Jt oritba -M
PUBLISHED SEMI-MONTHLY BY
BUREAU OF IMMIGRATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Vol. 1 January 3, 1927 No. 15
Florida---A Good Place for Factories
Not long ago that great Captain of Industry,
Henry Ford, gave the industrial world something
of a shock when he advanced the idea that the fac-
tories of the future would not be built in the city,
but in the country. A little later, the Wizard of
Menlo Park, Thomas A. Edison, passed out a second
shock, when he said that the building of great cities
had reached its zenith and that the tendency hence-
forth would be toward smaller towns.
This is only another way of saying that mankind
is finding out that the man-made city is not a better
place to live and work than the God-made country.
Few men in America have a more intimate know-
ledge of the great questions touching labor and
capital than does Henry Ford. And it would seem
that he is also possessed of discernment and sym-
pathy which is going to make for better industrial,
social and economic conditions. Mr. Ford holds
that factory workers will be happier, healthier and
hence, more efficient if they live away from the con-
gested centers. He, therefore, ventures the predic-
tion that the great industrial plants of the future
will be built miles from the big cities and that the
workers in these plants will dwell in small communi-
ties where they can live freer, roomier lives, closer
to nature and more in God's out-of-doors.
Mr. Edison shares Mr. Ford's belief and predicts
that civilization will shortly begin to readjust its
living conditions to such an extent that the great
congested centers will gradually lose in population
through a more general distribution of population
over the land.
Just when these changes will come about, no one
can say, but beyond a doubt these men have good
reasons for their views. The big men of industry
are coming to see more and more that their individ-
ual success is inseparable from the economic, physi-
cal and moral condition of their employees. No man
can do his best in factory, mine or on the farm, whose
living and working conditions are not wholesome
Florida can offer ideal opportunity for the trial
of the Ford idea. Surely no other land can hold
out more in healthful climate, in low cost of living,
in its multitude of facilities for pleasure and recrea-
tion, in all that goes toward the balanced, orderly,
fully developed life than can Florida.
Just now, when North, East and West are winter-
locked and snow-bound; when ice blocks their lakes
and rivers and frost stays the wheels of their fac-
tories, we have opportunity for a dramatic contrast
that can but redound to the favor of Florida. Who
among the sons of men, made of flesh and blood,
that would not prefer his habitation right now in
the land of palms, oranges, sunshine and warmth,
rather than in the frozen areas where King Winter
'reigns? And who will not agree that those who
work here can do so more comfortably, freely and
efficiently than is possible, unless at great expense,
in the lands of winter?
It does not require the vision of a seer or prophet
to look ahead to the day when Florida will have a
population of many millions. We will have a de-
veloped Agriculture and with it we will have a de-
veloped Industrial life. Thousands of factories will
utilize our tremendous supply of raw materials;
bring into activity our latent powers and possi-
Few of us realize that already the value of our
manufactured products exceeds by many millions
the value of our farm products. In 1925 our 1,867
manufacturing establishments, with 69,200 employes,
turned out products aggregating in value $280,-
Undoubtedly, the years ahead will mark unprece-
dented industrial growth in the entire South. Flor-
ida, with its great variety of raw material, with its
ideal advantages of climate and soil, with its rail-
roads, its magnificent ports, its geographical position
as regards South America, has ample reason for the
faith of its people in a future of notable industrial
2 Florida Review
FLORIDA A GREAT INDUSTRIAL AND MANU-
FACTURING STATE IN THE MAKING, WITH
By Geo. R. Hilty, Editor, Florida Power and Light Company
Magazine, Palatka, Fla.
Perhaps one of the strongest factors in attracting new
business to Florida is ample and dependable electric power.
There is now being undertaken, for example, the develop-
ment of a super-power, interconnecting, high-voltage elec-
tric service system in Florida by the Florida Power and
Light Company, a Florida corporation with a capital of
This company during 1925 expended a little more than
$15,000,000 in the construction and reconstruction of cen-
tral generating stations and high-voltage transmission
lines and auxiliaries and miscellaneous work, and in 1926
it has undertaken a $35,000,000 construction program, which
is well under way.
The pro-ram includes the erection and installation of
the most modern superpower electric generating station
on New River, near Fort Lauderdale, and a similar station
on the St. Johns River, near Sanford. The ultimate gener-
ating capacity of the two stations is now planned to be
335,000 horsepower, and they will cost over $11,000,000.
These plants will be put in operation by the end of this
year, and through high-voltage transmission lines will tie
in with the central stations at Miami, West Palm Beach
and St. Augustine on the East Coast, and Bradenton, Sara-
sota and Fort Myers on the West Coast, being intercon-
nected cross-country through Okeechobee, so that there
will be one great superpower high-voltage electric service
system supplying the entire territory so connected with
ample and dependable electric energy for all purposes.
There will be approximately 800 miles of high-voltage trans-
mission line in operation when lines now under construc-
tion are completed and the electric distribution systems
in 79 cities and towns will be connected by this super-
The financial agent of the Florida Power and Light Com-
pany is the Electric Bond and Share Company of New
York City, and it is obvious that a company of the standing
of the Electric Bond and Share Company does not approve
such large expenditures of money as are now being ex-
pended in Florida by the Florida Power and Light Com-
pany without recognizing Florida's stability and future
expansion and development.
Every magazine, every newspaper writer, depicts Flo-
rida as a remarkable agricultural and recreational state,
a paradise and a playground, with unsurpassed climate,
soil, weather conditions and facilities. Florida is all this
and more. Florida is laying, perhaps unconsciously, the
foundation for a great industrial and manufacturing state.
Nature itself has set the stage and capital and labor will
play their part in bringing this about.
There are now in Florida over 2600 successful manu-
facturing establishments and commercial enterprises. A
single city-Miami-shows an increase in its industrial
plants this year over last year of 700 per cent, and the
increase in industrial plants in Miami is correspondingly
shown in other Florida cities. Already the advance guard
of big industries are here, and are still coming, blazing
the trail for the larger captains of industry who are now
beginning to analyze and study the manufacturing and in-
dustrial possibilities of Florida. As a result of these
studies large and still larger plants are now beginning to
be constructed, many of them doing almost exclusively
export and import business.
Geographically, Florida occupies a unique stategic in-
dustrial and manufacturing position. It is closer to the
South American and Oriental Countries, via the Panama
Canal, than any other state in the Union, and is within
short haul of the iron ore and coal fields of Alabama and
Along the 1273 miles of Gulf and Atlantic coast line
Nature has provided Florida with more natural harbors
than any other state in the Union and perhaps in the
world. The report of the chief engineer of the United
States Army discloses the fact that 11 harbors are being
enlarged, improved and developed by the Government and
private capital. These harbors are Apalarhicola Bay, Cara-
belle Harbor, Charlotte Harbor, Fernandina, Jacksonville,
Miami, Pensacola, St. Andrews Bay, St. Joseph Bay, St.
Petersburg and Tampa. Since this report Sarasota has
undertaken an extensive harbor-development program, $1,-
500,000 was voted for a deeper harbor in Daytona-New
Smyrna section, Lake Worth Inlet district sold $3,250,000
bonds for port development at West Palm Beach and the
harbor development of Bay Mabel at Hollywood has been
undertaken by General Goethals for the Hollywood Land
and Development Company.
These are only a few of the vast number of wonderful
harbor facilities and opportunities which Florida has to
offer among which are St. Augustine, Fort Pierce, Stuart
(perhaps no city anywhere has finer harbor possibilities
than Stuart) on the Atlantic Coast of Florida; Fort Myers
and Suwannee Bay, Choctawhatchee Bay, etc., on the west
coast of Florida; while Palatka and Sanford on the St.
Johns River afford excellent inland river port advantages.
There are other water and harbor advantages I am not able
to cover, while Okeechobee and the surrounding country
of Lake Okeechobee afford advantages for smaller in-
dustries and smaller craft.
There are now 71 boat lines operating in and around
Florida ports and to other parts of the United States and
foreign countries. Back of this water transportation is
5492 miles of railroad facilities, with many more miles
contemplated and under construction, and a number of
railroads are now predicting their entrance into Florida,
while the highways construction program for truck dis-
tribution is far in advance of any other state of like popu-
lation. The state government is progressive and encour-
ages capital and industry. There is no inheritance tax or
state bond indebtedness and no reckless and radical legis-
Living and Labor Conditions
There are no snow and ice or freezing conditions that
impede operation and interfere with the comforts of life.
The summers in Florida are cool compared with many
of the Northern cities. There is always a breeze. The
writer has lived in Florida the year round since March,
1919, and personally enjoys the summers better than the
winters, having traveled the state from Pensacola to Miami
and Jacksonville to Fort Myers. Therefore, Florida pre-
sents ideal working conditions 365 days in the year. The
thrifty employee can raise within the confines of his back
yard vegetables, fruit and chickens in sufficient quantity
to supply his household daily, almost the year round.
There are more advantages and fewer disadvantages for
the employee in Florida than in any other state in the Union
and living conditions can be made correspondingly cheaper.
Industries and manufacturers can save from 25 per cent
to 50 per cent in their fuel and labor costs during the
(Continued on page 5.)
Florida Review 3
Published Semi-Monthly by
Bureau of Immigration, Department of Agriculture
Nathan Mayo........................Commissioner of Agriculture
T. J. Brooks..................Director Bureau of Immigration
Phil S. Taylor........................................... Advertising Editor
Entered as second-class matter. June 25. 1926, at the Post Office
at Tallahassee, Fla., under the Act of June 6, 1920.
Will be mailed free to anyone upon request.
January 3, 1927
SOUTHEAST SHIPPERS' BOARD FORECASTS
CONTINUED ERA OF PROSPERITY
Industrial and Railroad Accomplishments During 1926 Es-
tablish New Records; Indications Point to Greater
Achievements During 1927
Continued prosperity was forecast in reports submitted
to the sixteenth regular meeting of the Southeast Shippers'
Advisory Board here today.
Industrial and railroad accomplishments during 1926 es-
tablished new records and all indications point to even
greater achievements during 1927.
The volume of business anticipated during the first quar-
ter of 1927 by the coal and coke, fertilizer, iron and steel,
machinery, miscellaneous and alcohol industries will be
about the same as for the first quarter 1926, while increases
ranging from 5 to 25 per cent over the first three months
of this year are expected during the same period 1927 by
the furniture, grain and grain products, lumber and forest
products, pulp, paper and products, sugar and petroleum
The Alabama-Tennessee coal mines are operating prac-
tically 100 per cent and it is expected this situation will
continue at least until April 1st.
The estimated cottonseed tonnage for movement first
quarter 1927 is heavier than previous years because of the
lateness of the season and market conditions.
Cotton production this season will probably be the
greatest in the history of the United States. The abnormal
movement of through cotton and cotton for concentration
created a situation that was physically impossible to over-
come without slackening up the movement and as a result
embargoes were put into effect during the month of Octo-
ber at several compress points. No responsibility attached
therefore to the shippers or carriers as conditions were
abnormal and beyond the control of all concerned.
The Crushed Stone Sand, Gravel and Slag Committee re-
port conditions exceptionally good, there being consider-
able building in progress regardless of the winter season.
The movement of manufactured fertilizer outbound will
be about the same during the first quarter 1927 as it was
during corresponding period 1926. Imported fertilizer ma-
terial through the South Atlantic and gulf ports will, it is
anticipated, be about 12 per cent less during the first
quarter of 1927 than during corresponding period 1926.
Fruits and Vegetables
The fresh fruits and vegetables committee reported on
steps taken to improve conditions within the peach indus-
try before the 1927 shipping season, eliminating the mar-
keting difficulties experienced during the past season. Mr.
W. C. Bewley, manager Georgia Peach Growers Exchange,
Macon, Ga., chairman of the board's fresh fruit and vege-
table committee was appointed chairman of the general
committee organized by the peach industry of Georgia
to handle this important work.
The strawberry crop in Louisiana in 1927 is expected
to greatly exceed the 1926 crop which was a record-breaker
from every viewpoint.
The furniture industry anticipates a 10 per cent in-
crease in volume of business first quarter of 1927 over
same period 1926. The iron and steel industry estimate
their requirements for transportation first quarter 1927
will be about the same as for same period 1926, and this
indicates continued augmented production.
Grain and grain products will be about 5 per cent heavier
than first quarter 1926. The grain crops either produced
or estimated for the Southeast territory are considerably
larger than last year. The stocks of mills and terminal
elevators are somewhat larger than at this time last year.
Owing to the increasing efficiency in manufacturing and
distributing; the leaving of seed trees in the forest; the
careful handling of skidders so as to not destroy the seed
trees, and other methods of reforestation, the lumber sup-
ply of the south is being insured for many years to come.
A 10 per cent increase in business over first quarter 1926 is
anticipated for the first three months of 1927.
Machinery will move about the same during the first
quarter 1927 as it did during the first period 1926.
The miscellaneous committee reported bank clearings
continuing unusually large and heavier in 1926 than for
any previous year on record. Wholesale commodity prices
seem stronger and some recent gains have been made in
wholesale trade volume.
Agriculture will show a net income about equal to or a
little larger perhaps than that of last year. Crops in the
main are larger but depressed farm prices will prevent any
general gains in income.
The building industry continues well employed and most
building materials show a good volume of production, a
steady demand and fairly stable markets.
The pulp, paper and products industry continues to show
a steady gain, and large amounts are being expended in
improving and enlarging present plants.
The sugar committee in anticipating an increase of 10
per cent in volume of business first quarter 1927 as com-
pared with same period 1926 calls attention to the possi-
bility of a reduction in the Cuban crop by government de-
cree which would probably put a speculative feature into
the market and make for an increase in the volume moved
for the period.
The textile committee presented a resume of the growth
of that industry and its present lead over the New Eng-
land cotton textile industry. There is more than $1,000,-
000,000 invested today in Southern textile mills and the
annual value of the butput is around $1,000,000,000.00. Pro-
duction of Southern mills to January 1st, 1927 is practic-
ally fully sold. While the South is advancing in textile
manufacture the industry in New England, within the
past few years, has either stood still or has shown an
The Chamber of Commerce reported general business
conditions in the territory embraced by the board con-
tinuing much better than last year.
The outlook of the petroleum industry for 1927 is re-
ported favorable with a substantial increase anticipated.
4 Florida Review
All industries reported transportation service of the
carriers being very good with car supply ample.
No complaints touching lack of or improper transporta-
tion service were received.
Freight cars loaded during 1926, according to the latest
available reports, show an increase of 4 per cent over
1925-the "peak" year, thus establishing a new record.
This unprecedented tonnage of the past two years was
handled with the greatest economy and efficiency in the
history of transportation.
It is estimated that the revenue freight car loading for
the year 1926 will be 52,700,939 cars. The following figures
showing cars loaded in the Southeast for the 46 weeks
period, January 1st to November 13th, inclusive, during
the past five years are interesting:
1926 7,039,268 cars.
1925 6,867,861 cars.
1924 6,348,094 cars.
1923 6,311,935 cars.
1922 5,564,376 cars.
There are fewer freight cars awaiting repairs at present
than at any time since the adoption in 1923 of the program
to provide adequate transportation.
The percentage of locomotives awaiting repairs is lower
now than at any time on record.
During the last three months the Southeastern carriers
have put in service 65 new freight locomotives and 6,500
new freight cars, while they have on order 2,500 new
Road and terminal conditions on all Southeastern roads
are reported very good. No embargoes have been issued
due to transportation difficulty by Southeastern lines. No
car shortages were reported, all orders for equipment
being filled 100 per cent.
The advisory board has resulted in the complete elimina-
tion of complaints by shippers and receivers in the South-
east to public and governmental authorities with great
benefit to all interested.
PUBLICITY WORK OF SOUTHERN ROADS BIG
FEATURE IN PLACING FLORIDA IN
A PROPER LIGHT
In view of the adverse talk about Florida, still prevalent
in certain sections, the Record inquired of officials of
some of the southern transportation lines as to their
plans for refuting the erroneous statements in regard to
Florida's condition since the depression in real estate and
the hurricane in the lower part of the state, says the Manu-
facturer's Record. The suggestion was made that every
railroad entering Florida and every steamship line as well
could afford to carry on a heavy advertising campaign set-
ting forth charms and attractions of Florida for the winter
A. D. Stubbins, president and general manager of the
Merchants and Miners Transportation Company of Balti-
more, in reply says:
"We are doing our utmost to convince prospective win-
ter visitors to Florida that the conditions are such that
they may go with assurance of finding Florida as safe and
attractive as ever.
"In order that our people may talk convincingly of Flo-
rida conditions, we have had most of our passenger people
visit Florida in order'that they could speak with first-hand
knowledge of conditions, both as to hotel rates and health
conditions and the recovery from the effects of the storm
in Miami and vicinity."
TRUST COMPANIES GROW
Florida trust companies have total resources of $218,-
648,394, an increase of $19,912,530 over 1925, issued as of
June 30th by the United States Mortgage & Trust Com-
pany of New York.
The total for the South Atlantic States was $819,781,-
366, and the country, $19,335,270,000, the latter showing
an increase of one billion one hundred ninety millions
over 1925. Deposits were approximately sixteen billions,
a gain of nine hundred millions.
In analyzing the figures just made public, John W. Plat-
ten, president of the United States Mortgage & Trust
"The present strong position of the trust companies,
attained through a steady, continued progress, reflects a
healthy condition in the Trust company field. Further
development along the lines now so clearly marked cannot
fail to result in a much wider acceptance of the trust
principle, with a corresponding increase in the volume of
business entrusted to fiduciary institutions."
J. R. Kenly, president of the Atlantic Coast Line Rail-
road Company, Wilmington, N. C., writes:
"Our publicity department, our agricultural and indus-
trial department and our traffic department are all paying
a great deal of attention to the advertising of Florida.
They have put out a quantity of very interesting and in-
structive literature in a rational way; in fact, I think our
advertisements during this season are far superior to any-
thing we have put out heretofore."
L. A. Downs, president of the Illinois Central system,
of Chicago, sends clipping from the Chicago Daily Tribune
of November 17 of the Illinois Central's advertisement
about Florida, and states:
"We anticipate continuing our efforts to induce Florida
travel by newspaper advertising, the first of our series
having appeared concurrently with receipt of your letter,
a copy with which is enclosed."
This half-page advertisement by the Illinois Central sy-
stem in the interest of Florida travel was headed "Flo-
rida's Unchangeable Asset," and it tells of the glorious,
balmy climate of Florida, its hotel accommodations, its
striving cities, its railroad, highway and general construc-
tion development, and in conclusion states:
"Florida's story of achievements is endless as she stands
today upon the threshold of her inevitable destiny-a great
agricultural state, an industrial state of great importance
-and the playground of America."
W. R. Cole, president, Louisville & Nashville Railroad
Company, Louisville, Ky., assures the Manufacturers Rec-
ord that his company will leave no stone unturned to pro-
mote the interests of Florida in the matter of giving pub-
licity to its wonderful resources. He writes:
"There will be no abatement of our winter campaign
in regard to the development of the passenger travel for
Florida. Our plans for this campaign, which is now under
way, involve advertising in a total of 235 newspapers in
the north and west, including also the states of Kentucky
and Tennessee. In addition, we are contributing to a
joint advertising campaign with several other railroads
which involves the use of approximately 350 newspapers
in the north and northwest, reaching as far west as Colo-
rado. Besides this, we have distributed jointly with other
roads a great number of circulars, folders, booklets, etc.,
advertising the great advantages of this Southern terri-
Florida Review 5
FLORIDA A GREAT INDUSTRIAL AND MANU-
(Continued from page 2.)
winter months here in Florida, which, in itself is an im-
portant manufacturing cost saving in many lines of busi-
ness will give Florida manufacturers a competitive sell-
Florida's Mineral Resources
Peat-It is known that Florida has available 2,000,000,-
000 tons of air-dried peat. (See U. S. Geological Bulletin
728). Peat can be made into industrial fuel, coke, and
may be converted into woven fabrics, building boards,
mattresses, sanitary appliances, etc. Four hundred tons
of Florida peat was taken from a deposit between Jack-
sonville and St. Augustine and shipped to Stockton-on-Tees,
England, and tested by Beswick Gas Company before the
World War broke out. Chemical analysis of the product
shipped indicated that it was far superior in quality to
that produced in any other known section. By-products
from the Florida peat were gas for commercial and house-
hold use, sulphate of ammonia, methyl alcohol, oil, tar.
fertilizers, ammonia in sulphate form.
Cement Rock-Perhaps no other state has a greater
deposit or higher-grade cement rock, unexcelled for vases,
statuary, outdoor furniture, building blocks, artificial stone
and allied stone products on a large scale.
Kaolin-By analysis of actual products made, the Kaolin
found in Florida is equal to that in the famous Worcester
(England) product. Tableware, pottery and allied products
can be made here cheaper than anywhere else in the
country; capital interested in this industry should import
trained workers in this line of manufacture from England
and continental Europe.
Gypsum-Gypsum is found in large deposits in Sumter
and Citrus counties, ready for exploitation.
Diatomite-Lake county diatomite is the purest in the
United States and far superior to the German product.
Diatomite has over 170 different uses. It is a perfect in-
sulator against heat and cold and it may be manufactured
into fireproof tile, shingles, sound and fireproof wall parti-
Furniture-The world's greatest furniture center has no
more available timber left, while Florida offers an economic
solution to furniture manufacturers, spool, reel, and match
factories and a thousand and one toy industries.
Glass-There are almost limitless quantities of the
highest grade of glass sand available near Starke, Fla.
And as I traveled Florida new products and fields of in-
dustrial opportunity unfold themselves. Florida has not
been scratched upon the surface as yet.
Possibilities in Iron and Steel
While Florida has no iron and steel mineral of known
quantity, that does not indicate that it has no iron and
steel advantages. Gary, Ind., is located hundreds of miles
away from raw material, yet on the sand dunes of Lake
Michigan the United Steel Corporation erected one of the
largest and most modern steel plants in the country. All
raw material, such as iron ore, coke, coal and limestone,
must be shipped into Gary and the finished product ship-
ped out. The same is true of Baltimore and many of the
other industrial and manufacturing centers of this country.
The vital elements in the manufacturing of products are
the manufacturing and distribution costs and I believe
Florida is solving this great problem.
I believe Florida offers splendid opportunities to nail,
screw, bolt and sheet-metal plants; manufacturers of ele-
vator buckets, garden tools, tractors, steel can for factory
and railroad purposes, and all kinds of wire products. In
my opinion, there should be built in Florida at once wire,
bar and guide mills, as well as cast-iron pipe foundries.
Florida does not have to wait for lower freight rates.
It can solve its freight rate problem, just as Virginia, by
importing its pig-iron, steel billets and slabs from Belgium,
if necessary, to attain its industrial supremacy. There is
no doubt in my mind that ultimately structural steel and
rail mills will be constructed in Florida. Of course, the
ultra-conservatives will accuse me of visualizing too far in
the future. Men in the past paid the death penalty for
looking too far ahead; but, thanks to Providence, we can
look ahead and live. The vision of yesterday is the reality
of today. My vision is predicted upon what I believe to be
an economic study of Florida.
KEY WEST EXPORTS WERE TWO MILLION
Tampa and Jacksonville Biggest Importers
(St. Augustine Record)
Key West, Fla., Dec. 11.-Of the $4,366,273 in exports sent
to Cuba from Florida during September, $2,823,561 is
credited to Key West, according to the report for the
month issued from the office of C. H. Hildreth, Jr., collector
of customs for this district. Key West also ranks third in
imports, Jacksonville and Tampa ranking first and second
respectively. Key West's imports were $409,413.
Tampa's exports during September amounted to $286,026
with imports totalling $750,629. Jacksonville holds second
place in exports with $615,972 and $857,402 in imports.
Pensacola sent $514,372 of dutiable merchandise and food-
stuffs to Cuba, against which the imports at that city
amounted to $59,297.
Miami's imports during the month amounted to more
than the exports. Goods were imported to the amount of
$66,037, while the exports amounted to $48,495.
West Palm Beach exported $960 and the imports of that
city were $198, according to the report.
Other cities listed are: Boca Grande, $14,000 exports and
no imports; Panama City, $35,887 exports and no imports;
St. Augustine, $3,185 imports and no exports.
STEAMSHIP LINE HEAD LAUDS THE FUTURE
New York, Nov. 8.-(AP)-The future of Florida is as-
sured and it will be only a short time now before the re-
cent hurricane will be only a memory, in the opinion of
H. H. Raymond, president of the Clyde and Mallory steam-.
Mr. Raymond returned here today from a tour of the
Company's properties in the south.
"It is wonderful," he said, "how the people of Florida
have recovered and are getting back to normal in such
short space of time. From the results of united efforts of
the people It will be only a short time before the storm
will be only a memory.
"The future of Florida is assured for I know that before
the season starts the whole state will be itself again."
Mr. Raymond said the Clyde Line was preparing for one
of its biggest seasons and that at present bookings are
"very heavy." A new steamer, the Algonquin, probably
will be delivered to the Charleston-Jacksonville line early
(0 Florida Review
STATE FIGURES SHOW BIG GAIN IN PRODUC-
Industrial Expansion Gives Every Section of Florida
Output in Nearly All Lines Exceeds That for Other Years,
(St. Petersburg Times.)
An industrial expansion which is giving every city and
town in Florida the double security of resort popularity
and intensive development of all natural resources is shown
in the preliminary figures of the annual report of manufac-
tures in this state for the year 1925, as compiled by the
United States Department of Commerce.
These figures show that the state increased its manufgc-
turing plants from 1,720 in 1921 to 1,967 last year; paid
out $66,784,079 in wages compared with $42,734,452 in 1921;
spent $117,560,360 for raw materials for this manufacture
compared with only $67,062.542 four years ago; employed
69,200 workers compared with 59,920 and turned out finished
products valued at $280,326,401 in 1925 compared with
$145,820,579 in 1921, or an increase of $134,505,922 in the
brief space of four years.
At the same time State Geologist Herman Gunter makes
the statement that although Florida is not classed as a
mineral producer, the combined value of the minerals pro-
duced in 1925 went up to the total value of $17,289,348,
compared with $13,939,389 in 1924, an increase of about
$4,500,000 in twelve months.
Every class of big tonnage mineral in the state showed
the rush development that is making the activities of prac-
tically every county. Phosphate production increased from
2,432,581 tons valued at $8,017,576 in 1924 to $2,929,964
tons valued at $8,789,070 in 1925; limestone and lime from
2,806,201 tons in 1924 valued at $2,872,411 in 1924 to
3,813,213 tons valued at $4,534,884 in 1925; crushed flint
and other stone, from 81,750 tons valued at $225,292 in
1924 to 231,370 tons valued at $338,973 in 1925; sand and
gravel, from 645,917 tons valued at $337,853 in 1924 to
1,515,529 tons valued at $1,089,215; kaolin and fuller's
earth, 114,979 tons valued at $1,730,299 to 118,985 tons
valued at $1,743,911 in 1925.
Other products not included, sand lime rock, building
brick, tile, mineral waters, peat, potter's products and the
rare earths ilmenite and zircon, not included in this tabula-
tion, show a similar increase in output.
L. M. Rhodes, state marketing commissioner, in figures
given this week, shows that Florida shipped 74,371 carloads
of perishable agricultural and horticultural products from
the state in the period between September 1, 1925, and July
22, 1926, the choice Florida citrus fruits accounting for
40.812 cars of the whole the commercial citrus crop moved
out of the state making a total of 14,694,120 boxes, counting
rail and boat movement; about 435,000 boxes were used in
the rapidly growing canning factories, and about 250,000
more boxes went out of the state in trucks.
The state's wide diversity of farm and truck crops, moved
in the season when other states are not producing at all is
shown in the following classification of cars shipped:
Oranges 21,522 cars; grapefruit 18,035; tangerines 1,255;
watermelons 6,644; celery 5,642; tomatoes 4,749; white
potatoes 4,556; mixed vegetables 3,294; cucumbers 2,187;
cabbage 1,771; lettuce 1,441; beans 993; peppers 741; es-
carole 609; strawberries 408; sweet potatoes 85; eggplant
82; corn 81; romaine 80; pineapples 64; squash 30; blue-
berries 25; grapes 18; pears 13; chicory 11; peaches 10;
beets 7; cantaloupes 6; onions 5; carrots 4; radishes 3.
Piled on top of these impressive figures of Florida's
growth, net premiums received by insurance companies in
Florida in 1925 reached a total of $46,500,000, compared
with $30,000,000 in 1924, an increase of more than 50 per
cent in twelve months, with net losses of $13,000,000 as
shown Wednesday in an address by John C. Luning, state
treasurer and ex-officio insurance commissioner, speaking
at the Industrial Insurance Conference in Jacksonville.
The people of this state therefore paid out in premiums
to insurance companies a sum far greater than all the ex-
penses of the state government.
(New Smyrna News)
We have 2,500 manufacturing establishments, employ-
ing 66,000 people, paying them $75,000,000 in wages, turn-
ing out $180,000,000 worth of products. If all our factories
were standing in one community they would cover 600
acres and their output would load ten trains daily. Our
manufactured products have increased 1,800 per cent in
twenty years. It does not take a prophet to see that we are
becoming a manufacturing state.
Florida has a greater mileage of railroads in proportion
to population than any other Southern state. These rail-
roads have a total operating revenue of approximately
It is not necessary for me to say to you that Florida has
351 banks with resources of more than $700,000,000 and
deposits amounting to $875,000,000, or in round numbers
$1,600,000,000 in resources and deposits, or deposits amount-
ing to $621 per capital or $3,458 per family.
There are 59,219 farms in Florida valued at $8,111 each,
with 2,022,284 acres in cultivation which yielded in total
income to producers, transportation companies and mar-
keting agencies nearly $160,000,000. Our fruits, nuts, bulbs,
ferns, vegetables, field crops, meats, dairy and poultry
products are valued at a little less than $160,000,000. Our
total acreage yielded the state an average of $354 per
acre. Our fruit crops over a period of ten years yielded an
average of $294 per acre. In spite of the fact that our
total income from all sources is around $630,000,000, less
than one-fourth of it comes from agriculture. I think
when we consider that there are 20,000,000 acres in the
state that will grow crops. 10,000,000 acres especially suited
to cultivation and only a little over 5 per cent of that is in
actual cultivation and that we are importing $100,000,000
worth of soil products that will grow in the state, you
will agree with me that our greatest potential resource
is our soil.-L. M. Rhodes, Com. State Marketing Bureau,
MORE FLORIDA SHIPS
Munson Line Announces New Service From North
(Palm Beach Post)
New York, Dec. 10.-A passenger and freight steamship
service from Baltimore to Jacksonville, Miami and Havana
will be inaugurated Christmas Eve by the Munson Line,
Frank C. Munson, its president, announced today.
The new service will begn with the sailing of the steam-
ship Munorleans, December 24, from Baltimore. This
vessel will leave Baltimore again January 7, and with the
addition of the Munamar, which will sail January 14, a
weekly schedule will be maintained thereafter.
Northbound vessels from Havana will omit calling at
Jacksonville, but the stops at Miami and Baltimore will be
Florida Review 7
SPEAKER PLEADS FOR ESTABLISHMENT OF
SMALL INDUSTRIES IN THE STATE
Says Florida is Importing' Millions of Dollars of Commodi-
ties which Could Be Produced in State; Miami Meet
Miami, Dec. 7.-Florida's industrial possibilities were
discussed today by Grosvenor Dawe before the Cooperation
Conference of the Florida State Chamber of Commerce.
Mr. Dawe, who has been a resident of Tallahassee three
years was one of the group of five men which laid the
foundation principles of the Chamber of Commerce of the
United States, was the first editor of "The Nation's Busi-
ness," official publication of that organization, conceived
the idea of the Southern Commercial Congress and toward
the conclusion of the World War was in general charge of
Y. M. C. A. activities in France.
Mr. Dawe made a plea for the establishment of small
industries in Florida, pointing out that the state now is
importing annually millions of dollars worth of manu-
factured commodities which easily could be produced at
home. He filed as part of his address an analysis of the
Industries reported as now operating in the state, indicating
how little development there has been of small plants to
supply the needs of Floridians. He also filed with the
conference a questionnaire to be submitted to the power
companies that are now engaged in linking up all lines in
Florida in a super-power development. The purpose of the
questionnaire is to ascertain whether, within reason, there
would be uniform power rates in those parts of the state
The general outline of Mr. Dawe's address covered three
points, industries based on native resources and their
future, industries based on population demands and indus-
tries that can be developed on a large scale for national
and export distribution.
Discussing the ranch and farm as industries, Mr. Dawe
declared there is a great market for Florida in Central
America and the West Indies and Mexico for fine meats
of all kinds, poultry products after Florida's needs are met.
He asserted Florida was making poor use of its non-agricul-
tural land area, and pleaded for more technological re-
search with attention to every product ineffectively or
wastefully used, calling attention especially to the waste
products of the forests, the various forms of vegetable
fibre, the clays and limestones.
Mr. Dawe drew attention to investigations now in prog-
ress to determine whether Florida possesses oil deposits
but pointed out that whether oil was discovered or not
there is nothing to hinder the development based upon
either the use of electricity or imported crude oil. He
drew a general picture of the effect the discovery of oil
would have upon Florida's industrial possibilities but was
distinctively conservative as to the outlook, saying only
that whereas Florida, until recently, was regarded as noth-
ing more than a great coral reef, it was now known to be
underlaid with a huge limestone structure and that no man
could yet say what potential riches are lying from 3,000 to
5,000 feet under the surface.
GRAPEFRUIT PLANT READY TO OPERATE
The Florida Grapefruit Canning Company has its new
factory practically completed and will begin operations
after Christmas. The factory is located on the Seaboard
railway just south of the Manatee city line. The ma-
chinery is all new of the latest and most efficient design
selected with especial care to secure the most sanitary
The company will operate chiefly with woman labor and
when operating to capacity will provide employment for
two hundred white women. This working force will be
able to turn out from 500 to 770 cases of fruit per day.
About one-half of the company's products will go to the
Middle West and plans are made to employ the new boat
line from Bradenton for shipment by the way of New
Orleans. The company also finds an outlet for its products
in England and other European countries. With its new
facilities for canning, it will be able to extend its market
It is the present purpose of the company to follow the
grapefruit season with the handling of tomatoes. Success
along this line will pave the way for an immense develop-
ment of the canning business in the county, as there can
be a large production of tomatoes at seasons when it is
not profitable to ship them direct to the market. There
are also possibilities along the line of canning other vege-
tables which are produced abundantly in Manatee county.
FLORIDA'S EXPORTS EXCEED IMPORTS
Jacksonville.-Florida's exports exceed its imports.
This announcement was made here by L. M. Rhodes,
state marketing commissioner, in which he outlined con-
crete examples to substantiate his statement.
The state marketing commissioner estimates that the
state's products reap six dollars for every five dollars ex-
pended in import trade.
The state's greatest shortage, said Mr. Rhodes, is its
dairy products, three-fourths of which is imported from
adjoining states. The state also imports two-thirds of its
meat, one-half its eggs and about one-half its grain, hay
and other feeds.
Compared to the import, Florida ships 40 times as much
grapefruit, 20 times as many oranges, 14 times as many
cucumbers, six times as many tomatoes and one-third more
cabbage than it consumes.
The state, said Mr. Rhodes, needs 80,000 dairy cows,
200,000 bee hives, 1,000,000 hens, 100,000 sheep and 40,000
hogs if it is to reduce the amount of its import.
ILLINOIS MANUFACTURERS TO BE ENTER-
Three hundred Illinois manufacturers will be banqueted
in Lakeland on their Florida Good Will tour, early in
January, Manager D. Hodson Lewis announced at the meet-
ing of the board of directors of the Lakeland Chamber of
Commerce last night. Lakeland was left off the original
schedule due to the fact that the party is being handled
over the Seaboard Air Line Railroad in the state and this
line does not come into Lakeland.
Manager Lewis reported that at the meeting of Polk
County Associated Chamber of Commerce held in Babson
Park Monday morning the matter of the Illinois Manufac-
turers' tour was taken up and it was arranged to transport
the manufacturers into Lakeland from Sebring by motor
and to transport them from Lakeland to Plant City in the
evening to catch an eleven o'clock train at that point.
Lakeland is the only real industrial city in Polk county
and this fact, it was brought out, will enable the Lakeland
citizens to sell themselves to the visitors, all of whom are
8 Florida Review
BY-PRODUCTS INDUSTRY WILL STABILIZE
CITRUS, SAYS JAMES B. McNAIR
Field Museum Completes Study and Makes Findings Public
(Lake Co. Citizen)
Increasing production of citrus fruits requires enlarged
development and expansion of the citrus products industry
if the general industry is to remain profitable and become
stable, James B. McNair, associate in economic botany of
Field Museum of Natural History, advises in a report of his
study of the industry.
As production increases the market price for fruit will
diminish while at the same time the cost of production
will tend to become higher, necessitating conjunctive de-
velopment of the products industry, he says. A start on
such an industry has been made, he says. His study of
citrus products, their nature, manufacture, uses and possi-
bilities has been compiled in a book "Citrus products,"
added to the Botanical Series issued by the Museum.
This report lists numerous products which can be manu-
factured from the whole fruit, or from the rind, the pulp,
the seeds, flowers, leaves, and even stems, and indicates
that a wide field is open for the use of the entire domestic
"Citrus fruit growing," Mr. McNair states, "is an in-
dustry of relatively recent development in the United
States. Confined by limitations of winter temperature,
soil and moisture conditions to a comparatively small area,
there is still considerable acreage available for further ex-
pansion which appears to be rapidly taking place. Groves
planted some years ago are gradually reaching a stage of
greater yield, thousands of acres planted within recent
years are coming into bearing and thousands of acres are
being planted annually. There is thus a tendency to large
production which, especially in view of the generally per-
ishable nature of citrus fruits, eventually threatens to
amount to an overproduction of fruit for shipment.
"An analysis of the consumption of lemons in the United
States shows it increased one-half in ten years. While the
quantity imported remained nearly constant during this
period, the domestic production doubled. In 1903 California
furnished approximately one-fourth, in 1912 one-half, in
1913 four-fifths, and today produces an amount of lemons
equal to the consumption of this country. This local in-
crease in production will continue. In 1918, the lemon
shipments consisted of 6,913 cars; in 1923, of 8,430 cars.
A similar condition exists in the orange industry; 28,444
cars were shipped in 1918, and 71,971 in 1923.
"Economic conditions in this field will undoubtedly be-
come serious as the market price of the fruit diminishes
and the cost of production increases. The situation may
be ameliorated by converting present waste fruit into mar-
ketable products and by securing a profitable use for sur-
"In this connection it is of interest to note that in the
Mediterranean region the bergamot is grown especially
for the essential oil of its fruit and some other citrus fruits
for the oil of their flowers. In Sicily approximately one-
third of the lemon crop is made into citrate of lime, lemon
oil and other by-products. It is not surprising, then, that
citrus products industry is beginning to become established
in the United States.
Citrus Products Industry
"The citrus products industry has the same relation to
lemon and orange production as the drying and canning
industries have to other fruit growing. To the citrus fruit
grower it affords a means of utilization of waste fruit, a
better price for low-grade fruit, and a market for the crop
during periods of low prices.
"The largest item of waste in the citrus fruit industry is
waste or cull fruit. Estimates of the cull fruit in California
vary from 100,000 to 525,000 tons per year. Culls may be
classified as follows: Fruit which shows physical injury on
the rind such that it is susceptible to rapid mold growth
and decay; decayed and partially decayed fruit; fruit
which is defective in shape, or has blemishes which are
not a source of attack for molds and fungi but which injure
its appearance and therefore give the fruit a low market
value; and frozen or sunburned fruit.
Depends on Amount of Injury
"Oranges, frozen or unfrozen, are not available for the
manufacture of citric acid or citrate of lime, as the acid
content of the juice is not sufficient to pay for its re-
covery. If the surface injury is not great, the oil recovery
will not be curtailed, and surface injury, with oranges, is
not usually serious. Candied, dried, and brined peel can
be produced from the rinds. The pulp also is available for
"Aside from satsumas, grapefruit is probably more frost
resistant than any of the other citrus fruits commonly
grown. Its uses in by-products, however, are limited.
Citric acid is not present in its juice in sufficient quan-
tity to make its recovery profitable. It contains an insuffi-
cient amount of sugar to make a standard vinegar, and
while the juice can be satisfactorily bottled, it is best not
to use frozen material in its preparation. The peel from
frozen grapefruit is satisfactory for the preparation of
candied peel, and there is no reason why the pulp cannot
be used as usual in the preparation of marmalade.
"Cull fruit is the most important source for manufac-
tured citrus products and is the one most generally con-
.sidered. Orange flowers have been used in the manufac-
ture of the essence of neroli since the sixteenth century.
Orange and lemon flowers are used in the manufacture of
essential oils, and orange leaves contain a soporific sub-
"Fruit for by-products manufacture must first be exam-
ined and cleaned unless it be obtained from a packing
house, where cleaning has already been performed. If, on
the other hand, the fruit be dirty it is best cleaned by
means of brushes in the ordinary fruit-cleaning machine,
together with such necessary water as the fruit may re-
quire, since adhering dirt and scale insects, while not
always detrimental to the manufacture of the product,
are not desirable.
"The quality and quantity of the finer product depends
in a measure on the condition of the ripeness of the fruit,
especially in the manufacture of essential oils, marma-
lade, and juice, a green fruit gives an oil of the highest
character, and fruit of whatever nature that has been sub-
jected by a sweating process or to slight decay or ageing
is almost unfit for the manufacture of the finer products.
"The quantity of oil also varies with the age of the
fruit. Juice and marmalade made from oranges early in
the season have a bitter taste. Oranges from the middle of
the season until its end do not give a bitter juice nor make
a bitter marmalade. Not only the bitterness but the sugar
content of the fruit varies. In ripe fruit the saccharine
content is greatest. In lemons and no doubt in other citrus
fruits the citric acid content is greatest in the unripe fruit,
particularly in those of summer. In the manufacture of
citric acid, however, the physical condition of the fruit
is not as important as in the manufacture of the essential
Florida Review 9
SANDS AND GRAVELS PROVIDE RAW MA-
TERIAL FOR GREATEST CERAMIC IN-
DUSTRY IN COUNTRY
The possibilities of industrial expansion for Northwest
Florida are unlimited. First, the availability of raw prod-
uct in the Northwest Florida section upon which industry
can be predicated are apparent. Aside from canneries, pre-
serving plants and the like which can better thrive here,
because of the greater firmness and less water content of
vegetables and fruit grown in this section, the fact that
Northwest Florida produces cotton, corn, peanuts and sugar
cane offers industrial opportunity. The clays of Northwest
Florida, together with its sands and gravels provide an
opportunity of establishing one of the greatest ceramic
industries of the country.
Native woods in considerable variety, coupled with
precious woods brought into Northwest Florida ports, offer
opportunity for a myriad of wood working establishments
outside of lumber mills.
Tobacco being a leading crop offers opportunity for
cigar and cigarette factories.
Glass Sand in Quantity
Glass sand is found in quantity in this region, also lime
stone and marls.
The nearness of the Alabama coal fields makes fuel cheap
and the coming of the Alabama Power Company into West
Florida will give to industries cheap hydro-electric power.
In addition to this, the nearness to market in the North
and the advantage of water transportation lines to world
ports offers a combination to the industrialist in transporta-
tion-the equal of any in the country.
To show this section's position from this standpoint, .the
following table of distances will be interesting.
West Florida ... 912 miles Miami .......... 1454 miles
Jacksonville ... .1088 miles Tampa .. .. .1300 miles
West Florida ...1028 miles Miami ....1448 miles
Jacksonville .... 1082 miles Tampa .......1294 miles
ST. LOUIS TO-
W. Fla. (present) 791 miles Miami .. 1332 miles
W. Fla. via Frisco 721 miles Tampa .... ... 1178 miles
Jacksonville .... 966 miles
W. Fla. (present) 511 miles Miami .. .. .1115 miles
W. Fla. via Frisco 420 miles Tampa .. .. .. 961 miles
Jacksonville .... 749 miles
West Florida ... 260 miles Miami ... ..... 864 miles
Jacksonville .... 498 miles Tampa ......... 710 miles
NEW YORK TO-
West Florida ...1214 miles Miami ......... 1348 miles
Jacksonville .... 982 miles Tampa ......... 1194 miles
There are four recognized ports in the Northwest Florida,
Pensacola, St. Andrews Bay (Panama City) and Apalachi-
cola, and St. Joseph's Bay.
There are no finer harbors in the country than those of
Pensacola and St. Andrews Bay, of which Pensacola is
recognized as having one of the finest landlocked harbors
in the world.
From these ports already vessels reach ports of the
United Kingdom, Continental Europe, the Mediterranean,
Africa, South America, the West Indies, Central America,
Mexico and the Orient.
Additional railroads to these ports mean expansion of
their export and import business, as well as serving as a
means to extend the territory's industrial development.
The increase of exports from Northwest Florida ports is
shown in the following: Exports, 1924, $9,359,527; in 1925.
Imports for 1924 were $1,705,942 and for 1925 were
Coastwise movement in 1924 was $13,903,327 and in 1925
The combined export, import and coastwise movement
from West Florida ports in 1924 was $25,068,795 and in
Railroad mileage in the territory from Leon and Wakulla
counties' east line to the.Perdido river is 808 miles.
The state's mileage computed at 5,584 miles would give
West Florida 14.4 per cent of the total railroad mileage.
The state has one mile of railroad for every 6,288 acres
of land. The southwest Florida railroads have one mile
for every 8,170 acres of land. All Florida has one mile of
railroad for every 9.8 square miles of territory. Florida,
outside of Northwest Florida, has one mile of railroad for
every 9.1 square miles of territory. West Florida has one
mile of railroad for every 12.8 square miles of territory .
GREAT INCREASE IS SEEN IN CONSUMPTION
OF CEMENT IN FLORIDA
Tallahassee, Dec. 10.-Nearly one million more barrels
of cement were consumed in Florida during the first nine
months of 1926, compared with the same period last year,
according to figures compiled by D. S. Mossom, assistant
A total of 4,123,194 barrels was consumed in the first
nine months of 1926, and 3,386,325 barrels for the same
period in 1925.
By far the greater quantity of material was domestic, or
cement produced in the United States, but in the last year
the foreign shipments almost doubled, Mr. Mossom said.
In 1925, the total was made up of 2,863,295 barrels of
domestic and 522,830 of foreign. Most of the foreign ma-
terial came from Belgium, but Canada and Norway contri-
buted a great quantity.
In the three-quarter year period for 1926, the totals were:
domestic cement, 3,209,991 barrels; foreign 913,203 barrels.
Belgium maintained the lead among foreign imports, con-
tributing 606,147 barrels; Denmark was second, with 125,878
and Canada, Esthonia, Norway and the United Kingdom
all made shipments to Florida.
The period of largest consumption was from September,
1925, to March, 1926, when the state was using in excess
of half a million barrels of cement a month. It was during
that period that the large importation of foreign cement
were made. In the last few months, the state has used
300,000 to 350,000 barrels a month, only a very small per-
centage of which come from foreign ports.
"The monthly consumption of cement is a very close and
good index to the economic condition of a state, especially
a young state, where building and general construction are
indicators of progress and prosperity," Mr. Mossom said.
"In Florida this is especially so, for but very little cement
goes into highway construction, and by far the greater
part goes into buildings, bridges, dams, etc. In many
states, much cement is used in public road construction,
thus giving these states an apparent building boom from
the cement statistics alone."
10 Florida Review
(St. Petersburg Times)
Capital cannot move the rich soil, the sunshine and the
moisture of Florida to. northern states. Capital cannot
deny that artificial heating of manufacturing plants in
northern climes is a big factor in the expense of operation.
Housing, heating and clothing expenses of workers are less
here than in Michigan or New York. Florida has health.
Health of labor is a serious concern in the operation of
factories. Sunshine is hard cash in the industrial devel-
opment of this state.
Florida provides a greater variety of foods produced
throughout the year than any other state in the Union.
She has railroad, steamship, truck, bus and air route serv-
ice; she has 6,500 miles of hard surface roads, is building
another 1,182 miles at a cost of $14,000,000 this year.
Industrial success in Florida is posted in her 2,500 manu-
facturing plants, with production valued at $183,000,000 a
year. Capital cannot carry the Florida sunshine to the
North; the big chance for capital today is to build indus-
tries in "the playground of the world."
Florida is rich in natural deposits, rich in green growth,
rich in her bordering seas, supremely rich in her forests,
fibers, grasses, fruits and vegetables.
Capital, study the opportunities in this long list of raw
materials for manufacture in Florida: Furniture, paper,
roofing, cement, porcelain, lacquers, glassware, chinaware,
insulation, commercial feeds, canned goods, tile, filters,
cotton goods, tobacco products, vegetable hair, buttons,
fertilizers, leather, awnings, tents, lawn furniture, art
stone, potters, creamery products, acid phosphates, fish
products, oil products; kaolin and fuller's earth products,
including essential oils for sachets and perfumes and cos-
St. Petersburg, with her new harbor, nearest open port
in the United States to the Panama Canal, Central and
South America, offers sure profit for the location here of
an oil refinery, grain elevator; for a veneer and furniture
factory using logs brought in direct by oceangoing steam-
ers and the new cellulose formulas in glue and surface
Capital has its one big chance in St. Petersburg, 26
hours from New York, 32 hours from Boston, 24 hours from
Cincinnati-the direct pathway to South and Central
America, to which the United States is selling $1,000,000
worth of merchandise a day.
MORE DAYLIGHT IN FLORIDA THAN IN
(Special to Times-Union.)
St. Augustine, Dec. 10.-In a special interview with
Santa Claus he has given assurance that he has something
special in the way of weather, and more of it, for St.
Augustine's Christmas gift. The present is two glorious
hours of daylight and sunshine more than cities in the
Northland will enjoy. The almanac shows that on Christmas
Day in St. Augustine the sun will rise at 7:06 a.m. and
will set at 5:37 p.m., giving ten hours and 31 minutes be-
tween sunrise and sunset, while on the same day at Min-
neapolis the sun comes up at 7:50 a.m., forty-four minutes
later than in St. Augustine, and sets at 4:36 p.m., while in
this city the sun is still over an hour high. Christmas Day
will last an hour and forty-five minutes longer in St. Au-
gustine than in Minneapolis. The day in other cities of
the country will be correspondingly shorter than in St.
Augustine and her favored sister municipalities of Florida.
During the six months from November 1 to May 1 this
city averages 438 hours more of sunshine than Chicago.
STATE RAILWAYS USE MILLION TO ADVER-
That Much Is Annually Put Out for Publicity, Committee
Orlando.-The eight railroads in Florida spend over
$1,000,000 annually in advertising the state and their serv-
ice, the transportation committee of the Florida Associa-
tion of Real Estate Boards reported at the recent annual
convention of that organization, held at Daytona Beach.
The money is expended in advertising in newspapers,
magazines, booklets, folders and other literature, the report
stated. The roads have offices in all the principal North-
ern cities and maintain several hundred traveling men
who cover the United States, calling upon prospective tour-
ists and home-seekers to interest themselves in a trip to
The committee suggested that publicity through the
railroads is one of the most effective mediums for the
distribution of well-prepared Florida literature.
California has taken advantage of this medium of adver-
tising to the extent that representatives of the trans-con-
tinental lines serving California are furnished annually
with complete and accurate information, such as hotel and
apartment house rates, and other authentic statistics which
would be interesting to prospective tourists or homeseek-
ers, the report pointed out.
The railroads, the report said, are glad to have such
literature, "answering as it does, or should, in a direct
and concise manner, those questions with which the rail-
road representatives are confronted daily."
The realty association, it was added, "constitutes one
of .the best mediums through which the state may take
advantage of this free advertising service."
The report touched upon the proposed establishment by
the railroads of special tourist rates, sought through the
efforts of the association officials and the summer excur-
sions which, it was stated, moved during June, July,
August and September. Three lines, the report estimated,
handled approximately 15,000 people during that period
or a 50 per cent increase over early estimates.
"These cheap excursion fares are extensively advertised
by the railroads and attract a good many people to Florida
during the summer months," the report stated. "This
committee, therefore, feels that the railroads should be
encouraged by this association to continue the operation
of these excursions this year."
FLORIDA IN FIRST TEN
(Daytona Beach Journal)
According to a bulletin just issued by S. W. Strauss and
Company, Florida ranked ninth in the list of states for
building operations during the month of October. In a
month of so-called readjustment and alleged depression
Florida was ahead of thirty-eight states in the amount of
building actually done.
What more convincing proof could be submitted in re-
futing the argument that Florida is in a slump? Any state
that is among the first ten in building operations cannot
be in very serious economic or financial distress. This
report shows that Florida is going right ahead doing things
in a big way and holding its own with the richest and most
permanently established states. The eight states that lead
Florida in the volume of building permits issued in October
are New York, Illinois, California, Pennsylvania, Michigan,
Ohio, Massachusetts and New Jersey. All of these states
have far greater populations and have vast financial re-
sources. Yet Florida ranks along with them.
Florida Review 11
IT PAYS TO ADVERTISE-WHAT WORKS IN
ATLANTA WILL WORK IN FLORIDA
Atlanta.-For ten months newspapers and magazines
have carried advertisements stating the advantages of
Atlanta, Ga., as a trade centre, "Gateway to the South."
The campaign cost $250,000, and it has succeeded. In ten
months, 136 new concerns went to Atlanta, and 4,630
persons. The communal payroll increased by $7,000,000
yearly. Pleased, Atlanta business men began last week
to collect $1,000,000 to continue this national advertising
of their city for another three years.
IN THE PUBLIC EYE
By Margaret Callin
The whole west coast of Florida is a fishing paradise
and I have often wondered why fish canneries, not too
large in size, are not started for the purpose of preserving
fish. Such an enterprise once was started in the South,
millions of dollars were spent on it and it failed-failed
because the start was too big and there wasn't money
enough left to get fishermen to catch the fish. Canneries
should start in a small way and build up because if they
start in a big way they will go down.
During last October there were landed at Boston and
Gloucester, Mass., and Portland, Me., by American fishing
vessels in 687 trips over 19,013,007 pounds of fresh fish
valued at $66,657. This represents an increase of 16.88
per cent in quantity and a decrease of 3.9 per cent in value
of fresh fish as compared with the same month in 1925.
Average price received for fresh fish in Boston and
Gloucester, Mass., and Portland, Me., during October last
was 3.51 cents per pound as compared with 4.26 cents per
pound in October 1925.
There was also landed during October 170,847 pounds of
salted fish, valued at 8,157.
Of course the New England states are known as the
great American fishing market. Gloucester fishermen are
known all over the world. There is no reason that Florida
fishermen should not be known at least all over the Gulf
and there is no reason that the ports on the west coast
of Florida should not be canning fish.
HOTEL CONSTRUCTION DURING THREE
Tallahassee, Fla., Dec. 15.-(INS.).-Permits for hotels,
apartments and restaurants issued by State Hotel Commis-
sioner Jerry W. Carter during the months of August, Sep-
tember and October reached a total valuation of $6,344,320,
according to an official compilation just completed.
Permits for seven hotels, 51 apartments and 32 restaur-
ants were issued during August. Total cost of construction
during that month amounted to $2,115,650.
During the month of September there were five hotels,
55 apartment and 28 restaurant permits issued, represent-
ing a cost of $2,038,620.
Permits issued by the State Hotel Commissioner during
October were for eight hotels, 50 apartments and 32 res-
taurants. The total cost of construction during the month
Construction of hotels, apartment houses and restaurants
was heaviest during the three months in the southwest
section of the State, figures show. Construction of hotels in
this district amounted to $901,700 during the three months,
of apartment houses $1,887,900 and of restaurants $198,900.
GOVERNMENT'S TRANSPORTATION SURVEY
The department of commerce has just made public a
summary of the completed transportation field survey of
the state of Florida, which was undertaken by the bureau
of foreign and domestic commerce. The survey was con-
ducted by A. Lane Cricher of the transportation division,
in cooperation with railroad, commercial and civic organi-
zations of Florida.
Sixteen principal commodities were included in the in-
vestigation, of which nine were inbound and seven out-
bound commodities. The objectives of the investigation.
according to the report, were the determination of stocks
on hand, production and production capacity, turnover,
methods of shipping and receiving goods, and estimate of
car requirements for the immediate future.
The full text of the report, as announced by the depart-
ment of commerce, follows in full text:
On May 15, 1926, the Florida division, southeastern ad-
visory board, requested the department of commerce to
undertake a transportation field survey of the state of
Florida. At an executive committee meeting of this board,
June 18, with representatives of the bureau of foreign and
domestic commerce, the scope of the survey desired was
determined. There were five main objectives:
Stock on hand, production and production capacity, turn-
over, methods of shipping and receiving goods, estimate
of car requirements for the immediate future.
There were 16 principal commodities included. Nine in-
bound commodities were studied, for which a detailed
questionnaire was used:
Cement, lime, plaster, stucco, tile, including sewer pipe,
brick, all kinds; slag, stone, sand, gravel, clay, iron, steel,
all kinds, including machinery; autos, trucks, tractors and
accessories, furniture, except household goods; all prod-
ucts of forest.
Seven outbound commodities were studied in cooperation
with the shippers' commodity committee of the Florida
Citrus fruit, fresh vegetables, melons, etc., fertilizer,
phosphate rock, naval stores, petroleum and products,
There follows a summary of the Florida transportation
field survey. The data represents totals of the figures
from each of the ten terminal districts of the state. In ad-
dition to this summary and tables upon which it is based,
the official bulletin of this survey, which will be published
shortly, will include also individual commodity tables, 10
district summaries of the railroad and the commodity
questionnaire data, and other information furnished in
connection with the survey work. This summary is pre-
sented at this time because of the urgent requests for
these data by the Florida advisory board members and
Florida State Chamber of Commerce.
A greater rail movement in Florida during the last quar-
ter of this year as compared to the same period last year
is indicated by the estimated car loadings and unloadings
of principal commodities, as determined by the terminal
district and shippers' commodity committee cooperating
with the department of commerce in a survey of Florida
transportation requirements. Car unloadings for nine
commodities for all districts, except Miami, during the last
quarter of 1926, are estimated at 88,546 cars, thus indicat-
ing both a normal stock replenishment and a larger con-
sumption in the state. Loadings for seven commodities for
all districts are estimated at 83,938 cars for the last quar-
ter of 1926, there being a considerable increase over last
year due to anticipated large agricultural production and
12 Florida Review
freedom of movement of lime rock shipments. These
loading estimates do not reflect the changes which the re,
cent storm may make in the fruit and vegetable movement.
Car loadings for the first six months of 1926 were approx-
imately the same as for the same period of 1925, totaling
over 280,000 carloads. Car unloadings for these periods
were 302,517 cars and 253,605 cars, respectively, for 1926
and 1925, indicating that the amount of business for the
first half of 1926 was actually greater than during the same
period of 1925. These data were supplied by the railroads in
Florida. The totals for each commodity were determined
from the car loadings and unloadings at all stations loading
or unloading 100 or more cars per month in the period
covered, and represent from 85 to 90 per cent of the total
aggregate tonnage of the state.
The total number of cars unloaded in all Florida in
October, 1925, in the nine commodities included in the
questionnaire used in this survey were 23,399; the esti-
mates of car requirements for nine districts the last quarter
of this year are 27,463 cars in October, 31,032 cars in
November and 29,851 cars in December. These estimates
do not include the Miami district, due to the West Indian
hurricane, which has caused a change in the estimates for
that district. The Pensacola estimate, however, has been
revised and is included. Had the Miami figures of car re-
quirements been included, these estimates would be ma-
During October, 1925, 12,282 carloads of vegetables, citrus
fruit, fertilizer, limerock, phosphate rock, petroleum and
naval stores were loaded in Florida. The estimates of
loadings for the last quarter of 1926 are October 23,987
carloads, November 31,682 carloads. These estimates of
loadings are inclusive of the Miami district, comprehending
the entire state of Florida. Approximately 7,000 carloads
per month of this increase are accounted for by the lime-
rock shipments, precluded in 1925 to a large extent by
In 1925, a total of 9,962,200 tons valued at $438,439,000
were shipped to and from Florida ports. In 1924, this
traffic aggregated 7,414,000 tons worth $372,830,000.
Florida business will benefit by a regular collection of
quarterly data on car requirements and stocks on hand.
The direct value of the data is such that shippers, re-
ceivers and others involved in such work would benefit
greatly from the information and would co-opierate fully
in its determination. It is suggested that the Florida ad-
visory board of the American Railway Association secure
each quarter the facts concerning stocks on hand and
estimated car requirements.
These commodity reports are based upon 90 per cent or
more of the tonnage of each terminal district for each of
the commodities included. Over 1,760 correctly answered
questionnaires supplied the data. The periods included
in the questionnaire used were January, April and July,
1926, comprehending stocks on hand, turnover, production
and methods of shipping and receiving goods. The un-
loading figures were furnished by the railroads of Florida.
The estimates are those determined by the terminal dis-
trict committees of the Florida advisory board co-operating
with the department of commerce in the survey. The esti-
mates for the following nine commodities do not include
the Miami district, due to the West Indian hurricane, which
has caused a change in the estimates for that district.
The estimates, therefore, comprehend nine districts of the
state. Had the Miami figures of car requirements been in-
cluded, these estimates would be materially higher.
There were 1,305 carloads of cement stocks on hand
July 1, in Florida, as compared with 1,429 cars in April
and 1,206 carloads on January 1, 1926. During the first six
months of 1926, Florida consumed 9,931 carloads of cement
as compared with 7,807 carloads during the same period
of 1925, an increase of 27 per cent. In October, 1925, 1,994
cars of cement were unloaded in this state. The estimate
for nine districts for October, 1926, is 2,282 cars; Novem-
ber, 2,603 cars, and December, 2,530 cars. The rapid turn-
over is evident from the comparison of stock on hand with
the average monthly consumption. The production of
cement in Florida is insignificant. Of all the stocks of
cement on hand in July, 40 per cent were held by whole-
salers and jobbers. The contractors held 415 carloads, or
32 per cent which, presumably, were not for sale. The
retailers held the remainder. The turnover for whole-
salers and jobbers was 26.7 per cent per week during July,
and 45.9 per cent for retailers. Over half of the sales by
wholesalers and jobbers were delivered locally by truck
and 45.2 per cent by rail. Practically all the retail de-
liveries were trucked. The receipts by wholesalers, job-
bers and retailers were nearly all shipped into the state,
coming by rail, while the contractors showed 32 per cent
intrastate receipts with 15.6 per cent of their total receipts
local truck deliveries.
There were 731 carloads of lime, plaster and stucco on
hand July 1, 1926, as compared with 857 cars April 1, and
556 carloads January 1. Car unloadings indicate Florida
consumed 3,484 carloads during the first six months of
1926 and 3,012 cars in the same period of 1925, an increase
of 15.6 per cent. In October, 1925, Florida unloaded 802
carloads of lime, plaster and stucco. The car requirements
for nine districts for October, 1926, are 682 in October, 802
November, and 801 December. The rapid turnover is indi-
cated from the total stock on hand as contrasted with
the car unloads. The production capacity of the state is
approximately 140 carloads per month.
The maximum production this year, however, has not
exceeded 70 per cent of available capacity, which figure
was reached in January. Since January the production
has steadily declined, and was only 11 per cent of capacity
in July. Florida producers of lime, plaster and stucco ship
their production to Florida points only, approximately two-
thirds being shipped by rail and the remainder by local
truck deliveries. Of the stocks on hand July 1, the whole-
salers, jobbers and retailers held over 79 per cent. The
turnover of wholesalers and jobbers in July was 34.4 per
cent per week; for retailers, 17.6 per cent, and for pro-
ducers, 8.9 per cent.
Practically all the sales of these dealers were to Florida
points or local sales. The producers delivered one-third
locally by truck, the other two-thirds being shipped by
rail; the wholesalers and jobbers one-third rail and two-
thirds locally by truck, and the retailers' sales were prac-
tically all local truck deliveries. Over 90 per cent of the
tonnage of wholesalers and jobbers was bought from out-
side Florida, 97 per cent of the retailers' tonnage, and two-
thirds of the receipts of contractors, as indicated by the
July, 1926, data, was purchased from outside of Florida.
Of all the lime, plaster and stucco received by Florida
dealers, 99 per cent of the retailers' receipts of wholesalers
and jobbers were by rail, 90 per cent of the retailers re-
ceipts were by rail, while only 77 per cent received by
contractors were rail, 10.4 per cent being local truck re-
ceipts, and over 6 per cent by water and also by combina-
tion rail and water.
All Kinds of Tiles, Including Sewer Pipe
There were 1,487 carloads of tile, stocks on hand July 1,
as compared with 1,381 cars April 1 and 977 January 1.
During the first six months of 1926, Florida unloaded 5,717
cars of tile, and in the same period of 1925, 3,498 cars, an
increase of over 63 per cent. In October, 1925, tile unloads
Florida Review 13
totaled 1,120 cars. The estimate for nine districts, for
October, 1926, is 878 cars; November, 1,029 and December,
1,047. The monthly unloads, contrasted with stock held
by the dealers, indicates rapid turnover. Florida has a.
production capacity of approximately 1,000 carloads of tile
The actual production since January has been about 75
or 80 per cent of the capacity. The kinds of tile pro-
duced and required probably account for this situation.
Of the stocks on hand in July, slightly over 70 per cent
were held by producers, jobbers, wholesalers and retailers;
30 per cent were held by contractors, and thus were not
on the market. The turnover for retailers, in July, was
23.3 per cent weekly, for wholesalers and jobbers, 46.5
per cent, for producers, 31 per cent.
The sales or shipments of Florida producers were one-
half by rail and half delivered locally by truck. The whole-
salers and jobbers' shipments were one-third rail and two-
thirds local deliveries. Almost 85 per cent of the retailers'
sales were local truck deliveries, the remainder by rail.
The receipts by wholesalers were mostly from concerns
outside the state, while contractors' receipts showed al-
most 30 per cent of Florida origin as of July.
Of all receipts by the various dealers, the wholesalers
and jobbers and the retailers show consistently over 96
and 92 per cent, respectively, rail inbound, while the con-
tractors' receipts ranged from 80.4 per cent rail in January
to 87.3 per cent in July. Contractors' local truck receipts
were 5i per cent of tneir total inbound tile of all kinds.
12,898 Cars of Brick Unloaded in Six Months
There were 2,313 carloads of brick on hand July 1, as
compared with 2,176 cars on April 1 and 903 on January 1.
During the first six months of 1926, Florida unloaded 12,898
cars of brick and in the same period of 1925, 9,407 carloads,
or an increase of over 37 per cent. In October, 1925, the
unloadings of brick amounted to 2,242. The estimate for
nine terminal districts, for October, 1926, is 3,125, Novem-
ber, 3,370, and for December 3,308 carloads.
The average monthly unloadings of brick as compared
with stocks on hand indicates a high turnover in this com-
modity. Florida has a production capacity in brick of over
1,500 carloads per month. The production during the first
seven months of the present year has ranged from a high
point of 87 per cent of capacity per week in March to 50
per cent in July. Of the stocks on hand in July, over 50
per cent was held by contractors and presumably not
subject to sale. The other 50 per cent was distributed
evenly among producers, wholesalers and jobbers and re-
The turnover of retailers per week in July was 23 per
cent, of wholesalers and jobbers 29 per cent, of producers
54 per cent. Considerably higher percentages of turnover
are noted for January when stocks were subnormal. The
sales or shipments of Florida producers were largely made
by rail (from 73 to 79 per cent). Wholesalers and jobbers
made from 54 to 60 per cent of their shipments through
local truck deliveries.
Retailers delivered from 80 to 88 per cent by that method.
Wholesalers and jobbers and retailers receive from 80 to
90 per cent of their receipts from interstate points. Con-
tractors buy from 70 to 75 per cent of their receipts from
interstate points. The receipts of wholesalers and jobbers,
retailers and contractors are carried principally by rail.
In January and July, wholesalers and jobbers received
from 96 to 98 per cent by that method. In January, April
and July, retailers received from 93 to 97 per cent by rail,
while contractors used railways for 76 to 82 per cent of
their receipts. Local truck receipts of brick by contract
do not exceed 3 per cent of their total receipts.
Sand, Gravel, Slag, Stone and Clay
The stocks on hand under this heading amounted to 11,-
171 carloads on July 1, as compared with 10,839 on April
1, and 9,455 carloads on January 1. During the first six
months of 1926, Florida unloaded 43,893 carloads of these
commodities, and during the same period of 1926 an ag-
gregate of 25,989 carloads, or an increase of around 85
per cent. In October 1925, the unloading of these com-
modities amounted to 5,236 carloads. The estimate for
nine terminal districts, for October is 10,690 cars, for No-
vember 12,575 carloads, and for December 11,925 carloads.
The unloading of these products in July, 1926, (8,511
carloads) as compared with July stocks (11,171 carloads)
indicate a high rate of turnover.
Florida has a production capacity of around 14,000 car-
loads of these materials per month. The production of
the state during the first seven months of the present
year has ranged from a low of 53 per cent in February
to an average of nearly 75 per cent in the succeeding
months. Of the stocks on hands on July 1, nearly 8,000
cars were held by producers, slightly over 1,000 cars by
wholesalers and jobbers, and retailers, and slightly over
2,000 cars by contractors.
Weekly turnover of producers during January, April
and July shows a tendency to concentrate around 30 per
cent, for wholesalers and jobbers around 50 per cent.
Wider fluctuations in turnover are noted for retailers.
The producers of these materials ship over 50 per cent
by water, 13 to 22 per cent by rail and water combined,
and 15 to 21 per cent by truck. Contractors received from
72 to 82 per cent of these inbound commodities by rail,
and wholesalers and jobbers from 50 to 55 per cent by
this method. Retailers indicate a greater percentage of
receipts by water or by rail and water combined than do
contractors or wholesalers and jobbers.
Iron and Steel Articles, Including Machinery
The stocks on hand of iron and steel showed little
change from January 1 to July 1, being 2,624 carloads on
the latter date. During the first six months of 1926 the
unloadings amounted to 6,365 carloads and for the same
period of 1925 to 5,261 carloads. In October, 1925, 1,163
carloads of iron and steel articles were unloaded. The
estimated requirements for nine districts are: October,
988 carloads; November, 1,054 carloads.
The stocks on hand show somewhat over twice the un-
loads of an average month. Stocks on hand under this
heading probably consist largely of machinery. The pro-
duction capacity of the state is reported as 110 carloads
per month and probably consists largely of structural
shapes. During the present year the output has ranged
between 65 and 80 carloads per month. Of the stocks on
hand on July 1 (2,624 carloads), 282 carloads were held
by contractors, 809 by retailers, 1,413 by wholesalers and
jobbers, and 120 carloads by producers.
The weekly turnover of producers in July was 25 per
cent; of wholesalers and jobbers, 7 per cent, and of re-
tailers, about 12 per cent. Producers shipped from 37
per cent to 57 per cent by rail, and from 23 to 30 per cent
by water. Wholesalers and jjobbers make approximately
one-third of their shipments by rail and 60 per cent by
local truck deliveries. Retailers ship 75 per cent by local
truck deliveries and 22 per cent by rail. The bulk of the
requirements are met from outside the state.
Retailers report around 3 per cent of their receipts
coming from intra-state points, while contractors receive
from 12 to 15 per cent from Florida points. Railroads
carry 65 per cent of the receipts of retailers, around 70
per cent of the receipts of contractors, and 50 per cent of
14 Florida Review
the receipts of wholesalers and jobbers. Water carriers
handle about one-third of the receipts of wholesalers and
There were 2,365 carloads of automobiles, trucks, trac-
tors and accessories on hand in the state of Florida on
July 1. On April 1, there were 3,123 carloads, and on Jan-
uary 1, 3,237 carloads. During the first six months of 1925,
Florida unloaded 8,642 carloads, and 6,365 carloads in the
same period of 1926, or a decrease of 26 per cent. It can
not be concluded from these figures, however, that the
consuming capacity of the state had been lessened as
many automobiles and trucks were driven into the state
under their own power from distribution points in Georgia
during the period of congestion and embargoes in the early
part of the year.
This is clearly indicated by the fact that wholesalers
and jobbers report 45 per cent of their January receipts
by highway, while in April and July, when transportation
conditions became more normal, only 6 to 7 per cent were
received by that method. In October, 1925, there were
2,764 carloads unloaded in the state. The estimate for
the three fall months ('for nine terminal districts) is as
follows: October, 1,503; for November, 1,642, and for
December, 1,820 carloads. Florida has no production of
automobiles or trucks.
Of the stocks on hand on January 1, April 1 and July 1,
it is noted that retailers consistently show stocks three
times as large as wholesalers and jobbers. The weekly
turnover of retailers and wholesalers and jobbers alike
run between 25 per cent and 35 per cent. The weekly
turnover for July of wholesalers and jobbers, however,
dropped to 21.3 per cent.
Wholesalers and jobbers report that from 80 to 87 per
cent of their shipments of automobiles in January, April
and July were made by highway. Practically all the re-
mainder were forwarded by rail. Retailers, as might be
expected, make 97 to 99 per cent of their shipments by
highway, whoelsalers and jobbers received from 72 to 85
per cent of their receipts by rail in April and July; in
January they received only 47 per cent by that method;
retailers report from 61 to 74 per cent of their receipts
by rail in the months of January, April and July. Retailers
receive around 20 per cent of their automobile receipts
Furniture, Excluding Family Household Goods
There were 3,044 carloads of furniture on hand in Flo-
rida on July 1, 3,078 carloads on April 1 and 2,958 car-
loads on January 1. During the first six months of 1925,
Florida unloaded 1,136 carloads of furniture and in the
same period of 1926, 1,858 carloads, or an increase of al-
most 40 per cent. In October, 1925, there were 537 car-
loads unloaded in the state. The estimated unloadings
for October (for nine districts) are 531 carloads, for Nov-
ember 563 carloads and for December, 535 carloads.
The production capacity of the state is around 12 car-
loads per month. Production during the present year
has ranged from about eight cars per month in January
and February to four cars per month in May, June and
July. Of the stocks on hand July 1, retailers held 90 per
cent, wholesalers and jobbers 9 per cent, and producers
1 per cent. Approximately the same distribution is noted
for April and January 1.
The weekly turnover of wholesalers and jobbers were
23 per cent in January, 11.6 per cent in April and about 8
per cent in July. Retailers show a stock turn ranging
from 5 to 9 per cent per week, the higher figure being
for the month of January. Producers show a weekly
stock turn of 100 per cent in January, 40 per cent in
April and 14.7 per cent in July. Producers report 89
per cent of their shipments by truck in January, 80
per cent by that method in April and 60 per cent in
July. The dominance of truck shipments indicates the
.extent to which these plants depend upon local trade.
Wholesalers and jobbers use railroads for around 50 per
cent of their shipments and truck for 36 to 44 per cent of
their outgoing trade.
Retailers make over 90 per cent of their deliveries by
truck. Wholesalers use rail facilities for 75 to 95 per cent
of their receipts. Retailers receive around four-fifths of
their receipts by rail and from 14 to 18 per cent by water.
Retailers also report more than 85 per cent of their re-
ceipts as coming regularly from interstate points, indicat-
ing direct buying by the retail furniture trade from north-
ern manufacturers. Wholesalers and jobbers show very
small receipts from intrastate points.
Stocks of laths and shingles on July 1 were 51,623,000
and were twice as large as on January 1. Separate figures
are not available covering the carloadings and unloadings
of laths and shingles during 1925 and 1926. The estimated
car unloadings for the three fall months are included
under the general heading of lumber. The production ca-
pacit reported is 6,700,000 laths and shingles per month.
The rate of production during the present year has
ranged from 4,600,000 per month in February to 5,620,000
per month in July. Producers made from 92 to 94 per
cent of their shipments by rail. The local character of
the retail trade is reflected in that fact that between 85 per
cent and 93 per cent of the shipments are made by truck.
Wholesalers and jobbers shipped 52 per cent by water in
January, but show no shipments by that method in April
The weekly turnover of producers ranged from 15.5 per
cent in January to around 7 and 8 per cent in April and
July. Wholesalers and jobbers had a stock turnover of
8.6 per cent in January, 8.6 per cent in April and 4.4 per
cent in July. The stock turn of retailers varied from 25.2
per cent per week in January to 7.3 per cent in July.
A classification of receipts on the basis of interstate
and intrastate business indicates that wholesalers and
jobbers and retailers receive considerably more from out-
side than intrastate points. The receipts diminished
greatly during April and July as compared with January.
Of receipts from outside Florida railroads carry over half.
Wholesalers and jobbers received 83 to 91 per cent of
their receipts in April and July by rail. Receipts of whole-
salers and jobbers by a combination of rail and water
reached 47 per cent in January. Retailers received 71
per cent of their receipts by rail in April and 80 per cent
by that method in July.
Stocks of Lumber and Logs Increased
The stocks of lumber under this heading increased
during this year from 429,000 M board feet on January 1
to 558,000 M board feet on July 1. The car unloadings of
lumber during the first six months of 1926 were 64,168
and for the same period of 1925 were 72,515. In October,
1925, 10,381 cars of lumber were unloaded and the estimate
of unloadings for the three fall months, not including the
Miami terminal district are: October, 7,405; November,
7,597, and December, 6,831 cars.
The production capacity of the state is over 105,000,000
board feet per month, and the production per month dur-
ing the first seven months of the present year has ranged
between 82,000,000 and 90,000,000 board feet. Between
January and July producers' stocks increased nearly 63,000
M board feet, the stocks of wholesalers rose 20,000 M
board feet, of retailers by 44,000 M board feet.
In the aggregate, little change took place in stocks be-
tween April 1 and July 1. Retailers, however, decreased
Florida Review 15
stocks, while the stocks of producers increased by ap-
proximately the same amount. In the Miami terminal
district the stocks of retailers and wholesalers and jobbers
are reported as considerably above normal. Producers
show a stock turn per week of 12.1 per cent in January,
nearly 9 per cent in April and 7.4 per cent in July. The
weekly turnover of wholesalers ranged from 33.1 per cent
in January to 10 per cent in April and 7.6 per cent in July.
Retailers show a stock turn of 16.2 per cent in January,
10.4 per cent in April and 8.3 per cent in July.
Producers ship about four-fifths of their shipments by
rail, 12 per cent by water and about 8 per cent by truck.
Wholesalers and jobbers make from 50 to 60 per cent of
their shipments by truck; from 18 to 30 per cent by rail.
Rail carriers handle the large share of the receipts by
wholesalers, retailers and contractors.
During January, the receipts of wholesalers and jobbers
from outside were approximately six times as great as
the receipts from Florida points. In April and July, how-
ever, they received approximately equal amounts from
outside and intrastate points. Retailers during the months
of January, April and July consistently received larger
stocks from intrastate than from interstate points. In
July, contractors show receipts from intrastate points
twice as large as from interstate.
No inquiry as to stocks on hand or turnover, or the
method of shipment, was made for the commodities in-
cluded in the data furnished by the shippers' commodity
committees of the Florida advisory board. The informa-
tion was furnished for citrus fruit, fresh vegetables and
melons, fertilizers, phosphate rock, naval stores, petroleum
and its products and lime rock. The data and estimates
were furnished by the carriers, and the shippers' com-
modity committees of the Florida advisory board.
The movement of citrus fruits is highly seasonal. In
October, 1925, 1,064 cars of citrus were loaded in this state.
The estimate of total car loadings of citrus fruit for the
months of October, November and December, 1926, is 13,-
245 cars, divided as follows: October 1, 167; November
4, 849, and December 7, 229 cars. This forecast was based
upon an estimate of the crop, but has not been amended
to cover the damage by the September storm, on which
accurate reports have not been available up to the time of
completion of this report. During the first six months of
1926, 18,074 cars of citrus fruits were loaded in Florida as
compared with 25,513 during the first six months of last
year, a decrease of over 23 per cent.
In October, 1925, there were loaded in this state 191 cars
of fresh vegetables, melons, etc. The estimated movement
of these commodities out of the state during October, 1926,
is 31 cars, for November 408 cars and for December 716
cars. The bulk of the movement under this heading comes
at other seasons of the year. In the first six months of
1926, 20,280 cars of fresh vegetables were loaded within
the state and in the same period of 1925, 26,811 cars, or
a decrease of 24.3 per cent.
Carloadings of fertilizer, as reported by the carriers,
totaled 11,782 during the first six months of 1926, as com-
pared with 12,550 in the same period of 1925, a decrease
of 6 per cent. Considerable amount of fertilizer is shipped
from Florida to interstate and foreign commerce. Ship-
ments of fertilizer during the first half of 1925 were al-
most double the shipments of the second half of the year.
In October, 1925, there were 1,220 carloads of fertilizer
loaded in Florida. It is estimated that in October of this
year the loadings for all of Florida will be 2,088 cars,
November 1,977 cars, and December 1,953 cars.
The estimated carloadings of phosphate rocks, which
includes phosphate hard rock and phosphate pebble rock,
for October are 6,827, for November, 6,905 and for Decem-
ber 6,887. This is considerably in excess of the 4,154 cars
loaded in October, 1925. The shippers' commodity com-
mittee reported phosphate rock in two divisions, the peb-
ble rock and the hard rock, showing foreign and domestic
movement. Detailed data for this commodity are avail-
During the first six months of 1926, 1,042 carloads of
naval stores were loaded in Florida as compared with
1,385 for the same period of 1925, a decrease of almost 25
per cent. In October of 1925, there were 225 carloads of
naval stores loaded, while the estimate of car requirements
for October of 1926 by the commodity committee aggre-
gates 954 cars; November, 760 cars, and December, 915 cars.
It has been pointed out that a large amount of naval stores
are loaded at small points not covered by the survey, where
the total of carloadings and unloadings does not approxi-
mate 100 cars per month. The tonnage of naval stores
carried by steamship lines to and from Florida ports in
1925 totaled 1,362,930 tons.
It is estimated that in October of this year 5,420 cars
will be required for the loading of petroleum and petro-
leum products; in November, 5,850 cars, and in December,
6,482 cars. This shows a significant increase over the
carloadings of this commodity in October, 1925, which are
recorded as 4,744 carloads. Carloadings of petroleum and
its products totaled 31,714 cars during the first six months
of 1926 and 25,571 in the same period of 1925, an increase
of 19 per cent. The movement is principally by private
tank cars and chiefly from the ports of Jacksonville and
Tampa. A comparison of loading and unloading data fur-
nished by the railways indicates a considerable move-
ment from Florida to interstate points.
It is estimated that the carloadings of lime rock will be
7,500 cars per month in October, November and December,
which is considerably in excess of the 684 cars loaded in
October, 1925. During the first six months of 1925, 6,086
cars of lime rock were loaded in Florida. In the carload-
ings for the first six months of 1926 a discrepancy exists
between the railway reports and the statement of cars
placed as shown by the lime rock, crushed stone and lime
committee of the Florida advisory board.
Loadings for the first half of this year as shown by the
railways were 12,547, while the commodity committee re-
ports 34,119 cars placed in that period. The lime rock.
crushed stone and lime committee of the Florida advisory
board points out that the car loadings of lime rock in the
first six months of 1926 were lowered owing to the cur-
tailed car supply partly due to the demands for transpor-
tation of other commodities considered more essential for
immediate needs, and partly to failure of consignees to
unload promptly, thus reducing the efficiency of equip-
ment assigned to this service. This tonnage originates in
the Orlando and St. Petersburg terminal districts, with
a small percentage from the Tallahassee district.
FLORIDA SPEAKS FOR ITSELF
The skeptical and unbeliever in the South and Florida's
great business will probably alter their viewpoint if they
would but glance through the December 8 issue of the
Industrial Index, or any other issue of this publication,
for that matter. There is a wealth of news in the publica-
tion that shows the wonderful strides taken in construction.
Getting down to facts as contained in the Index, will
convince anyone who wants to be shown. Florida is far
from dead-in fact it is wide and progressing.
In Orlando, building permits for the eleven months of
16 Florida Review
this year aggregated $8,108.231, while the corresponding
time last year produced a total of $7.910,200.
The City of Jacksonville led the State. with permits for
the month of November totalling $2,303,755. This is a for-
midable array of figures, especially for a city having the
misfortune to be located in Florida.
Then of course it is peculiar that the Ingalls Iron Works
of Birmingham, Alabama, would establish a branch office
in Jacksonville, one of the largest single unit steel fabricat-
ing plants in the South. The Birmingham Tank Company
is also opening an office in that city.
The 'Frisco railroad is building a terminal in Pensacola
which, when completed will cost in the neighborhood of
$1.000,000. This is all strange for a State that is ad-
mitted by pessimists to be going to the dogs.
Florida speaks for itself, the Industrial Index says. and
it certainly does when one reads these figures.
The City of Sanford. one of our progressive neighbors,
announce that building permits for the first eleven months
of this year exceed those of the corresponding time last
year by $116,712.
The southeast as a whole is attracting the interest of
capital throughout the country, according to the Index.
which declares that a group of forty bankers and capital-
ists of New York, Boston. Philadelphia and Chicago. in a
trip through the eastern states of the south, were greatly
impressed by the possibilities for development of power
in these states. They all expressed themselves as aware
that a fine future was in store for the southeast, and their
good will, especially since they represent investment
capital aggregating $10,000,000,000, is something that can
not be sneezed at.
Hollywood which has had much to contend with this year.
disseminates an interesting bit of news by announcing that
building permits for the month of November totaled $335,000.
an increase of $148,821 over the preceding month.
So Florida is not so bad ofl' as many would like to im-
press upon others. In a community that is growing, there
are those that take a seeming interest in tearing down and
criticizing. Just criticism is good but when it is based on
hearsay instead of facts it degenerates into falsities, ai
polite way of saying lies.
It should always be kept in mind. that while Florida is
the oldest State in the Inaioii it is the youngest. This is
a paradox, but true nevertheless. In comparing Florida
with States like New York. Pennsylvania. California and
Illinois. it must lie remembered that this is, to a great
extent, unjust to this State. for the others have become
established through years and years of enterprise and hard
work, while Florida. the cooing babe of the country. is just
learning to crawl and beginning to understand what it is
all about. It is true that tie infant was walking long
before it should have been creeping. That just goes to
show what a hearty and husky infant it is.
300 PER CENT JUMP SHOWS STATE GROWTH
Wilmington, Del., Nov. 12. Florida ihas become the
greatest user of explosives in tlie South. Figures for the
past five years. now i l hand in the explosives department
of the du Pont company y here show that there has Ieen an
increase in the use of dynamite in Florida of more than
300 per cent since 1921. In that year the State used
2.476.625 pounds of high explosives; in 1922, the consumnp-
tion was increased to 3,294.375: it reached 4,025,525 in 1923:
a new high mark was established in 1924 with the con-
sutmption of 5,403,750 pounds; and in 1925 all records were
broken by a total consumption of 8.784.150 pounds of
For the first nine months of 1926 there has already
been recorded the use of 8,508,369 pounds. If this rate
continues the total for the year will be more than 11,000,000
pounds, putting Florida in the front ranks among all
Southern states by a wide margin as a user of explosives,
and also putting it among the leading states of the union.
Explosives experts here point out that this great in-
crease is due to the marked progress the state has made
(luring the last few years. The manufacture of explosives
is one of the key industries which are a barometer to trade
and when the use of explosives is increased, it means that
there is an increase in industries which depend on them
such as construction work, drainage, mining, railroad
building, quarrying, agriculture to a certain extent and
This great increase in the use of high explosives in
Florida and the increase recorded also in other south-
eastern states has led the duPont Company to begin the
construction of one of the most modern of high explosives
plants at Mineral Springs, about fourteen miles north of
Birmingham. The company has purchased a tract of 1,201
acres at that point and is now putting in railroad exten-
sions there for the delivery of building materials and con-
structing operating buildings, power units, machine shops,
storage houses and office buildings. It is expected that
the plant will be in operation next spring.
Dynamite has been used in Florida during recent years
in enormous quantities for drainage purposes, building
roads, stumpage and especially in the real estate develop-
ment. Great quantities have been used in the blasting
out of inlets and bays to make safe harbors and in other
submarine work. It is also used in considerable quanti-
ties in the north for tlie quarrying of chemical stone.
Grapefruit canneries may be classed as an industry, but
they are doubly important because they are also a valuable
asset in agriculture-that is, in citrus growing, says the
Tampa Tribune. They use fruit which is perfectly sound
inside but which has a poor appearance or blemishes that
prevent keeping it fresh for shipping. Without a cannery
such fruit would rot or would have to be promptly sold
locally at a low price. The cannery prevents this waste
and means a little more money for the grower.
It also helps greatly in creating new markets, acquaint-
ing the people everywhere with the fine taste of Florida
fruit, as canned grapefruit can be shipped to the most
distant countries without special handling, where fresh
fruit could not go without refrigeration and perhaps not
We notice that Arcadia is to have a new cannery. Since
the storm which caused some loss of fruit in DeSoto county
there was doubt whether it would be established this
year, but S. S. Scoville assures the people that he still
thinks his enterprise worth while. Several canneries have
been operated in different parts of the citrus section for
the last few years, mostly on a small scale so far, but the
demand is increasing. In case the fruit is ripe enough,
canneries have a special value immediately after a storm
as they can use fruit blown off the trees and damaged so
that it cannot be shipped fresh.
So it is seen that the canning business is both an in-
dustry and an agricultural asset. The same is going to be
true on a larger scale in the near future in the canning of
vegetables and other fruits than citrus.