April 4, 1927
Table of Contents
Florida Forestry, Editorial..... ... 1
Florida Pines May Be Basis of Big Industry 2
What Is An Old Field Worth' 2
Farmers Are Urged to Plant Walnuts.... ......... 2
A Sound Statement On Timber 3
Florida Holds Lumber Place Near Leaders ....... 3
22,240,000 Feet Lumber and 5,902,000 Feet Sawn 3
Timber Exported in Past Six Months.. 3
Two Barges Leaving with 1,300,000 Feet Florida Pine. 3
Forest Fall Before Lumbermen and Farmers........ 4
Organization of Turpentine Men Perfected... .. 4
Dense Pine Used in Huge Derrick ... ... 4
Pine Shipments Show Increase..... ...... ...... 6
Two Million Feet Lumber Cut in State.. ..... ........ 6
Forest Supervisor Inspecting Ocala Division Activity... 6
P ine M eet t nd .s ..... ............. .... .......... ......... ... .... 6
Lumber Manufacturer Says Substitute for Wood Will
Be Needed in Short T im e ........ ....... ........ ...... ... 8
Giving the People Increased W ealth.... ..... .................. 8
Trade Mark Now Being Used On All Dense Pine....... 8
Another Industry for New Smyrna ................... ........ 9
Treasures of Southern Pine........... .......... 9
I imber Hesources
Conservaton of Our Forest.....
Need More Forest
Quarter Million Cross Ties Will Be Shipped.........
Much Money to Be Expended in Florida Forest....
Florida Timber Being Shipped to Other Ports .
Much Woodland Now Ruined by Grazing
Forest Fires Destroy Humus Which Crops Need..
Everybody Is Loser When Timber Burns.........
Nature Heals Her bores
Over Three Million Feet Lumber Shipped This Week...
Creation of State Forest Bureau Urged
Production On Decrease but Prices Better
Forest Roads Are Aided by Special Funds...........
Increase the Forest......... ..... ..
Long Leaf Best Timber.. ........
Address of Dr. Pammel at Gainesville On Conservation..
Lumber and Naval Stores Menaced, Figures Reveal.....
Exports of Lumber Are On Increase.........
Storm-Proof House Frame Ready to See
Forest Fires and Forest Interest...........
By NATHAN MAYO
LORIDA needs a forestry policy. She
needs a State Forestry Bureau or similar
organization. Such an organization should
be vested with authority to enforce rules
and regulations looking to the conservation of our
timber and the reforestation of much of our treeless
We can no longer afford to lag behind our sister
states in this respect. Of the forty-eight states, all
but eight have forestry departments or similar
organizations. Of the sixteen southern states, thirteen
have such dlelartments. Only three-Arkansas,
South Carolina and Florida-have not begun the
The nation faces a forest problem growing more
acute yearly. Authorities say we are cutting otur
timber at a rate, three times faster tllan it grows.
More than 15,000,000,000 feet of lumber was cut
by the mills of the United States in 1926. In Florida
alone about a billion feet were cut. The forests of
Florida yield to their owners an annual revenue of
about $70,000,000.00, derived from the sale of lumber,
naval stores and other forest products.
The forest question of the United States is, al
bottom, a land problem. We need to know the
relation of woodland to soil and weather conditions.
The maintenance of a proper balance between forest
areas and cultivated areas is the task of those who
shall handle this great problem.
The matter of reforestation is one of vital im-
portance in Florida. We have in this State a total
forest area of nearly 20,000,000 acres. Of this there
are about 12,000,000 acres in cut-over timber lands.
We are cutting annually all the merchantable timber
from thousands of acres.
Destruction by fire is one of the greatest annual
losses sustained by our State. Every year we allow
the "Red Demon" to perform his destructive orgies
over 13,000,000 acres of our woodlands, killing
iS,000,000.00 worth of young timber, and destroying
the humus upon which future growth of trees de-
pends. Little as we think of it, we cannot expect
the normal rate of growth among trees which are
robbed each year of their supply of plant food.
Nature meant that every leaf and fallen twig should
go back to "the dust from which it sprang." and
thus feed the parent tree and the baby trees for
their future growth.
It is estimated that there are 10,000,000 "idle
acres" in Florida, due to two causes-t(o close
cutting of timber, and forest fires.
We need to carry into the remotest sections of our
State a campaign of education about this matter of
forestry. We need tio point out again and again to
every citizen his opportunity for service in fire pre-
vention and timber conservation. Every public
school should have in its curriculumn a course ou
Forestry, so that the children of Florida may gr(.,w
up) witl full knowledge of the economic, social and
aesthetic value of our woodlands. Arbor days
should be observed, and our people taught the
wisdom and the thrift which attaches to tree
In some countries of the old world, suffering from
deforestation, it has been found necessary to require
that for every adult tree cut, onee or more yolng ones
must be planted to take its place.
In this way there will be an increase rather than
a decrease in the forest areas of the future.
Eventually we will come to this in Florida, if we
do not bestir ourselves to spare the axe and with-
hold the torch. 1 believe that we shall see a general
awakening among our people on this subject in the
near future. Let us hope that the State Legislature
just ahead will not fail to consider and act wisely
and constructively upon the question of Florida's
Forestry. It is a question inseparable from the
future welfare of our good State.
- -0-- _! -
2 Florida Review
FLORIDA PINES MAY BE BASIS OF BIG
Paper Magnate Resting at Resort Considers Factory Site
BY CECIL R. WARREN.
(Special to Miami Daily News.)
Hollywood, March 7.-Growth of pines on the east coast
of Florida will be investigated to determine if they can
be produced rapidly on a huge commercial scale for use in
paper making by George A. Whiting of Wisconsin, largest
manufacturer of ledger paper in America if not in the
world, who is now stopping at the Hollywood Beach Hotel.
Mr. Whiting heads the Whiting Clover Paper Co., of
Stevens Point, and the George A. Whiting Paper Co., of
Menesha, Wis., and helped to form in 1872 the second
paper company organized in the State of Wisconsin. The
industry which Mr. Whiting helped to start in his state
has since grown from a capitalization of about $30,000
into a business whose capital value is estimated at well up
into the hundreds of millions of dollars.
His promise to investigate conditions in Florida ap-
parently favoring his industry is prompted by information
he has received on the very rapid growth of pines in this
state's tropical climate and the nearness of this coast to
the South American trade.
Friendliness of this state to capital and industry as
opposed to socialistic laws of his own state is seen as an-
other important element in Mr. Whiting's willingness to
consider an enterprise here.
"South American markets use a tremendous amount of
paper and paper products," Mr. Whiting said in an inter-
view yesterday at his hotel. "Hollywood is favorably
located, as is this entire section of the state, for an export
paper business. Florida pines are valuable, as all cone-
bearing trees are, in the manufacture of paper.
"Germany finds South America a very profitable market
for paper, and before the World War shipped much
material there," said Mr. Whiting. "She is working fast
to get back into the South American paper trade now.
Much paper is also shipped into South America from the
Pacific coast of the United States, and the market is about
2.000 miles farther away than it is from here. Big indus-
tries around Puget Sound also export much paper."
Should a paper mill be established on the Florida east
coast, it would be located near the base of supply of raw
materials and in the rear of some such harbor as is being
built at Bay Mabel, Mr. Whiting said, so that the finished
product could be sent by rail to the port and placed on
board vessels bound for foreign markets. Inasmuch as a
paper plant uses up to 1,000 cords of wood a day, and
some in the north have been in operation as long as 75 to
80 years, it is necessary that the location be near a point
Since the growth of pines in Florida is so rapid, Mr.
Whiting suggests that they might be grown for paper usage,
as they are in Bavaria. There they are planted at in-
tervals of only a few feet apart, so that the limbs, de-
prived of sunlight and air, drop off and the tree shoots
up to a great height.
"It is pretty hard to say what can be done with the
paper industry in Florida until conditions here are in-
vestigated," Mr. Whiting said. "Two of the things I should
like to investigate are the market conditions for the manu-
factured product and the amount of raw material avail-
able. I do not know if there is an adequate supply of pine
here. What to a novice might look like a sufficient stand
of timber would not appear so to an experienced manufac-
turer of paper. I should like to investigate the growth of
pines in this climate, and the future of your harbor is
also worth analyzing."
Establishing a paper mill is an expensive undertaking.
Mr. Whiting explained. While it is the general opinion
that light machinery is needed for paper manufacturing.
the contrary is the case. A machine capable of producing
50,000 pounds of paper a day may weigh from 50 to 400
tons, and there are some machines which weigh as high
as 500 tons.
"However, many mills are located throughout the south
and have proved successful." he pointed out. "There is a
soda pulp mill located near Asheville, N. C., using chest-
nut wood, which is one of the largest of its kind in the
country. There is a large paper mill at Chattanooga. There
are some in the south using yellow pine. Any vegetable
fiber may be used in the making of paper, although the use
of some materials may not be economical. Even cotton is
coming into use now."
Wisconsin's climate, its wealth of productivity and the
progress it has made were highly praised by Mr. Whiting.
but he severely criticized its politics and the injustice of
its taxation system.
"Its politics is rotten," he said, "and it is penalizing its
industries. It is making its thrift pay 75 per cent of its
expenses. This is just exactly the opposite of what Florida
is doing. Wisconsin is doing all it can to hamper its busi-
nesses, other states are doing all they can to help theirs.
I speak particularly of the inheritance and the income tax
burdens. My product is manufactured in Wisconsin, but
practically all of my raw material is shipped in and my
sales are made without the boundaries of the state. Yet
I have to pay $6 out of every $100 to the state as income
"Unless it soon sees its errors, I fear for it."
Although he has been coming to Florida for years and
has made his winter home at the Royal Palm Hotel of
Miami for many seasons, this is Mr. Whiting's first visit
"Florida is a wonderful state," he continued. "The boom
gave it a little backset, but nothing can ever take away
WHAT IS AN OLD FIELD WORTH?
There are many old fields in this section that are con-
sidered worthless by their owners and all the neighbors.
But old fields are usually grown up in pine, and then
they are valuable ground. If the growth is ten years old
it can probably be thinned out and wood and mining props
If it is fifteen to twenty years old. it will produce piling
and some sawlogs. Take a look at that old field of yours.
It may bring you more money than your cultivated fields.
Fire is the only thing that will damage it.
FARMERS ARE URGED TO PLANT WALNUTS
Planting a bushel of black walnuts this fall, the agri-
cultural department declared today, would make a good
investment for farmers in upland and hill sections of the
South, the Ohio river basin and the central Mississippi
Walnut, one of the finest cabinet woods known, is worth
about $200 a thousand feet and a bushel of nuts, of which
there is a large crop this year, numbers about 1,500. Planted
in idle corners, waste strips and along fence rows, a bushel
in time should return a huge profit, the department says.
Florida Review 3
Published Semi-Monthly by
Bureau of Immigration, Department of Agriculture
Nathan Mayo..........................Commissioner of Agriculture
T. J. Brooks..................Director Bureau of Immigration
Phil S. Taylor.................. ......... ...............Advertising Editor
Entered as second-class matter, June 25, 1926, at the Post Office
at Tallahassee, Fla., under the Act of June 6, 1920.
Will be mailed free to anyone upon request.
APRIL 4, 1927
A SOUND STATEMENT ON TIMBER
In discussing the subject of our future timber supply,
Frank G. Wisner, President of the National Lumber Manu-
facturers' Association, in a recent article in The Nation's
Business says that the forests, nature's timber factories.
are the greatest production organization in the world, and
that with care and propagation our timber supply will be
inexhaustible and adequate for all proper uses.
Mr. Wisner says that as legitimate substitutes for wood
are found, they will be generally adopted, but that new
uses for wood will arise just as in the case of building
with concrete which replaces wooden structures.
"So protean is the suitability of wood for human uses,
that despite all the synthetic materials, its uses have in-
creased from 2.000 in number ten years ago to 4,500 today.
Rot and fire are chief enemies of wood. Preservative
chemical processes have already multiplied the lives of
ties, posts and poles by three or more. Incombustible
paints and impregnations have made a start in opposition
to fire, but a great field is here. This is something the
chemists can do today, now. To make wood slow-burning
and eliminate the fire hazard will confer a social service
of universal benefit."
FLORIDA HOLDS LUMBER PLACE NEAR
21,090,000 Feet Produced in State During Last December
Florida continues to be one of the important lumber
States of the Union.
During December production of lumber in the State
totalled 21,090,000 feet, while the shipments aggregated for
the same period 21,086,000 feet. Production of the State
for 1926 was 316,042,000 feet, while the total shipments
were 286,527,000 feet.
The total production of the United States during the
year ended Dec. 31, was 15,076,145,000 feet, and the ship-
ments amounted to 15,092,994,000 feet.
Much of the merchantable timber of Florida remains to
be cut and marketed. Until recently the lumber industry
has been developing slowly in this pioneer state, because
of the lack of adequate transportation facilities; but the
great extension of railroads during the past two or three
years have made for betterment of the transportation
In this connection, it is interesting to note that the
United States Chamber of Commerce is fostering a new
business industry in this country-that of growing forests
as a business enterprise. In course of a few months a con-
ference will be held in Washington to consider a definite
organization of the industry.
Opportunity will be afforded for the discussion of the
practical problems from the point of view of those inti-
mately connected with the lumber industry. An effort will
be made to lay out a practicable program which will en-
courage the development of commercial forestry. The whole
subject will be approached from the business man's view-
point with the object of making forestry a business, giving
it a place with agriculture and manufacturing in the
22,240,000 FEET LUMBER AND 5,902,000 FEET
SAWN TIMBER EXPORTED IN PAST
During the last six months of 1926 there were 22,240,000
superficial feet of pitch pine lumber shipped from Pensa-
cola to foreign ports. 5,902,000 feet of sawn timber, more
than half a million superficial feet of hardwood and 19.816
barrels of rosin, according to figures released today.
Altogether there was 28,688,000 superficial feet of lumber
and timber exported from this city during the six-month
period. Argentina received the greatest amount of pitch
pine lumber. while Italy received the largest combined
shipment of all four products. The former received 5,544,000
feet of lumber, while the latter country received nearly
three million feet of lumber and 3,428,000 feet of sawn
lumber. Italy also received a great amount of hardwood
Of these countries to which lumber was shipped from
Pensacola during the latter half of 1926, Germany received
the smallest shipments. Altogether there were ten coun-
tries, in Europe, South America, Central America and
Africa, which received lumber shipped from Pensacola.
A chart, showing what has gone out from here during
this period, follows:
Argentina ........ ..
Italy .... ...........
Iruguay ..... ....
Spain .......... ....
West Africa ........
Cuba ........ ......
H olland .............
Lumber. Sawn Tbr. Hardwood. Rosin
Totals (superficial ft.) 22,240,000 5,902,000 566,000 19,816
TWO BARGES LEAVING WITH 1,300,000 FEET
FLORIDA PINE CARGO
Two barges owned by the Brooks-Scanlon Lumber Cor-
poration will leave the company's docks at Eastport today
for Franklin, N. J., and Providence, R. I., with combined
cargoes of Florida dense pine amounting to 1,300,000 feet.
The barges, known as the Southland and Westland. are
being transported by a company-owned towboat.
The tug arrived yesterday, bringing two empty barges,
the Pottsville and Southeast, which will also be loaded
with lumber for Eastern markets.
As many as eight barges monthly are now being shipped
East. according to II. L. DeMuth, general sales manager
of the company. They carry an average cargo of about
600,000 feet of lumber each, he stated.
"Florida dense pine is growing in popularity in the
North," said Mr. DeMuth. "Lumber movements are now
brisk from this port, and seem to grow better day by day."
4 Florida Review
FORESTS FALL BEFORE LUMBERMEN AND
Hollywood Expert Cites Need of Bureau to Save Timber
BY ELMER E. PAINE.
(Financial Editor. Miami Daily News.)
Forests. amlongl the greatest of the assets of Florida.
gradually, perhaps, but surely are disappearing before the
advance of agriculturists and lumblermenl.
For any years lumbering hs l eri bel en one of tlte chief
industries of the state. Tens of millions of dollars have
been realized in profits by lumber companies and railroads
in the exploitation of virgin timber lands: and, quite evi-
dently, scarcely a single thought has been given to the
future in respect of lumber supply.
In lavish and wasteful fashion merchantable timber has
been cut out and marketed, much of the young growth
being destroyed in the process or left to ie turned over
by incoming settlers who can inake no use of it. Inl all the
circumstances of haste and necessity, such a performance
scarcely can be termed vandalism, but it certainly places
what amounts to a tremendous mortgage upon succeedilng
Waste and extravagance in timber cutting Iare by 1 no
means confined to Florida. They constitute a menalce to
the people of the entire nation. Iln most states, however,
provisions have been made to replenish the supply of stand-
ing timber. Legislatures of many states and the ('Congress
of the United States have enacted laws providing for the
care andl protection of standing timber and for reforestation
of lands already eut over. Both the nation and individual
states have established bureaus of forestry, which are
doing wonderful work not only il reforestation and in the
(care of second growth and very young timl er, but also in
fire prevention a11d il reduction of wasteful methods land
Florida is lagging in tle' protection of its tine forests.
In this respect it is not up-to-date. It is one of the few
great American conimlonwealths that has no forestry bureau.
Inl a letter to the writer. Charles W. Ten Eick. of Holly-
wood. a thoroughly-trained forester, makes this observation:
"Florida's people generally have not realized that de-
liletion of their forests is rapidly approaching unless fores-
try and forestry practices are recognized by the state.
either through the creation of a department of forestry or
the establishment of a bureau of forestry iln connection
\vith the state department of agriculture: in either case.
with experts il charge of the work. Florida ;anl just one
other state have not recognized the necessity of such an
bureau or department and as a consequence the state is
paying a heavy penalty. Among the people of this state
interest in this important conservation problem is increas-
il:g rapidly and the point soon may lie reached when the
Legislature will take some definite action."
In this connection, it is noteworthy that Florida ranks
l'th amoug the 48 states in amount of standing timber,
with approximately 48.000.000.000 feet. The annual cut in
rouln figures is 1,500,000.000 feet. That great cut is lmak-
ing a deep hole in the total visible supply. The state mlani-
festly needs reforestation and it has approximately 5.0i0I.(000O
acres of idle land awaiting it.
Florida is not the only state, as heretofore indicated.
that has exploited wastefully its natural timber resources.
Originally, there were about 822.000.000 acres of standnlig
timber il the United States. To make way for agriculture
and other land uses this area has Ieen reduced to 470.-
000.000 acres, notwithstanding vast reforestation projects.
Even at this rate (f depletion, the present forest land area
comllprises Inearly o(e-(quarter of the total Iand area (f the
On a national basis, this nation has. therefore. at the
present time,. 470tt.000.410( acres of forest land, 54 per cent
of which is either virgin or seconll growi\th timber suitable
for sawlogs. 29 'er cent is stocking tiliiber fit only for low
garden uses. and 17 per cent is of no productive value. This
i4 the nation's forest wealth after three centuries of use.
with only comparatively recent efforts at reforestation. It
is a good working capital, if reforestation is taken up ef-
ficiently andl promptly: but it is a small reserve if its use
is continued without adequate renewal.
ORGANIZATION OF TURPENTINE MEN PER-
Prices Set and Fund Will Be Raised for Advertising
Waycross, Ga., March 3.-The Southeast Georgia Tur-
pentine Association has been organized in Waycross with
Judge J. L. Crawley as chairman and Jack Murray as
secretary. The headquarters city will be Waycross, and
all of the naval stores operators in the Waycross territory
will be eligible for membership.
The association, as its first business, unanimously
recommended that the factors add one-half of one per
cent to the present cost, and that this increase be used
to create a fund for advertising and selling turpentine
and rosin. This would be done by all the turpentine asso-
ciations in the Southern states, and as a result a fund
of $1,000,000 or more would be available for assisting the
operators in marketing their products. A commission for
the entire South would be appointed to handle and ad-
minister the fund.
The suggestion of this plan was made by Alex Sessoms,
of Cohdell, one of the largest naval stores operators and
reforestation men in Georgia. Mr. Sessoms is a member
of the state board of forestry.
The association fixed as the 1'l97 prices the following:
For chipping, $125; for dipping guage barrels, 65c to 75c:
for dipping blue whistlers, $1 to $1.10. All renting is to
be in keeping with these prices and hands' accounts are
to be ke:t at a minimum.
DENSE PINE USED IN HUGE DERRICK
I Bradenton Herald.)
The new Orange countyy ('oilrthouse which is under con-
structionl at Orlando will lie the second largest limestone
structure ill Florida. being surpassed in size only by the
'Uilion Station in Jacksonville, according to J. J. Ramiiach.
superintendent of construction. Mr. Ialbach, who repre-
sents the contractors for the building. Bentley ani Sons.
of Orlando. was in charge of the erection of the stone
work oni the Uniiion Station.
Some idea of the size of the building can le gained from
Ihe fact that some of the stones for the cornice weigh
SS(00) pounds each. These must be lifted 55 feet in order
Io lie set in place, and the lifting of these stones requires
a derrick of huge proportions Ind enormous.
The derrick is built of Florida dense pine timbers a foot
square. One of these timbers is 39 feet long. while the
boom is made of two dense pine timbers, one 39 feet and
the other 43 feet long. making a total boon length of 75
feet. Another derrick is soon to be constructed of delli.'
pine timbers 14 inches square, giving additional strength
;nmi lifting power.
Heavy Timber in Wakulla County.
Heavy Timber in Wakulla County.
b Florida Review
PINE SHIPMENTS SHOW INCREASE
Lumter Cargoes of Month Reach High Record
Coastwise shipments of Florida dense pine lumber to
eastern markets during the current month exceeds 6.300,000
feet, according to figures compiled yesterday by official
statisticians of the Southeastern Forest Products Associa-
The immense shipments are among the largest in the his-
tory of the local port, it is said. All of the lumber is
grown and cut in this state from mills scattered over the
peninsula and sent to wholesalers located in this vicinity.
Cargoes of a shipload or more have been sent from this
port during the month by the following concerns, a number
of which operate their own fleet: Putnam Lumber Com-
pany, Jacksonville; Brooks-Scanlon Company, Eastport; J.
Ray Arnold, Groveland: J. M. Griffin Lumber Company.
Holopaw; W. C. Shuman Company, Lake Wales; St. An-
drews Bay Lumber Company. Sherman. and the Standard
Lumber Company, Live Oak.
The large exportation of lumber is not included in the
Government export records, only vessels destined to foreign
ports being listed.
TWO MILLION FEET LUMBER CUT IN STATE
Florida Adds Good Total to National Forest Figures for
(Plant City Courier.)
Tallahassee, Jan. 13.--A total of 2.072,000 board feet of
timber was cut from the national forests of Florida during
1925, according to a summary issued for the country by
the forest service of the United States Department of
The total cut from Florida national forests was for
For the whole of the United States. 1,753,077,000 board
feet were cut in commercial sales and 18.454,000 board
feet in cost sales. or a total of 1,771,531,000 board feet in
1925. This compares with a total of 1,333.254,000 for the
In a statement issued on national forest timber cutting.
C(ol. W. B. Greeley. chief of the service, declared that, al-
though the Government's timber holdings are feeling the
axe to a greater extent annually, it is neither an indica-
tion nor a product of commercialized administrative policy.
The forests, he pointed out, are not being managed pri-
marily "to put as much money as possible into the public
"National forests are by law established to improve and
protect the forest, or for the purpose of securing favorable
conditions of water flows, and to furnish a continuous
supply of timber for the use and necessity of the citizens
of the United States." Col. Greeley said. "The increasing
volume of timber sales on the national forests is largely
due to the fact that local exhaustion of private timber has
compelled existing establishments and industries in many
instances to turn to the national forests for continued
Timber taken from the national forests in Florida, and
other such wooded areas of the South and the East, is
being used largely in supplying raw material for a tre-
mendous variety of products, from shoe pegs and sassafras
oil to sawlogs, railroad ties and naval stores, the Govern-
ment Bureau declared in another report on timber harvest-
ing in the national forests.
Yellow pine in Florida, says the report, is drained for
turpentine, and then sold for sawlogs; chestnut in the
Appalachians furnish telephone poles and extract wood,
and beech, birch and maple supply bobbins for New Eng-
"These national forests," the report continues, "are
steadily taking a larger and larger place in the economic
life of the vast region over which they are scattered, from
the Canadian boundary to the Gulf of Mexico, and from
the Atlantic seaboard to Oklahoma."
The great timber farms of the Government in the East
and South contain some 5,000,000,000 board feet of saw
timber, 500.000 cords of tanbark; 500,000 telephone poles,
4,000,000 railroad ties, and an unestimated volume of fuel
wood and miscellaneous products.
"The commercial timber stands of these forests range
from the spruce of Maine through the great oak, chestnut
and yellow poplar woods of the Appalachians to the pines
of Florida and Arkansas." says the report. "Under better
protection from fire and with a steadily growing demand,
these national forests, in the opinion of District Forester
Evan W. Kelley. are due for a marked increase in volume
of timber sale business in the next decade."
FOREST SUPERVISOR INSPECTING OCALA
(St. Petersburg News.)
Ocala, Fla., Jan. 27.--(Special)-Forest Supervisor W. F.
Hill. of Pensacola. has been spending the past week on an
inspection tour of the Ocala division of the Florida national
forest. This division is in charge of Senior Forest Ranger
J. E. Clark. Ranger Clark's headquatrers for the present
are in Ocala. but he intends to soon move to the ranger
station at Lynne.
Mr. Hill reports considerable activities on in the Ocala
forest in the way of protection and other improvements.
Two crews are encamped at Half Moon lookout station.
One crew is engaged in construction of a 14x14 glass ob-
servation erected on a 40-foot steel tower, and one crew
is engaged on road work. Mr. Hill states that since Oc-
tober the Forest service has constructed some 30 miles of
telephone lines, which with the line previously built con-
nects the main central station at the Half Moon tower with
the 55-foot steel lookout tower on the north of Lake Kerr.
The main idea in this work is fire prevention and pro-
tection. Mr. Hill entertains the hope that it will not be
necessary to call out the crews to fight fires this season
and with the co-operation of the public driving through this
would be the result.
PINE MEET ENDS
National Advertising of Naval Stores Planned
(Palm Beach Post.)
Jacksonville, Feb. 23.-The Pine Institute of America at
the closing session today of its annual get-togteher ap-
pointed a committee to consider proposals for a national
advertising campaign showing the value of naval stores
products. The committee is composed of Alex. Sessions.
Cogdell, Ga., Chairman; R. M. Newton. Wiggins. Miss.:
Carl Speh, New Orleans, and H. L. Richmond. Jacksonville.
An address prepared by Col. W. B. Greeley, chief of the
U. S. Forest Service, was read by Mr. Speh in the absence
of the writer. The address said that the South leads the
nation in industrial forestry and is taking a more active
part in reforestation than any other section.
Thomas J. Aycock, of Jacksonville. was named general
chairman of the 1928 conference.
Florida Review 7
Illo A-, L.r,.
Cypress log at mill of Burton-Swartz Co., Perry, Fla., 16 feet long, 9 feet across butt end and containing 4624 sq. feet lumber.
8 Florida Review
LUMBER MANUFACTURER SAYS SUBSTITUTE
FOR WOOD WILL BE NEEDED IN SHORT TIME
(St. Pe'ersburg Times)
Rapid exhaustion of the timber supply in America will
necessitate the use of some artificial substance to take
its place within a few years, according to Charles E.
Bigelow, president of the Kneeland-Bigelow Co., Bay City,
Mich., on of the largest lumber companies in the country.
Mr. and Mrs. Bigelow are spending the season at the
"It will not be long until the timber in certain sections
of the country will be entirely gone," said Mr. Bigelow,
"and the only remedy is intensive reforestation and legis-
lation to protect the timber men. Reforestation was begun
by some companies several years ago but the expense
connected with it has been so great as to make it almost
Unless the taaes on land where reforestation is being
carried on are fixed at a low figure, timber companies
cannot afford to do it.
"It takes many years for the newly planted trees to
reach a merchantable size when the timber man begins
to get some return on them," said Mr. Bigelow. "Further-
more, every company has to have a 20 year supply of
timber on hand before it begins operation. The cost of
putting up the mill is so great, no man would dare begin
to operate without this amount to draw from. And here-
tofore the timber men have had to pay full taxes on all
this land, that undergoing reforestation and that with
their 20 years' supply on it. Naturally they have not been
able to do much reforestation."
GIVING THE PEOPLE INCREASED WEALTH
When a state, by wise and Ipractical procedure, or man-
agement, can give to its people, in a period so brief as
indicated by three years, so much as eleven million dol-
lars cf adde'l wealth, that state has done something, or is
doing something, that is well worth looking into.
In a bulletin recently issued by the Alabama State
Commission of Forestry it is stated, officially, that "Dur-
ing the past three years over eleven million dollars in
forest values have been added to the wealth of the citi-
zens of" that state, these value being "over and above
what would have accrued without the adoption of forestry
People, generally, regard taxation as a grievous burden
placed upon them, although to a very great extent a
burden created by themselves, or, at least, permitted to
be placed on them. When, therefore, some portion of that
burden is removed, by legislative or administrative pro-
cedure, there is rejoicing. How similarly proper is re-
joicing in order when, by some wise provision or ad-
ministration of their government, their wealth is in-
creased, their assets given added value, as in the case or
Alabama and its forestry department and work!
The Alablmai State commissionon of Forestry, which. by
the way, has been making rapid and practical progress
in recent years, after making the statements above
quoted, proceeds to say:
Prior to the active interest aroused in growing tim-
her through the informational work carried on by
local rangers and other agents of the commission of
forestry, the prevailing annual average of forest land
burned over amounted to about thirty-six per cent.
Most observers placed the proportion at much higher
than this, but in order to be on the safe side the
commission has taken this figure which was verified
for 1923, notwithstanding that it is probably a low
rather than a high estimate.
There remained, therefore, an annual average of
sixty-four per cent of unburned land prior to the
initial ion of forestry work. In 1924 only thirty-four
per cent was burned over, leaving a gain of two per
cent in unburned woodland. There being about
twenty-two million acres of forest land in the state,
this two 1:er cent amounted to four hundred and forty
thousand acres, which for that year was allowed to
produce forest values instead of having these inhibited
by fire. Such values amount to not less than one
dollar per acre per annum; in fact, they are usually
rated at a much higher figure.
In 1925 the gain over the old average was twenty
per cent or approximately four million, four hundred
thousand acres, and in 1926 the gain on the same
basis amounted to not less than twenty-nine per cent
or about six million, three hundred and eighty thou-
sand acres which, under old conditions, would have
burned over, but which under forestry methods pro-
duced actual values.
In the foregoing are set forth some things that are of
such importance as to be worthy of careful and studious
attention, not only in Alabama, but in other states as
well. In view of the probability that the coming Florida
legislature will be called on for additional forestry legis-
lation, to apply in this state, attention is being called to
what is being done in the neighbor state of Alabama, in
the matter of protecting and conserving its forests and,
also, by way of providing for extension of that state's
forest areas-all for the increasing of the asset that is in
the forests of Alabama.
That state appears to be handling its forestry problem
with such a degree of skill and success that what is being
done across the line merits careful study by Florida,
whose people appear more than ever anxious that the
state's forest asset shall not be depleted further, and that
it shall not be totally annihilated, but that, on the other
hand, it shall be conserved and enhanced in value, even
as is being done in Alabama.
TRADE MARK NOW BEING USED ON ALL
Announcement is made bIy the Florida Deuse Long Leaf
Pin' Manufacturers that 11 i trade-nimark. adopted sonme
weeks Igo,. is now being stenciled on genuine Florida dense
pine by members of the Association. After the decision to
ltrade-inark the product was ninad last September, many
steps were neceshar'y before a;ll airrang(eniit's were per-
fected for this move which liis been instituted for the
protection of the public against any chance of substitution.
Not less than thirty designs for the trade mark were
submitted. The one adolptIed has two letters ''DP," repre-
senting dense pine. embodied in circle. No ilmatter which
w\ily this "DP" is turned, it is always clearly recogniizale
uis "DP)." It was designed by J. A. Begg. of the Anderson
Florida Review 9
ANOTHER INDUSTRY FOR NEW SMYRNA
(New Smyrna Breeze.)
The Florida Woods Product Company with E. A. Camp-
bell as president, J. L. Weaver. secretary and general
manager, and Mr. Cummings. all of Denver, Colo., as of-
ficers, is a new enterprise starting up near this city. The
work of this company is to extract commercial products
from pine stumps, and trees, and a tract of thirty-five
hundred acres of land in the Forster-Beck tract west of
town. has been secured where this plant will lie erected
and operations started. This company has the sole right
for the Weaver patented process for extracting everything
of commercial value from pine wood, and pine stumps also
yield valuable products by this process.
The plant will be in operation in thirty days. The com-
pany will locate here permanently and will be a great
industry for New Smyrna and community as the land is
not only cleared of stumps which will yield a good profit.
but it will give employment to a large force of men.
The plant will consume about twelve cords of material
per day. yielding 360 gallons of turpentine, 600 gallons of
pine oil, 300 gallons of pine tar, six tons of charcoal, and
twenty-four barrels of rosin.
TREASURES OF SOUTHERN PINE
The Pine Institute of America usually does not look to
legislation to help solve its problems, but there is in a
bill introduced by Senator Duncan U. Fletcher of, Florida
so much of constructive good that the institute is sup-
porting the measure most heartily. Senator Fletcher's
bill is designed "to enlarge the naval stores' experimental
work of the forest service in the southern pine region." It
is of special interest to Georgia and Florida.
The Fletcher bill provides "that for the purpose of de-
termining and demonstrating the best methods of pro-
ducing crude gum and increasing its yields from southern
pine timber, the secretary of agriculture is authorized and
directed to conduct experiments at the southern forest
experimental state, and elsewhere in the forest service
silvicultural. physiological, economic and other forest and
laboratory experiments, investigations and demonstrations
as may be necessary, either independently or in co-opera-
tion with other branches of the Federal Government. with
states and other governmental agencies, universities. col-
leges, business organizations and indivi-uals." An appro-
priation of $50,000 is provided to carry on the work.
O. H. L. Wernicke, president of the Pine
Institute, discussing the Fletcher bill.
calls attention to the fact that the United
States today is using its forests three
times as fast as they grow. He empha-
sizes that nowhere in the country is it
possible to grow a new crop of timber as
fast as in the so-called turpentine belt
of the south.
"This area is the nation's first line of
defense against a timber famine already
in sight," he observes. "The national de-
pendence for a large share of its paper,
box-board, lumber, piles, poles, ties and
chemicals rests on this area where trees
yield rosin, turpentine and other chemicals
long before they can be cut for timber."
By the application of intelligent meth-
ods, it is estimated turpentine and rosin
equal in quantity to the present out- Long leaf pine
put could be produced from 25,000,000 acres of healthy
pine trees, but under methods now in use this would be
impossible. Senator Fletcher's bill is designed to stimulate
such research and investigation as will make possible the
attainment of this end. The demand for the chemical prod-
uct of the trees must be extended and enlarged if the
forests are to yield a satisfactory return to their owners
during the time the trees are maturing sufficiently to be
cut as timber. By making the chemical end of the pine
tree industry profitable, the ultimate cost of the timber
will be lowered to the consumer.
The appropriation of $50,000 provided in the Fletcher
bill is a mere pittance, if. as President Wernicke believes.
the research would result in replenishing our fast disap-
pearing pine forests.
(Palm Beach Daily.)
This country. with the largest per capital lumber con-
s:imption of all industrial nations, consumes annually more
than a third of all wood marketed in the world. Each year
the United States consumes more timber than it grows,
the deficit being drawn from virgin timber, the supply of
which is reduced annually by 2% per cent.
Thus the problem of conservation narrows down to in-
augurating a "sustained yield practice" or reforestation
by private owners on a scale equal to the deforestation.
There seems to be a growing realization of this fact
among timber operators. Since 1922, for instance, about
70 per cent of the lumber production of the entire redwood
region in California has been under such practice. In
Oregon and Washington forestry work is going forward
satisfactorily, Pennsylvania is planting millions of trees
annually with public and private funds, and New York
State already has requests for 9.000.000 trees for plant-
ing this year.
It is supposed the Government makes reforestation one
of the conditions of its sale of two tracts of Alaskan
timber, each embracing more than 5,000.000,000 board feet
of pulpwood, for the manufacture of paper. The timber
is to be sold to foster an Alaskan paper industry that will
compete with Canadian and Newfoundland mills to the
advantage of American consumers, so there is no opposi-
tion to the cutting of the timber. In fact, utilization of
forests and conversion of this natural resource into com-
mercial products and buildings are unavoidable. But re-
forestation must keep pace with this necessary deforesta-
tion or the time will come when there will lbe no more
trees to cut.
s, showing the scars when trees have been turpentined.
10 Florida Review
CONSERVATION OF OUR FORESTS
As great as are the forest resources of Florida they can
be exhausted unless they are properly managed. It does
not require wisdom extraordinary to see that if our an-
nual timber cut and timber waste exceeds the amount of
young growth the depletion of our forests is but a matter
of time. Knowing the great value of timber for building
material and as fuel and the influence forests exert on
climate, it becomes the duty of good citizens to begin to
use their influence for the conservation of our timber
resources and the restocking of our cut-over lands with
young trees, so that it ivill be possible for us to have a
never-ending forest supply.
There are more ways than one for the conservation of
forests. Present methods of getting logs out of the woods
are extremely destructive to young timber and better ways
should be found. The leaving of great masses of tree tops
where timber has been cut and the rotting which follows.
is liable to furnish fruitful places for destructive bacteria
and insects which attack young trees. But the worst
enemy of proper and efficient reforestation of cut-over
lands is our annual forest fires.
It would be difficult to estimate the actual loss of young
timber in Florida from the burning of the woods each
season. It is sufficient to say that many young saplings
are killed and many others are stunted in their growth,
which if not thus interfered with would soon become good-
sized trees. Especially is this annual woods-burning hard
on the long-leaf yellow pine. This variety of pine only
reseeds from three to seven years and thus is harder to
replace than is the "slash" pine. and, thereupon millions
of masts that might grow into thrifty long-leaf pine saplings
and later into full-sized trees are prevented from ger-
minating and millions more of saplings already up and
growing are held back in their development. If the woods
must be burned annually there ought to be a method of
protection applied for saving the young trees. Selected
areas should be wed or raked around and the fire pre-
vented from reaching them. Undergrowth and brushwood
should be piled up and raked around and thus prevent
what fires are kindled from becoming destructive.
But in our opinion the end of woods-burning is in sight.
We do not believe the people of Florida will much longer
stand for anything so destructive and wasteful of one of
their greatest natural resources. We do not believe they
will sit down and allow the destruction of forest resources,
which with care could be perpetuated.
Taylor County is probably the greatest producer of naval
stores of any similar area in the world. We could make
this industry a permanent one with proper methods of
conservation. Already this has been done in parts of
France, where they have nothing like the amount of timber
resources we have, and it can and will be done here
sooner or later.
Let us not kill the goose that lays the golden egg. but
by proper and efficient means of protection keep the gold
coming in a continual stream by the effectual and per-
manent safeguarding of our forest resources.
NEED MORE FORESTS
Every country, foresters believe, should have one-third
of its land area in forests in order to meet its timber and
wood needs, says the Forest Service of the U. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture. Our country now has 138,000,000
acres of virgin forests, together with 250,000,000 acres of
cut-over land, or a total of only 388.000,000 acres that are
really valuable for timber production. This is only one-
fifth of our total land area.
In addition to the wood used in buildings and other
construction, thousands of articles, including even medi-
cines and clothing, are made from trees or lumber. Further-
more, forests protect game and give enjoyment to hunters
and vacationists. They also prevent the washing away of
hillsides by heavy rains, and help to check floods by hold-
ing back the melting snow and rain water and allowing it
to drain off slowly.
QUARTER MILLION CROSS TIES WILL BE
SHIPPED FROM PORT DURING 1927
FOR THE NORTH
With the shipment of 60,000 railroad cross-ties from this
port today from Pensacola to New York City, officials of
the A. J. Phipps Company, shippers, announced that plans
had been made for vessels to come in on an average of
once every month to take full cargoes of creosote and heart
ties to be used by the New York Central and other east-
The five-masted schooner Courtney C. Houck, and the
four-master, Enetind, each are being loaded with 30,000
ties. most of which come for Bagdad, in Santa Rosa
county, and other nearby sections of Northwestern Florida,
at the Louisville and Nashville wharves. They are ex-
pected to clear today.
During the coming year the Phipps Company expects to
load more than a quarter million ties at Pensacola, all to
be shipped to New York City.
MUCH MONEY TO BE EXPENDED IN FLORIDA
Federal Government Apportions Money for States
Of the $4,500,000 appropriated ly Congress for highway
work in the national forests during the fiscal year of 1928,
Florida is to receive $12,071. The amount is apportioned
among the states as to the number of acres contained in
the national forests in the different states.
In addition to the sum appropriated for highways in
the national forests of the state, Florida is to receive
$23,491 of the forest road development fund, for which
Congress has appropriated $3,000,000.
Because of the more extensive areas of national forest
land in the west than in the east, western states received
the greater portion of the amount. California led with
FLORIDA TIMBER BEING SHIPPED TO OTHER
Saunders and Mader. Miami. who have operated a fleet
of small vessels for many years between Miami and Nassau
have chartered the old schooner "Jacksonville," loaded it
at the "Occidental" docks with Florida Dense Pine and
have sent it in tow to Nassau, Bahamas. If the trip is
successful, it will be repeated, it is announced.
This announcement has been hailed by those who have
advocated the building of ports along the Florida coasts.
It now appears that much of Florida's great structural
lumber which is preferred by architects, engineers and
contractors in northern cities as well as by the people of
the West Indies, will now find its way to market by way
of East Coast ports.
Florida Review 1
* .* _
Dense second growth pine on old field.
MUCH WOODLAND NOW RUINED BY GRAZING
Conservationists Claim Herds Destroy Seedlings and Pre-
Many conservationists feel that grazing on timber lands
in the national forests should no longer be permitted, or
at least that it should be carefully guarded. They believe
that this grazing seriously interferes with the growth of
new forests and materially retards the reforesting of cut-
over lands, even where seed trees are left in numbers suf-
ficient to provide new forests.
The belief that grazing needs further restriction is con-
firmed by investigations made during some years past in
certain national forests in Arizona, says a bulletin issued
by the Council on National Parks, Forests and Wild Life.
"Those observations appear to show that live stock in the
last twenty to thirty years has eaten up perhaps 200,000,000
board feet of potential timber on cut-over lands within two
national forests alone.
Stock Eat up Seedlings
"Natural reproduction of trees has been insufficient over
about 200,000 acres, or sixty percent, of the cut-over land
in the Coconino and Tusayan National Forests in Arizona,
and this lack has been caused in large part by overgrazing.
The damage is caused chieflly by sheep and cattle eating
the pine seedlings. Although the destruction of seedlings
is especially serious on cut-over areas, it also means a great
loss in virgin forests, where seedlings are needed to re-
place old trees which are constantly dropping out.
"Grazing is not the only danger to these forests of the
southwest. In the past they have suffered much from
destructive logging and from fire. At present, however, fire
and logging are well controlled by the Forest Service, and
the public has come to expect better care of its forest
resources for the future.
Seed Crop Irregular
"The handling of the grazing problem, however, has
proved difficult. Notwithstanding repeated efforts by the
Forest Service to place restriction on the grazing, these
efforts have constantly been blocked by the cattle and sheep
men, who even now are asking Congress for legislation
which will weaken still further the hands of the Forest
"The livestock has destroyed within thirty years enor-
mous quantity of possible timber; it may take another
twenty years to replace the seedlings which have been
destroyed. It has been found that on the
average it takes twenty years to obtain a
satisfactory stand of seedlings in the
Arizona pine forests.
"The crops of seed are irregular, and
these seeds germinate only when the
weather is wet. Good crops of seed and
wet seasons sometimes coincide only
once in ten years, and even the survival
seldom is sufficient and two or three com-
binations are usually required for a com-
plete stand of young trees.
Worth More as Timber
"In the year 1919 there was a very
heavy yield of seed, and at the same time
most favorable weather conditions. Mil-
lions of vigorous seedlings sprang up even
on old cuttings where there were few seed
trees. The greater portion of this growth
has already been destroyed.
"It has been calculated that, at their present market
prices as timber on the stump and forage, trees are worth
fifteen times as much per acre for timber as for cattle feed.
At a net growth of 100 board feet per acre per year, 150,-
000,000 or 200,000.000 board feet would have been grown
during the last twenty years. On certain lands which are
partially stocked the timber was actually grown at this
rate. On most lands the loss is still going on.
Trees Need Crowding
"Besides reducing the amount of timber reproduction,
grazing causes a poor quality of timber. The young trees
must grow close together to produce good, straight saw
timber. Many young trees die, being crowded out and
deprived of light and nutriment by their fellows, but those
that remain are tall, straight and free from lower limbs.
"Without this crowding they would have been short,
crooked and the trunks full of knots. The scattered re-
production that survives after the grazing may, therefore.
be worse than none, because the trees are valueless, and
because they prevent younger and better growth.
"In view of attempts now being made to secure legisla-
tion to limit the control of the Forest Service over the
national forests, and to turn them over in part to the stock
men. this matter has a pressing importance at this time."
FOREST FIRES DESTROY HUMUS, WHICH
TREES AND FARM CROPS NEED
(Vero Beach Journal.)
Trees and crops do not thrive without humus. Humus
is necessary to hold moisture in the soil and for the bac-
teria which make fertility. Commercial fertilizer on a
soil without humus has little value. Southern soils par-
ticularly need abundant humus.
Where land is burned over frequently the loss of humus
and plant food amounts to about one inch per acre in ten
years. One inch of humus from one acre of land weighs
from ten to twelve tons. It has a greater value than com-
The man who would sell the humus off his land might
better sell the land, because taxes remain with the land,
but the value of the land goes with the humus. The man
who burns his humus does not even get the credit of
giving it away.
12 Florida Review
EVERYBODY IS LOSER WHEN TIMBER BURNS
(Ft. MIeade Leader.)
This is the season of tlle year when forest tires, either
intentional or accidental. are seen more frequently than
a: any other times. It is no trouble. andi one does not have
to look far. to see churning grass and trees alnl stumips.
Flames which may have been nieant for the dead grass
are taking toll of the trecs. particularly of trees which
are being turpentined.
While onI the subject of forest fires. I miui again referring
to the bulletin on Forest Fires inl Florida. published by
the Florida Forestry Association in co-operation with the
Forest Service of the 1'. S. D)elartment of Agriculture. I
quote two paragraphs front the bulletin. which state that
"everybody loses when timber burns."
"If iin enemy were to invade Florida. burn 100t,0()0
homes, and threaten even greater destruction, the citizens
of the State would rise ilup si one mani to drive the foe
from their midst. Nothing would be left undone, be-
cause all would realize the seriousness of the situation.
BIut hlow many know that such ani enemy is now at large
iin the pinley woods of Floridai? He is the 'red enemy' of
the forest-fire-alnd his niaraudings have been carried on
for years. Fifteen thousand lmaan-caused fires inl Florida.
during the average year. destroy millions of 'baby trees'
which, if allowed to grow. would yield enough lumber each
year to build 100.000 homes. ('nt any thinking person doubt
that such a loss seriously affects the prosperity of Florida
and of every mani. wonliain. and child who lives within the
borders of the State?
"Everylody loses when timier burns, for we are' all users
of wood. Further than tlit thl( forest fire problem affects
sixteen industries and trades in Florida which represent
over .;$100).0()0(.00 a year to the State. It affects 71.000
wage-earners with their dependents. It concerns the sports-
men of the State. for woodland tires drive away and des-
troy the wild ganie and third life. It is of importance to,
the Florida farmer, who gets his fuel. posts. poles, and
building limbers from the forest. Forest fires strike at
lie very vitals of social alin economic prosperity ill the
State of Florida."
NATURE HEALS HER SORES
Onlie of thlie most remarkabllle examples of how Mother
Nature heals the wounds that are inflicted by the ele-
ments uplon her children has been given to those who saw
(hle hurricane of September last almost denude greater
Miami of her foliage.
Palms were toppled over or lost their fronds; hibiscus
was whipped tol shreds: oleander was twisted an d broken:
rotion was left built ;a baIre stem sticking above ground:
lpinsettia was snapped off at the surface of the earth;
bougainvillea was torn from trellises; citrus trees were
uprooted-surely it was a picture (of desolation that mnet
our eyes on September 19.
But look about you today. Oni every hand new fronds
are on the palms. hibiscus. oleander. bougainvillea. poin-
settia are blooming tnd the citrus trees look happy and
Nowhere in the continental United Statets lut in South
Florida could such a miracle take police. Nowhere is
Mother Nature so generous and so eager to teach us that
Slie daminage of the greatest storm can lie repaired quickly.
It is a wonderful sight which greets s us now. It is too
Iad that we cannot take this picture north so that all who
doubt the ability of South Florida to come back might he
convinced of their error.
OVER THREE MILLION FEET OF LUMBER IS
SHIPPED DURING THIS WEEK TO
The largest shipments of lumber and timber to go out
of Pensatcola in one' week during the last half a year cleared
ion four steamnships this (weekt for ports inl Souith Ameriica
and Europe when 3.1850.)00 superficial feel of lumber and
timber left on theI steamers Munindiers, Mar ('aribe.
Mathilda and lBraalanid.
The Mathilda carried thie largest cargo. of more than a
million feet of timber for iPuenot s Aires. while the Ameri-
can steamship Munindieris picked upl quarter of a million
feet in P1ensacola harbor for the same country. The Munin-
diers also carried materials taken oin at Mobile.
The Spanish steamer cleared with comparatively small
portion of its cargo of timber, taken on here. and the
Norwegian vessels carried away approximately a million
feet of rough tillmber and dressed lumber for Licata and
other Italian ports.
Hard 'wood was taken fro llthis plort ) by the American
st'amer Effingham. IHer cargo included pitch pine. rosin
and gumn: to ie completed at Mobile before departing for
European ports. There were 49) logs of hard wood taken
Two American vesse's entered harbor this morning for
ca;rg,. tlhe Schoodie, out of New York City. and the Aiken
Tug and Tow Bloat company'ss tug Richmondl. which will
take barges of lumber to Havana soon.
CREATION OF STATE FOREST BUREAU
Vision U. S. Losing Naval Stores Leadership
World leadership in the produce tion of naval stores is
rapidly passing to teit artificially established maritime
forests of lFrance andl witithn the next ten years the fT'ited
States will hel alle to supply no more than Aimerican re-
quirelmentls. Those statements( s are' ci ontined in c a Ibilletin
froin the U'llited States Deparlitent of Agricultiure obtained
by the Itesarch Department of the Florida State chamber r
(o;' (Colerce iln connection with a study of the forestry
situation in Florida. The State (haimbler at its anu al
imeting in MiA li in Decemlber adopted in the forim of a
resolution :i recommendation from tlie till-state Agricultural
Conference that the Legislature at its next session lie urged
to create a state forestry llburea with the object of pro-
tecting second growth timer and till i the reforestation of cut-
The depletion of timber upon which the American naval
stores industry ldele'nds is so pronounced that the industry
is commonly regarded as a dying one. says E. R. McKee.
Deputy Supervisor if the Florida National Forest. in a lbl-
hltin issued by the Federal Forestry Bureau in connection
with the French industry.
"Steps should lie taken in the immediate future to work
conservatively the remaining supply of virgin timber and
adopt a method of turpentining the second-growth tithmber
that will insure( a profitalble yield over a long period of
years, while it is maturing." declared Mr. McKee. "tl ther-
iise we can look forward only to a steady decline illn pro-
duction with definite indications (hat another decade will
see the gum naval stores industry in the South forced to
seek new fields for its supply of timberr"
In France the output of naval stores has been increasing
steadily for more than eighty years and is still increasing
yearly with little or no reduction in the timber supply.
Florida Review 13
PRODUCTION ON DECREASE BUT PRICES
Tallahassee, Fla., Feb. 3.-(INS)-Florida's production
of turpentine and rosin brought into the State approxi-
mately $19,800,000 last year. according to the United States
Department of Agriculture.
In 1925-26, Florida's output of turpentine amounted to
173,000 barrels, and of rosin, 577.000 barrels. There are
429 crude gum distillation plants representing an average
investment of $15,000, or a total of $6.435.000. in the State.
Naval stores Operations are valued at $11.000.000. Florida
has been in the lead in naval stores production for fifteen
years following the virtual extinction of .the industry in
"Since Florida took the lead in naval stores production.
it has just about held its own so far as the dollar value
of the business is concerned," Harry Lee Baker. assistant
forest inspector of the United States Department of Agri-
culture says in a paper prepared for the Florida Forestry
"This is due to the rise in price of turpentine and rosin.
Production dropped from 1.422,000 barrels of turpentine
and rosin in 1908. the peak year. to 750.000 barrels in 1925-
26, a decrease of 47.3 per cent.
"The downward trend may be attributed in part to the
increased cost of labor and to other commonly recognized
influences. But the ever-diminishing number of living pine
trees from which the crude gum can be obtained is re-
cognized as the primary factor in limiting production."
FOREST ROADS ARE AIDED BY SPECIAL
Forest Fire Menace Gradually Being Curbed
W. F. Hill, forest supervisor, is on an inspection tour
through the eastern division of the national forest of
Florida. Mr. Hill will, while on his trip. supervise the erec-
tion of 23 miles of telephone lines. 16 miles of roads and
several lookout towers in the national forest in Marion
county near Ocala.
The Florida national forests have recently received an
appropriation through Congress of $12,071 for survey, con-
struction and maintenance of roads and $23.491 to be ex-
pended for the development of such routes.
The roads and telephone lines being constructed are a
part of the program mapped out for the Florida forests
to aid in prevention of forest fires, which each year rob
the state of thousands of dollars of its natural wealth.
Forest fires during the last few mouths have been re-
duced greatly and Forest Supervisor Hill expects the com-
pletion of the road program and telephone lines to aid
further in the good work.
Mr. Hill will return to Pensacola during the latter part
of the week.
INCREASE THE FORESTS
In Florida there is as yet no way of effectively curtail-
ing any form of activity that may be destroying any of
its great national resources-as witness the steady decline
of its fishing, for instance-so there is some consolation
in an authoritative opinion that the continuance of our
vast lumber industry does not depend upon any curtail-
ment of the output.
Vice-President A. Fletcher Marsh of the Marsh & Tru-
man Lumber Company of Chicago. characterizes as false
the notion that the curtailment of the use of wood products
is in the best interest of our wood supply, and declares
it better to increase the growth of forests than to cut
down the output.
"The trouble with us Americans is not that we have
been cutting our forests and using them, but that we have
not been growing new ones," Mr. Marsh states. "Now, we
are taking up that job. While we are waiting for the
young trees to get big enough for sawing, we must remem-
ber that the woods are full of aged and dying trees that
ought to be cut and used if we are to prevent waste-
and that is as much conservative as planting a young tree.
"Besides, you can only have so much land for forest
growing, and if you let the aged trees stand indefinitely
you put off the time when you can plant young ones. The
truly productive forest is in perpetual motion-old trees
coming out and new ones coming in. It takes a certain
volume of demand to make it worth while to bring the
old ones out, and so start the rotation. Wherefore, you
are justified, on conservation grounds. in continuing to use
forest products whenever and wherever they seem to be
better than other materials.
"Doing so, we shall have trees and forests, wood and
its products in perpetual sufficiency." St. Petersburg
LONG LEAF BEST TIMBER
(Ft. Myers Press.)
While long leaf pine will not grow as .fast as other
varieties, it is the noblest wood of the South when it does
attain its size.
Long leaf pine, according to Government tests, is the
strongest softwood in America. and stronger than many
That is liecanse of its slow growth, which makes close
If any land (owner has a "start" in young long leaf it
will pay him to help it along, as.it will always lie worth
much more money than any other variety of wood.
14 Florida Review
ADDRESS OF DR. PAMMEL AT GAINESVILLE
(Special to Times-Union).
Gainesville. Feb. 4.-Dr. I. H. Pammel, Professor of
Botany, Iowa State college Amos. in an address before
the Gainesville Kiwanis Club on the subject of Conserva-
tion, said :
"Florida is a great state with many and varied natural
resources. It has wonderful types of soil, limestone and
phosphatic rock. muck. lakes, sinkholes, fine hardwoods
and pine. It has a wonderful plant life, some of the rarest
plants of the United States occur within its borders. Ex-
cept a small corner of Texas, Florida has the only real
typical vegetation in the United States. The botanist is
interested in the beautiful native palms mingled with the
orange groves, live and water oaks and magnolia. You
have great areas of the long leaf, slash and loblolly pine.
But how many of the trees of the forest primeval are
left? I have not seen a single forest with the primeval
growth. I think you have many things that should be
preserved for future generations to enjoy.
"Now let me digress for a few moments. It has been
my privilege to have been connected with the state park
system of Iowa in 1918. Not a single park anywhere in
that state when I became a member of the state board of
conservation and now we have forty-five park areas vary-
ing in size from a few acres to 1.400. The keynote of our
park system is defined in our conservation law which
specifies that parks shall be created for scientific, historical
and recreational purposes. Recreation has become im-
portant. Last year 500.000 persons visited three parks in
central Iowa. The scientific is important. Iowa is not a
(lead level country, but it has rolling morsinic hills, lakes.
bluffs, valley streams, wooded and prairie areas. We are
trying to preserve areas with rare plants.
"We have done that. There are some historic spots in
Iowa. and we have preserved some of these. We do not
have the history you have in Florida. You lIhve old his-
toric St. Augustine. The old fort should be made into a
state park. The other day I was in the original grove of
the wild orange on the Wartmann and Crosby place with
its wild oranges and one of the most wonderful live oaks
I have ever seen. Its age antedates the occupancy of the
state by the white race. Surely such a tree is worth pre-
serving. and should be named.
"You have in Florida some fine groves of the rolay .alim
which I understand have been made into a preserve by the
good women of Florida, and in their conservation work
we owe much to the women. You have in Florida near
Tallahassee, one of the rarest conifers on the North Ameri-
can continent. The Florida nutmeg, or stinking cedar
(Tumion taxifollum) the Florida yew, (Taxus Floridona),
and some rare orchids and other plants are found in the
state. It would be most unfortunate if the areas contain-
ing these rare plants should be destroyed. They can never
be replaced. The state owes it to science and the country
at large that the areas where these plants occur should
be made into reserves. You should also make some re-
serves along the Atlantic ocean and Gulf of Mexico.
"I am mortified that in many places you are still follow-
ing the old custom of burning the forests. You are wast-
ing millions of dollars every year. Why not cultivate more
intensely small areas as the Florida experiment station has
suggested. and give the trees a chance to grow and bird
life a home. Some day not far distant more lumber will
1-e needed in the United States. And by the way it is of
interest that the first forest set aside by the Government
occurred in Florida when the United States Government
made reserves out of certain live oak areas for the pro-
duction of live oak for ship construction. It is also of
interest to note in this connection that the Massachusetts
colony 300 years ago passed conservation measures to pro-
tect the forests of that commonwealth. I do not say that
Florida should keep all of the land now covered with trees
for forest purposes. The useless waste lands, however.
should be utilized and should be making wealth for the
state. The 15,000 fires occurring annually in your state
should be stopped at once. They are started to make poor
pasture. The 13,000,000 acres thus burned over should be
growing forest trees. Please remember that every idle acre
in the state is a burden for the public. Please do not burn
the beauty spots of your state. because more and more we
are beginning to realize the importance and value of the
great out-of-doors by giving the public this contact, and
remember when you give this outlet you are making for
a better manhood and womanhood, and you are making
provision for a contented and happy people. Recreation is
one of the vital needs of the day. and now is the time
"Your Legislature is about to meet and you will make
new laws. Why not make it possible through some legisla-
tion to create state parks for recreation and stop the
destructive burning of your forests. It will be an asset to
your state to have the parks and keep your forests. Florida
will always be an attraction to the public from the North.
but more than that you need to assist and help the grow-
ing population of your state get this contact with the out
LUMBER AND NAVAL STORES MENACED,
Department of Forestry Is Needed to Conserve Florida
With the exception of her wonderful sunshine and fertile
soil. Florida's gigantic bodies of standing timber are her
greatest natural asset. And. despitee the enormous revenue
derived from this source, scarcely any effort is lieing made
to protect and keep alive this wonderful gift of Nature.
During the year 1925 production of lumber in Florida
reached a total of 1.250.000.000 feet, more than 100.000.C00
feet greater than any year since 1918, according to the
Florida State Chamber of Commerce.
The importance of the industry is attested by the fact
that during 1923, 32 per cent of all the wage earners in
Florida were engaged in it and 24 per cent of the total
production of the state was lumber. The value of the
lumber that year was over $45.150,000. while workers
engaged in the industry received wages and salaries ag-
Large Forest Area
At least 20,000,000 acres of land in Florida are now
partially stocked with trees. The area in farms amounts
to 6,000,000 acres, of which but 2 500,000 acres is under
cultivation. If the cultivated area becomes four times
greater than at present-in other words, if 7.500,000 acres
more of land are placed under the p)low, giving a net cul-
tivated area of 10.000.000 acres-there will still remain
10,000,000 acres in forests. An area of 10,000,000 acres will
yield three billion board feet of timber annually. This is
over twice the present lumber cut. But to do this the
area must be kept well stocked with trees. The forests
renew themselves naturally if the baby trees are not killed
by forest fires.
Aside from the value of lumber cut and sold, the pine
forests of the state yield each year turpentine and rosin
which increases the wealth of the state by millions of
Following the decline of the naval stores industry in
the Carolinas. Florida has been in the lead in the pro-
duction of turpentine and rosin for 15 years. In 1910
Florida's output exceeded the combined production of all
other states. On this basis production dropped from 53.7
per cent in 1910 to 32 per cent in 1925. Florida could not
be expected to continue in the lead against the entire coun-
try. The comparison, however, indicates clearly thac the
naval stores industry has contributed in no small way to
the prosperity of the state.
Supported 70,000 Persons
In 1923-24 Florida's output was 195.000 barrels of tur-
pentine and 660.000 barrels of rosin. The estimated market
value of these commodities is placed at $12.900.000. Em-
ployment was given to more than 14.000 people. Over
$7.000.0CO was paid to laborers and salaried officers. As-
suming one wage-earner for every five persons, it is esti-
mated that 70.000 individuals were dependent upon the
naval stores industry in Florida in 1924. Another $3.000,000
was placed in circulation through the purchase of materials.
The average annual naval stores business transacted at
the two principal ports has amounted to $1.653.000 for
Pensacola, and $9,023.000 for Jacksonville.
The figures quoted above do not include the turpentine
and rosin distilled from wood. Production from wood dis-
tillation amounted to 52.000 barrels of spirits valued at
$2,015,000 and 200,780 barrels of rosin valued at $1.368.000.
For the last fifteen years Florida has just about held its
own insofar as the dollar value of the naval stores busi-
ness is concerned. This is due to the rise in value of rosin
and turpentine. Productions have.dropped off from 1,422.000
barrels of turpentine and rosin in 1908. the peak year, to
855,000 barrels in 1923-24. This represents a decrease of
39.8 per cent or 2.3 per cent per year. This trend down-
ward may be attributed, in part, to the increased cost of
labor and to other commonly recognized influences. But.
the ever-diminishing number of living pine trees from which
the crude gum is obtained is recognized by well-informed
men as the primary factor which has limited production.
Production Under Demand
From the point of view of the producers nid dealers,
the present day output of turpentine and rosin is sufficiently
under the demand to create a healthy market condition.
In some quarters this situation has led to a feeling of satis-
faction. This is most natural. following, as it does. lean
years, or a period of over-production.
There were fat years in the Carolinas, and these were
followed by almost total extinction of the industry. Wil-
mington. N. C., once a great naval stores port. as such is
no more. The decline in production in Florida is recog-
nized by many leaders in the industry as a sure indication
of more lean years, and, finally, no profits at all. unless
something is done in the way of putting idle forest lands
of the state to work by preventing forest fires.
Industry Can Be Sustained
That the naval stores men are concerned about the future
supply of raw materials is evidenced by the fact that a
commission appointed by the Secretary of Agriculture was
sent to Spain and France in 1924 to study conservative
methods of turpentining. The report of the commission
teems with enthusiasm regarding the possibility of a sus-
tained industry in this country. as in France. for all time. It
states that we have better soil, better climate, better pines
than France, in fact, every factor except taxation and
the devastating influence of forest fires. Two million acres
in the Landes district of France-about the area of five
of Florida's counties-support a population of 1,400,000
people. Tr eegrowing for the production of timber, tur-
pentine and rosin is the principal industry. The production
of naval stores is equal to one-fourth of the entire produc-
tion of all the Southern States and is not far under the
output of the entire State of Florida. This industry has
been maintained for 80 years. Permanent communities.
with good homes, schools and churches have been built up
on ani area which iany years ago was nothing but sand
dunes and swamps.
If such a transformation could lie brought about in
France under less favorable conditions than prevail in
Florida, it would seem reasonable to assume that the par-
tially productive forest lands here catn le returned to their
original state. The elimination of forest fires and con-
servative turpentining practices, according to experts of
the United States Department of Agricu.ture. will safe-
guaid this $12,000.000 industry for all time.
Forestry Department Needed
The industry is awakening to its obligation in the mat-
ter of adopting more conservative methods in the woods.
as is evidenced by the Pine Institute of America. The
avowed purpose of this organization is to improve condi-
tions in the industry and to take steps intended to pre-
vent fires from killing the bay trees. The institute avers
that when the public more fully appreciates that the exis-
tence of the naval stores industry is threatened, there is
little doubt that progressive Florida will also recognize
its obligation to create a fire warden organization under
the control of a strong forestry department. Such a depart-
ment. it is pointed out, could do much to safeguard the
naval stores industry. The primary objective should be to
demonstrate that tree growing. as a crop, is profitable:
to demonstrate conservative methods of turpentining and
to prevent forest fires through education and by enforcing
Thirty or more states appear to I e getting satisfactory
results on their investments in forestry departments and
in the protection of young stands of timber. If Florida
would spend but one-half of 1 per cent of the combined
value of the lumber and naval stores industries, estimated
at $60,000,000. it would cost $30.0,0(0 annually. This is
characterized by experts as cheap insurance on such a
valuable industry, which means so much to the continued
prosperity of the State. and it is predicted that the time
is drawing near when Florida will loik into this problem
and take appropriate steps to safeguard this important
EXPORTS OF LUMBER ARE ON INCREASE
Pensacola Harbor Receives Large Quantities Over Frisco
(Special to Times-Union.)
Pensacola, Jan. 14.-Lumber and timber exporters are
reporting the receipt of large consignments of pitch pine
over the recently rejuvenated Muscle Shoals branch of the
Frisco railroad, and it is expected now that mills served
by the Frisco are available. the supply of lumber and
timber for export here will be drawn upon in immense
quantities and the exports in these lines will show an
appreciable increase in the immediate future.
Heretofore mills which lined the Muscle Shoals branch
of the Frisco were not selling a great deal to the Pensacola
exporters for various reasons. One of the most potent of
these reasons, it was claimed. was the uncertainty of
movement as desired. Since the Frisco has bought the
Muscle Shoals branch the entire roadbed has been streng-
thened. and the Frisco has added a lot of suitable equip-
The lumber mills have been given all the encouragement
16 Florida Review
possible for shipping into Peinsaco'lht antd from the looks of
export docks where ste;inshis are loading, these mill
operators aire taking atdvlitiilge o)f the chance to pour out
their products through this port. The largest lumber and
timber inovement in smnl monthllt s is now being forecast
in local circles.
STORM-PROOF HOUSE FRAME READY TO SEE
Lumbermen's Bureau Invites Spectators to Site of Model
Prospective home builders who visit the site of the
Miami model house now may see safety methods being
used in the framing in its early stages, according to the
Lumbermen's Credit Bureau which, wi h the Southern
Pine Association, is sponsoring the project. Framing de-
signed to withstand winds of unusual intensity incorpo-
rates vital points of safe building.
Southern Pine Association engineers have drawn ul)
fifteen cardinal points of sound lumber construction and
the first of these can be seen at the building site at this
time. The foundation, which is the initial detail and
completed at the model house, is followed this week by
the first group of framing methods which read:
"The weight of a building is not sufficient to hold it
on the foundation in winds of unusual intensity. It is
necessary that a two- to four-inch-thick sill be bolted to
the foundation to which the house may be secured. The
bolts should be three-quarter inch in diameter, placed
every eight feet and extend 18 inches or two feet into
Joists support the floors and contents of a building.
They should be placed not more than 16 inches apart
and should have sufficient strength to carry the load
without bending so far as to crack the plaster. Cross
bridging should be placed at least every eight feet in the
length of the joists so that the floor will be absolutely
"Studs in outside walls should be placed not more than
16 inches apart and should be continuous the full height
of the wall. When they support the second story joists
they should have a continuous ribbon notched into them
and have the joists securely spiked to their sides. Single
bridging should be placed between the studs in the middle
of each story height.
First-floor joists and outside wall studs should be effec-
tively tied to the sill bolted to the foundation by a single
strip of horizontal sheathing, running completely around
the building and securely spiked to sill, studding and
joists. Plats may be used in place of the single strip of
sheathing if they are cut in between the joists and spiked
to sill, joists and studs.
"All corners shall be strengthened by placing braces at
an angle of 45 degrees which shall be reversed in direc-
tion in the extreme corners of the same side wall. This
will transmit strains to the foundation without rupturing
FOREST FIRES AND FOREST INTEREST
Ten thousand men fighting forest fires in the far West
in the past week or ten days! This indicates vast forest
areas swept by flames, a large number of the fires
started by careless people. One report has it that more
than 270,000 acres are embraced in forest fires in sections
of California alone, involving enormous loss, much of
which is not recoverable. Out of 650 forces' fires reported
in the Shasta district, officials report that 350 have been
caused by careless men and incendiaries. This, in spite
of the warnings that have been given for years. Careless-
ness still prevails. The results are saddening.
In this section of the United States, meaning in the
South, restoration of forests is growing in general in-
terest. The recent fires that swept western forest areas
ought to cause more of general interest in the matter of
forest protection in this section. Already very much of
necessary protection is being given. There is occasion for
more of watchfulness being given, however, or all the
good work that is being done will go for naught. The
Southern Pine Association reports more of popular senti-
ment for forestry, for reforestation and for forest pro-
tection. This is extremely gratifying. But no permanent
advancement will be made unless the most of vigilance
is exercised for the prevention of forest fires, and of
With reference to forestry progress in the South, it is
stated that Alabama, Louisiana, Georgia, Virginia, Texas,
Missouri, North Carolina, Tennessee and Kentucky have
workable forestry laws. Alabama, particularly, is doing
wonderfully good work, under direction of its state for-
estry commission, and with the co-operation of thousands
of the foremost and most practical of its citizens. In
Florida there is more of attention to this matter of for-
estry than heretofore. More, however, can be done for
forestry protection and promotion than is being done.
There is strong public sentiment, encouraged by organiza-
tions and by private citizens, in favor of still more of
attention being given to forestry matters in this state.
This sentiment needs to be crystallized and practically
direct, for the promotion of the work that needs to be
The Montgomery (Ala.) Advertiser, commenting of For-
estry in the South, says:
That amazing progress has thus been made is
very apparent, when we remember that only a few
years ago there was almost nothing in the way of
forestry in the South at all. In this section, as else-
where, extensive timber cutting is threatening com-
plete destruction of all forests, unless strict re uula-
tion is provided. The ruined appearance of cut-over
lands and the fearful damage wrought by forest fires
are only too apparent. In this as in other matters,
nature's prodigal generosity is being recklessly wast-
ted. iand we are thus developing a scientific system
of protection. Scientific care develops habits of thrift,
just as too much abundance produces shiftlessness.
Thus character development is apt to accompany
means for securing economy in timber cutting. The
South is making much progress in forestry, but needs
to go a long way further to secure a really efficient
system. But this is coming rapidly, just as the need
for it is growing.
What most is needed right now is an awakening of
the public conscience, to see and understand what for-
ests mean to all the people. With this awakening should
come more of co-ordinated efforts to save what forests
remain and to provide, practically, for the addition to
present forest areas. When a movement, so inspired, gets
started the South will profit immensely by the work to