The Key West citizen
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00048666/00002
 Material Information
Title: The Key West citizen
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 68 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: The Citizen Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Key West Fla
Creation Date: 1913
Frequency: daily (except saturday)[<1958-1995>]
daily[ former <1908-1909>]
daily (except sunday)[ former <1912-1949>]
normalized irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Newspapers -- Key West (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Monroe County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: newspaper   ( marcgt )
newspaper   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Monroe -- Key West
Coordinates: 24.559167 x -81.784031 ( Place of Publication )
Additional Physical Form: Also available on microfilm from the University of Florida and Crest.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began in 1879.
General Note: "Independent Democratic." N.W. Ayer & Son's direct. of newspapers & magazines, 1976.
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 30, no. 129 (Dec. 16, 1908).
Funding: Funded in part by the University of Florida, the Library Services and Technology Assistance granting program of Florida, the State Library and Archives of Florida, and other institutions and individuals.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000358017
oclc - 02701762
notis - ABZ6317
lccn - sn 83016244
System ID: UF00048666:00002
 Related Items
Preceded by: Inter-ocean (Key West, Fla.)

Full Text
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le plear Havapa-=--nduee s'Oered for Other Plants. ,"

,hat that'the mantilfcturer msy operate b ettend4t in the construction, of- biggest' manufacturIg business in after, wetting,.Ibein 'stripped and
ork his fatoy' evdry'-'day in'l dt; year., factory 'buildings, the amblittrlrt -< Keey; "West, i ed his 'piaduct a~ wel. giveti-to the i rasers tl' sam da.
ac- Thereb' afe noi dsye so cold 'or so in governed .by the financial shov-w kndwn and popiliar from dedn to Seloetinf *"i o f th ta*
ere dam' as .to" force thbi closing down in made by thoseproposing to-take o dti. '"" '' '., *, eetg te o e r
of of ka iait with the.cose4quent lots a a'htage of th'eoffer, and' the prP' Throfigholt his "whdfle eef hi0 process8es in t m eanufctui f
ery of -Time,. lsappointm'ent of/ patrons bp of tput of the plants eo as-t-h'a kept'rquality of' pfodut to tte0 cigar. The Atrippers re0H
ing and othei'lls' ttiat cble to ac'ie birn ie. .'. tokX-"'hid hb'tning c6mi ,fVe rf t* arthr-^" the leaf to
ich struggling against conditions over surelyy no community in the coun- chhracterltib bof him( trjp anbad'g "r, er, and the select
Cey which It can eitercise no control. tf offers inhducemen't itd attractive verifsemeht which he onA uses,'4- o tW2'.-:a *" .c g .o.
The labor .supply in Key West is a those which Key West. extends to' ing a large cigar, liglitedamS Iufn" t.leaves accwng .toei
is, good, and any increase in demand .d ers of cigars. In adilti6n to the ing, with above it thde line,* q'tear beaqtttftp t ^ tj and text
rst is .sure to bring additional workers e nomies in manufpLeturilng which Hataila' n '67'" 'a.nd belbw t,' "Clear" '''. th cse of extra fie
ity, 'from Havana and other points in al found here, and the offer of free Havana Yet." *' to color. The le4
as Cuba, so that there never need be a ase. and financial aid in building. Four sons now share the respOnfsi. -then gv en t.o the eigar i
old shortage of hands when the. em- t weo is the fact that the product of ability of his immense budalebs with cordig "to, the sioe and g
nd, ployment is here for them. te ..city already enjoys advertising their father, and he is not'so, active c.gan.hf, ifrrkfs, in. bu.
the The people of the city, knowing t at ,is .nation-wide. No product in in its management E(p formerly, but twe,,fivy-fld and ,' he,is read
p,.t the unrivalled advantages of Key t ie entire country is better known he keeps "tab" on whatever goes on work.
se. West as a cigar manufacturing t' an'is the Key West cigar. The in connection with it;, nd never i
be. point, and appreciating the benefits nupme is a guarantee that it is clear ceases to preach quality. In addi- Ciar le a kigde enoth ri
too that flow to the city having such in- iWavina tobacco, hand-made, and in tion to his big factbry in Key west called a trate foi -ther
dry dustrial plants located here, .have respect of material, workmanship and he has a great warehoiuse i Havana, eye s e" s of t
lo raised a fund to be used in en- general excellence no rival is pro- where imm-ense stores'of ceo are eye e nt, a hSensde of
dai cate la d a, knowlp-dg of
sit couraging new establishments. From Opced' n'this country, kept in stock, read to shipped try so clmBurate at it ral
the this fund, which is in the hands of 14o asset he can have is worth here when needed.-., i H4 in his epo at to a o
us,t commissioners for use in such cases are ,. the manufacturer of cigars citizenship in Florkta,' b t spens e gary re M nina man
re. as commend themselves to their an the right to label the product most of his time in- Hava where fervent shapes a sizes
a judgment, assistance will be extend- $. his factory "Key West Cigars he has a handsoMe hdm6. is for- factdy on wh~ this" a
o, ed to those desiring to locate cigar ade in Key West." It is aguar- tune is estimated at efeninillion written, rangi frm the
to factories in Key ,West. Noit only q dollars or more.W" for 1i thea' makers
te- will eligible sites be furnished free, te of quality, recognized as such A quaint practice of Mr. Htd's is appreces, elve nine do
its b't acaiu mo nt of money willI Smokers everywhere. the making pf .his own "smokes." thousands, to. ngs, for wh.
he When in Key Wes he goes into the cigar kers receive a b d
ith .factory and rolls and wraps the dollars a: thousand. Yet the i In;d
ndel cigars for his. own smoking, and a the. prpceldres,'are practice the
re- Uew occasionally for" 'it~ close f 'iend. same .... all Wics. 2t
is In Havana he goes o the :warehouse. The' ig ld r- lak er ris Pi ki
in .and' there, 'electing. ,:goded Aock,' a keo, ar onge, witch
he .er fully makes tpe.u cigars he f~rom a.flat slab o f *ood a
Swishes. ,incheslonjg, dud and a q'
ib- I .' The lesson of Wis life is that-of so ches wide ,'- -lart
gh -,na lives that.. ahe beeen lived In, ru n e .at one en
g o. this coB*ntry--that uess ts square at .he bottom. The
e... industrious, intellit.et and det.e.Jin- sidee ofth aue is cat in..
afwed to ror fr 1 l Surthe ickr ihnh '
its to .... .. ed effort, regardlo ofo early'sur- portion iemo4 .ed, le Lnvi~ a Totk
h,.up rounding and tlb. aedMsoouragement. the. lower Rtart ad aanOt g. i" ip
a ,t of youth. on the rspart. O. is 1, or t
M ge Wedge-shW part, "is 'a i r b
de -i t iTTh *e r o w1h the len h gth -o 0 1ip .. l l
is- .gauged... I 'hi centdf o
ms a hard- rblber ring l.
ut h. the.cigar 'tgo thr
st, fitting. it Vgl ej.e
of too loose. ',
T ... Mn, "Inpdtat. Pscsses broad. -Lt :i. and.
S: assed] efe Bei-.,- eady to trims his w a n
The filler- ea htphi u .ee
piece, the larger pieces beingplad .
of :To the woodr of the Goddess e on the outside to make thgQ bigd o
lie Nicotine, uninitiated in the various which is wrapped, rmou thpi sma- .
t -1rpcesses required to produce the er pieces inside. Each piece OE tlp.."
et perfect, cigar, a cigar Is, simply a filler proper must be careft..r
he : bunch of tobacco, so put together placed, so as to carry out the shape
as to produce smoke when placed in of the .cigar being made. These
m the mouth; lighted, and a current of wrapper i1 laid .smooth on the
,.t air drawn through from the. lighted board, the bottom side -of thelAeaf
:o en-d to the unlighted end. He en- uppermost, and. the filler rolled In,
s. joys the 'smoke, without a thought the rolling alwgye starting from the
te of the careful and laborious work free end of th0 leaf, and finishing
ir that. has been expended upon it. at the Atalk end. Each wrapper.let
e- [. The details of the making of a make o wrappers, and the part on&
h good cigar are many, and the pro- eithe Ide of the stem must be
u cesss varies in 'many instances, de- rolle'-,.ccording to rule; bottom
re pending principally on the nature-of side uppermost. As this. halls for
Sthe leaf, and the climatic conditions rolling half the cigars from .let
existing in the section of the coun- to right and half from right to left,
_- try in which the cigar is made. As using the left hand foV one and the
n this article is to deal solely with right hand for the other, cigar
e the, manufacture of cigars in Key makers, as far as'theri art is cou--
West,, it will detail the process fol- cerned, are ambidextrous.
s lowed byone of the largest ard mot After'the day'p work is finished
important factories, in this city.: the cigars' are tied in bundles of
': The cutting-of-the leaf in Cuba, fifty, aind ,are gathered xip, placed
s drying in the-,.bArpes, Imakinyg into in trays and carried into the picking
b. bunches, then' inth manojas, and rooms, where Ithey are classified ac-
-1 filially .ito bales, constitute the -re- cording to shades;'f red And green
liminhry steps before the leaf goe. by the 'pickers, fnitthen go to tha
:1 into the hands of the manufacturer. packers to be packed -in boxd s of
This art-icle will begin, therefore,, 2- and 13s, called 80ths, 25s, cag-
SEDUARDO H. GATO, SR. with the leaf after it reaches Key ','.0ths, 50s, ,called O20ths, and,
"West.100s, c"- Ied10ths, "The pickers and
Two entirely different modeg of packers ale among ithe most skill
....sWyoBPe De procedure a re -followed in,. the .pro- fi ofsa en employed abt t h
m d m o a Ite a flaided in Key West, n but did not paration oft n the filleasth wra fa d ,, t .here. ar ,ardo aw.for

SHIndust G. +s re__ ut in his native tongue, aDart. The bunches are then dipped about seventy-two different lt""

t To body within hearing itd n aRwter bath,-and after beti.ng or shades;..but sometimes these ,l
title Cu o g anish. A man at work idwed to become- wet, are set it to 140 in.the same number T,.
hoy of eight who wrapped his en beard and replied that a trough, stem blitts dawn, covered picker separatt8 the` into as many
earthly possessions in a handker was immediately e.- with cloths, usually burlap, and al- lots as he ean distfis-lsh shades,
and,. walking from Santiago de ll r. ato to show hithe lowed to remain for from 10 to 12 and then the packer, when he goep
Vegas to Havana, launched hims no th station hours, solhaimes legs. After stay- to put them in boxes. divides then
.upon a business career in Which J. M_ in New York',, Mr. Ga! F ta' tratt 8. StidEe length lato layers a atI eloaar Oerea-
he has amassed mlfltons of dollaa.-, to work for other people, up. hpee, bre .'y abouftc o.n Ag. a .. '.
Eduardbo ato was .r.. at e tasan a.king blgars on his ow o ..o -b
.Santi~ago de ..as -.yegals :in 184, .r44Aet. After making a few but ti' tf ttl stem 'from .
atedi"Bhan but ~eidh t 'years, 'of .i l d prt .,out to sell the. t "th1ealtpl ng U olayinTgthe "n
-.wdbtied "from the..~g of-. a 'J"d, .e :tl:I .with grse sh n -llins th ohps
-.ltC;4nWA4a, :o a &#, of eh' g# 'C

The mannufactre of cigars in Key use of their distinctive nare tl
West was bega'," so far as can be" they employed a firm of New Yo
,acer el, i 1,. ,, Wllltam H. lawyers to prosecute the manuf
~ ,L .o,.ear~ ed, factory here turers in other localities who w
; e. t.- t m ,.^ t advertisW- guilty of the fraud. A number
", *Sa ., a.. e; Key Wei;,ptlits. were instituted and in .ev
Gohette.i It #W~i A pee .t., for.use i cas that. went to trial a restraint
iatoryi, .e mgnpopt"'the very orcer. was, ipsued enjoining su
best ..bado .UBQm H.Yvapa." M]. fraudulent ueqi;of the name of K
S.Wa i's. tacty. ,wag situWted on FPro West
street between. -,Duyval ,and .PRitr .;.Polsibly no otAer plan grown
'a~trish, and Remplqyed 41ly or more from the time it puts forth, its fi
'worhiamen! J It was destroyed by fire tiny leaflet to its. arrival at maturi
"n rt ',, so, sensitive to climatic conditions
In&887? !and ,1,838 Estava &.Wil- is, tobacco. A little too much co
*)iams -had a factory in which a dozen cuts the young plant 'to the groul
6'r' twenty' =aen. were employed. They and the slightest' frost. before t
.hipgped their output to ew York, matured plant is gathered and p
but :the lbats, which furnished the under cover renders it unfit for u
only means 6of transportation at Too much .rain causes the leaf to
h:a,,. t day ran -so irregularly that *.heir come too dry, and makes it t
biufsitess was seriously handicapped, brittle to work well. Too much d
aJd, giever .did much good. weather during the growing peri
'.'rh k A T -fBrothbrs, probably be- renders tbe;leaf gummy and makes
gaji.the business of cigar making in very slow in maturing. After t
'1834 and .carried it on for a num- crop is ta'ten from the field it mu
ber of years. Od'et Phillippe and be handled with the greatest ca
Shubael Brown engaged' in the busi- It will absorb moisture like
nes in the thirties, employing .halt sponge, and in a climate that is t
a dozen er .o ,men. Others wbo raa damp artificial heat must be used
cigar ifantoties in the early -days dry itout, a process that is very i
were Franocisco Sintas, Manuel trimental to its appearance and
Farino. and E.. 0. Gwynn, amnd a taste. i'f the climate is too dry t
grapsson of the last -named is a tobaccoo must .be moistened wi
.nmember- of- the firm f Gwynn. water to render it workable, a
Strauss & 'Co., now ,enga-ged in the waters stains it, and if the leaf
business .n ,this' city. mains too long wet or much water
'.'..The .early factories were all quit needed, makes it less. attractive
..small, and, the manufacture of appearance and detracts from t
Scigars in-.'iey West really never as- quality of the cigar when lighted.
s. smed: 'eportions''-.'C very great im- Climttic conditions here seem a
portnce. until' after'.1868, when the solutely ideal for handling hir
.breaking. out of a rebellion in Cuba grade tobacco to the best advantage
drov4-a' lo.zge.number of people fror, The location of the city betwe
thtat..slanild o..this-city. In, -1869 ocean and gulf seems to cause i
V icemie Mairinez Ybor,. a wealthy atmosphere to carry just the rig
SSp'anis nesiident, of -Cuba, anid a amount~ of moisture, which is ke
large maBniUfacturer cigars in Ha- from being too much by the bree
vaua, fearima ety of his that continuValy blows 'from one si
property, mo ss to this or tih.. orhe A city situated on an
Sarr_ frse -ye, free from fog seet
to.res. EL' w ., thewel A -ro t.ological anomaly, b
ae f 14t, alicht f' -. re.ae
ehts to,e u- r u- t
,c ,
Ne T- L"

:,Soon:after rthe ,ib ly a att r o using c~t
-firm .di gepiden Py of e hplo ing competent labor, or.'
Brought .tneiT. f RS'tosa the two combined. These must, '
Espano a,. 2. r came from course, enter into it, ams must th
.New York -E. Ml. Gato, who began prolier climatic conditions, as ou
here in 1874 tlhe manufacture of the libed -above. When the three mep
E. H .Gato line of clear 'Havana in-combination the good cigar is th
cigars, 'now one.,of the most widely 'result.
kniwn and popular in the country, The HLavana manufacturers clain
and well knowm from coast 1o that they have the most perfe,
coast. Came also George W. Nic.hols. climate in the world in which t
the Ferdinand Hirsch Company, manufacture clear Havana cigar
t the 'Cortez Cigar Company, the Ha- The Key West people point t tfh
yana-Ant-lean Comapany and Ray map, 'which shows how near he
Lopez Ca'. town lies to Havana, and to the,-r
S When the great fine of 1886 liad ports o the weather bureau, whie
.- swept Key Weest and laid many .-4 sho that in temperature and hu
her best business institutions in midity Key West and Havana ar
ashes committee's came from Tampa almost identical. The difference i
and persuaded some of the cigar temperature between the two place
manufacturers to go to their city is practi'ca~ly nothing, and the dif
and establish themselves, rather ference between the cigars made i
than rebuild here. This was the be- the two cities from the same grad
ginning of Tampa's competition with f tobacco is indistinguishable.
this city as a cigar 'making center, The climate of Key West is. a
Anr unfortunate strike in 1894 equable as can be fund anywhere
caused the removal of other factories iu the world. There are no sudde
from Key West to Tampa, and the-e and ( eve\re .changes F.rost ha
removals were "'played up" in th" never been known on the islauJ
newspapers of the country so efftec- Artificial heat never has to be calle,
timely that the impression was crei- into requi-ition in handling' tobacco
ed that' the business had been p"rac- a fact that tells muchi to the msa:
tically abandoned here. While' this who knows the ciger making busi
was by no means true, and while ness. The cigar wrapper here mair.
the Tampa hegira still left here the tains its quality Tor a long time. .A
largest factories that had ever been leaf will lie'for weeks about the of
here, and fifty.or more smal.Pr opes, fiee of o-ne of the factories, subjec
the output was very considerably to ever' change of temperature asd
diminiShed for a number of years, meteorological condition that com"
A' 1890 Key West. had manufactured and not deteriorate in the leas;
.100,000,000 cigars, but after the Factories in this cit3' are now work
big strike, the number fell far below ing tobacco of the 1910' crop intc
...- at for many year'S, an.,it was nuot as good cigars as could have been
utiil 1911 that the 100,000,000 made of it at any time. It is a fart
nmfark, w-as again reached. | well recognized in the trade, that
There_ 'was one thing, .however, a given amount of tobacco will yield
That' the removal of factories and Ifrom 10 to 20 per cent. more wrap
bthe'takifig ,avry of fitact ry workers' p'ets in Key WesP than in any other
froi KeyT Wept have not been .able' plce in the United States. As the
.;aiWeo Itsh;' and tha 'is Ybb this wrpper is the portion of the cigar
cf' i.lT] 'd-iseiton.:aa- tI^ maker, th,t tests the cohesiveness of the
i"~e.. b'.: .grrd ij' I ';r Hacvanai feaf.: the prodetdion of wrappers is




'lr(imeasaire of value applied to a
Wfei& of tobaec : -....
"'The' '' fwfence i-t thb tariff
duties'-on, the leaf tobafco "a&,-te
fiulshed s-,i-steArt*Pf to- ass
statute aoii ,c,twid iae mardd




he 8ttIablshiifrnt, here of factor-
o' work .Tp. Cvueaap ftlelpo,.Witi-
iuf' conditit i 'bei h Identical'
'thA, 'in if avanda; and with% the
a Oentfatl in' hil favtor..- the
W,st! matal4lctiura- is*-gasren ..tn.
.idh :rAov r O )it .Hevana coU.n
sih t haaiBer',' z ai rto.ipaples.
di &4&btigbe pobsesses"olfeb hla
i y in tr th s-1 'B^attrap Wh*
8, 'cear kiv .i'igatdre
P I[;-^ batt rM%aUty.'. at
ing a gre-ater output irom the
i amount of raw material, be-
i..of the' gtr~ter facility ,wkh
k tot~eeo..eba 'o a c ured in Key,
-f.tia i- "ie farther north,
dbB t t e' ieolaer;
^ t.floft41ti

^Kte]rea MrMUTAwWrEW7 h d .. I .
t6ryj1i.vhere he dfid such work .as a
,anall -boy could do: He was .bio t*,
-tll, induateious, ambiUr6o'rs.',"*co* [t ?i
not read or write, but he bodtght-I t
priina- and within the -,helM of- ta; iai
AfidAfds/'and in !tOub6 tMre a e, rWWN
v3elld find- after' holre; yf' dilitgeit I
etudayiacquiredteOW viAtmeditaid jl Ing
aaiepttea -, '''.: 1 ?-- .'fttf~ri .

nesm more thoroughly. than it it
possible for most men to lern ft
and, having saved some money froaM'
his wages, he determined to oome tol
the United States ar~in al advat
trf the ULMr_"Wt&8e8 h
* 'ai e c U" W .' "*""--,' W "L


rayed in these he would
.,gxea of oiga6rs nder-Us
- sti torl, to 'eM cuea

- ijlp i.14 a..
-rth, fland re at

a41 4bea4dI ht
Ydrk city, jp
.p. a v'trtiethaC

t nca a8 center
e of high gries
t "and r. Gatq,
sdvantae:, ,oed hi&
W6- aeeded froia
"_~~~~' Now 16 low,+~-djd
row~~bP~~ btl

, **,"; .=. .
: :.',
'. '.'i.. ;

' .-
l .. .? .;*

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r "- ' -
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9 : *- -* "! "" ." '- i' e -,

le, and Meteorological Condilons~, Identical Wi Those of Havana, RenderThis City alTob
r, imac a Meolgia Conitins :ade r'', s Ci

Place For te LocaI on olfFactories.

Leal elds Large Proportion of Wrappers Here Than Elsewhere in th United States, Making Greater Profit for, the Manufacturer-- ry

Sof the Business and Some of the Factories That Hae ilt Up Key Wests reputation as the Home
'L olteFcoisT a*t 's repu a on as teHm


*^. ;;.^ ,. of th
i f o h

throifffa chu-ts to,^- elgar mahtoc JdX
The Irapper Iii-ea a r" W d
subjated to the swoati g t~
bedin of eacfhb ae 4testurw* =w ti!,
Oreko l ,jd to ,a*ttan
9antgod UiroaMi to<3{
-an :. ,- .' ,:


oy of the Building qf the Plant

5o It Makes the'Fluid Fuel




": Ci \,

''f ~I~~


- ~:

^'.:.. ,- .,

pany is the Key West Gas Co 9oj 1 h
Employees' Association. r- t
ganiza-tion, composed of alt,'h C m- l
.any',s employees, exists f wl-1 t
specific purposes. First, 'to I to4 :
| e-her so that the various itnn ca511
| be:onle acrquainuted and eX(4n E I
. lANT ideas an experiences with-Iac
other. Secon., for the purpose
adopting and carrying out mjaIha.
for cL-rdial relation' with (oni1 erls
i.,- A.Nsoiiation meets fortuigi'htly.
That Ci .i;e dolra intnt. thought of all dcs'u.-.-
.-,:i3 i.- good &ervi,:e to tle C00-
6.;Ln-%e'. Various gas alpliancte '3. '
d :'11 ..,_.. '. _,t. -: i. ,..",ticize( th v,!,i, :
ml l '; ;, p -.-i !)l iL it3 _.1 1 .l couii i,
,-::"; ounddi .
The nirst eig hteen imo:.: .
operation have. been spent in Icati-
ing the people as to the uses oe gas
aui how to make the best use rf it )
t and The Coiny now entering upLn ..
Ine year. does so with 'vel:;ty a-
T iha t su -anlce that it v-ill eclipse all--pro- ..
That vius records, for thIe people'liaFv.,i

has an aroma that might be likened
o a flower garden by someone in
ove with the.weed, but simply that
tobacco was grown in a private-
garden in Spain by the wealthy meni
.ho looked upon it-as a very rart- A IT VA
and valuable plant.
"\When tobt:co was first brought o I
Spain from its native land, Amer-
i:a, and the Spaniards really un-
derstooid its value for smoking, the

pSiante ill C'h, it tli'After Many Vicissiltu
I ,,)A -.s. Every Spani.'h 1.' A tee haS
p L:,ivat.,- garden, for r -,,-v_-6table-..
t1nd t ing he City Excellei
ro be able to import you~r own to-
baj.-co seeds or plants and grow your and Sira Rail
own tobacco and make it into roll s
for smoking was the height ot ari-,-
tocracy in those early days. and a,
Spaniard of high class entertainii.g
" friend would, upon offering hi as Thoroughly M o
Ssinmoke, say. with pardonable prile,i Has lorougl Jo
"Es 4e mnii cigarral." which meaus fo
It is from my garden." In thi n and Equipment for
manner was the guest assured that
it was newly cured, clean tobacco, to=date== Car Line S
and prized the smoke accordingly.
But the foreigners, through some .ll T
wiellde .-hearing Well .t
I2eits always speaking d'bohat -.
smokes they gave as "Es de. mi cig-
arral." got to believe that the word modern uni- uni
"cigarral" was Spanish for "tobacco, ial life with which Key West is as- use
and in time they began "to use this cpal ie with hh Key cest is asthe use
word, shortening it to "c garro, i" well supplied as any city
meaning a roll of tobacco for smok-'country is electricity for light and the
ing And from igarom "ligarro" to power, and its usualattendant, an b t
d a r" was a implo evolur electric railway system that reaches ly
orn, so to thicigar was day e call t into all its principal sections. For cur]
stion, so to this day we cal to e many years companies and cor- hav
smoothly rolled leaves of tobacco portions attempted to furnish Key tior
"cigars." I West with a modern lighting, power bee
But there is a stranger thing tham and street railway system, and are
this back of the word "cigar." That.various franchises were granted, size
is the meaning, originally, of the,only to be forfeited for nonx'ulfill- sud
Spanish word "cigarral." "Cigar- ment, or to bring loss to those I
ral" means "grasshopper," and be- holding them, because of misman- the
cause in Spain the grasshoppers al- agement. It is unnecessary to go eng
ways gathered in large quantities in into the history of these, because boil
the gardens and chirped the loudest they have nothing to do with the is (
there, the little house gardens were present fact that Key West has the eng
called by the Spaniards '"cigarral.'", electric current for light and power, pow
or places where the grasshopper are and that the company which fur- tho
thickeEt. So that today our word dishes it also operates an excellent lati
*'cigar" is derived from "garden, "' street railway system. rest
which was, in turn, derived from' The Key West Electric Company. Th(
-"grasshopper." which weathered the storms that two
overwhelmed others, finally became tha
owner of all the existing franchises pha
which had been granted by the city, dirn
and is now the only -concern manu- 300
Sfacturing electricity for commercial I
purposes, and is likewise the ownr sen
and operator of the street railway'tha
system. For several years after for
Are Coolst and hie it had aCquired the property of itz ser
Are Coolest a nd h/ last competitor and was the only the
'electric concern doing business iu% of'
the Entire Country. the city, the Key West Electric con
UK, UIIK WUU company met with many difficulties, con
owing to lack of money, and it was per
not until the stock of the company dou
was taken over by the Stone & ren
perature from day to day. The mean Webster interests that it was able whi
variation of the climatic at Key to fully and adequately meet it3s.; '
West, as shown by records kept for obligations to the public. ThVts por
42 years, is less than two per cenr. change of ownership and manage- tha
The general rule is that proximity ment took place in 1907, since wh'iae con
to the ocean makes for equability of time the company has gone on its me
temperature, and the records kept way, improving and extending its elei
6t;Key West bear it.-Out. Great and ser and aad-increasing its patronae A
st e''-V ft1$. e-in 't aiefartt.re aS without, Let or hIdrz.C-.- -",.-' '
practically unknown here. As is well knowua -g' theo wo rle(
The variation in: -daily average have had to come sto
temperature s 9- aown. b6 the table a me 111 oh

April ...... 74 77 f bhe Key West proper. P with pol
May .......... 77 81 characteristic energy, putting n wh
June . 81 83 2 charge of the various depart ents tte
July .. 83 84 1 men thoroughly competent to haipdlr an
eAirguat ......... 83. 84 1 them, emrplaying skillful enginiers for
September ...... 83 84 1 to make extensions,. and rapidly eve
October ........ 81 88 2 bringing about necessary imprave- cor
November ...... 76 81 6i ments. Soon the lighting service hail abi
December ...... 72 76 4 han hbrnought to sucah a condition as bri


1 ^ liver learned that gas for cooking. lght-
S3 A V rd in Pi, lpes, ing, water heating and industrial
'* purposes, is the most e,'onomiei as 2
-%-1- well aas' the most convenient medium
*T* coming of the Over-Sea Rail- heating qualities, does not possess for them. .
:.wil always be the greatest any. illuminating qualities. This The personnel of the Key r'idt :
ev-ent in. the history of this, ity. Key carbon gas is next admitted into the Gas Cokpany, is as follows: f P
"est's premier ambition,---her Au- carburetoro. Into- the top of the Secker, ipanager, Z5f W. Wl ;>n,G.
sire to become 11kied to the ma n- carburettor oil is sprayed. This oil, Superintendent of DistributionI G.
Sland--4as realized in January, rich .in hydro-carbon's, unites with E. Spelman, Superintendent .of
1012,l;then Henry M. Plagler's rail-. the blue gas and is passed into thd Plant; L. B. Lovell, Chief Salesman;;
-road,- 'Over the Sea,"- 150 miles super-heater or mixing chamber, and H. A. Virceow, Cashier. %1
ong,, .connecting the various corali'where- he* carburetted water gas is
:.;' keys 'by concrete Viaducts, at a 6ost formed. The addition of fuel oil ORIGIN OF WORD "CIGAR,.'?
of nrllions of dollars, was after has given -the gas its illuminating --
.years, of hard labor. completed. qualities. Present Name of the Widely #sBdI
In April, 1911, Messrs. Starr & The gas next enters the wash box "Smoke" Originally Meant. CLas.g
Reed, of Philadelphia, were granted where it is sealed off from the gas hopper.
a filinchise by the City Council for making set. -
the 'establishment. constrictionn' op- The gas is then passed into the Of course every name has itsde- -
eration and maintenance of a gas relief hblder and from the relief rivation. says a writer in the I.ewP
works in the city of Key West. holder it is pulled by the exhauster York America, but some of them,':-t,
Aside from the coming. of' the into the condenser, in which cham- so far from thllr original meaning
Over-Sea Railway, the establishment. bar it is cooled. The gas is now that there is great interest attae ed
of ,the Key West Gas Company has ready to be purified. to the method in which the rd
been-tbhe greatest event in the annals First, by means of the tar ex- was adopted. An example of t is
of the island. Key West had, never tractor, the' tar in the gas is re- to be found in the word "cigar.
before witnessed the execution of a' moved. Next, the gas is passed in Nearly everyone knows !t
contract of such size as...-thl con- and out of the purifier boxes and "cigar" is from the Spanish, bti..
traction of the Key. West Gas. the sulphus is removed. The gas people, probably, .know that the
plant. ". w is now suipposed't0 be purified, andi word "cigar" really means garden4."
SActual operation was be1un au after being 'tested for its purity, It is not because a really good: ei ar
November, 1911, and the work was candle power and- calorific value, is
pushed forward with such rapidity ready for use. It is passed into the
'that in June, 1912, gas wal ready storage -holder and there awaits the T
for distribution. consumers' pleasure.
Owing to the existing 4,imatic
conditions. the construction of the The entire street main systePr of THEPERFEI Ul'
plant is rather unique. fW, refe-r thirty-fl;'e miles is composed aof
you to the semi-exposed bu Ldings nnivt':'s, a-t Iron Pipe. The plat
as illustrated on this page. operates under th, low, pressure
The generator :building is 'f mo- system, carrying a uniform pressure Were the SuIm
..oolithic concrete, indented with of 30" in the mains. This pressure
thirty foot arches, lIu this b ildin, always insures the consumers a
,there is hboused the gas makinIg set, sufficient supply of gas and at.'thi Winters Warme1sl in
.Consisting of a generator, ca buret- same time being low, makes the sys-
,tor, super-heat'er, and was box. t an absolutely safe one.
This set is what is known as 6'-6" The company has installed anrl
eset and is capable of making ,0,000 connected thousands of services. Alli It can be said without fear .)f
'cubic feet of gas per hour. There is of the services and extensions are successful contradiction that K0v
also housed ig, this building .'the run vvith 1-1-4" galvanized pipe. West has the best all-the-year
oilers, feed water, heater, t feed This size pipd insures a proper sup- climate of any city in the Unitell
'?yvater pumps abd weighing a para- .'v.o gas to consumers, whilst the States. In no other are the vari,-
*tis. .P pie, being galvanized, is able to tions of the mercury in winter and
'I Adjoining the generator hous.-,suc(:csfully w~ ithstan4 the peculiar -summer confined to such narroiv
d..- d.- th,eegia l apl-atu soi agd'. lltic conditions. limits as here. DuTring ..the yr
orq Qof.,o&-noWliic concrpto. The Coidifloi'a kh t e 1o1, for instance. the total]'firf,
f,;'-fW.v:i.s building, there.are housed the company operates are indeed unique. tion of the mercury was '. 38
,-teiam engine; blowers, blast lines, It has inaugurated and carried out degrees, the lowest bein 5"S3 and the
highest 191. In New "J l t adr t
PoumpsO, tar pamps; tar extractor, a policy which no other Gas Com- highest 91. In New Y r the va iia-

:' : tion was from 3 t.r -,;3, in Phil,-
de ia ro zero te 95, in Cca
re omfo tab e i- 1h -- ta .
.... breees continually below ing frot
r.. .: .-- greatest variati eri kuo
.;,e-- ni~z1:.. ....-. .... + :i .. ..was but 56i degrees, -*m. 41 to 9&.
_. ^O "While toie peoGulfe of the north ais

L '^ '"' sufferingg frome torri d weather almost
.*i .._*surmer,: the people o f Key e t ai
sre omfor abi e in the warmth thatnd
S. s summer brin gs, tempered by tahi4
.....r'"" "' i tt a breedtes continually blowing froea
.4: a g ... SP Owcean or Gulf. When the north is
.. f; t .... ou d frozen and snow-covered in winter,
"' ..riu?": an \ gKey fWest is enjoying weather almost
S.:.., .pringlike in its warmth and balmi-

ri Ineso. and on g e 5 e
u a i .vital statistics prove th at people

ARE live longer in a mld than in a rige6-
.a-e white_.. ,_)us climate, and the general hea-de h
tre a enge, a pany has "ed o )f the people of Key Weint as oe e-
e Wer a.s po.ant... :t S-t ing with the poast t. oared b ith that of people elsew rhe
Te aprous ra... "r 'u. ".. _ve ann "'ro th idds cumulative force to the pronf.
tonsis..., t ,n .', d' The islanlbl oof Key estat te is situa
oin latitude 24 degrees and 34 mi u-
KEY WE'ST %V-; i1i11-.1. tes north,'and longitude- 81 degrees
and 49 minutes west. It is about 4
1-2 miles in length and I 14 mires
tar wie!l, e: auster engine statloern pany has ever attempted to follow wide. and Its highest point is 11 feet
meter and governor. oat. Starting with the slogan thae;, "above mean tide. The weather
.a.. too thea first one thousand customers, bureau has maintained an ohfleed.ere
rTe various tanks and ihAe we ill give free of all charge, a since 1871, the instruments being
consist of a 250,000 double i'-l' ,uble 'oven',square range." it no[ all that time located wilfiin 200
storage holder, a- 50000 single lift onily fulfilled ita promie, but went yards of the western limits; of the
relief holder. a 200,000 gallon oi1 several -teps"'f0.rther. It has today island. and never more than 50 feet
t.ak, two 1S2-fet purifier boxes and distributed and installed free of al" above the slface of the groaud."So
.a condenser. The surfa'ces are charge 3.500 gas ranges. that the conditions under wfieh:6bh-
.pai;et.d white, which gives the en. The same liberal policy which the servations have been made, were
.tire pJant a pleasing appearance. Company has followed out as regards practically identical during the en-
The plant. is what is termed gaI ranges has also been extended tire period.
-"Qarburetted Water Gas" plant. o gas lights. During the past year These observations show the range
mention of bow gas is mady it.installed over 1,500 gas lights 0t of temperature to be the smalleS
be appropriate. variouss types, ranging from the big shown anywhere in the United
Steam is generated in th boiler- '5-mantle are to the small single States, the limit being, as stated
te his thnadmited into te gen- unit lamp. I above, from 41 to 97 degr.ees.
rather. .In thegenerator there is The Company has also successfully Neither frost, snow nor hail ha er
C a bed of hard coal which has been introduced the gas water heater, gas been seen on the island.
rased to an incandescent heat by iron, and other sundry gas appli- The climatic changes, durinth,
the aid of blast air. The steam ances. Every' appliance sold and in- year 1912 are shown by th-l
pasuidg through the fiery bed-of stalled by the Company is on an inS rable: ,_
pass"unithes:: U.ith the free' ca.on absolute guarantee ,that satisfaction Temperature ear-
o'"tbit deceu'm ed coal, forming will result or no payment is. neces- Highest th i ay
what is known / ".ilue gas." This sary.t Louirville ... 95 g- "- 1i
sgs, although possessing sufficient An important feature of the Cor- Ne" York .-.....93 -$ 11.6
New Orlesas.....,. 98 .. 85
-. -alt Lake City ,.. 94 150
, - hiladelphia .... 95 Zeo
v:ago ..... 95 -18 133
o's Angeles .... 9r 28 1~.
ey Wer ....... 91 53 11 ,
a It will be seen from. this Atable.

* -tc* *a

versal throikhout the city. .The
of electrically driven machinery
alsO'been'greatly increased, and
users of power for driving .any
the heaviest machinery. prattidas-
all make Uise of the company's
rent. The street railway lines
e been put in first class conadi-
i, large and elegant cars have
n put in commission, and there
few cities in the country of, t4
of Key West that can loast of
ti excellent traction service.
'he power station is equipped in
most modern .style. Two steam
ines, fed by a battery of .1ouer
lers whose combined potentialit
600 horsepower, and five Dles4e
gines with a total of 825 h6ree-
rer, are the initial power-makers,
ugh only a portion of this instal-
on is ever used at one time the
t being held' for emergencies.
i electrical equipment consists of
D alternating-current generators
t deliver 550 kilowatts. of 2-
,se current at 2,300 volts, and two
ect-current generators that delv'er
) kilowatts at' 550 volts.
'he energy thus generated is
t through a modern switchboard
t embodies every device- needed
regulation and control, and the
vice wires are copper, insuring
lasting reliability of the deiavery
current. Creosoted poles set in
create carry these wires, thus
ipleting the requirements for a
rmanent establishment. It is
ubtful if a better system for cur-
t distribution can be found any.
That its patrons may have the o0-
rtunity to enjoy all the privileges
t go with uses of electricity,. the
mpan-y maintains a sales depart-
nt whgre practically all know.
ctrica g r~_MPay be sece
rea ",. In additIon
d in ea ion, tkere
ves, e s aond n
dr most ordi



to compare favorably with that to service. Another thing cstaly
be found in any city, pqwer Was impressed upon. employes is tnha
furnished as cheaply as in any city safety is more to be desired than
of like situation, and as reliably as speed, and that this lesson has been.
in any anyw.heire, well learned is evidenced' by 'the
The hurricanes of 1909 and 1910, small proportion. of accidents that '
which destroyed so much property iu have occurred on the company w '
Key West wrought havoc with the lines. That a street car lige is inU
electric installation, and taxed the tended for the convenience of the
recuperative- power of the local force public,\ ard that thk puItke ieB
to the uttermost. But in each case titled to first -consideration always .
installations were soon renewed, is the idea tfiat the Stone & VW
poles were reset, lines restrung, and ster interest have sought to. inertfca
the current from the generators was in their enajloyes-'i Ki West a,
soon again singing along the wires, elsewhere. That it i3i the prewQ
Following the furnishing of good one is proven by tbe friendshIp ea-
service the patronage of the company- isting' between them and the people
rapidly grew, and now the use of of the varibiai cpmimaidties wlbak.
electricity for lighting, is almost they servib*.

In n of' its. rMte.t
lwx any p ursues. a
icy ti e to makte fria#l
erevef :jaugurated--thi t bf
itin'g passengers with -courtesy
d consideration. The necessity
these things is impressed upOn
ery qmploye. when hie Duts an tbL-
mpany's uniform, and cotinue:l
rogation of the rule is certain to
ng dismissal from the companys.

The average daily temperature
tliaoughout the year ranges from 68
to 84 degrees. .
The table below shows tke,average
temperature, rainfall and wind
velaity at Key West, taken from
the records from: 1871 tou 1912 in-
cl iqie:




Wind Vel.

Jan. .. .
Feti. .....
Aprig ....
May ......
June ....
July .....
Aug; ....
SeptL. ....
Oct ....
Nov. ....

"ing this fruit. :.-
There has been considerable *art.
:to, introdiuce "inmpsoiM d v ara," f ;t
,the lime on the main land. The
:trees- ,hatr piveae to be hady, ex-
icellent ftruiter, and some varieties
seedless. yet no market habs been
found for this class, of frult. The
objection i thjf ase of the fruit;
.many of them being the eiae of an.
ocdlharyB iemon.
The greatest demand for limes
comes from theW"cold idink stands," ,
sqida foamtala s and. basu rooms, 'Mi
small jaicy native .ime being of thb
right sire for a drink--Florlda
I1masseeker. ;

"Fresh vegetables are now ecrn
lang into Fort Myers In such quantir
ties and with such regularity. that
the vegetable season may. be de,,
cared officially opened," remarks
the Press. "Although it is yet early,
some large shlpments haye beak
made, which brought fancy 'ioea."
The Press than tells of a shipeat of
twenty-one crates of peppes that
brought the grower $75, another
shipment of pepper, .115 rat% -was
sold for $680. These spldal 'l.-
cldents do not mean that evergyody
raising vegetables sewwres such
splendid returns; bt-t they maus11r.
get something worth whUie, and it-
they' do not raise enough to sern
away there i*..a- dead market s
and hear home.

iat the highest temperature ra Kev
lest7 was lower than that at a .
eir station mentioned, while tha
westet wge much higher than 'thai
Ce any 'p'her. The range bedceu
:he two was less thanI'balf .btt al
ny other. I
Another feature of )ey,'q est'
'tiattes th alm t ao tal -r enc
Yf fogi. In the 380 years froai884
o '1914 there have been but 20/days
*Ien either lightor dense f.ha!
een observed an average of se to
tie year: and a half. And it!ma
e said further, 'that.theae MtAer
11 light, and were bo ay.
a that they wer o

One of.the most ii
' fact-rs for. those wh
perfect is U ".^^ vaiiRJ

Annual Ay. 77 r 38.66; 9 the WeaPt. Hmeisplhere.
Hon.. Smith Thompson, Secretary
COMMOBDORE DAVID PORTER. of the Nav", wrote of Key West in
(Continued from Page-Two) 1822:
"An. enemy with a superior naval
this.e atiof,-and to show the pro--force occupying this position,,coul4
prieb"6 f' augnicating the force by' comnleteld intercept the whole trade
the additions which I.have asked." betweent.nse tarts of our country
Under date or.Novembe 19, 1823, between th se parts of it, and thcountry
Commodore Porter wrote further: lying r.tand east of t, anll our
*"rhe fixing an esttabzhae4n.10kt tc
The mpsonxIng slan edtabr ent.de at s ports within the.Gulf of Mexico. !-I
Thmpson Island or endevos may, therefore, be safely answered
and supplies has had inst happy o o^banch of the inquiryy made
effect t in attaining the oect had in .lution, that f thi lan
.. .. by the resolution, that if this island,
vtew. Its vicinity -to Haiana, placed b ,e^tble of defense, a naval de-'
as it were, in the, tharoughfare ofs sueplhed there wuld afford
...ssels sailing .,through, the gulf, t stability inhed there would afford a
Ski .s it, in mn Y ..ro t-Ug of viewT, treat fdlitY in protecting our comn-
aking It, in many potts of iew, Merce It is believed, however,
object of great itnpertance to the that it issusceptible of defen at
fited States." ,, ense that would be justified by
Under dateof November 24,1823,. n mportance o[ the place; but to
commodore Rdgrs roteform any tolerably satisfactory es-
island:, mate of the amount, an accurate
.."Nature made it the, advance post timurvey and calculation, by compet-
from which to waiteh and guard. our survey and cacu indlnensably ne -
. commerce passing to and from. th ent engineeaS is n p
Mississippi, while at the same time, essar. "
j its pecutlar situation, and.the excel-
1 lence of its harbor, point it out is FLORIDA LIMES.8
the most certain key to he cimmaeree' (Continued from Page Four)
.of Havana, to that of the whole ..
,~ Oulf of Mealeo, and to the returning 'value is taken into considerat-;,,.
J trade of Jamacta; anl I TglnR wn-.'thby rar among the !&eas.' land
S.ture to predict that the first im- in the United States. It is claimed
i portent naval contest in which th e that the Florida Key., with thsir
s country shall be engaged wtll be iu rck bound.surface, produce a muuo
o the neighborhood of thts very is- better lime than can be grown on the
j tand." ., : pinelands on the main latn. Thus
a Commodore -Rodgers' prediction -for no. experiments of couasderable
V was verified in 1898, when Key Wast consequence- have been undeataken
o was the base of the fleet when on the main land. But with the evft
fought the most Important naval an- increasing demand for the fruit, and
1 gagement ever fought in these vouth- the conea.n t high prep matin
ern waters, destroying the- Opbnish, land plantera will be tam .r-to
14 d end n.I's -powr a h&ake careful eGptrlment I .grow-.

=" e


." '* '\ '* '.. ". "" *- .. '' *'*' ^*^' *' -"
'" : ,. 4-, '" _" *

L 1. .. .. .. .^ :: :: .. A 1. .,:.,. :.rK ..*- ..:- ...-s< f ., .. o,.* o .,.: ..'.',,: '1:
., .., .oea. ,. 0 .. "

- Copies of the laanthrar(ry tiw

Inhe. at ,tta"a rbadr'.t
I n &. '. ",*

. I.-'





..N.. and Up-to-date Concern

S. Means Much in the Househo


des Is Now Giv-

It Light, Power

vay Service.

lern Power Plant

Distribution Up=

substantially Con=

.Economy 01 Citizens.


to the city is
fishing is still
industries, an'd
Loney than any)
cigar making.
bout 500 m,:!
.spoiges, and
boats of vari-
fSon'e of these
put in part of
nessi, but iost
means of fLve
eir entire time
nual catch a-p-
As most of
it will be seen
important part
ie city. -There
rs doing busi-
;nt time.
inction of the
bing has bees
xperi'ments in
tificial means,
have been
aces. A great
this line has

~c~ LYIC~r ~4/ 3 ~

''' '
:' C ;

'' '''
r :c3;~f.



lars. It was a good many years also been dofte
belor there wh as a market here fo' fifteen mil
other than th,_: high class sheep;:- this key i
wLcl. and thle "pellow." the "vel as Sugar L
vet." the "grass" and other lowv utilized as
g.radJes were for a long time without Charles \W
bu' el i. r i.1u:'h i mOil"
Key West had a monopoly of the in the eff(
business in this country until the suits in s
early nineties, and the sponge hle hai su
wharves were places of great interest room left
to strangers. There auction sales a large bu
were held each day when the boats sponges-o
brought in their cargoes. The proper for
ponges were strung in bun.ches. an.l paits of th
rlt-hee v"-ere assorted as to kinds an'l Unless
anainged in piles in such manner as planting a
to10 show them off to the best advan- or somethl

"7 dy of water know |
Lo und, which is being H I li I
Sa sponge "farm" by Ui I U I L t 5., ,UU ../_
". (lase. who has spe "
y ind a number of years
ort secure practical I're- I | | I I'/-
pol- propagation. That
avcc- de d there is ,now n M I I II i I I
to oubt, and he is do in g 3 I I u I :
usin ?ss ill shipping "'.seed'
)r whatever name is ----
the product-to various '
-e plan of spoe An Industry Carried On Here That
nd cultivation is adopteia
ing done to protect their A a
Snd th in the n Has No Counterpart Any- i
.e rnges will rapidly be
an~d 'tstly, for the large [r n Th gga d ,
ch s an'd the continue where The W orld.
r o0. tifii'Pi, growing bed *
ed them to -become very '
at y ple nifu.hey were Turtles caught Hundreds. of Miles away are

tlHNG <. Brought Here to Market ---Shipmentsmade

TN S'TR"Y to New York Each Week.

erbetiatedd" by Finding One industry' in Key West that is place on many local tables. The
des. ~:Discovering mean% said to be the only one of its kind richest portions are used for maJking
cial Propogation. in the world is that of catching the popular green turtle soup, im.
i .. --green turtles ahd mkli'ing them into of 'the richesft'ainfSt- ifdeHcToalk of
n thisone-e-ork on Flustry: soup. The concern engaged in this soups known to gastronomy. This
* tlid *ponge industry: peculiar business is the A: Granday soup is put in air tight cans an
mierchantable varieties Canning Oompany, of which Nor-'shiiped to alL sections of the covp-
veeinftasihd n4, both sides berg Thompson is pole proprietor. try, and to foreign countries well
n thgern allgo waters of There are three varieties of. ur- being esteemed a great delicacy by
indthe Ten Thousand Is- ties that are of commercial value--. many epicures, Of the turtle n
he Gulf side, more than the green turtle, the hawkbill and shipped alive it i's Well known tha
ago. The first cargo wat. the loggerhead. Of these the first the soup making portions of soma
im.Key West in 1849 and named is the most plentiful, and.the are" used to gitre flavor to brothU
y sale in New York. From most highly prized for its food pro- made"of other things, but served to
sponges became an article ducts; the second Is the scarcest hotel hotel and restaurant.patroM s
ce: from the Island .City. and the most valuable because of the as P'ure g teen' t rtle soup.
th4 supply from this see- value of its -shell, while the third is The A Gran Canning CompN w
Ihad-been gathered from neither plentiful nor of great haa a selling e in New1 Y!,
a, thousand square miles value The hawkbill turtle is the through which, t product a .
southern end of the State, one that furnishes the best shell.for ped to customers throughb-t tie
ed~,.:The discovery of new the manufacture of conibs, etc. Its world. So popular -is this 6tlup that
grounds which now 'c'6ver shell sells for as much -so ..$74al the,,giptn w s m'LI t
tyrfour hundred square pound, and as ten. pounds oe shell'i v'ery large one,' bt' t
g the western side of taken from one of full grown size, the supply of turtles is4'm and
d extending well out into the value of such is $70. is growing less each pear. TB~s
Mexico, brought the cen- The turtles brought here are measures are ten to preserve the
e industry to Tarpon cauget.-for the most part far down turtles they will soon become s0
** to the south in the Caribbean sea scarce that the turtle soup industry
rst sponges were those along the ast of eico. Fr- will be entirely destroyed.
from the sea. The next and along the coast o exl in the The principal methqd of .catcdhiui
pulled from their an- erlythey were plentiful in t turtles is by theuse of mesh et
nhallow water by fi-sher- waters close about Key Weiist,-but heuse o mesh u,a
g. ora di gr ther- constant fishing for them has del- set in their haunts, andn- whiete
g or diving for them. c ta l i a they becomee entangled when they
Sthe three-tined hoo d peted the supply until now few arethrough. T rtles adopt
sponges were gathered fouud anywhere close about. And, tr to go through. T hrtley roto 1
Si Gradually the handle. indeed, there are very few Key West eahepnight, and whenhthey are trdi
rooks were lengthened to people interested in trying to at covered the catching ifea y. Some-
ofty feet, so that work them, the work being done now times these sleeping piaes are used.
carried on in deeper wateo'. principally by the fishermen of the by scores of -turtles, afid those who
d, however, that the hook southern waters. Those engaged in make the discovery gt very. Ir
times be manipulated in tuJtle-cat.ct4~ g for this market rare- catehes, usually gettllag e&-.ntre
er than the eye could ly come here-some of them never herd
clearly. The surface -as Mr. Thompson's schooner, the The female green turtlet.lays jhlyr
errupted the vision, and Annie Greenlaw, runs down to where alternate years, but theeof other
this came the water-glass, they are caught, buys them from the sp alter annuallyears, but d all.-f othlaer
u- ordinla bucket fitted fishermen and brings them here p eies lay during the year, 'about .ay
three times during theyar, about ." ;
With this the alive. 150 eggs the first time,e something
espof and the Arrived h ire they are kept r 'fewer th'second.. and 1 Mt ,-
e cast epens buift' in the .-wateVr fled oer thg third.
which was the o e i"crawls," until want for butcher- in t uh sand goo -
etoke ou ing or shipping, d tte'waim sun
ro primitive, t ken out and eith stated 'IAbov
gathering the Ond... d some b e
'to practical- i the a.__r k .
along the Priday," gof vi o tOairwsth :abo $10 t
S f be borders being about fifty, t heatit as low as $ t 9 .
ethe cent.ir some ten thousand pounds. "' age weight of the flh'gqw'a
Sandred and When a turtle is killed here the turtles is somewhere"from 180 to' .
the coast. The portion not utilized for soup making 200' pounds, though sometilles thre..
I .ing ctrtion even is cut up int~o steaks and sold in the grow much larger. The. anm'irv.
,I :ed onge beds in oeral market. t These eteaks are ri.h brought to Key West and TI4ffd her,
14,ed the em- and juicy, and sometimes hard to or shipped away alive is Oetlwhefv.
of the ea methods tell from beef steaks, which they re- between 5,pa0Q an 7,000.h 4yre,
rane~. i t ********* a ... -
hai sponge has '" so
Le$ to the commercial on up to the 'thirties to fourtie-.' nuani but each failed of success. The
Sfor sale, which is, ir. They go to market in bales, eaen wire was then covered with lead
etion of the living or- package containing a single- grade coating to avoid corroaioa,. but it
ance it resembles and size, and each bale weighed thert was found that wire was not te e
er and varies in forty pounds. proper base, and further, ideas were
ish yellow to a "'The average annual value of the worked out. Itaitating nature.
eck. It is slimy sponge crop taken from Florida disks of concrete, resemb, ling rock,
he touch. The waters frbm 1903 to 1908 was t$555,- the base sought by the sponge itsel.
sists in the re- 000. The following'year it increased were prepared an inch or more -i
g elatinous tissue to $'650,000 and each subsequent thickness and afobt, in diameter. T.
Sand of the skin year has shown a gradual bhut not these the live cu~tings were att The skill and large increase over eac immediately ed by aluminum wire, which serfret
which this ;s preceding twelve months. the purpose until the little sponges
the marketable "But these waters will not al- fastened themselves by their owf
ct. The hookers ways yield the Irge harvests of roots to theiriftlacltt. anehorvge.T ho
odida coast used to ex- recent years. The signs of a dimn disks were shan placed in" deep
day's catch to the air on inishing supply are evident and th-j water on a favorably clear ottom,
devote the last day of anxious divers are extending their t ere to remain until the cultinrg
to 'cleaning up' the se'arehing'for the hidden treasure asould develop theo sponges of mer-
rvest. But the divers to deeper and more distant" waters, charitable sizea in from three to tens
-.~d to lose one day-n A hundred miles and more they go years. This plan showed mbrpsbdiI
sot-hey clean up at sea, from the sandy and marsh-bordered of success than, any that had pru
nges areq-ought to the shores. The discovery, of new ceded.
sponging grounds or the repletion "But the sp ge OFaera Weeoa;
w .H-snges are spread over of the old ones by artificial pro- fronted by another preplez~xty,.lithi l .
>f tl] cofunisaary boat pogation are the alternative reme- has not'yet beesa worked oat.to t8ial.
r are beaten with sticks dies. The resources of the United satisfaction. ]o. man aP' galef
ed by the bare feet of" the SItates Bureau of Fisheries have not the ownership lands or lesee

repeated wastring -on yet been exhaustively applied to the outside the thfee-mile limit a
fil Ily the sponges are study of propogation, mainly' be- make good thq elaim. He ~ag aMc.
ropl yarns, each piece six cause bf the lack of a suitably call on the FPderal Government ft
and tose strings are tiel located biological station near the protect" im in his control of bi
s,' Y4,ch a.re trailed over Sponge feld, planthgMa and .within t Inalt.. d
%s -5 '0r t] finishing "Certain varieties reproduce from a. league a lease from ea to MVt
the ia water?. When dry .the egg. Probably .all varieties be guarded b', Me wn constaat
t is, tored in the vessel's multiply from eattings dr fragments igilanc6 Pra to ,tke 1Maer
r fox sale ********* of the living organism. The nfewly belong the apongie he sr flapd ad
s a -classofled mainly ac- hatched sponge Is a free Sawimmln1 piracy is the Owe- 4mdas laea
th color ad fnene -body, .w'htch-may be carried by tides "It is a problem n be solved, ad
Te principal ri and' currents, long-.distanca be~ord -that It wil ~'e .o cannott U'
romthe principal tear o the it anchored to its permanent abit" doubted by lb f qb toi"tn li
rom the waters of the-bIY- .ULn
ie el of their come la- ape. The tendedr fyou angdl accommpltc! ents xl JLO,^. "
are the aheepswool, or na e.b Pa tsred t oy d or 'e severance and: eonulty.
ge; te allow, y so etimges meant or be overcome by th4e rani '. d science wi|llt Aa a 9 to maae
Ael te yellow; Athe grass VegetatLon on the sea bottom, sD this ind ustry on f the ..
ire Ages.. Occasionally, many young sponges. are. klle bF portant aed proeitbe Ln'the _wa g.
of. velvet sponges and these natural causewS Artffeal pra- controlled by PteriWf zrlg4If~ A -'!"" ."
e luable grades are Ioghat through. th egg is a Pr'" -The' development ,,at, Ag.:
e, bul the demand ftr tlesly Ftinknon problemss flShealaw to a,. s .. t
uppid largely from the "Bxeritesift :.have shown seveal 4re y
tean,-. % .... tmporFtn t faee:t,-bat..pn..t-p'nsme tha. coming of.thb

t .e r.i fati io avBage growtlK-ata, .
exto'e" stage ot.oitsw dtlo *,mtcti. ., .-,,

' fa-rtn.. I .,%, *Bi KW et 9ow^R lKestrala
a.o na ac- apt, quat*r to#l. a.. i*sa.mlt

g-m,,, f -aerte. .b a.. ,c.ma at ..Satm ,. ^ 4 CF, we. ,.,... .-
all, gatOw "So.U,.. .... ,. -.,ffU,. .-,. o
;iorviaph YEW Qbeges -A *W- Ml am

*"r 4. %tradot it w. $ I*- ette tp

2L% : ~ ~~71'u~- 9 r- n-41 ~qii~ii~i~~i~'~C_1M III


stage. At the appointed hour th-.
buyers would go from pile to pile
and make such examination as serv-
ed to satisfy them of the quality,
and the bids would be made on each
pile separately. These bids would
he written on slips of paper, and
when they were all in the hands of
the person designated for that duty
they would be read off and the
highest bidder would get the lot to
whjlth such bid applied. The owner,
however, reserved in each case the
privilege to refuse to sell of there
-w.as no satisfactory bid.- As the
men who made the bids had first
closely examined each pile, and as
they were experts in the business
and thoroughly posted as to the mar-
ket, the bids -were often very close
and sometimes exactly identical.
The method of handling sponges

Somewhere about the year 184
-'* small boat called the Mohawk, and
dwned by William Kemp, came to,
Key WVest carrying a lot of sponge,
gathered in the waters about thep
reefs and islands lying north of here.
, It was M.r. Kemp's purpose to e.-
tablish a market in Key West for
the' sponges to be gathered through-
out'this region, but he found no'
purchaser here, and his attempt
'seemed a failure for the time.
Not long afterwards M[r. Kemp
!went in his boat to New York to buy
a stock of goods, and took samples
I- of the sponges with him. There he
found parties who agreed to handle:
#.,-alat he had on hand and such fur-
th r quantities as could be secured.
h.: When he returned home Mr. Kemp
let it be known that he would pur-
chase what sponges the fishermen
would. bring in, and thus was es-
tablished a business that has long
: been of great importance to Key
The prices paid at that time were
SriQiculcusly low when measured by
s. those of the present day. sheeps-wooi
Sponges bringing but ten cents -
V ound, but'they were then regardelI

tached, itself, from which it is torn
loose without breaking the fibre of
the sponge proper. I
For the purpose of looking dowl
through water of such great depth a
common water bucket with a glass
bottom is utilized. By holding the
bottom of the bucket slightly below
the surface of the water, and pu-
ting his face down below the rim,
the lookout can plainly see to. the
bottom of the water as the boat is
rowed along. When a sponge is
spied the boat is stopped, the pole
with th6 -hook at the end is brought
into requisition. and the sponge is,
torn loose from its moorings,
brought p and deposited in the bot-
tom of the boat. Then the search is
resumed and the operation repeated
whenever a sponge is seen.
Sometimes a larger boat is use.J
an-d the* lookout when he sees .t
sponge at the bottom simply throws
out a buoy to mark the spot, and a
smaller boat comes along to secure
the sponge and take up the buoy fo:
This manner of securing sponges
is still used in the Key West region.
In the water about Tarpon Springs.

is spoken of above as in the past
tense, when as a matter of fact it
is in. all essentials the one prevail-
ing now. and the same interesting
features are noted, except that -the
quantity handled is not so large is
in former years.
It was a long time after becom-
ing a sponge market before Key
West could furnish sponges that had
the appearance they bear today. The
first cargoes were poorly handled,
and badly cleaned, and were ex-
tremiely unattractive. It was A num-
ber of- years' before the spongers
learned an effective way to separate
the animal matter from the fibre of
the sponge, leaving it bright, springy
and attractive as it now appears. But
the lesson was finally learned, and
the sponges were' treated in Key
West as thoroughly and properly as
in an.y other market in the world.
While the number of sponges
secured in this region and brought
to the 1Iey West market is not so
large as formerly, and the relative


.as high, and, many boats gave up tti .where sponges are take ii great value of the business
lucrative, wrecking business to go quantities. diving ruits are used and not so great, sponge
.after sponges, and many of them the fihbermen go down and search one of the reading 'in
:.ade large sumnis of money. Spongel along tWfe bottom of the sea, making brings in more clear m
were then so plentiful that cargoes' a :!ean sweep of the sponges as they other except that of
cduld be procured' within a'dozen "o. This latter method: is more At present there aWe a
miles of the .city. and sometimes in a costly to initiate. but more effective engaged in catching'
very few days. At first many when once. put in use, as the they'employ some 130
sponges were found in such shallow- sponges. can be gathered. much more ous' kinds and sizes.
water-that they could be picked u?) rapidl.. 'Bur it has been found that men and iboats only p
by hand, but- gradually this easily the feet of'the divers .as they walk tbe time at the busin
gathered supply became exhausted, -over the bottom.,n-etrdy the-young of them havreno other
and fishing o'peratiou.s had to be ca-. sponges to .a very great extent, and lihood and give it .the
n deeper water, that 3, few years cf suach mohods ab and attention. The ann
s purpoluel deshtr:a i\the sponging proximates $250,000.
Spurpoe aook was in- ound this represents labor,
say,, though millions of Shortly after Mr. Kemp blazed that it means a very i
north of s)ongeS have sinep the way for the sponge industry in of the commerce. of th
d p from water running Key West Wall -&['o., and Bewne & are. four sponge buye
to fifty feet in depth, no- ',urry began- buying sponges, and ness .here at the pres
body has made an improvement on before long other firms entered the The threatened exti
Mr. Archer's hook. and it' is still inl market and divided the business. sponge by constant fis
use-. It is a three pronged 'hook, at- This competition forced sp, prices spoge by constant f
etaed to the end of a pole sprle fit and she'ep-v.ool sponges were soon the cause of many ex
ty.A-JIve feet long. and with it the bringing 35- cents a poun-d/ It wa- sponge culture b.v ar
ffth.r reaches down and gets hold of years .afer this before the price- and numerous beds
the .sponge between its main,body reachedd a dollar a pound for grades planted at various pl
:and the rock to which it,.has'at- that.--now bring .four and,five do.- deal of work along t
---/ ". --- ". -" " "


I '

rl' "
Zi ::;;. .s: rC;.

c g~ 1C~,
L I.
?r:. r I~~
I, ..

7 7,
W, w s ... ,E
^ ^/"'^' "P ^S WG AS-'^Q '^ .. G* ".' "" :

i ".i '"" *" :" ;. ., t '* I" "
.* ; !.'* "'"-^ : '*;, -ir . '"" '" ." ';* '"- ",, "' " ; ,- ., .: ,,-'*. .. .. ,;**?*.* :; ..* *. -,- .*
l. ^*. .^ i.:,,,,9't4 .'. '*" >""" ^ '"*"i '" *': ll : "" *^ "S. ,(. "-. '!. '
04 ," ..,..': ^ ^ 4, U :..'. a .,: .. '
~L~~~O:~ ~ l iitt"a, '



.."Business That Has Brought A Great

Deal Of Money To The

Y. City In Years Past.

Five Hundred Men and Many Boats Employed

--Catches Brought to Docls and Sold at Auc-

tion ---How the Sponges are Caught and



V" -i ..

.. ~-~. '' ii,

_ 1 1

; *'



I:' I

.'*' i

- .


I .'


: ". g 6*'*j i: .i i., .i ., "4 ., .. ... ... .. '*
*, *^1,, , . : v-, ,', ^^ .'^ ** .; ,;> -" ,; l

,1ioVtgatD.tBy, Rtilci.th.Blwerg? a ccps.mea .at home. Fe'w of
.Ln0 y ,B t ty.i An he.,stte., aen ,ere .trmgrp.%r fruit growers,
ft.ao..lSt~ek Sta-t ,ftr~era,;~!.^ j.ey. pianted.a .aout, their newwt
,;lprJtd,a; Sabesgsavg., -, p o homa.s. ,B,frJrQm thie tropical fruits-
JAc t.PJgrh4r ,9ndiog.. Vi L wich g-,recyprew wre they came froni,
gJ.7W n,, the .oseult.t. It als 'a wffi h ducts : of these,
S.ieliq. 13.. ,Ten Thousand. Island. 'cn'bcinea 'with what they could
,.sipg 1 ith@ Qulf northwest of Key' make by fishing and in such other
~.jet, and., extends over a consider-' occupations as engaged their time
.pl.Yody of the moinland,.including and attention,'sought to eke out a
Cap,,Sa. i.d. thB..taetritory..lyffig living. As markets were not coltn-
south of6 .eejc urnty .and west of venient their existence was pre-
Date, ; -.. -. .- ,. carious at'best. *
'"eo. Florida Ieys, which ars The planting was done with little
erly .a successj$oi6 of islands, tak care and no system, the -seed being,
ing,. te name 'ey". fiom, the Spanish' thrown into the "pot-holes" and left
word,. "cay," o'meaning island, skirt to die or grow, as chance might serve
tilhp ;o6aslt .the' southeastern por 'to direct, but in a few years tha
tien of the state, Quriving -toward 'thq homes about which the planting was
sut hwst, with 7. Key West the done were surrounded, by groves of
tapt.t. south, and a. vast number, the greatest luxuriance. Among the
of imbre or less important islandsT.o varieties of fruits thus transplanted
the west. In si e the keys range from tlf British islands were the
*from those having a very few acres mango, the sapodilla, the avocado,
to those having several thousands, the sugar apple, the grape fruit, the
Some of these have little soil, and orange, the lemon and the'lime. They
'are so' low as to be beyond hope of all grew and bore prolifically, and
utilizat on fof p rposes- of cultiva- brought: forth fruit of a better grade
tion V ;thout the expenditure of a than on the islands of their nativity
prohW6ih\ie .amount of money; but and years ago key fruit came to be
6, others. have considerablee good soil, recognized by those who had oppor-.
lie well,'being from six to twenty tunity to know' as of a very superior'
4, feet abovb water at. mean low tid,.:, quality. Especially is this true of
"r. and"0offer excellent opportunitiess' for the lime, which nowhere else reaches
the growth' bf va ous. kindle of farm such a state of perfection. .Key
S aAd-'oreliard prod ct.'" limes bring several dollars a.barrel
S:' lhe. formation f the Florida keys more than those grown anywhere
01 ri, -itereting "geological study; else. .
S atd, has no coun erpart in the Unir- Later along in key history -the
'tdA;States.. For the most -part they settlers began to grow vegetables
,'.-'d"e' foremed,.of oolitic .limestone, cut for family use, and finding ..the. field'
liito numerbis cirdular holes ofl vary- 'large and the quality fine, 5,sce, .of
.:, ,.i. dia-meter, d.clled "pot-oles,": them planted in large quantity aud'
.", hl du riJ.gJ.a the passing of the ages brought their su.rplus4to this 'ity to
S:"h ^l-ed"': .with.. decdeda--exe-hange .with 1Je ho.erchj _r
.lisuch. as leaf mould, such commodities as they 1EJ"i.^'
es 'of .'trees aid home. "Pinea:pples were pl.atMi wkth.
f1i': nature, -with a great ~,, .. also, and. thq ,:Atp u
.1%'YTeg soil ,;_his cits until fr l

::i IUpper e. one of th ofl vegetabei matter, and broken known' a:.BSugag.:
moast -imae keys. .On It shell and sand. This soil is so fertile which sponges at-k 1
theree a nd&.ed peopl, a :.it WiH produce in great pro- propogated and .rat
iding,. -all are en- fusion anything planted i4 it,. and .iter.esting and: im
gagedd ts and vegc- nowhere ..in Florida .i: there better 'Big Coppitt auw
tables. e cky, but very opportunity far profit in growing Keys give no promi
productive, and gardens .citrus fruits and vegetables. There value, but possess c
yield well .-with com aratively little are. many beautiful sites for homes ground that afford
work. The'.older residents of the og this key, and nowhere can yard gible sites for reside
key. have Pcomfortable homes and or garden be more quickly beautified Boco Chica Key h
pleasant surroundings and most of or rendered more attractive. area of land availal
them are 'Well to do financially. Near Grassy Key, a little to the truck. On the ocean
Most of, the houses.are built on the west is Bamboo Key, of small area, stretch of beautiful
ocean side 6f the kgy_. sommanding but very fertile, and said to be the are numerous inv
a fine view of the water, one key on which there are absolute- homes.
Wheu the railroad .was being built" ly no mosquitos at any season of the Stock Island, a
over Upper Matecu e a number year. West, has an' eleva
of the engineers and their employes IKe.y Vaca is another that was to eight feet. It is
were so much imrpr.sed with thd almost entirely unoccupied prior to the soil is good, and
beauty of the island that they form the building of the East Coast rail- the city makes it a
ed a company, purchased a con- road, but which ,has been brought in- location for a m
siderable body of land and laid off to prominence by that line. A num- business.
a town s te. Here the)y built a pretty ber of farmers have settled on this Key West, which
village which is called Islamorado key and" have met with success in is last among the ]
.It lies-on the blay sidi~ of the island growing fruits And vegetables both ney -is made south
and commands a beautiful view of. for local.consumption and for ship- 2,000 acres in areas
the water to the wdt. A number ment north. All kinds of-.citLrus like half of it,is -co
of handsome homes vere built an I fruits flourish there, and the avoca- of Key West. The
are now occupied by the men who do, the sapodilla, the banana and the but those portions
assisted in building- .he "Oyer-Sqr'" mango grow to their highest state which have been cul
road, and others aM.ng the operat.- o'f perfectioni.- found to produce v
ing officials. A good inany, lots have. The village of Marathon, situated truck crops, and a
been sol-d also to.-other people-~who on this key, is a considerable settle- citrus and tropical
saw and were attracted, by the beauty ment, being; headquarters for the grown from time to
,of the place. engineering .and construction forces commercially to a:
, Upper "Matecuumbe " ab already of the railroad. land not already a
become a winter rert-" of much Knight s.Key foi- a time enjoyed has been laid off in
more than local celel al)d a good the-digtinction of being the moPt is none now availa
many-.people from o6tth r.st*tes come important of te.enatire group, being tural purposes. Th
-there .to spend the el..ta on. Good the southern .terd nus of the rail the southeasterly si
.lands can be secure s .key at road -for several,."Years, and the lo- differs, many char
:very low prices,, 21Biftulsites cation of th'e ddbcks, where freight homes, and it is, pro
for homes a d .for' and passengbrs, bound to or from but few years when
groves and West. or uba, were transferre.l large number of
w-ithh ur. ship to train dens.te looking out
heatlt,,pl .h'(V4%been com-
.Lowet t., -Abhe docks "have ates n
eii ately, s importance of they catea an .
ws i af p o hei vaiet island., el
ag lbtit aquestioi erllian&t fin .0

o' to rorc. "an ily laV
nor. steste t rds a 01
-it 'is one th fn te Tns ained
pictresq e as a coali
keys. Ye ich. t re is'- constantly iincreas- tablishment o' a co
cocoanut ng -demand in northern markets. ke PVest the islal
southern Pion Key lies so law 'that :t utllYzed for that pu
are now ,o y e will .lobably never be' available for its population is red
-S "n play e th nis settiBnent to any considerable ex- stationed there by
in all sta r- tent. 'It took its name from the fact watchmen.
ing the o loAI, o that it. was once the roosting place. Just off Tortuga
)village was laid q.W~-b ~r~ of myraid. wild pigeons of the variety Iland, where -the C
of cottages built tbM el a domodr- linown as "crown." of Washington, I.
tion.'of the engiueemr foremen and .Little Money Keys, lying just great biological lab
,others employee truction north of Molasses banks, are so search into marine
work. These -Wi~rroundelw that they are submerge&,by the The hu ndredso
by the cocoanu , a verlY spring tides. These keyf and banks fish and other inhab
-attf,ive'pictu .e.of the.6have been bhe scene of the wreck- found in the water
traveler as he h on the ing of many vessels entering Moser head make this a i
railroad. channel. They are not available head make this an i
T~ere are'~ llxcellent for Agri cultural purposes. kind, and opportu
to the 'A group of" keys including Mis-
Duc, and Ohio are alo
abedon Long to It iso verue wihkasand l oile h ist there tha to \
ildproduction of tI s vrgrane so uri, L it,. d late else
fruit, pineapple, tire aist low, sandy and unfit for agriculture. duplicated elsewhere
fr t, rpieapl it manr. These are separated from Big Bahia Nearby is Bird Is
Stds oia egefI' n co,- aondar Key by .a narrow, s shallow lions of birds make
kinds of, veiet ., s mar chan el. ing the laying sea
stant demand lr s mar-t chane on el.
kOtasn Wh u i mlof the-k -- Bahia Honda is one of the larger their young are h
elands ash I ru ones of the general group of keys. ready for flight to
Svegetables- )' 6 0"lanug Key It- is covered with a sandy soil that Here the Audobon S
will, un q eque of the is very fertile under proper cultiva- a station for the st
rot' ..... IlBIn? I; lori'da, and tion and a good deal pf trucking ha and habits of ia bi
t~,oeani side f.tulmed with ,een done upo- it. Special attention means of protecting
the hd'mes-.f e W e-1 attracted to it has.been given there to the growing the
by its thyriad adiltages and un of water melons and sweet potatoes There are mail o
rivalled beatttipgS-.# dAd and sea and vegetable raising generally has key besides those
and sky: been a success. It is, indeed, oi the intent. of this
On thi ke y tth.r interests of-the best of all the keys for agri- deal only with those
hat culture. Bahia Honda has a long by reason of tb
has become very "rithe -irth- stretch of beach, covered with white adaptability to ag
beni ers n said, and entirely free from rocks. poses. Most of tho,
ernumbey's eah ea enj tvhe sa- Many beautiful shells washed up bT name lie in the
u"ertfsheaqb Camo ecnsists offrom the ocean are scattered on this Gulf of Mexico to
number s ofg formerly beach. At its southern end ths general grbup. 'he
Snumber oad otho key abuts om4 Blthia channel, the son Key, Water Ke
members ofthe 's coans.dru ction deepest arid rougliest channel in the Sandy Key,-Oyster
members ofthi as beennsfitted forn chain. Thousand Islands a
thforce, 's ich fguavs bheenaefibathose South of Bahia channel'is a group and west o; Cape-
the use ofguests. Te* have 'bath known as Summerland Keys.- The the southernmost o
Sne tlm re th comfo be9 surface of these is rocky, lying little land belonging to tt
above the water, and they are use- The Carpe Sable
and'.con enient. e ottages are 1ess from an "agricultural point of been much settled"
se nL a e Spanish I-ar bor Key has an gle- the m an

ceat -g. kvmel arranged e L nd Imroper thle d, ah
ng roor ti our,. it is a arge'"and ))eat tIt cocoanut Atf such truck, cro)
,-exce ___ caerers auoveesexe poppeir, eggplant al
dlfar t oas do a t- lent'O e is of limes and ot:
Sge t A th ~ .ope tlse there pW

;'ifth the most"1

Rh e t of"Te ham loanld, whto ,s tremelyt
,t-,, M iferti .^f:- ... .....

hav been wa on
S great su~ebs. z s
6 14ttgr usaI* Key Id 1olu, W.
coini t*il largr ope, and contains waW acres areaL. o yue Of .0P
,agi'ms 3- oot.llable l]and LThere a".now* o some O( 6fWh l is "h
..,. assy i' G this ker seeral. ecooont grove* -and. "IOw pf *, Pftz
I**. S". a*cagev"l .-PMo bI, agrq aipe. I@ aa*
7here -is tM lasoen o tbfm kft Westew.a t.61 60'



Loat. ., n 'tin ve WilU''to. P"
being jilcessfuly ..t'" lanat: to t"ile. -k? I
ised, forming, aijte ow.linae." '4U41 .1
portent industrYF ea, s '"s.us.eptita ...-'
- Saddle Bunclhy enW rendered sdidl& iti-htliaL
se of agricultural adltivation is hikhiyepi& _v
considerable high -Being so "far souti that ,k. Iow 1
ds numerous eli., .*'o frost, the mlainted pafd
lences.. onroe county' Will,.'u-:urBlo olfly
has a considerable become one of the iffot higsh l
ble for fruits and duutraive portions of Florida. '!~-
an side is a long other'things its swamp land |
beach, and there, drained will be of great value Afor the
biting sites gfor growing of sugar cane, and it. .
Aot.be e. all surprising If thd
adjacent to Key future aotfld vltness ther.ut
nation Of from si. tion for that purpose to a. vey
quite rocky, but .-etent As for citrus fruts,
d its proximity to as, cocoanuts and early Vge
specially valuable .therei no other section of.
market gardening mainland portion of the state w4her
those desiring to engage in their',"
comes next, and production can put tb6ir mon@f ie 1t :
keys as the jour the ground with such absolute as-';'..
hward, is about surance of safety from ruit by frosted ;,s
,' and. something and freezei, I m ',r i
veered by the city It is but a question o. time whima'I-,,
soil is quite this the Florida-East Coast ..V
of the island ill build a brunch line .,to.
tivated have.been sable, bringing that entire, .ecfi.6.
well of variotsa into quick and easy common oa/tiv:f
lfrge variety b with the rest of the county. Thn ,.
fruits have been the rich lands in that region 1iWi _i:
time, but never spring into active demand ;
rny xtent... T cthe ilues.wi ll iierease by lea ,aiad ^,%
part of the city bounds. The surveys for, this' rod. ",
to lots, agnd other have already .been made, ituildlng-,..
able for agric u!- has been pronounced feasible by th*.._
ie of. the island company's engineers; and-: Its, ieo.i',
ide of sites foislandr traction but awaits the avorbl
"mng. sites for moment. ..
bablj a matter'of he Gulwh whests
n thedsore wl be a en shores, and the lakes 'lagoonfy.
uph o e resip. ad rivers. that lace its lands-alreadyl.
'fee rni it excellent tra~nprtatio '
i.T"ra.d ling thie region

spital,-i d-lam er o----Land value are
naval d0paftme6ti increasing in prac.lcally evyl'
n. Since the es-, the United States, but iowbetd
oaling station at else as rapidly as in Flprida,
nd has not been nowhere else in Florida as rapi dl
purpose, and now as in that portion which liew ..oK :.
luced to'two men' the frost line. Other section' s-iay,' "..
y the navy as be below that line of danger, nbute -o0 .
other is so surely below it, or,so.ar
arneg is Loggstitute below it, as are thelands of Mo0trb ,..:'
arnegie Institute
C., maintains a county.
boiratory' for re-
of varieties of
itants of the sea
"s about Logger- ipinest Frrut is Prodaucbd on the
deal spot for thj Keys. "The Past Season Finds the
stitution of the Supply Not Equal to the Deemand.
cities for study
lid not easily be The following from the Florida. ,
e. Homeseeker is of interest in con-
land, where mil- section with the article discussing
their home dur- the Keys of Monroe county:
son, and until Never in the history of the lime
watched out. anfd industry have the prices held so high
other cUmes, as during the present year. For
Society maintains sormtime during the early, jW p-r
udy of the live t'he season limes brought .' A
rds, and the beit to twenty .doUars per bare a'
and caring for grower.- As the season 'adS
and the fruit became mof .'
tlhe1 islands and ful, prices declined, toa li B
mentioned here dollars per barrel. Sinw ':
article being to prices have gradually advance an
se of importance they now are selling from twelve to
heir size and fifteen dollars per barrel. This con
gric'ultural pur- dition of the market carries out the .
se not mentioned oft repeated prediction, that as the
waters of the years passed prices would contiftne
the west of thbe to advance. There was a time wVen
ey include Johu- but comparatively few, people
ey, Rabbit Key, throughout the Northern Staies
Keys and the. Ten knew of the lime ofr'ts..malae.-_B
and others north the distribution has'.become more
Sable, which is general the demand has increaf" ,d
>let of the main- and is increasing ngw at a rapid rate
he United States. throughout a great portion of t,
country 'has not United States.'
as yet, though The larger part .of the limes growpn.
'ew people livlD in Florida -.re', product of ti&Ma,
ye. 'do tile d ey 4 o eaf
pa to I be fal"
ad cabba ,~ t the
her i 17til
te, o t :-

4sIts~;no th. P"OX,,
1 one of the I of -
the group, and the. one in arfd
lying farthest north, has been g ttlpd
for many .ears, and there'- are'hifo
living on it some five or sifx ;hundred
people. Most of these have -sub
stantial, comfortable hod'ms,. and
there ate some good 'groves' 'and
truck gardens. The groves are or..
anges, grape fruit, and liqnis, for
the most part, with some avocados
sapodillas, mangods and lemon .
All these produce well and the ou-
put finds favor in all the markets to
which it is known. There are also
a good many pineapples and some
bananas. These also produce wel
and the fruit is of excellent flavor
Tomatoes, peppers; eggplarit, sweet
potatoes and .numerous othertruck
crops are grown, and all are'found
to yield abundantly.
Planter, "a small villagelon Key
Largo. is, the' home of a number of
people who have succeeded' well in
growing pineapples, orange, lime,
grape fruit, .bananas an'd other
tropic-al fruits., and numerous \varie
ties of vegetables as well. TJhes
plailers are firm believers ai.U the
soil and climate of Key' La.rgo, anl
say they. know of no other yp-ac'
wvi ere :-itrus fruits can be p.radabe
wi.rh so little attention as on their
island. Fertilizers are little usell
and yet the .yields of the groves and,
gardens is high and the products
are .of the best quality.
The long stretch of ocean front on
Key Largo offers some of the most.
beautiful .home-sites to -be foun-d
anywhere, and it is believed that
before many years Ihave passed there
.Mill b-e. numprpus. handsome d\vel-
..lings built., there. by wealthyy people
from the North who enjoy ttie mill
climate and appreciate the n'aturat
e 'pty of the location.
: lantatian Key there ,is a.con.,
ble. colony, and, the people
.afui-d itn growing a. variety ot'
'rui f'egeables. 'The soil" ah l.
Ig'ra onditions. are n much,- the
i:t a~ on 'Key Laigo, and what has
..bgen.s.ti.W oD, that isln!d. :wMll apply
I geqeirally 'to .Plaxhtatton Key. The
'Itme- fs 'produced ,ta 'larger quaAtit.y
't'afiany. other i-fl tit,- thought grap
fruit Opxd% *6O tloth yield'wetl' a,
4tM!iirfiw& f;)ta k of;--t :hest 0'' r. PirP "
ediner extent 'Rd .,w-mrfapI* to d

': r' ," -' W ', Usk f iW
lMigOW e 01. *w 1*

1pjribrk. Lf% .6th 00 i at I
$11era 1 1 '\N <;'' r^^ t
de? .~ a ..S'r,,,

irie'p It will pr^w I
4,' 'ye iia.'f.y 'fe erything plaiit
Itbi' t ,:'Ow n~,~al,k .grown ini a tropfial or
,,' :tropicfkt ci.ulite.:
h"e T in' gi '?wth on some of the
;,.- ts is.very heavy,. consisting ot
,,'.',, a"nd to'picl hardwoods, and
arrangingn g from, tikio0st" impenetrable
'-.trhiikets of "bush to .large'areas of
:..-.-trees of' merchalitable size, -These
I, tropical wbods a)re very hard, close
gr.aied, dad pdjeauti fuily colored, and
can'be giv,6n a very high finish. They"
at'o,.unpiatched by any other woods
S,. grown 'in th.e'h'Uifed States for the
jr" n ufa.cture tx.f igh grade furniture
; n, And ot:h er articles requiring close
,grain and str.ceotibilfity to- extremes
.polish. ,
S '.On the ocean side the elevatio'i
I of-the keys generally rises to from
six to twenty eet above the water,
beiig Whilier there usually. tha.
elsewhere. Thh beaches are for th.,
most, part long stretches of beauti-
ful white sand, aird on many of them
nature has"provided ideal places for
sea batting... There are no extreme
'dlimati. changess' the temperatiu.r-e
_beirig "very"'equable throughout th(e
entire year, .and it is sometimes
hard to .tell where winter begins and
whei it ends. Aside from the ard
vantages offered for money making
i fruit growing and other branches
.0' toihsbandry,,there is no other part
WOf.,thei tou.ntry which presents so
''i' m4any bealutlffu locations for winter
f "esidenegs as these keys of Fl6rijd.
To the south of tihe keys lie the
.:. datngerois. Florida reefs, which for
I 'cetiturfes have been the dread of
.:: ',.1 'the lea;rinaers xwho. sailed these seas,
'' and- upoopc h i-c.l 'any a gallant ship
.,,'. ..',has ;.g6 ,e t destruction,, but, .- tey.
form." a sori- sbmered wall o,
-*v protection tA tte .,kdys themselves
S g -p f eaYy swells that
ise).] b~t: roll..lthem
ia ga.t t kp ..h*,erp em
.11%4 lbP et- Ie -iv

;' .S1le -.,early .part.,o .._i ts : -
'q.n the 4f) V-e. WS nhotorioU&
;15,i'4 1st di j@
WW at 5)sits ~Fpid :lg
i 3 : Wr.ealo



Embracing the Florida Keys and a Fertile

'Valuable Portion of the Mainland, and Washed by the Waters

Sth Ocean and Gulf.
.t 4* ,

Fertile Lands that are Rapidly Coming into Demoad toa,

Sd ci pl ,ijtru, Fruits and Vegetables--Cape Sable Country, Whose Rich Soil

Cro The--a Natural Home of the Cocoanut, the

and the S Sar Cane.

is Well Adapted to Growth