, I 4 *
PUBLISHED SEMI-MONTHLY BY
BUREAU OF IMMIGRATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
SEPTEMBER 5, 1927
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Shall We Grow It or Buy It' (Editorial) ... .....
State Yields Great Deposit of Travertine ..............
Try Orange Juice Instead of Iced Tea ... ....
Sunimmer Tourists from Georgia and Alabama Show Big Increase
Multiplying Demand for Fresh Vegetables ..
Jay Farmer Says Crop of Vetch Is Fine Fertilizer.
People W ill Sm oke ........ ............ ..
Florida a National Provider .......
Natural Advantages ...........
Hewn Timber Shipped Hence to Ports in Italy .. .......
South America Is Urged as Market for Local Citrus ....
Eight Thousand Cattle changee Hands .
The Rabbit Industry.. .. ..............
Hog Raising in Jefferson Improving .... .... .......
Pine Was Used in White House
The M ango .............. ... ... ..... ... ......
Pigeon Fanciers Organize in Tampa ..........
Melbourne Lays Claim to State's Largest Melon.......
Capital and Florida....................... .......
Citrus By-Products .. .......
'ow s vs. C otton ........ .. ...............
Gadsden County Beans .............. ..
A Vastly Important Florida Development .
Florida Led 25 States in Matter of Road Working During 1926
Plant City Seen as Center of Egg Market ..
Discovery of Host Poultry Pest Is Made by Florida Worker..
Poultry Colony Grows Steadily
Florida Has a Future Unrivaled. Is Belief of Du Pont.
Florida Prosperous .... .......... ..
Bureau of Immigration Director Is Optimistic About Trend of
B u sini ess .. .......... ....................
M moving Upward .....................
Florida Eighth in Incom es ... .............................
Praises M iam i .. .. ..... ........
Den and for Florida Fibre Is Increasing... .............. .............
Cultivates Crop of Apples Near Lake Minneola ............................
Raised Three Crops of Corn in Year ... .... ....................
How Can W e Figure a Hen's Value? ............. ...........................
Supervisor Gives System of Feeding Birds in Contest.................
M adison County Syrup ............... ................................... .....
Set New Record in Egg Laying Contest .......................................
T he M major T rouble........ .. ..... .. ....... ........................ ..............
T he U seful L em on.. .. .. .... .. ..... ..... .... ......... .. ....
T im es C change .... .... ...... ..... .. ....... ... ..... ....... .....
M any Products from Tim ber Land ...............................................
Poultry Sales on Seaboard Air Line Railway ...........................
Nassau Fertilizer and Oil Company One of County's Largest
A s se ts ..... ...................................
Pork Production in Marion County .... .. ...... ............
T he P problem Solved .. .......... ... ..................................
Were You Born on a Farm? .......... ...
The Solidity of El..r;.,
Sum mer Climate -i I I..r..,I .,r..I .%, \..r .iri r ii.,
Record of Tom ato Shipments ... .............................
Carload Fruits and Vegetables Unloaded in Jacksonville, Fla......
Looking for O range Trees .... ....... ........ ..................
SHALL WE GROW IT OR BUY IT?
By NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner of Agriculture
E, OF FLORIDA, like to claim for our
state that it can produce practically all
the foodstuffs needed by our own citi-
zens and our visitors. The assertion is
well based. Beyond a doubt, Florida COULD
do this. But in point of fact, FLORIDA DOES
NOT GROW ITS OWN FOODSTUFFS-NOT
ONE-HALF OF THEM. OF OUR STAPLE
FOOD SUPPLIES, WE BUY THE ASTOUND-
ING SUM OF $77,000,000 WORTH, AND
GROW BUT $34,000,000 WORTH. This does
not take into account the importations of grain,
hay, chicken feed, mixed dairy feed, meal, flour,
canned goods, fruits and vegetables, of which
we buy each year not less than $50,000,000
Here are the figures for 1926, as given out by
The State Marketing Bureau of Florida, cover-
ing four main food staples:
Of pork, bacon and lard, we import $23,-
000,000 worth per year and produce less than
Of beef, veal, mutton and lamb, we import
$16,000,000 worth per year and produce less
than $7,000,000 worth.
Of dairy products, we import $24,000,000
worth per year and produce less than $8,000,-
Of poultry and poultry products, we import
$14,000,000 worth per year and produce a little
more than $11,000,000 worth.
Thus it will be seen that of our total consump-
tion of $111,000,000 worth of these four food
items, we produce less than one-third.
Could Florida feed herself? Yes, beyond
all question. We have in this state at least
TWENTY MILLION ACRES suitable for grow-
ing of crops. We have vast areas suitable for
the production of beef cattle, sheep and hogs.
We have almost ideal conditions for poultry
production. We have climatic advantages, soil
and pasture resources upon which to build a
permanent and profitable dairy industry.
Shall Florida continue to send outside for
$77,000,000 worth of food which could and
SHOULD grow here at home?
Would it not be a mighty good thing if we
would keep this money at home? If this $77,-
000,000 were divided among our 60,000 Florida
farmers, each of them would have his cash in-
come increased by $1,283 per year. Then we
might begin to talk of prosperity among our
farmers and to feel the thrill of satisfaction
which belongs to those who are consistent in
their advocacy of a policy which would have
all of us "live at home" and help to "build up
the back country."
2 FLORIDA REVIEW
STATE YIELDS GREAT DEPOSIT OF
Rock with Consistency of Marble Is Found Only Here
and In Italy
Florida, the wonder state of the nation, has yielded
from its bosom another product that is found here alone
in the United States and is only found elsewhere in the
Tivoli mountains of Italy, the commodity being traver-
tine, a rock with the consistency of marble together with
its beauty and also having the physical property of being
more easily carved and polished, according to Leadly
Ogden, former Jacksonville contractor and now of Sara-
sota, who was a visitor at the office of Mayor John T.
Alsop last week.
The Florida deposit of travertine is located between
Bradenton and Sarasota and is being quarried by the
Florida Travertine Corporation, of which Mr. Ogden is
vice-president and secretary. Mr. Ogden's visit to Jack-
sonville is on business of the company.
A bed of travertine covering approximately eighty
acres has been located near Sarasota, Mr. Ogden said,
containing approximately 21,000,000 cubic yards of the
stone. Assays made by F. H. H. Calhoun, geologist for
the Seaboard Air Line; and D. Stuart Mossom, assistant
state geologist, declare that the travertine found in
Florida is of high grade.
Layers Colored Differently
The rock is found in five stratas, the total depth of the
deposit being about forty feet and the top lying but two
feet below the surface of the earth, Mr. Ogden stated.
Each stratum has a different color, ranging from buff
to blue, gray and brown. When first mined the rock
is soft and of the consistency of clay, but upon being
exposed to the air it quickly hardens and matures in
ninety days to show a crushing strength of 12,000 pounds,
according to tests conducted by the United States Bureau
of Standards. This is three times the crushing strength
of cement concrete.
Travertine is formed through seepage and deposit of
calcium carbonate from solution by surface water, ac-
cording to reports of geologists. It is a calcium car-
bonate or pure lime rock deposit with the following
analysis: Calcium and magnesium carbonate, 90.85 per
cent; iron and alumina, 2.52 per cent, and insoluble
siliceous matter, 6.59 per cent.
Travertine is used for interior and exterior decoration
of the better class of public buildings, Mr. Ogden states,
and is being specified by leading architects and decorators
in increasing quantities. The Florida travertine has a
finer texture and is not as brittle as the imported variety,
and having no set grain, can be cut four ways.
Takes High Polish
The upper stratum of the Florida deposit resembles
high grade onyx with beautiful calcite veins running
through the deposit and is susceptible of a high polish.
The other strata develops the gray and brown colored
travertine, both of which can be highly polished. Sam-
ples of each were shown Mayor Alsop by Mr. Ogden.
The quarries also have revealed many interesting
fossils, and Smithsonian Institute research workers have
been constantly on hand to secure specimens, Mr. Ogden
stated, and the scientists have found tusks and perfectly
preserved bones of prehistoric animals in the quarries.
Plans for the extensive production of the stone are now
under way, and it is expected that 500,000 cubic feet
per year will be quarried. It is estimated that the known
available supply will last for sixty years, with the sur-
veys of the property owned by the company not yet
Officers of the company, other than Mr. Ogden, are
Judge John H. Carter, Sarasota, president and treasurer;
Major George L. Jones, Bradenton, second vice-president;
and George L. Yeoman, Detroit, Mich.; Winder Surrency,
Sarasota; L. E. Bissell, Bradenton, and M. C. Erwin,
Sarasota, as directors.
TRY ORANGE JUICE INSTEAD OF ICED TEA
A gentleman from California who has been touring
Florida and who ate luncheon at a local hotel within the
past week, made the comment that if all the glasses of
iced tea that he had seen since his arrival in Florida were
thrown out the window and Florida orange juice substi-
tuted, the orange industry in Florida would receive an
encouragement far beyond the realization of the average
citizen. Furthermore, he pointed to the use of orange
juice as a factor in promoting health. It is said to be a
mild laxative and yet does not fatten and has other quali-
ties that make it highly desirable as an article of food.
This comment is timely; the iced tea and the iced coffee
habit could be readily overcome if the pure orange juice
and grapefruit juice from Florida citrus fruits could
easily be obtained and at a reasonable price. Once again
the fact is brought home to us that we do not take advan-
tage of the opportunities that are wide open for the
encouragement and promotion of well-established indus-
tries. That the juice of the orange and the grapefruit
can be preserved and served at will every day in the year
has now been fully demonstrated; the problem would
seem to be one of quantity and at a price within the
reach of the most modest pocketbook. These juices can
be made a popular and a staple drink if handled properly
and scientifically so as to place the privilege, for it is a
privilege, within the use of everybody. Why not then
discard iced tea and iced coffee for the more healthful
SUMMER TOURISTS FROM GEORGIA AND
ALABAMA SHOW BIG INCREASE
(St. Augustine Record)
Jacksonville, Fla., July 28-(AP)-Last month the
cars from the state of Georgia crossing the St. Johns river
bridge here numbered 1,942 and carried 8,034 passengers,
compared to only 344 cars during June, 1926, according
to data compiled by the Florida State Chamber of Com-
During the same period the number of Alabama cars
to cross this bridge totaled 423, as compared to only 104
cars in June last year, it was also revealed.
Officials of the state chamber attribute the increase to
the improved highways in Georgia, Alabama and West
Florida, which, they state, better enables motorists from
the neighboring states to come down over the week-ends.
In revealing these figures that chamber of commerce
urged the officials of Jacksonville and other cities to make
an extensive drive for summer tourists from these states,
many of whom they claim can be induced to spend their
vacations at Florida beaches.
FLORIDA REVIEW 3
iaoriba -R.d iefi
Published Semi-Monthly by
Bureau of Immigration, Department of Agriculture
NATHAN MAYO.. Commissioner of Agriculture
T. J. BROOKS. ....... ...Director Bureau of Immigration
PHIL S. TAYLOR........ .... ....Advertising Editor
Entered as second-class matter, June 25, 1926, at the Post Office
at Tallahassee, Florida, under the Act of June 6, 1920.
Will be mailed free to anyone upon request.
SEPTEMBER 5, 1927
MULTIPLYING DEMAND FOR FRESH
Consumption Nearly Doubled Within Past Ten Years
(Vero Beach Journal)
According to a study just completed by the Bureau of
Railway Economics covering railroad shipments of sixteen
leading fruits and vegetables grown in this country, the
consumption of such things by the American public is
now almost twice what it was ten years ago. During the
years 1917 to 1919 the annual average rail shipments of
these sixteen products amounted to 478,540 carloads; for
the years 1924 to 1926 the annual average was 848,099
carloads, showing an increase of 77 per cent as compared
with ten years ago, although the total population in-
creased only 12 per cent.
The greatest increase took place in those fruits and
vegetables which, because of their highly perishable na-
ture, have heretofore been regarded as luxuries or deli-
cacies, but have now become items of common consump-
tion. The most striking increases were shown in the con-
sumption of the more perishable products. The four
leading products and their rate of increased consumption
were: lettuce 440 per cent; grapes, 216 per cent; grape-
fruit, 202 per cent, and celery, 188 per cent.
The increase in the consumption of these early vege-
tables and fruits will inevitably continue to expand as
better facilities for marketing them are developed. The
importance of this growing demand is vital to the fruit
and vegetable growing districts in this state. The sec-
tions where these products can be produced most eco-
nomically will reap the greatest profit from their produc-
JAY FARMER SAYS CROP OF VETCH IS
Mr. S. J. Weeks and his daughter, Miss Beulah, who
had the distinction of winning first place among all the
4-H Club Girls of Florida, as the most healthy girl in the
state, and was crowned "Florida's Health Queen" at Tal-
lahassee a few weeks ago, were Milton visitors Thursday.
In addition to being the parents of the healthiest girl in
the state, Mr. and Mrs. Weeks are both teachers in Santa
Rosa county schools.
However, it was not of the charms of Miss Weeks, or
of the pedagogical abilities of Mr. Weeks, that we started
to discuss, but rather his work as a farmer, and especially
his report of the value of growing vetch as a soil-building
Mr. Weeks farms about one hundred acres, mostly to
corn, although he is not neglecting cotton, velvet beans,
cane, sweet potatoes, garden truck and vetch. In this
connection he states that he has been growing vetch for
several years, and that each year he is better pleased with
the results. This past fall, in October, he sowed broad-
cast a portion of a rectangular field to vetch, a portion to
oats, and left a portion without seeding. The vetch fur-
nished excellent pasture throughout February and March.
In April he cut a hay crop from it that yielded about half
a ton to the acre, of hay equal to alfalfa, and then plowed
the stubble under. After two weeks, which time was
allowed in order that the cut-worms might die out, he
planted this entire field to corn, running the rows across
the plots that had been planted to vetch, to oats, and left
laying out. And right here is where the value of the
vetch showed up. He states that the corn planted on the
vetch portion of the field is fully three times as thrifty
as that planted where the oats had been, and at least
twice as good as that on all the fallow ground. In his
opinion, in addition to furnishing two months of good
pasture and a fair hay crop, the vetch will at least double
his yield of corn.
Mr. Weeks' experience in this matter should be of real
value to other Santa Rosa farmers.
PEOPLE WILL SMOKE
It requires more labor to raise an acre of tobacco than
any other major crop. An acre of Burley tobacco, yield-
ing from 800 to 1,000 pounds, requires for growing, pre-
paring for market, and marketing, from 350 to 400 hours
of labor. Cotton can be raised with about half of the
amount of labor, and good old Irish potatoes will take
less than 100 hours of labor per acre.
FLORIDA A NATIONAL PROVIDER
We glean some interesting facts from a bulletin of the
State Chamber of Commerce, usually filled with timely
Do the people of Florida generally know that-
Florida produces 81 per cent of the nation's grape-
Florida produces 61 per cent of the nation's early
Florida produces 21 per cent of the nation's water-
Florida produces 41 per cent of the nation's table cu-
Florida produces 24 per cent of the nation's table to-
Florida produces 29 per cent of the nation's eggplant?
Florida produces 38 per cent of the nation's early snap
Florida produces 16 per cent of the nation's early Irish
Florida produces 32 per cent of the nation's celery?
And that one state, Florida, furnished 8,000 of the
nation's total annual output of 21,000 cars of celery, and
that one county in that state, Seminole, furnished 6,000
of those 8,000 cars?
If the people of Florida generally know these facts it
is well that they join in telling the people of all the other
states about Florida's productivity and how easily it can
One Floridan recently summed up the argument in this
sentence: "Anyone who can succeed in poultry keeping
anywhere can succeed in Florida; and he can do it with
less work and less capital than anywhere else in the
Nevertheless, some capital is needed, real work must
be done, and there are lessons to be learned in the school
of experience, and those who are not willing to pay a
reasonable price for success will sooner or later come to
the end of their rope in Florida just as they would in any
other state. Not so quickly, however, the Floridan will
assure you, because nowhere else, he thinks, can the cost
of living be reduced to so low a figure in case of neces-
sity, meaning that one can hang on longer when things
are not breaking right. Nowhere else, he will continue,
can one get by with so little in the way of poultry hous-
ing; nowhere else can the cash cost of production be re-
duced to so low a figure; nowhere else are climate condi-
tions so generally favorable. And in spite of all these
advantages, millions of dollars worth of eggs and table
fowls are imported annually, which means (or should
mean) a good home market. These are strong claims.
HEWN TIMBER SHIPPED HENCE TO PORTS
Hewn timber formed a part of the immense cargo
which the Italian steamship Santa Rosa sailed out of the
harbor with early yesterday. The ship secured clearance
papers late Saturday and filled her bunkers with fine
steaming coal before leaving.
The steamer cleared for six ports in Italy, as follows:
For Genoa, with 227,000 superficial feet pitch pine
lumber, 32,000 superficial feet sawn timber, 2,000 cubic
feet hewn timber; for Leghorn, with 231,000 superficial
feet sawn timber; for Santa Stefani, with 148,000 super-
ficial feet sawn timber, 18,000 cubic feet hewn timber,
90,000 superficial feet pitch pine lumber; for Civitavec-
chia, with 304,000 superficial feet sawn timber, 223,000
superficial feet pitch pine lumber; for Messina, with
313,000 superficial feet sawn timber and 180,000 super-
ficial feet pitch pine lumber.
The steamer Jolee remained a day or two in port to
load a consignment of 80,000 superficial feet pitch pine
lumber and 295,000 superficial feet sawn timber.
The barge Jackson was the first clearance in the new
month of August, leaving in tow of the steamer Richmond
for Havana, with a lumber shipment of 150,000 superficial
feet of pitch pine lumber and 60,000 building brick.
SOUTH AMERICA IS URGED AS MARKET
FOR LOCAL CITRUS
(Plant City Courier)
Bartow, Aug. 1-(AP)-Consideration of South Amer-
ica as a market for Florida citrus products was urged on
shippers and growers in this state by William M. Moran,
of Buenos Aires, in a statement to the Bartow Record.
American citrus is eagerly sought in the South Amer-
ican capitals, he said, and high prices are paid. "The
city of Buenos Aires affords a wonderful market for fruits
of all kinds," Mr. Moran said. "For the best oranges we
had to be content with the comparatively small number
of oranges produced in the state of Bahia, in the Republic
of Brazil. They are of very fine quality, but are not
produced in quantities sufficient to fill the demand of
Brazil, the Argentine and other South American coun-
"Large quantities of citrus fruits were required to be
imported from Europe and Northern Africa, but about
two years ago the California producers established agen-
cies in Buenos Aires, first to exploit Sunkist raisins, then
Sunkist prunes, and later Sunkist oranges, and they have
built up a fine trade, judging from the number of places
in the city which handle California fruits.
"Florida oranges are not to be had, though last year I
found grapefruit from Winter Haven and Mount Dora
on the Buenos Aires market retailing for the equivalent
of about sixty cents of our money. This made them
taste very much like money, especially to Americans. But
notwithstanding the high price they went like the pro-
verbial hot cakes, and I feel that if right steps were taken
a good trade could be built up in the Argentine, Uruguay,
Paraguay and the southern states of Brazil if the Florida
growers went about it with that end in view.
"California advertises its fruits very liberally in those
South American cities in which they have established
markets, and that helps sales of course."
8,000 CATTLE CHANGE HANDS
(Haines City Daily)
Wauchula, July 30.-(Special.)-A herd of approxi-
mately 8,000 range cattle was reported sold here this
week to John Collier, Zolfo Springs capitalist and prop-
erty holder, by Roberts Brothers, Zolfo Springs, for the
reported sum of $100,000.
The deal was one of the largest closed in this section
in several years, and crews already are in the woods
changing the brands.
Under the terms of the transaction, made public here
yesterday, Mr. Collier paid half the sum in cash, the
balance to be paid when the work of changing the brands
Though Hardee county is considered a trucking and
citrus growing center, this was formerly in the heart of
the cattle country, and even today Roberts Brothers ship
between 1,000 and 1,500 cattle annually.
It is said the range this year is exceedingly good and
prospects for considerable sums from the sale of cattle
The cattle sold this week are in Hardee, DeSoto, Char-
lotte and Glades counties.
THE RABBIT INDUSTRY
According to a bulletin issued by the United States
Department of Agriculture, rabbit meat can be produced
at less cost than any other kind of meat, even cheaper
than poultry. The principal thing is to start right, and
it is no harder than to raise any other kind of animal-
not as hard as with some. They are usually most docile.
There are several standard varieties, of which the Belgian
Hare and Flemish Giant lead, some of them weighing as
high as fifteen pounds. An animal of that size ought to
supply a liberal quantity of meat for a family. Rabbits
are raised on a large scale for meat in Belgium, Holland,
Denmark, France and England for years. The skin is
used for the manufacture of fur garments.
FLORIDA REVIEW 5
HOG RAISING IN JEFFERSON IMPROVING
Howard Fetterolf Shipping Gilts and Young Boars to
(Special to Times-Union)
Monticello, July 27.-Howard Fetterolf, the Jefferson
county farmer and breeder of 0. I. C. hogs, who made
the first ton litter in 180 days ever reported in Florida,
is now shipping gilts and young boars north as well as to
many points in the southeast and some to south Florida.
He has even shipped some of his hogs to Pennsylvania,
where he raised them for many years before he came to
Florida. This week he shipped a splendid young boar to
Hugh T. Williams, of Danville, Va.; one gilt to J. H.
Manley, of Frostproof, and two gilts to E. G. Long, at
Many of his gilts and boars have been bought by hog
raisers around Moultrie and other Georgia localities. The
pure bred hog business once flourished in Florida, but it
has been in a slump for several years. Mr. Fetterolf's
experience shows that the southeast needs and wants more
good pure bred hogs, and Florida breeders can make a
good profit again by producing not only the popular
O. I. C. hogs, but Poland Chinas, Durocs and Berkshires.
Mr. Fetterolf has bought a fine young boar from a breeder
in the north to introduce a new strain to further improve
his herd of Ohio Improved Chesters.
PINE WAS USED IN WHITE HOUSE
Wood From Florida Able to Resist Wear and Tear of
(St. Petersburg Times)
Floridians and others in the long-leaf pine belt of the
Southeast have just learned that this section of the coun-
try was called on for lumber in the building of the White
House at Washington, D. C., which, after 113 years of
service, has now been found to be ready for another cen-
tury of life, proving the durability of the southern wood
in the heart of the nation, the capital.
W. F. Lusk, construction superintendent of the N. P.
Severin Company, Chicago, which has the contract for
reconstruction work in connection with the renovation of
the White House, has taken note of the trusses of south-
ern pine used in the roof of the building.
"The trusses were made of the heart stock of the tree,"
said Mr. Lusk, "and far as wood is concerned they would
last for years to come. But the old-fashioned method of
joining the lower and top chords of the trusses has weak-
ened them at the intersections. The heart stock of the
tree was used for its strength and toughness.
"Even today heart stock pine can be obtained with a
specific gravity so much greater than water that it will
sink to the bottom like lead, and pitch pine timber cut
from heart stock will live exposed to the atmosphere al-
The lumbermen of Florida and other southeastern
states who handle long-leaf pine, or the southern pitch
pine from which turpentine and naval stores are ob-
tained, have been conducting a systematic advertising
campaign to accentuate these values in their product,
and the White House discovery has given them a remark-
able foundation for their claims.
Florida has about 15,000,000 feet in long leaf pine,
cypress and other woods, largely of the pitch variety,
which drip $50,000,000 a year into the assets of the state.
There are several varieties of mangoes, which vary
greatly in size and character. The smallest in size are
no larger than small peaches, while the larger variety
will range from four to five pounds in weight. The mango
is oval, heart or kidney shaped, or round, and sometimes
long and slender, depending on the variety. The skin is
smooth and thicker than that of a peach, coming yellow
on the surface, when ripe, but varying greatly in color.
Some varieties of mangoes are delicately colored a deep
yellow or apricot, with a crimson blush on one cheek,
while others are an unattractive greenish color when ripe.
The aroma of a mango is spicy and alluring, indicative
of the flavor of the fruit. The flesh is yellow or orange
in color, juicy (it is sometimes said that you need a bath-
tub to eat a mango), often fibrous in the seedlings. The
fine East Indian varieties are entirely free from fibre and
of smooth melting texture.
The flavor of the mango cannot be described accurate-
ly. It is rich and luscious in the best varieties, sweet,
resembling the peach, but with sufficient acidity to pre-
vent clinging to the palate, and resembles the pineapple.
The mango tree is evergreen. Seedlings on the coral
rock of the extreme south Dade county often reach im-
mense size. Trees hundreds of years old are common in
the Orient, but the comparatively recent introduction of
the mango into south Florida makes old trees less com-
mon than in India.
Budded or grafted trees do not grow so large as do
seedlings and are shorter lived. Growth is not continuous
throughout any long season, but takes place in frequently
recurring periods. It is a common occurence for one side
of the tree to be active growth while the other side is
dormant. The young leaves are usually wine red or cop-
pery in color and in from December to April.
PIGEON FANCIERS ORGANIZE IN TAMPA
(Ft. Myers Press)
Tampa, Fla.-Pigeon fanciers of Tampa have formed
an association, with the following officers: E. W. Hoke,
president; G. B. Long, vice-president, and G. P. William-
son, secretary-treasurer. The charter membership is 20.
The organization meets on the first and third Fridays of
each month and its members seek to promote the breed-
ing and raising of fancy and utility pigeons.
MELBOURNE LAYS CLAIM TO STATE'S
How big was the largest matermelon ever grown in
Florida? Where and when? That's something the Florida
State Chamber of Commerce would like to ascertain.
So far as this season is concerned, Indian River county
claims the honor, and at Melbourne, where the huge melon
was exhibited, they assert it was the largest ever pro-
duced by Florida soil. Indian River's melon, grown by
George A. Braddock, weighed ninety-two pounds, and
there are plenty of witnesses to testify to that fact, be-
cause a business house in Melbourne borrowed a scale,
mounted the melon on the platform and kept it on exhi-
bition a week. Braddock grew many large melons this
season, a number of them having weighed more than
CAPITAL AND FLORIDA
"Sound economists and business men of the United
States are investing, and recommending Florida invest-
ments," declares the Orlando Reporter-Star in an edi-
torial. The Star also says that Florida has made more
substantial fortunes for sensible investors during the past
twenty-five years than any other state in the Union. And
this is not to be denied.
"Go into any community in Florida and make a survey
of the business and industrial interests and you will find
men of the highest type and finest training in possession
of both business and industry; with industry is included
agriculture and horticulture. And these men are boost-
ers for Florida-because they know the state," asserts the
Star-Reporter. Going further, the paper says:
"No state in the Union has invested so much money in
fine hotels during the past dozen years as Flbrida; and
this investment has been in response to a demand; the
best class of tourists in the world come to Florida. Capi-
talists outside of Florida, sensing the rising popularity of
Florida as a winter resort, have come here with their
money and built many fine hotels and apartments. Men
of money have not hesitated on account of any deficiency
in Florida securities. What they have recently balked at
was the manner in which some men and some institutions
undertook to skyrocket real estate prices in some locali-
ties, and the absence of judgment that marked some of
the transactions of this type of men.
"Much has been said about the taxes in Florida; and
yet a comparison of taxes in a majority of the counties of
Florida with well-developed counties of other states will
reflect credit to Florida. In some localities where the
brakes have already been put on public expenditures and
a new economy put into practice there will be noted a
substantial increase in valuations. And Florida has fewer
forms of taxes to impose on property owners and invest-
ors than most states."
The splendid way in which Florida has gone forward
with its building of fine hotels, substantial business
houses, schools and homes, is the principal reason for the
investor seeking to place his money in Florida property.
This is the day for the wise capitalist who seeks to reap
ample reward for his activity in a fertile field. More
money is coming into the state today and will keep on
coming because Florida has always and will always merit
the confidence of the careful investor.
(Palm Beach Post)
Florida citrus growers might find it highly advan-
tageous to adopt some such methods as now obtain in
California for the utilization of by-products of their
groves. Each year there is a tremendous waste in citrus
products, but on the western coast producers are learning
that considerable money is to be made by recovering
usable substances from cull fruits.
A decade ago, in the areas of heaviest production of
citrus fruits in California, great quantities of oranges
and lemons not only were discarded as cull fruit, but
these rejections had to be carted away at a cost. Today
practically all of this sub-standard fruit is being used in
numerous ways, returning to the growers a profit instead
of a charge.
The remarkable growth of the citrus by-products in-
dustry which has developed in the last ten years is
founded on the results of scientific research. Processes
have been found by the bureau of chemistry of the United
States Department of Agriculture for recovering citric
acid as well as other valuable substances such as oil,
pectin, juice and pulp from oranges and lemons. The
commercial application of these processes not only en-
ables the industry to save the fruit that for one reason
or another is undesirable for market, but to use market-
able fruit at a profit when there is a surplus. It is esti-
mated that 30 per cent of the citrus production of the
United States is classed as culls, so that much of the
prosperity of the growers depends on a profitable utiliza-
tion of this unmarketable fruit.
Attention in Florida is given in a small way to this
vital subject, but with the by-product industry now well
established in California under processes highly profit-
able, it is high time that the growers of this state prepare
to turn the loss of unmarketable citrus fruits into a fine
COWS VS. COTTON
An object lesson which might apply to other sections
was recently given in Georgia by a Holstein cow which
produced in a year milk equal in value to 19 bales of
This cow gave 1,914 gallons of milk, retailed at 60
cents a gallon, amounting to $1,148. At 12 cents a
pound, the price at which a large part of the 1926 crop
was marketed, 19 bales of cotton would have brought
$1,410, or $8 less than the cow's product.
Commenting on this comparison, the Augusta Chronicle
said: "To talk about agriculture being prostrated when
we have the cow, the hog and the hen, to say nothing of
fruits and vegetables, is a confession of impotency and
cowardice that should make us ashamed of ourselves. We
need to wake up."
GADSDEN COUNTY BEANS
With a total of 1,600 hampers of the Kentucky Wonder
variety of beans shipped last week from Quincy through
the J. I. Reynolds Company and an estimated total of
1,000 crates for the present week, the bean market re-
mains active, while the quality is considerably improved,
says the Quincy Times, which adds that the price during
the past three weeks has ranged from $1.25 to $2.50 per
hamper. Fully fifty per cent of the beans now being
marketed are from old vines which have been bearing
since May, the Times says. Indications now are that a
considerable acreage will be set to beans by sun tobacco
growers following the harvesting of the tobacco crop, and
prospects are that the fall crop will be adequate to supply
all normal demands. By next week the new squash crop
will begin to move. Quite a number of acres have been
planted to this vegetable in the county, and growers are
expecting good returns. "While beans constitute prac-
tically all the local produce being shipped by the Reynolds
Company, sweet potatoes, blueberries and grapes from
Western Florida are being handled. The late crop of
corn is now maturing, and with the market opening in
South Florida, heavy express shipments of green corn
will start in a few days," the Times adds.
FLORIDA REVIEW 7
A VASTLY IMPORTANT FLORIDA DEVEL-
New Product Is Opening Great Industry In This State
(Ft. Lauderdale Greetings)
Years ago B. G. Dahlberg, of Chicago, patented a new
building material, celotex, that has already attained an
important status in the building industry of the United
States and has extended to Puerto Rico, where a large
celotex factory is about completed.
Celotex is manufactured of bagasse, the waste mate-
riel left in the manufacture of sugar cane. Bagasse is
the coarse fibre of the cane stalk remaining after the juice
has been entirely extracted by grinding and then passing
through powerful steel rollers.
Fortunately for Florida, Mr. Dahlberg sought new
fields for domestic sugar cane production and personally
studied this state. He was attracted through personal
visits by the possibilities of the Everglades, and then sent
engineers and chemists to study the field and analyze
all its conditions and possibilities. The result was the
purchase of forty-three thousand acres of rich Ever-
glades land in Lee and Hendry counties, Florida, on
the west shore of Lake Okeechobee, the greatest fresh
water body in the south. In addition 5,000 acres of
land was bought on the lower and southeast corner of
Lake Okeechobee, near Canal Point, where sugar cane
production has been carried on in a small way for a num-
ber of years and a small sugar mill was erected several
years ago. This enterprise, however, was never very
successful, because complete water control has never been
secured in the Canal Point district. But the main object
in the purchase there was to secure seed cane, which is
the entire stock of mature cane, laid in furrows and
covered with soil, and then sprouts appear and roots
grow at each joint. Replanting under normal condi-
tions is required in Louisiana every two, three or four
years, but in the Everglades, replanting is normally re-
quired much less frequently. Here sugar cane condi-
tions are about as near perfect as can be found, as is also
true in Cuba.
FLORIDA LED 25 STATES IN MATTER OF
ROAD WORK DURING 1926
Washington, D. C., July 27 (A.P.)-Florida in 1926
led twenty-five states of the Union in new surfacing and
reconstruction of state road systems, according to statis-
tics just released by the Bureau of Public Roads, United
States Department of Agriculture.
The figures, it is stated, were based upon state reports
sent to the bureau during the past year. Florida's new
surfacing and reconstructing for the year totalled 349.5
miles. The total for the United States was 19,492.3.
In existing surfaced mileage at the end of 1926,
Florida led twenty-three states, with a mileage of 2,725.3
and in the total mileage of state systems, Florida stood
twenty-fifth with 5,654.
The total mileage in state systems last year was
287,928.2, and the existing surfaced mileage at the end
of the year was 2,725.3.
More than 13,600 miles of earth roads included in the
state highway systems were surfaced by the several high-
way departments, the report states. Of the 19,492 miles
surfaced last year, 13,664 miles was laid over former
earth roads, and 5,828 represented a rebuilding of old
The total mileage of surfaced roads in the state high-
way systems increased 18,205 during the year, the report
says. Of the increase, 4,541 represented no actual work
by the states, but consisted merely of mileage transferred
from county to state jurisdiction, statistical changes re-
sulting from resurveys, and so forth.
The figures made public referred to increases in sur-
faced mileage on the state highway systems only, and
did not include surfacing laid by the counties, or other
local governments. They do include, however, it was
stated, all work done with federal aid.
Of the 287,928.2 miles included in the state systems of
the country, 28,456 miles were graded and drained ac-
cording to engineering standards.
The state systems are now about 60 per cent initially
improved, says the report. The types of surfaced roads
existing at the end of 1926 were given as follows:
Sandclay and topsoil, 11,396 miles; gravel, chert and
shale, 79,286 miles; waterbound macadam, 18,428 miles;
bituminious macadam, 12,927 miles; sheet asphalt, 890
miles; bituminous concrete, 4,815 miles; cement concrete,
31,935 miles; brick, 3,215 miles, and asphalt, wood and
stone block, 165.
PLANT CITY SEEN AS CENTER OF EGG
Local Poultrymen Hear Plan to Establish Cooperative
Organization Here Soon
(Plant City Courier)
Plant City was suggested as the logical local point
for a poultry group marketing organization proposed by
leading poultrymen to aid in solving marketing problems
at a meeting of poultrymen at the city hall Tuesday night.
The meeting was attended by a representative gather-
ing of poultry producers of the Plant City and East
Hillsborough sections. They expressed decided interest
in the proposed plan of forming a strong marketing asso-
ciation for this section of Florida.
A general outline of the plan and the need for organ-
ization of poultrymen to solve the marketing problem
was presented by R. S. Hanford, formerly manager of
the Fort Meade Chamber of Commerce, who is doing
much to develop the poultry industry in South Florida.
"Proper distribution of eggs and poultry products to
the various consuming centers of Florida and means for
storing eggs in the months of February, March and April,
will be the means of putting our industry on a more solid
basis," declared Mr. Hanford.
"Marketing Commissioner Rhodes suggests that three
or possibly four strong group marketing organizations be
formed in Florida as our state is too large for one or-
"If the various local organizations in this section of
Florida can be grouped together into a strong mar-
keting group and the products of their members graded,
and marketed as a quality product backed by a strong
guarantee, the poultry industry will take its place with
other industries of size in Florida."
Details of the group organization are now being
worked out by leading poultrymen in several counties, ac-
cording to the speaker, and a meeting of representatives
of the various local associations will be called in the
near future to discuss the final plans for the association.
Oscar E. Baynard presided at the meeting in the
absence of President J. G. Smith, who is suffering from
injuries sustained in an automobile accident ten days
ago. Delegates to the conference will be named at the
next regular meeting of the Hillsborough Poultry Asso-
8 FLORIDA REVIEW
DISCOVERY OF HOST POULTRY PEST IS
MADE BY FLORIDA WORKER
New Species of Cockroach Found To Be Intermediate
Home of Manson's Eye Worm
An intermediate host in the life cycle of Manson's eye
worm, a serious pest of poultry in certain sections of
Florida, has been discovered by Dr. D. A. Sanders, as-
sistant veterinarian of the Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Station. This host is Pycnoscelus surinamensis, a
species of cockroach. The eye worm passes part of its
existence in the body of the cockroach before it infests a
A laboratory for the study of the eye worm was
established at Bradenton in the spring of 1926. The site
was selected because of the prevalence of the eye worm
in that territory. Dr. Sanders immediately began his
investigations, which are still being continued.
During April, 1927, many insects, including the stick-
tight or southern chicken flea, mites, lice, water crabs,
sandflies, grub worms, and snails were examined in an
unsuccessful effort to find larval forms of the eye worm,
and thus complete the life cycle of this parasite. Finally,
specimens of the cockroach were examined and found to
contain larvae of the eye worm.
Larvae of the eye worm were transferred from the
bodies and thoracic cavities of roaches to the eyes of
chickens, with the result that the eye worms continued
to live, and assumed positions in which they are normally
found infesting the eye of chickens. Larvae of the worm
were also transferred from the bodies of roaches to the
mouth and tongue of chickens, and in a few hours it
was found that the eyes of the birds were infested, in-
dicating that the worms had passed from the month parts
to the eyes of the chickens. Dr. Sanders feels sure,
therefore, that infestation of chickens is accomplished
by the chickens eating or tearing up the bodies of in-
Manson's eye worm is a small, thread-like worm, about
one-half to three-fourths inch in length and about the
size of a fine sewing needle. It has been found infest-
ing the eyes of chickens in Dade, Glades, Okeechobee,
Manatee, Hillsborough, and Marion counties, and may be
distributed in other sections of the State.
In infested birds, the parasites are found in the tear
sac of the inner corner of the eye, beneath the third eye-
lid or winking membrane. The presence of these worms
in chickens often results in total blindness. The worms
are especially destructive to birds during the summer.
Early symptoms which occur in infested fowls con-
sist of a swelling of a lining membrane of the eye, exces-
sive flow of tears, disturbance of sight, and a nasal dis-
charge. The parasites, by their constant wriggling, pro-
duce a serious irritation to the eye, and infested birds
continuously wink the eye as if to discharge a foreign
body. The irritation produced also causes the bird to
scratch at the eye frequently with the feet, and to rub
the head on the feathers of the wing.
Latter stages of eye worm infestation consist of ulce-
ration and blindness. An examination of the eye at these
stages will not show the presence of the worms, since it
has been found that the worms, after producing the
damage, disappear down the tear duct and are swallowed
by the fowl.
One thing besides spending their surplus money, Flor-
ida crackers can get in the north that they don't get at
home is "sunstroke."
POULTRY COLONY GROWS STEADILY
Melbourne Project Already Has 23,000 Acres of Land
Melbourne, Fla., July 19.-(Special.) -Since organiza-
tion a few weeks ago, the Melbourne Poultry Colony, Inc.,
has been working quietly and steadily. More than 23,000
acres of land have been signed up and 12,000 more have
been offered the company on the same terms.
One million feet of lumber has been bought and moved
to the property. Two areas of land have been staked out.
The first of these is just west of Valkaria, the first 4,000
acres being developed there. The land is subdivided into
five and ten-acre farms, all of them located on 66-foot
right-of-way roads, more than four miles of which are
now in construction.
As soon as the roads are in use, actual construction will
be started on the poultry farms. Twenty-five farms, in-
cluding residences and chicken houses, will be erected
immediately, so as to establish a real community around
a central mammoth breeding farm. It is understood the
county will construct five miles of hard-surfaced road,
beginning at the Dixie highway at Valkaria and running
into and through the poultry colony land. The other sec-
tion of land being opened up by the poultry colony lies
directly west of Melbourne, four miles out on the Kissim-
mee highway and two miles south of that highway.
Machines and multigraphs, etc., have been acquired by
the poultry colony to inaugurate a very large letter cam-
paign for bringing the Melbourne Poultry Colony to the
attention of the 50,000 people who have shown their in-
terest in the agricultural possibilities of Florida by writ-
ing and asking for information concerning what this state
has to offer.
FLORIDA HAS A FUTURE UNRIVALED, IS
BELIEF OF DU PONT
(St. Cloud Tribune)
Florida has a future perhaps unrivaled by any other
state in America, according to the opinion of Alfred I.
du Pont, of Jacksonville, who during the last two or
three years has invested many millions of dollars in real
estate and other property in this state.
The opinion of Mr. du Pont is based on Florida's means
of attracting settlers and tourists faster than they have
ever been drawn to any other section of the country, as
he says, "today the entire country is on wheels and can
migrate with greater ease than ever before."
(Lake City Reporter)
The income tax collectors have the authority of Uncle
Sam back of them to ascertain the facts. It takes income
to keep the financial wheels rolling, and Florida has it.
The federal income tax receipts for Florida in 1926
This means little to most of us except that it is a
whale of a sum of money. But this is what it means.
Florida with 1.14 per cent of the population of the
United States, paid 1.52 per cent of the federal income
tax. Florida's per capital contribution was $32.08. The
average per capital for the whole United States was
$24.58. Florida exceeded this average by 30.5 per
cent. That is almost one-third. Florida is on the map
and has the resources to maintain herself there.
FLORIDA REVIEW 9
BUREAU OF IMMIGRATION DIRECTOR IS
OPTIMISTIC ABOUT TREND OF
South and Florida in Line for Increases in Trade
(By T. J. Brooks, Director Bureau of Immigration, in
To a great extent the commerce of the world is shift-
ing routes from east and west to north and south.
With apologies to Bishop Buckley's oft-quoted poem,
I would say:
"Southward the course of empire takes its way,
The first four acts already past;
A fifth shall close the drama with the day,
Time's noblest offspring is the last."
Trade routes are not easily changed. Europe was first
to develop trade with Latin America. Most ocean going
commerce has been carried in foreign bottoms. Foreign
owned ships were operated in the interest of their owners.
None plied between the two Americas.
For many years the citizens of the United States who
wanted to visit South America had to go to New York
and ship to some European port and then to South Amer-
ica, crossing the Atlantic twice (The Grace Line has made
it possible to go to Chile on American owned ships. They
are engaged in the nitrate business.)
European trade catered to the idiosyncrasies of the
Latin American trade to an extent that the business men
of the United States refused to do. Instances without
number could be cited. I will mention one as typical.
One of the largest collar manufacturers in the world sent
a representative to South America to secure orders. A
large order was turned in, but on condition that the num-
bers must conform to the system used in the country in
which the order was taken. The manufacturer turned
down the order peremptorily. Such arbitrary things as
this and the lack of direct shipping facilities kept us way
behind European countries in Latin American trade.
Things have changed since the World War.
Our annual average exports to Latin America for the
three year period of 1903-1905, inclusive, amounted to
$182,000,000. In 1914 our exports to these countries
was $232,000,000. In 1923 they amounted to $678,-
000,000; in 1924, $683,091,973; in 1925, $814,139,957,
and in 1926 $847,155,697. The two years of 1920 and
1921 were abnormal. The world war destroyed the ship-
ping of Continental Europe. For each of these two years
our Latin American exports mounted to more than a
billion dollars. This gave us a lead which could have been
kept but for the fact that American vessels cannot com-
pete with foreign vessels.
The reason for this is that the federal requirements of
American ships set a much higher standard for the various
employees on vessels than is found in any other country.
Our coastwise shipping is protected. No ship flying a
foreign flag can engage in coastwise trade. There is
also a differential tax on foreign bottoms as against those
of the United States. In spite of all this we are vastly
out-distanced in the world's ocean-going shipping.
What makes New York City what it is? Not agricul-
ture, not industries-it is shipping-commerce.
Now that trade advancement in the future is to be
much greater along north and south lines, the question
comes "what ports will get the lion's share of this vast
shipping business?" Unless the South sleeps upon its
natural advantages, southern ports, among which those
of Florida should have a goodly share, will get this trade.
What We Need
What we need is direct passenger and freight service
between southern ports and Latin American ports. It is a
case of two things developing together and each waiting
on the other. Were the trade already developed, the ships
would be supplied. Were the ships supplied, the trade
would be developed. Were railroad builders to wait for
a country to be developed before tracks were laid, the
development would wait. Railroad builders do not wait.
They build the roads and wait for trade to be developed.
The government-owned merchant marine could very well
be operated at a loss for years in order to build up a
Some of our leading articles of export to Latin Amer-
ica, as shown by the value of shipments during the ten
months ending with October, 1926, are shown in the
M eats and lard.. ....... ..............
Condensed milk .....................
Evaporated milk .. ... ......
E ggs . .. .... .
Leather and leather goods .. ...
Grains and grain products.........
Sugar .. ... .
Autom obile tires ..................
Cotton lint products.......... .
.. ............ 2,341,391
.. ............ ..... 35,038,856
..... ...... 2,212,374
.. ... ... 6,814,859
........... .. .. 37,722,207
Southern pine lum ber ..... ............................... 13,358,461
Coal ...... ....... ........................... 13,712,157
Petroleum products .................... .. .............. 20,907,657
K erosene .. ...... ....................................... 8,584,620
Gas and fuel oil............. ...... ... ............... 12,420,794
Cement ............ ......................... ... 1,977,575
Tin plate ..... ................. ............. .. 3,934,472
Railway rails .. ... ........ ................ 2,526,677
W ires .. .. .. ... ........... ... 4,413,019
Sew ing m machines ............................................. 4,237,116
T ypew writers ......................... ........... .......... 3,295,590
Tractors and trucks........ .. .. .................... 16,041,195
Automobiles ........... .. .... .. 37,403,229
(St. Augustine Record)
It requires no process of alchemy, no wizardry, no
imagination to realize the strides Florida has made in the
past ten years, and to become fully cognizant of the
position she now holds in relation to the balance of the
United States. The apt expression, "figures never lie,"
finds application in the recent announcement from Wash-
ington that Florida ranks twenty-third among all the
states with her financial resources of over $273,000,000.
Twenty-third may not sound like such a commendable
ranking. To think that 22 other states have an edge on
Florida does not appear at first glance as a cue for re-
joicing. But when it further disclosed that such states
as Alabama, Georgia, New Hampshire, Virginia and the
Carolinas are among the other twenty-five, the honor of
twenty-third place is more obvious.
Florida is a young state measured by progress. In
the last five years, she has outdistanced a host of other
states who had already supposed their place in the sun
secure. In the next five years she will undoubtedly pass
still others on her way to a ranking with the first five
states in the Union.
She is entitled by area, natural resources and climate-
the yard sticks of possible development-to such a place.
10 FLORIDA REVIEW
FLORIDA EIGHTH IN INCOMES
In the matter of taxable incomes, Florida qualifies
as the first state in the South and the eighth state in the
Union. This statement may seem surprising at first
glance, but it is true-and verified by the official state-
ment on income taxes just issued by the Bureau of In-
Florida, for this year's taxation, reported total tax-
able net income of $595,655,711, represented by 57,699
returns, with total tax payments of $28,857,801. This far
exceeds the totals of any other Southern state. Next to
Florida in the South is Texas, with $380,907,846 tax-
In comparison with all the states of the Union, Florida
stands eighth. It is exceeded only by Illinois, Massa-
chusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Ohio and
Florida also shows up well in the matter of large in-
comes, having representatives in all the higher brackets,
that is to say, with incomes of $100,000 and over, and
with one in the $1,500,000 to $2,000,000 a year class.
The figures reveal the large amount of money made in
Florida in 1926. When the taxable incomes of a state
aggregate more than a half billion dollars, that state
must assume considerable importance as a money-making
So, when we hear "knocks" on Florida, the suggestion
that the state and everybody in it is "broke," we have
only to reply that, in the net income of its citizens and
business enterprises, Florida is the first state in the South
and the eighth state in the United States.
Editor Miami Daily News: When a vice president of
the second largest bank in Chicago speaks in unstinted
praise of Miami and of Florida it means something to us.
When, in addition thereto, the best financial paper of that
metropolis publishes this article, it means even more to
us who have the best interests of our city and state at
The article bears repeating and I am taking the liberty
of enclosing a verbatim copy thereof.-O. F. Weber,
Miami, Fla., May 17, 1927.
(Editor's Note.-The article to which Mr. Weber refers
appeared in "The Economist" May 14 and is herewith re-
FLORIDA HAS FUTURE-OLESON
Vice President of First National Bank Glorifies South
John P. Oleson, vice president of the First National
Bank, bronzed from exposure to sun and the Gulf Stream
during a vacation of two months spent in Florida, and
feeling fit to cope with business problems during the re-
mainder of the year, glorifies the climate and natural
beauties of the state which is now in process of recovery
from hurricane and land booms of 1926. "The people of
Florida are now going through the same process of liqui-
dation and reorganization that we did here several years
ago during the period of deflation in 1920 and 1921," he
said. "Things they believed to have a certain value have
turned out to be less than their estimates and they are
now adjusting themselves to their changed surroundings
and business conditions. The inflation in land values has
given way to more conservative appraisements, and busi-
ness and banking there is now gradually reaching a solid
base. The climate is in itself a big asset in attracting the
leisure class and tourists, and the productive character of
the land assures ample revenues to those who till the soil.
In this respect the West Coast with its hinterland has an
advantage from an agricultural standpoint over the east
coast. I spent most of my vacation at Sasasota, but took
frequent motor trips to the East Coast and in Miami and
Palm Beach the bankers I met said banking institutions
which survived the early storms were in excellent con-
dition and prosperous. The hurricane left its imprint on
the East Coast, and notably around Miami, but the re-
covery there speaks volumes for the spirit and activities
of the people. It is a most marvelous country and speak-
ing for myself it has an unequalled climate."
DEMAND FOR FLORIDA FIBRE IS
Commissioner Mayo Receives More Requests About Raw
Tallahassee, Aug. 7.-Northern purchasers of fibre and
fibre materials are showing increased interest in Florida
as a raw market, according to Nathan Mayo, Commis-
sioner of Agriculture.
His office is receiving an increasingly large number of
requests for information as to sources of Florida fibres,
he said, and some firms are asking his opinion as to the
possibilities of developing the raw material market for
"The bulk of my inquiries seek information as to the
sources from which palmetto and vegetable fibres may
be obtained," the commissioner said. "I have a list of
those who have written me saying that they have sucn
fibres to dispose of and I send this list to each firm re-
questing information, but evidently the demand is
Interest manifested in this industry augurs well for the
future development, the commissioner said. Products
made from palmetto and vegetable fibre are becoming
increasingly popular, judging from the efforts to find new
sources of raw materials, he said, and Florida is equipped
to furnish an almost unlimited supply.
CULTIVATES CROP OF APPLES NEAR
Clermont, Aug. 5 (Special).-Horticulturists and the
public generally will be interested to learn that apples
are being successfully grown in the Clermont community,
L. J. Snarr, whose home faces Lake Minneola, having a
crop of several bushels of choice red Astrachians, which
he is now marketing. Mr. Snarr has been a resident of
this community for about six years and during that time
has carried on much experimental work in agriculture
and horticulture and his success in producing the red
Astrachians is the result of grafting buds sent down from
the north on the native haw. The budding in some man-
ner has produced a seedless, and so far not one seed has
been found in the entire crop, of the many used for pies
and table purposes.
Another peculiarity of the red Astrachian is that the
apples grow in clusters. One of the greatest drawbacks
to the apple crop, declares Mr. Snarr, is that the birds
make frequent and regular raids on the tree, but aside
from this he is of the opinion that proper culture and
care might make the apple another Florida crop.
FLORIDA REVIEW 11
RAISED THREE CROPS OF CORN IN YEAR
Fort Meade Man Demonstrates Possibilities of Florida
The possibilities of Florida soil and climate in the rais-
ing of corn was effectually demonstrated this season by
a farmer near Fort Meade. The Leader of that place
tells the story:
L. S. Woodruff, who lives on his place 2 miles west of
town, surprised us yesterday by coming into the office
bearing two giant stalks of Hastings prolific corn. The
stalks measured 10 and 12 feet, one contained five ears
of corn and the other eight ears, all pretty well developed
into the roasting ear stage-think of it, 13 roasting ears
from two stalks of corn!
And that's not all. Mr. Woodruff says this is the
second crop of corn on this particular acre this season.
The first crop has already been marketed, the second crop
is fast disappearing and the third crop is just now com-
ing on. Think of it, three fine crops of corn in a single
And this is not all. He says he can and does raise just
about everything on his ten acres of truck land here as
he formerly grew in Georgia, his former home. He is a
real dirt farmer and likes his job. His place is just across
the hard road from J. W. White's grape vineyard and
White Leghorn ranch. He purchased this tract from B.
O. Woodward and is proud of his piece of ground.
HOW CAN WE FIGURE A HEN'S VALUE?
(By 0. B. Whitaker, in Florida Grower)
Several years ago I was giving a teachers' examination
in Missouri, using "State Questions." One of these ques-
tions was: "Other things being equal, what is the relative
value of two hens, one a 100-egg hen and the other a
As nearly as I remember, about half the answers were
that a 200-egg hen is worth twice as much as a 100-egg
hen. The other half of the answers were various. The
question has never been satisfactorily answered, yet upon
the wise consideration of this question depends success in
What IS the relative value of a 100-egg hen and a
200-egg hen? It is fairly estimated that generally in the
United States a hen must lay 90 eggs a year to pay for
her proper keeping. Accepting that as our basis, the
100-egg hen would have at the end of her first laying
year 10 eggs to her credit, while the 200-egg hen would
have to her credit 110 eggs, and would be worth there-
fore 11 times as much as the 100-egg hen. But only a
small part of our hens are marketed at the end of one
year. So let us consider their relative value for two
Hens will lay 10 per cent fewer eggs their second year.
Therefore the 100-egg hen will lay 90 eggs and the 200-
egg hen will lay 180 eggs the second year. The 100-egg
hen will lay 190 eggs in two years, and have to her credit
just 10 eggs, while the 200-egg hen will lay 380 eggs
and have to her credit 200 eggs. The 200-egg hen, then,
on a two years' basis, is worth just 20 times as much as
the 100-egg hen.
The third year a hen will lay two-thirds as many eggs
as the second year. The 100-egg hen, therefore, will lay
in her third year 60 eggs, while the 200-egg hen will lay
120 eggs. On a three-year basis, the 200-egg hen will
have to her credit 230 eggs, while the 100-egg hen will
represent a loss of the value of 20 eggs.
Nor is that all. The 100-egg hen lays her eggs during
the spring months, when eggs are cheap. The 200-egg
hen lays nearly all the year, and a large part of her eggs
are laid in October, November, December and January,
while the 100-egg hen is loafing, and when eggs are worth
twice as much. Therefore, the eggs laid by the 200-egg
hen are worth on the average about one-half more per
dozen than are the eggs laid by the 100-egg hen.
On a two years' basis (which is probably the fairest
basis for estimating) the 200-egg hen is worth 30 times
as much as the 100-egg hen. Then, too, the eggs from a
200-egg hen are in greater demand for hatching than are
the eggs from a 100-egg hen, which, except for raising
meat fowls are worth more to eat than to set. The hatch-
ing eggs from a 200-egg hen are cheap at 10 cents or
even 20 cents each, while the hatching eggs from a 100-
egg hen would be dear as a gift-except for meat fowls.
SUPERVISOR GIVES SYSTEM OF FEEDING
BIRDS IN CONTEST
(Plant City Courier)
Chipley, Fla., May 30.-(Courier Special.)-The feeds
and feeding practices used in the first Florida National
Egg-Laying Contest are believed to have helped out con-
siderably in getting an average egg production of 54 per
cent for the first seven months of the contest. Thinking
that perhaps they will be of interest to poultrymen over
the state, E. F. Stanton, supervisor of the contest, ex-
plains them here.
At the beginning of the contest last November, the
mash feed used consisted of 100 pounds bran, 100 pounds
oat flour, 75 pounds 55 per cent meat scrap, 25 pounds
dried buttermilk, 3 pounds salt, and 3 pounds sulphur.
At the end of three months the dried milk was replaced
with semi-solid buttermilk, and the amount of meat scrap
was increased to 100 pounds. This has been found to
give slightly better egg production. Three pounds of
semi-solid per day for each 100 hens is fed, mixed with
water and used to moisten the mash. This feed is given
The morning feed consisted of sprouted oats for the
first five months, and now the oats are simply being
soaked in water overnight before being fed. Green feed
has been given in the morning when obtainable. Each
pen has two yards. One is sowed to oats while the hens
are running in the other, and except in times of very dry
weather the hens usually had some green oats to graze.
The scratch feed, consisting of equal parts of wheat
and yellow corn chops, is fed at night in straw litter.
During the summer the scratch feed will consist of two
parts wheat to one part of yellow corn chops, as less corn
is needed in warm weather. About one quart of scratch
is fed to each pen at a feeding, slightly more being given
to heavier breeds.
Grit, shell and charcoal are always before the birds in
hoppers on the wall.
This feeding system has been found satisfactory, and
good egg production has been obtained. For the three
months-February, March and April-each light hen con-
sumed 3 pounds semi-solid buttermilk, 10.3 pounds mash,
7.8 pounds grain and 2.3 pounds oats, and produced eggs
at a cost of 13 cents a dozen. Each heavy hen consumed
3 pounds mash, 11.3 pounds grain, and 2.3 pounds oats
in three months, producing eggs at a cost of 18 cents a
12 FLORIDA REVIEW
MADISON COUNTY SYRUP
A solid carload of syrup was shipped from Madison re-
cently to the State Prison Farm at Raiford. The car
contained about seventy barrels and was sold at 531
cents a gallon, delivered in Raiford, or about 50 cents
f. o. b. Madison. The car was gotten together by County
Agent Lawton, following an inquiry received by A. Liv-
ingston from State Treasurer Luning, and was sold from
samples submitted. Among the main loaders of the car
were E. C. Coody, J. P. Hinton, Fred Glass, W. Alston
Brown, Allen-Corbett Company, it is stated. Madison
county is noted for its fine syrup and other heavy crops,
such as corn, cotton, potatoes and peanuts. Quite a bit
of produce is shipped out of the county yearly.
SET NEW RECORD IN EGG LAYING
Chipley, Fla., June 6.-(Special.)-The thirtieth week
of the first Florida national egg-laying contest brought
forth another record breaker when the Riverbend Farm
pen laid 67 eggs during the seven days, which was one
egg better than any other week's record. These figures
mean that seven of the ten made perfect records and
three laid six eggs each.
The birds made the same record the thirtieth as during
the preceding seven days, a total of 2,439 being produced
for a 70 per cent production. Total now is 58,470 eggs
or 55.6 per cent for the full 30 weeks: Each hen now
has 117 eggs to her credit, with 21 weeks yet to go.
THE MAJOR TROUBLE
Recent farm surveys in 10 southern states show an
average condition that is almost unbelievable.
According to them no eggs were produced on 20 per
cent, or 500,411 farms, in these 10 states.
Twenty-three per cent, or 597,247 farms, had no gar-
A dairy cow did not exist on 37 per cent, or 945,333
Thirty-three per cent, or 950,980 farms, did not raise a
No butter was made on 46 per cent of all farms in the
Fifty-six per cent of the farms did not raise a pig.
Seventy-nine per cent did not raise Irish potatoes.
Fifty-eight per cent did not raise sweet potatoes.
No pure bred animals could be found on 95 per cent of
all the farms in the 10 states.
Twelve per cent raised no corn.
Fifty-four per cent, or 1,382,918 farms, raised no hay
No oats were raised on 86 per cent.
Fifty-five per cent of all farms in these states are
operated by tenants.
Senators and congressmen yell about farm relief, and
the farmers belly-ache about hard times and hard luck.
There's no wonder. Think these facts over and ask if
any agricultural section can be fairly prosperous under
One has only to look over these figures to see what is
the major trouble with the farmers of the south, at least.
THE USEFUL LEMON
Be very grateful when "handed a lemon;" for it has
many uses in the sickroom, the kitchen, 'round the house
and in milady's chamber (Amer. Food Jour.).
The juice from half a lemon in half a glass of water
before breakfast will correct the most torpid liver and
prevent bilious troubles.
For hoarseness, lemon and sugar will prove helpful
and pleasant to take and will cure sore throat when used
as a gargle.
In fever, the lemon is cooling and of great value for
moistening the lips and cleansing the tongue.
Two or three slices of lemon in a cup of strong, hot
tea often will cure a nervous headache and refresh the
mind and body.
A spoonful of lemon juice in a cup of black coffee
frequently will cure bilious headache.
An outward application of lemon juice will allay irri-
tation caused by insect bites.
If a teaspoonful of lemon juice is added to boiling rice
or sago, the kernels will be whiter and have a more deli-
(Lake Worth Leader)
Many of the old timers in Florida can remember when
sweet potatoes brought the magnificent sum of twenty-
five cents a bushel, and collard greens could be had for
the asking. Now sweets are being sold at so much a
pound and by the bushel would be bringing five or six
dollars a bushel, and in Havana, Florida, they are ship-
ping collard greens to the northern markets by the car-
load. All of which brings to mind the fact that times do
MANY PRODUCTS FROM TIMBER LAND
(Ft. Myers Press)
The land owners of the south who hesitate in trying
to make their lands grow pine trees because of the long
wait to maturity should keep in mind that there are other
products from timber land besides saw logs.
In long leaf pine there is turpentine, thinnings, and
pasturage. The turpentine products should bring the
owner in a minimum of $5.20 an acre annually, and from
that amount up to about $17.00. The lumber for various
purposes that can be taken off yearly will amount to an
average of about $5.00 per acre. The pasturage is worth
25 to 50 cents an acre. The total is over $10.00 an acre.
In short leaf and loblolly pine there is no revenue from
turpentine, but the growth of the tree is greater, and
there is more income to be derived from poles, posts,
piling and fuel. In this type of timber the thinnings
begin at about ten years of age, and revenue therefore
starts at that time. In a good stand of loblolly the piling
posts, etc., may amount to a hundred dollars an acre at
about twenty years of age.
The possibility of a long wait to harvest, therefore,
should not enter into the plans of those who want to grow
timber. It isn't so long after all.
Good chufas will yield 50 bushels per acre and they
seldom sell for as little as $5.00 per bushel. They are a
safe crop both for hog-fattening purposes or to gather as
a direct money crop.
POULTRY SALES ON SEABOARD AIR LINE
(By J. N. McBride, Gen. Agri. Agent)
As information, I am attaching you herewith statement
showing the number of pounds of poultry marketed
through community cooperative carlot sales on the Sea-
board Air Line, and the number of dollars paid to growers
for same, during season 1926-1927, by states-by coun-
It will be noted that 1,036,920 pounds was marketed,
for which $242,816.57 was paid to the growers. This is
a 16%/ increase over last year.
The first community cooperative carlot poultry sale
ever conducted in Seaboard Air Line territory was pro-
moted by the Seaboard's Development Department in
1923. Each year we have been showing a steady increase
in tonnage handled until this year we have passed the
million pound mark. We now have regularly established
sales along our lines in Georgia, North Carolina and South
Carolina, some of which are operated semi-monthly and
some monthly. We have received the commendation of
numerous farmers, bankers and other business men on
our efforts in this connection.
The poultry industry along our line has in no way
reached its highest proportions. We expect to show
marked increases in tonnage handled for years to come
in view of the fact that the farmer's poultry marketing
problem has been solved by these community cooperative
carlot poultry sales.
The Operating and Freight Traffic Departments have
cooperated with us fully in the development of this new
business-expediting the service in every way possible
and assisting us in working out schedules for operation
of these cars, etc. I thought you would be interested in
seeing the result of this season's activity along this line.
NASSAU FERTILIZER AND OIL COMPANY
ONE OF COUNTY'S LARGEST ASSETS
One-Half Million Pounds of Menhaden in One Day's Catch
(Nassau County Leader)
That a little more than half a million pounds of fish
were caught in the ocean waters a short distance off
Amelia Island in a single day sounds very "fishy" and is
But such is the case and the story is fully vouched for
by the fifty odd reputable and veteran fishermen who
made the record catch. They were not table-fish, how-
ever, neither were they caught with lines and hook, the
most popular form of angling in the Fernandina waters.
The Nassau Fertilizer and Oil Company, which operates
a fish scrap and oil factory on the northern end of Amelia
Island, uses six fishing schooners in connection with the
operation of the plant. These boats are the Wallace, Mc-
Intosh, The Boys, Seminole, Caroline Vineyards and
This fleet of fishing vessels left the docks of the fer-
tilizer factory before daybreak on the opening day of
the 1927 season and returned after the day's cruise sev-
eral miles off the Amelia Island coast with 3,110 barrels
(622,000 lbs.) of menhaden fish. As this species of fish
averages about one-fourth of a pound in weight, the day's
catch approximated two and one-half million fish, the
value of which was estimated at about $25,000. The bulk
of this huge catch was landed by the crews of the
Wallace, McIntosh and The Boys.
The menhaden economically is one of the most im-
portant fishes of the United States, although, due to the
fact that it is too bony and oily for a table food, it is
used only in the manufacture of oils, fertilizer and feed
for poultry and cattle. Fishermen, generally, know very
little of its history and habits. It is known by a great
number of local names, "menhaden," pogeyy," "moss-
bunker" being most generally in use. The Indians and
early white settlers along the Atlantic coast used it as a
manure and the name originally was Narragansett for
The menhaden are caught in larger quantities in the
ocean waters extending from Morehead City, N. C., to
the mouth of the St. Johns river, than any other fish.
Large fleets are engaged in the fishery, and a great num-
ber of factories extract the oil for tanning and currying,
for adulterating other more expensive oils, and manu-
facture and refuse into a valuable guano and feed for
The most important fish scrap and oil factories are
located at Morehead City, Beauford and Fernandina, the
latter perhaps being the largest on the entire Atlantic
PORK PRODUCTION IN MARION COUNTY
Marion county is pre-eminently adapted to pork pro-
duction for several reasons. In the first place, we can
supply feeds for swine cheaper than any other section.
The mild climate permits a long growing season for cul-
tivated feed crops. The expense of housing and sheds for
protection is not very great. We can grow the greatest
variety of forage crops, especially legumes, which not
only supply an abundance of nutritious feeds, but which
assist in enriching our depleted soils. Not only do
legumes do well, but fattening crops, such as corn,
chufas, peanuts, cowpeas, beans, sweet potatoes and
cassava, all make good growth. In an economic way
the production of live stock in the cotton regions has be-
come a necessity and in adapting ourselves to some type
of animal husbandry, we naturally take a type which has
proven most profitable. In Marion county hogs has
proven to be the economic way.
Marion county has long been recognized as a large
pork producing section. Hogs of all kinds have roamed
the woods for years. About ten years ago the first car
load of pure bred Hampshire hogs was shipped into the
county for club work. From this car of pure bred pigs
Marion county has built up the native stock. Poland
China hogs for a number of years has been recognized
as a leading breed of this county. One of the best
Poland China breeders in the south lives in Marion county
and his long continuous work in breeding up this par-
ticular breed has won for him a name in the show rings
of the south as well as some of the northern shows. His
herd has been the foundation of building up a good many
of our farmer's herds in the county. One only has to
question various farmers in Marion county as to where
his cross with Poland China blood came from to find the
value of the work of one or two breeders.
Pig Club work in the county among the boys has been
a great source in building up the quality of our native
stock and introducing real type blooded hogs. Only last
year forty head of blooded stock was shown by the boys
of Marion county at the county fair. The best is none
too good and only the best is turned over to the boys for
their club work. This has, in the writer's opinion, been
the greatest asset in building up the woods hog that roams
the woods. It has been proven, time after time, that
good blood tells in hogs, and is the most economic for
14 FLORIDA REVIEW
THE PROBLEM SOLVED
(Pelham, Ga., Journal)
"Eleven-Cent Cotton and Forty-Cent Meat"
(Mrs. S. C. Ford, Frisco, Texas)
Eleven-cent cotton and forty-cent meat,
How in the world can a poor man eat?
Flour up high, cotton down low,
How in the world can we raise the dough?
Our clothes are worn out, shoes run down,
Our slouch hat with a hole in the crown.
Backs nearly broken, fingers all sore,
Cotton going down to rise no more.
Eleven-cent cotton and ten-dollar pants,
Who in the world has got a chance?
We can't buy clothes, we can't buy meat,
Got too much cotton and nothing to eat.
We've got no home, got no wealth,
Losing our credit, ruining our health.
Can't help each other, what shall we do?
I can't solve the problem, so it's up to you.
Eleven-cent cotton and a carload of tax,
The load's too heavy for our poor backs.
We're a good set of farmers, we all know well,
But there's something wrong as sure as-well,
We all worked hard, we groaned and sweat-
Now we are ruined, we are blowed-up set.
No use talking, any man's beat,
With eleven-cent cotton and forty-cent meat.
"The Problem Solved"
(W. E. Lewis, Celeste, Texas)
When cotton's low and eats are high,
It appears to me to diversify
Would be a sane and easy way
To bring about a better day.
With butter at fifty cents a pound,
And cream at forty the whole year round;
With turkeys high and going higher,
Is enough to kindle a great desire
To raise more birds and a little less hell
In a land where opportunities dwell.
If we'd give more time to the dairy cow,
And a better feed to the old brood sow,
We'd not worry about the price of meat,
For we'd have plenty ourselves to eat.
With fifty-cent eggs and a six-bit hen,
Why, oh, why will the children of men,
Ruin their fingers and break their backs,
Picking eleven-cent cotton and dragging a sack?
With corn in the crib and chickens in the yard,
With meat in the smoke-house and tubfuls of lard,
With cream in the pitcher, and honey in the mug,
With butter on the table and 'lasses in the jug-
Things to you won't seem so high,
For you'll be selling-won't have to buy.
Now stop that grumbling, for the fault's your own,
You expect to reap where you haven't sown;
If you stay at home and help your mate,
Others, then, you won't berate,
And you'll live in Paradise,
This, to you, is my advice.
WERE YOU BORN ON A FARM?
The Iowa Department of Agriculture received the fol-
lowing statement in a letter from an Iowa farmer:
"These days the farm is a wonderful place-to be born
"Many great men claim that honor-but they don't
own a farm and have to work hard to support it.
"But there are advantages to living on a farm-you
don't have to pay an income tax.
"It's a place where you can work from daylight to
dark, sow little and reap much, sell much and receive
"Farmers used to be business men. Now they are
philanthropists. Philanthropists are people who give
"Farming used to be considered hard work. Now it is
a vacation without pay.
"But a farm has other advantages. They have the
best telephone system in the world. One ring gets every-
body on the line."
THE SOLIDITY OF FLORIDA
The solidity of this state, despite what the sensation
seekers have to say about it, is evidenced by a report
made public by the great firm of Stone and Webster,
which comments on the vast amount of power being
utilized in Florida together with great expenditures be-
ing made in modern projects.
The Manufacturer's Record has the following to say
regarding the report of this company:
"In September, last year, after the Florida 'boom'
had subsided, Stone & Webster acquired control of Davis
Island and is putting $5,000,000 into its development,
with increasing confidence in the wisdom of its judgment
at that time. That seems to be the best answer we can
make to the question as to what we think of Florida and
"We are not strangers to Florida, having operated
there many years-at least long enough to remain un-
disturbed by ill-founded and ill-advised gossip.
"Earnings of West Coast division of our Florida motor
lines in January and February, this year, were over
double what they were in 1925.
"The Tampa Electric Company is carrying 40 per cent
more street railway passengers than in 1924, and 20 per
cent more than in 1925.
"Power station monthly output for January and
February, rough figures: Nine million kilowatt hours this
year, 7,000,000 in 1926, less than 4,000,000 in 1925, less
than 3,000,000 in 1924. Light and power customers
twice as many as in 1924, 60 per cent more than in 1925
and 5 per cent more than in 1926.
"In Jacksonville, same two months, approximately the
same number of street car passengers were carried as
last year, and 20 per cent more than in 1925 and 60 per
cent more than 1924.
"In light of these facts rumor and speculation are not
especially interesting to us. Florida may have fewer
get-rich-quick men now than it had a year ago. It may
have fewer gamblers and exploiters, but we have not
heard that its climate has changed, that the fertility of
its soil has lessened, that its potential wealth in raw re-
sources has decreased, nor that its leadership has failed,
and these are the things of which prosperous and grow-
ing communities are made."
The views expressed by Stone & Webster are in har-
mony with all that we have received.
FLORIDA REVIEW 15
SUMMER CLIMATE IN FLORIDA AND IN
Perhaps it is not just exactly the kind of Sunday
morning philosophising that we would prefer to offer
to our readers this morning, but somehow it fits in with
the mood of the writer to bring to your attention the
outstanding news item of the day. It has to do with the
weather, always an interesting subject of discussion when
other themes fail.
Chicago reports 33 deaths from heat prostrations; re-
ports from other points bring the total for three days to
55, and singularly enough, all of them are in the north,
that reputed cooler climate where Floridans (or Flori-
dians as you prefer) are swarming in droves to get away
from what they think is the sultriness of a sub-tropical
Why one would leave this wonderful section, fanned
and cooled by its gulf-blessed breezes, to seek those re-
gions where the super-heated air from a thousand miles
of baking and torrid prairies, passes comprehension.
True, if one is able to go into the mountains and bury
themselves miles from contact with civilization they may
find cooler temperatures, but surely not a more refresh-
ing or grateful atmosphere. Florida is overlooking much
in not advertising-its wonderful summer climate, and the
thing which is injuring the state more than any other one
thing at the present moment is the fact that thousands of
Florida people are leaving this beautiful section to fry
and broil and take chances with sunstroke in the north.
Let us study the psychology of the situation for a mo-
ment from the standpoint of the northerner. The writer
has not been so long in the south that he has forgotten
his own reactions, which by the way are the universal
reactions of people of the north. Naturally, they think
of the south as hot, as they understand it as a place
where people come to get away from the rigors of north-
ern winters. Naturally they raise the temperature of this
region in the summer in the same proportion as it is
above winter temperatures.
When they read in their papers that Florida visitors
are in the north for the summer, they infer that the pur-
pose behind the journey is to get away from Florida
summers. And Florida is doing little or nothing to coun-
teract this impression. Unfortunately we have no law
to prevent people from leaving the state in the summer,
but we might begin singing the praises of the state as a
summer resort. Instead of publishing temperature
tables, which mean far different in the south than they
do in the north, we should be publishing humidity tables.
We should be shouting from the housetops the fact that
in all the history of the state a sunstroke is unknown.
We should proclaim to the world that notwithstanding
what the thermometer may say, a spot in the shade on
the hottest of days is a place of peace, contentment and
comfort. We should advertise our exquisitely refresh-
ing and sleep-inducing Gulf breezes, which constantly
modify the sun's action and woo one to rest and happiness.
In many respects summers in Florida are her most
delightful seasons. Every possible enjoyment that can
come to human beings is ours. There are few houseflies,
which make the northern summers veritable nightmares.
The mosquitoes are not one per cent of the unbearable
pest that they are in northern states. Rare indeed are
the nights when one may not sleep in blessed comfort
with at least one covering. Why not proclaim Florida
as the nation's most ideal summer resort state, which in
truth it is?
RECORD OF TOMATO SHIPMENTS
(Florida State Chamber of Commerce)
Florida has four months during which it is the only
tomato shipping state. Its competition during that
period comes principally from the West Indies and
The tomato crop is one of the most important of the
vegetable crops, not only because of the large amount
shipped fresh, but also because of its extensive use for
canning and manufacture. Only a fourth of the 82,-
914,000 bushels grown in 1925 entered the markets for
consumption in a fresh state. Five states, Florida,
Georgia, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, marketed
practically their entire product for fresh disposal. Nine-
teen states made partial shipments of their tomato crops
in a fresh state; the proportions of the crops so dis-
posed, were as follows:
South Carolina ................................... 66.4%
Illin ois .. ............................. .... ....... ...... 4 8 .1 %
Tennessee ........................ ...... ..... .... ... 43.0%
Pennsylvania ........ .. .... .. ................ 37.4%
O h io ........................................ .......... 3 2 .9 %
N ew Jersey .............................................. 30.4 %
K entucky ................. ............ ...... ...... 30.0%
C alifornia ............................. ............. 27.9 %
M ichigan ....... ................. .. .................. 27.5%
V irg in ia ....................... ... .... ............. 2 0.0 %
C olorado ............. .............. ............ 16.0 %
N ew Y ork ............................................. 15.3 %
Missouri ................... .......... ........ 15.0%
In d ian a ............................................. 1 1.6 %
Iow a ... ............................... ......... .... 10.9 %
M aryland .. ....... ............... ............ 6.0 %
U ta h ... ............................... ...... ..... 3 .1 %
A rkansas ................... ....... ............ 1.9 %
D elaw are ............ .................................... 0.2 %
Of the total of 28,221 cars shipped for fresh dispoasl
in 1925, 15,477 cars, or about 55 per cent, were un-
loaded in the 36 large markets. The greater part of
these unloads came from four states, namely, Florida,
Mississippi, California, and Texas, these states in the
aggregate furnishing nearly 75 per cent of the total
unloads. The unloads from these states ranged from
5,824 cars for Florida down to 1,621 cars for Texas.
Three other states, Ohio, Tennessee and South Carolina,
contributed over 500 cars each, while six additional
states originated more than 150 cars each.
Tomatoes from Florida were unloaded in 31 of the
36 markets as far west as Salt Lake City; those from
Mississippi reached 30 of the markets, including three of
the Pacific Coast cities; those from California were un-
loaded in 33 of the markets, all except Providence,
Toledo, and Columbus; while those from Texas also
reached 33 cities-Toledo, Birmingham, and Atlanta be-
ing the exceptions. Tomatoes from the remaining
states went generally to markets near the producing
The movement of tomatoes is highly seasonal in char-
acter. Shipments start in quantity from Florida in
January and are marketed principally in March, April,
and May. From January to April there are practically
no other tomatoes on the market. Texas, California,
Mississippi, and South Carolina begin shipping about the
first of May. The states to the north gradually enter the
market during the succeeding months, while those to the
south (except California) drop out.
16 FLORIDA REVIEW
CARLOAD FRUITS AND VEGETABLES UNLOADED IN JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA
For Eight Months
During 1926, Beginning May 1st, Together with
(Florida State Chamber of Commerce)
the States of Origin
STATE OF ORIGIN
M aine ....... ..... ...
New York .............
New Jersey ...........
O h io ............ ........
Illinois ... ...........
Iow a ...................
West Virginia ........
G eorgia ..... ..........
F lorida ................
Arkansas ............. .
T exas ......................
Montana ........ ..
Idaho ........... .. ..
New Mexico ...........
A rizona ..................
U tah ............. ....
O region .................
Im ports ..................
T otals... ... ............
S a E
LOOKING FOR ORANGE TREES
(Palm Beach Post)
A citizen of West Palm Beach whose kindliness led
him to drive visiting Lions about the community has
brought an indictment against this city and all of its
inhabitants. All of the strangers in his vehicle had a
keen desire to see some orange trees and the citizen was
at a loss as to some convenient place to take them to
satisfy that wish.
In the minds of most persons, oranges and Florida
are synonymous. Here is the real Florida, the heart of
Florida as far as representing the typical is concerned.
Here are the ocean and the beaches, the lakes, the Ever-
glades, the sunshine, all of the real and the magical
everywhere associated with the state. It all is apparent,
easily seen and felt.
Yet these Lions found
the streets. Once in at
no orange trees anywhere along
vhile a group of three or four
could be seen in a back yard. There are plenty of cocoa-
nut trees and a world of palms common to the Atlantic
seaboard for hundreds of miles north of here. Private
grounds and public grounds singularly are quite barren
of orange trees.
It might be well for the citizens of West Palm Beach
to consider this complaint seriously. Not many years ago
it was no trouble to point out not only all of the orange
trees any visitor could wish to inspect, but all manners
of citrus trees. There were groves even within the city.
Most of them have disappeared. The stately mango trees
rapidly are going. None of these should disappear from
our streets. They should, in fact, be in such abundance
that each visitor could see them in any direction and
from any point in the city.