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S".. ala, lorida, Japuary, 18.'
ITr [oM W00oiopical ilO."
This Exposition, incorporated under the laws of the State of Florida, will open at
LA I ---
OCAL^A, MARmON COURYTT, PLOREDA
JANUARY 15TH, AND CLOSE *AY 1ST, 1889.
This will be a permanent Exhibition of Pomological, Horticultural and Agricultural products of Florida, with its soil
timbers and live-stock; together with articles of general interest from all States and Countries We have forty acres of lan
contiguous to the City of Ocala. All railroads have connections to the grounds, and every facility is afforded to visitor
The main building is 300oo feet front by 150 feet in depth, and the entire premises will be supplied with pure artesian water
electric lights, steam power, etc. We invite exhibits of all descriptions from the United States, particularly those pertaining
to the Arts, Mechanics and Agriculture.
L_ "; "h -
r a "
- .: j _- , I,: ......
,,-,:,- .., ,o -il:
DIR ECT ORS :
A. S. MANN, JULIUS ISRAEL,
ALFRED BISHOP MASON, D. H. BAKER,
JOHN F. DUNN,. HOWARDA
A. P. MAN, ,fr.,
.. A. E. WILLARD,
J. F. RICHMOND,
GEORGE W. WILSON,
GEORGE m, VILSON,
D. E. A4.. WELL,
.-E. W. AGArNEW
L. R. EICHENLA UB,
C. T. GIBSON,
, T. J. BARNES,
J. 0, OLARKE,
D, A. MILLER,
0, W. OAMPBELL,
WTTT,T A1MI FOX,
DISTIS ISHED citizen of Maine...,
A attributes Florida's remarkable health
record to its cfma ic influences, and
speaks of it a"ol. s
"Florida has e l Iabled land of America;
around no portion of the new world linger legends so rich
in silver promises, ias well as in -golden -realities. Since
Ponce de Leon's band .f Spanish CavaliersIhreaded their
way over the rolling pine sweeps and plunge into the im-
penetrable swamps in search of the Sp -youth, the
eager eye of the world has sought in thiand of cerulean
skies and balmy breezes for some great b sing to the
human race. What this great blessing would be was left to
our own generation to discover. The Spring of Perpetual
Yduth had drawn the Indians from the-far mountains of the
interiorto this land of flow s. Old then, past their allotted
age, were hade' strong again, and the savages in their
ingeniousthess thought that there must be some spring in
which they dipped to be rejuvenated, and they wandered
ever in search of this spring of promise. When DeLeon
and his followers landed on these beautiful shores all could
tell of the efficacy of the spring, but none could point out
fi lpcality. He and his followers, like the Indians,
'L.ew not that the search was ended,& 'twas no
searched for; there were no waters in
wh'i^^,- r Emust be dipped to revive youth; the
Spring d,. as everywhere; it was the balmy air that
they drew n i|th each breath. The Indians, drawn with
rheumatism, or racked with coughs from exposure in the
bleak woods of the North, came to this land of sunshine,
and in the warmth
S- and purity of its
;- ._ J gained health ad'
-_ ....-.--'- -"- -hardiness. O v er
--.-.-...---- -- -.- alm ost the s c
:.'35 . ^ _T trails by which the)
children of the for
est fled from .thb
crmoel *inters 4o-6the -
North, to-day thou-
sands of our people
the North pass
winter to Flor-
-. -regain the e ,-
.-_:. _ BEAR in mind the
.. - meeting of the Na,
-- : =_--tional Pomological
....5--oAssociation at Ocala,
---- Feb. soth to 22d.
j ..._ __:j,.olTHE Semi-Tropi-
~cal Exposition will
... ........ ... _ present attractions
. 'superior to any
_._ :_ ._.i. ::!:_p.exhibition .ever held
in the South.
IF FEB. 22d "is the
military day at the
THE Indian Summer" of the Middle and more North-
ern States closely resembles a Florida winter, and will con-
vey a better idea than can be written of a season which in
Florida admits of life in the open air, while citizens o. the
North are hovering over great fires or shivering in heavy
wraps, as the rude blasts of winter cut to the bone. The
fact that the thermometer rarely falls below 3s fits our
section as a grand sanitarium for the whole country.
HARRIET BEECHER STOWE, who spends her winters in
Florida, says: "The situation of Florida, surrounded by
the sea, and the free sweep of winds across it, temper the -
air, and blow away malarial gases. There may be malaria
along the St. John's in summer, as there is along the Con-
necticut in the North; but in winter there is no malaria in
THE wonderful natural attractions of interior Florida,
such as Silver Springs, Blue Springs, Crystal river, and
the huntsman's paradise, Homosassa-with numerous deep
rushing rivers-all lie within an hour's ride of the Semi-
THE air is pure and healthy, as it comIs sweeping across
the tempered Gulf of Mexico, laden with the salt or iodine,
whichiis nature's remedy for the lungs, impure blood and
overtaxed nervous system.
ON Feb. 2oth, 2ist, and 22nd, $8oo in cash premiums will
be given by the Semi-Tropical Exposition. Apply to sec-
retary for premium list.
THE climate of Central and Southwestern Florida is
especially suited to silk culture.
Ship your oranges and vegetables, and buy
your seeds of G. W. Shallcross & Co., New
The Ocala Exposition.
[From the December number of The South.]
CALA, the county seat of Marion
county, Florida, is awaking to a sense
of its possibilities. Marion is one
of the largest, richest and most fer-
tile counties in the State. It con-
tains the finest orange groves in Florida, and
ships annually twenty-eight per cent. of the
crop of the State. Is is centrally located, has
excellent railway communication, and contains
some of the most romantic and attractive points
The citizens of Ocala see their opportunities,
and have started a project which will attract
public attention not, only to their own section
but to the entire State. It is to establish
permanently an international and semi-tropical
exposition, including a, display of Florida
Specialties, with an array of the products of
nature, art and industry, gathered from all
parts of the world. A conspicuous feature
will be made of home industries around Ocala,
d the visitor will see that Marion, with its
Splendid record in the production of oranges,
is a fine farming country, where corn, oats,
cane, tobacco and hay, besides fruits and vege-
tables, May be raised. The live stock exhibit,
which Will be made a prominent item, will
show how fine a class of animals may be reared,
with proper attention to breeding, and, there-
fore, what an opening Marion presents to the
breeders of horses, horned cattle, sheep, hogs, etc.
towards comple- -- --
tion. An Expo- -- -
sition company __-. --
has been incor- ,:' ..
porated u n d e r
the laws of the
i ave been liber- -
ally subscribed, j ----
;,a site of forty
S acres has been -
donated for the
site, the build-
ings are in rapid
progress, and by
-t h e 'w r ion -
will be formally
OCALA has in i
and around it a
number of weal-
thy men whose
the scheme is a
promise of suc-
cess. The board
. of directors in-
acgedes the man-
gers of four of
the chief rail- = ... .
roads of Florida,
the presidents of
two prominent banks, and one of the largest
wholesale merchants in- the State. The man-
agers of the railway companies are joining
heartily in the effect, and with the cordial
support promised by all the UNION invited,
a grand display will be secured. It will show
not only to the world what Florida can do,
but to the home dwellers what they may ac-,
complish by diversifying their products and
profiting by their many advantages.
This Exposition, incorporated under the laws
of the State of Florida, will open at OcApal,
Marion county, Florida, January I5th, 1889.
This will be an expositir ..f pomological,
horticultural and agricult, tie products of
Florida, and her soils, timbers, woods, minerals
and live stock, and in addition articles and.
products of general interest from all States
and countries. Entry is open to the world
for the display of their products.
Ocala is located in the centre of Marion
county, in the centre of the Peninsula, and
is the centre of the finest and richest portion
of Florida. Nine-tenths of all the oranges,
lemons and( Tege tables grown in Florida are
produced within .-a radius of eighty miles of
The object of this Exposition is to induce
travel and immigration to a section of Florida
that has heretofore been comparatively
ignored, though in quantity and quality of rich,
high rolling hammock, mixed and pine lands,
particularly adapted to successful agricultural
and horticultural purposes, it has no equal;
while for beautiful scenery, numerous clear
water lakes teeming with fish and fowl, romantic
rivers to the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf .f Mexico
(thus giving thorough drainage from this roll-
ing section), and wonderful navigable rivers
of iridescent colors, it acknowledges no rival,
while its salubrity of climate, and uAiform good
health, requires no encomiums at our hands..
All this .section is within one to four hours'
ride of Ocala, and embraces the cities and towns
of Palatka, St. Augustine, De Land, Jackson-
ville, Lake City, Fernandina, Indian river,
Starke, Gainesville, Waldo, Green Cove Springs,
Bronson, Cedar Keys, Leesburg, Eustis, Tavares,
Belleview, Brooksville, Dade City, Sumterville,
Panasoffkee, lansfield, Homosassa, Crystal
river, Orlando, Winter Park, Sanford,Kissimmee,
Bartow, Fort Meade, Fort Myers, Fort Ogden,
Tampa, Tarpon Springs, Sutherland, Duneden,
Clear Water Harbor, Disston, Pinellas, St. Peters-
burg, Manatee and Punta Gorda, while the cele-
brated Silver S.prings, Blue Springs, Orange
Lake, and its famous groves, Lake Weir and Dun-
nellon are within the borders of Marion county.
The EXPOSITION is located on forty acres
of land contiguous to the city of Ocala, and
all railroads are connected with the grounds.
The main building is 300 feet front, 150 feet
in depth and fifty-three feet high. The entire:
premises will be supplied with pure artesian
water, electric lights, steam power, and ample
accommodations for all exhibits.
We invite exhibits of all descriptions, par-
ticularly those pertaining to the arts, mechanics
and agriculture, guaranteeing uniform courtesy
to all exhibitors.
TYPICAL FLORIDA SCENES ON THE HOMOSASSA RIVER.
The city of Ocala contains 6,000 inhabitants,
has four completed railroads, paved streets
and sidewalks, modern brick buildings, fine
schools, electric lights, water-works, fire and
police departments, public markets and elegant
hotels. The "Ocala," brick, 229 rooms; Mon-
tezuma," brick, 90 rooms ; "Alfred," "Magnolia,"
Central," Steele," Florida," and other
hotels and boarding-houses, afford good and
ample accommodations at reasonable prices,
for all our guests.
For eighty miles around trade is tributary
to Ocala, and her yearly sales are nearly five
millions of dollars. Ocala has two national
banks, twelve churches, four newspapers, one
ice factory, three saw and planing mills, one
machine shop, five livery stables, six restau-
rants, twenty-four hotels and boarding-houses,
one music house, three cigar factories,
nineteen lawyers, three doctors, three hard-
ware stores, four drug stores, one book
store, one seed store, blacksmiths, tinners,
plumbers, fruiterers, shoe, harness and wagon
makers, bakeries, and about sixty dry goods,
general merchandise and grocery stores; two
brass bands and two crack military com-
panies, two building and loan associations,
and lodges of various secret and benevolent
The entire section of Florida mentioned in
this paper will fully repay the tourist with
new and beautiful scenery, and will certainly
convince the immigrant and capitalist that
the half of Florida's intrinsic worth has not
been made known, and that her possibilities can-
not be measured.
FLORIDA SEMI-TROPICAL NES
FLORIDA SEMI-TROPICAL NEWS,
FLORIDA SEMI-TROPICAL NEWS.
ORANGEE BELT ROUTE)
vDO E DAILY TRAINS IN BOTH DIRECTIONS CONNECTING WITH FAST MAIL TRAINS
GAINESVILLE and PALATKA.
T HE FLORIDA SOUTHERN RAILWAY extends from Palatka onthe St.JohnsRiver directly west acro
the Peninsula to Gainesville, 50 miles.
At Rochelle, 40 miles west of Palatka, it extends directly south through the most fertile and hilly portion of th
State to Punta Gorda, on Charlotte Harbor, 300jmiles.4~istant, the most southern point reached by rail in the United States.
At Leesburg, its St. John's and Lae Eustis Division permeates the garden spot of the State, watered by the gre-
Ocklawaha Lakesis, Griffin and Dora, and again taps the St. John's River at Astor.
During almost its entire length it traverses a fertile, high and rolling country, adapted to all kinds of agricultural pursuit
and especially productive in vegetables and oranges. Along its line are the largest and finest Orange Groves in the State, an
the scenery |s frequently broken by
At Interlachen, McMeekin, Ocala, Welshton, South Lake Weir, Conant, Lady Lake, Chetwynd, Leesburg, Okahumpk;
Center Hill, Pemberton, Brooksville, Astor, Eustis, Tavares, Bartow, Fort Meade, Arcadin, Fort Ogden and Punta Gorda wi
Fine Hotels and Ample Accommodations for the Tourist and the Invalid.
AT Punta Gorda particularly the Hotel is strictly first-class for the tourist who desires to while away time, with all th
comforts of a metropolis surrounding him.
FOR THE INVALID there is a perfect winter climate and a sanitarium unsurpassed anywhere.
FOR THE SPORTS1IMAN the shooting is good, and the fishi-ng not equaled in any native waters.
8. C. BOYLSTON, G. P. Agent.
S. CONANT, Gen Manager.
J. A. LARNERD, Supt.
FLOOR IDA SEMI-TROPICAL EWS.
FLORIDA SEMI-TROPICAL NEWS CO.
Entered in the Post Office at Ocala .as Second-class matter.
SubscriptionI Rates, 5oc. per Annum.
RATES FOR ADVERTISING FURNISHED ON
ADDRESS ALL LETTERS TO THIS PAPER.
CizeC.1~sition. 50,000 copies-
FLORIDA SEMI-TROPICAL NEWS.
is advancing with wonderful progress in stock
raising. Its navigable rivers give superior
advantages over the other States of the Union.
Its railroad system has made great strides in the
development of the State, and promises a great
future. Its wealth is only partially developed
and progress is certain. Its waters are sweet
The capabilities of the future of Florida are
immense. It excels in richness of soil. Its
products are preeminent and extraordinarily
prolific. Its fruit culture has made rapid
progress. It excelS in health in a broad and
comprehensive sense. It excels in the fertility
of soil; and, greatest of all, it excels in its health
Hundreds of noted writers and Northern
people who reside in Florida will testify to the
great advantages possessed by this Paradise of
America. It is the only State of the Union
that has doubled its resources in the last four
years. United States statistical reports are;
given in another column.
Like the magnet, Florida is drawing to its
borders, CAPITAL. from all parts of the world,
and is soon destined to out-rival any State of
the Union. Many regard it as a small State, but
in area it is superior to New York and New
Jersey combined. Its railroad development
is phenomenal. Prominent and far-seeing
Northern.and Southern capitalists are interested
heavily in the many railroads that bisect the
State, and the future is extraordinarily
OCALA, in the central part of the peninsula,
is the county seat of Marion county, Florida,
and is the seat of "THI' FLORIDA INTERNA-
TIONAL AND SEMI-TROPICAL EXPOSITION," in-
corporated by the State, which will open on
January 15th, 1889, and will be a permanent
Institution. It is in the hands of men of talent,
w) -- means success and progress. Four of
tors-are managerr %,,.,hg
rof- iPlorida. No better
the Ote could have been chosen
fand the Exposition, its
.ers will pass into, not
P;Forida, but also of the
at benefit to the South.
!ifact that nine-tenths of
+:ton '+own in Florida
++++ us of eighty miles of
ta e ng over 400 miles in
:-+--+=-hical position, and the
.o a road at OCALA, point to
th ':I the proper place for the
Expos I~ts estre is gr~eat. It is speeding on
to pr ess. It Jas its banks, newspapers,
A N6- `h- els, elrchies, schools, factories, etc.
It is fast. advanqintg o to an Aladdin-like success,.
Florida-dd ddnot 1Hi in the line of immigration
but the drift 1 tifat way,-and those who
come to our hball breezy shores will testify
to the fact of reCovered health, which means
wealth and h pQnes.sx TP, day is near when
Florida landif r and ..Aadruple in
value. Remenibet that fct, .reader, and act
: Why- '-* *
It is known that envy and jealousy has
caused unnecessary rivalry between different
sections of our noble State ,:Want vi harmony
is injury, and, like a poor mus"ian in a band,
NAPOLEON by concentration of -Ns forces, WON
the three campaigns. Co-operation~ means suc-
cess. A house divided against itself will I
therefore, let all of us, citizen&.of-&-.-at
on by the tidal wave-success .-
With our great resources, lAtuara e advan-
tages, our incomparable climate, we-will enter
the race at least equal. Join hands, citizens
of Florida, and success will crown oure efforts.
Do not envy each other. FloedMa is- our h- ak
and give all to her, as she desrves, t
jealousy be buried, and all unite in the de-
velopment of our State, be it from the North,
South, East or West.
We are pleased to know that the "CLYDE
STEAMSHIP COMPANY have resumed their trips
to Florida. It is an errcouraging sign, and
we hope to see more winter sojourners in
our State than before. We know they will
not forget OCALA and her Exposition, which
promises to be a grand success.
S$ k "- "
The American Pomological Society of the
United States will hold their Biennial Session at
Ocala, Florida, February 2oth,2 ist and 22d, 1889.
The Expositioni and the FLORIDA SEMI-
TROPICAL NEWS (illustrated) will Be advertised
in prominent American, European and Can-
adian journals and billed in Eighty-five of the
leading cities in this country. The Florida rail-
way system connects direct with the Exposition
grot .. Full information regarding price of
boot fob'r displays of manufactures and
productFfscriptions, entries and other
privileges fifi on application.. Arrange-
ments are being perfected for cheap excursion
rates from OCALA to all points in Florida of
historic interest, and from all parts of the
United States to OCALA. The city is amply sup-
plied with hotels and private boarding-houses,
whege guests will be entertained at the regu-
lar charges, which range from $i to $4 per
day; In case of over-crowding, however, as
occurred at the Centennial Exposition in Phil-
adelphia, in 1876, excursion trains will, at a
. merely nominal cost, convey belated travel-
ers to adjacent towns where their wants will
be provided for at city prices. Gardeners and
landscape gardeners, florists and ..nurserymen
will be permitted to use gratis, plots not to
exceed two acres in area, provided they keep
Ora ge Lae, in Marion county, will this year
ship the enormous yield of 500,ooo boxes of
Ocala occupies the proud position of the
central distributing point in the State, high
rolling lands, mammoth forests of wild orange
groves, vegetable farms, fruit orchards, health-
giving springs, sparkling rivulets, mirror lakes;,
navigable rivers and pine .capped hills kneel
suppliant at Ocala's feet. Yellow fever is a
stranger to the inhabitants of this portion of
the State, so blessed by nature with all that
is good and beautiful, where sunshiiie is
eternal, where flowers bloom unbidden and'
where the air, like the breath of the tooba
tree, gives everlasting life.
'Persons coming to a new country general crrywith
them the manners and customs of the place they have left,
which are good enough in the community in.which they hae
lived, but not always suitable to a country new to them in
every feature. All have their own views, and some very
erroneously think they know a0f about the country and
everything that is necessary to- carry out their object. My
observation has been that too many new-comers are in too
much of a hurry to locate, and that t.ey fail to examine the
.characteristics of the different localities on which it would
.be desirable to settle and make a hom. It would beim.e.
-and money well spent for the intending settler to '"lie low'
for a few days, make acquaintances, ask questions and hear
all the people have to say. Let him ponder over it, weigh
ik relt-in his mind, and when he is well satisfied, then it is
time to act. Every individual with whom the new-comer
comes in contact seems to think (and many a one really
believes) his own locality to be the best, an* none other
e.al to it, and he therefore makes the statement conscien-
tious.y; -_yet the stranger should satisfy himself, and in a
nH time he will be competent to judge what is best for-
,lii'a do, and he will be able to determine what location is.
t est suited to his purpose, whether for investment or for
the .establishing of a home. The stranger will find many
-- W_ diffi ent from what he expects, and it behooves
every new-comer to act with caution and discretion. He
wil. find the,-people hospitable and ready to impart truthful
irrfermpoair They are, as a rule, intelligent, honorable
int thr dealings and straightforward in their representations;
and arvpheir continued residence in the country they
know itileesta nge~r wh st rve,
;!P'% e oiell 61wo'it fb#-o
To Whom it may concern:
We hereby certify that
ed, bound and delivered
of this% publication for
we have print-
Our paper speaks for itself, as thi
literary and typographical appearant#-
cerned. Our issue, .44.h-e .Ab
Year's present to our readers, bo.40 t -6
abroad, is fifty thousand (50
is duly authenticated by the ate
printers, Giles Litho. & .. rintil
62 College Place, New The
World renowned Florida! What memories
this incomparable peninsula bringsto the friinds
of our readers, who have visited this more than
Italy of the American continent ? To know
Florida, is to love it as the land of promise
and the home of health. Italy is a great
country, but she has her mountain winds, and
extremely hot summers. California is greater
but also has her drawbacks in the want of
rain and changeable climate. Florida is
GREATEST, as it combines ALL. of the advan-
tages of Italy and California, with none of
Florida is a peninsula, fanned with the
breezes of the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of
Mexico. It stands alone in its health-giving
atmosphere. Its climate is even and equable.
In summer it is rarely as warm as it is in the
North, and there is always the sea breezes
which temper the heat, it never being hot
in the shade. The winters are mild and health
giving, with a genial warmth unparalleled in
Florida is a land of fruits, and is ever bloom-'
ing wih flowers. It has immense wealth in
its primWive forests of valuable timber. It is
a land. of cwfort, as hundreds of thousands
otf a^ '|e there, or have resided there
it ;Wt testimony to. The State
GILES LITHO.& LIBERTY PRINTING CO.,
62 College Place, New York.
With this number of the FLORIDA SEMI-TROP-
ICAL NEWS, we begin the issue of a paper to
be devoted to the development of the noble
and rich State of FLORIDA, and to the FLORIDA
INTERNATIONAL AND SEII-TROPICAL EXPOSI-
TION of OCALA.
We intend our journal to be energetic, push-
ing and a live paper. We will eschew polit s,
and our aim is progress, and success.
*w.w theP.ast history of Florida; we know
d we look' forward with
f Florida enhances the great-
l: of l e of the ti kall.
Staitef-io el the Rockies
S.FLORIDA SEMI-TROPICAL NEWS.
STA....R. GT..XGrE STEEL RAILS.
DIRECT TO ALL POINTS IN
From 'ERKNANDINA and JACKSON V ILLE to the GULF COAST and MIDDLE FLO
From the GEORGIA STATE LINE to the EVERGADES.
Connects at Jacksq_ all Railroad and at Fernandina with Steamship Lines running Nor
Callahan and L ak, running North, West and South; also with Steamers plying the St. John'
and tributary rivers. It is the only line connecting at Silver Springs with the Ockla-
waha Steamers, at St. Marks with Steamboat to Northern Gulf Points, and at
Panasoffkee with Steamboats down the beautiful Withlacoochee to the Tsala-Apopka Lak
Tourists, Invalids, Merchants, Sportsmen, Settlers,
Find the Florida Railway & Navigation Company the most direct, picturesque, expeditious, best ec
IN THE LAND OF SUNSHINE AN^ORANGE.
ENTIRE SYSTEM RELAID WITH SIXTY-POUND STEEL RALES
PULLMAN DRAWING-ROOM, BUFFET, SLEEPING CARS on all TI
Jacksonville, Fernandina., Tallahassee, St. Marks, Walkulla Springs, Cedar Key, Gainesville, B,
Archer, Gulf Hammock, Silver Springs, Wekiva Springs, Dunnellon, Waldo, Homosassa, Belle
view, Wildwood, Monticello, Madison, Live Oak, Pensacola, Chattahoochee,
Crystal River, OCALA, Dade City, Sumpterville, Withlacoochee River,
Panasoffkee, Lacoochee, Brooksville, Plant City, Tarpon Springs,
SSutherland, Duneden, St. Petersburg, Clear Water Harbor,
":Pinellas, Leesburg, Tavares, Apopka,
Orlando and Kissimmee.
ExcursionT rates, Coupon Ticket to the Florida International and Semi- Tropical Exposition at Ocala, wic* opens Jan. 5
-, :: ...... '*:* ': *- '* "*
. This being the oldest railway in the State and having had the choice of route, it traverses the backbone of the peninsula
famous for red clay highlands, high rolling hammocks, most productive orange groves, cotton andtobacco belts, historic tak
[regions, mystical rivers and springs, grottoes and parks rich in foliage, bubbling brooks, fishes and fowls, and the best hunting
Grounds in the State-reaching the Gulf at St. Marks, Cedar Key and St. Petersburg.
Tickets to all points in Florida sold by all Railroad Coupon Ticket Agents; also by Thos. Cook & Son's Tourist Ticke
The Withlacoochee is the wildest and most romantic of river:. The Silver, Walkulla
and Wekiva the most wonderful Springs.
HSI FO0 TICKET- l IS ROOT, THS WIE O OTIERB.
D. E. MAXWELL, A. O. MACDONELL, N. S. PENNINGTON, WALTER G. COLEMAN, M. V, RALEY,
General Superintendent. General Passenger Agent. Traffic Manager. General Traveling Agent. Master of T
C. S. BEERBOWER, City Ticket Agent. JAMES MENZIES, General Freight Agent.
TNJACKSONVILLE, FLA. .
T. S' DUMONT, General Eastern Agent, 39-1 Broadway, New York. W.'E. DOWNING, General; Westrn Agent, 249W. Forth St., Ci]
FLORIDA SEMI-TROPICAL NEWS.
Interesting Foray Into the His-
toric Fields of Florida.
BY FRED. A. OBER,
The great Naturalist and Archaologist in Florida.
AKLAWN, a charmingly situated property in
the famous Orange Lake region, belongs to
Mr. Geo. W. Wilson, president of the Lake
Weir Chautauqua, and a gentleman of wide and
extensive erudition. In his capacity of senior
official, Mr. Wilson entertained several of the lecturers
invited to appear before the association, and gave them a
taste of Floridian hospitality. It was my good fortune to
be one of a little party invited to lunch at Oaklawn one day,
where I had the privilege of sitting at the feet (figuratively
speaking) of the famous philosopher and astronomer, Mr.
Richard A. Proctor, and our great teacher, Edward Everett
Hale. One of a kind of men of that quality is enough to
encounter at once ; and the day that throws you into the
company of both should be regarded as the greatest event
of your life. But in addition, also, there were several others
scarcely less well-known, so that it behooved me to be very
careful of my speech. Perhaps it will be
best not to record what occurred, but con-
fine myself to describing merely what I -
saw on the trip of which this was only the I
beginning. Mr. Wilson has traveled exten- -
sively, and his home is enriched with the r -
spoils of many a foray into foreign lands.
Set down, as is the house, in the midst of
oak and orange trees, with towering oaks
guarding its portals, and wide-spreading
views over Orange Lake afforded from its
verandas, little is the wonder that every
visitor to Oaklawn is charmed with its sit- :
nation. Having had this delightful intro-
duction to Sunny Florida, I will start on
my journey southward.
Around and below Ocala (a beautiful town of about 6,ooo
inhabitants, the county seat of Marion), for many miles, is
that section of the State called the backbone of Florida,
consisting of high and rolling pine lands, occasional
hammocks, and infrequent swamps. Of the n& os
lakes that glisten here among the oaks and pines, noes,
more attractive than Lake Weir, and perhaps there is n
section where bodies of fertile soil command higher e
The railroads have evoked numerous towns a
where, but a few years ago, solitude a ulyeilp|
1876, in a side trip off from the Ockiawaha river, I crossed, on
my way to Orange Lake, the graded road-bed of a railroad
which had never been completed, with pine and oak tr
growing on it nearly ten inches in diameter. It was a
projected before its time, perhaps, but the recent wondefu
development of Florida has given it an impulse that has
cleared off those pines and oaks, and added hundreds of
miles to the original scheme. At Leesburg, a flourishing
town between two large lakes, I branched off from the main
line south, arid wound about amongst some recent and
richly located towns, such as Fort Mason, Eustis, Tavares
and Lane Park, the latter on the beautiful Lake Harris.
All have their advantages, but Lane Park has the prettiest
site, though it is doubtful if any of them can be called
superior to the others. A steamer took me
across Lake Harris to Drake's Point, where
there is a large and beautiful natural grove ...
of orange trees, and whence I .walked two
miles to Yalaha, thence taking a team for
the -ailroad again at Okahumkee. Yalaha
has a fine site upon the lake. This section
was once the favorite hunting and planting
ground of the Seminoles many years ago. .I
Their old gardens and fields, and numerous .....
shell mounds, containing pottery and crude
weapons, are to-day found in the richest
hammocks, for the Seminole had the choice
of the whole land, sixty years ago, and
always selected the richest for his planta-
tions. The road runs westerly until it crosses
the Withlacoochee river, at Pemberton's Ferry, where a sec-
tion of the South Florida connects with the Florida Southern
again, at Bartow. The glimpses of the country between
Leesburg and Lakeland reveal an open pine region,
often widening out into swamp land and green prairies,
dotted with contented horses and cattle. The green
glades, with their bosses of oak and hickory, increase
as we run south, and at about Lakeland in a triangle, en-
closed by railroad, is a charming region of lakes and lake-
lets. Around Bartow there is much good land, and as far
south as Fort Meade; while below this, the railroad runs
through pine barrens, the good land being on the coast
and removed from the immediate line.
The terminus of the Florida Southern is at Trabue or
Punta Gorda, which has the proud distinction, of being the
most southern point reached by railroad within the limits of
the United States. You reach this point in a sleeper,"
arriving at midnight, but are undisturbed till long after
daylight, as the car lies over there twenty-four hours.
Trabue is destined to be a place of great importance some-
time. There is a magnificent hotel-that has been recently
constructed at a cost of over $13o,o00, and with rooms for
over ioo guests. It faces the broad bay and looks out over
a vast expanse of water and a stretch of pine-covered
country. In front of it, a long wharf juts out into the
channel, affording a fine promenade, while the intervening
space is to be beautified with a lawn and garden. To make
the point what it aims to be, the proper land terminal for
lines leading down to Cuba, a very long wharf (said to be
the largest in the U. S.) has been thrown out into the bay,
and this enables the Gulf steamers to land freight and pas-
sengers without transfer. The water is deeper over the
bar, it is also claimed, and the water journey between
this point and Cuba some hundred miles shorter than
between Tampa and Cuba. Punta Gorda (or Trabue) is
directly north of Key West and Havana, and (as I have said),
the southernmost point reached by rail in the United
States. The vast bay here abounds in fish and water-fowl
in the season, and the facilities for boating, of course, are
unrivaled. Down the bay, near the mouth of Charlotte
Harbor, lies Pine island, where a good hotel gives enter-
tainment to hunters and fishermen from all over the world
who revel in the delights of out-door life. The fishing about
the "passes" into Charlotte Harbor is said to be the finest
in the world.
I have before me a series of letters written ten years ago
by a veteran angler of some local reputation, Dr. C. J.
but not making any great perceptible impression upon
Lying exactly a degree of latitude to the north of Punta
Gorda is another Gulf port of vast importance to Florida-
one that has been longer before the world than Trabue-
the ancient town of Tampa, now wearing the garb of new
life and enterprise. This town I reached on the day follow-
ing my departure from Punta Gorda, as the trains of the J.,
T. & K. W. road make connection with the South Florida
at Lakeland, and run westward through an indifferent
country to the ancient town and new city at the head of
Tampa bay. The recent establishment here of the new
line to Cuba has given Tampa a place of inortance and
"boom," but now that a more direct "rout via Punta
Gorda, Tampa will lose much of this boost. Tampa's
adjunct, Ybor City, is becoming the great cigar manufactur-
ing town in the United States.
The most attractive portion of Tampa is the site of old
Fort Brooke, adjacent to the town proper. The banks of
the creek are quite high here, and are crowned with live
oaks of vast dimensions and beautiful proportions. These
groves of live oaks are the most beautiful I have yet seen
south of Ocala, and the walks beneath them so attractive
that I hesitated ever to leave them. The great limbs were
hung with festoons of Spanish moss, which gave them a
S singular aspect and most interesting shapes.
Walking through the grove which is still
"' ':Bl government property, and hence open to
every visitor, you reach an artificial mound
S of shell, commanding a m magnificent view
| of the bay and lower dreeks. And this
mound, though it has been greatly reduced
since the white man's advent, was once a
prominent landmark, not only to the voy-
agers along the coast, but in Floridian
history, for it is the identical mound upon
which stood the dwelling of the Indian
_cacique when the Spaniards first landed
here, in the year 1528. Let us not be swept
away in the recent wave of migration that is
now surging over Florida, but halt a moment
and pass in review the leading events of its earliest history.
Until about the year IS 15o10, the discoveries of the Spaniards
had been among the islands that enclose the Caribbean sea.
Hitherto all their explorations had been directed south,
east and west from Hayti. The Caribbeanr coast of South
America was first explored by Columbus in his last voyage,
from 1498, when he discovered Trinidad, to 1502 when he
coasted Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica. In 15Io,
D;iW* wa Rd byun ,edih i i li un ..,iJi i
t. le Palfic. an'ftn 1514,. the largest armamentyetsentto the
New World went under command of Pedrasias, with whom
went Hernandez de Cordova, and who beheaded Balboa the
same year. Cordova made his exploration of Yucatan in
1517. Another companion in arms was Hernando De Soto,
whose whole estate was then no more than a sword and
buckler, yet his merit and valor were such that Pedrasias
gave him command of a troop of horse, and sent him with
Pizarro to the conquest of Peru.
A new country is now to rise upon our vision When
Juan Ponce de Leon, in 1512, set sail for the Birini and its
Fountain ofRejuvenescence, he coasted the Bahamas, land
ing on Guanahani, San Salvador, just twenty years after
Columbus. O, the changes of that score of years Thence
he sailed northward, and on the 2d of April sighted a coast
banked with lofty trees and gay with flow-
ers," that sent their fragrance to him over
.... the water. He landed in latitude 30' 8' north,
E ^^ L ~ and named it Florida-this new countryhav.
ing discovered it on Pascua Floiida, or Palm
Sunday. Thus the delights of the coast scen-
V- = ery, and the day itself, combined to impress
upon this region the beautiful name of
FLORIDA. But he found no Biunini, and re-
turned disheartened 1o'Porto Rico. He
received, later, the title of Adetantado of
Bimini and Florida, but it was not until his
dormant spirit was aroused by the conquests
of Cortez, that he again essayed a voyage to
Florida, in 1521. He was repulsed, wound-
ed-and died in Cuba, a few months later.
Let us turn back once more, and gather up these con-
verging lines of adventure that lead towards the newly-risen
continent. In the year 1511, there went to Cuba, from
Jamaica, an honorable man, of graceful presence, tall and
fair, in command of thirty archers-Pamphilo de Narvaez-
who gained favor with Velasquez and aided materially
in the conquest of the island. When, therefore, in
I520, Velasquez (who had fitted out the expedition to
Mexico) became convinced that Cortez would never ac-
count to him for his conquests, but only to the King,
he raised a large fleet of nineteen sail, with 1,4oo00 soldiers
and forty pieces of artillery, and gave the command to
Narvaez, who was to bring Cortez to terms. Landing at
Vera Cruz, in April, 152o, Narvaez proceeded to the stone
city of Campoalla. where he fortified. Cortez was then in
Mexico City, with Montezuma his prisoner. With his
accustomed energy he gathered all his available troops,
leaving Alvarado in charge of the city, and-hastened to the
coast. Narvaez had the superior force, but Mexican gold
won over his best men, and in the ensuing battlehe lost all,
and he himself was wounded and taken a captive to Mexico.
Most of his men perished in the terrible defeat of
GATES TO CITY OF ST. AUGUSTINE.
Kenworthy, of Jacksonville, better known to sportsmen
over his nom deflume of Al Fresco." In these letters he
describes a water journey along the west coast of Florida,
where he met with many adventures and caught many
weighty strings of fish. Dr. Kenworthy was then searching
for an entrance into Lake Okeechobee, that mysterious lake
of the Everglades, the largest in the South. He did not
succeed in penetrating the sea of saw-grass which surrounds
Inland sea, but he obtained a glimpse of it from a
41l-Argin, not far from Fish-eating Creek.
,Aboatr the same time, or a year previous (in 1874, in fact), I
(gipiefset out for Lake Okeechobee. The papers had for
several years been full of strange stories about the
" mysterious Lake Okeechobee," most of which sounded to
We like stupendous lies-as they were. In 1872, I made
:the attempt to reach Lake Okeechobee from the eastern
side, but failed to get through the surrounding swamps.
In 1874, I took to Florida a large flat-bottomed boat, which
I had built in Amesbury, Mass., and this boat I transported
over land, sixty miles, from Fort Pierce on the Indian
river, to the Kissimmee river which flows into Lake
Launching my boat, well provisioned for a long trip upon
the Kissimmee, I floated with three companions down that
A FLORIDA COAST SCENE.
river well into the lake. The entire journey consumed a
month, and was one of the most adventurous and fatiguing
I ever undertook. But we succeeded in exploring the lake,
entirely circumnavigating it, and returning without misliap
to my camp on Indian river. This was the first explora-
tion of Lake Okeechobee since the Seminole war, nearly
fifty years ago. Other expeditions have since claimed to
have explored it, but mine preceded all others within the
past forty years. My letters of that time appeared in the
" Forest and Stream for that year, and also in"Appleton's
Journal for November, 1874.
At Punta Gorda, last week, I was at a point directly west
of Observation Island in Lake Okeechobee, upon which I
camped in February, 1874. There was very little land high
and dry enough for a camping place, and this island has
always been remembered for its affording us a place long
sought for needed rest.
Since that time attempts have been made to drain off the
water of the lake by a canal to the Caloosahatchee river,
and thus reclaim a great body of swamp land. This attempt.
has been partially successful, lowering the water level,
especially about the head-waters of the Kissimmee river,
FLORIDA SEMI-TROPICAL NEWS.
nothing so remarkable as his burial place." (Garcelon de la
After De Soto's death, his followers attempted to pursue
de Vaca's route to Mexico (westward), but became dis-
couraged, returned to the Mississippi and built seven large
boats, in which they floated down the great river to the
Gulf and thence to Panuco, which they reached in 1543.
This miserable remnant of De Soto's great command
numbered only one-third, 300 men, of the original i,ooo;
yet the wonder is that so large an army should have so long
subsisted-over three years-dependent solely upon the
native supplies, and marching mainly through a trackless
The record of disaster to such Europeans as touched on
Florida's shores does not end here, for in 1549, three Span-
iards were massacred by Indians in Tampa bay. In 1552
a Spanish flote fleet was wrecked on the west coast, and of
i,ooo persons only one escaped to Panuco; while in 1552 an
expedition of 1,500 soldiers, under Don Tristan de Luna,
was wrecked in Pensacola bay. The army penetrated the
country, but finally abandoned it two years later. In 1562,
seventy years after the discovery of America and fifty
from that of Florida, we find Florida abandoned, and fur-
ther, the whole of that vast country, from
Mexico to the Polar Sea, and from the
Atlantic to the Pacific contained not a sin-
gle settlement of the white race." But I
did not intend to wander so far into the
fields of Floridian history. The fact is, the
early history of Florida is vastly more in-
teresting than even its recent development
to a large class that sojourn here for the
winter. The first Spaniard, and the sub-
sequent French settlers of the sixteenth
century, wrought more of poetry and ro-
mance into the fabric of Florida's history
than have been wrought in all the subse-
L t_:.. .
THE National Pomological Association
will meet in Ocala, Feb. 20th to 22d, and
'- hold their sessions in the Exposition build-
ing. Men from all sections, representing
all fruit producing latitudes; men of
science, and editors representing Pomo-
logical interests will be present. It will be
the most interesting meeting of men, that
are leaders in their particular vocation,
ever held in the United States.
THE late lamented Prof. Richard A.
oF:' Ho'utged Florida's climate un-
equalled in every respect, and intenfided
making his home here for years; and he
-- would have been alive to-day, but for the
^ fatal and criminal treatment of the New
York Board of Health and their ignorant
diagnosis of his malady.
LAKE, Hernando, Citrus, Pasco, Sumter,
Alac hia, Putnam, Levy, Hillsborough,
Or ige, Osceola, Polk and Marion coun-
i "-liSSfra tiesr represent the principal fruit raising
sections of Florida, and are all placing their
Products on exhibition at the Semi-Tropi-
DON'T fail to visit the Semi-Tropical
Exposition, and then take detours to Silver
5'" i Spring, Blue Spring, Homosassa, Crystal
river, Leesburg, Brooksville, Palatka,
i ,Gainesville, Tarpon Springs, and numer-
IC ous small but delightful winter resorts
adjacent to the location of the Exposition.
iOYSTERS and clams not inferior to those
-.--!-.'. i of the Chesapeake, line the sea coasts,
and the green and loggerhead turtles
swarm along the Gulf shore as nowhere
rIEW, FLA. else, some weighing 800oo to I,ooo pounds
La Noche Triste, when two-thirds of the entire Spar
fell victims to the fury of the Aztecs. Released by
1523, Narvaez returned to Cuba, thence to Spair
1527 he set out upon a voyage of exploration and
quest of the territory between Cape Florida and 1
of Palms. This was attended with disaster; but ii
sailed again, in February, with five vessels and 4!
and landed in April jnst north of Tampa Bay, on
of Florida. It was sixteen years after the disco
De Leon ; and eleven after Cordova had touch
shores, returnIng from his disastrous defeat at
The thle of these first explorers of Florida is sc
After aimless wanderings, beset on all sides by
they at last reachd the Gulf coast again, near th<
St. Marks. There, forging nails and bolts fr<
armor, and making cordage from palmetto fibre at
tails, they built boats and embarked for Panuco
the Gulf, z,200oo miles distant-instead of sailing sc
for Cuba. Panuco had then been colonized some
years. All but four were lost, finally, including
himself. One of the four, Alvar Nufiez Cabeza
tells their story. They wandered for seven years an
Indians of Texas and Arizona, first hearing of the S
in Jalisco. They reached Mexico City in
May, 1536, and Old Spain in 1537 -..
Exceptionally unfortunate seems to have
been this explorer, Narvaez-all his expedi-
tions being attended with disaster, for few...
with either army-that to Florida as wel ^
Mexico-ever lived to tell the tale of tht ,
adventures to their friends, in Cuba or in ti,
And, now, another figure of heroic
stature looms above the unknown army
that marched with such fevered haste into
the depths of the mysterious continent.
The narrative of Cabeza de Vaca, when
he had reached Spain, in 1536, stimulated -
the curiosity and enthusiasm of the host
of adventurers then on the qui vive for -
new fields to conquer.
Florida then, we must remember, was
absolutely a terra incognita-it had no
bounds-they were undefined. Fifty years
later it was not known whether Florida
is bounded on the north by the sea or by
the land." It extended from the River
of Palms, at Panuco (on the Mexican
coast), northward indefinitely: at least to .
France. In a general way, from the. _
Atlantic to the Pacific, from the Gulf of
Mexico to the Frozen Ocean, little was a
- known of this vast region now called |
What wonder, then, that Hernando De
Soto, recently returned from Peru, with
a booty of 180,ooo ducats, and living in
Spain in splendid state, had his imagina-
tion kindled to that degree that he sought
and obtained the privilege of its conquest,
and the title adelantado of Cuba and Florida ?
To be brief: De Soto's command of
about 1,ooo men and 350 horses, left Cuba
May 18th, 1539-and landed on the 25th !
in the Bay of Espiritu Santo- Tampa Bay.
Here live Hirrihigua, an Indian cacique,
in a dwelling on a great artificial mouna
-still standing, an important landmark of |
historical verity. "
Here they found a captive, Juan Ortiz,
a warrior of Narvaez s invasion, who had
been twelve years a prisoner amongst the
Indians. The Indians themselves, without
exception, were Valorous and warlike, never |
desisting from their attacks upon the
strangers through all those long and weary
marches during three years. Their houses
were of poles, thatched with palm leaves ;
the bread they ate was made of maes, as in
the Antilles ; and it is said, the Spaniards pounded tl
ffT troughs of wood, bolted the meal "through the
of mail, and baked the bread in pot-lids as in Cuba."
De Soto had with him the very flower of Spanish ct
not alone hidalgos and veterans of the West Indies,
and South America, but the stock and sinew itself oi
People sold all and followed him to Cuba. One G
(a kinsman of de Vaca) sold his houses, vineyar
corn-lands, besides fourscore and ten acres of
planted with olive trees." Ah! how he must have lai
later, this sacrifice of the venerable olive trees, an
longed for those sunny vineyards of Spain .
I would that we could follow this noble arm]
devious wanderings, through piney woods and
swamp and wilderness. But the space at my dispo
bids more than brief mention of their arrival
disappearance into the wilderness, and the ultimate
their warriors. The coast appeared to them a m
land of Paradise, as described by Veruzain, who <
.he shores in 1527:
"An outstretched country appeared at a little d
from the coast, in beautiful fields and broad plains, c
with immense forests more or less dense, too vari
colors and too delightful and charming in appearance
to be described; adorned with palms, laurel and cypress,
that send forth the sweetest fragrance to the greatest
No single episode in the annals of American history so
savors of the romantic, as this expedition of De Soto !
Those stately forests of pines that cover the western plains
of Florida have witnessed the passage of steel-clad cavaliers;
neathh the wide-spreading oaks, hung with funereal tillandsia,
have galloped the steeds of caballeros in armor, lance atillt,
and shouting the war-cry of Spain. The plodding foot-
soldier, with his cross-bow and arquebus, struggled after
gorgeously-caparisoned horsemen, in vain pursuit of gold;
that last hope of the ill-fated, whose first incentive is glory!
But little gold found they, in Florida. Pearls, to be sure,
in the country of the rich princess of Cofachiqui, they found
in abundance ; fourteen bushels in the sepulchur of her
ancestors. They requited her in the usual manner, keeping
her captive until she escaped ; though she had generously
supplied their every want.
De Soto was a noble and generous caballero-his melan-
choly fate has invested him with a halo that softens his
asperities; as compared with his quondam companion,
1. A WINTER RESIDENCE IN BELLEVIEW, FLA. 2.
- -- p ----
HOTEL BELLEVUE, BELLEV
3. PARK AND LAKELET BELLEVIEW FLA.
Pizzaro, he is an angel of light; but he would hardly pass
as a gentlemen in these enlightened days.
After months of marching, through interminable forests,
De Soto heard that ships were on the coast ready to bear him
back to Cuba. But he had not discovered that object of
his life; no treasure of gold had yet rewarded his search ;
there was no second Cuzco or Aztec capital for him to
plunder; so his soul was sick within him, and he deliber-
ately turned his back upon the ships of Maldonado-
southward on the coast from Mansilla (Mobile)-and marched
north and westward again-to his death. Maldonado long
waited his coming, but was at last obliged to sail sorrow-
fully back to Cuba, with the sad tidings of no tidings to the
Alas that I cannot pause to narrate more in detail, this
wondrous invasion ; tell of the memorable deeds of such
caciques as those of Ocali, Vitachuco, Copachiqui,
Apalachee, Tuscaluza, Mansilla and Chicacilla. It only
remains for us to note that De Soto met the fate he had
marched swiftly to find. We draw the veil across his oaken
coffin, on a day in 1542; when "the discoverer of the
Mississippi slept beneath its waters. He had crossed a
large portion of the continent in search of gold, and found
The International Purchasing Agency," will buy every-
thing for you, often saving distant buyers twenty to thirty
per cent. References. Write, 56 Wall street, New York.
ELLEVIEW was founded in 1884 by the
Ma-rion Land and Improvement Company,'*
which was composed of a party of gentlemen
who were actuated by a desire to open up and
develop a body of land which seemed to
possess all the elements that are necessary to the financial
prosperity, individual happiness and healthfulness of a
The village site is upon an elevated rolling tract of pine
land of more than average fertility, surrounding a beautiful
little lake and situated upon the line of the Florida Rail-
way and Navigation R.R., ii6 miles southwesterly from
Jacksonville, and twelve miles south of Ocala, the thriving
seat of Marion county.
Hotel Bellevue, $2.50 per day, $8 to $12 per week;
table unsurpassed. For information regarding lots, lands,
orange groves, etc., address, Knight & Parkes.
4d CO aColl t Corn e
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Showing How to Reach
/ 0 e Canaveral
.ONVILLE. TO THE
. SEHlIH-TRUOPII0O L
The Counties of Lake, Sumter, Citrus, Pasco, Hernando, Alachua, Levy, Putnam, pills-
borough, Orange, Osceola, Polk, and various other Counties in Middle and Southern Florida will be
represented with exhibits of all kinds of fruits and agricultural products at
Tile Inlelaliooal and Semi-Tropical E posiio.
CLYDE STEAMSHIP CO.,
NEW YORK, CHARLESTON AND FLORIDA LINES.
Steamers are appointed to N For JAKSN ILL L.erTsadirect; NORTH-BOUND. From JAKSONVILLE, FLA., Thursdays and Sundays A. M.
every Friday calling at Charleston. Steamers are appointed From FERNANDINA, f
Sail from Pier 2, East River, For CHARLESTON, C., every Tuesday and Friday. to sail as per schedule inS ys.
N. Y., at 3 p.m., as follows : For FERNANDINA, FLA., every Tuesday, calling at Charleston. local papers. From CHARLESTON, S. C., Mondays, Tuesdays arid Fridays.
Ube fleet is Composeb of the following Elegant Steamers:
"IROQUOIS"(new), Capt. E. Kemble. "CHEROKEE," Capt. B. Doane. "SEMINOLE, Capt. S. C. Platt
"YEMASSEE," Capt. H. A. Bearse. "DELAWARE," Capt. I. K. Chichester.
This is the only line of steamers running through to JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA, without change. For further information, apply to
THEO. G. EGER, Traffic Manager, 35 Broadway, New York.
WM. P. CLYDE & CO., GENERAL AGENTS,
12 South Wharves., Philadelphia, Pa. 35 BBOADWAY, NEW YORK.
FLORIDA SEMI-TROPICAL NEWS.
What can be Raised with Profit
jEmcam BOUT the year 1565 Sir John Hawkins carried
tobacco from Florida to England, and it is
Interesting to note what an important factor
A M tobacco has been in the commerce of the
world. Though an article of luxury, it was
in the early history of Florida looked upon as a convenient
medium of exchange. In 162o, while there was an abund-
ance of tobacco in the colonies, there was a great scarcity
of females. An enterprising trader brought ninety young
women from England to America and exchanged to the
planters at 120 weight of female for 150 pounds of tobacco.
King James issued a proclamation restraining this unlawful
and obnoxious traffic. In 1570, Florida tobacco was first
taken to Holland, and not until 1616 did the colonists of
Virginia begin the planting of tobacco, the seed being
obtained from what was then known as the Spanish
, Prior to the War Florida was celebrated for its tobacco,
which was extensively and successfully cultivated. Re-
cently the industry has been revived under the most favor-
able auspices, and promises to prove even more productive
of wealth than in the past. The eyes of the world are
now attracted to this region, what has again become famous
for the large yield and very superior quality of its tobacco.
The leaf grown here closely resembles, in appearance and
flavor, the finest Havana wrappers, and we challenge any
expert to detect the same, and is confessedly superior to
that grown in any other part of the United States.
Fillers grown from genuine Vuelta Abajo seed, primes,
price one dollar per pound; fine quality, superior to
medium Vuelta Abajo seed, seconds, seventy-five cents per
pound, and will produce from I,ooo to 1,500oo Ibs. per acre.
The following extracts are taken from a'" Report upon the
Cultivation of Tobacco in Florida," issued by Mr. H. R.
Duval, receiver of the Florida Railway & Navigation Co.
It was made by experts, who visited the plantations in person,
and may be relied upon as trustworthy and conservative ,i
We have found tobacco growing on quite a variety of
soil, but mainly on sandy loam, with red clay sub-soil; eight
to ten inches deep; again on sandy loam with no sub-soil;
and in some instances on newly cleared bottom or hummock
land, which seemed to be very rich and required no fertil-
izer. The crop seems to flourish and do well on all thse
soils, but it appears to us that the tobocco grown on te
hummock land is of the best character, while its grow h
is more luxuriant. The country is well watered and,
timbered, and the land very fertile. ulao
The climate of Florida is so favorable to the cultivation
of tobacco that aside from the first or original crop, tw
sucker crops can be raised. This is accomplished by cutting
the stalk off near the ground and leaving a sucker or shot
on the root, which will in a short time grow into a healthy,
well developed stalk, on whith the leaves will be lighter in
weight, but larger and finer than the first crop. This, we
believe, is an advantage enjoyed in no other tobacco-pro-
ducing State in this country, as late springs and early frosts
in the fall render a second or third crop in other sections an
With proper methods of growing and careful, intelligent
curing and sorting, we see no good reason why Florida
should not only regain her former prestige as a tobacco-
producing State, but, indeed, become the leading tobacco
State, for the natural advantages she enjoys, both in climate
and soil, will go far toward giving her tobacco a reputation
in the markets of the world that could scarcely be attained
elsewhere in this country.
Florida tobacco should make a reputation for itself, for
their is a certain flavor and aroma possessed by it that is
both desirable and agreeable, and we think it will find much
favor with the smoker when properly introduced, as the
experiments thus far made in the raising of tobacco leave
no doubt in our minds that the industry can be made a
success, and also assume vast proportions.
The culture of tobacco in Florida is not new ; it is but
the revival of what almost seems to be a lost industry.
But never was there a more favorable time than the present
for its renewal on a large and successful scale."
Corn will yield from 15 to 50 bushels per acre. The
hummock lands may be relied upon to produce from 30o to
Oats are largely planted, and yield from 20 to 6o bushels
Rye does fairly well, and furnishes good grazing and
soiling all during winter.
Sugar cane attains great perfection, and is a valuable
crop. Six hundred gallons per acre have been made, and
yields of from 200oo to 400oo gallons are customary. The
syrup grown is of superior quality, and should command a
good price in market. The cost of cultivation is trifling.
Rice thrives on hummock lands, and yields abundantly.
Field peas thrive almost without care or cultivation.
Cotton, which has always been a staple crop on this
plantation, and which is a desirable market crop, has much
to recommend it. Its cultivation is comparatively cheap and
simple, it is subject to few mishaps, is easily marketed, and
always commands a ready sale at prices liable to but slight
fluctuation. It is grown mainly on pine lands, these seem-
ing to produce a finer staple than the hummocks. The
lands produce from 200oo to 50oo pounds of lint per acre ; well
cultivated they will produce from one to two bales of 450
pounds each. Sea Island cotton is grown to perfection,
and will average 4o0 pounds to the acre.
The orange industry of Florida has excited the attention
and admiration of .the world, and it is yet in its infancy.
Every known variety of the citrus family is grown to per-
fection. The fruit is ripe and ready for market in October,
and the last of the crop is shipped in May. The fruit is
of better quality, and of richer flavor, and of greater
variety than can be produced in any part of the known
# Besides the orange, other members of the citrus family,
viz., the lemon, lime, citron, grape-fruit and shaddock, can
be successfully grown in at least a large portion of the
State. The lime and lemon will be about as widely used as
the orange, though not so at undantly, and as not a tithing
of so many are engaged in growing them, they will, per-
haps, be about as profitable.
The banana is one of the most popular of tropical pro-
ductions. It is generally relished from the first. It belongs
,.Nta-4he family-the p -antain- vich is lanimed to ,be the
richest of all fruits in nutritious matter. It has a number
The pineapple is largely an air plant, and in a suitable
climate will do well, even in a poor soil. Indeed, it may
and will be grown profitably anywhere south of 29 north.
The date-palm, from which is obtained the date of com-
merce, is a somewhat hardier plant than the cocoanut, and
will do well.
The guava, a tree in its size and shape and manner of
growth not unlike the peach tree, does about as well in the
southern counties of Florida as it can anywhere. From
its fruit is made the guava jelly of commerce, so widely and
so favorably known over the world. The full crop ripens
in August and September, but the trees have blossoms and
fruit all the year, and all the year the fruit is ripening.
They grow with less attention than the peach, and some-
times bear the second year from the seed. Cocoanut grows
to perfection on the South Gulf Coast.
The want of space, prevents the description of alligator
pears, Japan plums, peaches, pears, grapes, figs, plums,
pecans, strawberries, melons, blackberries, which thrive
in abundance all over the State. Honey is rapidly
becoming a staple product of Florida, whose climate and
flora seem specially adapted to the propagation of bees.
The Cost of an Orange Grove.
Clearing forthe plow, at $25 peracre, hummockland.$x15o oo
Plowing and subduing the land................... 15 oo
Limeing and staking off for planting............. 17 50
250 orange trees at nursery, three to four years
old, at 50 cents each............ .......... 125 oo
Planting 250 orange trees ....................... 75 oo
Cultivating first year, at $15 per acre ............... 75 oo
Estimated total cost for first year................ .$457 50o
Estimated expense for next three years. 30....... 00 oo
Total probable expense to secure an eight-year old
orange grove............ ....... .. ."\1...... $757 50
Add to this, cost of land, which varies according to
quality and location.
Estimate of Products.
Name of Product. Highest and Lowest
Price per Acre.
Strawberries .. .......a* **** $300 to $800
Peaches, Pears, Grapes...................... 50oo to 6oo
Oranges................................... 7oo to 1500oo
Lemons.................................... 700oo to xs150oo
Limes............. ........................ 800oo to 200ooo
Grape Fruit.... .. ......................... 8oo0 to 1ooo
Egg.. Plants, Tomatoes, Cucumbers, Irish
Potatoes, Sweet Potatoes, Cabbages, Cauli-
flower, Celery........... .............. 150 oto 300oo
White Turnips.-........ ................. loo to 150
Rutabaga .................. ........... 15OtO 200oo
Okra ........ ..... .. .. .. .. .... ... 250 to 4oo
Onions...................... ............... 350to 6oo
Peas...... ...... ............... ... ....... 200 to 300oo
Beans........................ .............. 200oo to 300oo
The above table answers in the most convincing manner
how your time and labor can be profitably employed while
you are waiting for your orange grove to bear. It should
also be stated that while your trees are young and small,
the ground between them can be utilized in the culture*of
various small fruits, or as a truck garden. The cultivation
necessary to raise these crops is also a decided advantage
to the grove of orange trees.
THE main purpose of the International and Semi-Tropical
Exposition is to present to the public unvarnished facts,
and to place on exhibition the resources and products of
Semi-tropical and Tropical Florida, and call attention to a
section of the State formally diverted to other localities.
.CAfiCL tE, s5",- ees, flowers, fruits, the Waters of the sea,
the land, and last and greatest of all else, healthfulness,
invite the immigrant to Florida. The varying character of
these in different portions of Central, Interior and West-
ern Florida allows most tastes to be suited,
Florida has been called the Italy of America, and the
thousands who have breathed its genial, healthy, life-giving
atmosphere will cheerfully testify that it is no misnomer,
and is more than Italy. In summer the heat is tempered
by a Gulf breeze of softness and purity unsurpassed, and
the thermometer seldom reaches 920.
The death-rate of Florida is less than any other State in
the Union. United States Surgeon-General in his report
gives, for Massachusetts, I in 254 ; in New York, I in 473 ;
in Minnesota, I in 755; and in Florida, I in 1.477. The
consumptive death-rate of New York City is 16$. Death
rate during the yellow fever epidemic less than 8%.
FAILURES have been made in Florida, frauds and mis-
representations imposed upon the public, but it is not
Florida's fault. She has the climate, the soil, the resources
to make her what no other State can be. So come to the
Semi-Tropical Exposition at Ocala, and see just what can
be raised on Florida soil. Select your county and go and
see for yourself, after seeing their products at the Exposition.
MOST ATTRACTIVE REGION OF THE GULF COAST OF FLORIDA.
.............................. .......................... /. ...................................................... .................. ........................................................................................-
At Homosassa, the Gulf Terminus, visitors will find rare entertainment at the quaint
Inn by the river side. Good hotel accommodations at all stations on the line.
LITERALLY A HIGHLAND ROUTE, No swamps on any part of the entire line. The lower section winding
among hills to approach the Gulf.
MOST VALUABLE LANDS, covered with virgin forests of choicest timber, and capable of supporting every kind
of agricultural industry, hitherto little known to investors, settlers or tourists, now made easily accessible-only two hours from
Ocala, the central city of the State, to the Gulf coast. The high elevation, the proximity to the warm waters and pure air o
the Gulf, contribute to produce a climate remarkably equable, healthful and delightful.
A VARIEDo AND ENCHANTING TOURIST ROUTE.by the shortest line from the Atlantic to the Gul
is offered in connection with this road, including nearly all -the famous natural attractions of Florida: ST. AUGUSTINE and the
HALIFAX and INDIAN Rivers on the ATLANTIC; the ST. JOHNS River at one of its most characteristic points; the beautiful cit
of PALATKA; the celebrated tour of the OCKLAWAHA and SILVER SPRINGS; the bright City of OCALA in the centre of the rich
high-hammock region, and the great orange groves; the BLUE River-a wonderful series of springs and falling waters ; the high
bluffs of DUNNELLON on the wild WITHLACOOCHEE; the TSALA-APOPKA-a thirty-mile chain of lakes; the transparent waters o
CRYSTAL River; the palm-clad slopes and coral islands of the HOMOSASSA, and the tropical scenery amidst the soft and dream
airs of the Gulf.
This route traverses the Orange Belt and the Sea Island cotton region, and opens the way to the great hunting fields and
immense oyster-beds and fishing grounds of the Gulf coast.
New towns are rapidly rising along the line of this road, and rich lands opened for occupation. Special advantages offered
to settlers whether native or foreign. Every variety of natural aptitude and industrial skill will find here appropriate and ample
FINE, SMOOTH ROAD-BED ; SUPERIOR TRAIN SERVICE.
EXCURSION TICKETS AT REDUCED RATES in connection with all routes from the North can be procured
at all principal points. The Company's Land Grant BONDS, which bear six per cent. interest, and are payable, PRINCIPAL and
INTEREST; in GOLD, may be obtained on such terms as will recommend them as a very desirable investment.
Further particulars can be learned at the offices of the S. S.,O. & G. R.R. Company, at OCALA, Florida, and at 56 Wall
Street, New York City.
FLORIDA SEMI-TROPICAL NEWS.
NOW FIRST BROUGHT INTO
by Rail with all
HOMOSASSA LANDING. NEAR RAILROAD TERMINUS.
Oeala 0 (ulf Railroad.
Connections at Ocala with all Routes, North, East, South and West, by Land and Water.
Only 48 Hours from New York City to the Gulf of Mexico.
FLORIDA SEMI-TROPICAL NEWS.
the two stars which mark the crossbeam only skirt the
horizon, the star marking the, top of the upright being the
only orb of the four making the Cross which is well seen.
In late May, at about the loth, the two bright stars marking
the fore feet of the Centaur are seen above the horizon of
Orange Lake, though not much more than the moon's
diameter above the water-line. And so passing on to June
we find the whole Altar visible in Florida; in July the ill-
named constellation, the Telescope, comes into view, and
in August parts of the Indian and the Peacock, which in the
Northern and Middle States are either wholly invisible, or
-in the case of the Altar only-are seen but in part and
unfavorably, can be well seen from Floridian stations.
Thus passing round the circuit of the star sphere, we find
many important stellar regions and hundreds of interesting
stars, visible from Florida which cannot be seen from the
Northern and Middle, and even from several of the South.
The Wonder of Interior Florida.
THE FAMOUS SILVER SPRING.
HIS remarkable spring is situated near the centre
of Marion county, Florida, five miles east of
Ocala. Its waters are discharged by a short
stream, bearing the same name, which, after
running about six miles, unites with the Ock-
lawaha, a tributary of the St. John's river. The amount of
water discharged is so large that steamers filled with tourists
and barges readily navigate the Silver Spring up to the pool,
or head-spring, where there is a landing for the shipment of
oranges, cotton, sugar and other produce. These steamers
make regular trips between the spring and Palatka on the
St. John's. The commencement of the rainy season changes
from the i5th of June, to the 15th of July.
The waters of the spring begin to rise about the middle
of the season of summer rains, and attain their maximum
height about its termination. The maximum depth of
water in the basin, constituting the head of the spring,
including the crevices from which the waterboils up, is from
sixty to over one hundred feet. The bone-yard," from
which several specimens of mastodon bones have been
taken, is situated two miles below the head spring, it being
a cove or basin measuring twenty-six feet.
The most remarkable and really interesting phenomenon
presented by this spring, is the truly extraordinary trans-
parency of the water-in this respect surpassing anything
hat can be imagined. All of the intrinsic beauties which
vest it, as well as the wonderful optical properties which
pular reports have ascribed to its waters, are directly or
rectly referable to their almost perfect diaphancity.
clear and calm day, after the sun has attained sufficient
de, the view from the side of a small boat floating on
1srface of the water near the centre of the head spring,
is beautiful beyond description, and well calculated to pro-
duce a powerful impression upon the imagination. Every
feature and configuration of the bottom of this gigantic
basin is as distinctly visible as if the water was removed and
the atmosphere substituted in its place. A large portion of
the bottom of this pool is covered with a luxuriant growth
of moss-hke plants or fresh water algae, which attains a
height of three or four feet. The latter are found in the
deepest parts of the basin. Without doubt the development
of so vigorous a vegetation, at such a depth, is attributable
to the large amount of solar light which penetrates these
waters. Some parts are devoid of vegetation. These are
composed of limestone rock and sand, presenting a white
appearance. The water boils up from issues in the lime-
stone ; these crevices being filled with sand and comminuted
lime-stone, indicate the ascending currents of water by the
local milk.white appearance produced by the agitation of
their contents. These observations were made about noon
during the month of December-the sunlight illumining the
sides and bottom of this remarkable pool, brilliantly, as
nothing abstracted the light. The shadows of our little
boat, of our hanging heads and hats, of projecting crags
and logs, of the surrounding forest and the vegetation at
the bottom, were distinctly and sharply defined; while the
constant waving of the slender and delicate moss-like algae,
by means of the currents created by the boiling up of the
water in the centre, and the swimming of the numerous fish
above this miniature subaqueous forest, imparted a living
reality to the scene which can never be forgotten. If we
add to this picture, already sufficiently striking, that objects
beneath the surface of the water, when viewed obliquely,
were fringed with the prismatic hues, we shall cease to be
surprised at the mysterious phenomena with which vivid
imaginations have invested'this enchanting spring, besides
the inaccuracies which have been perpetuated in relation to
the wonderful properties of its waters. On a bright day
the beholder seems to be looking down from some lofty
air-point on a truly fairy scene in the immense basin beneath
him-a scene whose beauty and magical effect is vastly en-
hanced by the chromatic tints with which it is enclosed.
Popular opinion has ascribed to these waters remarkable
magnifying power. In confirmation of this, it is commonly
reported that the New York Herald can be read at the
deepest parts of the pool. It is almost needless to state
that the waters do not possess this magnifying power, that
it is only the large capitals constituting the heading of this
paper that can be read at the bottom, and that the extraor-
dinary transparency of the water is abundantly sufficient to
account for all analogous facts.
THE LEGEND OF SILVER SPRING.
The surroundings are eminently suggestive of Indian
history and legendary lore. It may not be uninteresting
to give to our readers the following: A long time
ago when Okahumkee was king over the tribes of Indians
who roamed and hunted around the southwestern lakes, an
event occurred which filled many hearts with horror. The
king had a daughter named Wenonah, whose rare beauty
was the pride of the old man's life. Wenonah was exceed-
ingly graceful and symmetrical in figure. Her face was of
an olive complexion, tinged with light brown, her skin finely
transparent, exquisitely clear. It was 4asy to see the red
blood beneath the surface, and it often blushed in response
to the impulses of a warm and generous nature. Her eye
was a crystal of the soul-clear and liquid, or flashing and
defiant, according to the mood. But the hair was the glory
of the woman. Dark as the raven's plume, but shot with
gleams of sacred arrows, the large masses, when free, rolled
in tresses of rich abundance. The silken drapery of that
splendid hair fell about her like some crystal cloak dropped
from the cloudlands rare and radiant loom. Wenonah was
in truth a forest belle-an idol of the braves-and many
were the eloquent things said of her by the red men when
they rested at noon, or smoked around the evening fires.
She was a coveted prize, while chiefs and warriors vied with
each other as to who should present the most valu-
able gift, when her hand was sought from the king, her
father. But the daughter had already seen and loved
Chuleotah, the renowned chief of a tribe which dwelt among
the wild groves of Silver Spring, The personal appearance
of Chuleotah, as described by the hieroglyphics of that day,
could be no other than prepossessing. He was arrayed in
a style suitable to the dignity of a chief. Bold, handsome
and well-developed, he was to an Indian maiden the very
ideal of manly vigor. But it was a sad truth that between
the old chief and the young, and their tribes, there had been
a deadly feud. They were enemies. When Okahumkee
learned that Chuleotah had gained the affections of his be-
loved child, he at once declared his purpose of revenge. A
war of passion was soon opened, and carried on without
much regard to international amenities; nor had many
weeks passed away before the noble Chuleotah was slain-
slain, too, by the father of Wenonah.
Dead! Herlover dead Poor Wenonah! Will she return
to her parental lodge, and dwell among her people, while
her father's hand is stained with the drippings of her lover's
scalp ? No; she hurries away to the well-known fountain.
Her hearts there, for it is a favoritespOt and was a tryst-
ing place where herself and Chuleotah met. Its associations
are all made sacred by the memories of the past, while on
the glassy bosom of the spring, the pale ghost of Chuleotah
stands. Yes, my own, my loved one, I come. I will
follow where thou leadest, to the green and flowery land."
Thus spake the will if not the lips of the maiden. It is not
a mere common suicide which she now contemplates, it is
not despair, nor a broken heart, nor the loss of reason ; it
is not because she is sick of the world or tired of life. Her
faith is that by an act of self-immolation she will join her
lover on the spirit-plain, whose far-off strange glory has
now for her such an irresistible attraction.
The red clouds of sunset had passed away from the
Western skies. Gray mists came stealing on, but they soon
melted and disappeared as the stars shone through the airy
blue. The moon came out with more than common brill-
iancy, and her pale light silvered the fountain. All was
still, save the night winds that sighed and moaned through
the lofty pines. Then came Wenonah to the side of the
spring, where, gazing down, she could see on the bottom
the clear, green shells of limestone, sloping into sharp hol-
lows, opening here and there into still profounder depths.
Sixty feet below, on a mass of rock was her bed of death-
easy enough for her, as before she could reach it the spirit
must have fled. The jagged rocks on the floor could, there-
fore, produce no pain in thalbeautiful form. For a moment
she paused on the edge of the spring, then met her palms
above her head, and with a wild leap she fell into the
Down there in the spring are shells finely polished by the
altrition of the waters., They shine with purple and crimson
mingled with white irradiations, as if beams of the aurora,
or clouds of the tropical sunset had been broken or scattered
among them. Now, mark those .long, green filaments of
moss, or fresh-water algse, swaying to and fro to the
motion of the waves; these are the loosened braids of
Wenonah's hair, whose coronet gives us such beautiful
corruscations, sparkling and luminous, like diamonds of the
deep, when in the phosphorescence of night the ocean waves
are tipped with fire. These relics of the devoted Indian
girl are the charm of the Silver Spring. But as to Wenonah
herself-the real woman who could think and feel, with her
affections and memory-she has gone to one of those
enchanted isles far out in the Western seas, where the
maiden and her lover are united, and where both have
found another Silver Spring, amid the rosy bowers of love
NOTE.-Those attending the International and Semi-
Tropical Exposition will have splendid opportunities of
visiting this wonderful Spring, and excursions will be run
daily, as well as to Blue Spring on the south, a sheet of
water quite as beautiful, or Crystal River, and the sports-
man's famous corner, Homosassa.
The Star Skies of Florida.
BY RICHARD A. PROCTOR.
INCE it has become known in Missouri (where
I have resided for several years) that I shall
presently make my home in Florida, and that
I have been heard-in Missouri as well as
down South-to express considerable enthu-
siasm for the advantages which Florida seems to me to
present as a place for astronomical work, I have been
asked by many what these advantages are. "The same
stars are visible,'are they not, in Florida as in other parts
of America? Can you see any other planets there ? or
the sun and moon under different conditions? Will you find
a new field in which to search for comets, or for any other
astronomical objects ?"
Presuming that my first thoughts in proposing to visit
Florida were of a terrestrial, by no means of a celestial
character, having reference rather to climate than comets,
to the avoidance of old catarrhs rather than to the requisi-
tion of new constellations, I may answer the questions
which I have been asked about the skies of Florida more
satisfactorily perhaps in a Florida journal than elsewhere.
Of course the starry heavens, as seen from Florida, do
not very greatly differ from those which can be viewed from
Washington or Philadelphia, or even from New York or
Boston, not very greatly, yet in some considerable degree.,
When I had published my Half Hours with the Stars in
Englarid many copies found their way to America, and
many complaints reached me as to the inadequacy of my
English maps for American skies. Constellations visible
in Boston, for instance, were hot shown at all in my
English Half-Hours; and though no stars visible in Eng-
land fail to show in Boston or New York, my maps showed
some constellations above the horizon of London which
were not at the times indicated visible above the horizon of
cities in the Northern States. Nbw there is something like
the same difference between the skies of Florida and those
of Massachusetts, which exists between the skies of Boston
and those of London. A band of zone of the celestial
sphere, some, ten degree (or twenty sun-breadths) wide, is
visible in the course of the year from Florida which never
rises above the horizon of Massachusetts. It is towards the
South that these Southern constellations are seen, and they
are practically so much added to the star-fields which the
astronomer can survey. For though when Southe.r
are visible in the lower part of the Southern F' ky a
which are never seen in Boston, stars seen the
North in Boston are below the horizon of Fi tj
stars, invisible at the time rise high above the Flo l
horizon at other times. Bat the Southern cordm& M
and partsof constellations I am about to mention 'ittlM-
seen at all in the Northern States; while also man#' i
tant stellar regions which are favorably seen in Fl i|, i
seen very low down, and therefore seen unde. Wi
unfavorable conditions, in Massachusetts. '"' '
Due South at about ten in the evening, of late September,
the constellation of the Crane is seen in Florida, say from
my house (Corona Lodge) at Oaklawn, Orange Lake, of
which part only is above the horizon of New York or Bos-
ton-or say from my house in St. Joseph, the whole con-
stellation being very unfavorably seen from these Northern
stations. A month later the Phoenix at the same hour, has
risen well above the horizon of Orange Lake, but can be
seen only in part and unsatisfactorily from my Missouri
home. A month later yet, that is, towards the end of
November, the bright star Achemar shines low down near
the horizon of Orange Lake, a star which once shone high
in the Southern skies of Egypt and Chaldea, but has now,
owing to the slow reeling of the earth (and therefore the
slow gyration of the star sphere) in the long processional
period of 25,868 years been carried of much nearer the South
Pole that it cannot be seen from any station north of the
31st degree of latitude. Horologium, the clock,is also visible
due south at the season named, with many stars of the
River Eridanus, which here at St. Joseph we never see.
A month later the Sword Fish, Dorodo, shows in the
southern skies of Florida, but is below the horizon of the
Northern and Middle States. The brilliant Canopus, second
only to Virius in splendor, is nearing at this season (late
December) the south point, and well in view from Orange
Lake, but is never seen in Missouri. In January the keel
of the great ship Argo passes late at night athwart the
meridian, hundreds of stars belonging to this rich region
of the heavens being visible in Florida, but unseen in the
the Middle and Northern States. Late at night, in Febru-
ary, there can be seen in Florida, but not in New York or
Boston or St. Joseph, the strangest and most interesting
feature of the sidereal heavens; the broad, dark gap across
.the milky way, separating the two great fan-shaped expan-
sions of the galactic stream where the ancients pictured the
torn sails of the great ship. At ten in the evening of late
March, stars of the important southern constellation, the
Centaur, draw near the southern part of the Floridian sky,
which the inhabitants of the Northern and Middle States
must travel far south to see. In April, at the corresponding
hour, half the Southern Cross can be seen from my home
near Orange Lake, the whole constellation being visible
from the southern parts of the State. No one in the Middle
States may hope to see any part of this constellation with-
out traveling as far south as this point. At Lousville not
a star 8f the Cross can be seen; and even at New Orleans
"The public and a large majority of medical men speak
of Minnesota as possessing a dry an desiccating climate,
and of Jacksonville as having a moist and changeable one-
an atmosphere loaded with moisture.' But three stations
in the former give a mean of 74.5, and Jacksonville 68.8,
or 5-7 in favor of Jacksonville."
To the same author I am indebted for the subjoined table
showing a comparison of the amount of rainfall during the
five months beginning with November, comment upon
which is unnecessary.
RAINFALL IN INCHES AND HUNDREDTHS.
Nice............ ....... 28 5 Iz 4 12 3.o6 1.68 a.89 16.86
Mentone ............... 9 5.34 3.15 1.70 2.i8 4.13 16.50
Nervi ................... 7 6.oo 4.88 4.78 2.33 4.49 23.40
Genoa......... ..... 29 7.61 4.86 4.39 4.27 3.59 24.72
Atlantic City, N. J ..... 5 4.61 3.60 2.76 2.io 3.86 x6.93
Augusta, Ga......... 5 4.56 3 09 3.70 3.64 565 20.64
Kacksonville. Fla ....... 5 302 3 38 2.34 5 14 2.84 x6.62
Key West, Flau.......... 5 2.43 1.33 2. l8 2.22 0.94 9.10
Punta Rassa, Fla....... 5 2.38 0.99 1.69 2.67 1.04 8.77
To illustrate by comparison another of the important
factors of climate-the question of 'temperature, I avail
myself of Dr. Kenworthy's industry and research, and take
the following table exhibiting the mean temperature of
The'tendency to rely upon concentrated foods in the
treatment of disorders of the digestive organs, has grown
with the experience of their beneficial effect; yet in this
enlightened age we are gravely told that the truly scientific
method of managing the derangements of another system
of organs, is to reverse this important principle of treat-
ment. The impaired stomach requires concentrated food,
thus imposing less labor upon, and giving partial rest to,
an enfeebled organ; but the diseased, and probably dis-
organized lung can better recover, say these philosophers,
on attenuated air Therefore, their patients are sent upon
a high mountain," where, because the air is rarefied and
attenuated, a small amount of oxygen is inhaled with each
inspiratory effort, and the feeble heart is stimulated, and
the diseased lungs' movements are hurried, that the de-
mand of the poorly nourished body for oxidized blood may
be satisfied. Instead of the much needed rest, so essential
to inflamed organs, there is overexertion to breathe, and,
therefore, irritation and aggravation of an erstwhile
Granting the truth of Prof. Levis's remark, that "the
ideal winter climate for invalids, embracing perfectly all
the requirements, and suited to the fancy and caprice of
sufferers, may not be found," it is capable of demonstration,
nevertheless, that Florida possesses the essentials in a
higher degree than any country now known.
It is my purpose to show that there is a portion of Florida,
hitherto unknown, which is better adapted for a winter
resorts for invalids, especially those afflicted with weak or
diseased respiratory organs, than any of the popular re-
sorts of this, or any other country. Indeed, even the less
favored localities of Florida will compare favorably with
the resorts in other States or countries.
Perhaps one of the most surprising facts developed by
the study of comparative meteorology, in its bearing upon
climates, is that it proves Florida to have a moderately dry
atmosphere. According to Vivenot's classification, an atmos-
phere with a percentage of humidity between 56 and 70, is
moderately dry. Jacksonville, notwithstanding its unfavor-
able 'location upon the St. John's River, and near the
Atlantic Ocean, has 68 per cent. of relative humidity in its
atmosphere, which brings it within the range of a mod-
erately dry climate; "and this," Prof. Coomes says, "is
much more moist than most of the interior towns."
The following table compiled by Dr. Kenworthy from
the Signal Service Reports, shows that Jacksonville,
in the matter of dryness of air, compares favorably with
the popular resorts in all parts of the world:
It is evident," says Prof. Levis, that in Europe and
in this country mild and warm climates have of recent
years grown in favor as health resorts," and Dr. Kenworthy
declares that "the modern professional view that a temper-
ate, dry, andsunny clime is best adapted to the treatment of a
large proportion of pulmonary diseases, is one of the most
valuable contributions that modern science has made in the
treatment of such diseases." Such being the case, I ask
the reader's careful consideration of the facts I have as
concisely as possible presented, confident that they must
lead the minds of all impartial inquirers to the conclusion
that in Florida are to be found the elements of a climatic
sanitarium in a higher degree than are to be found else-
But Florida is a large State, covering a great extent of
territory, with, of course, varying topographical features,
which, to a certain degree, exert a modifying influence upon
the climate of different localities. During a visit to
Florida," says Prof. Coomes, I was much impressed with
its great advantages as a winter resort for persons suffering
with pulmonary affections, and with the charming features
of its climate and scenery, There is an impression with
many who have never visited this peculiar portion of the
continent, that it is a low, damp country, mostly covered
with water, but the visitor finds instead lands as fair and dry
as those of Kentucky. It is true, that certain localities are
made up of lowlands, interspersed with small lakes, and
sluggish rivers and creeks. The lands of Florida may be
divided into what are known as high pine lands, high ham-
mock lands, loow pine lands, low hammock lands, and
swamp lands. The last named three varieties are to be
scrupulously avoided by consumptives. It is a well-known
fact that there are unhealthy localities in almost every State
of the Union, and Florida is not without them. These we
would expect to find along the St. John's River, and in
marshy districts." The above statements and opinions of
Dr. Coomes, are so true and sensible, that I quote them to
adopt them as my own. He who does not realize that
there are great differences in healthfulness, and suitableness
to the requirements of invalids, in a State with such an
extensive area and varying topographical conditions as
Florida,.is inexcusably ignorant.
It is quite forty years since, as a boy, I made my home
in Florida. Fully three-fourths of that time I have been
actively engaged in the study and practice of medicine-at
Tallahassee, Key West, Fernandina, Jacksonville and Ocala.
It is, my misfortune, or fault, if I have not an intelligent
idea of the topography, diseases, and climate .of the State.
Upon te assumption, if you please, of knowledge derived
from Rtudy, observation and exper-iea must, if possible,
dissua ,e physicians from advise t.r P".ents and invalids
to go to either coast, but esfec'ha'y the Atlantic. The current
of Ild water which, startmrg-4ron the Arctic Ocean and
and passing through Davis's Strait is forced by the gulf
streatn against the Atlantic shore of the North American
Continent to the southern extremity of the peninsula of
FloridA, chills the moisture-laden east wind which prevails on
that coast, and renders it blighting in its effect upon in-
valids. To a large class of cases-those with feeble digestive
and aspirative powers, who consequently make heat slowly
and imperfectly, the Atlantic coast is positively obnoxious.
On the other hand, excess of moisture in the atmosphere
with an elevated temperature is hurtful, because evapora-
tion is retarded, and perspiration, which in a moderately
dry air would escape insensibly, accumulates upon the sur-
face of the body as sweat, increasing discomfort and pro-
ducing lassitude and debility. Besides a high thermal
range, more especially if associated with a moist atmos-
phere, interferes with physical exercise, and in this respect
is injurious. Hence, a climate like that of Nassau or Cuba
is objectionable as a resort for pulmonary invalids." (Prof.
During my residence at Key West, as surgeon of the
Marine-Hospital, I personally experienced the force of Prof.
Levis's objections to the climate of Nassau and Cuba, in
the similar climate of the Key. Like the fabled vampire
bat, that delightful but treacherous climate sucks the life-
blood, whilst the genial trade wind fans and lulls into fan-
cied, .but false security. It is for those reasons that I would
.ise against, s ipg patients, except the small class who
require a warm, moist, sedative climate, to the Gulf coast,
particularly to the southern portion of the peninsula.
A moderately warm, dry, and bracing climate, with
plenty of sunshine, and few sudden and great atmospheric
changes, is especially adapted to consumption in its earlier
stages, to catarrh, chronic bronchitis, chronic pneumonia,
rheumatism, renal diseases, and some cases of asthma. A
warm, moist, and sedative cliniaate is better adapted to cases
of advanced phthisis.
Fifteen years ago (1870) whilst residing in Jacksonville,
my attention was called to the peculiar excellence of the
climate of the central portion of the peninsula, by Prof.
John T. Metcalfe, of New York, who, as a Lieutenant of
the United States Army, on the staff of Gen. Jessup, ac-
quired personal knowledge of the subject during the Semi-
nole war; and he advised me to locate and establish a
sanitarium there. At that time, and fri.more than ten
years after, there being no railroads into the interior, access
was difficult for the robust and impossible for the feeble.
Bearing in mind the advice of Dr. Metcalfe, and having the
impression made by him deepened into conviction by per-
sonal investigation, I came to Ocala four years ago, rail-
roads having meanwhile reached this point..
S R H E considerate and humane, whether physicians
or laymen, must feel a deep interest in the
subject of a climatic sanitarium for invalids
suffering with diseases of the respiratory
organs, for, chiefly, two reasons:
ist. The appalling fatality of these diseases-the deaths
from consumption alone being annually more than double
the ni;mber from any other cause; and,
2d. The failure/of the best directed and most skillful
medical treatment to diminish the fearful mortality.
An appropriate inquiry, just here, is, does the result of
change of climate offer sufficient encouragement to physi-
cians and patient to warrant the former in advising and the
latter in undertaking the inconvenience, labor and expense
involved in the experiment? If the results of the observa-
tions and experience of those who are in situations which
enable them to draw correct conclusions, did not, as they
certainly do, justify a positive affirmative reply, statistics
would suggest such a response as appropriate.
No one can fail to discover the significance, or to appre-
ciate the value of facts like --these: "The mortality from
consumption as compared with all other causes is, in
Maine, 258 to ooo1000 ; Connecticut, 179 ; Pennsylvania, 142;
South Carolina, 9go ; whilst in Florida it is only 58 to ooo1000."
What explanation other than climatic influence can satis-
factorily account for the fact, that, passing from our
extreme Northern States, as we may go southward there is
a constant, rapidly descending ratio of mortality from
pulmonary diseases ?
Yet, striking as these figures are, they do not give full
justice to Florida. Prof. Levis, of Philadelphia, says:
"The low mortality of Florida exists, notwithstanding
the number of Northern invalids who seek too late its
healthy air only to end their days and add to the normally
very low death-rate. The best authority on the subject,
Dr. Kenworthy, of Jacksonville, who has given much
intelligent attention to climate in the cure of consumption,
and to sanitary statistics in general, believes that the
mortality from consumption among the permanent resi-
dents of Florida actually does not exceed 30 to Iooo from
Nor are the results of a comparison of mortality statistics
so favorable to Florida confined to inquiry into the propor-
t--- tion of death in the Atlantic States. From the instructive
.. p.w.pfelet. of Prof. Comes, of Louisville, I take the
following: In Minnesota the deaths from- consumpti"n
are as I to 7.6, from all other causes; California, I to 7.2 ;
Texas, I to 16; Louisiana, I to io ; Arkansas and Alabama,
each, I to 14.2 ; Georgia, I to 15.6; Mississippi, I to 13.2;
and in Florida, i to 17.8." I learned, during a recent visit
there, from an intelligent physician located in the blue
grass region of Kentucky, that in that section, so favored
of God in other respects, the ratio of deaths from consump-
tion is as I to 6 from all other causes.
These imposing facts, established by cold, unimpassioned
"figures, were not manufactured by persons who may be
suspected of being influenced by personal or pecuniary
interest in Florida. They are derived from the National
Census and were arranged by non-residents.
There is, I believe, universal agreement among writers
on the subject, that equability of temperature, comparative"
dryness of air and soil, andlpurity of atmospkhee, are essential
elements of a winter climate for invalids suffering from
diseases of the respiratory organs. There is not such
entire accord upon the question of range of temperature.
Common sense, observation and experience unite in
declaring that, for a large majority of such invalids, the
temperature should be such as to warrant and invite them
to be and remain indefinitely in the open air without dis-
comfort, and to permit its free entrance into their apart-
ments day and night. It is simply impossible to over
estimate the hygienic effect of living, as it were, out of
doors, breathing pure, fresh air, and basking in the genial
light of the sun. An artificial climate with the elements of
warmth and dryness, may be manufactured in every North-
ern home; but there is no substitute for the God-given
pure air and sunlight which invalids can enjoy in Florida
almost every day in winter. "
Consumptives, as a rule, suffer from defective digestion
and assimilation. Nutrition is, therefore, imperfect, and,
as a consequence, the vital powers are depressed. The
heat-generating function, especially; except as the result of
too rapid destructive metamorphosis, is abnormally feeble.
Such invalids are exceedingly sensitive to sudden alterna-
tions of temperature, and to changes in the hygrometric
state of the atmosphere. A sudden fall of temperature, or
a gust of moisture-laden wind, chills and blights them
instantly. Can there be anything more unphilosophical,
not to say cruel, than to send such patients to localities where
the mercury often falls, in a few hours, from 30 to 6o
degrees, and generally hovers in the neighborhood of
zero; or to places where the conducting power of the air
is rapidly increased by moisture-laden winds! In either
case the strain upon the vital powers of an invalid is more
than he can*bear, and he sickens and dies; or lingers and
languishes in the confined, impure atmosphere of a super-
Nervi, Mediterranean ........
Nassau, N. P ...............
Atlantic City, N. J...........
Augusta, Northern Ga.......
Breckenridge, Minn .........
Duluth, Minn ...............
St. Paul, Minn ............
Key West, Fla ...............
Punta Rassa, Fla ..........
Jacksonville, Fla ...........
Aiken, S. C ................
Los Angelos..... .........
resorts in all parts of the world during the five months
commencing with November.
FLORIDA SEMI-TROPICAL, NEWS.
Central and Interior Florida.
AN IDEAL WINTER CLIMATE.
BY DR. GEORGE TROUP MAXWELL, OF J CKSONVILLE.
MEAN RELATIVE HUMIDITY.
per cent per cent per cent per cent per cent
Mentone and Cannes
Nassau, N. P.......
Atlantic City, N1.J...
St. Paul, Minn .......
Punta Rassa, Fla....
Key West, Fl a. .
Augusta, Ga .........
Boston, Mass .........
K. R. STREATFIELD, President. F. H. WooDHOUSE, Secretary. SERGE MALYVAN, Manager.
FLORIDA PRODUCE M'F'G GCO. (Limited), MORRISON, STAPYLTON & CO.,
LEESBURG, LAKE COUNTY, FLA. LEESBURG, LAKE COUNTY, FLA.
OUR SPECIALTIES: A GENERAL BANKING BUSINESS CONDUCTED.
SEMINOLE ORANGE WINE, FRENCH PERFUMERIES, MORTGAGE LOANS
SEMINOLE ORANGE MARMALADE, FLORIDA DENTIFRICE ELIXIR, Negotiated on Bearing Groves and r r
SEMINOLE GOLDEN BITTERS. FLORIDA TOILET VINEGAR, Negotiated on Bearing Groves and Improved Property.
OSCEOLA PERFUME. REAL ESTATE DEPARTMENT.
SPECIAL PRODUCTS :-Malyvan Cordial, Liqueur, Pickles, Vegetables, Tomatoes, etc Our system of avoiding the usual publicity of the Real Estate business, and of privately negotiating sales
Tra n and purchases, gives uscontrol of the choicest properties in the Lake Region. We make a specialty of sound
Trade supplied with price lists upon application Agents wanted in the trade in all investments in Wild Lands and Bearing Groves. W Our responsibility assures to our customers good titles
-- i i s ,e .p ,e oli i e n e tm n s i
cities. Correspondence solicited, and good value. Correspondence solicited. New York Correspondents: Bank of Manhattan Co.
ERNEST YAGER. ARTHUR YAGEk.
~BANK OF LEESBURG. MOTE'S HIATT R & E J SMITH
BANK OF LEESBURG,
YAGER BROS., PROP'RS. AUTOMATIC ORANGE SIZER. Manufacturers and Jobbers.
FRENCH AND AMERICAN CANDIES.
LEESBURG, LAKE COUNTY, FLORIDA. ---D- i
Transact a general banking business. Will size 4oo boxes per day. .
Collections promptly made. . Fruits, Nuts, Cigars and Tobacco.
THE BEST SIZER IN THE WORLD.
S CORRESPONDENTS: PENNY GOODS A SPECIALTY.
HANOVER NATIONAL BANK, New York. Guaranteed to give satisfaction.
NAT'L BANK OF JACKSONVILLE, Florida. No. 7 LEMON STREET, PALATKA, FLA.
LOUISVILLE BANKING CO., Louisville, Ky. 4Double Sizers, 40.oo T A "
Co rrespondente solicited. .. ........ T Hi E I D A Hl O .
Single Sizers, 28.oo
VIRGIL L. HOPSON, W Send for Descriptive Circulars. J ,.
----g-igpsias^ "- No. 15 LEMON STREET, PATATKA, FLA.
REAL ESTATE BROKER, / - THE MOTE AUTOMATIC ORANGE SIZER Co., WHOLESALE
LEESBURG, FLA. LIQUOR DEALER.
Bargains in City and Suburban property, pine and Jug Trade a Specialty. Honest Goods
hammock lands, improved and unimproved young and Honest Prices !
full-bearing Orange Groves, with Lake fronts, a spe- ESTABLISHED IN 1883. Correspondence solicited.
cialty. Selected properties within a radius of from Bar in charge of MR. T. M. RAY.
five to twenty miles of Leesburg, and located among
Lakes Harris, Eustis, Griffin, Panasoffkee, Okahumka,
Apopka, MineolaandMinnehaha. THE OLD AND RELIABLE J. NAT. MOORE,
F.S.A.MAUDE. W.NEVE- REAL ESTATE AGENCY REAL ESTATE BROKER,
MADE'S OPERA HOUSE. OF INSURANCE AGENT.
Correspondence for dates solicited. BENJAMIN F. ADAMS, Loans Negotiated. Office, Main Street.
MADE & NEVE, AT EUSTIS, FLA., LEESBURG AND MONTCLAIR,
FEED, SALE AND LIVERY STABLE Where can be found just what is wanted by all who are seeking FLORIDA.
N. E. Cor. Magnolia and Third Sts., INVESTMENTS, PERMANENT OR WINTER HOMES. UN ION HOTE L,
LEESBURG, FLA. Bearing Groves, Hammock and Pine Lands, improved and unimproved, Town Property for resident or FORIDA
Good single and double teams furnished promptly, business purposes. Our beautiful Lakes and high rolling Lands make the natural beauty of the Great Lake LEESBURG, F- ORA.
Good horses, new and second-hand buggies, whips, Region such, that it is destined to become the most prosperous portion of Florida. J S GIBBONS Proprietor.
etc.,s always in stock. Baggage transferred to all PARTIES SHOWN PROPERTIES FREE OF CHARGE. Rates and .oo p ay. and .oope
parts of the city. PARTIES SHOWN PROPERTIES FREE OF CHARGE. Rates, I2oad3o e ay 8oadS~oe
14 FLORIDA SEMI-TROPICAL NEWS.
Leesburg, Lake County, Florida.
Leesburg occupies the geographical centre of the Florida peninsula and is the financial and trading centre of the richest county in South Florida.
Leesburg stands on an elevated peninsula between Lake Griffin and Lake Harris, daily traversed by steamers, and two of the largest and loveliest bodies of water in the
Leesburg is situated at the intersection of the great railway systems, the Florida Railway & Navigation and the Florida Southern Railway.
Leesburg is within two hours communication by rail or steamer with 24 flourishing towns and villages, all more or less tributary to her.
Leesburg derives her trade from nearly 150 miles of lake and 75 miles of railway territory.
Leesburg has within a three-mile radius, 1,230 acres in orange groves, containing 120,000ooo trees worth a million dollars and producing annually 60,ooo boxes of fruit.
Leesburg precinct (6 miles square) has a population of 3,000 ; the town a population of 1,200.
Leesburg has the State College (brick) of the Florida Conference, M. E. Church, S., and other schools ; 4 churches, 2 brick blocks, 2 banks, 5 hotels, 2 boarding-houses,
2 bakeries and restaurants, 2 first-class newspapers ( The Leesburg Commercial and The Weekly Leesburger) and printing establishment, I large hall, livery stable, ice factory
(making the purest ice in the State); an orange marmalade and jelly factory, bottling works, I large general merchandise store, 6 grocery stores, I hay and grain, 3 drug stores,
2 dry goods, 2 hardware and furniture, I boot and shoe store, 2 jewelry and silverware, 2 fruit stores, a Board of Trade, a steam fire engine and fire company, a military com-
pany, masonic and other lodges.
Leesburg offers to the pleasure seeker the finest orange groves, the most beautiful lake scenery and the best boating and fishing in the State.
During the last six months we have gained another newspaper, new buildings, and have secured for Leesburg the establishment of the Florida Produce M'fg Co., a concern
now busily engaged in the manufacture of orange marmalade and wine, jellies, essences, liquors, perfumes, etc. We have room for many more like it. Its reason for selecting
Leesburg will also induce other manufacturing enterprises to choose the same location. We have drainage schemes on foot, assuring immense results in proportion to expend-
Siture, which we commend to the investigation of capitalists. A railroad has been chartered and needs capital for its construction, to throw its arms around Lakes Harris and
Griffin, passing through and directly connecting all the settlements bordering on their shores. In connection with this delivery railroad it is desired to establish large packing
houses and cold storage warehouses at Leesburg. We want capitalists to examine these and many other opportunities that we can show them. We want the settler, the mer-
chant, the manufacturer, the investor, large and small, to come and see our town and territory. We specially invite the attention of capitalists to this location for a large
hotel. We have five hotels and boarding-houses, and can accommodate large numbers of visitors, but none of them are so constructed or conducted as to be strictly first-class,
with all the luxuries and conveniences demanded by wealthy people.
A Large Lot in the Centre of the Town of Leesburg is Offered Free
to any capitalist who will build such a hotel as we require. Six thousand dollars cash has been refused for the lot. This offer will be liberally adapted to meet the ideas of any
investor. No point in the State can compare with Leesburg as a centre for delightful excursions and beautiful scenery. The few monied men who have found us out are
enriching themselves and us, but we want more to quicken the development of our vast natural resources.
The Secretary of the Board of Trade will cheerfully furnish more detailed information.
0 Z T ET"T S CO TTJ bT'T S"-
Is located between the parallels 28 and 29, on the western side of the peninsula of Florida, about half way between Cedar Keys and Tampa. It is the northern end of wha
was once Hernando County It contains about 22 townships and about 3,0oo00 inhabitants. Its coast is indented with many bays and inlets, and embraces many islands, hence, i
par excellence, the best for oysters, fish and sea-side villas. It is bound on the north and east by the Withlacoochee River. Is noted for its rich hammocks and wild orang
groves. On the eastern side lies the Charla Apopka Lake, 18 miles long, having on the western side of the lake, much rich land peculiarly suitable for the growth of sem
tropical fruits. The great body of the land is high rolling pine land free from miasma. Much of this land is valuable farming land and is covered with the long-leafed pine
It is a new county but already notorious throughout the State and Nation for the push and public spirit of its citizens. At present Mannfield is the county site, but an election
will be held during this year, for the permanent location of the Court House.
1Wannfield Is the Highland town, and will challenge the world for healthfulness. No physician, good school-house and church, no saloon, and a law-abiding people
About equi-distant from Charla Apopka Lake and the Gulf of Mexico. Has mail connections with all parts of the county, and stands a fair chance for the permanent location
Fairtmount. Four miles south-east of Crystal River, good church, two stores, saw mill and a thrifty people, principally Northerners. Three miles from railroad.
Crystal Riverg At the head of river of same name, is eight miles from Gulf coast, noted for the Cedar mills, magnificent springs, fish, oysters and game. It ha
several stores and railroad connections.
Citronelle and Red Level. Noted for excellent farming lands. Railroad runs through them. Self-sustaining population.
Honmosassa, Famous as the ante-bellum home of Senator Yulee. Was once the lair of Tiger Tail, the celebrated Indian chieftain. Ivy covered ruins, wild haimock
springs, river, and abundance of oysters, fish and game, make it the sportman's Paradise. It is the terminus of the Silver Springs, Ocala & Gulf Railroad. Has fine hotel an
Oakdale, On the high land, six miles east from Homosassa ; has store and post-office ; good class of citizens, chiefly from Northern States.
IRosthill and Stage Pond Are in the heart of splendid farming lands, on the central southern boundary.
New Hope Lies on the Withlacoochee River, has much fine hammock and pine land suitable for farming and fruit growing.
Cove Bend Lies between Lake Charla Apopka and the Withlacoochee River, and is one of the finest sections for fruit growing in the State. Many thrifty groves and
Floral City Is far-famed for its Duval Island and magnificent hammocks, and fruit bearing groves. Has a hotel and several stores, church and school-house. Thre
steamboats ply between this place and Panasoffkee down the river and Pemberton Ferry up the river.
Tompkinsville and Hernando Lie on the west side of the Charla Apopka Lake, and has many attractions and advantages for the farmer, merchant or fru
grower. Her lands cannot be excelled anywhere in the State.
Dunnellon. On the Withlacoochee River, and railroad, has much fine land contiguous.
Orleans In the centre embraces magnificent pine lands, and is settled by an educated arid refined people. Will have a railroad soon.
Lecanto Is as near the centre of the county as Orleans and is not surpassed by any section for fine land and hospitable, self-sustaining people, and like several oth
aspirants, sets up good claims for county site.
Altogether, no part of the State presents more advantages that Citrus County. THE CITRUS COUNTY STAR. the official paper of the county, is published at Mannfield, ca
answer all questions.
In 1869 I sold 54,500 acres of Florida lands. My specially
is BARGAINS, in everything. As manager for years of the
Gulf Coast Land Co., Agent for Disston, Railway, Govern-
ment and other lands, also, all kinds of groves, hotels,
city and town property, saw mills, stock ranches, vegetable
and fruit farms and MILLIONS of acres of wild pine, ham-
mock and timber lands adapted to all purposes, from
$1 to $2.50 per acre, and up, I can offer UNEXCELLED
inducements in the various counties, to every class of
investors and settlers. Locations all healthy:
SPECIAL.-Four fPaying Hotels to rent and sell: one 227
rooms; brick; A I chance; furnished.
GREAT BARGAIN.-One 52 rooms; must be sold; waterfront.
GRAND VIEWS.- Three charming town sites; Lake Region,
Gulf Coast and Indian River; all water fronts. Cannot be
dailicated in Florida; 37,595 acres high rolling pine lands,
seven miles Gulf front; half value to close partnership.
2,780 acres A No. I high rolling red clay pine lands at one-
third value; superior location for colony. This is it-129,785
acres, or will divide, numerous highland clear water lakes;
unexcelled for stock, agriculture, and all kinds of semi-
tropical fruits. The grandest chance in Florida for a big
scheme; several town sites and fortunes for many; rice
AN OPPORTUNITY FOR ALL; MAKE A NOTE OF IT.-In
highest Lake Region, Florida; unsurpassed health; sur-
rounded by I8o,ooo best orange trees, farms and cultured
society, good hotels, steamboat and railway transportation:
will sell only ten (Io) 40-acre blocks to different persons (as
an advertisement remember) for $1.75 to $5 per acre-posi-
tively worth $8 to $20 per acre as an investment. I will sell
a portion of my home estate, best mile front on Gulf of
Mexico, in 5-acre blocks to parties who will improve prop-
erty. It is near three depots and first-class hotels between
Tarpon Springs and Sutherland; unexcelled for health,
scenery and pleasure.
State your wants and means in full, and say how much
you will invest and when.
Printed matter free. Taxes paid in every county in Florida.
Write and see what $Ioo to $500 will do. You will be
surprised.* Transportation to all above named properties.
All titles perfect.
Liberal terms to Agents and all who send me buyers.
The reason why I believe in Florida is because I have
covered 34 States as a commercial traveler and know that
Florida has advantages others cannot possess.
Address, 56 Wall ,St., Room 6, New York, Ocala or
HOWARD M. DWYER.
Cable Address : APPLEMAN, NV. Y.
aTaylor &- W-al.lace,
PROI)UOE 00MMISSION MEROBANTS.
ORANGES, LEMONS, PEACHES
\ AND VEGETABLES.
-Southern Products Specialties.-
187 RI.ADE STRbI':T, Nv.EW YORK.
STENCILS FURNISHED ON APPLICATION.
IMPORTERS AND TRADERS NATIONAL BANK.
THE BRADSTREETS COMMERCIAL AGENCY.
L. & H. WILLIAMS & CO., GLASGOW, SCOTLAND.
WILLIAMS, THOMAS & CO., LIVERPOOL, ENGLAND.
J. B. THOMAS, - LONDON, ENGLAND.
Dealers in American F-ruits.
A SPLENDID COMPLEXION.
Will do it.'
ONE DOLLAR. 0 MAILED SECRETLY.
American Manufacturing Co,, 524 Third Ave., New York,
WE had the pleasure of calling on our old friends
AXFLRUIT ROBBERS, TODD,
FLORIDA SEMI-TROPICAL NEWS.
At tha dot hotel accommodations were inferior and in-
ag-Ibea tlheIghout the central portion of peninsular
FkNe k, sad fl that reason I could not consistently with a
asew of dty patrons, and, therefore, would not per-
Ssua#* : to-daomee notwithstanding the great advan-
tages, ke, with liberal hand, has bestowed upon
these Vt&ons. The difficulty no longer exists. There is
Abundant accommodation (the whole section being stud-
ded with elegant hotels and comfortable boarding-houses).
SNow, I feel it to be my duty to call the attention of the
profession and of invalids to the peculiar climatic advan-
tages which this section affords.
Observations made by surgeons of the United States
Army during the Seminole war, at Fort King, now Ocala
(and these facts of meteorology apply as well to all the cen-
tral counties of Florida), show the following facts: Mean
annual temperature is 70, mean winter temperature
58.410, and for five months, beginning with November,
The mean annual rainfall is 40 inches. Of this, 21.69
fall in the three months of summer, and for the five months
beginning with November, the mean is 6.21 inches.
The late Dr. Forry, surgeon of the United States Army,
distinguished as a physician and in natural science, says:
"Whilst on the northern lakes the annual ratio of fair
days is 117, on the coast of Florida it is 250, and at Fort
King it is 309." Can any array of statistics be more im-
Malaria is the subject which enters into the description
of all southern climes, and we unhesitatingly assert that
Florida has been misrepresented in this respect. I speak
from personal observation, experience, and extended in-
quiry, and I assert that the opinion entertained with regard
to the prevalence of malaria during the cold months, is un-
founded." I have quoted the foregoing statements of Dr.
Kenworthy to reinforce them, if it were necessary, by my
own knowledge derived from observation and experience,
running through quite forty years of intimate acquaint-
ance with the sanitary history of Florida. From November
to June, inclusive, a visitor is as safe from attacks of ma-
larial disease in Florida as in the Actirondacks.
Blue Springs and Withlacoochee
HE Blue River (Las Aguas Azul), called the
Wekiwa by the Seminole Indians, but by
natives called Blue Springs, is one of the
grandest streams in the South, and to realize
.... its attractiveness and natural advantages it
must be seen. It is fed entirely by countless springs;,many
of them named and of special and varied attractiveness, and
flows, a broad river from its head, giving a navigable depth
in no place less than four feet, while Alice Spring, situated
in the lovely Tropical Park of Dunnellon, is sixty-three feet
in depth. It is-unaffected by rains, and its waters remain at
all times of the same temperature and crystally clear. The
scenery is indescribably grand. From the Park set apart on
the bluff, there is a magnificent view of the meeting of the
crystal waters of the Wekiwa with the dark waters of the
romantic Withlacoochee, resembling an emerald set in
ebony, blending in harmony with the overhanging flora of
the semi-tropics, in colors, while to the westward, from the
same point of observation, a long and enchanting vista
looks down the Withlacoochee, overshadowed by grand
forest trees draped in long hanging moss resplendent with
the silver and golden sheen of the setting sun. The shores
of this beautiful stream afford delightful homes for the in-
valid, the tourist and pleasure seeker at all seasons. They
differ from other somewhat similarly celebrated and charm-
ing streams of the State, in the respect that the shores and
neighborhood of this are high, and the hil sloping up from
the Blue River, throughout its extent, and rising at some
points to an elevation of perhaps a hundred feet above the
waters, furnish a great number of most desirable, elevated,
fertile, and airy villa sites. Standing on these hills and
looking down into these transparent waters, the angles of
light and vision give to them that peculiar tint of peacock
blue that has given its name to the stream.
You can stand upon the bank of the river, or sit in your
boat, and look down into the colorless water, presenting
the silver sands and the drab, rocky formation of the bot-
tom, with patches of tall, gently waving grasses resembling
wheat, coral plant and ferns, and the herbaceous growths
at depths of from four to sixty-three feet, as plainly to view
as if it were all in a miniature aquarium.
Sitting beneath the shade of the palmettoes, magnolias
and the bay trees, one whiles away the time looking down,
down into the wonders of the deep, beholding the bubbling
springs throwing up columns of comminuted shells, which
spread out and fall to the bottom to again ascend ; grottoes
of rectangular rocks leaning one against the other in fan-
tastic shapes, and caves, out of the darkness of which
countless fish come aid go, and his enthusiasm overpowers
him, and he longs for the ability to translate to canvas the
grandeur of nature's work.
These rivers abound with fish in great variety and num-
bers. The fresh and salt water fish mingle here, the latter
running up from the Gulf to sport and feed in these fine
waters. The bass or Southern trout, the mullet and sheeps-
head and many others are found here and caught with ease,
and their firm, white flesh is delicious food at all seasons.
No. 109 E. JNr~lJNT ST.,
.J. W YORK.
WE USE "' SCATTERGOODS
THOSE. R. TAYLOR.
THOSE. P. WALLACE.
FOR rates to the Exposition consult your nearest ticket
ABANDON snow and sleet, and come to stnny and breezy
FOR valuable information relating to Florida consult
COME to the Exposition and see the products of Semi-
Tropical and Tropical Florida. Come and see the products
of the Sisterhood of Counties.
DR. EDWARD EVERETT HALE, the great preacher and
author, writes personally to the president of the Exposition
that he longs for the bright sunshine of Florida.
DON'T buy property and settle until you have visited the
Semi-Tropical Exposition, and there see the products of
the various counties.
ONLY a short distance from the Semi-Tropical Exposition
to Orange Lake, and see the largest orange groves in the
world and beautiful residences.
LAKE WEIR, only a short distance from the Semi-Tropi-
cal Exposition, the queen of Florida lakes, and where is
located the Chautauqua.
We draw attention to the advertisement of the New
York Purchasing Agency. They are a reliable firm and
will act in good faith.
IT is reasonable to suppose yellow fever will not visit
Florida again for many years and probably never, if we get
a vigilant State Board of Health.
"THE FLORIDA SEMI-TROPICAL NEWS" endeavors to
show no sectional partiality, but to embrace all the scope of
country for which the Exposition is intended.
HIGH rolling hills, beautiful hammocks, natural orange
groves, clear lakes, deep rivers, wonderful springs, prosper-
ous towns, all adjacent to the Exposition.
THE PATHFINDER will give you routes, distances and
all the attractions of Florida. Every tourist and immigrant
should have one.
FLORIDA will become the winter home and sanitarium
of the blooded horse. Next season the Semi-Tropical Ex-
position management will make one of the finest race-
courses in the U. S.
DR. T. STERRY HUNT, the great geologist and physical
philosopher, says the climate of Florida is the finest in the
world. He writes the president of the Exposition that he
will come this winter and remain until late spring.
and found them happy over the New Year.
OUR Friends of Florida'wil DO WELL to'send them con-
signments. Quick sales and prompt returns.
OUR Haytien and Cuban friends will find them way
up in G.
New York is supreme in her fruit trade, and some of our
ablest citizens are engaged in the trade.
GOOD NEW8 TO YOU,
Save expense of journey to New York to purchase what
THE NEW YORK PURCHASING AGENCY,
long established will GUARANTEE you to purchase and ship to
you what you order. STATE FULLY AND EXACTLY
what you want-and what you want to pay-let it be Cloth-
ing, Furniture, Books, Dry Goods, etc. We will save you a
large percentage on market prices. Give us ONE trial. We
will give you A I Bank references here and in Florida.
With order send small remittance. We will send you order
subject to examination and YOUR APPROVAL.
G. M. ANGERINE,
NEW YORK & SOUTHERN PURCHASING AGENCY,
16 FLORIDA SEMI-TROPICAL NEWS.
M. FEIST & CO .,
SAVANNAH, GA., .
Wholesale Grocers and Importers, and Dealers in Wines, Liquors, Segars, Etc.
ALSO PROPRIETORS OF
A2VAx7 AHT 1TT-T A -T-Tr CAIKrL'" Y 'nlvT'7'V
k..J A I X X N6 l)L.k.X-L I k JL JL,,k1XJL J,--, 1.` A=, ,k JL ,L
Tirz Tr A SaGrEIST MIACTCBS AND 0ANnY ThdTANT7FACTORY I3 TW=E
LA (FLA.) OFFICE: SAVANNAH (GA.) OFFICE AND SALESROOMS:
cala House Block. Nos. 138, 140, 142 and 144 Bay Street.
NEW YORK OFFICE:
No. 359 Broadway.
No. 3 O0
S. W. TEAGUE, F. A. TEAGUE"
Lady Lake, Lake Co., Ocala Marion Co.,
S. W. & F. A. TEAGUE,
FLORIDA LANDS:-AND LOANS.
Bargains in Orange Groves/'Wild Lands and Town
property. Loafis negotiated.
AGENTS FOR RAILROAD LANDS.
Large bodies of valuable wild land can be bought
through us for $x.o0 to $2.50 per acre. Taxes paid
_,,_ Correspondence Solicited.
CALL ON y FOR
WATCHES, CLOCKS, JEWELRY,
Silverware and Optical Goods.
tIyN:& WATCH, CLOCK AND JEWELRY RE-
-FRE D. G. B. WEIHE,
S ;OCALA, FLORIDA.
HE BACON & ADAMS ABSTRACT COA, o I
HE BACON & 00. ABSTRACT CO.,
HE JEFFERSON CO. (ALA.) ABSTRACT CO.
of Birmingham. /
RE FLOREN E (ALA.) ABSTRACT CO.
IE DECATUR AND MORGAN COUNTY (ALA.)
ABSTRACT CO. I
Is the Title to your Land Good ? Are you Sure 7?
THE BACON & CO. ABSTRACT CO.
Examines Titles; makes Abstracts; writes Deeds, Mortgages,
Etc. Loans money, Etc.
The oldest Abstract Companies in the South /
OFFICE IN OCALA HOUSE" BLOCK.
The Merchants National Bank of Ocala, Fla.
SUCCESSOR TO THE BANK OF OCALA.
THE OLDEST BANKING INSTITUTION IN MARION COUNTy,
JOHN F. DUNN, President. E. P. DISMUKES, Vice-President. R. B. McCONNELL, Cashier.
Having just moved into our new and elegant Bank building, we are now pre-
pared to guarantee perfect satisfaction to all. Chrome steel burglar-proof money chests
in our fire-proof vaults. Mercantile collections a specialty, and are promptly made, ai id
remitted for on day of payment.
National Park Bank, New York; Maverick National Bank, Boston, Mass.; Equitable National Bank, Cincri-
nati, O.; Louisville Banking Co., Louisville, Ky.; German Savings Institution, St. Louis, Mo.;
Mercapntile Banking Co., Atlanta. Ga.; National Bank of Savannah, Savannah, Ga.
Satisfactory arrangements made for time deposits of large amounts.
PALACE DRUG STORE,
WRIGHT & FRAZIER,
GARY BLOCK, OCALA, FLA.
JOBBERS AND RETAILERS OF
Pure Drugs and Chemicals, Surgical Appliances,
Glass, Paints and Oils.
Stationery, Wall Papers. Fancy and Toilet Waters.
GARDEN AND FIELD SEEDS A SPECIALTY.
Prescriptions in charge of Mr. JAMES B CARLISLE,
well-known in this sections for many years.
GEO. W. BROWN & CO.,
Merchants National Bank Building,
Houses and lots in Ocala. Farms arid groves near
Ocala. Lemon grove tracts on Lake Weir. Large
tracts-of unimproved lands in Marion, Citrus, Sump-
ter, Lake, Hernando and Pasco Counties.
RELIABLE INFORMATION GIVEN
Reference: Merchants National Bank of Ocala.
C. RHINEAUER & BRO.,
DR Y GOODS, CARPETS
The finest retail store in Florida.
S. BENJAMIN. LOUIS FOX.
BENJAMIN & FOX,
General .*. -Merchants,
Opera House Block,
We make a specialty of keeping only first-class
goods in all departments, and are always ready to
meet any competition either in quality or price.
SIGN OF "THE INDIAN PRINCESS,"
MANUFACTURER OF FINE CIGARS,
Wholesale and Retail Dealer in Tobacco
and Smokers' Articles.
Do you want an Orange Grove ?
Do you want nice farms or vegetable
Do you want a large body of fine tim-
bered land ?
Do you want Florida property of any de-
If so, call upon or address,
J. H. LIVINGSTON,
Room 5, Marion Block,
S. R. BIRDSEYE, S. B. HUBBARD,
S. R. BIRDSEYE & CO.,
Wholesale and Retail
HARDWARE AND GROCERIES,
Doors, Sash, Blinds, Paints, Oils and Varnishes,
Stoves, Tinware and Agricultural
THE attention of all visitors is called to
the elegant store of
J. A. ROWELL,
offering the finest grade of SHOES AND
HA TS obtainable in the South, and at
New York prices.
Also a full and complete line of
TRUNKS, VALISES, TOURISTS' BAGS,
For Plans, Specifications, Builders' Quantities and
Estimates, apply to
Architect and Builder,
J. T. -LANCASTER,
Union Block, Opposite Court House,
AGENT AND OWNER
Of large' and valuable tracts of lands for Fruit and
ORANGE GROVES CHEAP.
Send for Catalogue of prices. Map of Marion County
mailed free on application. *
Can place Safe Loans at Ten her cent.
B. A. WEATHERS.
;. W. AGNEW.
E. W. AGNEW
(ESTABLISHED IN 1865,)
CARRY THE LARGEST JOBBING STOCK, AND EFFECT THE
HEAVIEST SALES OF ANY HOUSE IN THE STATE.
The finest and most complete Retail Department to be found in any one
house in the South..
AttornIeand Counsellor -at Law,
N. 38 PARK ROW,
POTTER BU' DING, NE)V YORK.
l8 YEARS ESTABLISHED.
G. S PALMER,
Wholesale Commission Merchant.
SOUTHERN PRODUCE A SPECIALTY.
OCALA NEWS DEPOT,
Opera House Block, Ocala, Fla.,
BOOKS, NEWSPAPERS AND PERIODICALS.
Complete Line of Fashionab te Statione LS
The latest novelties in Fancy Goods.
SOL. BENJAMIN. K. I
BENJAMIN & MARKS,
166 READE STREET,
FLORIDA DENTAL DEPOT,
Merchants National Bank Building,
A FULL LINE OF DENTISTS' MA-
TERIALS, GOLD FOIL, AMALGA- *
MO RUBBERS AND DENTAL
Tooth Powder and Tooth Brushes specialties.
GEO. H. & JNO. C. PERRINE.
DR. H. KNIGHT. THOSE. PARKS.
Belleiiew Land and Loan Agency,
OCALA and BELLEVIEW, MARION CO., FLA.
DESIRABLE BARGAINS IN HAMMOCK LANDS, PINE
LANDS, RAILROAD LANDS, TIMBER LANDS.
Lands 8 1.25 per Acre
AND UPWRDS LAKE FRONTS, ORANGE GROVEI and
VINEYARD SITES, FRUIT AND VEGETABLE FARMS,
YOUNG ORANGE GROVES, BEARING GROVES,
Choice Village Lots, Houses, Hotels, etc.
Also furnished houses and rooms to rent. Assessment of
property Wid payment of taxes attended to. Loans nego-
tiated Aoon ,st-class security. Collection of bills and
ren fty. Lands cleared and orange groves made.
Sp O on given to the care and superintendence of
ora 680% Abstracts of titles made and all business
e ,toF orida lands promptlatteded to. re-
spo4aende solicited.BIGHTAS HO EPAR
ST. NICHOLAS HOTEL,
... -,:::'", "' .;::' Yr. ,., ..., :% ,Y : '.
Consignments Solicited and Returns made promptly.
Stencils and Market Reports furnished on
BANKS AND ESTABLISHED PRODUCE MERCHANTS OF
NEW YORK, PIILADELPHIA, BALTIMORE
The Sanford Florida Journal.
DAILY AND WEEKLY.
W. W, CONDON,
West Side Public Square, OCALA, FLA.
WATCHES, CLOCKS, JEWELRY, SILVER-
WARE AND OPTICAL GOODS.
Repairing in all branches of the Trade.
EDWARDS & STREET,
SANFORD, FLA., *
Publishers and Proprietors of
THE FLORIDA WEEKLY "ARGUS-ALLIANCE,"
"THB SANFORD DAILY MASCOTTE."
Weekly, $1.50 per Annum.
MISCELLANEOUS ADVERTISEMENTS, CASH WITH ORDER.
YEARLY ADVERTISEMENTS, MONTHLY SETTLEMENTS.,
JOB WORK, PROMPT CASH.
Reserve Agent: Anjorters an Traders National Bank, N k.
SNOWDEN & McFARLANE,
First National Bank Block, OCALA, FLORIDA.
Constant supplies of all styles and qualities, in-large
quantities, direct from Northern Manufacturers en-
able us to undersell all competitors. "
E. C. HOOD, Jr. G. A. NASH.
HOOD & NASH,
1M1E^RO 1-ANT S,
DRESS GOODS, SHOES, NOTIONS.
i,, u it rad,,AW~ea -h ecialty.
Millinery in all its branches etails a specialty.
A full line of Staple and Fancy Groceries always in
Stock. Our prices meet all competition. Polite at-
tention to all.
IMPORTERS, GROWERS AND DEALERS IN
Highest Grades of Girden and
ADAPTED TO FLORIDA CULTURE.
Wholesale and Retail.
.0"e A "r. A, ^'.OSRIDA..
Send for Price List.
The First National Bank of Ocala, Fla.
SURPLUS, $7,000.00. DEPOSITS, $15o,ooo.oo.
E. W. AGNEW, Pres. W. Hf. COUCH, Vice-Pres. A. MCINTYRE, Cashier.
One of the Handsomest and Best Equipped Banking Houses in the State.
COLLECTIONS A SPECIALTY.
All business entrusted to us handle promptly and carefully.
All letters acknowledged on day of receipt. Collections invariably remitted on day
of payment. ,
F. J. OWEN,
SOUTH SIDE PUBLIC SQUARE, OCALA, FLA.,
Choice Fruits, Nuts and Confectionery.
Maillard's Chocolate and Fruit Confections, and
Whitman's Philadelphia Candies a Specialty.
Fancy Fruits securelyfacked for shiment to all points.
114 WARREN STREET,
J JW. VERONEE-,
DAME & WILLAMS,
Dealers in Foreign and Domestic
FRUITS AND FRENCH CONFECTIONS.
The only complete Confectionery Store in the City.
Special attention given to packing Fancy Fruits for
A. E. DELOUEST,
STOVES, SH, DOORS AND BLINDS. AGRI-
CULTURAL IMPLEMENTS, CUTLERY,
CARPENTERS' TOOLS, TIN-
WARE ROPE BELTING,
IRON AND STEEL,
MILL AND BUILDERS' SUPPLIES.
J. B. SUTTON & CO.,
8604 PRESS OF THE CILES LITHO. A LIBERTY PRINTING CO., 62 COLLEGE PLACE, NEW YORK.
Fronting BROA D WA Y,-
WASHINGTON PLACE, MERCER ST.,
NEW YORK CITY.
Superior Accommodations for 3oo Guests.
European Plan, $x.oo per Day.
American Plan, $2.50 per Day*
Thoroughly renovated, newly decorated, and ele-
gantly furnished. Location most pleasant and 'desir-,
able in the city for families; also for business and
pleasure parties. Within easy access of all the ferries,
depots, places of amusement and points of interest.
JULIUS A. ROBINSON,
Owner and Manager.
Proprietor-of the Tremont hotel, 663 and 665 Broad-
way, opposite Bond Street, and 23o and 232 Mercer
Street, New York City. Thoroughly overhauled- and
rebuilt in 1887, at a cost of sixty thousand dollars,
making the Tremont the most homelike and comfort-
able hotel in the city. One hundred and fifty new
and richly furnished rooms, at the popular price of
one dollar per day. Cigar Emporium, Oyster and
Lunch Counters, Bar, Restaurant, Cafe and Billiard
Hall, on street floor; Tonsorial Saloon and Bowling
Alleys in basement, and Ladies' and Gentlemen s
Parlor, Reading Room and office on first floor above
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