markets. California is now supplying
New York with eggs, and Florida is two thousand miles
closer to New York than California."
Indicating the need of regulating distribution, Mr.
Thomas said production in the eastern, or Plant City, end
of the county recently caused an over-production of eggs,
and that as a result eggs were selling there at 10 cents a
dozen less than prevailing prices throughout the state.
He pointed out that the plans of the proposed associa-
tion provided for cold storage plants to keep the eggs
over a period of weeks or months, and supply the trade
according to demand.
Mr. Howard added that it was tentatively planned to
accept appropriations from counties on the basis that the
funds would be repaid within a year after the association
extended its operations and became self-supporting.
Despite the interest of the commission in the under-
taking, Chairman Williams said assurance would have to
be given that other counties would contribute their share,
and the method of spending the money would have to be
outlined in detail.
Published Semi-Monthly by
Bureau of Immigration, Department of Agriculture
NATHAN MAYO Commissioner of Agriculture
T. J. BROOKS .Director Bureau of Immigration
PHIL S. TAYLOR Advertising Editor
Entered as secondl-class llnitler, Juini 25. 19'20, at the Post Office
at Talllniassr Florida. uIlder the .\ct of Junle 6, 19210.
Will be malliled fret to lanyoiie upol request.
Vol. 2 NOVEMBER 7, 1927 No. 11
POULTRY RAISING IN FLORIDA
(By A. E. Bagnall, General Manager, West Florida
The writer hopes that the light he is able to throw
upon the poultry situation in the great State of Florida
will be of some practical benefit, inasmuch as it repre-
sents his 25 years of practical experience as a fancier
and student of poultry breeding in both the north and
the south. Not posing as a know-it-all, but convinced, as
are many others, that poultry raising in Florida is an
industry with a profitable future and with an exception-
ally good market the year round for both eggs and
chickens, I do not hesitate to recommend the state in
which I am located as being especially adapted by its soil
and climatic conditions to this industry.
Almost any part of the state is adapted to chickens,
where it is well drained and green food may be grown.
Sand and green food are essential to a flourishing poultry
farm. The matter of location is of the first importance,
with shipping facilities to be figured in.
From the State Marketing Bureau Report I will quote
a paragraph which puts the situation before my readers
in brief figures and facts:
"Florida consumes 40,706,557 pounds of poultry, valued
at $12,883,447, and 33,390,000 dozen eggs, valued at
$14,090,380-a total consumption of poultry products
valued at $26,973,827.
"Florida produces 14,214,987 pounds of poultry, valued
at $4,477,581, and 21,397,875 dozen eggs, valued at
$9,127,903-a total production of poultry products valued
at $13,605,484. Total importation to supply our needs
amounts to $13,368,343."
This "thirteen million dollar market" is growing instead
of diminishing, as many new people are daily locating in
Florida. True there is no "boom" in Florida now, but
a steady solid growth of the lasting kind, people com-
ing here to stay and to work and make an honest living.
The poultry situation is just one of a myriad of real op-
portunities in this "land that God caressed."
The State Marketing Bureau reports that for 1926 the
average prices in Florida on eggs was 45.9 cents per
dozen, the average price per pound on fryers, 41.1 cents,
and the price per pound on old fows, 30.7 cents, equal-
ing rates of northern states.
Yet the overhead costs are less here. The northern
poultryman must prepare for a long, hard winter season
in his buildings, but in Florida where there is practically
no real cold weather, almost any shelter will suffice.
What cold days there are figure negligibly. The cost of
housing a hen in Vineland, N. J., where I started 25
years ago, ran from $1.50 to $2.50, while in Florida this
can be done for from 20 to 30 cents per bird. This re-
lieves the poultryman from being tied up with an enor-
mous fixed initial investment.
The northern poultryman can raise green food only
(luring the few summer months, while here in Florida he
can have it every month in the year. Its value to the
fowls does not need be specifically stressed here. But
another saving is recorded, no storage of food provision
The soil for the most part is of the light type, just as
it is in New Jersey, semi-sandy. When it rains, all im-
purities are washed out. This makes toward a low dis-
ease rate. We have very few poultry epidemics.
For five years, according to the Florida State Market-
ing Bureau, the average price of eggs per dozen in Florida
has been 45 cents wholesale. This will compare favor-
ably with Cleveland, Detroit, Pittsburgh, Chicago and
New York wholesale markets.
Cooperative marketing is proving a boon to the Florida
poultryman and throughout the state there are now as
many as 15 active poultry associations. Among the fore-
most of these is the West Florida Poultry Association
with headquarters at Tallahassee. Duval county is also
rapidly coming to the front. The writer is more familiar
with the West Florida Association, organized in the Talla-
hassee district about four years ago and now boasting a
large and growing membership from six surrounding
The West Florida Poultry Association maintains its
own marketing bureau, candling, grading and packing
station, handling an average of 9,000 dozens of eggs
weekly. Members buy feed and supplies cooperatively
in car lots, thereby reducing costs. During the heavy
laying season eggs are processed and stored by members,
and on presentation of their storage warehouse receipts
they are loaned fifty per cent of the value of the eggs in
storage. The association maintains a trucking service
and members are paid in cash the highest wholesale
market rate at their farm, eggs being gathered daily and
every other day by the trucks. A fee of 2c per dozen is
charged for this.
Due to the quality maintained by this association, the
demand is far in excess of the supply, and in order to
tide over until a larger production is available the asso-
ciation is bringing into the state from Tennessee, Ala-
bama and Georgia, 170 cases weekly, representing 5,100
dozens. These eggs are substituted for the Florida eggs
at a much lower price.
Due to the public spirited citizens of Tallahassee, the
association is proud of its own community incubator,
where members may have their own eggs hatched for a
nominal sum, or they may purchase baby chicks.
The Leghorn is the prevailing favorite, as they eat less,
produce as many eggs as any other breed and the white
eggs command a premium of from 10 to 15 cents per
dozen over the brown eggs on the Florida market.
The state maintains its own National Egg Laying Con-
test conducted in an approved manner and located in
Chipley. For the support of this essential and creditable
institution the last legislature set aside $25,000. This
contest is under the general supervision of the efficient
and very active Poultry Extension Department with head-
quarters in Gainesville. Experts from this department
are at the call of the poultrymen at large at all times.
There is no state doing more to promote poultry than
Florida, and where a more active interest is manifested
by the state authorities in every individual farm where
poultry is raised, and it is our prediction that with the
marked success of those already engaged in this pleasant
and profitable vocation the industry will grow to com-
pare in size with the states that have been leading over a
long period of time.
LAKE'S POULTRYMEN WILL ATTEMPT TO
BRING INDUSTRY TO HIGHER PLANE
Meeting at Tavares Is Productive of Much
(Plant City Courier)
Tavares, Sept. 22.-Importance of cash markets and of
quality production were strongly stressed in the discus-
sions before the monthly meeting here of the Lake County
Poultry Association, it being agreed by most of the
speakers that continuing expansion of the poultry indus-
try in Florida will follow successful effort to assure satis-
factory conditions in these respects.
Plans that have been worked out for the solution of
the marketing problem in Marion county were explained
by Horace L. Smith, of Ocala, secretary of the Marion
County Chamber of Commerce. Within 60 to 90 days,
Mr. Smith stated, Marion county producers will have an
established local market for poultry and eggs. ,It is be-
lieved, the speaker explained, that arrangements can be
made later to handle the product of adjoining counties.
Poultry and Grapes
Poultry raising in relation to grape culture was handled
in a paper read by Dr. Charles Demko, of Altoona, a large
vineyard operator, and in open discussion which followed
Dr. Demko said that his experiments had convinced him
of the practicability of having chickens run in vineyard
for at least ten months of the year. Figures as to the
cost and profit of grape growing were given by the
speaker, who answered a number of questions from the
floor, showing existence of deep interest on the part of
W. B. Gibson, of Lady Lake, president of the Lake
County Chamber of Commerce, outlined in brief the
plans of that organization for co-operation with bodies
like the poultry association which devote themselves to
the agricultural development of the county. Following
Mr. Gibson, County Commissioner W. H. Richey, of Lees-
burg, assured the meeting that he and associates were
most favorably inclined to all well planned endeavor in
this field and particularly friendly with the poultry in-
dustry. Ben F. Hargis, of Umatilla, president of the
association, read the new Florida egg law and went into
detail as to various phases of its provisions.
STRONG BOOST FOR POULTRY RAISING
Sam Westbrook, agricultural agent of the Louisville
and Nashville Railroad Company, who attended a meet-
ing held at Ensley during the past week, at which the
Ensley Hatchery, Inc., was organized, is a strong booster
for poultry raising.
The fact that the capacity of the Ensley hatchery has
been increased from 2,400 to 13,000 chicks at one hatch-
ing, and that last year the hatchery was able to take care
of only about 20 per cent of the business which could
have been secured if the plant had been larger, is taken
by Mr. Westbrook and others as the very best indication
of the way in which poultry raising is increasing in this
section of the state.
Last summer three or four carloads of poultry were
shipped from West Florida to other points, two of which
moved from Escambia county. The National Egg Laying
Contest, held in Chipley, and now nearly one year old,
has had much to do with increased interest in poultry,
and has had much to do with advertising this section of
the state to poultry producers.
PLANS BEING MADE FOR INTERESTING
Many Prizes Will Be Given at Show
(Washington County News)
Although no date has been set for same, Chipley is to
have a poultry show some time during the first part of
November, according to our county agent, Gus York.
This show will be open to all poultry raisers of this sec-
tion, both old and young, and suitable prizes will be
arranged for the winners. The show will be held at the
same time of the club contest, and from present indica-
tions it promises to be one of the best moves the people
of Chipley and vicinity could make. The place for the
show to be held has not yet been decided, but several
places have been suggested. Whether it will be held on
the green opposite the railroad, where Chipley would be
advertised through passing trains, in the potato packing
shed where plenty of room could be had, or elsewhere, no
one knows. That is to be worked out and settled after
the many places have been considered and looked into.
This is a good move and the entire citizenship of Chip-
ley should get behind it and push it to a successful end,
and especially should the merchants take a leading hand.
In a city where the merchants take up such movements
and help them along you will find the most progressive
movements going on. Will Chipley merchants stand aside
at this time and see this fine move go down from lack of
support? Why not have a meeting of the merchants at
an early date and plan additional feats for the occasion?
It can be done, and IS being done in other cities.
At the time of the poultry show and club contest, awards
in the five-acre corn contest will be made. The event
promises to be interesting in more ways than one, and if
you are not on hand you are in line to miss a real treat.
COUNTY TO JOIN POULTRY CO-OP.
Polk County Producers To Be Composed of 18
Reorganization of the Poultry Producers of Polk
County, Inc., to include 18 counties in this section of
the State, one of them Hillsborough, has received the
approval of the agricultural bureau of the board of
trade, which has sponsored a movement for co-opera-
tive produce marketing here for some time.
The marketing organization will be incorporated as
the Florida Poultry Producers, Inc., and it is believed
that the extension of the operations over a large territory
will work to financial advantage of all counties in the
Decision to join the Polk County Marketing Associa-
tion was made at the luncheon meeting of the bureau at
the Tampa Terrace Hotel yesterday. The matter will be
submitted to the governors of the trade board so that
details of the plan of reorganization can be worked out.
There was also discussion at the meeting of the ap-
proaching national convention here of the American
Rabbit and Cavy Breeders Association and the possibility
of interesting its members in the possibilities of Florida
as a breeding place for their animals. This will be taken
up again at the next meeting, September 28.
DADE POULTRY ASSOCIATION HEARS
REPORT OF MARKETING COMMITTEE
The report of the marketing committee of the Poultry
Producers Association of Dade county was read at the
regular weekly meeting Saturday evening. This report
covers points of interest in a state-wide tour of the com-
mittee some weeks ago, and is here reproduced in full in
order that the poultrymen of the county may all have
access to the findings of the committee.
In accordance with your resolution your committee
spent August 23-26, 1927, investigating co-operative
marketing of eggs and poultry by associations in various
parts of the state.
The first point visited was Fort Pierce, where in re-
sponse to our telegram we found Mr. Kessler, secretary
of the Chamber of Commerce, had called a meeting of
representative men to confer with us.
These gentlemen are organizing an association for
marketing produce and were inviting the poultry men to
affiliate. It is their intention to bring several adjoining
counties into the association. The county commissioners
of St. Lucie county have contributed $2,500 for the em-
ployment of an assistant to the county agricultural agent
to assist in the development of produce and poultry.
Miami was looked to as the market for their surplus.
A surplus of fryers was recently disposed of by inaugu-
rating "Fried Chicken Week." The surplus was disposed
of at 35c per pound live weight, or 33c in quantities of
twelve or more. Messrs. Kessler, Martin, Goodwin, Ogden
and Ritchie were in attendance. They expressed their
willingness to assist in every way possible and expressed
the belief that the association should embrace several
Our next stop was Sebring, where we met Mr. C. C.
Page, managing editor of the Weekly News. This terri-
tory is not organized, although Mr. Page said the county
agent was a live wire and was doing excellent work.
From Sebring we went to Wauchula, where we stopped
long enough to learn that their association belonged to
the Federated Marketing Association and that the general
manager is in Bradenton.
We arrived in Bradenton at 7:30 Tuesday. Inquiry
developed that Mr. Bennett and Mr. Warner, of the Man-
atee Growers Association, were out of town. While these
associations are produce associations, we were desirous
of getting information as to how they operated.
The Bradenton evening paper carried a write-up of a
poultry meeting to be held at the Crescent Poultry Farm
at 2 P. M. Wednesday.
Wednesday morning we interviewed Mr. Leo H. Wilson,
county agent, who urged us to attend the afternoon meet-
ing. We learned through him that Mr. Howard, of Lake-
land, was expected to attend the meeting, which we
verified by telephone and concluded to stay.
Manatee county is organized under the name of Florida
West Coast Poultry Association, headquarters at Braden-
ton, with branch units at Manatee and Sarasota. The
poultry population of the county is 20,000. They employ
a manager at $100, free rent, and at the present time
are handling five cases per day at 4 cents per dozen, which
Producers joining the association agree to market all
their eggs. They do not handle the poultry. A farmer
who wishes to supply his private trade must take his eggs
to the central plant, where they are candled, graded and
packed under seal and returned to him for distribution.
This service costs him 4c per dozen.
The eggs are graded as U. S. No. 1, 24 oz. and up;
U. S. No. 2, mixed white and brown; U. S. No. 3, dirty
and pullet eggs.
The dues in this association are $2.00 per year and 50c
each six months for every 100 birds on hand March 1 and
September 1. Flocks of less than 100 are charged as 100.
Eggs are delivered at central points by farmers and
are picked up by truck two or three times per week.
The meeting at the Crescent Poultry Farm was at-
tended by 300 men, women and children. A banker of
Bradenton had arranged to give to each boy or girl that
opened a savings account of $1.00 a white leghorn cock-
erel from stock of high proven egg production, thus
stimulating thrift and at the same time improving the
egg production of flocks throughout the district.
County Agent Leo H. Wilson presided and introduced
the speakers. Mr. Morrison, Jr., welcomed the visitors to
the Crescent Poultry Farm and explained the object in
view in establishing the farms and the plan of manage-
Mr. N. R. Mehroff, poultry extension agent of the State
Agricultural College, gave an interesting talk on "Culling
and Feeding for Egg Production."
He explained how birds should be handled to expedite
culling, by grasping the feet and wings in the left hand
so that the bird, resting on the hand and forearm, main-
tained her balance and was therefore quiet. He explained
the pigmentation and illustrated by two birds, one of high
and low egg production. He said that a hen whose feath-
ers at the end of the laying season were dirty and ragged,
other conditions being 0. K., should be retained rather
than one with bright, glossy, even plumage. He explained
that the bird so held presented to the eye the comb wattles
and beak, whose conditions were quickly noted, and that
the right hand was passed over the back, the fingers ex-
tending well down the sides gave a measure of the length
and breadth of the back, and by turning the bird half
over the depth of the body was ascertained and the pig-
mentation of the shanks noted. Turning the bird half
around, the spread between the pelvic bones and the keel,
and the horizontal spread of the pelvic bones was noted,
as well as the condition of the vent. The texture of the
skin was also determined-whether it was soft and vel-
vety, or coarse and harsh.
He stated the pigmentation left and returned to the
definite order-vent, eye, earlobe, beak, shank.
As a rule, late moulting birds are considered best.
Avoid changing feed, as sudden changes tended to up-
set the digestion.
Trap nesting was the surest method of determine egg
There is no fixed feed formulae. The three high pens
at Chipley were fed differently.
A good formula recommended by the United States
Department of Agriculture was:
1-Meat Scrap, 55%' protein.
To each 100 lbs. add 11 of 1, salt and 1/ of 1%
For scratch feed in summer, one part of cracked corn
to two parts wheat.
For winter, equal parts cracked corn and wheat.
5 FLORIDA REVIEW
The first nine months of the egg
6.0 lb. Semi-Solid B. Milk ...
27.5 lb. Laying Mash ..... ....
6.5 lb. Oats .. .
22.4 lb. Scratch Feed
laying contest at
... .. 28.2 lb.
... 6.5 lb.
2.01 Cost .... ......... ... .... Cost 2.25
4.39 Eggs Sold. .......... ..... Eggs Sold 3.47
2.38 Profit .. ....... .... ...... Profit 1.22
Dr. D. A. Sanders, assistant veterinarian, spoke on
poultry diseases and parasites.
Poultry diseases and parasites were largely the result
of improper housing and hygiene; absolute cleanliness
necessary to health of flocks; dampness and drafts cause
colds and roup. The temperature of a chicken's body
Parasites are divided into classes, external and internal.
In our continuously warm climate, centers of infection
are set up quickly. After a study of eight or ten years
the life history of the eye worm was traced. It was found
the small black cockroach was the source of infection.
The parasite laid their eggs in the stomach of the cock-
roach, where they propagated. The roaches taken into
the stomach of the chicken infected the chicken. The
worms when hatched found their way up the esophagus
to the throat and from there through the tear duct to the
eyes. He dissected a chicken, explained the method of
dissecting quickly and explained what to look for. He
disclosed in the chicken before him two common or large
round worms three to five inches in length and explained
how these worms caused irritation in the membrane and
how they caused congestion. He also found a tape worm
and told how the head was burrowed in the membrane and
the body broke up in segments. These segments con-
tained eggs. This worm causes convulsions, paralysis and
Mr. Howard, of Lakeland, said his organization was
five months old and comprised six counties. They were
not getting enough eggs to cover overhead and marketing
expenses. They bound their members to deliver all their
eggs and charged them 3c per dozen, plus cartons. Pen-
alty of 10c per dozen for violations. They wholesale 100
cases per week. It would require 1,000 dozens, or 33 1-3
cases of eggs per day to pay the expenses. They employ
two candlers and one packer. Dues $2.00 per year, plus
50c each six months for each 100 birds.
At Jacksonville we were cordially received by Mr.
Lansden, poultry expert for Duval county, and by Mr. L.
M. Rhodes, State Marketing Commissioner.
Mr. Lansden stated there were 120,000 laying hens in
Duval county and during the laying season they received
150 to 250 cases per week.
He stated the Jacksonville market was higher than the
New York market and that they had no marketing prob-
lems. He stated that they organized with 100%/ of poul-
try signed up, but that about 50% of production lived up
to agreement. Trucks gathered the eggs from central
points twice a week, and that at present they were getting
50 cases per week, charging 3c per dozen. They made no
attempt to sell cockerels. They are dumped on the mar-
ket for what they will bring.
L. M. Rhodes, State Marketing Commissioner, gave us
valuable information. In his opinion the state should be
divided into three or perhaps four districts with a strong
co-operative association in each district. Each district
should have a central pre-cooling storage plant. He said
Florida is destined to lead in poultry and egg production,
and cited as reasons, favorable climate the year round;
growing of green feed throughout the year; proximity to
the major markets, and diversified farming.
Cooperative marketing is necessary to stabilize prices,
insure standard grading and packing. While the history
of co-operatives shows that only 50 to 60% of production
utilize the co-operatives, the fact is well established that
they are necessary to maintain the industry on a stable
and profitable basis.
Miami is recognized by the rest of the state as the prin-
cipal market for eggs.
Cooperative marketing organizations are being formed
in various parts of the state. The egg marketing problem
has not yet reached an acute stage. Far-seeing producers
are preparing for the future by organizing and establish-
ing of channels of distribution for a standardized product.
A volume of 35 to 40 cases of eggs per day is necessary
to cover expenses of such an organization under a charge
of 4c per dozen.
Producers must bind themselves to deliver their entire
output under penalty of violation.
A co-operative can pay as it goes with a daily supply
of 40 cases of eggs.
Cooperatives so far are confining their activities to
marketing eggs, leaving poultry for later development.
Dade county producers have a differential of freight or
express charges and commission in their favor.
Jacksonville is the only point in the state having storage
Storage charges are 55c per case per season.
Egg storage must be independent and separate from
Producers from up-state are making contracts with
Grocers and distributors in Miami for standard grades
and standard packed fresh eggs.
MOVE TO SUPPLY LOCAL DEMAND FOR
Project Will Require Large Sum of Ready Cash
to Carry Through
(Vero Beach Journal)
Plans for importing 35,000 laying pullets into Indian
River county will be taken up by the Indian River Poultry
Association at their meeting in Pueblo Arcade building
next Friday night.
A careful survey of the county has revealed that such
an increase in the number of laying hens is needed to
supply the normal local demand of this county. Mer-
chants and dealers have agreed to handle only home pro-
duced eggs if they can be assured that a sufficient quan-
tity to meet the demands can be assured them.
Conferences have been held with two banking houses
in Jacksonville with a view of financing the purchase and
delivery of the laying hens. The advent of this number
of new birds will require the building of a large number
of additional poultry houses.
The expansion of the poultry business is in a large
measure contingent on the building of a cold storage
plant in Vero Beach or some convenient point in Indian
"CO-OPERATIVE MARKETING IS A
The Citrus Industry quotes Dr. C. V. Noble, head
of the department of agricultural economics at the Flor-
ida Experiment Station, on cooperative marketing, and his
remarks are applicable alike to tomatoes and other vege-
tables, and fruit. Dr. Nobles says:
"Cooperative marketing is a business, and not a cause
or religion. It must depend for its success upon giving
better service and returning higher profits to the pro-
ducer than is being accomplished by other types of mar-
keting organizations. A cooperative marketing organiza-
tion should concentrate its efforts primarily upon obtain-
ing a permanently higher net return to the farmer for
Dr. Noble then gives 12 suggestions which he believes
are among the best ways in which cooperative marketing
1. By orderly production. Through organized efforts,
consumer demand as to quantity and quality can be most
effectively studied. The next step is to produce what is
wanted when it is wanted.
2. By orderly marketing. This means the employment
of properly trained men to see that the products are well
3. By grading and standardizing the product. When
products are furnished of known quality, higher prices to
the consumer are justifiable. Grading and standardizing.
are economically practicable with a large volume of
4. By proper packing. A uniform and reliable con-
tainer for the product is essential.
5. By obtaining better transportation rates. Carload
shipments cut down the cost of transportation to an ap-
preciable extent. Further reductions may be obtained by
organized effort in keeping transportation companies in-
formed in advance of shipping needs.
6. By finding uses for poor grades of products. This
is closely allied with the surplus problem, for what might
be a marketable grade of a product in a season of over-
production. Continuous effort should be placed upon
finding new ways of using otherwise wasted products,
and this is practicable only in the case of organizations
handling large volumes.
7. By advertising in order to reach new markets or
increase the demand in established markets. This is prac-
ticable only with a standardized product, and with the
assurance that the demand can be met when created.
8. By orderly buying of farm supplies. Cooperative
buying is at times as important in creating savings as is
9. By disseminating market information.
10. By supplying sufficient storage facilities for the
product until needed by the manufacturer or ultimate
11. By greater ease in obtaining credit for the orderly
marketing of the product.
12. By all the advantages that attend a large volume
of business, it is only with a large volume of the product
that an orderly system of marketing is possible. Special-
ization in the marketing services pays when the volume
of the product is such as to keep the specialist fully occu-
pied with his services.
Cooperative marketing organizations should avoid
waste of the agricultural product, should avoid waste of
human effort, and should cut down to a minimum the
expenses incurred in marketing unfit products that will
ultimately be dumped.
ANOTHER EGG STATION TO BE OPENED
Work of Poultry Association Is Expanding
(Florida State News)
Marketing of poultry and poultry products by the
West Florida Poultry Association has grown to such pro-
portions that it has been found necessary to open a second
grading, candling and packing station in Monticello.
For the past four years this work has been conducted
at Midway, where the most modern methods of marketing
have been in force. On account of increasing member-
ship in the poultry association, and the large volume of
business handled, the work will be divided for the con-
venience of the members, but will be under the general
supervision of the present management.
When the Monticello station is established and is oper-
ating smoothly, it is planned to open stations in Liberty,
Leon, Washington and Wakulla counties, where eggs will
be delivered, association members to receive the highest
wholesale market in cash, after which the eggs will be
cleaned, candled, graded and packed.
The demand for West Florida Poultry Association pro-
duce has grown far in excess of production, due to the
quality of eggs, and the appearance of packages ready for
More than 9,000 dozen eggs are being marketed weekly
through the one channel, 2,100 dozen being absorbed by
The station in Monticello will be under the direct super-
vision of C. W. Reed, well known poultryman of Jefferson
county and former secretary of the Jefferson County
Poultry Association. The association represents more
than 15,000 layers.
Headquarters of the West Florida Poultry Association
are in Quincy, the officers being H. F. Bostwick, presi-
dent; C. M. Stanfil, vice-president; C. Henderson, secre-
SILVER CUP SHOW BEING PLANNED BY
R. M. Fletcher Building on South Collins Street
(Plant City Courier)
The next show staged by the Hillsborough County
Poultry Association, scheduled for Nov. 28 to Dec. 2, in-
clusive, is to be a "silver cup" affair, according to an-
nouncement by C. N. Kramer, secretary of the associa-
tion. Already a number of handsome cups have been
assured, and the association officials hope to secure a
wide assortment of such awards, to hang up as trophies
for the local poultrymen and others who enter their
The show this year will be staged in the new R. M.
Fletcher building on South Collins street, through the
kindness of Mr. Fletcher in donating the use of his struc-
ture, according to Mr. Kramer. Members of the asso-
ciation are enthusiastic in their expressions of apprecia-
tion of Mr. Fletcher's courtesy in this matter, the location
being one of the best possible for the purpose.
Plans for the show are being rounded out at present.
Secretary Kramer is at work preparing the premium list,
and soliciting the advertisements of local businesses to
appear in the booklet. He hopes to have the premium
list in the mails by Oct. 15.
Florida has recently adopted a law governing the sale
of eggs, in an effort to prevent ancient and dishonorable
hen fruit from masquerading as recent works of biddy.
The effort is commendable, but decision as to the merits
of the law must be withheld until it has had time to show
its merits and effectiveness.
Denmark poultrymen are trying to achieve the result
hoped for in Florida without calling on the law-makers to
aid them. They have introduced a plan by which all eggs
produced by hens owned by members of the association
are immediately marked, indexed and dated, so that the
purchaser will know where and when the egg was laid,
and if trouble is found with it the buyer can look to the
poultryman for redress.
This is all very well when eggs are handled individually,
but what is to be done when a musty taste is found in a
dish of scrambled eggs? The eggs can't be unscrambled
to identify the faulty ingredient, and the eggs that min-
gled in the scramble or omelet may have come from dif-
But the movement is in the right direction and it shows
a proper spirit actuates Danish egg men. More power to
them and less strength to their eggs!
THE POULTRY GAME
We are going to make a statement that many are going
to question, but it will stand investigation. In making
the statement we are going to add a little proof, and you
can go as far as you will with it-the farther the better-
for it will then bring out just what we are trying to es-
All over Florida efforts are being made to organize
poultry associations. It has fallen to the lot of the Polk
County Poultry Producers Association to put out the best
plan of them all. This association, under the leadership
of Mr. Frank Howard, formerly president of the Lakeland
Chamber of Commerce, has started a move to organize a
co-operative marketing bureau for some fifteen or twenty
counties in South Florida, and ultimately merge it into a
Florida Poultry Association.
At the present time Mr. Howard is working with the
Tampa Board of Trade, putting forth an effort to get
Tampa and Hillsborough county, through the board of
county commissioners, to make an appropriation of some
$2,500 to assist in perfecting the organization. This is a
worthy cause and should be taken up by every county in
We notice that an organization known as Lee County
Poultry Association is coming into existence. That is
good, too, and right here it would be advisable for the
Lee county organization to get in touch with Mr. Howard
at Lakeland and become a member of the pi'oposed Flor-
ida organization. In the formative stage of the Lee
county organization they could more aptly adapt them-
selves to the new order of things.
Poultry in Florida is a proven fact. There are men in
the state today who are making money off of poultry. Of
course, this refers mainly to the production of eggs. We
can furnish the names of some of them if necessary.
These men have been in the business for years, it is true,
but they had to start one time or another, and they have
Out in California they have demonstrated to a truth
that poultry raising is good. Petaluma, Cal., is known as
the egg basket of the world. That town has a population
of some 8,000 people. There are five banks in that town,
carrying deposits to the amount of $19,000,000, and with-
out fear of contradiction they proclaim Petaluma the
richest town in the world per capital. A man goes to
Petaluma to start a poultry farm-he must take up one
line or another. He must produce eggs, or he must pro-
duce fryers, or pullets, but few of them engage in but
one line of the business.
Our statement is this: Should the would-be producers
of Florida get together, put the poultry business on a
firm basis, there is no enterprise, not excluding citrus
production, truck farming, farming, dairying, nor any
two of them put together, that will equal the poultry
business, and we refer to Petaluma, Cal., as our proof, for
that town is literally a poultry town.
Look this thing over and you will agree with us, for
even Californians agree that Florida is the real poultry
state, and it is three thousand miles nearer the very mar-
kets that California uses for the distribution of their
POULTRYMEN HOLD ORLANDO MEETING
New State System of Hatcheries and Chicks
One of Main Discussions
Three new members were elected at the monthly meet-
ing of the Orange County Poultry Association yester-
day afternoon in the city hall. Nearly 50 persons were
present. H. E. Bunker, of Jacksonville, spoke on the
new system of state accrediting of hatcheries and baby
chicks. He traced the demand for this service in recent
years and told of the course of the movement to assure
poultry raisers of healthy stock.
Through cooperation of effort, he said, an appropria-
tion of $15,000 was now available for a laboratory and
testing of poultry. This he asserted was a step forward,
but still was insufficient for adequate service. Hens now
could be tested for bacteria of white diarrhea at an
average cost of 15 cents each, and he urged Florida
hatchery owners to take advantage of this and keep dis-
ease among poultry down to a negligible figure.
Members of the Orange County Poultry Association
were asked to take a free part in all discussions at meet-
ings and to give their support to the Florida Baby Chick
Association. The incorporation of the Orange county
society was announced.
PLANT FOR DRESSING POULTRY LOCATES
(Palm Beach Post)
Establishment of a poultry dressing plant, as a special
feature of the West Palm Beach chain of the Clarence
Saunders stores, was announced yesterday by L. H. Wil-
liams, vice-president. The plant is being operated by an
experienced poultry man, and the plant has passed rigid
inspection by the city health department, it was stated.
"Our new poultry dressing plant," said Mr. Williams,
"is opening up a new outlet for local poultrymen, and
this firm is very much pleased to favor this industry by
giving poultrymen this extra avenue for the disposal of
their products. The popularity of the innovation is proved
by the fact that average Saturday sales have amounted to
1,200 pounds of fresh dressed poultry."
FIRST FLORIDA NATIONAL EGG LAYING
CONTEST, CHIPLEY, FLORIDA
Under Supervision of Extension Division, Col-
lege of Agriculture of the University
Wilmon Newell, Director A. P. Spencer, Vice-Director
N. R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman
E. F. Stanton, Supervisor
REPORT NO. 46, FOR WEEK ENDING SEPT. 18, 1927
(Washington County News)
The birds in our Florida contest are continuing their
downhill slide each week now. The total number of eggs
produced during the 46th week was 1,259, which was pro-
ducing at the rate of 37 per cent for the week. Total to
date has now reached 89,367 eggs, which gives each hen
an average of 178.7 eggs for the 46 weeks. There are
only five more weeks to go before the close of the present
There are some of the present contestants from whom
we have not heard as yet with regard to entering a pen
for next year. We would like to hear from all who wish
to enter again, by return mail, so we can plan accordingly.
We want to reserve space for those who were with us this
year, if possible.
Marshall Farm held high honors for the week just
passed, with a record of 51 eggs from the nine birds left
in the pen. This is surely good work for this time of year
and it looks as if there is no chance for any other pen to
catch them as long as they show this kind of speed on the
home stretch. The Riverbend Farm is still hitting their
stride about the same as they have been for several
months and are gradually climbing on most of those above
them. This can also be said of Brown and Mann, who
have been doing consistent work for some time now, in
fact almost from the beginning of the contest. The
Barred Rocks belonging to C. E. Pleas showed a come-
back by laying 42 eggs and tying Lewis McNutt's Leg-
horns for fourth place. Geo. B. Ferris came in for fifth
place with 40 eggs, while Grandview Farm and Marshall
Farm tie for next place with 38 eggs each. Crystal Lake
Farm held next place with 37 eggs, while W. C. Ether-
idge held last place shown, with 36 eggs for the week.
Every pen on our list of high ones to date now has over
2,000 eggs. Marshall Farm still leads with 2,442 eggs to
their credit. The rest of the list is running about the
same as last week with the exception of last place, which
was captured from Sunshine Farm by Grandview Farm.
The list of Florida pens remains the same as before,
with Curtis & Cain leading by a good margin. The high
individuals also are running in the same order as last
week, with the two high birds quite a distance ahead of
the rest. It looks like these two birds would enter the
300-egg class shortly.
High Pens to Date
Pen No. Owner-
46 Marshall Farm.
45 Marshall Farm
27 Brown and Mann
41 Curtis & Cain ...
30 Dr. W. J. Robbins.
34 Riverbend Farm
32 Geo. B. Ferris ...
31 Geo. B. Ferris ...
24 M. V. Walter.
39 Grandview Farm
High Individuals to Date
Hen Pen Owner-
2 46 Marshall Farm
9 45 Marshall Farm .
0 46 Marshall Farm .......
5 48 Valley View Farm ..
4 32 Geo. B. Ferris.. .
High Pens for the Week
Pen No. Owner-
46 Marshall Farm
34 Riverbend Farm
27 Brown & Mann
9 C. E. Pleas .
35 Lewis McNutt
32 Geo. B. Ferris.
39 Grandview Farm
45 Marshall Farm
25 Crystal Lake Farm ........
18 W C. Etheridge.... .............
High Florida Pens
Pen No. Owner-
41 Curtis & Cain, Chipley .
24 M. V. Walter, Bradenton...... .
19 Sunshine Farm, Glenwood ......
28 M. N. Schonda, Jacksonville......
40 Columbia Poultry Farm..........
.. .... 1,966
POULTRY PRODUCERS VOTE TO ASSIST
RETAIL EGG DEALERS
At the regular meeting of the Poultry Producers Asso-
ciation of Dade County, held Saturday night at the fair
grounds, N. W. 7th Ave., it was voted to have placards
prepared showing proper designations, according to law,
for marking eggs. The placards will be of different colors
and will be furnished to retail dealers free of charge.
N. R. Mehroff, extension poultryman of the agricul-
tural experiment station, addressed the meeting. He
stated that the poultry industry all over the state is be-
coming better organized and that in some sections a
serious attempt at cooperative marketing is being made.
He stated that on the west coast in the vicinity of Tampa,
three counties have cooperative associations which are
competing in the Bradenton and Tampa markets and in-
dications are that it will be necessary to effect some sort
of consolidation of these agencies. He also stated that
the problem in Dade county seems to be one of egg pro-
duction, that the poultry producers should be consider-
ing the matter of cooperative marketing which they will
eventually find necessary to adopt. Mr. Mehroff sug-
gested a cooperative agreement with producers up state
who are shipping to Miami.
HARGIS SENDING PRIZE FOWL TO FAIR
(Lake County Citizen)
Twenty-four feathered representatives of Umatilla are
scheduled to leave Umatilla today to participate in the
Southeastern Fair at Atlanta, Ga., October 1 to 3. This
group consisting of: 1 pen (1 male and 4 females); 5
cocks; 5 cockerels; 4 hens and 4 pullets will uphold the
honor of the poultry farm of B. F. Hargis. Inasmuch as
Hargis has always come home with the bacon on previous
occasions, it is not too much to predict a successful show-
ing of his birds, even at such a big meet as the South-
SILVER CUPS TO FEATURE ANNUAL
Thirteen Cups Now in Sight for Exposition of
(Plant City Enterprise)
The forthcoming fifth annual poultry show of the
Hillsborough County Poultry Association is destined to
have an impressive silver lining, if present indications
may be taken as a criterion. Thirteen silver cups are in
view at present with indications pointing toward a num-
ber more being insured for the exposition, C. N. Kramer,
secretary, said this week.
The present list of silver cups includes the following:
Plant City Kiwanis Club, for best display of turkeys;
Harper Lumber and Manufacturing Company, for best
pen of Muscovy ducks; Holsberry & Moore, for best dis-
play of Rhode Island Reds in the county; Baywood Poul-
try Farm, for best Barred Rock male bird raised in the
county; Hillsborough County Poultry Association, for
best breeding pen, best exhibition pen, best cock, best
hen, best cockerel, best pullet, sweepstakes in Hills-
borough county, sweepstakes for outside of county and
best display of pigeons.
In addition to the above cups it is expected that there
will be a number more to be donated by various estab-
lishments and individuals.
As the time progresses for the holding of the show
interest continues to mount regarding the exposition.
There is no doubt now, it is said, but that the coming
show will bring together by far the largest number of
birds ever assembled in a show held by the county asso-
J. L. Rutledge is in charge of securing the birds for
the exposition and each day is meeting with additional
cooperation on the part of poultrymen and breeders. An
impressive array of breeding pens is assured for the ex-
position in addition to the individual and pen exhibits.
MORE POULTRY IN HIGHLANDS
Two Avon Park Growers Win Positions in Egg
The August report of the state home egg laying con-
test as just compiled by Poultry Husbandman Mehrhof,
of the extension department of the agricultural college,
discloses that F. D. Palmer and Mrs. Fred Stevens, of
Avon Park, won first and third places, respectively, in
the contest during the month, while E. E. Ritter, of De-
Soto City, won fourth place in August. This is a good
showing for Highlands county.
The state home egg laying contest has been in progress
for 10 months up to September 1st. Up to this time
Mrs. Stevens holds fourth place for the period and Mr.
Palmer fifth. There are four Highlands county poultry
raisers in this year's contest. County Agent Alsmeyer
says he hopes to double this number in the coming year's
competition which will begin November 1.
The county agent reports that both Mrs. Stevens and
Mr. Ritter have expanded their poultry flocks during the
year while various other smaller growers in the county
have also increased their number of birds, with the re-
sult that the poultry population has materially grown
during the year. The largest commercial flock in the
county is that of the Curtiss-Bright Farm at Brighton,
which now has about 7,500 chickens, mostly laying hens.
POULTRY RAISERS DISCUSS PROGRAM OF
(Clearwater Sun and Herald)
Discussion concerning the proper manner in which the
Pinellas Poultry Producers Association could be built up
was the principal work performed yesterday at a meeting
of the organization held at the county fair grounds at
Largo. The next meeting will be on Wednesday, October
5, at 1 o'clock in the afternoon. Following an offer from
F. A. Bradbury, county fair official, the grounds will be
used for future meetings of the association, which will
take the form of picnics, it was announced.
Carl W. Bliss, chairman of the board of directors,
opened the meeting yesterday afternoon. A large crowd
of well-known poultrymen and some of Pinellas county's
oldest boosters were present, many giving interesting
talks on the earlier aspects of the industry and argu-
ments on the proper manner in which to build the organ-
ization to a high state of efficiency. The topics dealt with
principally were better breeding of stock, culling, proper
grading and handling of eggs, stock labels and brands and
the matter of marketing. The latter subject will be taken
at the next meeting, it was decided.
Mr. Clayton, state deputy of the poultry extension
bureau of Gainesville, spoke on what the state is doing
in the handling of diseases of poultry.
The matter of these post-mortem examination of fowls
will be taken up with A. L. Sheely, veterinary depart-
ment, experimental station, Gainesville.
Among the other speakers were Mr. Whitney, former
secretary of the St. Petersburg chamber of commerce,
Steven Grace, Mrs. Martin, Mr. Parkerson, J. A. Barnes,
Mr. Longacre, Mr. Rasmussen, Dr. Beach, W. W. Walling,
Charles Cooley, Dr. Warden, Mr. Hook, Phillips Salls-
bury, Mr. Reugg, Billy Reid, A. M. Riley, B. F. Fletcher
Frank Bradbury, a veteran poultryman and secretary
of the county fair association, invited all members to
make a picnic of their regular meetings and also offered
them the use of the fair grounds for this purpose. This
offer was accepted with expressions of appreciation.
Approximately 75 members were present at the meet-
ing yesterday afternoon.
EGG-LAYING CONTEST BEGINS SECOND
YEAR ON FIRST OF NOVEMBER
The second Florida National Egg-Laying Contest will
begin November 1 and continue through the year, ending
on October 23, 1928. A number of entries already have
been received, and others are coming in, but those in
charge of the contest are anxious to get more Florida
The first year of the contest has proven very success-
ful, and this has led officials of the College of Agricul-
ture at the University and of the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture to carry the work on next year.
Although the present contest, which closes October 23,
is the first of its kind ever held in this state, it ranks well
with others of the country. While final figures cannot
be given yet, officials feel sure that the Florida contest
will rank among the 10 highest in the United States.
The contest is supervised by E. F. Stanton. Birds from
any state in the Union or any foreign country may com-
pete. The plant at Chipley has a capacity of 100 pens
of 10 pullets each.
HOW WE HAVE BUILT OUR FLORIDA
POULTRY FARM AND OUR RESULTS
IN TWO YEARS OF THIS WORK
(By A. J. Overpeck, Royal Palm Poultry Farm,
Poultry farming can be made one of the best industries
in Florida-second to none in the state-if we will only
"cash in" on its opportunities for development. We have
a climate which cannot be equaled for this type of farm-
ing, permitting chickens to be on the range every day of
the year and requiring no great expense for poultry house
construction. Then, too, Florida has some of the best
poultry markets in the country if they are properly fos-
tered by the poultry producers of the state. For new-
comers to Florida, poultrying offers unusual advantages
and exceptional opportunity for profit.
I have been very much gratified by the interest which
the Florida Grower has recently taken in poultry subjects,
and it has occurred to me that my own experiences in
poultry farming in this state would be of interest to those
who are considering engaging in this business. Here are
the facts and figures concerning my enterprise to date:
On November 1, 1924, Mr. E. H. Padgett, my partner,
and I, first took over the property at Homestead on which
is now located the Royal Palm Poultry Farm. It con-
sisted of ten acres, with a run-down grove, a fair house,
one chicken house of but 300 capacity, and an old log
We at once cleared the place of weeds and vines, and
with timber standing on the property built five baby chick
colony houses, each of 1,000 capacity. We then bought
300 pullets which had been hatched in March and April.
They arrived on December 9 and we put them in the old
house on the place. We then ordered 3,000 chicks, one
thousand each from Florida, Alabama and Virginia
hatcherymen, all of the same strain-S. C. White Leg-
horns. We did this because we wanted to get the dif-
ferent male stock and also to find out if stock from other
states would develop as fast and as well as those raised
in Florida. This was the result we had: We received the
Florida and Alabama shipments on January 15, 1925, and
the Virginia shipment on January 16. When the chicks
were four months old we had 540 of the Virginia chicks,
865 of the Alabama and 990 of the Florida. The chicks
from each of the three states were kept separate and all
had exactly the same care.
In December, 1924, we bought 17 first-class cock birds,
mating them with the 300 pullets we already had. We
trapnested them from the start. We ordered a 1,600
capacity incubator and had it installed on February 1,
1925. We commenced incubation on March 1 of that
year, but having only 300 pullets could set only 200 eggs
every other day, which we did up until June 1. We
hatched and raised 2,886 chicks. On June 30, 1925, we
closed our first year with the following inventory record:
Hens on hand ..
Cock birds on hand
Cockerels on hand
Pullets on hand.
My books show that we had received $1,323.79 for stock
sold during the year, and that our paid overhead and
plant investments amounted to $7,914.37, leaving an
operating deficit for the first year of $6,590.58.
This loss during the first year was no more than I had
expected as nearly all of the eggs produced were used in
incubation. The gain in stock on hand would have more
than offset this loss. During this first year we built 13
colony houses, each of 1,000 capacity, and equipped with
runs. We also reconstructed the old laying house and
then built two laying pens with it. These three buildings
are now the mating pens. We also put in a water plant
and piped water to every pen on the farm.
Starting our second year with mating in November
we incubated over 15,000 chicks. We built our long lay-
ing pen and increased the number of colony houses to 20,
each with a capacity of 1,000 birds. We also built fat-
tening pens and a long pullet pen of 5,000 capacity. At
the end of our second year, June 30, 1926, our books
showed the following record:
Total Receipts ... .... $11,556.20
Total Expenditures .. 6,444.49
N et Profit ... ... ...... ......... $ 5,111.91
Stock on hand, 15,389; value, $22,330. Value of
equipment, incubator, buildings, etc., $5,660.
The total amount invested in the farm during the first
two years, not including cost of land, was $13,000.
Only Good Layers Allowed
Quite a difference between the loss of the first year
and the profit of the second. During the second year
we had the advantage of being able to trap nest and got
the good layers of 200, or better, strain, with the result
that we can start the coming year with 6,200 hens in
mating pens, and no hen can get into the mating pens
without a showing of 200 eggs or better. Our laying pens
have 4,400 pullets this year, from the last January to
I regard our laying pen as one of the best in the state.
It is 365 feet long with a run 100 feet deep. There are
700 trap nests in this house. Eggs are gathered and the
pullets released four times a day-at 9 and 11 in the
morning and 2 and 4 in the afternoon. We also have
2,000 May hatch stock that will not go into the laying
pen before November, and more than 600 first class male
birds for breeding this fall. We have sold over 4,000
head of stock this past year and 2,500 baby chicks.
Up until the present time we have incubated only for
our own flocks, but as we have had many calls for chicks
we are getting ready to install a 47,000 capacity incu-
bator hatching 7,000 a day.
None of the figures given here have been in any way
exaggerated. There has been nothing wonderful about
the development of our poultry business. But it has not
been accomplished by letting the chickens look after
themselves. It has required lots of hard work, 365 days
in the year, and no eight hour days, either. What we
have been able to do on the Royal Palm Poultry Farm
can be done by other new poultry men who will just apply
common sense to the problems they run up against and
who are willing to give their flocks the attention which
they must have.
When I first went into poultrying I thought that I knew
all about it. Now, after 40 years of it, I feel that I really
know very little of the work. There is always something
new to learn about it.
Anybody with a small capital, a willingness to work
and ordinary common sense for working out every-day
problems, can make a success of poultry farming in Flor-
ida. There is not another farming industry that will,
dollar for dollar invested, pay better than poultry in this
SESBANIA SEEDS FOUND FATAL TO FARM
Florida Poultrymen Are Warned Against the
(Tarpon Springs Leader)
Gainesville, Fla., Sept. 28 (AP)-Seeds of the dauben-
tonia, or sesbania, plant have been found poisonous to
chickens in tests just completed at the experiment station
of the University of Florida.
The sesbania is widely scattered over the state and is
used in many places as an ornament. Chickens which
have free range are in danger of being poisoned by these
seeds, Dr. A. L. Shealy, veterinarian of the experiment
Discovery of sesbania seeds in birds sent in which had
died from unnatural causes led Dr. Shealy and others at
the station to carry out a test in feeding these seeds to
chickens. It was found that as few as nine seeds will
The sesbania plant is a large deciduous scrub, which
may grow to a height of 10 to 12 feet. The flowers are
scarlet and resemble those of the pea. The seed pods
are three to four inches in length and four angled. The
seed are light brown and are about one-half inch in length.
Tests are now being made to ascertain, if possible, the
specific poison in the seed. In the meantime, all poultry
growers are warned not to let their chickens run where
they will have access to this plant without first picking
off the seed pods.
YELLOW CORN BETTER THAN WHITE
Although farmers for many years have believed that
yellow corn was better than white for feeding purposes,
the South as a whole has maintained a strong preference
for white corn. The reason for this preference for white
corn is that it makes a more desirable or popular grade of
corn meal for human consumption.
As we have said, farmers have long maintained that
yellow corn is a "stronger" feed than white corn, even
when they have found no way of proving it scientifically.
In recent years, since the discovery of the new food
elements known as vitamins, positive proof of the cor-
rectness of the farmers' belief in the superior feeding
value of yellow over white corn has been developed.
Trials by the Illinois Experiment Station, as reported in
a bulletin comparing "White and Yellow Corn for Grow-
ing and Fattening Swine and for Brood Sows," in which
the superiority of yellow corn is clearly shown. If it be
true that yellow corn contains more of the "Vitamine A"
and is therefore a better feed than white corn for live
stock, when fed with other feeds deficient in this vita-
mine, it follows that it is also a better food for people.
This is a matter of more importance to the South than
some seem to think, for the human consumption of corn
is large in the South, perhaps larger than in any other
section of this country.
Of course, if the rations of either human beings or
farm live stock have sufficient variety, or contain other
feeds rich in "Vitamine A," the deficiency of white corn
is made up and it gives as satisfactory results as yellow
corn; but since rations for neither people nor live stock
are always made up with sufficient intelligence and care.
the feeding of white corn instead of yellow may mean a
defect that will react seriously on the growth and de-
velopment of the animals fed.
The prejudice against yellow corn for human consump-
tion should rapidly give way before the facts which
science has developed. We cannot reasonably keep on
preferring white corn in the face of the positive proof
that it lacks one of the essential food elements for growth
There is, however, one practical obstacle to a general
adoption of yellow varieties in the South. The past pre-
ference for white corn accounts for the fact that much
more attention has been given to the improvement of
white varieties of corn than to yellow varieties. The re-
sult is, it is not so easy to find or select a high-yielding
variety of yellow corn adapted to our conditions as it is
to find a white variety.
Two conclusions based on now well-ascertained facts
should be accepted and translated into practice:
1. There is a potent reason why corn grown for feed-
ing purposes should be of the yellow varieties, not only
in the South but over the country as a whole.
2. With the superiority of yellow corn over white now
proved, our southern corn breeders and experiment sta-
tions should devote special attention to the further im-
provement of our best-yielding varieties of yellow corn.
NEW FARM DEVELOPMENT UNDER WAY
First of Chicken Farms Now Started-Roy Dor-
sett in Charge of Work for Chicago
The big new agricultural development which is in
progress just west of Industria, in the western part of
the county, is well under way now and remarkable pro-
gress is to be noted in the work which has been under-
taken here. Roy J. Dorsett, formerly county agent here,
is in charge of this new development for a syndicate of
Chicago men, who expect to develop and farm several
sections of land.
The first step was in pulling stumps and this has been
pushed forward very rapidly. A considerable portion of
the land has now been cleared enough that it is ready for
plowing; in fact, a small tract has already been plowed,
and it is amazing how nicely and cleanly this tract has
been cleaned up and made ready for cultivation. Plow-
ing will begin in earnest for the large tract within a few
A number of chicken farms are proposed in connection
with this development and the first one is now well under
way. A five-room stucco house is nearing completion,
two wells have been bored, the fencing is done, and some
white leghorn chickens have been obtained to stock this
The stumps which are already being removed from this
land are to be moved to the new retort plant, which is
only a mile or two away, and there they will be put.
through the destructive distillation process, having tur-
pentine, pine tars, pine oil, charcoal and other products
extracted. As this large area is cleared it will supply
the first stumps for the big retort plant, and after the
stumps are off the ground the machinery being used takes
out the palmetto and other small growth so that the land
is perfectly cleared.
This new development, which will eventually have sev-
eral sections of land under cultivation, is now being
pushed forward to get one full section in shape for crops
this fall and winter. Every indication now is that this
will be accomplished.
TIMES SQUAB STORY BRINGS MANY
People From Canada to Georgia Want Infor-
(By A. A. Greenhill, in Tampa Times)
Editor of The Times: Since the llth of May, the (lay
you published the article pertaining to the raising of
squabs in Florida, I have simply been deluged with letters
of inquiry, and have entertained and advised more than
700 people and still they continue to come. They are all
very welcome, but we on the farm here find it utterly
impossible to answer the shoal of letters, although for the
first week we did the best we could with them. I would
appreciate your help in this matter, Mr. Editor, by pub-
lishing the following data explaining the many and varied
questions relative to the raising of squabs. I am simply
astounded at the far-reaching effects of your publication,
as letters have come to us from Georgia, the Carolinas,
Illinois, Wyoming, New York and even one from Canada.
For the breeding of pigeons and squabs I don't think
there is a finer climate in the United States. To me it
seems like a regular haven for the business. Differing
from the north, all pigeon lofts should be open fronted,
as no heating is required, whereas in the north it is neces-
sary to have closed lofts, with a constant and regular
heating system. This is the main advantage because it
costs lots of money to heat a pigeon loft and lessens the
profits, and again, pigeons thrive better on sunshine,
which we have plenty of and to spare in Florida.
A pigeon plant should be built in units, 10 feet by 10
feet, with a fly pen 10 feet by 6 feet, by at least 6 feet
high. Loft should be divided into nests 12 inches by 12
inches, making at least 104 nests to a unit. This will
house comfortably 50 pairs of mated birds and their
young. It is necessary to have at least four extra nests
to each 50 pair, as they generally squabble for positions,
until they finally settle down to work.
A pair of pigeons after mating select their nest, then
the male carries the tobacco stems to the female, which
she arranges around her body, forming the nest, then the
female lays one egg and stands over it for 24 hours, then
lays another, then the male and female take turns at
sitting on the eggs. The hen sits during the night, until
about 10 a. m. in the morning, then the cock sits or re-
lieves her until the latter part of the afternoon. This
goes on for 17 days, then the first egg hatches and next
day the second egg likewise. The squabs are then fed a
liquid secreted in the crop of both cock and hen called
"pigeon milk." This milk lasts five or six days, gradually
growing thicker, and in a week is mixed with small par-
ticles of grain. At 10 days old the squabs are eating hard
grain from the crop of the male parent bird. In the
meantime the cock drives the hen again and they build
their second nest, in which the hen lays two more eggs,
and repeats same as before, and the cock takes complete
care of the squabs until ready to kill or until able to feed
themselves. Squabs are ready for market at from three
to four weeks, but if left to grow become ready for
breeders at from 12 to 16 weeks.
When you desire to mate a particular pair of birds
you place the two birds in a small coop or pen about four
feet by two feet and divided by two-inch chicken wire.
They are left like this for three days, then the partition
is taken away and they are left together for three days
more. They are thus married and upon being put into
the regular pen or loft they will locate their nest and go
to housekeeping. This is called "force mating."
Experience has taught us that it is cheaper to buy the
scientifically balanced pigeon feeds, instead of trying to
mix our own. Ballard and Ballards, of Louisville, Ky.,
and with a big branch in Tampa, put up and sell what we
believe to be as fine a mixture for this climate as it is
possible to get. By special arrangements with the Na-
tional Squab Breeders Association, breeders are able to
buy feeds at a greatly reduced price. Pigeons must not
be fed anything but whole grains in Florida, except in the
coldest part of winter when they may be given from 5%
to 10% hard flint corn. This provides heat for the body.
Feeding cracked grains or whole corn causes dysentery
and often kills the bird. Give plenty of fresh water and
a balanced feed amounting to about 2 ounces per bird,
morning and evening, with a regular pigeon "health
grit," breeders of squabs will not find any difficulty in
building up a pleasant, interesting and profitable business.
Pigeon lofts should be thoroughly cleaned out once a
week and sprayed with a liquid composed of tobacco juice.
Tobacco stems can be soaked in water, then dried and
used for nesting, and the juice sprayed as suggested. This
will do away with mites and lice that otherwise will come
from filthy pigeon lofts. Some breeders advocate air
slacked lime on the floors of the lofts, but we at this farm
believe in scraping the floors and keeping them sanded.
Pigeon manure is in great demand by florists and if
put into your empty feed bags and kept dry will fetch 75
cents a bushel and upwards.
Pigeons generally are a very hardy bird and it being
unnatural for them to be in captivity they sometimes
suffer from various ailments. Traced back though, we
find it has always been the fault of the breeder who has
either fed poor or green feeds, dirty water, damp or
draughty lofts or something like that. We advocate giv-
ing a flock of pigeons epsom salts once a week, as follows:
One level teaspoonful to one gallon of water. Take all
other water away for one day. Every third day, we ad-
vocate giving the birds a solution of permanganate of
potash in the drinking and bath water. This acts as a
tonic and also as an antiseptic. Breeders following these
simple instructions will not have much trouble. Any bird
showing symptoms of sickness should be turned loose and
allowed to find its own medicine.. It does not pay to try
and doctor pigeons. Turn sick birds loose and breeders
will be surprised at the rapid recovery of the sick bird.
The N. S. B. A.
The National Squab Breeders Association is one that
develops markets for squab breeders and who work every
day in the year. Supporting this means better markets,
better brands of squabs, better prices, better service and
better profits. It costs nothing to join and shipping your
squabs to one center means better future markets.
Florida never having been developed means a wonder-
ful future for about the only business we know of that is
not crowded. We at this time find it utterly impossible
to even begin to handle the situation in Tampa. With
conditions as they are the wide awake person should
readily see what it will be like when conditions become
normal. A market is assured.
Comparing the chicken business with the squab busi-
ness is like comparing day and night for the simple rea-
son that the life of the chicken being two breeding years
as against 14 breeding years of the pigeon. Squabs
averaging a pound sell at $1.50 a pair. This is com-
parison enough. Florida can raise its own squabs and
ship them frozen to the north instead of having cold
storage squabs shipped here by the car load. Florida
is growing in its population every week and will continue
to grow. We don't have to worry about propaganda be-
cause when things are quiet here they are quieter up
north. Living conditions are better here. We don't have
the cold to contend with nor the clothes to buy, and we
believe we are far better off down here. We need boost-
ers for Tampa particularly because we live in Tampa and
we at this farm are busy supplying a demand that elimi-
nates any thought of hard times. Why can't others do it?
There is room for lots of others and we here welcome any
person interested in this line of endeavor.
POULTRY CO-OPERATIVE ASSOCIATIONS
OF NATION DO $40,000,000 BUSINESS
American co-operative associations engaged in market-
ing poultry or eggs, or both, have a total membership ex-
ceeding 50,000 and do an annual business estimated at
more than $40,000,000. Records of more than seventy
such associations are filed in the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture.
The first association of which records are available was
organized in 1913. Fifty-five of the associations have
been organized since 1920. Although these seventy asso-
ciations are scattered over twenty-one states, the majority
are located in Minnesota, Missouri, California and Wash-
The associations on the Pacific Coast serve members
who make a business of operating large poultry ranches,
and to a considerable extent this is true of organizations
in the Eastern States, while the associations in the Middle
West serve members with small farm flocks.
Two associations in New York City, one in Detroit and
one in St. Paul are sales agencies operating on city mar-
kets. These agencies represent associations with head-
quarters in the larger producing areas. One of the New
York associations represents several of the large Cali-
A duck growers' association is located on Long Island,
with a sales agency in New York City. This association
handles a large volume of business for 80 to 100 members.
Duck farming on Long-Island is on a commercial scale,
and ranches produce anywhere from a few thousand to
as many as 200,000 ducks annually. About three-fourths
of the duck raisers are members of the association.
The smallest association reporting has twelve members
and the largest has about 5,000, the average per associa-
tion being 1,018. Three of the states-California, Mis-
souri and Washington-handle 82 per cent of the total
business accredited to associations of this kind. Fifty
per cent of all the eggs marketed by co-operative asso-
ciations in 1925 were handled by two of the associations.
While the bulk of the business was handled by associations
organized primarily for the purpose of handling poultry
products, two associations, namely, Land o' Lakes Cream-
eries and the Challenge Creamery and Butter Association,
each handled a large volume of eggs as a side line for the
associations for which they are furnishing sales service.
Thirty-five of the associations handle live poultry and
sixteen dressed poultry. A total of 12,329,057 pounds of
live poultry was marketed in 1925 by thirty-one of the
associations. The co-operative marketing of poultry is
confined very largely to the Middle Western States, where
the small farm flock predominates.
Series of Meetings Bring Out Permanent Plans
(Palm Beach Post)
Approval of a plan to organize a poultrymen's asso-
ciation in Palm Beach county was unanimously voted by
the more than 100 persons in attendance at last night's
poultry meeting held in the Lake Worth auditorium, un-
der the auspices of the county agricultural agent's office.
The meeting last night was the third and last in the
series held this week throughout the county, and ad-
dressed by N. R. Mehrhof, extension poultry specialist of
the University of Florida. The Lake Worth session drew
attendance from almost all points along the east coast
from West Palm Beach to Delray.
The organization meeting of the proposed poultry-
men's association is slated for Friday night, September
16, at 8 o'clock, in the Lake Worth casino. At that time
it is expected that various plans will be presented for
consideration, and decision made as to whether the or-
ganization will take the form of one large county asso-
ciation, or a number of community associations. S. W.
Hiatt, county agent, is sponsoring the move.
HOW FARMERS CAN GO BROKE
Ten ways for a farmer to go broke are given by the
Agricultural College of the University of Tennessee as
1. Grow only one crop.
2. Keep no live stock.
3. Regard chickens and gardens as nuisances.
4. Take everything from the soil and return nothing.
5. Don't stop gullies or grow cover crops-let the top
soil waste away.
G. Don't plan farm operations. It's hard work think-
ing, trust to luck.
7. Regard your woodland as you would a coal mine;
cut every tree, sell the timber and wear out the cleared
land, cultivating it in the same crop year after year.
8. Hold fast to the idea that the methods of farming
employed by your grandfather are good enough for you.
9. Be independent-don't join with your neighbors in
any form of cooperation.
10. Mortgage your farm for every dollar it will stand
to buy things you would have cash to pay for if you
followed a good system of farming.
This shows the way to failure in farming, and also the
way to success, as the sign where the roads fork is found
in the closing words of the last paragraph.
MORE HENS NEEDED
According to the Vero Beach Press, 35,000 more lay-
ing hens are needed to supply the demand in that part
of the state, and plans are being made to secure the hens.
The same can be said of other sections of Florida. The
poultry business in this state is hardly up to the point
where it can supply the home demand by half.
FLORIDA REVIEW 15
BOTH RECORD HENS BELONG TO SAME CROWDING DURING WINTER IS HARMFUL
POULTRY FARM TO POULTRY
(Washington County News)
The Second Florida National Egg-laying Contest will
begin here November 1 and continue through the year,
ending on October 23, 1928. A number of entries have
already been received, and others are coming in, but
those in charge of the contest are anxious to get more
Eighteen states will be represented in the second con-
test, of which eight are new entries. Among the latest
entries from the new states the contest has received one
from Los Angeles, which was sent by air mail. This entry
has the unique distinction of being alone in the contest as
having been entered by air mail.
The first year of the contest has proven very success-
ful, and this has led officials of the College of Agricul-
ture at the University and of the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture to carry the work on next year.
Although the present contest, which closes October 23,
is the first of its kind ever held in this state, it ranks
well with others of the country. While final figures can-
not be given yet, officials feel sure that the Florida con-
test will rank among the 10 highest in the United States
and the contest has turned out two 300-egg hens to date.
The first 300 egger came in with the close of the last
week, while the second one just came in yesterday.
Those two hens are both owned by the Marshall Farms
of Mobile, Alabama. This is quite some record for the
contest, being as good or better than any other contest
as small and as young as it is.
The contest is supervised by E. F. Stanton. Birds from
any state in the Union or any foreign country may com-
pete. The plant has a capacity of 100 pens of 10 pullets
The contest was sponsored by the Chipley Chamber of
Commerce. They furnished the land, buildings and
equipment for the contest plant, and then turned it over
to the Extension Division of the College of Agriculture
of the University of Florida. Officials of the extension
service are in charge of the work.
SOY BEAN OIL MEAL IS AN EXCELLENT
Tests at the Indiana experiment station covering four
years, and involving 960 single-comb White Leghorns and
Barred Rocks, proved soy-bean oil meal equal to tankage
or meat scraps for laying hens. Mineral matter must be
added to the soy-bean oil meal, however, to make up that
The Purdue standard basal ration was used in the tests.
It consists of grain, 100 pounds of corn, 100 pounds of
wheat, 50 pounds of oats and mash, 50 pounds of bran
and 50 pounds of middlings. To this was added 30 pounds
of tankage or 35 pounds of meat scraps or 45 pounds
of soy-bean oil meal, plus 10 per cent of minerals, or
47.5 pounds of whole soy beans plus 10 per cent of
The mineral mixture consisted of 22 pounds of steamed
bone meal, 24 pounds of finely ground limestone and 15
pounds of salt. The addition of mineral matter is neces-
sary to prevent a great growth of fat.
The United States Department of Agriculture con-
siders soy-bean oil meal an excellent feed for growth and
Quite a number of farm poultry raisers make the error
of housing too many heans and pullets together during
cold weather. Hens will lay as well if yarded and well
cared for as if on free range. But they dare not be
crowded when they are confined.
If the hens are being fed and forced for egg yield
alone, we must get them into winter quarters in their
pens early in the fall and keep them there without chang-
ing them about. Introducing new hens into the flock of
laying birds always causes more or less confusion, and this
helps in decreasing the number of eggs laid.
FATTENED POULTRY BEST FOR MARKET
It is well known that during the fall months there is
relatively little fresh-killed young poultry on the market,
because the season for broilers has passed and the great
bulk of the roasters has not yet reached the market.
Therefore, prices for well-fattened young stock are ex-
Farmers and commercial poultrymen should never
think of disposing of their market poultry in an unfat-
tened condition, says the Department of Agriculture.
This is true whether the birds are sold live or dressed, and
is apparent since much better prices are paid for well-
fattened stock than where the stock is taken directly off
the range. Farmers throughout the country lose many
thousands of dollars through not properly fattening their
stock. The birds to be fattened should either be placed
in boxes, stalls, open pens or in fattening crates, where
they are kept for a period of two or three weeks. The
size of the birds is an important factor, because a bird
that weighs from three to four pounds usually fattens
more readily than the smaller bird. The larger the bird
when the fattening period starts, the shorter the time
required for fattening. A three-pound bird can be fat-
tened quite well in three weeks, whereas a bird weighing
four pounds when put in the fattening crate could prob-
ably be fattened in about two weeks.
Birds are best fattened on moistened ground grains.
Several good fattening rations have been used, one of
which is as follows: Equal parts, by weight, of cornmeal,
ground buckwheat and middlings. Another good fatten-
ing ration is composed of two parts cornmeal, one part
crushed oats and one part middlings. A variety of grains
is a good thing, although cornmeal is particularly valuable
for fattening purposes. Whatever fattening mixture is
used, it certainly should be moistened with sour skim
milk, using enough milk to make the mash into a thin
batter which will run out of the pail when the birds are
being fed. Milk not only improves the palatability of the
mash, which induces greater consumption, but it also im-
proves the quality of the flesh. It should be used when-
ever possible, for it not only has good fattening proper-
ties but also tends to keep the birds in good health.
When the birds are properly fattened they should each
gain about one pound in weight; therefore, there is not
only a larger bird for market but the price per pound will
be considerably higher than where the birds are not fat-
tened. There is no excuse, therefore, for not fattening
cockerels and culled pullets, and this year it should be
done early because of the increase in grain prices.
HOME EGG-LAYING CONTEST BEGINS
Gainesville, Fla.-The third home egg-laying contest
for the State of Florida begins November 1. The con-
test is conducted under the direction of the county agents
and N. R. Mehrhof, extension poultryman of the agricul-
tural extension service of the University of Florida.
The home egg-laying contest has proven very popular
with the poultry growers of the state. The first such
contest was started just two years ago. Last year, at the
beginning of the second contest, the number of entries
was doubled. It is expected that a large increase will be
made in the entries before the third contest begins.
Rules and regulations for the home egg-laying contest
are: (1) Contestants must raise some standard breed of
poultry. (2) Contestants agree to keep records for one
year on their entire flock. (3) Contestants agree to send
one copy of each monthly report to the county or home
demonstration agent. Where there is no agent, copies
are to be sent to N. R. Mehrhof, extension poultryman,
The extension service will furnish record books to all
persons who write for them. The reports are to be made
in duplicate, the contestant keeping one and forwarding
The flocks will be divided into three groups according
to the number of birds. Flocks having from one to 50
birds will be designated as backyard flocks. Those having
from 51 to 250 birds will be classed as farm flocks. Those
having over 250 will be known as commercial flocks.
BRIGHT FUTURE FOR FLORIDA POULTRY
SAYS POULTRY SPECIALIST
(Agricultural News Service)
Gainesville, Fla.-"Florida is now in the midst of con-
siderable expansion in the poultry industry, and it should
prove to be a good thing for the state," said H. L. Shrader
of the U. S. Extension Service, in an interview while here
attending the meeting of county agents.
Florida is now one of the few producing states which
does not grow enough poultry for home consumption. It
is upon this basis that Mr. Shrader makes his statement.
Figures given out recently show that the state is now
producing just half of the poultry products used. This
condition should not cause those who know nothing about
the business to think they can make a fortune, thinks
Mr. Shrader, but it does mean that there is an oppor-
tunity here for the man who goes at the thing efficiently.
The biggest problem which Florida poultrymen have to
meet up with is the competition from Georgia, Alabama
and Tennessee. These states are increasing their flocks
right now to supply the Florida trade. The man who
produces poultry locally must put up a .better product if
he is to establish a market the year round for Florida
One fact which we should not forget is that Florida
farmers will always be faced with a relatively high feed
cost, he stated. This has led many people to believe that
poultry could not be successfully grown in the state. The
contest at Chipley last year has already disproven that
theory. The actual records show that the cost of pro-
duction in this state is not such as to be prohibitive. The
climate in this state is a decided factor in favor of egg
production, as the warm weather helps materially to
bring about high production.
Last night the county poultry organization held a meet-
ing at Cottage Hill and discussed the state of the trade
with other subjects for some time. Poultry raising in this
county has been given quite a boost in the past year or
so by the organization of the exchange, which made it
possible for the surplus in the way of products to be
shipped to cash markets, and the men who were identified
with the exchange realized satisfactory returns. When
the desire for live poultry became known at Florida points
a carload of hens was loaded and shipped hence, consign-
ments being paid for at car door by a representative of
the buyer commission firms. This was also pronounced at
the time as new money, for it represented a return in
cash from a source not hitherto enjoyed. Likewise the
egg shipments represented a return from a source never
in the past tried out. And in both instances the returns
were declared to have been satisfactory. A few men
worked hard to make possible the delivery of eggs and
live chickens in good condition, collecting same from all
parts of the county, and they secured little if anything
for their work in this respect, but they had the interests
of the poultrymen at heart.
Now that the foundation has been laid, it will mean
that hereafter, and in the future, live poultry and the
fresh eggs will be shipped in an organized or cooperative
way, to cash markets. Thus far shipments have been
confined strictly to Florida markets. Other centers of
consumption are clamoring for the West Florida product
of the poultry yard, and it looks like the raising of
fat hens and the shipment of eggs, all in a co-
operative manner, is going to yield handsome returns for
the West Florida man, woman, boy or girl who wants to
make a bit of extra money from this line of endeavor.
Poultry can be raised advantageously here and all surplus
stock can be easily disposed of for cash.
VOLUSIA POULTRYMEN ESTABLISH
Gainesville, Oct. 11.-Poultry operations in Volusia
county are very active at this time, according to Assistant
Agent Case. A county hatchery has just been established
which has a capacity of 25,000 eggs.
The DeLand Poultry Association has recently been
marketing from 400 to 1,000 pounds of live poultry a
week for its members. The Daytona Association is mak-
ing plans for the cooperative purchase of feed and the
New Smyrna Association is looking forward to the estab-
lishment of a central marketing bureau with a man in
POULTRYMEN ENTER EGG LAYING
Poultrymen of Escambia county will be represented in
the second Florida national egg laying contest being con-
ducted with headquarters at Chipley.
At a meeting of the Escambia County Poultry Ex-
change plans for entering a pen in the contest will be
Several other matters of considerable importance to
the poultrymen will be taken up at the meeting, which
will be held at Cottage Hill.