The St. Augustine record
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00048662/00001
 Material Information
Title: The St. Augustine record
Alternate title: Saint Augustine record
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 59-68 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Record Co.
Place of Publication: St. Augustine Fla
Creation Date: July 4, 1937
Publication Date: 1935-
Frequency: daily[<1995>]
daily (except saturday)[ former 1935-<1947>]
daily (except sunday)[ former <1986>]
Subjects / Keywords: Newspapers -- Saint Augustine (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Saint Johns County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: newspaper   ( marcgt )
newspaper   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Saint Johns -- Saint Augustine
Coordinates: 29.894264 x -81.313208 ( Place of Publication )
Additional Physical Form: Also available on microfilm from Bell & Howell, Micro Photo Division.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 42, no. 29 (Nov. 24, 1935)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Vol. 44, no. 7 also called "Historical restoration issue."
Numbering Peculiarities: Vol. 49, no. 258 also called "Service edition."
General Note: Published by: The Florida Pub. Co., <1988>- .
Funding: Funded in part by the University of Florida, the Library Services and Technology Assistance granting program of Florida, the State Library and Archives of Florida, and other institutions and individuals.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000405755
oclc - 08807289
notis - ACF1998
lccn - sn 82014947
issn - 1041-1577
System ID: UF00048662:00001
 Related Items
Preceded by: St. Augustine evening record

Full Text



Complete World News by
Leased Wife Report of
Associated Press


Section A



Heavy Guard

At Cambria

Works Site

Youth Arrested for Al-
legedly Hurling Dyna-
mite at Train


Ford Motor Company
Challenges NLRB's
Power of Authority

Iy the Associated Press
JUJONi'STJOWN, Pa., July 3. -
State policee threw a heavy guard
around Bethlehem Steel's strike-
sieged Cambria works tonight aft-
er the arrest of a 21-year-old for-
mer steel worker for allegedly
/m hurling dynamite at a freight train
coming from the plant.
State Police Capt. William A.
Clark said the youth, Ernest Lay-
Ston, of Johnstown, told him he
threw three lighted sticks of dyna-
mite at the freight train but that
it "somehow failed to explode."
Capt. Clark immediately
strengthened police guards around
all water supplies, pipe lines and
Railroad property in the area.
Two other men were taken into
Custody for questioning.
Capt. Clark said Laytdn asserted
he had been approached' by two
men who asked him to do them "a
favor" instructing him where to
find the dynamite to throw at the
SC. W. Jones, vice president of the
Brotherhood of Railway Trainmen,
recently asked railroad officials to
declare "unsafe" the area traveled
'by trains in the strike zone.
Jones declared both men held
with Layton were mon-strikers and
added the attempted bombing was
--"probablK a company-inspired
Sidney D. Evans, management
representative for the company,
asked for a statement, said:
"These two employes have work-
ed fot the company for 20 and 35
years, Their service records make
i t difficult to believe that they
would have any part in any such
Strike Leader James Mark's only
comment was: "I've always said
and will always believe such dyna-
'mite plots are inside jobs."
SC. L 0. strike leaders, faced by
-bak-to-work movements through-
out the 7-state steel strike area, to-
night called four "show of
strength" mass meetings for to-
The rallies were announced for
Johnstown, scene of Bethlehem
Steel's strike-girt Cambria Works,
and at Youngstown,' Warren and
Canton, O., where National Guards-
men have enforced peace during the
past week.
.DETROIT, July 3. (AP)-The
Ford Motor Company challenged
tonight the National Labor Rela-
tions Board's authority to regulate
its relations with employes it de-
scribed as "engaged in local pro-
Answering an NLRB complaint
of unfair labor practices on which
a hearing is set for Tuesday, the
Ford Company denied all its alle-
gations and asserted it should be
The formal answer signed by
Harry Bennett, Ford personnel di-
rector, said Ford employes -who
beat and chased union organizers
from'plant gates May 26 "were at
all times acting in self defense"
after the unionists had "entered
into an unlawful conspiracy to tres-
pass and to cause a riot."
More than a dozen union mem-
bers were treated for injuries after
the fighting which attended dis-
tribution of handbills in their
cajnpaign to organize the 89,300
employes of the huge Ford Plant in
suburban Dearborn: The NLRB
complaint charged the company
with responsibility for what it
termed "malicious and brutal as-
Contents of This
Restoration Issue
Section A-Regular News Sec-
tion-Carrying also Historical and
Restoration Material-16 pages.
Section B-Historical and Res-
toration News-16 pages.
Section C-Historical and Res-
toration News-16 pages
Section D-Picture Section print-
ed in sepia ink on coated paper, and
featuring advertisements some of,
which are done in four extra col-
ors-10 pages.
Section E-Agricultural Tabloid,
published by permission of Nathan
Mayo, Commissioner of Agricul-
ture-8 pages.
Total for general distribution-
66 pages.
For local distribution there
is, in addition to the above, an 8
page comic tabloid in color.
Grand total 74 pages.
And St. Augustine's Largest
Nc-vspaper in 372 Years of His-

"All the News
While It's News"


Safe And Sane
Watchword For
Fourth Of July
By the Associated Press
Let's make it safe and sane.
That was the watchword in
scores of cities today as officials
strove to forestall death and in-
jury in the annual Independence
Day celebration
They sought to keep dangerous
fireworks from inexpert hands by
law and police vigilance. They
sponsored supervised displays in
public parks and stadia.
During the double holiday on
July 4 and 5 last 'year, the na-
tion counted 346, fatalities. Elev-
en of them were attributed to
fireworks, 208 to traffic acci-
dents, 90 to drowning and the
remainder to sundry other causes.
Government statisticians fig-
ured that celebrators would ig-
nite $7,500,000 worth of Ameri-
can-made explosives in commemo-
rating the 161st anniversary of
the signing of the Declaration of

Soviet Drive

Turns Strongly

Toward Church

Declared to Have Figured
in Spy Plots for Ger-
many, Japan, Poland
MOSCOW, July 3. (AP)-The
Soviet Union's drive against ene-
mies of the state today turned
strongly against the church, Prot-
estant, Catholic and Russian Ortho-
dox alike.
Official newspapers published
warnings that churches were in
league' with Fascism and Capital-
ism, preparing imperialist wars
and inasking spies and wreckers un-
der clerical garb. They declared
many persons recently "liquidated"
-which usually means executed-
had church affiliations and dis-
closed others had been "condemn-
Churchmen were declared to have
figured in spy plots for Germany,
Japan, Poland and Estonia, and to
have operated in the Far East as
well 's near the Union's western
The newspaper Pacific Star, pub-
lished in Khabarovsk, Siberia, said
a Lutheran minister and two Ortho-
dox priests were among several
arrested and "condemned" at Vladi-
Pacific Star recently disclosed
there had been 131 executions ,of
alleged spies and wreckers in the
Russian Far East in recent months.
The "condemned" clergymen, it
said, had been spies who "conceal-
ed behind priests' robes," actively
prepared plots against officials of
the state and the Communist Party.

AFL To Seek


In This State

Florida Citrus Industry
to Be First Goal of Or-
ganization Chest
TAMPA, Fla., July 3. (AP) -
The organization chest of the
American Federation of Labor, col-
lected to compete with the national
growth of the CIO, will be opened
in Florida next week, the State
Federation of Labor announced to-
day, with unionizing of workers
in the citrus industry as its first
The campaign to te started with-
in the next few dys is to be fi-
nanced by the national organiza-
tion-under supervision of the execu-
tive committee of the state federa-
tion with Charles E. Silva of Tam-
pa, first vice president of the state
group, in charge.
The state federation recommend-
ed the campaign at its annual con-
vention at Lakeland, Fla., and the
details were left to the committee.
The National Federation through
President William Green agreed to-
day to allocate the necessary ex-
penses, Silva said.
Silva will leave tomorrow for
Washington to confer with Green,
he said, and expects to complete
preliminary plans by the middle of
the week.

Col. H. L. Butler
Appointed By Cone
To Welfare Board
TALLAHASSEE, Fla., July 3.
(AP)-Governor Cone today ap-
pointed Mrs. Edward B. Guinan of
Miami and Col. H. L. Butler of St.
Augustine to district welfare board
vacancies in their areas.
They succeed John M. Carlisle
of Miami and M. H. Westberry of
St. Augustine, who declined recent
The Governor gave E. W. Ranew
of Wilcox an appointment as con-
stable of District 2, Gilchrist



Britain Warns

Europe Of New

Spanish Crisis

Violation of Territorial
Integrity Will Not Be


Mediterranean Still Held
"Main Arterial Road"
Not "Shortcut"
LONDON, July 3. (AP)--British
leaders reminded a tense Europe
today that Britain is rearming to
compel respect for her rights and
interests and that violation of the
territorial integrity of Spain or
free access to the Mediterranean,
included in those interests, would
not be tolerated.
Prime Minister Neville Cham-
berlain and Foreign Secretary An-
thony Eden spoke to garden party
audiences of their constituents, but
their hearers believed they were
addressing also the leaders of Italy
and Germany.
Chamberlain, at Birmingham, de-
clared one of his chief aims is to
make Britain so strong "that no-
body dare treat her with anything
but respect."
For that reason he would "com-
plete as rapidly as possible" Brit-
ain's $7,500,000,000 rearmament
program. He said he faced his
responsibilities "without fear pr
Eden, at Coughton, in Warwick-
shire, gave warning that Britain
is determined "to maintain the ter-
ritorial integrity of Spain and keep
the Mediterranean open as a 'main
arterial road.'"
He uttered an emphatic reminder
that the British government cannot
remain indifferent "where British
interests are concerned on the land
or sea frontiers of Snain or the
trade routes that pass by her."
That was interpreted as a ref-
erence to the danger of any power
especially Italy, aftempting to dut
the Mediterranean highway to In-
dia and the east.
The foreign secretary declared
that Britain had not and would not
modify her time-honored principle
that the Mediterranean is a "main
arterial road." not merely a British
shortcut to the Orient.
Eden declared Britain has the
support of both parties in Spain in
her efforts to maintain the integ-
rity of that country.
Declaring that the civil war was
the outcome "of a prolonged period
of weak government," he added:
"In those troubled waters foreign
elements of various kinds have had
their fair share of fishing. ... In-
tervention has not been on one side
alone, and has not been limited to
the period after the war."
SBritish non-intervention, Eden
continued, "has. been most scrupu-
lously observed. Both parties in
Spain know it. The whole world
knows it."
Both speeches were interpreted
as leaving little doubt Britain
would maintain a firm stand
against yesterday's Italo-German
proposals that the non-interven-
tion patrol around Spain be dropped
and belligerent rights begranted
the warring parties in S ,.n.
Some sources said t idetermi-
nation was due to a co. action that
the granting of belligerent rights
would favor Insurgent Generalis-
simo Francisco Franco and enable
countries favoring his cause to give
him increased support and obtain a
stronger foothold in the Iberian
Holiday Week-End Of
F. D. R. Outlined; To
Make Only One Talk
HYDE PARK, N. Y., July 3.-
(AP)-President Roosevelt made
his only speaking engagement of
the Independence Day holidays to-
day when he accepted.an invitation
to attend a church fair at Mt.
Marion, on the' west bank of the
Hudson, Monday afternoon.
Tomorrow he will attend services
here at St. James Episcopal Church,
where he has been senior warden
for several, years. In the after-
noon he will give a picnic at his
Val-Kill Farm for the White House
staff and newspapermen.
WPA Official Quits
To Accept New Job;
Succeeded By Dill
(AP)-W. A. McMullen, Jr., assist-
ant administrator and director of
operations for the Florida WPA,
resigned today to accept appoint-
ment as Pinellas County engineer.
He said he would take over his
new post at Clearwater, Fla., Tues-
Administrator Frank P. Ingram
said R. J. Dill, formerly of Tampa,
would be acting assistant adminis-
trator in addition to continuing his
present duties as head of the WPA
finance department.





SScene of Search for Missing Fliers

Top photos show Amelia ]arhart Putnam, America's outstanding aviatrii, and her navigator, Fred Noo-
nan, who were forced down on the last phase of their round-the-world flight in an $80,000 commercial trans-
port plane. The smaller map shows Howland Island, where the search for the missing fliers is concentrated.
In the lower map are indicated points where they stopped, along with corresponding dates up to arrival,at
Lae, New Guinea, from where their last hop started. -

Fear Closing

Of Road Board

Shops August 1
u us

Rumors Affect Mainte-
nance and Equipment Di-;
visih -at Gainesvillet

GAINESVILLE, Fla., July 3.
(AP)-The probability that the
equipment and maintenance divi-
sion of the Florida State Road De-
partment, located north of Gaines-
ville, will be closed August -1 was
seen here today as several of the
employees said they had received
discharge notices effective on that
Rumors current, in Gainesville
and Tallahassee were to the effect
that the-shops would be definitely
closed and maintenance work car-
ried on locally in the four divisions
of the road department, with the
purpose in view of saving trans-
portation costs from the various
sections of the state to Gainesville.

Lexington Is
Ordered To
Join Search
'SAN DIEGO, Calif., July 3.
(P)-Facilities of the Naval Ait
Service were thrown into the
search for the missing plane of
Amelia Earhart and her naviga-
tor, Fred Noenan today when the
huge aircraft carrier Lexington
was ordered to prepare for a
South Seas cruise, which might
last four weeks, with 54 planes
The Lexington, now at San
Pedro, was ordered to fuel to
capacity. Meanwhile, at North
Island Naval Air Station here,
preparations were made to get
six squadrons of aircraft aboard
the 33,000-ton carrier..
Four scouting, one bombing
and torpedo squadron-about 54
planes in all-were ordered to be
ready at 6:30 a. m. tomorrow.
The Lexington was to have left
San Pedro today,on a July 4 visit
to Santa Barbara. The cruise
was ordered cancelled and the
Lexington is hastening prepara-
tions for her departure to the
Howland Island area.

Governor Cone Sends
Restoration Message


June 29th, 1937

Miss Nina Hawkins
The T.Augustine Record
St Augustine Florida

Dear Miss Hawkins:

It gives me pleasure as Governor
and as a private citizen of the State of Florida
to express my gratification in the proposed
Restoration program, which has as its main
purpose the preservation and restoration of
historical landmarks in St Augustine.
It seems to me that one of the real
splendid ways to pass on to posterity, the evidences
of the hardships, sacrifices as well as the progress
of our forefathers and early settlers, is through
just such a program.
Florida has many points of historical
interest which should be preserved and the citizens
of St Augustine together with the assistance offered
by the Carnegie Institute are to be commended for
their persistent activity in seeing that this work
goes forward.
SI am happy to have had a small part
in this truly worthwhile movement and extend to you
my hearty cooperation at all times.





P. a;-0

Amelia Planned

"Normal Life"

After Flight

Anxious Husband of Miss-
ing Aviatrix Quoted in
Oakland Tribune
OAKLAND, Calif., July 8 (AP)
The Oakland Tribune said,George
Palmer Putnam disclosed today
that his daring wife, Amelia Ear-
hart, planned to give up record-
breaking flights after satisfying a
"life dream" of a round-the-world
Putnamn said he and Miss Ear-
hart had planned to "settle down
to a normal life" in Southern Cal-
'ifornia at the close of the present.
venture. t
"We decided that when she re-
turned to Oakland from this flight
there would be no more spectacu-
lar water flying," the paper quoted
Putnam, ".. No more jumps over
"If this trip had been successful,
she would have crossed all the
oceans there are to fly over.
"It had been her life dream to
fly completely around the world.
She could not rest until she was
ready to start out.
"But with this flight started we
agreed there would be no more. Of
course she did not plan to give up
flying. She will always have her
own plane, but there will be no
more record-breaking attempts; no
more spectacular flights."

Three Die In

Blazing Plane

Fourth Suffers Severe In-
juries When Monoplane
Crashes in New York
ONEONTA, N1. Y., July 3. (AP)
Three persons died in flames and a
fourth was severely injured today
when an airplane crashed and
burned at a private landing field.
The dead:
H. Lynn, 60, of Morris, N. Y.,
founder of the Lynn Manufacturing
Company, trailer manufacturers,
and owner of the cabin monoplane.
Captain George Stead, 43, Nor-
wich, N. Y., Army Air Corps re-
serve flier and pilot of the plane.
Mrs. Dorothea Hansen, 30, of
Endicott, N. Y.
Mrs. Hansen's husband, Arthur,
34, was reported to have received
severe burns.
The accident occurred at what is
known as "Patrick's Hill," when
the motor stalled at approximately
500 feet. A witness said the pilot
swung the ship about and started to
nose it down, when the motor start-
ed again.
He then resumed his course, but
the plane hit a tree and came down
in a mass of flames, she said.
Colonel Jacob Schick Dies At
Age Of 59 In New York
NEW YORK, July 3. (AP)-Col.
Jacob Schick, 59, died here today,
less than a month after he was
cited to Congress for forming a
foreign corporation to reduce fed-
eral taxes on a fortune made from
an electric razor he invented.



Storm Halts Searching


Craft After Two-Hour

Flight From Honolulu

Only Coast Guard Cutter Itasca Left to Resume Dis-
couraging Quest in South Pacific for Famous
Aviatrix and Her Navigator


Searchers Put Little Faith in Supposed Messages
From "Flying Laboratory"; Assert No Couivinc- '
ing Proof She and Noonan Remain Alive -
By The Associited Press
HONOLULU, July 3.-Chances for the rescue of lost Amelia Ear-
hart and .her navigator, Fred Noonan, diminished today when storms
turned a big naval flying boat away from the search, leaving only the
Coast Guard cutter Itasca to resume its discouraging quest in the South
Recurring reports of SOS calls*
from the helpless plane bore up the Hawaii caused it to resume the
hopes of relatives and friends, but hunt. I
directors of the far-flung search From Oakland, Calif., George
shook their heads. Palmer Putnam cabled a request to
A long distance naval flying boat Radio Station KGU here to broad-
'sped out of Honolulu on a 1,500- cast hourly messages to Miss EarJ-'
mile flight to the scene but tUrned hart in efforts to locate his wife and
back after fighting snow, sleet and Noonan.
lightning storms two hours. Putnam asked that her initials,
The Itasca, which temporarily "AE," be broadcast on the hour,
had abandoned the hunt and re- followed by "SOS. Land or water?
turned to Howland Island to serve North or South?"
as a base for larger operations, He said he hoped Miss Earhart
immediately began combing, the might he able to pick up the mes-
area about Howland Island Where sages and indicate her location and
Miss Earhart came down Friday; whether she was; on an island or
Naval authorities considered the afloat.
plight of their searching plane so He said the Pan-Pacific Prhas
precarious that they ordered two Bureau had computed that. Miss
destroyers and two aircraft tenders Earhart might have drifted back
'to take up stations along its return to the original position, when she
route. radioed she was 100 mile from
The battleship Colorado, carry- Howland.
ing three catapult planes, sailed at Half an -hour later she sent an
1 p. m. (6:30 p. in. ESr) front Pearl alarming message that she had
Harbor for Howland Island to aid onl a. a
the Itasca, which reported it would only half an hours.supply bf fedi
be out of fuel by Monday morning, left and could rno make the dis
,It thus appeared the search taiice. The bureau figured that
might lag from Monday morning with a five-mile an hour drift Miss
'until Tuesday night or Wednesday E.arrt, IfSafloAt, wouldd have
when the Colorado is scheduled to Earhart f a t
reach the scene- The Colorado car- drifted back to the spo.!from whi*c
ried oil for the Itasca. she first broadeast.- -
Pending return of the naval A request to the Itasca tor eese
plane, officers considered sending broadcasting on the same wav.
out another of its kind, but had M E am "rve
reached no decision. length.as Miss Earhart was made
Meanwhile, the Itasca reported by Coast Guard headquarters at
no further radio signals had been' San Francisco in efforts to pick up
heard.. any distress signals she sends.
Temporary discontinuance of the an disres, he end.
Itasca's efforts would leave only Officials said Miss Earhart *as
the relatively slow Navy tug Swan authorized to ise 3105, 6210 and
available in the, Howland area. The 500 kilocycles and that the Itasca
Swan was heading toward Iowland had been using the same frequen-
after having stood by at the half- ci
way point, between the islet and cies in tests.
Honolulu. Thd Coast Guard at San' Fran-
Some search authorities reported cisco planned to operate three
receiving word that the British monitoring stations. Officers ex-
radio station in the Nurru Islands ..in, ,,, t, ,. io ,. i e ,r -
picked up a message on the Ear- "" t sou iss arha
hart wave-length saying "A ship broadcast, they might be able to
in sight ahead." pick up the signals.,
The message was untimed and Out of Honolulu, the battleship
part of it was unintelligible, but Colorado was ordered by the Navy
the British station was quoted as o w o b t v
saying the voice was similar to Miss Department to steam at full speed,
Earhart's. carrying three planes to aid in en
This station is on almost a direct expansive hunt.
line with Miss Earhart's flight The aircraft tender Pelican also
route' and heard her Thursday as was pressed into the sea combing
she passed within 60 miles of Nur- task from the Hawaiian Islands.
ru. At 10 a. m. Eastern Standard
The unsuccessful searching plane Time today, Carl Pierson and Wal-
reported encountering the snow and ter McMenamy, amateur radio
sleet at high altitude. Snow is operators, said at Los Angeles they
unknown at Howland Island, only heard Amelia's own voice speak her
50 miles from the equator.. plane's call letters, "KHAQQ."
Rescue workers said the sun there "I recognized Miss Earhart's
would be a great hazard to survival voice from conversations I had with
of anyone exposed to. its merciless her," Pierson said.
equatorial rys. Reports.indicated But Coast Guardsmen in Hono-
clear skies and a calm sea in the lulu failed to verify this and, after
region of the hunt. lack of word increased concern,
Searchers put little faith in re- they released the last three mes-
ports of amateur radio operators of sages known' definitely to have
supposed messages from the Ear- come from Miss Earhart. All three
hart "flying- laboratory" and as- were sent yesterday while she was
serted there was no convincing in the air, her position unknown,
proof that she and Noonan remain- and the fuel supply almost ex-
ed alive. hausted.
But the radio messages purport- At 2:12, p. m. Eastern Standard
ing to come from the lost twin- Time Friday, she had reported the
motored plane continued to flash necessity of landing soon in,'heti
despite official skepticism. $80,000 "Flying Laboratory" say-
Paul Mantz, Miss Earhart's tech- ing no land was in sight. Despite
nical advisor, expressed the convi'c- this report,' Paul Manti, Miss
tion that two Los Angeles amateur Earhart's technical adviser for the
wireless operators had really picked flight, said at Burbank, Calif., he
up a message from the plane and felt confident she had reached some
that Miss Earhart and her naviga- coral atoll and even if she had not
tor had reached an atoll in the the two-man'rubber raft could float
South Pacific. "indefinitely."
Searchers said they had reason Frankly concerned, Miss Ear.
to believe the last message from hart's publisher-husband, George
the plane came at 1:45 a. m. today Palmer Putnam, waited for word
(7:15 a. m. EST). at San Francisco although he conri
But amateur listeners insisted tinued to hold outhope of her ulti-
they had heard reports at 9:42 a. mate rescue.
m., 9:55 a. m. and 10 a. m., EST., Even .more startling, Putnam
indicating they were from the said, was Mantz' belief that in the
plane. "background" of the- radio calls
One reported he recognized Miss could be heard what sounded like
Earhart's voice saying "KHAQQ the roar of an airplane engine.
SOS, KHAQQ SOS, KHAQQ SOS." Mantz informed Putnam he be-
These are the call letters given lived Miss Earhart had brought
Miss Earhart for the "just for fun" her big plane down safely on a
world flight that came to grief dur- coral atoll when the gasoline sup-
ing an attempted 2,570,mile flight ply ran low and had rigged up an
yesterday from Lae, New Guinea emergency radio broadcasting set.
to Howland Island. The airplane motor in such case
After a 21-hour search of Ihe would be used to generate power,
waters about Howland, the Itasca' Mantz explained.
returned to the island intending' to An alert eye was kept by all
remain there as a base ship for searchers for an orange kite, which
other searching craft. Failure of Miss Earhart and Noonan took
the flying boat to get through from along to fk as a distress signal









State Aspect

Has Appeal

Says Colee

Head of Florida Cham-
ber of Commerce
Shows Interest

"If it's good for Florida we are
for it", is the slogan of Colonel
Harold Colee, president of the i
State Chamber of Commerce, and
it is for that reason, as well as for
his ardent love of Old St. Augus-
tine, his home city, that Colonel
Colee is so interested in the Pre-
servation and Restoration of this
Oldest City.
Colonel Colee points out that his-'
torically Florida is exactly 424
years old because it was on Easter
Sunday, March 27, 1513, that Ponce
de Leon sighted these shores, later
landing at the site of what is now
St. Augustine. He points to the
program of the last few years that
as made Florida the most-talked-
of state in the nation and says
"Florida's salt-tanged air, her
equable climate, balmy breezes,
healthful environment, marvelous
beaches, vitamin-loaded fruits and
vegetables and glorious sunshine,
all these combine to make Florida
a veritable 'Fountain of Youth', en-
joyed by more than 1,600,000 year-
round residents, and in excess of
2,000,000 visitors annually."
The head of the State Chamber
of Commerce feels that the pres-
ent program for St. Augustine is
one that will arouse nation-wide in-
terest, and bring visitors in in-
creasing numbers to this great
state. He expressed gratification
when the Legislature passed the
appropriation measure of $50,000
for the Restoration, and has shown
his fine support of the Preserva-
tion and Restoration program here
in many ways.
Ownership Of Public
Land Remained In
Very Confused State

Ownership of what was termed
"public land" remained in a very
confused condition for many years
after the transfer of Florida to the
United States. The city of St. Au-
gustine at one time ordered all per-
sons having houses on city lands to
move them at once. Again repeat-
edly they ire occupied with renting
buildings of the city on public lands.
Each year some of the most desir-
able lots were leased at auction
when a new set ofaldermen came in.
Sometimes only $2 or $3 might be,
Sthe lease rent for a city space near
the center of town for one year.
But they didn't pass up any
chances. Why the women should
be picked out for action doesn't ap-
pear. Possibly they were the most
audacious in edging over.
At one council meeting in 1854
i 'motion was made to "arrange
with Mrs. Mason for a lease of
public ground enclosed by her
fence on the north of her house."
Another motion was "to arrange
with Mrs. Strong for lease of the
public ground covered by her piaz-
za on east side of her house" and a
third at thd ,same session directed
seeir#j rs. Snttqi4a Genovar about
...l.ier leas-e-eieetofo0re granted her
for 4 feet public ground occupied
Iby her piazza."
(One of the Record's series of
County Board
Meets Tuesday
The county commissioners will
meet briefly tomorrow, in accord-
ance with the law, and then adjourn
until Tuesday at 9 a. m., when the
regular equalization meeting will
be held, after which the tentative
budget will be taken up and con-
sidered. At the equalization meet-
ing the assessment roll for 1937
will be presented and the commis-
sioners will hear complaints, if any,
against the assessments. It is ex-
pected that a number of citizen
interested in the budget will be
present at the session.

The Weather

FLORIDA: Partly cloudy today
and Monday, a few scattered after-
poon thundershowers.
Prevailing Winds
gentle to moderate winds, mostly
southwest to west and partly over-
cast weather today.
variable winds over extreme north,
gentle to moderate east to south-
east winds over south and central
portions; partly overcast weather
today with a few scattered showers.
ate east to southeast winds and
partly overcast weather today with
scatt(-ed showers.
Loc.! temperatures have ranged
from .2 to 80 degrees.
Stations- High Low
Asheville .............. 86 50
Atlanta ............... 92 66
A+lintic City .......... 80 70
Chicago ................ 86 66
Cincinnati ............. 88 64
Cleveland .............. 72 58
Denve' ................ 94 64
Tetroit ................. 74 50
Jacksonville ............ 86 74
a. V ....... ..
.......pl............... .o 80
Little Rock ............ 96 74
Los Angeles ............ 8 64
Memphis ........... 92 76
M iami .................. 86 80
Minneapolis-St. Paul .... 90 72
New Orlcnns ........... 90 74
New York ................ 72 64
Pi tti sl ur. ............ 80 5
Richmond .............. 86 60
St. Loui ............... 86 68
S .n An onlo ........... 94 74
11n IFr.ncisco .......... 76 56
S-"vnnal : .............. g0 70
Tampa ... ... .. .... C 72
8Washington ............ 84 65
MornMlg Evening
High Low High Low
4 ..... 4:18 10:32 5:01 11:22
5 ..... 5:22 11 31 6:00 12:10
6 ..'... 6:23 12 :20 6:57 12:28
7 7:21 1:15 7:51 1 23
8 ..... 8:16 2:08 8:44 2:17
9 ..... 9:10 2:58 9:34 3:08
10 .....10:02 3:47 10:23 4:00
11 .....10:53 4:35 11:10 4:51
12 .....11:43 5:23 11:57, 5:46
13 .....12:10 6:12 12:32 6:42
14 .....1244 7:03 1:23 7:41
15 ..... 1:31 7:53 2:16 8:38
16 ..... 2:23 8:45 3:13 9:23
17 ....3:21 9:35 4:09 10:25
18 ..... 4:07 10:25 4:53 11:06
19 ..... 5:11 11:13 5:51 12:03
20 ..... 6:00 11:59 6:35 12:10

These City Commissioners Direct St. Augustine's Destinies And Endorse The Restoration



The Purpose of This Issue
The purpose of this Restoration Issue of the Record is to
arouse further interest in the program that calls for the Preserva-
tion and Restoration of Historic St. Augustine.
The preservation of historic landmarks, narrow streets, and
general picturesqueness is something that has been much dis-
cussed during past years. But one, by one, we have seen ancient
landmarks vanish. Streets have been widened to take care of the
modern demands of traffic. Apprehension and alarm marked
the attitude of all who cherish the ancient aspect of St. Augustine.
Only fear was felt for the future, and the ultimate outcome.
Then Mayor Walter B. Fraser had the vision of a National
Committee which should be charged with the task of devising
ways and means to save St. Augustine from the devastating hand
of change and modernity. Fortunately Dr. John C. Merriam,
president of Carnegie Institution, a visitor to St. Augustine on
several occasions, had come, with others of his staff, to know
and love this community for what it has been; what it is now,
and what it should be, preserved, restored and maintained as an
historical laboratory, where the story of the centuries might be
read, studied, and enjoyed. With Dr. Merriam as chairman of
the committee, the work of the group was progressive. A pre-
liminary survey was made, under the direction of Dr. Verne E.
Chatelain, and accepted at a meeting at Hotel Ponce de Leon on
March 2d. Since then time, effort and money have been put into
the task of coordinating and setting up the program. The City of
St. Augustine, the County of St. Johns, the St. Augustine Histori-.
cal Society, and a number of business groups and individuals,
have advanced funds. Carnegie Institution has given aid, financial
and otherwise, and supplied the services of the director.
The State of Florida, through the 1937 Legislature, passed a
bill appropriating $50,000 for the Preservation and Restoration
Plan. Other necessary legislation also was passed. The State
has met every Restoration demand with an unqualified affirma-
tive action.
It is to set forth all these facts; also to emphasize how much
history there is here to be brought out, developed, and followed
up, that the Restoration Issue is being published, and sent out
to thousands of interested people the country over.
St. Augustine is a national treasure. It is vital that we let
the nation know what we are doing, and what is contemplated.
We hope that the Restoration Issue will play its part in this
great program.

June Building Permits In

Ancient City Total $7,710

23 Applications Received
Cover All Types of Con-
struction Work

The construction business in St.
Augustine is picking up if the 23
building permits totalling $7,710
applied for during the month of
June hai anything to do with it.
Permits covered all sorts of remod-
eling, re-roofing, and general repair
work on homes and buildings.
Probably the most expensive bit
of construction was granted to O. D.
Wolfe, who is going to Invest $2,000
in the erection of tourist cabins at
No. 139 San Marco Avenue. An-
other permit, dealing with the re-
pairing of the valuable prop-
erty at No. 165 Cordova Street, was
estimated to cost in the neighbor-
hood of $1,000.
A re-roofing job will be done by
Otis E. Barnes, who has received
permission to replace the roof on
his home on Nelmar Terrace with
an estimated cost of approximately
$700. The Y. M. C. A. was given
permission to replace the old roof
on the gymnasium. This work will
probably cost in the neighborhood
of $300. At No. 259 San Marco,
the Shell Petroleum Company was
permitted to re-roof their place of-
business. The cost will total about
$200. At No. 101 Duero Street per-
mission was granted to replace the
roof on a structure located there at
a cost of- $160. Chas. D. Segui
asked for and received a permit to
put a new roof on his property at
No. 47 San Marco Avenue. Work
to be done here will total about
$350. Also on San Marco Avenue,
James Colee will re-roof his struc-
ture at a cost estimated at around
$100. E. C. Oliver will place a new
roof on the property at No. 9 Sara-
gossa Street, the metal material to
be used costing $70.. A re-roof-
ing job on the garage of A. L.
Campbell at No. 3 Loring Street

Church Service
To Be Broadcast
The service of. the Memorial
Presbyterian Church at 11:00
o'clock this morning will be broad-
cast over station WFOY. The sub-
ject of the sermon will be: "If God
Be For Us." The choir will render
special music under the direction
of Lorenzo Pratt Oviatt and Mrs.
Grace Hood will be the soloist.

will cost in the neighborhood of $50.
A new roof is to be placed on the
structure at No. 18 Saragossa
Street which amounts to a $70 job.
Joe Burg has received permission
to replace the roof on the property
at No. 29 West Avenue at an esti-
mated cost of $275. A re-roofing
permit was given Eugene Pomar
also, this being estimated at $100.
A permit was obtained by Mrs.
Blanche Altavilla for the purpose
of putting a new $50 roof on her
structure at No. 7 Mackey Street.
Mrs. Horace Lindsey was given
permission to repair the interior of
the structure located on the corner
of Whitney and King Streets. This
work will total about $150 in ex-
penses. Francis Masters filed his
application for permission to build
an ice house. W. M Thompson was
allowed to build a screen porch on
his property at La Quinta Place at
an estimated cost of $200. Repair
work totaling $500 in costs will be
done at No. 5 Saragossa Street.
This is one of the largest repair jobs
listed with the exception of some
of the re-roofing.
The Colored Welfare Home on
Central Avenue was given permis-
sion to lay a sidewalk and do other
cement work about the property
which will cost $300. Phillip
Burnstein will expend $600 to add a
room at the rear of his store at No.
56 St. George Street. Mrs. George
Meserve was granted a permit to
repair her metal garage at No. 320
St. George Street and J. D. Rahner
also plans to repair his St. George
Street property. These costs are
$75 and $200, respectively.





-End In St. Aug
cee-Sponsored, Celebrat

blic may attend services i

n Skeet Shoot on Davis
St. Johns County Spo
bs in charge.
Matanzas Bay under dir
pades. Out-of-town entrii
ram by Red Bird Rhyti
la Williams, director.
ert in Plaza featuring Di
estra. Dedicated to late J
et Him In Paris", with (
ng and Melvyn Douglas,

rade in Plaza. Prizes be
Lighthouse Park. Gres
Carnival by Volunteer R
nd with "King Neptune
ous athletic events in wh
may participate.
ue baseball game at Lew
. Augustine Saints.
ter as it is sufficiently
f fireworks set off fro
t dogs" and other light
r Service Club during f
. (Proceeds to Jaycees
tion expenses.)
al showings of "I Met
laudette Colbert, Robert

San Marco Was/,
King's Roa Fourth of July Week
King s Ro Official Program for Jay

Long Ago Days S
Morning left open so general pub
Members of Lyon Family local churches.
Aided in Development 1:00 pm-State-wide invitation
under auspices of
There League. W. L. Dubb
2:00 pm-Sailboat regatta on
Prosaic and businesslike San Commodore C. C. Sp
Marco Avenue was the Old King's
Road, El Camino Real of the old 7:45 pm-Fifteen-minute prog
Spanish days. This road was fol- in Plaza. Miss Berth
lowed to reach fine old homes and
plantations which lay to the north- 8:00 pm-Two-hour band conce
ward of the city. and hs concert orche
One of the interesting develop- At the Jefferson Theatre: "I M
ments in North City (that area Colbert, Robert Youi
north of the City Gates) started
when in 1870 W. Lyon brought his
family from the north. At first MON
they spent only the winter here. 10:00 am-Baby Contest and Pa
After a short residence at the south- Mrs. Joe Foster in
west corner of St. George and
Bridge Streets Mr. Lyon built a cot- 1:30 pm-Athletic program at
tage at the north corner of what is Sensational Water C
now Hope Street and San Marco Life-Saving Corps a
Avenue. Two of the date palms he court" present. Vari
planted are still standing in the women and children
front yard of the present apart-
ment house on the site, which is 4:15 pm-Florida State Leagu
occupied by City Manager Eugene Orlando Gulls vs. St
Masters and his family. Mr. Lyon 8:00 pm-(or as soon thereaf
and his brother had a strip of land Elaborate display o:
bounded by Hospital Creek on the Shores.' Sale of "ho
east, and the San Sebastian on the ments by Sub-Junio:
west. The small daughters had display on Bayfront
their little rowboat and would be in defraying celebra'
able at high tide to get a start right
off the road. But sometimes the At the Jefferson Theatre: Fin
tide went out with a rush, when Paris", featuring C]
Mr. Lyon would signal "hurry" to Melvyn Douglas.
them but it would be impossible to
get back anywhere near the start-
ing place with the boat.
Members of the family live at Hast g News
No. 99 San Marco Avenue. Mrs.
O. B. Smith, one of the daughters of
the late W. Lyon, at 92, is one of By Mrs. Joel Padgett
the oldest women in the city. With HASTINGS, Fla., July 3 (Special
her are her sisters, Mrs. J. M. to the Record)-Miss Helen Bailey
Thomas and Miss Susan Lyon. All and Elmo Causey were joint hosts
three of them have much informa- at a delightful picnic at Juniper
tion concerning the neighborhood Springs on Thursday afternoon.
and its development.
hen h ouse t No. 105 San Marco The party had a chicken dinner at
The house at No. 105 San the springs and afterward enjoyed
Avenue was occupied at one time by other sports. Those attending were
General Dent, brother-in-law of
General U. S. Grant, it is her-in-law oterest Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth Bailey, Miss
General U. S. Grant, it is interest-
ing to note. Marvadene Steele, J. W. Campbell,
oh0e and Mr. and Mrs. John Hunt.
Schedule Announced && &Hastings was a busy place
on Wednesday afternoon when it
For Life Guards was the scene of two stockholders
meetings. The Hastings Potato
Schedules are being announced Growers had their annual meeting
for the life guards, who will be on and the Florida Planters held their
duty at Lighthouse Park and St. annual meeting. These meetings
Augustine Beach today, July 4th, were well attended and the business
and tomorrow, July 5th. Guards was of interest to the men and wo-
will be on duty today as follows: men who h ave crops each year in
Lighthouse Park, Ted McCully and. this section.
Lorenzo Johnson.from 12 noon to
7 p. m., Walter Hardee and John Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth Bailey re-
Westbrook from 10 a. m. to 12 turned on Thursday from a trip to
noon; St. Augustine Beach, Sonny Miami Beach where they spent ten
Welch, Jerome Eichholz, Bob days.
Mould and Jack Kirkpatrick, from Mr. and Mrs. George Faatz of
1 to 7 p. m. Monday the guards Clermont were the guests Thurs-
will be on duty as follows: Light- day of Mr. and Mrs. Lance Free-
house Park, Jerome Eichholz and man. Mrs. Faatz will be remem-
Jack Kirkpatrick from 12 noon un- bered in Hastings as Mrs. Linna
til 7 p. m., Lorenzo Johnson and Terrell, sister of Mrs. Freeman.
Bob Mould from 10 a. m. to 12 Willie Frank Wolf left on Fri-
noon. Earl Eichholz will serve as day for points in Tennessee and
officer of the day on both holidays. Kentucky on business.
Sonny Welch and Lorenzo Johnson Ansley Hall was a business vis-
will be on duty at Lighthouse Park itor in Palatka on Friday after-
each day from July 6 through July noon.
10 from 1 until 7 p. m. Kenneth Register has visited each
o evening this week with his another,
YMCA Building Closed Mrs. L. D. Register, who is a pa-
tient in the Flagler Hospitol.
For Holiday Rev. and Mrs. C. M. White and
The YMCA building will be closed children, Marion, Charles and T. L.
all day tomorrow in observance of White, were visitors in St. Augus-
the holiday. Secretary Warren tine early this week.
Magee will be at Camp Win-Co-Ma, Rev. and Mrs. W. C. White were
making final arrangements for the recent visitors at the Flagler Hos-
camping period which opens Tues- pital, calling on Hastings friends
day. The physical department of who are patients there.
the Y, including showers and swim- Mr. and Mrs. A. J. Maltby and
ming pool, will not be open at all children, Adin, Jr., Edmond, Lee,
during the day and members are and Richard, left this week to spend
asked to keep this in mind. The two months on Anastasia Beach.
building will close at 9 o'clock each They are comfortably located at
evening for the duration of the the H. E. Maltby beach home.
camping periods, it is also an- Fletcher Campbell, Ashley Camp-
nounced. bell, Bill Nearing, Joe McCullough,

These County Commissioners Show Rare Spirit Of Cooperation With Restoration Progrc




Thanks Given

To Citizenry

Who Assisted

Mrs. Frost Dies
In Indiana
Word has been received here
Mrs. B. J. Powers, of the rec
death of Mrs. Phoebe E. Frost.
Fair Mount, Ind. Mrs. Frost li
in St. Augustine over 15 years a
with members of her family in W
St. Augustine, and will be remi
ER bered by a number of friends.

I ~' .._

Many Have Shown Li
ly Interest and
IP6? '-----
Sincere thanks of all conn
i with the gathering of material
Make this Restoration Histo
? Edition of the Record a success
due every person who has aide
the huge work. Many people
no idea how much some small
Shas helped. It may have been
a name, a place, a little fact, b
may have just woven into I
article to make it more nearly
proach the correctness for a
everyone working on the edition
been striving. Sometimes a
gestion has been made to see a
or woman hitherto unknown,
SON possibly would have some kr
edge, needed to corroborate alr
secured, but not accepted, incide
Such suggestions have somet
ustine opened up historical lines too
able to be entirely included in
-ion issue in which so great a num
of subjects must be taken up. M
people who do not realize they ]
aided in the work have re
proved of great help. The collect
n various of material for this issue co
weeks and months of intensive
SShores, search especially along pers
ortsmen's lines. This issue brings toge
formerly unrecorded facts. Th
has been possible to do this has b
section of due to the friendly willingness
es. everyone, and it is felt that if
issue was three times as big pe
hm Band would still be helping unfold 1
tofore not recognized facts of vw
ick Parks This edition shows what res
. A. Lew. St. Augustine people do prod
when cooperation spurs them
Claudette Restoration is going to be won
ful with such a foundation.
If anyone has been omitted f
this list, who feels they have 1
of help, please consider thanks
awarded, given just the same. Some of
people who helped are:
asy Pole. Mr. and Mrs. George Alba, 1
ed Cross Mae Andreu, Mrs. E. S. Asl
and his Miss Anna Arnau, Mrs. Lora
which men, Averette.
Miss Mary Bentley, Mrs. C
Bagwell, Mrs. Dora Benet, Laur
wis Park. V. Benet, Washington, D. C.; I
Brandt, Mrs. Mary Butler, Mrs
dark)- R. Baker, Chester Benet, Gool
m Davis Butler.
refresh- Mr. and Mrs. V. D. Capo, '
fireworks Caroline Canova, Mr. and
for use Louis Capo, M'r. and Mrs. We
Cook, Mrs. Leslie Chambers, I
Canova, City Clerk C. E. Kettle
Him In his staff, County Clerk Hiram I
t Young, er and his staff, Mrs. John L. (
ter, Jerome Capo, Brigadier Gen
Vivian Collins, and Mrs. Col
Eleanor Beeson-Carroll, Louis
ers Mrs. Neil Dickman, Mrs. J
i L Dismukes, BvDeyo, Mrs. W.
S1S Dewhurst, David R. Dunham, ]
SI e Minnie Dowd, H. W. WDavis, Mn
i sue P. Dodge. :
n the news Mrs. W. H. Erwin.
Mrs. J. C. R. Foster, Mrs. Li
gely to the Flaherty.
)ers these Bartolo Genovar, Dr. and ]
tographers Phil Genovar.
members of Mr. and Mrs. W. R. Hites, Cha
F. Hopkins, Sr., Mrs. Maude H
ley, Henry Hernandez, Mrs:
particularly genia Hunter, Miss Nancy Hul
the assist- Mrs. Harry A. Jones.
rt photog. Mrs. Cora Kettle, Herbert
tion of the Kahler.
ich is car Miss Mary Ker London, X. Lo
ich icar-Miss Susan Lyon.
Kustine and Col. W. A. MacWilliama, I
Restoration Amey Macmillen, Mrs. Cha
e. In this Manucy, Mrs. Paul Mickler, A
paper pays Oliveros Manucy, Mr. and
rk of John Manucy, Mrs. Catherine w
d work of ler, City Manager Eugene Masi
n Johnston, T. Rogero Mickler, Miss I
SWashing- Mickler, Bertram Mickler, Al
king under Manucy, Mrs. George Miller.
ie Institu- C. J. Noda, Rt. Rev. Monsij
ie nstitu James Nunan, Rev. J. H. O'Ke
g local pho- Most Rev. Patrick Barry, Bisho:
Rahner, P. the diocese of St. Augustine.
Harris. Ernest Oliveros, Miss M
R. A. Ponce, Miss Anna Pac
Mrs. Eduardo Ponce, Mrs. Lou
Paris, Mrs. H. C. Paffe, Miss T]
ay esia Paffe, Miss Mary Peck, 1
ich certain Erma Pattison, Mrs. May Perp
vsti-aing Mrs. Josephine Pellicer, Miss E
vestigating Pomar, V L. Pellicer.
ie matter of Miss Jane Quinn.
.tes, will be Erskine Reynolds, Joseph Ra
at 10 a m. Mr. and Mrs. Edward Reyes, C
e City Hall. ence Rogero, Mrs. J. M. T. Rei
Lee Sink, T. J. Speissegl
ege of buy- Charles Segui, Mrs. O. B. Sir
:ties, com- Sisters of St. Joseph.
unced from Mrs. Fred Totams, Mrs. J.
I has come Thomas.
vners would Mrs. F. C. Usina, the late I
at deal of A. W. Underwood.
they could Mrs. Merle Vaughn, John Vers
meet their gi.
these certifi- Mrs. Reginald White, Miss Er
Lloyd Wilson, Ms. Walter D. W
Also all memFers of the Resti
Yelvington, tion staff, the members of comic
Turlington, tees from the St. Johns Cou
urke Floyd Medical Society and St. Jo
e returned County Bar Association, and m
to Wash- others who have shown a design
cooperate and make this issue
the St Augustine Record as ci
plete and as interesting as possi
Lm First ME Church
Circles Meet Tuesday
S The circles of the Woman's B
') sionary Society of First M.
Church, South, will meet Tues
afternoon at 8 o'clock as folio
.1|i Circle No. 1, with Mrs. Edw
Hood, No. 60 Almeria Street; (
s cle No. 2, with Mrs. W. F. Wo
3, with Mrs. Swindull, at No.
Grove Avenue, and Circle No.
with Mrs. Grimes, in Elkton.
is announced that transportat
will be provided for those wish
to attend the meeting of Circle:

For a
General Agricultural
Information Folder of the
Giving Agricultural Statistics
and Data on Rainfall and
Call or Write
Model Land Company
St. Augustine, Fla.
Flagler S stem
210 City Bldg.-Phone 776


S5.00 to 550.00
Salaried Men and Women-
Money Promptly
No Security-No Endorers
Only Your Signature Neces-
sary. Immediate Confidential
502 First National Bank Bldg.
Hours 8-6 Phone 248

Morris Plan
Loan Application Blanks May
Be Obtained at
Phone 1 T. R. Lewis

To The Record and Its Staff
for the



In West Augustine

Choose an Enna Jettick ox-
ford, strap, or pump, with plenty
of "punch, and you've taken
the first step toward a Summer
of ease. For these white shoesfeel
as light, cool, and comfortable as
they look. That's because of the
soft, fine leathers and the nat-
ural lines of the lasts.
SIZES 1 TO 12 $P

Wfhite, Twilight Blue, Mat Kid.
Sizes 1 to 10; AAAA to D.

Bumaneer or Boarded Calf.
Sizes 1 to 10; AAAA to C.
Ameria's Smartest Walking Shoes
Go Places Comfortably
"All That's Best in Footwear"
45 King St. Phone 1193





All Kinds of City Hauling
To and From Jacksonville
Two Trips Daily
Leave St. Augustine 8 A. M. and
2 P. M.; Leave Jacksonville 12 M.
and 4 P. M.
Phone 151 184 W. King St.


Aid In I

People and places ii
-these contribute larj
interest of newspaper
days, and good pho
are most important n
any news staff.
The Record feels I
fortunate to have had
ance of several expe
raphers in the product
Restoration Issue, wh
trying news of St. Aug
its Preservation and
Program far and wia
connection this news
tribute to the skilled
Miss Frances Benjamir
noted photographer of
ton, D. C., who is wor
a grant from Carneg
tion; also the following
tographers: F. Victor
A. Wolfe and Carver
Tax Certificates
To Be Sold Tuesd
Tax certificates, wh
concerns have been ii
recently, looking into th
securing these certifica
sold at public outcry a
Tuesday in front of the
Anyone has the privile
ing them, private par
panies, etc., it is anno
City Hall, where word
that local property ow
save themselves a gre
trouble and expense if
see their way clear to
tax obligations before tl
cates are sold.
Frank Barstow, Billie
Stanley Burrell, Cecil
Charles Turlington, Bo
and Junior Biggs hav
from their 10-day trip
ington, D. C.



-- 40,13,01mr- -. I ---




"Seeing St. Augustine"
Is Valuable Guide To
SThis City Of History

"Seeing St. Augustine", first of
the American Guide Series, by the
Federal Writers Project, to be
published in Florida, is now avail-
able at the offices of the St. Augus-
tine and St. Johns County Chamber
of Commerce. This book was spon-
sored by the city commission, and
is now offered in a limited edition
which it is expected will soon be
exhausted. The historical back-
ground of the Ancient City has been
written in an unusually attractive
manner. The preface is by Dr.
Verne E. Chatelain, director of the
St. Augustine Restoration. The
volume opens with a word picture
of the city, its geography, history,
and some of the almost forgotten
customs of early inhabitants. Then
follow the many points of interest
with a brief historical description
of each.



__ ___ I__

Y;Jur~E~-~rvJ1 r

SUNDAY, JULY 4, 1937


When your roving Restoration
reporter questioned a number of
local persons in regard to what they
thought the Restoration program
would mean to St. Augustine and
the nation, many gladly expressed
their views, making it possible to
gather the opinions of a representa-
tive group of citizens.
Some of the opinions on this
great historical project, upon which
the eyes of the nation are focused,
Chester E. Benet, harbor master:
"The citizens of St. Augustine
should get behind the Restoration
program with every bit of help and
cooperation that is in their power.
I do believe the program, if carried
through, will mean to this great
little town what a blood transfusion
means to a patient. I do hope it
will be a reality."
Maurice O'Brien, St. George
Street merchant:
"It's the greatest thing since
Flagler built Hotel Ponce de Leon.
Every man, woman and child in St.
Augustine should be for it. A town
can't stand still-it must go back-
ward or forward. I would recom-
mend a mass meeting for women
for the purpose of explaining the
plan in detail to them. Get them
lined up for it and they will con-
Svince the men."
Mrs. Charlotte Stead, clerk in a
local jewelry store:
"I am heartily in favor of the
'Restoration. Nearly everyone is
interested in the old places of inter-
est here and in the Old World at-
mosphere, and these should be pre-
served for future generations. The
Restoration can certainly do us no
harm and may be of untold value
to the city, as it will result in valu-
able advertising all over the coun-
Dr. Herbert E. White, prominent
local physician:
"Webster defines the word 'res-
toration' as the act of reclaiming,
bringing back to its former
strength, rebuilding, healing, or
curing. In the vast Restoration
project underway here there is a
part for every one to do. It should
e a matter of personal pride with
every man, woman and child here
to help in reclaiming from the dust
of ages the original implements of
living in our Ancient City; in
bringing back to its former strength
the best in art, literature and
music of our original inhabitants;
in rebuilding, restoring and pre-
serving for future ages the most
important of our ancient landmarks.
In banding ourselves together for
the common good of our beloved
city there will come the healing of
many factions, the curing of all
'*pettiness and selfishness. In this
way, alone will the true aims of the
Restoration be accomplished."
Mrs. ).oy Hallman, Florida East
jCaastailway office employee:
, "The Restoration program is
truly a constructive plan and one
.that will be of inestimable value to
SSt. Augustine. We have always
enjoyed and been proud of St. Au-
gustine because of its natural
beauty and charni, Old World at-
mosphere, and exceptionally good
year-round climate, and we are
anxious to share these unusual priv-
ileges with those from other sec-
tions of this country and abroad."
Clifford J. Noda, manager of the
St. Augustine Gas Company:
"I have followed with great inter-
est the development of the plan for
the. Restoration of St. Augustine,
and am glad to give it my endorse-
ment, and to assure the committee
of my hearty support. If the plan
Sis carried out as outlined in the St.
Augustine Record, I can see it will
Snot only add greatly to the beauty
of our city, but will mean much to
every line of business In the com-

Rev. A. E. Calkins, pastor of the
Ancient City Baptist Church:
"I heartily approve of the Res-
toration program, first, because it
will preserve the history of this
old city in a tangible, concrete
form, making it possible for all to
visualize the history of St. Augus-
tine. Secondly, it will be a great
asset in attracting visitors from all
parts of the North American con-
tinent and possibly from abroad,
bringing thousands here to see the
restored St. Augustine. And third,
the program will attract the high-
est type of intelligent, cultured
people. Many of these will no doubt
come here to make their homes, and
the population will therefore be in-
creased with the most desirable
element. For these reasons I will
gladly support the program, giving
whatever aid that I can."
Joseph Pinkoson, young local at-
"The Restoration project will result
in innumerable benefits not only to
the citizens of this city and the
State of Florida but to all peoples
of the civilized world. By restoring
this Mother City to its ancient ap-
Spearance, and by showing its de-
velopment through the ages, a real
and living picture of the historical
development of this section will be
established and preserved. The
result will make St. Augustine a
laboratory of historical research.
The discovery and preservation of
so many valuable sites and land-
marks will be of inestimable value
not only to, students of history to-
day, but also to those in the future."

Miss Leone Rood, member of the
faculty of Ketterlinus High School:
"St. Augustine belongs not only
to the State of Florida but to the
nation as well. A monument to a
fascinating period of world history,
it is in prave danger of losing its
identity and becoming merely one
mrre city with only a casual inter-
est for visitors. Modern'progress
is ruthless. It has no need of the
past and is concerned only with the
pracical present. Antiquity has
no :lace in its program. People
hc:e ':ave come to realize that they
h,.ve a responsibility in preserving
and cherishing that which makes
this town so charming and unique.
The plan means not only restora-

What They Think About the

Restoration Program

tion of many of the ancient fea-
tures, but also the preservation of
what we now possess and the re-
striction of such modern features
as will spoil the beautiful pattern
of Old World atmosphere. In view
of .what all this means to St. Au-
gustine, we should take one word
for our slogan: 'Cooperation.' "
Miss Elizabeth Thompson, presi-
dent of the Junior Service League:
"If the Restoration plan is com-
pleted many of our historic spots
long forgotten will come back into
being. The ancient'atmosphere of
our city will become even more at-
tractive for our many visitors."
Mrs. S. G. Glickstein, owner of
local dress shop:
"I think it is one of the biggest
things ever undertaken in St. Au-
gustine. I am for the program
wholeheartedly. I will gladly co-
operate in any way possible and
feel that the majority of our resi-
dents will do likewise."
Mrs. Frank Harrold, housewife:
"Of course I am heartily in favor
of the Restoration as I feel every-
one should be. Restoring and pre-
serving the lovely old buildings
here is to me like saving a prized
masterpiece for posterity. When
the program is completed St. Au-
gustine will present a living pic-
ture of past civilizations, and will
undoubtedly become one of the most
important cultural centers on this
continent. It will truly be unique
among the cities of the world."
C. Lawrence Mickler, employee of
the Florida East Coast Railway
"If the program of Restoration is
carried out as I understand it, there
is no question but that St. Augus-

Cannon Salute To
Take Place Monday
In connection with the gala week-
end to be held in the city starting
today with the Fourth, a twenty-
one gun salute will be fired at the
State Arsenal at high noon Mon-
day. This bit of military glamor
will undoubtedly add much color to
this patriotic occasion.

tine will be greatly benefited by
Mrs. J. R. Vaughn, owner of a
local hotel:
"I think the Restoration of St.
Augustine will mean a wonderful
improvement. Being the Mother
City of the United States, it should
be brought back to its original,
with its quaint balconies overhang-
ing the streets and the quaint little
windows. The city will be a great
attraction to tourists. To attract
the attention of tourists and keep
them in the city is something which
St. Augustine needs."

The Fte Ameon A
Radio with 6 M1 l i 9
Tabes 8o DymaMuA $ -3
Speaker dctum.
Sound Diff.arl a fn
Ste8 u st I&m a a
Vao grA i 0m age sarMag

Cover warm ear seam wi cool fiber
and attractive material Make ridlag
cleaner, cooler and moe emeafMet
Tailored o fit your car.

$16 $369





a hotel of quiet dignity,

refinement, and pleasant
surroundings. One hun-
dred fifty guest rooms,
each with bath, electric
ceiling fans and heat. The
location is ideal for the

winter visitor or the com-

mercial traveler, for it

combines all of the ad-

vantages of the quiet and
exclusive North Orange
Avenue section, with the

convenience of quick ac-
cessibility to the busi-

ness, financial, theatre

and shopping district.

Full Course

Golden Fried





Attractive black
and silver
fabricoid with
new cotton filer.
Ideal for oar,
beach or cottage.


Long Life
give Lower

Listen so she Voice of Firestose fJeatwuriwg Margae-t Speacks, ever Natowin e Na S. 9. Kae ase me r*


57 San Marco Ave.

The Following Firestone Associate Dealers Are Also

32 San Marco Ave.

131 King St.

Bridge and Granada Sts.

San Marco Ave.

Granada St.

W. King St.

22 So. Dixie Highway

116 San Marco Ave.


Phones 8 and 9

Prepared to Serve Youn "..'

123 King St.

Bunnell, Fla.

Hastings, Fla.

Bunnell, Fla.

53 Marriages

Occur During
Month Of June
A check-up on marriages dur-
ing the month of June showed
that 53 licenses for nuptials were
taken out during the past month.
Although this is a surprisingly
large number, the marital toll was
greater by one during the month
of May. Of the 53 licenses issued
during June, 31 were for white
couples and the remaining 22,
In delving back into the records
of past months, it was found that
the number of marriages taking
place in June of '37 exceeded the
June brides of last year by 18 as
35 couples marched to the altar in
Other facts of interest brought
out on the subject reveal that in
December of last year, 48 were
married. The low for 1936 showed
only 19 newlyweds, this number
being recorded during the short
or 28-day month of February.



Rev. C. W. Marlin of the state. Mr. Marlin formerly
served as past Department Chap-
Appointed Chaplain lain of Kansas.
Coming as a complete surprise
to Rev. C. W. Marlin was the news NO Issue Of
of his appointment to the office of Record Monday
Department Chaplain of General COrd
Order No. 1 United States Spanish Tomorrow, July 5th, being cele-
War Veterans for the coming year. brated generally as a holiday, be-
The appointment was made by Corn- cause the Glorious Fourth came on
mander W. W. Marshall of Fort Sunday this year, will be a holiday
Lauderdale and was unexpected by also at the Record plant. This
Mr. Marlin, in view of the fact that means that the staff "has a day
he has been unable to attend any off" after the strenuous work in
meetings of the organization held connection with today's Restoration
at St. Cloud all year. His work as Issue. Therefore there will be no
Chaplain will take him to all parts issue of the Record tomorrow.








I - I, r- -

Six Surveying Crews
Are Measuring Farms;
Acreage Is Computed

During the past month County
Agent Loonis Blitch has had six
surveying crews measuring the
farms in St. Johns County which
are cooperating in the federal gov-
ernment's 1937 Soil Conservation
Present plans are to compute the
acreage and make blueprints of
the 177 farms which have been

measured. :

Photo Views of Old St. Augustine, Florida
Sold In Sets Made On Gloss Paper In 116 Size
10 for 40c-Postpaid--40 for $1.00
Old Streets, Houses, Churches, City Gates, Fort Marion, and Many
Others of Historical Interest.-Larger Sizes Priced On Request.
Your Roll Developed and One Print of Each On Gloss Paper
Returned Promptly Postpaid for 25c.
36 St. George Street St. Augustine, Florida


"' :

t -- 1

^.J^W .^^^ s .. ...^


A- A- 0A. -x% -.

Founded in 1565
Br Pedro Monendes do Avile

Oldest Newspaper In Thils OldrCifCity
Vice Prsident and General Manager
Entered as ncond-clas matter, Februar 1. 1894, at
the Post Office of St. Augustine. Florida. under the Act
of Congre of March 8. 1879.
Published Sunday morning and every afternoon except
Subscription Rates: 16 cents a week. 45 cents a month.
$1.75 the quarter. 83.25 for six months, $8.00 a rear.
The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the me
for publication of all news dispatches credited to It or
not otherwise credited in this paper, and also the local
news published herein All rights of republiuction of
special dispatches herein are also mresered.
In case of error or emissions in advertisements the
publiher does not hold himself liable for damage further
then the amount received for uch advertisement.
row all Departments call............................ A
ight t 6 p.m. to 8 ... Sunday and Holidays:
Oinulaton Department ......................... 61
Aeeoutsn Department .......................: : 1
Editor and Reporters ......................******** 6
Advertising artment ....... 2
dvertlin D artment ...................... 62
Job Printin Department ..................... ..

A Bible Thought For Today
shall be given unto you; good measure,
pressed down, and shaken together, and run-
ning over, shall men give into your bosom.
For with the same measure that ye mete
withal it shall be measured to you again.-
Luke 6:38.

It seems that now the time has come for
St. Augustine citizens to affirm their faith in
the Restoration Program, and to accept it in
full, without reservations, whether or not
certain phases of it appeal to them.
The need for this is obvious.
Unless we accept the plan as outlined, we
can scarcely expect Carnegie Institution, and
its allied groups, or wealthy people who might
become interested in it through these groups,
to be willing to put up funds.
"He who hesitates is lost" certainly applies
to such an important plan as the Preserva.
tion and Restoration Program of Old St. Au.
gustine. We must definitely commit our-
selves to a course of action if we are to bene
fit by the tremendous possibilities that lie
ahead. To do anything else is' unthinkable
For months now we have talked Preservatior
and Restoration of Historic St. Augustine
The Restoration offices have been open to
visitors at all times. All questions have been
answered fully, honestly, with an evident de
Fitre-tacquaint ~tery person with the scopl
of the program.
It is evident that every citizen of St. Au
gustine, every man and woman who has any
interest in this community, must stand stead
fast now, and subscribe to the program witi
a heartfelt Credo (I believe).
There can be no halfway measures. Thi
program as a whole must be accepted and
worked out in its entirety. The thing cai
and must be seen as a whole, we are told
Some people feel that if there could have bee]
planned and done a small area at a time, they
would be better satisfied. However, the pro
gram has to be viewed as a whole in long
range planning. We must look ahead for ter
years, or perhaps longer. Only in that wa.
can a satisfactory program be mapped out.
Now is the time for our affirmation o

SThe Drama of St. Augustine
Let's do what nobody else has done! Let'
play upon the drama of St. Augustine!
Other places everywhere are emphasizing
beauty. This is fine. We want to emphasis
beauty, too, for it is a great asset. However
it happens to be something that St. Augus
tine most assuredly did not have in the olde:
days, according to all the information we ca:
gather. But it had drama. The clash o
swords, the rattle of musketry, the tramp o
marching feet! St. Augustine's narrow
streets resounded to these through the cen

Give imagination full rein, and let the ac
tors of the long ago, soldiers, sailors, pirates
buccaneers, officers of the King, priests an
humble citizens, parade before you. Ther
were women, too, who helped to hold thi
frontier post on the edge of the New Worl
for Spain. Children were born here, and gre'
to manhood and womanhood within the she
tering gates of the Old City. The walls c
Castillo de San Marcos looked down upon th
town, and offered shelter in time of stress
There were hostilities with the French a
Fort Caroline; also at Port Royal. Spanis
aggressiveness and bitter warfare drove th
French from this part of the New Worl
Oglethorpe of Georgia led his forces by lan
and by sea to thunder at the gates of the city
and to place his batteries on Anastasia Islan
Hostile Indians lurked in the forest.
And here we have just begun to create th
setting, the.background for dramatic St. Au
gustine. It'ia'fine to talk about historic S
Augustine. It' is enchanting to talk about
beautiful St. Augustine. But if we want t
concentrate the attention of people gene
ally upon us, we must feature dramatic S
Augustine. And that is just what the Rest(
ration Program is prepared to do. The thril
ing story of this old Spanish city is bein
re-created in remarkable fashion. It is bein
linked with the romantic and eventful stor
of the Spanish in Mexico, Yucatan, Panami
and Central America. In this way it offers

the Elks' Club, the Eagles' Club, and service clubs
ie which include the Commercial, Virginia, Central and
- Service come under the provisions of this law.
t. -
it Arnold Melcher who recently enlisted in the navy
;o is now at Macon, Ga., having been sent there from
r- Fort Screven for training. He was in the first con-
t. tingent that enlisted after war was declared and he
o- has since then been undergoing training that will
1- fit him for service.
g L. W. Zim, editor of the Meteor, has returned from
y Jacksonville where he attended the annual meeting
a of the Florida Press Association, he being one of
a the new members admitted at this meeting.


vast panorama as dramatic and colorful as
anything that has transpired anywhere in the
St. Augustine has a transcendent oppor-
tunity to put to the front its superb historical
background in the form of drama, with the
stage setting being re-created, directed, and
fashioned by experts from Carnegie Institu-
tion, who know so thoroughly just how this
should be done. They have told us how we
can help. We may have been somewhat slow
to seize the magnitude of the project, and to
show the Carnegie Institution that we are
with them heart and soul. However, we feel
that the people are thoroughly awakened
now. This Restoration Issue of The St. Au- o
gustine Record, in which so many of our citi- c
zens and other Floridians have shown the r
greatest interest, and to which they have s
given their liberal advertising support, is t
the best possible evidence of our wholehearted
acceptance of the program, and our keen de- a
sire to help put through a program of preser- p
ovation and restoration commensurate with l
the vivid action of the past.
Men and women of this Oldest City, who s
can proudly claim descent from those early I
colonists, soldiers and adventurers, may well m
have leading parts in the drama of the pres- I
ent. They are ready, active, and eager. The
rest of us, who cannot claim St. Augustine as 1
an ancestral home, but love it as the city of i
our adoption, and our deepest devotion, are f
equally enthusiastic. ,
Beyond the drama, pageantry and beauty, a
we see a St. Augustine preserved for pos- s
terity, restored in such a way that it may,
in the years to come, keep its appearance as i
The Oldest City. We see it as a community
justly famous from the Atlantic to the Pa- r
cific, from Canada's borders to the Gulf of
Mexico: in short, this nation's most talked- l
of-city; Florida's greatest treasure, and big-
gest asset.
Are we for the Preservation and Restora-
tion Program? YES! ]

Full of Stars
S "Where the air is full of sunlight and the
flag is full of stars", wrote Dr. Henry Van
Dyke in his verses "America For Me". N
There is no time when we should forget I
that flag full of stars, and what it means to
us as a people. It is the hope and the promise
of all that men and women hold dear-free-
dom, liberty, justice. This July Fourth is the
anniversary of a nation's birth, when accept-
ance of a Declaration of Independence changed
the history of the world. "We love our land
Sfor what she is, and what she is to be." She
can fulfill her destiny only if her citizens
Continue to hold the fine ideals of patriotism
Said down by our forefathers, who helped to
bring this nation into being. Now is the time
for a re-dedication to those splendid loyalties,
and noble principles that were cherished by
Sthe patriots who led the way in the formation
. of these United States of America.

Sunday is the golden clasp that binds to-
Sgether the volume of the week.-Longfellow.

D Some men are having the time of their
n lives these days. There are so many things
- coming up for them to be against.
e *
Certainly, we all want price control. We
- want prices kept down when we are buying,
Y and kept up when we are selling.
h Ten and Twenty

e Being Items From the St. Augustine Record a Score
d of Years Ago as Well as a Decade Ago
I* Ten Years Ago
n Miss Carol Whitney, daughter of Dr. and Mrs. F. S.
Y Whitney, with a party of friends from Ann Arbor,
" Mich., sailed Wednesday on the Empress of France
- for a summer tour of Europe. The party had two
n days on the St. Lawrence, having a stop at Toronto.
Y They expect to land in France on Tuesday and before
returning home will visit that country, England,
f Italy, Germany, Holland, Belgium and Switzerland.

Since the building of a network of new roads all
through the northern section of the county is opening
S up to general knowledge some valuable territory,
great additional interest is being taken in those sec-
g tons around Switzerland, Mill Creek, and other of the
e old-time communities in St. Johns, which have been
r, more or less inaccessible for years past.
n During the month of June, the season of the year
n commonly associated with a spasm of matrimonial
if ties, only twelve afflicted couples appeared before
f the St. Johns County judge to receive the passport
W which entitles each enterprising pair to launch upon
L- the seas of connubial bliss. The fact is, however,
explainable because for some time during the month
;- of June St. Johns County was without a county
s, judge, and in consequence, many potential marital
d candidates were obliged to journey to Jacksonville
'e and other cities to secure the proper marriage papers.
d Twenty Years Ago
w Forrest Davies returned recently from Holly
1- Springs, Miss., where he spent his annual vacation.
,f Mrs. Davies is remaining there for a few weeks'
e visit with relatives.
It X. Lopez has purchased the Chatfield property
h on Cedar Street. This property consists of a two-
Le story dwelling and a large lot which is at the back
i. of the King Street property of Mr. Lopez.

y, After tonight clubs dispensing alcohol will be
d. forced to discontinue the practice. The Yacht Club,


WASHINGTON, July 3.-The (
'resident will present some extra- I
ordinary statistics on family in-
ome in his forthcoming fireside t
adio talk on plans to raise the
standard of living of the "one-
hird of the nation that is ill-nour- 1
shed, ill-housed and ill-clad."
The data will disclose that actu-
.lly far more than one-third of the
population is existing at levels be-
ow the barest minimum standards.
The President's figures will be
based on the most comprehensive
urvey of its kind ever made in the
J. S. It has been in progress for
months under the direction of Dr.
sador Lubin, brilliant head of the
Bureau of Labor Statistics.
White-collar WPA workers col-
ected the information in personal
interviews. Approximately 250,000
families were interrogated in fifty
representative cities. The com-
pleted questionnaires were then
analyzed and charted by another
staff in Washington.
When the President, at his re-
cent press conference, revealed his
intention to go on the air, he al-
ready had some of the preliminary
reports'before him. One of these
containedd the following "sample"
figures on the proportion of fami-
ies whose total income in 1936
was less than $1,250, the minimum
considered essential for "bare sub-
Sub-Subsistence Families
Dubuque, Iowa ............. 52%
of total families
Springfield, Mo..............50%
Haverhill, Mass. ..i............45%
Bellingham, Wash. ......... 45%
Mobile, Ala. ..............44%
(whites only)
New Britain, Conn. .........43%
Newcastle, Pa. ..............43 %
Providence, R. I. ......-. .... 42%
Muncie, Ind. ................40%
Aberdeen, Wash .........m.....39%
Pueblo, Colo. ..............37%
Denver, Colo. ............... 35%
Columbia, S. C. .............32%
(whites only)
Omaha, Nebr. ...............1%
Fast Action
Certain big coal operators lost no
time in throwing a monkey-wrench
into the works of the new Bitumin-
ous Coal Commission.
Shortly before June 21, the date
on which the code became effective
and the Commission assumed juris-
diction over coal prices, the oper-
ators in a private deal with sev-
eral railroads suddenly announced
an increase in the price of coal. By
this maneuver they jumped the
gun on the Commission by putting
over a price boost before its regu-
latory control began.
Same Ghost
Representative Chauncey W.
Reed of West Chicago, Ill., and
Representative Leslie C. Arends of
Melvin, Ill., have given a new twist
to an old congressional practice.
Quite a few members of the
House distribute free to newspa-
pers in their district a weekly art-
icle under their names. Some do
their own authoring, but most em-
ploy a ghost writer.
Arends and Reed are not only in
the latter category, but they use
the same articles. Arends puts out
his piece in his district (the 17th)
under the caption "Inside News of
Congress", and Reed in his dis-
trict (the 11th) uses the title "Con-
gressional News", but the two are
identical word for word.
To avoid further embarrassment
it looks as if the boys will have to
get themselves another ghost writ-
er, or have the one working for
them exert himself a little more.
Administration office holders
had better think twice before step-
ping on the touchy toes of Senator
Carter Glass.
The testy, 79-year-old Virginian
is no New Dealer, but that doesn't
mean he can be trifled with. As
chairman of the Senate Appropri-
ations Committee, Glass packs a
powerful wallop. He has no hesi-
tancy in using it to avenge what
he considers a slight.
Last winter he tried to get a job
for a woman constituent on the

social Security Board. She was
turned down for lack of necessary
qualifications. Glass protested ve-
lemently to Frank Bane, fellow
Virginian and executive officer of
he SSB, but to no avail.
A short time later the Board an-
nounced the closing of its branch
office in Lynchburg, Glass's home
own. He hit the ceiling. In a
heated exchange with Bane before
the Appropriations Committee, he
charged that the shut-down was
ordered "out of spite" and to pun-
sh him.
Bane vigorously denied this. He
explained that after the office was
opened the Budget Bureau cut the
Board's funds and 100 branches in
different parts of the country had
;o be abandoned temporarily. How-
ever, Bane added, through econo-
mics that were under way it was
planned to re-establish these of-
Despite this explanation, when
the Board's appropriation bill
emerged from Glass's committee it
contained two riders aimed square-
ly at Bane.
One deleted a $500-a-year in-
crease in salary voted him by the
House and the second required all
Board employees receiving more
than $5,000 a year to be confirmed
by the Senate. This extraordinary
provision opened the way for
Glass to axe Bane's appointment.
Members of the House Appropri-
ations Committee tried to delete
the amendments in conference, but
Glass refused to budge. To save
the remainder of the bill they fin-
ally agreed to them. When the
matter came before the House for
approval there was a storm of
angry protest, members denounc-
ing the second amendment as a
bald raid on the civil service.
Committee members made no
defence of the rider, placed re-
sponsibility on the shoulders of
Glass and his fellow Senate con-
ferees. Amid much muttering the
House finally approved the bill, and
Glass had his revenge on Bane and
the Board.
Note-Since the passage of the
measure Glass has told friends of
Bane that he has changed his mind;
that he will not oppose Bane's con-
firmation and will trv to restore
his pay increase in some other
supply bill.
Earth Houses
Resettlement Administration has
received thousands of inquiries re-
garding the practicability of build-
ing houses of "rammed earth."
This is a house made by filling
earth into a wooden form and then
tamping it so as to form solid
walls. It differs from the adobe
house, which is made of mud bricks
and is more expensive.
The Resettlement Administration
has built seven of these rammed
earth houses in a suburb of Birm-
ingham, Alabama. They are not
mere walls with a thatch roof, but
neat bungalows with plumbing and
Construction was held up by red
tape, so that the partially complet-
ed houses suffered some erosion
during the winter. However, pro-
visional experiments indicate that
RA' may have inaugurated a
method by which an individual can
build a home with his own hands at
very reasonable cost. Experiments
are continuing.
Since Dr. Francis Townsend
started denouncing the President
on the Supreme Court issue, re-
ceipts to the national headquarters
of his old-age pension organization
have nose-dived from approximate-
ly $5,000 to around $300 a day .,
The action of Donald R. Richberg,
one-time "Assistant President", in
sending congressional committees
a statement assailing the wage-
hour regulation bill aroused much
adverse comment on Capitol Hill.
It was hinted that Richberg used
this indirect method of attack be-
cause he feared a personal ap-
pearance before the committees
would lay him open to a sharp
grilling on his operations as NRA
boss .... The recent sale of Tri-
borough (N. Y.) Bridge Authority
Bonds held by the RFC, netting the
Government"a $525,000 profit, was
handled by Frank Kuehl, young
RFC counsel. Kuehl was brought
to the RFC from Wisconsin by the
late Commissioner John J. Blahe
.... Michael J. LaPadua, SEC ac-
countant and former aide to Fer-
dinand Pecora in the sensational
banking investigation, was a high
man among 2,000 candidates in a
civil service examination for the
post of chief accountant of the
Commodities Exchange Adminis-
(Copyright, 1987, by
United Feature Syndicate, Inc.)


Alligator Farm

Big Attraction

For Many Years

Over 6,000 in Colllection;
Ostriches, Marine Speci-
mens Also Exhibited

The St. Augustine Ostrich-Alli-
gator Farm on Anastasia Island
has for nearly 40 years been one
of the outstanding tourist attrac-
tions in St. Augustine.
Starting with only a very few
alligators and several curiosities,
the farm was first located at old
South Beach, or what is known as
St. Augustine Beach. It was owned
by George Reddington and Felix
Fire and was just recently pur-
chased by Irvine Drysdale and F.
Charles Usina, Jr.
As the collection grew it was
moved in 1921 to the beautiful site
on which it now stands, just south
of the Lighthouse.
The farm is said to contain twice
as many large live alligators as any
other collection in the world, the
'gators ranging in size from the
newly hatched to Old Ponce, whose
age is estimated to be 900 years;
weighs over 1,200 pounds, and is
capable of eating 75 pounds of
meat at one meal. This is also the
home of Old Jack, said to be the
meanest alligator on earth, who is
a show in himself, and of the freak
alligator, having five legs and no
tail. In all, it is estimated there
are over 6,000 live alligators in the
Twenty-six ostriches, originally
brought from Africa and Arabia,
are kept on this farm also, for ex-
hibition. Since Mr. Usina and Mr.
Drysdale have taken over the farm
many of the pens have been re-
conditioned and re-located, form-
ing a much more attractive exhi-
The Museum of Marine Curiosi-
ties in connection with the farm,
housing one of the largest and fin-
est collections of marine specimens
in the South, is of great educa-
tional value. Here the visitor will
find many specimens of giant fish
and other smaller warriors of the
sea, too numerous to mention. One
of the largest Sun Fish ever caught
is on display there and one of the
outstanding exhibits is the head of
the largest Barracuda (tiger of the
sea) ever caught. This catch was
featured in Ripley's "Believe It Or
Not," is acknowledged by Field
and Stream and the American Mu-
seum of Natural History, and is
the largest on government record.
The Barracuda was landed by
Chester Benet of this city off the
lower coast of Florida and meas-
ured 5 feet, 6 inches and weighed
108 pounds when caught.
An old Indian dug-out canoe,
excavated from a depth of six feet
on the Pablo marshes in this coun-
ty, is also one of the outstanding
museum features, and also attract-
ing much attention there is a bar-
re of petrified pork, probably dat-
ing back to some early shipwreck
on our coast.
Visitors at the St. Augustine-
Ostrich-Alligator Farm will also
find a splendid collection of snakes,
birds, ducks and many other fas-
cinating features.'
Florida factories turn out prod-
ucts aggregating nearly $200,000,.
000 in value annually, observes the
State Chamber of Commerce.

Phone 465


109 St. George Street

In Old Fatio House




31 King St.-Oppo



site the Historic Plaza de la Constiteflea

You Can Get Relief at
Foot Specialist in Attendance at All Times

POSTVILLE Formerly Known as Post Camp,.Poet
Tourist Camp and or Post Cottage Camp

1915-This Is the Oldest Camp in the Oldest City-1937
Mail Us a Card or Letter-CALL AGAIN


WORDS OF THE WISE:--"A hundred men may make an encampment, but it takes a woman to make a home."-Chinese Proverb.


14 Cathedral Place


Congressman Hendricks Interested
Congressman Joe Hendricks, who represents the Fifth Con-
gressional District, of which St. Johns County is a part, in the
lower house of the United States Congress, shows his always keen
interest in St. Augustine by sending the following message of
congratulation for publication in the Restoration Issue of the
St. Augustine Record:
"It was with a great deal of satisfaction that I noted Governor
Cone had signed the bill for an appropriation of $50,000 for the
purpose of the Restoration of the City of St. Augustine. Of course,
you know that it is a matter of pride to me that I am almost the
youngest man in the United States House of Representatives re-
presenting the Oldest City in the United States, and I do not
believe that Carnegie Institution or the State of Florida could
have adopted a project which would be of more value to our state,
and of more interest to the citizens of the entire country, than
the Restoration of St. Augustine.
"I trust the citizens of St. Augustine will feel free to call upon
me at any time to cooperate in this splendid program."

Verle A. Pope

Tells Why He

Favors Plan

Head of County Board
Is Member of Resto-
ration Group

Verle A. Pope, chairman of the
board of county commissioners of
St. Johns County, is a member of
the St. Augustine Historical Pres-
ervation and Restoration Associa-
Mr. Pope, one of the most enter-
prising of the young business men
of the community, devotes a great
deal of time to civic work, and is
intensely interested in the Restora-
tion. When asked to make a state-
ment of the Restoration as he sees
it, and its relation to St. Augus-
tine, Mr. Pope said:
"The program is so vast that it
is difficult to convey my impres-
sions of it in a few words. So I
think if I say that I am for it
wholeheartedly and unreservedly,
as being in the best interests of St.
Augustine, that seems to cover the
entire territory.
"However, I might continue by
pointing out the tremendous pos-
sibilities for this community
through the preservation of an-
ciei t landmarks and the restoration
of others; the amount of money to
be spent here as Carnegie Institu-
tion, and other organizations, and
individuals see that we are really
in earnest, and there will: be no
turning back; the vast amount of
publicity to be given St. Augustine
and St. Johns County, and the
great increase in travel in this di-
"Surely these are all good rea-
sons for the Restoration and my
unqualified endorsement of it."
Florida has the only commercial
sponge fishery in the United States,
says Florida's State Chamber of


i .r-





Teachers Are

Buying Copies
To Help Work
This edition of the Record, with
its wealth of historical material,
information on the Restoration,
and beautiful pictures, is being
hailed with joy by school-teach-
Through the interest of Mrs.
Emmett Pacetti, one of the local
grade teachers in West St. Au-
gustine, who is attending sum-
mer school at the University of
Florida, Gainesville, a great
many orders have been placed by
school teachers. One of the fes-
cinating things to teachers of
Florida history is the "Progres-
'sive History Page." This is Page
One of Section B. It may be seen
by following the page straight
across from left to right that
the outstanding events in Flor-
ida and St. Augustine history
have been followed out in se-
quence. This historic page is
one of the features worked up
for this Restoration Issue by
Eleanor Beeson-Carroll of the
Restoration Staff.

ITTTHAY. .TTLY i. 1937



(New Colored Recreation Center) Giving Service That Satisfies
In Celebration of the Glorious Fourth
The Greatest Social Affair of the Entire Year Beyond Question-
The Barrie Social Club, Through Chas. E. Owens, Presents the CHARLES W. ISAACS, Jr. TELEPHONE
Swing and Play Boys Orchestra With the Latest Dance Hits of
the Season-Dance in the Breeze of the Atlantic. President 896



SO 3d, who have been visiting Mrs. "r
e ^r $i Thomas Keegan for several weeks.
Mr. and Mrs. Raymond Colee
and son, Newton, are enjoying a
of 80 rm r sk ?w rw Miss Thelma Rogers, and little two weeks' vacation on Anastasia p .
,ia fH ..a Bobbie Daniels are expected to ar- Island and are pleasantly located Bs B ,Sf I Ui
rive today from Mullins, S. C. at Radio Inn. SYNOPSIS: When Kay Cran- o
Bobbie, who is the son of Mr. and -o don's Lazy Nine ranch house r
i .Mrs. G. B. Daniels of this city, Mrs. Bazemore and child- and barn tburn, Jsh Hastings,
has been spending s P B zemore and owner of the Flying Six, tries to h
THE CATHEDRAL PENTECOSTAL HOLINESS m n thren, Sarah and Billy, have left for buy her ranch and talks of mar- tf
E CATHEDRAL PENTECOSTAL OINESS months in ullinswith his grand- visit with relatives and friends riage. But Kay hates him and is a
Masses at 6:30 and 9 a. m. CHURCH parents. at points in Georgia, Alabama and determined to keep her ranch t
Vesper Services at 7:30 p. m. J. E. Till, Pastor North Carolina. and rebuild. It's a joltthat the in- h
H. M. Tucker, Superintendent of Mr. and Mrs. F. L. Triay left -o- surance money has to go to the
ST. AGNES CATHOLIC Sunday School. Friday afternoon for Durant, Mr. and Mrs. J. O. Miller, Mr. mortgage. Ted Gaynor, a puncher l
CHURCH 9:45 a. m., Sunday School. Oklahoma, to visit Mrs. Triay's and Mrs. Glenn Hardee of this city Kay hired impulsively, stirs the
Masse at 7:30 and 9 o'clock a. m. 11:00 a. m., Preaching Service. sister, Mrs. R. B. Lignoski. They and Mr. and Mrs. Charles DeWitt outfit to cut its own timber and c
7:03 p. m., P. Y. P. S. expect to return to St.' Augustine of Spartanburg, S. C. are spending rebuild without pay. Riding to 1;
THE ANCIENT CITY BAPTIST 8:01 p. m., Preaching Service. in a few weeks. today in Daytona visiting Mr. De- buy the only available timber
CHURCH 8:00 p. m., Wednesday, Prayer -o- Witt's relatives, land, Kay is lassoed by Scrap T
A. E. Calkins, Th.M., Paster. Service. W. A. Zeiler was among those --o- Johnson, a Flying Six puncher. t
(Corner Carrera and Sevilla Sts.) FIRST METHODIST CHURCH attending the synod in Miami the Betty Lament leaves today for Ted gets the option for Kay and t
9:45 a. m., Bible School. L. O. Cor. Riberia and King Streets past week. Chicago, Ill., where she will viit rescues her from Scrap's un-
Davis, Supt.; W. J. Gaines, assis- Shelby A. Wilson, Pastor -o- her brother, Bill Lament. From wanted, brutal attentions. P
tant Church School 9:45. Mr. Ed- Mr. and Mrs. George Reynolds: Chicago she will go to Green Lake,
S a. m., D e Worship. er- ward G. Hood, General Superint- of Jacksonville, and Mr. and Mrs. Wis., to spend some time with Chapter 16
mon by the pastor. endent W.A. Robins-' and L Mais, of friends.
6:30 p. in., Baptist Training Wode tt
6:30U m., Baptist Training Worship 11 a. m. Sermon by Ortega, w 'spend the Fourth of --- An Unexpected Visitor t
Union. ss Betty Pinkham, di- pastor. July week-end here as, guests of Betty Lou Masters, daughter of h
rector, S o Young People's Meeting 7 p. m. Mrs. Helen Guenther. Mr. and Mrs. John F. Masters, is KAY let out a long quivering
Junior, Inteimediate, Senior and Union Service in Ancient City --- visiting her grandmother, Mrs. W. breath, as Ted stood panting t
Adult Unions. Baptist Church, 8 p. m. Mrs. Mamie Laverett is lea-ing D. Mann, in Pineview, Ga. for a moment. Then he walked
Se8r Divin e worship. Union Mid-week meeting in Church at today by plane for her hoki in -- to her and too b the gun
T uesday 8 p. m. Brotherhood.. 8 o'clock. Jersey City, N. J., after spending Miss Cora Desselberger is visit- er to her and too bac the gun
Tuesday 8 p. m. Brotherhood Choir rehearsal Thursday 8 several months here with her broth- ing her cousin, Miss Cleone from her trembling hand. I
Meeting. o'clock. ers, Ed. Hanson and Fred Manson. Schwarts, in South Jacksonville. "It'll be some time before he c
Wednesday 6: 30 p. m. Teachers' You will find a cordial welcome The former's daughter, Miss Mary --* tomes to." In spite of his effort to
Meeting followed by Prayer Ser- this church. Strangers and Ann Hanson, who has been spend- Marilyn and Freddie Cox, 7-year- steady it, his voice showed the ef-
rice. visitors invited to worship here. ing the past two weeks here, will old twins of Mr. and Mrs. H. E. fect of the emotional and physical
Thursday 7:30 p. m. Choir Re- accompany her aunt north. Cox, of Atlanta, have arrived for a ordeal he had just been through. t
hearsal. CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF --o-- visit of three weeks at the home "The sooner we get off, the better.
Mrs. Arthur Manucy, organist; LATTER DAY SAINTS The Misses Mila Dean, Mildred of Mr. and Mrs. J. R. Dodd. Mr. Unless I miss my guess, he'll va-
Mr. Owen Griffin, choir director. Corner of Cuna and St. George Corbett, Frances Borum, and Ethel Cox, who is regional treasurer of moose from this range without too
You will find a welcome here. Streets Corbett were visitors in Jackson- the Home Owners Loan, accompan- much boasting about this after- s
Visitors in the city are cordially in- Sinday School at 10 a. m. ville yesterday. ied the children here, and will re- noon's doings."
vited to worship with us. Evening Servie at 7:30 a. m. -o- main throughout the holiday. He slipped the gun in his holster,
Mr. and Mrs. Hubert Powell left -o--- and stepped over to Scrap John- a
ATCHESON CHAPEL, WEST ST. SEVENTH OAT ADjVENTIST Friday for Jacksonville and other Walter Johnson of Atlanta, Ga., son's horse, that had been patient- s
AUGUSTINE CHURCH points to spend the Fourth of July is the week-end guest of Mr. and ly waiting at some distance from d
2:30 p. m., Story Hour. Charlotte Street, One Block week-end. Mrs. R. L. Mims and Mrs. Clara the fray, his reins over his neck.
3:00 p. m., Bible School. L. O. From Plaza -o- Johnson. Picking up the reins, Ted hung
Davis, Supt.; Homer Duggar, as- Sabbath School every Saturday Dr. and Mrs. Reddin Britt and -o- them over the pommel of th sad- c
distant. morning, 9:30. Mr. and Mrs. Paul Burns have re- Mrs. Carson Britt and two chil- dle. Then he gave the horse a sharp
All are welcome. Bible Study 11 o'clock. turned from an interesting trip in dren, and her sister, kliss Pat Pow- blow on the flank, sending him off
Visitors welcome. the west. Mr. and Mrs. Burns were ers, of Miami, have arrived for an across te mesa.
McDOWELL CHAPEL, FULLER- at Fort Worth, Texas, and Dr. and extended visit with the parents of "hThat bird can walk. It will do i
Mc WOOD PARK PRIMITIVE BAPTIST CHURCH Mrs. Britt visited the Texas Cen- Mrs. Britt nd Miss Powers, Mr. m good and work out his stiff- i
ness," he observed grimly, glanc-
9:45 a. ., Bible School. F. H. Corner Whitney and Anderson Sts., tenniarat Dallas, Texas, and also in and Mrs. R. T. Powers. They came ing the unconscious figure on the c
Morley, Supt.; W. J. Hardee, assis- West Augustine Nueva Laredo, Mexico. here to be near Mrs. Powers, who ground as he came back to Kay. b
tanty Services held first Sunday ,of_ is a patient in Flagler Hospital. "How about our getting under
:45 p. ., Preaching by W. H. every month. Mr. and Mrs. George A. Miller, H our getg under
Green 1 racing :00 a. m., church services; Rev. Jr., of Philadelphia, Pa., are ar- Mr. and Mrs. Van Lindsey, Jr., aTed, wait!" IKa's eyes were
Green me for all G. D. Taylor of St. Augustine, pas- riving today to spend several days and Miss Evelyn Bradford are mo- enormous with the force of an idea L
A welcome for all. tor. here with Mr: Miller's mother, Mrs. touring, today to Gainesville, where thatshe was struggling with. "That n
CALVARY BAPTIST CHURCH MEMORIAL UTHERAN Geor A Miller on est King thewill nd t days gus man has the option on our timber- b
CorneRiY aan B SarT aCHURCHM U RN Street. of Mr. and Mrs. R. E. Hill. They land, right there in his pocket!"
Corner Riberia and Saragossa CHUR- were accompanied by Miss Mary Ted stared at her in bewilder-
A Streets C er Riberi a and Saragossa Str Mr, and Mrs. A. Pierce Evans Hill, who has been spending the ment. Was her mind giving under o
"And He is the head of the Body, Rev. C. G. Steele, Pastor left yesterday for Albany, Ga., nast week here at the Lindsey the strain? s
the Church." 10:00 a. ., Sunday School. where they will spend the week-end home. Miss Bradford expects to "No, he hasn't, Kay," he soothed, in
10:00 a. m.-Sunday School. E. 11:00 a. m., Divine Service. and Monday. leave tomorrow for Savannah, Ga., as he led his horse over to her.
G. Hall, superintendent; P. S. Wal- 6:00 p. m., Young People's So-- where she will spend a week as the "I'11 tell you about that on the way d
,ton, assistant superintendent. city. Mrs. J. D. Ingraham and daugh- guest of her aunt, Mrs. R. L. Gen- home." fo
11:00 a. m.-Morning worship. Union Service in Ancient City ter, Miss Isabella Ingraham, who try. "But hehas!" Kay declared pas- y
Sermon by C. C. Johnson. Baptist Church. has been attending SarahLaw- onately, gazing with fascinated
6:30 p. p., B. T. U. Senior, Adult, Thursday, 7 p. m., choir rehear- rence College at Bronxville, N. Y., Mr. and Mrs. Leslie Chambers horror at the inert figure,stretched to
Junior and Intermediate. All in- sal. arrived home from New York on and son, David, are leaving this on the mesa. "He got it by trickery, I
vited to the Training Union. Saturday morning. Miss Eliza- mornin- for Fort Lauderdale where andif you won't take it away from tc
7:45 p. m., Evening worship. Ser- CHURCH OF CHRIST beth Ingraham, who accompanied they will spend the holiday week- him, I'm going to!" h
'mon by C. C. Johnson. 33 Masters Drive, West Augustine. her mother to New York several end. "Wait a minute!" Ted seized t(
7:45 p. mi, Wednesday, Prayer J. C. Mason, Minister. weeks ago, is remaining there to both her halds in e one of his, as he e
service. Sunday be with her aunt, Mrs. Arthur Miss Lillian MacGreeor and her fumbled with the other for apa- t
The public is invited and will.al- 10:00 a. m., Bible Study. Sackett, who has now concluded a mother Mrs G. W. S. Stevens, left per in his pocket. "No need for you t
ways receive a most cordial wel- 11:00 a. m., Preaching. stay of some time at her country yesterday afternoon by motor for flourisflhig it trmph,"any aded, sr
ways a. n Supp, -tes, t ft no by flourishing it triumphantly before ri
~come. 11:45 a. n:., Lord's Supper. home, Riverview-on- the- James, the north to be gone the remainder her
8:00 p m., Preaching. near Richmond, Va.ther.
EMORIAL PRESBYTERIAN Wednesday of the summer. Miss MacGregor With amazement, Kay ran her u
MEMORIAL PRESBYTERIANe will work in Mordkin's Ballet at eyes over the memorandum of "a
CHURCH 8:00 p. m., Prayer Meeting. Con- Lt. Col. and 1rs. L. W. Zim, Jr., wil work in Mordkin's Ballet at eyes oran the on wih Old Man
Rev. Lauren E. Brubaker, D.D gregational singing, and Raymond H. Zim have come the Stadium in New York City. Warren withtheprospector'sname sl
Pastor A cordial invitation isdown from Washington, D. C. by They expect to return to St. Au- signed at the bottom. "4
9:30 a. m. Church School. W. to visitors plane to spend the week-end in St. gustine the latter part of August. "Ted! You mean you beat Him to ti
i. Hagenbuch, Supt. -o Augustine. They are guests at the -- it?" Her eyes sparkled with ex- o1
11.00 a. m. Morning worship Ser- City Commission home of Mr. and Mrs. I. Lloyd Mr. and Mrs. Arnold F. Seymour, citement, and the colorflooded her
mon by Dr. Brubaker. Speal T ave Sessions larke, of Washington, D. C., have arrived cheeks at this further evidence of s(
Sb the choir under the di- -o- to spend a vacation of two weeks Ted's thought for her. p
reaction of Lorenzo Pratt Oviatt. The city commission will meet Mrs. W. L Mallette and daugh- with the former's parents, Mr. and t
Mrs. Grace Hood, soloist. This with the city tax assessor as an ter, Miss Elizabeth Mallette, left Mrs. W. A! Seymour, at their home Silent Communion b
service will be broadcast over equalizing board tomorrow after- yesterday for Jacksonville where on Washington Street. Mr. and N a few words, he told her about P
WFOY. noon at 3 o'clock for the purpose they will spend a week with rela- Mrs. Seymour are former residents Seth and the boys chipping in to e
6:30 p. m. Intermediate Christian of receiving the roll from the tax tives and friends. of St. Augustine and have many raise enough to bind the purchase
Endeavor in the Church House. assessor. The board will meet -0-- friends here who will be interested and about his visit to Old Man
Young People's Christian En- again at 8 o'clock on Tuesday af- Mr. and Mrs. John B. Williams t ern o heir presence in the Warren.
Beavor in the Chapel. ternoon to take up the first work on of Jacksonville are spending the to"I don't know anthehing about h
8:00 p. m. Union Service at the the roll. The weekly meeting df week-end here with Mrs Williams' city. beating this gy to ing about
Ancient City Baptist Church. the commission will be held Tues- mother, Mrs. Domenica Salvador. McGuire siting his par- eating his eyes on her happy ex- s
All are invited to all the services day night at 7 o'clock, instead of Mrs. Williams is the former Miss Bill McGuire s s s par- eating his folded heprecious w
f this church. on Monday. Lucy Salvador of this city. ents, Mr. and Mrs. W. J. McGuire, citement as she folded'the precious
on Mony in this city over the week-end. Bill' paper and put it in her pocket.
RACE MTHODIST CHURCH -- -- --Russell Cummings, student at the is a student at the 'summer session "You'll have to tell me that part of
GRACE METHODIST CHURCH h Uirt Russell the University of Florida. it! Come on!"
Rev. C. W. Marlin, Pastor SS LinSOtt summer session at the University A swift, strong vibration ran
9:30 Church School. H. W. of Florida, is spending the eek- Miss Virginia Kelly left last a through him atthe thought hi
Davis general superintendent. Becomes Bride end in St. Augustine. Miss Virginia Kelly left last a through him atthe thought
There will be a meeting of the ___o_ attended a large reunion of the tN
school Board at the home of H.W. Of Mr. Lawton Mr. and Mrs.W. B. Hughes have City after spending the past two attended a large reunion of the
vis on Anastasia Island, Thurs- returned from a vacation in High weeks here as the guest of Miss Mallette family. There were about
Davis on Anastasia Island, Thurs-rturned from a vacation in High 125 members of the family from in
daly evening at 7:30. Coming as a surprise to many Point, N. C., and Calhoun, Ga. They Louise Harmon. various sections of the country pres- a
11:00 Morning service. Commun- friends here is the.announcement were accompanied home by their a ent for the reunion which has been
ion snrvie ieces, the Misses Emily, Joe, Ann, Miss Margaret Mitchell, tech-ent for the reunion, which has been A
ton service of the marriage of Miss Ruth Tinseyanician at the East Coast Hospital, held for the past four years a few v
6:30 Epworth League. Subject inott and Geoge W Tinsley and etty Jean Moss, of tt miles north of Springfield, where
-What is a Patriot? Leader, the Linscottand George WalterLaw- Calhoun, Georgia. left last night for Denver, Col., Mrs. Capo's and Mr. Mallette's '
Rev. C. W. Marlin. ton, which was solemnized quiet- where she will attend a convention great grandfather settled when he
8:00 Union service held in the ly Friday evening at 8:30 o'clock Miss Margaret Palmour of Gain- of X-ray technicians. She expects came to this country from France.
Ancient City Baptist Church. Rev. in the parsonage of the First ville, Ga., is visiting Mr. and Mrs. to be away for about two weeks. o
Ancient City Baptist Church. Rev n the parsonage of the First R. L. Mims and Mrs. Clara John- -
S. A. Wilson preaching. Methodist Church, South. Rev. son over the week-end. Miss Ouida Jenkins of Titusville, Lord's Supper To
7:'30 Wednesday evening prayer son a r o te Florida, and Miss Dorothy Purvis
and praise service. Continuation S.A. Wilson, pastor of the --Foriaiand ei thy eur
of study on Pentecost. The Offi- church, performed the ceremony Dr. and Mrs. Paul Morrison andf Miami are spending the week- Be Observed
cial Board will hold its regular in the presence of the groom's ildre, Kathyn, Florence and end at the homeature of Mr. and Mrs.
monthly meeting afterward. Chars, and Dr. and Mrs. Walter A. B. Bennett at their home on The main feature of the 11
monthly meeting afterward. parents, Mr. and Mrs. Alfred J. A. Thieae nd son, Richard, of Lake Clark Street. o'clock morning worship at the
Lawton, Mr. and Mrs. Harry Cor- City are enjoying a stay at Radio First Methodist Episcopal Church,
TRINITY EPISCOPAL CHURCH bett and Mr. and Mrs. Worth Inn on Anastasia Island. Dr. Mor- Return From South today will be the observancd
Rev. Armand T. Eyler, Rector Gainesrison and Dr.sThiele .are on the of the Lord's Supper conducted by
Sixth Sunday After Easter aines. staff at the Veterans Hospital in Family Reunion the pastor, the Rev. S. A. Wilson.
7:30 a. m., Holy Communion. The bride was smartly attired Lake City. Mrs. V. D. Capo, her brother, E. The choir will be under the direc-
9:40 a. m., Church School. Rec- in a dress of navy triple sheer, --o-- E. Mallette, and his daughter, Miss tion of Mrs. Robert Tigert who will
tor in charge, trimmed in white, and her acces- Marvin O'Neil of Savannah, Ga., Erma Mallette, returned Friday sing a solo. She will sing also,
1100 a. m., Holy Communion. series were in white and navy. is spending the week-end here with from Springfield. Ga., where they during the sacrament, several of
8:00 p. m., Union services to be
held at Ancient City Ba t She wore a shoulder corsage of
+Church, Rev. S. A. Wilson, preach- bride's roses.
Mrs. Lawton is the daughter
er. of Mr. and Mrs. W. F. Linscott,
of Washington, D. C., former resi-
CHRISTIAN SCIENCE SOCIETY dents of the city, and has always
9:30 a. m., Sunday Schobl. made her home in St. AuguStine.
11:00 a. m., Sunday morning She is employed as office assist- Fort g .ev o e -
service. ant to Dr. Ward M. Newell. She t
8:00 p. m., Wednesday evening and Mr. Lawton are both gradu- r
testimonial service. ates of Ketterlinus High School
Reading room, 15 Carrera Street. in this city. The groom is em- 123 SAN MARCO AVENUE
Open every Monday, Wednesday played at Miller Shops.
and Friday from 3 to 5 o'clock. Following a brief honeymoon St. Augustine, Florida
The public is cordially invited to in the southern part of the state,
attend these services and enjoy the Mr. and Mrs. Lawton will be at
privileges of our reading room. home at No. 345 Charlotte Street.

he old gospel hymns. The First
methodist Church feels fortunate
n securing such a talented singer,
nd choir director as Mrs. Tigert.
i cordial invitation is extended to
visitors, tourists and friends to
worship there, it is announced.


f holding Kay in his arms as they
ode back to the ranch.
Mounting, he reached down his
.and and she sprang lightly up be-
ore him, her own heightened color
testing to the fact that his emo-
ion had communicated itself to
For a long time they rode in si-
ence across the mesa that was be-
ginning to take on the intense
colors and lengthened shadows of
ate afternoon.
Kay leaned confidingly against
'ed, and his arm involuntarily
tightened around her. Somehow
here seemed to be no need for
words, and sweet as the gay com-
,anionship of the morning's ride
iad been, this silent communion
neant infinitely more.
The sunset colors were flooding
he sky as they neared the ranch
house gate.
Abruptly Ted reined in. "I'd like
o say goodby to you here. I must
be on my way."
He hardly recognized his low
iusky voice. A wild longing to kiss
Kay before he released her swept
over him, but even as he struggled
vith it, Kay slipped from his arm,
md sprang lightly to the ground.
"When will you be back?" Kay's
roice was as low and vibrant with
suppressed feeling as his.
"Three days at the most," he an-
;wered. For a lorig moment he
gazed at her. He started to say
something, then changed his mind
nd picked up the reins.
"Goodby." He wheeled abruptly,
md Kay watched him ride into the
sunset. A strange premonition sud-
lenly tightened her throat. Would
he really be back in three 'days?
Already, their whole tense and
dramatic encounter seemed like a
Turning swiftly, she walked past
;he charred ruins of the ranch
louse and down to her cabin, skirt-
ng the bunk house in a desire to De
lone for a few minutes, before ac-
ounting for her absence to the
Ready To Investigate
A BSORBED in her thoughts, Kay
I walked with her eyes absent-
nindedly fixed on the browning'
*unch grass at her feet.
"Hullo! There you are!"
A hearty voice startled her out
f her reverie, and glancing up, she
aw the tall figure of a man wait-
ng for her on the cabin steps.
Reluctantly relinquishing her
desire for solitude, she hurried
forward, and recognized Tom Run-
on as the waiting figure. *
"Say! I couldn't wait any longer
o come over and tell you how bad
feel about all this!" He waved
Inward the ruins of the ranch
ouse.as he came down the steps
o meet her. His eyes, as they rest-
d on her brilliant coloring, and
he flush still in her cheeks from
he ride with Ted, expressed the
dme admiration they had on the
idge. ,
"I had to stick around up yonder
until I was relieved," he explained,
or I'd have been over sooner."
"That's very good of you." Kay
lipped her hand out of his grasp.
I certainly didn't think, when I
walked to you last, that I'd find my
wn house burnt down!"
"I kind of thought I might be
ome help," Tom Runyon boomed
ompously. "I've been talking with
hat foreman of yours up at the
unk house, and it looks mighty
peculiar to me how this fire start-
Kay shot him a startled look.
You mean you think--"
"I'm notthinking anything," he
astened to say, with a cautious
iwering of his voice. "I'm only
saying that this and any other fire
ill bear investigating."
(Copyright, 1987, Marie de Nrvaud)

Kay parries with Tom Runyon and
Is suspicions of Ted, 1 .

The bride will cherish a
dresser set like this! A va-
riety of styles, and new col-
ors; three to twelve pieces
are included, from $7.50
Others up to $30

Give the Couple an Electric Clock!
modern and traditional designs in metal,
glass, enamel and wood, all with nation-.
ally known movements. Modern designs
priced'as low as $6 5 .P S

Ip K r .5-Piece Croffee Services


in Silver
Several attractive designs in
fine quality plate. Set in'
cludes coffee pot, dugar and
creamer. Gold lined,i
at .$40


I '

Give a Cocktail Set

Modern shaker, tray and
six glasses. Durable sil-
ver plate $20 '

Sterling Silver


Palms Tourist Court-Hotel


Six Blocks North of the City Gates and Old Fort Marion
Across Street From Fountain of Youth


"Next To Home Our Place Is Home"



Circulating Air-Cooing System For Summw

Steam Heat For Winter




YV~~Ur--I'---- -~-----


"God" To Be Subject Townsend Club Has
Of Lesson Sermon In Election Monday
Christ Church Today An important meeting of the
Tounsend Club will be held Mon-
day night at 8 o'clock in the court-
"God" is the subject of the les- house at which- time election pf
son-sermon in all Churches of officers is planned. A good attend-
Christ, Scientist, today, ance of the membership is urged,
Chest, Scientist, todayand it is announced that the new
The Golden Text is from Jude charter has been received.
1:25, "To the only wise God our
Saviour, be glory and majesty, Lord, and thou art exalted as head
dominion and power, both now and above all" (I Chron. 29:11).
ever." The. lesson-sermon also includes
Among the citations which com- the following passage from the
prise the lesson-sermon is the fol- Christian Science textbook, "Sci-
lowin from the Bibl "Thi ence and Health with Key to the
lowing from the Bible: Thine, 0 Scriptures," by Mary aker Eddy:
Lord, is the greatness, and the "God is one. The allness of Deity
power, and the glory, and thelvic' is His oneness. .. Allness is the
tory, and the majesty; for all, tlat measure of the infinite, and noth-
is in the heaven and in the erkth ing less can express God" (pp. 267
is thine; thine is the kingdom, O and 336).


Sterling Silver... .. ..... .... -
Candelabras Decorative and useful silver plated
pieces $2. 0 UP
on pair $2.lov
$20 pa Candlesticks, Bowls, Platters


89t06 mtg4 P4 C honpau1

57 King St. Phone 148-J




Dresser Sets in Lovely
New Shades of Enamel!



SUNDAY, JULY 4,1937'


TROUS-R-FORMR restores

et Free Tickets urements to trousers. No ex-
tra cost. Available at Bay
Cleaning & Press Shop,
TO SEE Phone 118. J4-6t-p
Johnny Mance, Saragossa St. B
mSTHE BEACON on the beach, spe-
crial ISunv dinner Shrimpn, Fish


Ten names appear inserted between the Want-Ads. Read each
of them and, if yours is present, then bring this page to the
Record Advertising Department (downstairs) and you'll receive
a complimentary ticket to the Jefferson Theatre.


- I

Wan t Ad s

Classified Advertising

1 Insertion ......... 40
3 Insertions ........ 70O
6 Insertion ......$1.00
Cl as1 i ie 1 advertisement
counting over twenty words cost
as follows: Sc per word for one
insertion, 8%e per word for
three insertions, Sc per word for
six insertions.
Advertisements for week-day
insertions must be in the Record
office by 11 A. M.. For Sunday
insertion they must be in the
Record office by 4:30 P. M. Sat-
All classified advertisements
are subject to collection on the
day of first insertion.

3. Automobfles for Sale
CADILLAC 5-passenger sedan, A-1
condition. Party leaving town,
will sell for cash at sacrifice
price. Phone 1450. Write P. O.
Box 882. J4-3t-c
Mrs. Emily Kinder, Cordova St.
lets: 1934 four-door sedan; 1933
sport roadster. Plymouths: 1936
Deluxe 2-door touring sedan;
1936 coupe; 1935 Deluxe 4-door
sedan; 1934 Deluxe 4-door tour-
ing sedan; 1933 coupe. Fords:
1934 V8 tudor, Model A roadster,
coupe, tudor sedan, fordor sedan.
Trades and terms. Glen Thomp-
son Motor Co., 185 San Marco
Ave., Phone 905. J4-6t-c
FOR SALE: Willys Knight se-
dan. Good condition. The Tea
Cozy, 133 Cordova St. Phone
936-J. J28-tf.
Miss Marian Willis, Bay St.
100-POUND capacity ice box and
1 antique what-not. Would con-
sider either in trade for good
used sewing machine or dining
table and chairs. Inquire 52 St.
George St. JI-3t-p
FOR SALE: 2 single beds, springs
and mattresses. Inquire, 18 Cor-
dova St. J28-6t-c.
FRIGIDELITE 10c pint, tastes just
like ice cream. All 10c beer, cold,
3 for 25c; take it with you. All
15c beer, 2 for 25c. Cigarettes, 2
for 25c. Magazines at New York
prices. Plaza Cigar Store, 27
King St., Bay StreetCigar Store,
16 Maripe St. J30-6t-p
FOR SALE Outboard motor,
nearly new. Seven-foot throw
net. Sacrifice for quick sale.
Write "Motor," care Record Co.
Howard Wood, Bravo St.
FOR SALE-1936 Deluxe Chevro-
let auto radio in perfect condi-
tion. Cheap for cash. Write
Box "C", care Record. J4-3t-p

rWO DOUBLE BEDS, complete, $6
each. Neon room sign, $15. Nice
cottage and three acres' sell or
rent. .202 San Marco, City.

Adding Machines
Cash Registers
$1.00 Down and $1.00 Week
A.11 Makes Rented and repaired
'"We Do Duplicator Work
Form Letters, Circulars, etc.
101 St. George St. Phone 888
Virgil Hartley, Moultrie St.




Chicken, Dessert, Coffee, 50c.
Just off Lighthouse Park, always
a breeze. J4c


3OOD PLUMBING requires expe-
rienced workmanship-you'll find
both at Libby Plumbing Com-
pany, Bernard Ginty, Phone 2.

0. Real Estate For Sale
'OR SALE-5-room bungalow and
garage, good condition Lot
50x150, $500.00. Apply Elmer
Davis or any realtor. J2-3t-c.

Miss Charlotte' Israelson, Cordova.

FOR SALE-Some very desirable
Davis Shores lots, priced to sell.
Terms or Cash. Manucy-Colee
Realty, Inc., 124 Charlotte St.,
Phone 563. J4-3t-c

home, 8 rooms, 3 lots, fawn,
palms, orange and grapefruit
trees, crepe myrtle hedge, hibis-
cus, rock garden, pool, flowers,
two garages, private dock. Ad-
dress Box "P", care this news-
paper. J4-3t-p

iness building. Could be convert-
ed into 9 bedrooms, large living
room, and restaurant. This prop-
erty is for sale or rent. Manucy-
Colee Realty. Inc., 124 Charlotte
St., Phone 563. J4-3t-c

FOR SALE Desirable residence,
good condition, Almeria St., at a
sacrifice price. Manucy-Colee
Realty, Inc., 124 Charlotte St.,
Phone 563. J4-3t-c



eath Cl S e will be made in Evergreen Ceme-
eath Claims tery.
Pall bearers, chosen from the in-
ed Av l timate friends and playmates of
the young boy, will be: Eugene
iWalton, Frederick Chauvin, Har-
n T y ld Shuler, Jr., Calvin Shuler, John-
ln I ny Zeigler, Roderick Norton, George
Funeral T U y Center, Jr., Clifford Walton and
Warren Lucas.
loved Resident Had The body will Ile in state at the
moved esidhome from 2 o'clock this afternoon
Been Ill for Several until the hour of the services. Fu-
neral arrangements are under the
Months direction of the Key-McCabe Fu-
neral Home.
'red L. Avril, well-loved resident -
St. Augustine for a number of y r r
rs, passed away at 12:30 o'clock Depar g
terday afternoon at his home, *
28 Water Street, his death ter-
nating an illness of a number of For Og
nths. He was 54 years old. At Win Co
funerall services will be held this t Wi- -
Prronn co c o'cloc from the res- A lt 11

afternoon at D o' irom ait rto-
idence on Water Street and the
body will lie in state there from 3
o'clock this afternoon until the hour
of the funeral. Interment will be
made in the family plot in Ever-
green Cemetery with the Craig
Funeral Home in charge.
Mr. Avril was born on April 5,
1883, in Nashville, Tenn. He was
married on October 21, 1914, to Miss
Jessie May Parker in Birmingham,
in which city he was connected
with the Southern Express, and the
Pratt Consolidated Coal and Iron
Company. He came to St. Augus-
tine in 1925 and since that time has
been associated with the H. E.
Wolfe Construction Company. He
was a member of the Grace Metho-
dist Church and was a member of
the Masonic order.
Known for his genial, friendly
manner, the deceased had a wide
circle of friends throughout the
city to whom his death will mean
a great loss.
There survive the widow, their
4-year-old daughter, Joann, a sis-
ter, Mrs. B. C. Hassett of Miami
and a niece and nephew, May and
Burrell Hassett of Miami.
Ralph Rouse, 13, Dies
After Short Illness;
Services Monday At 3

Miss Mary Poe, Davis Shores.
Ralph Nelson Rouse, 13-year-old
FOR SALE-Five-room bungalow, son of Mr. and Mrs. Ralph Rouse,
Araquay Park, at a sacrifice of Anastasia Island, passed away
price. Manucy-Colee Realty, late Friday afternoon at a local
Inc., 124 Charlotte St., Phone 563. hospital, following a short illness.
J4-St'c The youngster had lived in St.
Augustine for the past eight years,
Fraternal Cards coming here with his parents from
Shelbyville, Ind. He was a student
at Orange Street Junior High
Palmetto Lodge, No. 25 School, and attended Sunday School
A regular meeting of Palmetto at the Grace M. E. Church.
Lodge, No. 25, I. O. O. F., will be Ralph is survived by his bereav-
held this evening in the Fraternal ed parents, one sister, Caroline, and
Building, Charlotte Street, at 7:30 a brother, Harry His grandmoth-
o'clock. All members are urged to er, Mrs. Curtis Wasson, of Shelby-
attend. J4-Adv. ville, and an uncle and aunt, Mr.
and Mrs. Harry Fields, of this city,
Knights of Pythias also awirvive.
Regular meeting of Mizpah Funeral services will be held
Lodge, No. 23, K. of P. Tuesday Monday afternoon at 3 o'clock
evening at 7:30 in K. of P. Hall. from the residence, with Rev. C.
Election of officers. Visitors in- W. Marlin, pastor of the Grace M.
vited. J4-Adv. E. Church, officiating Interment

Leave Tuesday Morning
at 8:30 o'Clock From
YMCA Building

Boys planning to attend Camp
Win-Co-Ma are busy making last-
minute preparations for the open-
ing which will be on Tuesday. The
eager campers will leave the YMCA
building at 8:30 o'clock Tuesday
morning, in a bus which was se-
cured through the courtesy of
County Superintendent of Public
Instruction D. D. Corbett.
Those who have already signed
up for camp are Si Davis, Jimmy
Holton, Bobby Hunt, Bobby Tony,
Robert Pacetti, Bill Smith, Bobby
Reid, Richard Holman, Billy Hobbs,
Billy Barnett, Ross Dunham,
Frank Day, Eugene Patterson, Carl
Bryant, Jack Buell, Harry Costa,
Delmer Conley, Gale Traxler, Jr.,
Albert Hodges, Stewart Russell,
Harry Rice, Jr., Emmett Pacetti,
Jr. and Joe Anderson of Bunnell.
Two truck loads of equipment
were sent to camp Thursday,- and
camp leaders, K. P.'s and the camp
cook, went along to put the camp
in shape for the boys. Two sail-
boats, two canoes and a row boat
were also taken, these to be used
in the water activity on the lake
The camp staff, assisting Direc-
tor Warren Magee, includes: Mur-
ray Sigman, Robbie Johnson, J. C.
Williams, George White and John
Those parents who wish to enroll
their boys at this late date may do
so, it is announced and a clothing
list may be secured at the Y office
Monday. Mr. Magee states that
parents will find this a reasonably
priced vacation for a boy, under
splendid supervision, with good
food, a healthy climate and no
Clean out your attic -
sell those unwanted arti-
cles through the Record


Senator Claude Pepper Writes
U. S. Senator Claude Pepper writes the editor of the St..Augus-
tine Record a cordial letter with regard to the Restoration Pro-
gram and the Restoration Issue of this newspaper. He says:
"I have followed with the greatest interest the proposal to
restore St. Augustine and am immensely gratified that the Legis-
lature has made an appropriation for this very worthy object.
Having recently been to Williamsburg, Virginia, and seen the re-
markable restoration there, I am the more anxious that our City
of St. Augustine, far antedating Williamsburg, should be restored;
and should have the just recognition to which it would be entitled
Sas entirely distinctive in the whole United States. We of Florida
are immensely proud of the precious heritage which Florida,
through St. Augustine, enjoys and I am anxious in every possible
way to be of help in this great undertaking."

Florida Radio



Sunday, July 4th, 1937
8:00 Good Morning.
8:15 Funny Paper Party.
8:45 Waltz Favorites.
9:00 Go to Church-Rev. Steele,
Lutheran Memorial Church.
9:30 Today's Almanac.
9:45 Variety.
10:00 Organ Echoes.
10:15 Fifteen Musical Moments.
10:30 World Entertains.
11:00 Memorial Presbyterian
Church, Rev. L. E. Brubaker.
12:00 Luncheon Serenade.
12:30 Song Souvenirs.
12:45 Tango Time.
1:00 Gypsy Ensemble.
1:30 Memoirs of a Concert Master
2:00 America on Parade.
2:30 Old Quartet.
2:45 Dancing Moods.
3:00 World Varieties.
3:30 Songs We Love.
3:45 In The Music Hall.
4:00 Light Opera.
4:30 Musical Variety.
5:00 The Meistro Presents.
5:15 Sunday Tea Dance.
5:30 Dinner Concert.
6:00 Echoes of the Stage.
6:30 Dinner Music.
7:00 Concert Under the Stars.
7:30 Musical Varieties.
8:00 Union Service-Ancient City
Baptist Church.

Salaries Bought
$5.00 to $50.00
Money for Salaried People
No Endorsement-No Mortgage

Room 8 Bishop's Bldg.
Entrance 170 St. George St.
HOURS 8 to 6 PHONE 129

9:00 Rambling Melodies.

9:00 Rambling Melodies.
9:45 Music in a Sentimental Mood.
10:00 Sign Off.
Monday, July 5th, 1937
7:00 Good Morning.
7:30 The Singing Cowboys.
7:45 Today's Almanac.
8:00 Tic Tocking Around the
9:00 Transradio News.
9:15 Souvenirs of Yesterday.
9:30 Fifteen Musical Moments.
9:45 The Garden Club.
10:00 Town Topics with Nancy Lee.
10:15 What's New.
10:30 Morning Concert.
11:00 Music of Spain.
11:15 Musical Variety.
11:30 Farm Flashes.
11:45 With The Band Masters.
12:00 Tic Tocking Around the
12:30 Transradio News.
12:45 Hits and Encores.
1:00 Music Box.
1:30 Gypsy Trails.
2:00 In The Salon.
2:30 Varieties.
2:45 Organ Melodies.
3:00 Minute Man.
3:30 Afternoon Concert.
4:00 Four O'clock Tunes.
4:15 Music Ballads.
4:30 Cocktail Hour.
5:00 Hollywood on Parade.

5 to 7 P. M. Daily

Bill's Bakery
(Next to Quality Food Store
57-Bridge Phone 887
We Deliver

Eugene L. Barnes
& Son
Realtors and Insurors
Established 1895
Phone 75 65 King St.


Yes-We Repair Fans and
Most Anything!
San Marco and Sanchez Aves.
Phone 963-J

Berry's Health Institute
Monson Annex-86 Charlotte St.
Phone 117
Scientific Body Massage
Electric Cabinet Baths
All Treatments Given Under the
Supervision of Your Physician
Expert Masseurs


All Porcelain Finish
Easy Terms
Si Augustine Paint and Hdw. Co.
121 St. George St. Telephone 229

Refinish Your Woodwork With


Makes it easy to beautify furniture and
woodwork. Dries in 4 hour--one coat
usually enough. 24 rich colors.
St. George and Treasury Streets Telephone 504


FOR SALE: Royal Standard
Typewriters, The World's Num-
ber 1. Famous for "Touch Con-
trol," ease of operation, quietness
and superior work. Invite a dem-
onstration and compare the re-
sults. Langston Office Supply
Co., Exclusive Agent. J23-tf-c.


WANTED Man for Rawleigh
Route. Route will be permanent
if you are a hustler. For partic-
ulars write Rawleigh's, Dept.
FAG-210-103, Memphis, Tenn.

Mrs. S. C. Middleton, Charlotte St.


apartments now available, 142
Bay St. at summer rates. Phone
218-J for information. J4-3t-p

4-ROOM BUNGALOW, nicely fur-
nished. Inquire at 20 Dufferin
St. Mrs. Truman Pacetti.
COMFORTABLE bedrooms, day,
week or month. One 2-room
apartment, second floor. Garage
apartment, two small rooms,
ground floor. 78 Cedar St.

John Cummings, Kixie's Men Shop.
FOR RENT Five-room apart-
ment, furnished. Also three-room
apartment, furnished. 18 Cor-
dova St. J4-6t-e
home, comfortable and modern,
set among palms and southern
shrubbery, on the waterfront. S.
M. Moore, St. Augustine, Fla.
ly located, hot running water.
Rates 50c, 75c and $1.00. Mrs.
W. H. Thomas, 34 Sanford St.,
St. Augustine, Fla. J4-p
FOR RENT-My former home at
14 Myrtle Ave. A. L. Combs,
care Builders Service Co.
Mrs. E. W. Lawson, Joiner St.
FOR RENT or for Sale: Seven
room unfurnished house. Terms.
Hiram Faver. M19-tf-..
NOW IS THE TIME to have your
old mattress made like new with
one-day service by a home con-
cern. City Mattress Co., 226 King
St., Phone 596. J30-6t-c


S.,. E~ Q1nAlR


ALLEY OOP Foozy Is Interrupted


ELECTRICAL wiring and repairs
at reasonable prices Phone 482-J.
If no answer call after 5 p. m.
J. W. Luke, 26 Joiner St.




A- _A u kw

%11 ME"W" mom now~S~










~ --~----~s~






Jy JCV u. nnwwamr

"We Fellers Have Gotta Stick Together

yJ im.LIlymu .1%


Davis Fans 11 Islets As Saints Score Fourth Win In Row

A Start to the Major Leagues *I

Francismen Take On _

0 GOP T 0 1 b lit,-
Orlando In Holiday __1?
Florida State League

Tilt Here Tomorrow 'i'f i adin i' .E I
SDeLanford ..........6 31 .597
Tilt Here Tomw I v. Palatka .......... 44 31 .587
,St. Augustine .....40 36 .529
Play at Daytona Today; Home Club Sweeps Sanford Daytona ..........36 30 .44
Leesburg .......... 32 42 .432
Series; Starr Turns in Twelfth Win, 3-2; Early- Leesburg .........32 42 .432 C
Attack Gives Home Clu 4 to 2 Win Yesterday y. Orlando ....... .24 50 .324 P
By Harvey Lopez N ,. American League f
i Sai ve beomez tWon Lost Pet.
Almost overnight, since Fred Francis got back on the firing line New York ........ 41 22 .651 h
to be exact, the St. Augustine Saints have become the most feared club -" Chicago ...... :.... 38 27 .58 C
in the Florida State League. Detroit .......... 36 28 .563 w
Yesterday the Francismen hung*e Boston ..........33 26 .559 a
up their fourth straight win behind rifice: Rodgers. Double play: .Cleveland ........ 3 330 .500 C
the sensational strikeout hurling Clary to Ruggerio to Prichard. Washington ...... 29 34 .460 a
"of Whitey Davis, who whiffed 11 Left on bases: St. Augustine 10; St. Louis ......... 21 40 .344 t
men in turning back the Daytona Sanford 6. Bases on balls: off Philadelphia ...... 20 41 .328 b
Crisfield 3, Starr 1, Brainard 0. ---
SFourth of July will be Struck out: by Crisfield 6, Brain- National League n
Te Fourth of July will be ard 3, Starr 4. Hits: off Crisfield Won Lost Pet. p
celebrated at Lewis Park tomr- in 7 innings 9 and 3 runs; off iChicago ......... 41 24 .631 v
rowafternoon with a Florida Brainard in 2 Innings 1 and 0 runs; New York ........ 40 26 .606 to
Sta.e League game between the t 9 g n runs. --t St. Louis ......... 35 28 .556 th
St. .ugustme Saints and the by pitcher: by Starr (Ruggerio) SOM Pittsburgh ....... 35 29 .547
The holiday contest is slated Passed ball: Head. Winning pitch- -0 ME OF t T E Brooklyn......... 28 35 .444 e
to blgin at 3 o'clock er: Starr. Losing pitcher: Cris- Boston ........... 28 37 .431 o
The management of the local field Umpires: Peters and Mc- IL CiEincnati ........ 25 38 .397
club pointed out that tomorrow Laulin. Time of game 1'55. Philadelphia...... 25 40 .385
will not be "Ladies' Day." Be- Saturday's Box Score T r M A If J s a o
to sa thensaontest.nAll othr Walker, sf .... 4 0 1 1 0 0 5 0 Games Toda Ioa e n
ing VIonday- is celebrated as the Daytona AB R BH PO A E Games Today
Fouth, ladies will have to pay Grant, rf......5 0 0 0 o
to see the contest. All other Walker, ss ..... 4 0 0 0 5 0 G ON ca
Mondays during the season will Martin, c-3b. 4 1 2 3 3 1 1i American League
Day. 0 3 3 1 0 JUNIOR American League w
be observed as "Ladies' Day." Sanders, cf.... 3 0 3 3 1 0 York at asnton.
With the Saints riding on top Fash, lb ....... 3 0 112 0 0 Pilael phia at Bo (2)
of sensational winning streak, Holdstock, lf... 4 0 0 1 0 0 P5 ~ Detro it at C eveland (2). hi
abi crowd is expetedto greet Wein, 2b ....... 4 0 0 3 3 0 DetrChicagoit at St. Louiseveland (2).
Chicago at St. Louis (2).
the ancismen at Lewis Park Nehls, 3b ...... 2 0 0 0 1 1 I :
tomorrow xJackson, c .... 2 0 0 0 2 10 National League c
Charkut,p. 4 0 0 0 2 0 "
.... -! -Brooklyn at New York.
Beach Islanders, 5 to 2. The home Totals .......35 2 7 24 16 2 Boston at Philadelphia (2). f
club will celebrate the FouAth of .... AR BH St. Louis at Cincinnati (). t
July by traveling to Daytona Beach Stock, ss 4 1 1 1 Pittsburgh at Chicago (2). t
today_ for a return engagement with Fitzgerald, f ..4 2 2 1 0 0 A tI
the Ilets at 3 o'clock. Gonsorcik, lf ... 4 0 2 0 0 0 Yesterday's Results f
Gebrge Starr turned in his Swindell, rf .... 1 1 0 0
otwe ly win of the current season Cates, f3b ....Nes i3 o6 2 1 1 0ines at a .

ed b the blond Saint right-hander Scorp by innings I connection wit h the Fourth of -
at tnford Friday night as the Owens, c ...... 3 10 1 0 elebaFlorida State League3a
avin9 saged a three l i Zu p 30 0 9 1 0 St. Augustine 4; Daytona Beach .
Sains staged a three-run rally in Zupanic, b ... here by the Jaycees, a big skeet Boston 7; New York 4.
the ghth for a 3 to 2 decision and Gentry, 2b..... y 1 3 ate o ai ore ti atroo 2 (
leading Sanford Lookouts. G S D innings)
SStrr's' masterful performance Totals ...... 29 5 8 27 11 0e a rac o D eLan 2; Sanford 1 com
in the Celery City was even better- xBatted for Nehls in 6th. ere Today A t 3 o'Clock A ttracton Gainesville 2; Palatka 1.
ed by the blond Saint right-hander Scor by innings: The shoot with the Fourth of
at the home pastures yesterday. Daytona ......... 100 001 000--2 Game Sated for Lewis hm BL July celebration being sponsored o National League I
Davis displayed a world of stuff St. Augustine.... 300 100 01x-5 bth a list of valuable being Detrooklyn 2; Philadelphia .
and ad the Islets swinging at air Runs batted in: Sanders, Gonsor- Park; Gem City Has here by the Jaycees, a big skeet Boston 7; New York 4.
all tie afternoon. He missed tying cik 2, Cates, Fash, Swindell. TwFo- ersoal tri h i i a ototow sorts are Chicago h ; St Louis 5.
the loop strikeout record by two base hits: Gonsorcik, Cates. Stoen Strong Club Gains A added on is hores wistthe arrange Pittsburg ; C.ico10
Whift. bases: Gonsorcik, Stock. Double with all marksmen invited to fom- innings)eba
Stin .Charkut, the Islanders' plays: Charkut to martin, Walker south o Jly tilt is se- s r ne or
soutphaw, didn't do so bad him- to Wein to ash. Left on bases: Although the nSaints will be at Te S or pwete. Am erican League
self, but the Saints made the eight Daytona 8, St. Augustine 3 Bases Daytona Beach this afternoon bat- The shoot will star at lock Philadelphia 3; Boston 8.
hits ff his chunking count. They on balls-off: Davis Charkut 2 tling the Islanders, local fans can WIMBLEDON, Eng., July with a listof valuable pries being Detroit 9; Cleveland 5.
bunced four for three runs in the Struc out-by: Davis 11, Charku still see a baseball game at Lewis ( Dn e completed the ofr ed the v s winner. New Y o; ainon .
opening frame and then coasted 4. Hit by pitcher-by: Charkut Park.oug ee o e e oe doed Doroth winners. New York 5; Washington
homi behind Davis' ace hurling. (Swindell). Wild pitches: Charkut. The Florida East Coast Railway greatest personal triumph in Wim- Many out-of-town sportsmen are Chicago 10; St. Louis 5.
George Stock started the home Umpires Lohr and Ery. Time of Clerks, who have been winning bledon's long history today when, expected to compete with a large -
club off in the initial round with a game: 1:40. games right and left of te, will with some lively assistance from delegation due to come over from region Baseball
run through short. On thed a t- o take on the Palatka Merchants, a his fellow-Calofirnians, Gene Mak Jaeksonville. The St Johns County Game On Tuesday
and-nm, Jerry Fitzgerald shot a Indian Fishing Habits strong amateur nine from the Gem and Alice Marble, he added the Sportsmen's League and the local The schedule in the American
easingl to center, driving StoJack Owens his Son with a striking Staff to the for today's engagement with fal. spectacular years of Universit Qy Tday
sin Jerry wto c enter, driving Stock to Of 1695 Are Outlined The Fourth of July tilt is sched- men's doubles and mixed doubles Jaycees are'handling details for Legion junior baseball Loop has
n throw-in to third and both d to get under way at 3 o'clock championships to the singles crown the big skeet shoot been shifted for this week, itas

a double play. erformB d with wret r The Clerks were nosed out, 6 to of tennis smashed England's Davis teammate, Paul Leslie, for the Na- The deadline for osting qualify-
runers scored when Andy Gon- pt and is mexpectea to attract manhe won yesterday announced yesterday. MThe game
lorek all but tore the cover off the supporters of the crack local simon The Oakland, Calif., red-heads Fred Haas Wins slated for Monday at the San Marco
bCatll.oHe led wh a double to the left scene described a Fship- purebs dominance of the closing day's play tC e Title Field will be played at 2 o'clock on
eld flower gardens. Gonsorcik wrecked party shows how ast Although several of the Clerks overshadowed Dorothy Round's e e go e Wednesda instead.
ing third by an eyelash and Cot Idis fihes i, and h have gone to Asheville, N. C., with somewhat lack-lustre victory over OAKMONT Pa., July 3 (AP) e i d to a t
ro ed thate platter ii th the third in 1 The the Railway diamond ball team, Jadwigo Jedrzejowska of Poland Tall and handsome Freddie Haas, Golfers Must

Sthe lander southpaw for the ir serve twenty Men. There were d u P t s ya o Q T
run when Billy Cates punched a account says "The Cassekey sent additional talent has been rounded 6-2, 2-6, 7-5, in the women's singles of Louisiana State, wound up three
end the rally by grounding into Inlet to Strike fishfor us which Platka. Teamed with Mak, thenew king competition today by whipping his
a dole play. was performed with great dexter The Clerks were nosed out, 6 to of tennis smashedEngland's Davis teammate, Paul Leslie, for the Na- The deadline for posting qualify-
St Augustine picked up a run in 5, by San Mateo at the letters field Cup pair, George Patrick Hughes tional Intercollegiate Golf Cha- ing scores n the King of Sing-

ce ntorh Dao Swindell sred Jer- hungry stomachs for some amongst i the "i of Swi
the fourth on Charkut' s ity fr some o u walked down yesterday. Both sides belted out and Clifford Raymnd Davys Tuck- pionship. The score was 5 and 3. ters" tournament t the Municipal
and 3ill Cates' double. Dave Swin- with him and though we looked 11 hits, with the Railway unable ey, completely out of shape to win As a sophomore, Haas, son of a Links ends today with a good
dell aas hit by a pitched ball and earnestly, when he threw his Staff to hold an early 4 to 2 lead. the men's doubles crown at 6-0, New Orleans professional, barged number of local golfers already on
Cate followed with a double down from him, could not see a Fish, at Score by innings: 6-4, 6-8, 6-1. A little later, Budge into the finals before he was stop- the firing line.

the t field line, Swindell stop-d oods Order To
pithe t id n e lw en, w R H E partnered Miss Marble, United ped. A year ago he was medalist, Patrons of the nine-hole course
itng Vic Zupanic at the gltter, iton Shore t End of his Staf. lerks ......000 004 010-5 11 6 States women's title-holder, to an and lost to Lesliein the late rounds.'are invited to qualify today and
a easy 6-4, 6-1, triumph over Yvon Today, after i seemed several compete in the handicap event. A
th it he randta th mtie e Petra and Me. Simone Mathieu of times that e was a gonner, Fred- number of valuable prizes have
noon Both Gonsorcik and runles s H. Solano, L. Buck and E. Solano. pionship afternoon to win. n
Aier going hitless and unless pursuing a Fish and seldom missed Selph and Glisson. France for the mixed doubles chain- die produce a great rally in the been donated for the various win-
for 'the next three rounds, the when he darted at him. In two H
Frascismen bunched three hits off hours he got as many fish as would
The slander southpaw for their serve twenty Mee. There were
fifth run. Jerry Fitzgerald out- others also fishing at the same time,
race a slow grounder to short for
an ilield hit and advanced to third' so that Fish was plenty; but the
on Andy Gonsorcik's hot single to sense of our Conditions stayed our
center. Dave Swindell scored Jer- hungry stomachs for some amongst
3Tlth a single to center. hunt te led as
Inthe first and sixth innings, us thought ty woul d u to
gles To do their scoring. Manager 0T o
Jimmy Sanders drove home an Indians Burned Off
iii te opening frame and Herb Woods In Order To div d

Swmla lle rf 2 '1 1 0 0 0 it among the tribe <
Fasl s infield hit near the second
sack drove Pepper Martin home Facilitate Hunting
from third in the sixth.
Manager Sanders was the big The method of hunting among
maa with the bat. He drove outd
three singles for. 37 3 10 27 16 perfect after- he the F E t rwa t

SATFORD ^A^thle UticE AoiainC with wa hih
noon, Both Gonsorcik and Caes burn the grass and w eeds from the
app s,d out a double and a sin0 e fields preparatory to cultivation,
and ~itzgerald chimed in with a surrounding them all at one time
pair Df bingles.
Mha Islanders committed two er- with fire so that the deer, wild
rors which did not figure in the ducks and rabbits, fleeing from it
scoring, while the peppy Saints fell into their hands. This sort of
playel errorless ball. hunting was called hurimelas.
o Then they entered the forests in
Friday's Box Score pursuit of bears, bison and lions,
STi AUGUSTINE-- which they killed with bows and

StocHad ss......c 0 2 3 2 0 was called ojeo. W87, hatevend Bob- "Safety-Tested"r requirements be
Fitzchrald, cb. ..5 1 2 1 0 o secured in either way they brought
Gonscrcik, lf .... 5 1 0 1 0 0 to the principal cacique, who divided
Swincell, rf.....2 1 1 0 0 0 it among the tribe.
Cates 3b.-lb..4,..4 0 0 6 3 0 o
Moore 2b.......0 0 0 1 2 0 Margaret Thacker A NOTE ABOUT OUR

Starri p........4 0 1 0 4 1 again topped the weekly rifle
-- -- -- matches of the F. E. C. Railway
Tols.....37 3 10 2716 2 Athletic Association with a high
score of 95x100. Hilda Totams
ABly Rs BP A Eplaced second with a score of 94x
Clary, ss......4 0 1 0 41 100 at the Riberia Street indoor Trade-ins on new Oldsmobiles have
Rodgrts, 3b.....3 0 0 2 0 0 range. Other scores follow: James given us a fine stock of used cars.
Langton, rf. ..4 1 1 2 0 0 Dean 93, Robert Dean93, Joe Paffe Each has been reconditioned to our
Head, c.......4 2 0 0 89, Win. Charles Blue 87, and Bob- "Safety-Tested" requirements be-
prichad. lb.....4 0 1 8 1 0 by Reid 81. fore being offered for sale, assur- Oldsmobile is sweeping this Oldest City with its finer performance, corn-

Kasso ..... 3 0 1 1 1 0 ing you that the used car you pur- fort, safety and saving. You'll like the easy way it handles, its many fine
Rugge6, 2b.....3 0 0 3 3 0 No Diamond Ball chase from Jack Dunn, Inc., is in
Crisfi, p ** 3 0 0 0 1 0 first-class shape. See our "Safety- features and its economical cost. Come in, ask to drive an Oldsmobile 6 or 8.
Brainasd, p.... .. 0 0 0 0 0 Games On Monday Teste" Usedas now while our You will then find out for yourself why Oldsmobile is selling so fast in
There will be no diamond ball stock offers variety in make, model,
Totas .......32 2 6 27 12 1 games at the San Marco Park to- and price. Easy G. M. A. C. terms St. Augustine.
Scori by innings: morrow night. The scheduled to suit your income.
St. Au ustine.. .... 000 000 030-3 doubleheader between McQuaig's A C K D U N N I TELEPHONE 420
Sanfor ........... 100 100 000-2 and the A. P. S. and the of C. 114 CHARLOTTE ST. n TELEPHONE 420
Runs batted in: Martin, Owens, and the Junior Order has been J 1 T *
Cates, :Ruggerio. Two-base hits: postponed so that players and fans W. B. "SUGAR" MICKLER, Manager
Starr. ; Three-base hit: Martin. can enjoy the Fourth of July holi-
Stolen bases: Swindell, Cates. Sac- day, it was announced. ,

President's Cup Tourney

Next Summer Golf Event

At St. Augustine Links

Members to Compete for Good Old Poker
J. W. Hoffman Trophy;
New Tourney Still InStyle
The St. Augustine Etail and "Bill Mickler" Is Name
Country Club will start its first
'resident's Cup Tourney with Perpetuated in Card
ualification rounds to be played
rom Thursday through Sunday. History
President J. W. Hoffman. genial
ead of the St. Augustine Country Bridge hasn't quite driven good
lub will inaugurate the event' old poker out of existence,.and it
with a trophy which will be known
s the J. W. Hoffman Presidents isn't necessary to date very far
Cup. This tournament will be an back to be able to explain a poker
annual event to be played at this hand that gave St. Augustine fame
ime each year and the trophy will in all Florida and some other por-
e an individual prize. The win-
er gets the cup for keeps and will tions of the States.
ot have to submit it for future If you don't know what a."Bill
lay. Each successive president Mickler" is, then ask either Rogero
rill be called on for a similar cup or Bertram Mickler. They will ex-
o be played for by membership of
his club. plain that a "Bill Mickler" is the
The event itself will be conduct- hand for which their grandfather,
d under the personal supervision Captain William Mickler, would
f the tournament committee and sacrifice almost, any cards. Captain
professionall Art. Manucy. Con-
estants will be divided into flights Mickler lived to be 94 years old and
nd will play all individual matches never went back on a "Bill Mick-
n flights with no handicap. Con- ler." If!he did, nobody ever heard
estants will be required to turn in of it. He got around Florida a
ards for all matches and all flight
sinners will be given a handicap good bit and wherever he went his
n the actual play for the trophy, reputation as the original of 'the
President Hoffman expressed "Bill Mickler" had preceded him, so
himself as well pleased with the that poker players watched his
activities at the Links, particu-
arly during tournaments and wel- hands closely. Captain Mickler
omed the opportunity, to inaugu- would discard anything, so his
te this forthcoming event. Of the grandsons say, in order to try 'to
Clubs' hundred members just a fill to an ace and king, and had
ew have failed to participate in wonderful luck doing it. So widely
hese events and Mr. Hoffman was this known that somebody
akes this opportunity to urge hitched the name "A Bill Mickler"
hose delinquents to take part in the to that sort of a hand.
forecoming tournament. As for Not long ago a prominent attor-
he Links, after the recent rains,, ney returning home from Massa-
no player could ask for a better chusetts, told Captain Mickler's
golf course to cdt his divots on. grandsons that one night when he
Many of the club's' golfers who are was in on a friendly poker party
geting their first taste of this sort near Boston, where every man was
f competition are improving by a stranger to him, he was amazed
eaps and bounds. Some of the vet- to hear one of the players referring
erans, wise in the ways of the an- to his hand as "A Bill Mickler."
cient game, have been forced to The party was much interested in
nove out of the way of faster com- hearing about the old man -.whoso
petition In the recent Ingraham name had been perpetuated in tha
Tourney still to be completed, Pro fashion.
Manucy posted five flights on the
board, and expects for this first St. Augustine Golf Club, located at
President's Cup initial event to one time at the City Gates. To
have at least eight flights, date #t has not been decided wheth-
The St. Augustine Links and er these cups will be played foj
Country Club is the possessor of this summer or put on the regular
two more beautiful trophies re- schedule of winter events. Ths
:eived from the north. These cups will be announced in-this plper at a
were once the property of the old little later date.

This pt afi d-O ~C stPa64a 4is
seim t hurt o
I A. no .d




o Get Into a Palm Beach nft or
Palm Beach slacks for sportswear this
summer and you'H feel a nude-like free.
dam you haven't felt since the day you
were born.


clothes are ideal for sport, because thdr
patented fabric holds Its shape and
doesn't go sloppy on you in a few hours.
Even business becomes a sport If
you'll go to it In one of the new ool
Palm Beach darker-toned mixtures.
They're tailored by Goodall, makers of
the famous cloth, and they're a Grade-A
Investment for everyday offles wear.












1 ,I

SUNDAY, JULY 4, 1937

$1 75



National Park They Care for Local Laundry Needs New Note Given Water Plant To toical research, Carnegie Institu- Au st Recv.Patrick Barry, D
S P A Stt Tak Be Finished Dr. Herbert Kahler, National D., Bishop of St. Augustine.
Park Service, St. Augustine, Fla. Dr. Waldo G. Leland, American
Service's Place AS State Takes .* Hon. David R. Dunham, president, Council of Learned Societies, Wash-
ll- ,1 S This Summer St. Augustine Historical Society. ington, D. C.
Is Important Dr. Matthew W. Stirling, chief
Is Important ----- Up Archeology In August, with the completion Dr. Carita Doggett Corse, state Bureau of American Ethnology,
...... _____ of ~the $172,000 extension and director Federal Writers' Project, Si on an t hng
o--- i--the $172,000 extension and Jacksonville, Fla. Smithsonian Institution, Washg-
n ia rg improvement program to the ton, D. C.
Looms Up in Local Pic- Hen. Wilbur C. Hall, chairman, Dr. William E. Lingelbach, pro-
Looms Up in Lo- Modern Phase With Flor- city's waterworks, St. Augus- Commission on Conservation and fessor of history at the Univeit
ture; Cooperation Is ida Adi St tine will have what is promised Development, Richmond, Virginia. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.
Vital I
Vital Aiding St. nugus- as pure, palatable water, much Hon. Scott M. Loftin, former John E. Pickering, editor, St. Au-
tine Program softer than the water now in use. United States senator, St. Augus- gustine Observer.
Th nl P r The modern water plant, with tine and Jacksonville, Florida. Hon. Vaulter B. Fraser, mayor of
The National Park Service, which itsfiltrat equipment and other Miss Nina Hawkins, editor, St. St. Augustine.
has in charge the national monu- By R. L. Dowling, t tat equipment and other
ments here, Forts San Marcos and Commissioner of Conservation up-to-date improvements, is a far
Matanzas, and also the ancient City TALLAHASSEE, July 3.-A new cry from the primitive wells of
Gates area, has other interesting .. note has been struck in archeology the early Spaniards. This is the
possible plans for St. Augustine,, with the state participating in the type of asset St. Augustinians
such as beach preservation, as may St. Augustine Restoration program. 11
be noted from the following: .. While archeology is a study of the welcome and will ever strive to
ST. AUGUSTINE AND ITS .. ancients-their customs, culture secure, despite the interest in the
PLACE IN THE NATIONAL .- I'Y ." .- and resources, a modern phase is Preservation and Restoration
y belle Florence Story, I being entered into with archeolo- Program that will insure the F
By Isabelle Florence Story, gists delving into the heart of a keeping of the quaint aspect of
Editor-in-Chief, National u Park t modern city, alive and progressing, the city.
Service as seeking a story of its founding and The improved water plant is a
Florida's share in the National revealing long forgotten facts con- PWA project, with an outright
Park System, present and prospec- cerning its establishment, early grant of $77,000 being made to The
tive, is such as to add luster to an growth and inhabitants. In this the city, and a $95,000 loan be-
already illustrious aggregation of a work the State by Legislative en- ing made, this loan to be repaid
scenic and historical areas, sat- actment is assisting with the St. out of waterworks revenue.
tered throughout the United States Augustine Historical Restoration. Restore
and reaching to the far-off terri- W.." In addition archeologists from the
stories of Hawaii and Alaska. .. 4.. Board of Conservation will, it is nmmitt ses
The old panish forts-Castle contemplated, soon be had at work a
San Marcos (to ,anticipate a little combing the findings from nearby Sho
in the matter of nomenclature, or to excavations with camel'i hair brush,
go back many years) and Fort 'o seeking to awaken once more the .
Matanzas--Fort Jefferson, in its .... spirit of the early Spaniards who ISIOrry s
romantic location on the Dry Tor- discovered this historic area, the r r G
tugas Keys, apart from their in- scene of the first white settlement yor rses Grop
tense human interest are valued This group of courteous salesmen is composed of the routemen who see that one's laundry is properly on the North American continent. Has National Repre- em de
members of the system as repre- collected and distributed in the St. Augustine Soft Water Laundry and after it has been carefully laundered There are few southern states e i
sending definite periods in our na- give prompt delivery to the patron's home. The drivers, from left to right, are: Earl Green, James Hoey, with a department of Archeology sentation
tional pageant of history. The Carl Roberts, Howard Wood, and Louie Thomas. Hobson T. Cone is the proprietor of the St. Augustine and we are proud that Florida is S l S
Everglades National Park with its Soft Water Laundry which is a local organization employing a large number of St. Augustine men and one. The Florida Archeological Some idea of the scope of the Na-
tropical atmosphere will add a uni- women. Survey was created by the Legisla- tional Committee for the Preserva-
que note to the galaxy of scenic ibe t el o ture of 1935 and placed under the tion and Restoration of Historic St. TI E MS
areas now under the protection of I Be ll
areas now under thle protection iberty T State Board oi f Conservation by o ex- Augustine is given through the fol-
Uncle Sam.Sto narews Senas ecutive order late the same year. lowing list of names, all of these IME M ARCH
At present the National Park and Senator Andrews Sends message s Department has been active people having accepted the
Monument System contains nearly U.S. Senator C. O. Andrews is among the digitaries writing B eard T aince and at one tim worked tion of Mayor Walte AND E KEEP PACE WITH IT
140 reservations of national signifi- the editor of the St. Augustine Record to.offer congratulations on under state supervision over 100 St. Augustine, to become committee
cance from the standpoint of scenic the Restoration Issue of this newspaper, news of which reached men in Dade county anda like um- members Mayor Fraser formed
beauty, scientific phenomena, his- him in Washington. ber in e H illsborough county; to-day the committee last Summer, and Years ago it took weeks and, in some instances, months, f
Parks are great wilderness areas- Senator Andrews in this connection says: secrets of early man in Florida in Washington last October, and one good news to travel across the country ... Then came the
bits of primeval America as our "I am indeed very happy that the Florida State Legislature re- Struck In Old Phila- Hillsborough. Records have been in St. Augustine on March 2d, of railroads, telephones, and the airplane.. then came improve
forefathers first saw it. Many of gently passed a bill providing for the appropriation of $50,000 to delphia made of excavations directed by this year. n tod th world is our next dr neihor
them, notably the Grand Canyon, carry on this work. St. Augustine is not only an enchanting and state archeologists in DeSoto, Volu- National Commit ments today the world is your next door neighbor
contain scientific features of tre- picturesque city, but is, in my opinion an historic shrine that should sia, Wakulla and Jefferson counties. Dr. John C. Merriam, president,
mendous interest in the story of be revered by all the citizens of our great nation. The work that PHILADELPHIA, Pa., July 3.- An archeological survey is con- Carnegie Institution of Washing-
each building. is being done in preserving and restoring it should create a na- templated covering the entire area We, too, have kept in progress. We,too, havkeptfaithwit
The National Monuments, of tional treasure, and during the many years to come I am sure that The entire nation will hear the Lib- between the St. Johns river and the ron.te e ... ith ne ieas with nw
which there are more than seventy, your efforts will bring pleasure to those who are to follow in erty Bell, which proclaimed Amer- coast from the mouth of the Halifax of the St. Augustine Historical Res- i r ield f ehandisi
are historic, prehistoric, or scientific our footsteps. ican independence on July 4, 1776, river on the south to the mouth of toratio. in every field of merchandising constantly conceived, w tak
in character. Also in the system "It was with considerable pride recently that I told a group of ring again on the Fourth of July in the St. Johns in Duval County. All Hon. Joshua C. Chase, president, advantage of every modern means of communication and trans
are National Military Parks, Na- United States Senatorsthat the whole of North America for many a program of The American Legion funds will be marked and maps Florida Hist al Societ Witation to keep in constant touch wit
tional Historical Parks, Battlefield years appeared under the name 'Florida' on the only authentic er nd chrt made ith a short de- Par, Flato keep in constant touch with what is happening i
Sites, and several other areas of map of the new world. which will e carried over the coast- scription of each aboriginal settle- Hon. John J. Tigert, president, the retail world so that you, our customers, may enjo
various classifications, but mainly Senator Andrews concludes his congratulatory letter by saying to-coast network of the Columbia ment. This will be of vital impor- University of Florida, Gainesville, the latest fashions at very low cost
of histori c interest. In u the scenic Se tor Andrews concludes his congratulatory letter by saying: r.man S sem Cb rc t the Boin Fami l.
roup, storic interest Imember is the nic "I assure you and the people of St. Augustine of the best wishes Broadcasting System It will be the tance to the Restoration program at Fla.
u the aest i of one whose forebears migrated to Florida when it was only a first time in history that the na- St. Augustine and will interest all Hon. H. J. Eckenrgde, director,
National Parkway, exemplifiedeby territory over one hundredyears ago." tion has heard the historic bell on scholars of early Floridiana. There Division of History and Archae-
the Blue Ridge Parkway, now under rrtory over one hundred years agothe anniversary of the day it tolled are literally hundreds of ancient ology, Richmond, Virginia.
construction between the Shenan- the birth of the country. Indian village sites in the proposed Hen. Harry F. Byrd, United
doah National Park in Virginia and The program will be broadcast area and excavations in some of the States Senator from Virginia, MO R R
the Great Smoky Mountains Na- k Ad City Gates Is from Independence Hall, originat- more promising mounds will un- United States Senate Building,
tional Park in North Carolina and r rowing in the same room in which the doubtedly uncover much of scientific Washington D. C
Tennessee. Declaration of Independence was and historic value. Dr. Herbert E. Bolton, professor T. GEORGE AT TREASURY
Of keen interest at this time of e oa n* t signed and the Constitution of the This work of the Conservation of history, University of California,
the year is the recommendation of 'a rt r i estO JatOf P o C United States was adopted. Much Board will be made with the co- Berkeley, California.
the National Resources Board, of the furnishings-which occupied operation and co-sponsorship of Dr. A. V Kidder, division of his-
which met with the hearty approval the room on both of those historic Carnegie Institution of Washing-
of the National Park Service, for Idea Will Be Given of Old one of the main parking lots to run occasions are still there and will be ton, D. C., in charge of all restora-
the inclusion of another new type orifi iiry from St. George Street to Cordova used in a dramatization in connec- tion work at St. Augustine. It is
qf reservation in the National Park Fortified Miltary and from Hypolita to Treasury for tion with the broadcast. hoped that a new St. Augustine will
System-the National Beach Park. Town the convenience of residents and The broadcast will be for 30 arise from the ruins of the old;
Disappearance of the primitive tourists. 'This area will be properly minutes, beginning promptly at 2 keeping all the modern advantages
beach, before the onslaught of bath- -"
beach, before the onslaught of bath- landscaped and screened from the o'clock Eastern Daylight Saving and adding the charm and dignity
s nd th oncoitant hot-dog Reconstruction of the Northern street b trees ad shrubs, and from Time, which is 1 o'clock Eastern of the early Dons.
esygs statif isi, and thaks of line of defense to the ancient cim there the visitor can conveniently Standard Time, 12 Noon Central Probing the heart of a living
descriptions led to the suges- of St. ugustine s the first m r visit the main historic areas. Standard Time, 11 a.m. Mountain city, welding the past with the
on that Federal protection- be reconstruction project of the St. On completion of the above-men- Standard Time, and 10 a. m. Pacific present, archeology is taking a de-
en to several as yet undisturbed Augustine Historical Restoration. d th reon Standard Time. cided tep forward.
eces o beach on the J ocean 1 The history of St. Augustine is tione projects the reconstru ction
fronts, the Gulf of Mexico, and primarily that of a military outpost, program will continue n it res-
a i otoration and redevelopment of
Great Lakes. to protect by sea the plate fleet oration s and redevelopment of SIGHT
In this connection, the beaches of bearing goldandsilverfrom Mexico ouetards and construction of SIGHT-SEEING
It. Augustine are a source of to Spain, and to maintain Spanish boul andpark, in the vari- AT KENTUCKY JIM'S BAR
ammaement to visitors from other boundaries from encroachment of ouSee Green River, Old Mint Springs and Sugar Creek; the Old
parts of the country, particularly French and English from the North. Drum and Cobb's Creek Crab Orchard and the Wilins Family.
the stretch on Anastasia Island be- It is therefore essential that res- E G Jim will show you the Town Tavern of Old Kentucky and it will
tween the city's two National Monu- toration should begin aeh t the City hVbring back memories of long ago. 42 Granada Street. Phone 412. O
ments and Vilano Beach Spit. Gates, entrance to the first little m
In 1906, when Congress passed town at the line of defense and focal To ea
what is now known as the Antiqui- point of its developmentK. 'K Jcreat
ties Act, giving authority to the The completed reconstruction will KENTUCKY JIM'S BAR
President of the United States to present a dramatic picture at one of "
declare by public proclamation his the main entrances to the old city. Community Progress IS AND PACKAGE STORE
torice landmarks, historic and pr- The moat restoration is on the pro- We Deliver Phn 1
historic structures, and other ob- gram and along this line will be Watchword of Many We Deliver Phone 412
jects of historic or scientific interest developed the great earthen de- 42 Granada St. St. Augustine, Fla.
that are situated upon lands owned fenses topped with palisades, plant- Citizens
or controlled by the Government of ed with Spanish bayonet and inter-
the United States to be national cepted at intervals with redoubts Two structures to which St. Au-
monuments." So, among others, mounted with guns. Already the gustine points with pride as con-
monuments. So, among others, old coquina moat bridge to the City tributine points withe recreational facili-
the Fort Marion, Fort Matanzas, Gates has been uncovered and re- ibuting to the recreational facili-
and Fort Jefferson National Monu- Gates has been uncovered and re- ties here are the Civic Center, with
ments eventually were established. stored and the work will proceed its large auditorium, seating some
The year 191 is noteworthy be- rapidly to completion. 600 to 700 people, and the Young
cause then w1s enacted the law The area behind the City Gates Men's Christian Association Build-
establishing the National Park will then be cleared of all anachro- ing, which is a wonderful com-
the National Park nistic buildings, making of that sec- uniy asset. The "Y" has a swim- .
Service. That legislation defines munity asset. The "Y" has a swim- 0
Service. That legislation defines tion a great park as a proper back- ming pool, and there is, in addition,
the dual function of the Service in ground to this historic site. An- "".'
regard to the national parks, monu- client buildings in this area will be a large separate gymnasium build-
ments and reservations under its preserved and restored and event- ng on the grounds
supervision in these words: "to con- ually many of the first little houses The Civic Center is the head-
serve the scenery and the natural on St. George Street behind the quarters for the Tourist Club dur
and historic objects and the wild Gates will be reconstructed. From ing the season, and daily activities
life therein and to provide for the Cuna to the Plaza on St. George center the pare.ks and playgrounds of the
enjoyment of the same in such man- Street, it is not planned to develop city are numerous and well located, omr
ner and by such means as will leave a literal reconstruction, but rather and these, with the two golf linksot, E D
them unimpaired for the enjoyment to alter the facades of the existing and thee w h t e__ of-
of future generations." buildings in order to redevelop theand the nearby beach resorts, offer -
The latest epoch-making date in old world atmosphere of this nar- ilities summer and winter.
the history of thd national park and row ancient street. Social advantages are numerous.
monument system is 1933. In Au- Work on the lovely old Sanchez The Rotary advantages Clare numerous.
gust of that year, under authority House, described elsewhere in this The Rotary stand King service clubs foare C A R
of President Roosevelt's executive issue is progressing rapidly. This tmen, in addition to thservice manclubs fora-
order of the previous June 10, all restoration project, carried on by tmen, in addition to the wom any fra-ve
activities of the Federal Govern- operation with the architects, P Junior Service League, and MOE LER'S S PER
ment were consolidated under the engineers and historians of the Res- fraPilot Club,r as well as many other
National Park Service of the De- toration staff, demonstrates the fraternal, charitable and church
Bartment of the Interior. By the great possibilities for individuals to orTnizat in
consolidation, the various parks participate in and be part of this The St. Augustine and St. Johns Look For Dodge
(historic in character), the national great program while at the same Cothe uniorty Chamber of Commerce andBlue Dependable Seal
milita parks, national monuments time developing a home in which uni asihnb r hof e De enable
of military interest, battlefield willbe installed all modern conveni- the community, a ad live organiza-
sites worthy of national preserva- ences of heating, light, kitchens and tions of this kind tend to make this
tion, and allied areas under the baths, with no alteration of the tions of this kind tend to make thisR
jurisdiction of the War Department original historic character of the city an ideal community in which 1935 Dodge Four-Door Sedan
were transferred to the National house. to live, since they mean devoted Dodge Four-Door Sedan
Park Service; national monuments fall, contact stations of interested and unselfish groups of 1935 Dodge Four-Door Sedan
By fall, contact stations of citizens who are always at work for 1933 Dodge Two-Door Sedan
within or contiguous to national Spanish architecture will be de- city and county progress.
forests (and therefore previously vplonnd nl a ,yc;n +.o.......... cy a

administered by the Forest Service er s to 1934 PlmothFour-DoorSedan
odi iered t he Foest Serice the city where attendants in pic- 1934 Plymouth Four-Door Sedan
of the Department of Agriculture) turesque costume will give out in- 1934 Plymouth Two-Door Sedan.
also were so transferred; as.were formation regarding the Restora- I
the park system of the Naon's tion, including pamphlets and guide L 1930 Ford Four-Door Sedan
Capital and the control of W pt.,f service as well as information re- l 1 F
the Federal buildings in Washing- garding all hotels, restaurants, and 1931 Ford Coupe oaked
ton and a few elsewhere, various amusements offered in St. 1934 Pontiac Two-Door Sedan
Of interest also is the fact that Augustine.1 4 P c Tr
the National Park Service in that It is planned to develop shortly LADIES' 1933 Austin Coupe A Frsh Daiy
take a prominent part in the emer- beautiful administrative building, 1932 Auburn Custom Sedan FAVORITE FOR In St Augusti e
agency relief program by providing with office and rest rooms, was READY-TO-WEAR 13 DRc
projects for Civilian Conservation installed. At Fort Matanzas an- 1934 Dodge /2-Ton Truck 51 YEARS
Corps Camps, for Public Works other administration building was
and Civil Works; and, later, for constructed, the historic old fort re- Special Prices on
projects such as Works Progress against encroachments oftheele- All Merchandise J. 0. MILLER'S GARAGE T B A K E R Y
and Federal Emergency Relief. ments, docks constructed to make BAE
St. Augustine's share in this pro- possible boat service in the near Throughout July 90 RIBERIA ST. PHONE 77
gram has included some $80,000 future, and a road with ramp built hrog t Jy 90 RIBERIA ST. P NE 77
worth of Federal projects, mainly to make St. Augustine's beautiful ST. AUGUSTINE, FLA. WALTER E MOELLER, PropST. AUGUSTINE, FA.
Public Works. At Fort Marion a beach accessible at Matanzas Inlet.


i I


SUNDAY, JULY 4, 1937

Gifted Women

Contribute To

Record Issue

Poetry and Art Join
Hands; Result Is


Old St. Augustine Present-
ed in Artistic

A most unusual contribution to
this Restoration Issue of the St.
Augustine Record, in which poetry
and art join hands, is made by
Marjorie Meeker Collins (Mrs. Viv-
ian Collins, and Celia Cregor Reid
(Mrs. J. M. T. Reid), two gifted
residents of this city.
The collaboration of these two
women, so well known in the field
of literature and art, has produced
for the Record and its readers the
nation over, a lovely and poetic
presentation of this Oldest City,
and beautiful illustrations which so
aptly portray the Spanish theme of
St. Augustine.
Mrs. Collins, who writes under
the name of Marjorie Meeker, is a
member of Poetry Society of Amer-
ica, Midland Authors, the Colum-
bus, 0., Branch of the League of
American Pen Women. One volume
of her poems, "Color of Water,"
was published by Brentano's. Much
of her verse has appeared in such
magazines as Harper's, Outlook,
Saturday Review, and New Repub-
lic. Her poems also appear in a
number of standard anthologies.
Mrs. Reid, who is president of
the St. Augustine Arts Club, -has
won many honors, Her wood cuts
of St. Augustine are nationally fa-
mous, she having taken numerous
prizes and awards at art exhibitions
with these lovely presentations.
The detail work of the border which
sets off Mrs. Collins' poem so ex-
quisitely, is lovely and worthy of
careful study. It is interesting-to
know that the corner decorations
were taken from some of the beau-
ful Spanish tiles in the Villa Zo-

Mrs. Lawson As

Special Writer

Does Fine Work

She Develops "Unwrit-
ten History of St.

The Record has been fortunate in
having as one of the special writers
-fa' this Restoration Edition Mrs.
E. W. Lawson of this city. Mrs.
Lawson, who has made her home
here for some years, began her
newspaper wl&- as Kate Swan, and
as a feature writer became well
known in New York and Washing-
ton, D. C. She was one of the women
writers of that day who knew the
late Arthur Brisbane personally,
and witnessed his meteoric rise to
fame and fortune.
Mrs. Lawson has been doing some
unusual research work during the
past several years in St. Augustine.
She is a member of the St. Augus-
tine Historical Society, and also has
served as an officer of that organ-
ization. For two years she has
been program 'chairman, and has
done outstanding work that has
attracted widespread attention. Her
attention has been directed par-
ticularly toward family histories
and biographies. She has brought
together a most valuable collection
of these, which give a picture of life
of earlier generations in St. Augus-
tine; also present an idea of color-
ful backgrounds, with their charm
of days long since gone by. It is
indeed fortunate for St. Augustine
as a whole that ,Mrs. Lawson has
brought to this work a vivid sense
of the pictorial, the dramatic and
the unusual. She has talked with
old people of St. Augustine, and has
been shown intimate family records,
family treasures, and keepsakes.
Out of these she has reconstructed
stories of other days that have a
wealth of romance and charm. The
facts and fancies gleaned have been
carefully checked and re-checked,
and they represent authentic, pains-
taking work.
Mrs. Lawson has also done much
valuable research work on interest-
ing old house, of St. Augustine,
getting down in black and white the
facts that records show. Her care-
ful work is something for which the
whole community should be thank-
The late Miss Amanda Brooks
went uo Spain to get what she called
in a book later published "The Un-
written History of St. Augustine."
Mrs. Lawson has remained here
in St. Augustine, and through her
original, creative work she has
developed on her o.n account an
"unwritten history of St. Augus-
tine" that has now been put into
concrete form in this edition of the
Record, and through papers filed
with the St. Augustine Historical
Society and Institute of Science.

The interesting biographical
sketches of women, the stories of
old houses, and fascinating family
histories, also the Histograms, and
some unusual "shorts", brief items
gleaned from archives, records,
etc., of this Oldest City, represent
Mrs. Lawson's contribution to this
edition of the Record, while a mem-
ber of the staff of this newspaper
for the past few weeks.
A caretaker discussing with visi-
tors in a St. Augustine orange
grove, wild orange juice which was
formerly shipped abroad in hogs-
heads, said that this orange juice
was "occasionally sold in small
quantities in St. Augustine for $1
per gallon, and that it was used in
place of vinegar in the British
Navy; also that it makes a delicious

(Copyright 1937 by Marjorie Meeker and C. Cregor Reid. All rights reserved.)

Historical Records Survey

And Archives Group Help

Work Is of Assistance to
Restoration Program

In the early months of 1936 the
WPA established two historical
surveys in St. Augustine which were
destined to have an important value
to the later organized St. Augustine
Historical Restoration Program.
Of these two survey projects,
started when the Restoration was
yet an idea taking form in the
minds of forward-looking citizens,
one was the Historical Records
Survey, a nation-wide work, and
the other was the State Archives
Survey, a project within the State
of Florida, and together they prom-
ise to be a real contribution by the
National Government to the St.
Augustine program.
The purpose of these two sur-
veys, which were administered from
one office, was to search out and
record scattered privately owned
historical material as well as to
catalogue the public records of the
county and city, to make them
available for historical research.
More than a hundred years ago
Indians used a system of keeping
accounts in their dealings with the
white man which was called
"chalks." Possibly nowhere in the
United States would a writer have
found authoritative information on
the nature of these chalks before
it was brought to light in St. Au-
gustine by the surveys.
In the county records was found
not only detailed evidence of a
large cattle deal which was kept
account of by this method of chalks,
but there was also found a facsimile
of the chalks used between Indians
and the white man buyer.
The Indian who sold these cattle
was a princess, sister of a famous
chief, and it was found that she
secured title to a property in St.
Augustine which, in the light of
these discoveries, has a fascinating
This particular instance is only
one of many uncovered in the files
of the county, mainly in the ancient
court records in the fireproof
vaults of the clerk of circuit court,
Hiram H. Faver. They have been
buried there for scores of years but
have been unavailable because the
system of filing does not disclose
historical items. Persons involved
in a court are indexed but there
has been no way of knowing what
valuable knowledge is wrapped up

in the worm-eaten packages of pa-
ers deposited as a relic of long ago
forgotten civil and criminal actions.
Among other items found in the
county files were priceless original
Spanish grants, original birth cer-
tificates of ancestors of prominent
St. Augustine families in the
eighteenth century; maps disclosing
the exact location of fortifications
maintained by the British during
their occupation of Floridd, and
data wiich corroborated or dis-
proved written history for all of
the State.
When the workers of the Surveys
began on the city records, the most
interesting developments resulted
from the laborious sorting of a
mass of loose papers which had
accumulated for a century and a
quarter. The volumes of the offi-
cial city records, have been well
preserved and are a credit to city
officials, it is emphasized.
Accidentally preserved was such
a precious document as a letter
written and signed by Jefferson
Davis when he was Secretary of
War for the United States, before
he became permanently enshrined
historically as the President of/ the
Confederate States of America.
Workers in all the counties of
Florida have been turning up ma-
terial of direct interest and appli-
cation to this city. The Historical
Records and State Archives Sur-
veys employed a Spanish translator
who recently prepared a list of
"Description of the Plan of the
City of St. Augustine, East Flor-
ida, Year of 1788", a copy of which
is now treasured in the offices of
the St. Augustine Historical Res-
toration. The original Spanish draft
of this list was found in the ar-
chives of the State of Florida in
Some of the papers preserved in
the city records were amusing and
others pathetic. In one case a city
official ordered a baby carriage and
somehow his correspondence sur-
vived in the mass of conglomerate
papers. Even the old-timers, as
they are affectionately called, would

have smiled to see the ornate ve-
hicles illustrated on the advertis-
ing folder from which he ordered.
The early attempt at ordering by
mail was not a success for the car-
riage was not according to the pic-
ture when it was received and the
official fumed.
The St. Augustine fire depart-
ment laddies had quite a laugh one
day when they were shown an old
poster illustrating fire equipment
which some manufacturer had fond-
ly sent to an Ancient City fire com-
pany. It showed all hand-pulled
hose carts and hand operated water
pump equipment.
Along with such insights into
"the good old days" was intermixed
the originals of the first charters of
St. Augustine with the signatures
of historic men affixed. Other worn
papers sadly recalled the days when
outlying pioneers were often killed
by hostile Indians. Threaded
through it all is mute evidence of
the terror and griefs of yellow
fever, smallpox and-other epidem-
ics, one of which diseases was called
"the stranger's fever."
The workers of the two surveys
have also listed hundreds of docu-
ments on standard printed report
forms so that they will be available
in libraries over the entire nation
for persons interested in research in
St. Augustine History.
Every effort has been made to
assemble long unused records and
in some cases new shelves have been
provided at the expense of the sur-
The officials of the Survey expect
to complete the survey in this rich
historical field in St. Augustine,
which is one of the most important
in the United States.
Local businessmen, county and
city officials have expressed their
appreciation of the assistance given
by the Historical Records and State
Archives Surveys, not only finan-
cially as well as by giving employ-
ment to local workers, but for the
making of these priceless records
available to a student and layman.
Once upon a time, so Mrs. J. P.
Dodge of No. 35 Mulberry Street
says, the section around Locust,
Pine and Mulberry Streets, east to
the marsh and river was known as
"Punkin Hill," distinguishing it
from its lower situated surrounding

Tires, Tubes, Gasoline and Oils, Accessories

Wrecking Service Telephone 513

Old Records of 1783 In-
dicate Value Put on

Mistress Ann Cameron was ask-
ing compensation for lasses result-
ing from the departure of the Brit-
ish in 1783. The Camerons came to
St. Augustine in 1770 and Ann "be-
came a comfortless widow" in 1782.
She asks payment for some of her
lost household furniture. She values
her chest of Mahogany drawers at
2 pounds, 7 shillings, 6 pence, a
"ligananvita" bedstead at 4 pounds
10 shillings, but 2 other bedsteads
were worth 10 shillings less than
the "Ligananvita" one. There is a
large table, a mahogany tea table,
6 chairs, a corner cupboard worth
only 17 shillings, and a small iron-
ing table. She explains she hadn't
sold these articles because she
found only Spaniards were bidding
and after she sold a tea table for
2 shillings and 6 pence that cost
her one pound 18 shillings and 6
pence she wouldn't give them any
Collectors of such antique articles


-Jv~. IYL.E L1-__ _-U

will note the comfortlesss widow's"
appraisals carefully. The constant
drift through, in and out of St.
Augustine explains the variety of
periods and designs formerly to be
met with here in all household ar-
ticles. On one occasion while work
was starting on a St. George Street
site a buried cache of china of many
patterns was dug into. Some of it
is still in a family here unless re-
cently broken' or sold. One New
England family's descendants have
two chairs that had been sold back
in New England. Sometime after
they settled in St. Augustine they
met these two chairs in a house
here of a new acquaintance. They
were able to buy them back.
The Keeper of Provisions in St.
Augustine, who was Juan Ximenez,
in 1597, had to provide donations to
Indian visitors whom the governor
or church heads were trying to hold
in friendship. In ten days that year
the heir of Tolomato came to St.
Augustine with three companions.
The Keeper of Provisions gave
them 45 pounds of flour and Juan
was given clothing because he had
lately accompanied a missionary on
a trip to several Indian villages.


SINCE 1919

Today, just as in 1919, service is our most important
We have modern equipment and years of experience,
but the most important fact is that we are able to
give the motorist service.
Our shop is ready at all times for any automotive
repairs, so when you want service, call 838.



St. George and Orange Sts. Phone 838

On Nationally
Advertised Prices at
No Extra Charge

We carry an unusually
fine selection of dia-
monds and precious
stones, in engagement
and wedding ring sets.
Priced as low as $15.00

J. Dexter Phinney
96 St. George Street





We Invite Your In.

section of Our

Stock of Home




"Comfortless Widow" Seeks

Compensation For Losses

Served on Council of
Governor; Makes Racy

Frederick George Mulcaster, a
brother to King George the Third,
lived in St. Augustine during the
early part, at least, of the British
occupation of Florida. He took the
place of De Brahm, as engineer
when the latter was taken away
from Florida, and he served on the
Governor's Council part of the time.
He was a verbose letter writar,,1rhe
letter he wrote to Brig .-.Qeneral
Grant, former Governor of East
Florida, from which the following
extracts are taken, would fill a page
and a half of the Record. The let-
ter was captured by the Revolution-
ary forces 'on its way by sea to
Grant in Boston and is printed
along with a number of other let-
ters and documents dated St. Au-
gustine, in the American State Pa-
It. was on September 29, 1775,
that Mulcaster dated his letter full
of news of people Grant knew in
St. Augustine. "Catherwood," he
writes, "and his lady live in state
by themselves. They seldom see
any one." Catherwood was a doctor
and was a member of the Gover-
nor's Council. The house owned by
Mrs. Horace Lindsley at No. 214
St. George Street was probably
where the Catherwoods were living
in town. Transfers of the house
show Catherwood ownership. The
letter was being sent in the "charge
of Capt. Chas. Fordyce of the 14th
Regiment who goes now to Virginia
with a detachment. He has been
for two years past one of a cabinet
junto consisting of the padre"
(this probably was the Rev. Forbes)
"and myself, where the state of
the Province and its welfare are
duly considered. He of course is
well acquainted with the charac-
ters and had he been here in your
time I am confident he would have
been a frequent guest in the Print
Room and a no small sharer in the
wicked bottle."
That St. Augustine had a strike
at the fort appears. Hewitt, the
stonemason, wouldn't get to work,

.R_. --I~~IC-__


nor the others, until they knew who
was going to pay them.
"Humbert, the carpenter, asked
me," writes Mulcaster, "if you were
coming back. He heard you had
written you'd be here in the fall.
I told him you had intentions, but
there was so much disturbance in
the northward that I did not expect
you. He replied it was great pity
as the tradesmen would be disap-
pointed. They all had resolved to
make a huge bonfire and illuminate
their houses as soon as you came
ashore. But for this man" (the car--
penter is here referring to the Gov-
ernor, Pat. Tonyn) "he will abso-
lutely ruin the province. He pays
no one either for public or private,
work. Governor Grant's bills were
good. Sometimes he drove a hard
bargain but always he paid .in full.
"Your furniture," Mulcaster con-
tinues to the ex-Governor and Gen-
eral Grant, "is in the same state-
nor do I see any prospect of its,
being settled. He shoves off Yates
with 'by and by,' 'time enough'.
His Excellency gave a dinner yes-
terday to the 14th officers and some
others. It is the only one he has
given since the one he gave John
Stuart on his arrival and for this
purpose he borrowed from Moultria
his cook, Ned, and the mulatto
woman, Hester. How he does when
he is by himself nobody knows. A
very severe copy of verses appeared
at Payne's Corner lately about him
and his lady and their flogging the
negroes, etc. The author no one can
guess at, but' the verses were very
good. The old Levitts and young-
est son talk of going to England in
the Lofthouse, but the Governor is
very averse to it, although no rea-
son can be given except his being
fearful Levitt telling his relation
of the life he leads."
Probably the Governor Tonyn,
had his way, for in some records
later the Levitts have their coach
horses stolen.
Mulcaster, one of whose sons was
born in St. Augustine, is sending
two of his children home to Eng-
land. "As soon as they are inocu-
lated, they are to go to school as'
a good education is what I intend
to give them, that they may better
be able to help themselves when
they grow up."

King's Brother Gossips Of

Life In This Oldest City






Two Protestant

Churches Pass

Century Mark

'They Are Trinity Episco-
pal and Memorial


An Eager Worker

St. Augustine has numerous fine
churches, which guarantee to resi-
dents and visitors an opportunity to
attend the churches of their choice.
From earliest times the Catholic
Church carried the torch of faith,
and the story of Christianity, into
this conimunity.
Over 100 years ago two Protes-
tant churches of the community be-
gan their ministry. Others have
come and built beautiful or simple
edifices during the years. Short-
age of space makes it impossible to
give special attention to the nu- Mrs. Neil Dickman, who is a
merous churches of the community, member of the Histrical Preser-
all of which of, course should be ovation and Restoration Associa-
preserved in their Christianizing tion of St. Augustine, has shown
work and influence. Special space the deepest interest in the Resto-
is given elsewhere to the Cathedral, ration Program, and has been work-
and to other Catholic phases of the ing eagerly for it, as she consid-
community. Here are the two local ers it vital to the community, and
Protestant Churches, whose his- to the state and nation.
stories run back for more than a
century. They are Trinity Epis- Mr Dickman
copal and Memorial Presbyterian: H s. C man
Trinity Episcopal Church
Probably one of the most inter- t
testing things about Trinity Parish Enthusiastic
is that it possesses a church' build-
ing which stands on a historic site.
During the period Florida was in Feels Restoration Pro-
the possession of Great Britain
(1763-1783) the services of the gram Is Vital to Old-
Church of England were regularly est City
held in a building, if not a church, e
which it has been said undoubtedly
stood upon the actual spot where Mrs. Neil Dickman, one of the
Trinity Church now stands. This two women members of the St. Au-
building was called the English gustine Historical Preservation and
Constitution House. Restoration Association, feels very
In October of the year 1821, the keenly the importance of the Res-
Young Men's Missionary Society of toration Program for this Oldest
Charleston, S. C., sent a minister City. When asked to give her views
here to organize a parish, and in of the program, she spoke as fol-
1825 we find the vestry applying to lows to an interviewer:
the city for a lease of the lot upon "In a newcountry, where there
which to erect a church. The lot are so few old shrines, and the
had been put into the possession of policy has been, every few years, to
the city by the United States gov- tear down buildings, and put up big-
ernment with authority toa ent it ger ones, it is a wonderful thing to
out and use the rent for city pur- have such a movement as the
poses, and they released their title Carnegie. Restoration plan for St.
for $100. Augustine.
The cornerstone of Trinity "We, who love beauty' and as-
Church was laid in June of 1825. sociatio of t he past, he depred
Records show that in 1828 the sociation of the past, have deplored
'vestry had a building fund of 3,- the passing of the ancient Spanish
000 which was not deemed suffi- houses, and the great changes, we
ien t bilauche seen iii the narrow streets.
desired and aid was being sought "e have often wished that the
fom their brethren in the north. Old part of the city had been zoned
The church was open for divine war- as many European cities are, and
hip in June, 1831. that we could have kept intact the
The original church was 86 feet quaint houses with the overhanging
'wide by 50 feet long. Building op- balconies, and the charm of the past
orations were slow in those days that pervades all old places.
and in May, 1832, the interior was Now, comes our opportunity that
lastered, and three years later all will enable us to make St. Augus-
'indows and the heads for the tine one of the outstanding cities in
doors were made for $200, the con- America, for no other place in the
tractor furnishing all the material. country has such historic back-
The work of the women in rais- ground and such natural beauties
ing funds and helping to furpish to enhance it.
the church is evident throughout the "What different elements have
years. made their impress upon St. Au-
Around 1850 the chancel was gustine-Indian, Spanish, French
S built out and a vestry room added and English; it would be criminal
at the side. A new lcturn, clergy not to preserve and re-create these
stalls and f generallyy were epochs for the coming generations,
d-ng he cost was df rayed so that they may see history in its
Chiefly through the efforts of the unfolding in a country where every-
ladies hr the products of their in- thing seems new.
Str t h rh was ractia "The old Fort again will take a
In 9dthe wawreh was patical- dominant place in appropriate sur-
Srebuilt att cost of $11i000 The roundings; the Cathedral will stand
nly part of the original churc now forth, not overshadowed by build-
tanding is the north porch and ings that take from its dignity and
tower, with the walls of the north beauty, and the old streets once
trasept and baptistry. The old more echo to the sound of many
nd the new were artistically and feet, untrammeled by the automo-
beautifully combined, and the biles that throng and fill them so
church has now the proper cruci- that all their charm is lost.
form shape, and a seating capacity "We must feel that a great herit-
of over 500. It was consecrated by age is ours, to pass on to those who
he Rt. Rev, Edwin.G. Weed, D. D. are to come after us; it is such
Dishop of Florida, April 7, 1905. things that inspire love for coun-
ding was started on a parish try, civic pride and desire to know
sehobl in 1857, on a lot to the rear the history of our land; so let us
of the church which had been pur- trust that all who love St. Augus-
chased the previous year. tine will take part and help to make
Memorial Presbyterian Church this restoration a thing of national
The Presbyterian Church of St.
Augustine also had a noble and in- pride."
aspiring history which began with
S the organization of the church on Tales Of Pirates Are
June 10th, 1824. Prior to that P f Ol
time, records show that there was Part Of Old Days
a Presbyterian Society of St. Au- As Recorded Locally
Sgustine, "East Florida" as early.
as 1823.
On January 1st, 1825, the corner- Referring to pirates, Kidd, Drake,
atone of the Presbyterian Church Gasparilla are three commonly
was laid, the funds used having mentioned. St. Augustine, how-
been collected from persons in vari- ever, was continually menaced or
ous parts of the United States. The attacked according to oldest rec-
church membership' grew steadily ords available.
and about 1835 a Sunday School Think of this little place when
was organized. It is interesting to Captain Pain, a Bahama privateer
note that slaves were admitted to came along in 1683, under the
membership in 1842, but that a res- French flag and attempted to, raid
solution was adopted stipulating that St. Augustine. He was driven off
slaves apply for admission to the however and avenged himself by
church "with satisfactory evidence looting nearby settlements. He
that the application is made with made the Carolina coast his head-
the knowledge and permission of quarters. A rather famous pirate
the Owner or Master." ship was in Pain's company on
In 1870 a chapel or Sunday School that excursion. La Trompeuse be-
room with tower for the bell, was longing to the notorious Captain
built adjoining the old church at a Michel Landresson whose alias was
cost of $3,000. This chapel has an. "Breha" in the expedition. "Breha":
Interesting history for it was mov- was captured three years later by
ed from its original site on South the Armada de Barlorento and
S. George Street in 1877 to a point hanged with his companions.
back of the Post Office, facing Cor- "Pirate" was a designation fre-
dova Street. This moving was done quently necessary during the Eng-
by the Indians sent here from the lish occupation when sailing ves-
west as prisoners of war, and were sels were held up near the Florida
under command of Capt. R. H. coast. Several old men of St. Au-
Pratt. In 1888 the chapel 'was gustine can tell pirate stories con-
again moved to a lot in North City cerning encounters, as late as the
near the present county jail and last quarter of the 19th Century,
was used as a Mission Sunday in which vessels were brought into
School until 1896. It was then sold this harbor.
to the County School Board for $200
and later was sold by the School church was then changed to "The
Board to the Sisters of St. Joseph Memorial Presbyterian Church."
,who had it rolled part way down The large coquina columns that
San Marco and it came to rest as a stand at either entrance of the
part 6f the parochial school plant church were built from blocks tak-
of St. Agnes. ** en from the walls of the old church
The present beautiful "*ehurch on St. George Street.
building was erected in 1890'by Thus from a little band of five
Henry M. Flagler, in'loving remem- men and eight women in 1824 the
brance of his daughter, Jennie church has grown to a strong or-
Louise Flagler Benedict, who died ganization of several hundred men,
March 25, 1889. The name of the women and children.

Victorian and Empire Furniture. Choice pieces of Penn. Dutch and Early
American Furniture.
Listed Pattern Glass, Milk Glass. Hundreds of pieces ,of Colored Glass.
Blown Bristol and Bohemian Vases. Bisque Figurines. Staffordshire Vases.
Rare Corner Cupboards. Marble Top Tables. Whatnots. Boston Rockers,
Hitchcock Chairs with Original Stencil, Etc. Write us your wants.

Indian Fashions Showed

Colorful Love Of Display



Jewels, Feathers, Stones,
Beads and Tattoos
Were Leaders

The man of today contents him-
self with perhaps a class ring, fra-
ternal pin, tie and collar pin and
puts fancy studs in his dress shirt
front, but the Timucuan Indian,
regaling himself for war or love,
decked himself out with all the
grandeur of a movie queen. Feath-
er ornaments were used in the hair
and ornaments of beads, coppers,
colored stones, bones, and, in later
times, brass and silver, were worn
not only there but on the breech-
clout an, other articles of clothing,
about the neck, hanging from the
ears, and about the waist and
wrists and sometimes about the
arms and ankles. Pearls were
highly prized throughout the entire
Southeast and seem to have been
partially monopolized by the chiefs
and upper classes (as today). Shell
gorgets were distributed as widely
as pearls.
Peculiar to the Timucuan of Flor-
ida were small oblong fish-bladders
which when inflated shine like
pearls and which, being dyed red,
look like a light-colored carbuncle.
Natchez beaus wore bracelets work-
ed out of the ribs of deer and the
Florida Indians employed fish teeth
for that purpose. Tattooing was
practically universal, and, from
what most writers tell us, it would
seem that art found a peculiarly
high expression through the me-
dium of tattooings.
On the authority of one of his
officers, Laudonniere reports that
Onathaqua and Hostaqua, two
chiefs living near Ocilla River,
Florida, painted their faces black
while the other Timucuan chiefs
used red. The Indians of Florida
allowed their finger and toe nails
to grow very long.
Moccasins were worn throughout
the Southeast by the Indians when
travelling but at home they went
barefoot much of the time. Moc-
casins for common wear were made
of elk skin, but those of deerskin
were used for dress occasions.

Little Chapel

Of Minorcans

Is Interesting

Walls Believed Standing
At 81 St. George;
History Traced

Walls of the Capilla Minorquin
are believed yet standing at No. 81
St. George Street. This is the co-
quina building in which Father
Pedro Camps took refuge with his
faithful Parish of San Pedro when
the Minorcan colonies fled from ill-
fated plantations of New Smyrna
to the protection of the English
governor in St. Augustine. In this
building, the Catholic faith was
kept alive until the return of the
Spaniards to rule in St. Augustine
once more; to open their church
and restore its ministrations to the
When the Minorcan colony sailed
from Port Mahon, they were ac-
companied by a young priest, Fa-
ther Pedro Camps. In New Smyr-
na there was a small church. The
priest had kept faithful records of
his flock from the hour they sailed
from the Balearic Island. In it are
names of babies born at sea, named
Buenventura, several of them. In
New Smyrna he tried to carry out

all the duties of the church, but
had difficulty in obtaining neces-
sary provision, some finally being
brought to him by friendly sailors
from Cuba. There seems to be no
records of any part Father Camps
may have taken in the decision to
quit New Smyrna's terrors, but it
is evident he agreed with his flock
and came to St. Augustine with
them. Father Clavreul has said
that Father Camps told of holding
services in private homes. One men-
tioned is that of Juan Carreras.
There was a Juan Carreras who
lived at the corner of Fort Alley
and St. George St. and another is
described living on the west side
of St. George, close by the first one.
But from many allusions to the
Capilla Minorquin it is clear Fa-
ther Camps and his congregation
arranged a small chapel. Prof.
Sibbert in his Loyalists of East
Florida mentions "the little deco-
rated chapel of the Minorcans." A
man close by the building still
standing says about fifty years ago
he saw the niches in the walls for
the statues.
It is even possible to fix dates
when it was the Capilla Minorcan.
In the Spanish census of 1784, ref-
erence is made to "Juan Gianopoli,
a native of Morea who has a wife,
3 slaves and two horses and lives
in a house and lot of his own near
the Minorquin church."
Again in the same year, the
Spanish escrituras say on the 26th
of August Joseph Stout transferred
to "Juan Sanchez a coquina house
with lot bounded by a flat roofed
house, which is the Minorcan
A Spanish census list mentions
on Page 23 "Lorenzo Cape su pro-
feccion es sacristan de la Capilla
Minorquin". Here we have both
the chapel and the sacristy. Also
it is known from another list that
the house Lorenzo Capo lived in
was immediately in the rear of the
capilla. A deed book in the county
court house contains several later
references to this building. In one
the same property transferred to
Juan Sanchez in 1784 is being
transferred and is "bounded on the
north by house formerly occupied
as a church for the Mahonica."
There are many allusions to
Father Camps, some of them
promising rather dramatic hap-
penings. When he died in 1790 his
will shows he had enjoyed un-
bounded confidence of his parish.
Some of its provisions are to be
found in the court house here.
Just what condition the entire
capilla is in at present hasn't been
yet taken up, but enough of the
walls is standing to make the site

. ---*** ^

im .

Visiting St. Augustine?

-then you can buy that

Good GULF Gas

-and receive the best in
service Air in your tires
Windshield cleaned.
Battery checked Com-
S plete greasing... Radiator
flushed out .. No matter
what little service you require
we are ready and willing to
assist you. Phone 847

Service Station


SUNDAY, JULY 4, 1937,

Florida Literature Is
Far Older Than That
Of Virginia Colony

Literature of Florida antedates
that of Virginia, first permanent
English Colony, by many years.
It seems that literature in Vir-
ginia began with Captain John
Smith, Elizabethan adventurer, and
colonist, who wrote several naval
books after the founding of the
settlement at Jamestown in 1607.
Literature of Florida began with
its discovery by Juan Ponce de
Leon, in 1513. Herrera, who wrote
of Ponce de Leon's voyagings and
discoveries, and recounted.the ac-
complishments of other Spanish ex-
plorers, was one of the most fa-
mous of the early Spanish writers.
He was named official histographer
to the Spanish king, and was given
the right to secure all his informa-
tion from the correspondence and
official documents of the Spanish

AnI EA~-r Work

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Phone 786




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SUNDAY, JULY 4, 1937

Potato Origin

In This County

Is Recalled

Mrs. W. H. Erwin Remem-
bers How Spaulding Rose
Received Name

Ninety-year-old Mrs. W. H. Er-
win of No. 23 Saragossa Street is
as spry mentally as she is physi-
cally. The Erwins came to St. Au-
gistine at the time Mrs. Erwin's
family, the D. A. Whites, came from
Nrw York. U. G. White who was
log rolling down at Dunn's Lake
and S. B. White, who was a broker,
built a railroad from Daytona to the
St. Johns River. When it was sold,
G. White took the Hastings
property in the settlement. Mean-
time Mr. and Mrs. D. A. White and
the Erwins had started a grove at
Multrie and were frozen out. So
they moved to Hastings. Mr. Erwin,
who was from Illinois, after gar-
dening a while at Hastings, an-
nounced he knew that land would
make potato crops and he was go-
ing to try it. A man named Spauld-
ing used to come to St. Augustine
to sell potatoes to the hotels. They
wCre particularly good potatoes,
and Mr. Erwin got Spaulding to
ship him seed potatoes. These
made crop in Hastings land and as
their popularity increased they be-
came known as the Spaulding Rose.
That is how that potato got its
names Meantime Mrs. Erwin's
bother laughed at the idea of pota-
to. erops at Hastings and said he
wji going to make rice. He soon
found the labor question didn't
allow for any money making in rice,
so, he went back to logging. U. G.
White afterward became one of the
big potato farmers of this section.
SAnd now Warren Erwin; son of
'rs. W. H. Erwin, has pioneered in
raising unusual cut flowers for
slopping successfully and it is due
Stohis initiative that the superb del-
Splnium stalks and tints were first
cultivated in this section.
* / o ------
I Joseph Ranti Recalls
Story Connected With
,'Cricket In Schoolhouse

There is a little stool or cricket
in- the old schoolhouse on St.
George Street. Joseph Ranti says
hip father made it for the little
daughter, Jane. The Rantis were
lilng then in a house on the north
side of Cuna between Charlotte
and St. George and every morning
Joseph had to go with little Jane
and carry this stool to the school
houZe up by the City Gates where
Mary Darling was teaching then.
From there Joseph would go down
to.his' school in a building at the
east side of the Cathedral where he
SA ai-iyris teacher was a Juan Gian-
>uays his teacher was Juan Gianoply.
Alter school he had to get Jane's
stol from her school room and take
it home each night. Ranti said it
wasn't wise to leave it there over-
tWhere Were Old-Time
Points Of Interest As
Listed In Rail Folder

'Among attractions mentioned in
la leaflet of the Jacksonville, St.
!Augustine and Halifax River Trans-
portation Company were several
that have vanished from the pres-
ent list of noted points. "The Cen-
tury" probably refers to what is
also described as the "Old Harts-
horn Oak." This was located in
West Augustine on the property of
a Mr. Hartshorn and traces of the
old oak, which was of huge size,
remained for some time after.
Casa Cola, it is said, used to be
a much visited location. The story
of Casa Cola appears on some very
old maps and names of its owners
late in the first Spanish occupation
art to be found in old courthouse
But where was the Bridge of
Sind Genovar Park?
Jonathan Dickinson,
Being Shipwrecked On
Coast, Records Terrors
Jonathan Dickinson, who was
shipwrecked in 1690 on the east
coast of Florida, expected that his
entire party, including his wife and
small baby, would be eaten by the
natives, who had taken possession
of .the travellers after they were
cast on shore.
On the third night, when they
had been stripped of their gar-
ments and forced to struggle along
the' shore to the Cassekey's village,
many Indians came to talk with
the Cassekey. Dickinson and his
party passed the night in great
He wrote 'Night came on; the
moon being up, an Indian who per-

Here Many Years

Mrs. W. H. Erwin at 90 years of
age recalls early agricultural days
as she knew them around Hastings.

4-H Club Work Is

22 Years Old

In This County

Fine Program Carried
On; Many Young
Folks Helped

An indication of the progressive
spirit of St. Johns County is given
through the continuing program
of 4-H Club work over a period of
22 years.
The program in Florida is 25
years old this year, so it may be
seen that St. Johns County was
one of the pioneer counties of the
state in adopting the 4-H Club ac-
tivities for its rural young folks.
They have proved a blessing to
thousands of girls and boys during
those years, the influence being
widespread. Girls' have become
better homemakers, finer and more
efficient housekeepers; while others
have been helped in business ca-
reers by the wholesome training
given. Boys have been aided in
numberless ways, and many of
them have been encouraged
through the 4-H Club work, and
scholarships offered by interested
organizations, to stay on the farm,
after they have received special-
ized agricultural training.
Since 1915 when the work was
started here, signal honors have
been taken by both boys and girls.
Out-of-state trips have been won;
scholarships, medals, and prizes
have been awarded to St. Johns
County young folks.
Every year at the annual Short
Courses conducted at University of
Florida, Gainesville, and Florida
State College for Women, Talla-
hassee, girls and boys who are lead-
ers in the 4-H Clubs have taken
part in the programs of work and
play that are offered there. Ap-
proximately 40 young folks attend
these courses annually, through
the cooperation of the board of
County Commissioners' and the
Model Land Company.
Camps are held each summer,
and here the boys and girls have
programs of recreation and super-
vised study, covering subjects that
follow out the line of work to
which the 4-H Clubs are dedicated.
The work for the boys consists
of training for success in agricul-
ture; the development of a good
livestock program, and general
The girls are being aided to be
better homemakers, and the pro-
gram is directed to home econo-
mics, home beautification, budget-
making, canning, gardening, and
poultry raising. The use of native
materials for handicraft is em-
phasized also.
The entire county is reached
through this fine and constructive
program carried on by Miss Anna
E. Heist, county home demonstra-
tion agent, and Loonis Blitch,
county agent. The communities
reached include Hastings, Elkton,
Moccasin Branch, Moultrie, River-
dale, Tocoi, Bakerville, Picolata,
Mill Creek, Orangedale, Switzer-
land, Sampson, Palm Valley, West
St. Augustine.

formed their ceremonies, stood out
looking full at the moon, making a
hideous noise and crying out, act-
ing like a mad-man for the space
of half an hour, all the Indians be-
ing silent until he had done;
after which they all made a fearful
noise, some like the barking of a
Dogg or Wolf and other strange
sounds. After this one gets himself
a log and sets himself down, hold-
ing the stick or log upright on the
ground and several others getting
about him, made a hideous noise,
singing to our amazement. At
length their women joyned con-
cert, making the noise more terri-
ble, this they continued until mid-
night. Towards morning was great
dews, our fire being expended, we
were extream cold."


On Sale
Locally at
Gift Shops




An authentic history of the Catholic Church from the
time of its establishment in St. Augustine in 1565 to the
present time. Profusely illustrated with scenes of old St.
Augustine and Bishops of the Diocese.


St. Augustine, Fla.


No Imagination Needed For Relic Of Wreck

Tales Of Treasure Finds Is Cherished In

X. Lopez Holds Spanish
Doubloon, Which Came
From Old House

A Spanish doubloon in possession
of X. Lopez is tangible proof that
there was no imagination about the
story of a discovery of real gold
money when an old house on Bridge
Street between Marine and Char-
lotte was torn down about 1890.
Mr. Lopez will loan the old coin
for display in the coin collection
arranged by Mrs. R. N. Dickman in
the strong room of the Old Spanish
Treasury, the Burt House. It is
said there still are several other
pieces yet in the city. The greater
amount finally obtained was sent to
Washington to be exchanged for
money with which the purchasing
power of people were more familiar.
Mr. Lopez describes his acquisi-
tion of this Spanish gold piece. He
was working in a store on Cathedral
Place near the bank when a colored
man, whom he knew well, came to
him and rather secretly wanted to
know what the thing he had found
might be. It still bore traces of
sand in which it had laid many
years and Mr. Lopez decided the
best opinion of value could be had
at the bank. When the colored man
found out how much he could get
in trade, he told how he had come
across the piece.
He was one of two or three men
working for the city trash man who
had been carting away remains of
the old house at what was called
Armstrong's Corner. The men had
been shoveling debris from around
the big fireplace and had already
carted several loads out to Pine
Street and San Marco Avenue,
where a fill was being made. The
finder had just happened to get
hold of this dirty chunk as the rear
end of the dump cart was letting
out the cart contents.
As soon as word leaked out of
the finding of the gold coin and the
place where the cart load of earth
had been dumped the fill at Pine
and San Marco was besieged by
gold hunters. Probably every bit of
the moved debris was finally sifted,
much of it over and over as the
determination of the treasure seek-
ers increased with the finding of
each coin.
Meantime at the old house, an-
other scene of even more excitement
was in progress. The great chimney
place which was being torn down is
described as having a double wall
construction with earth filling be-
tween. -It was from this filling that
most of the fifteen hundred dollars
worth of coin was taken.
The neighbors and people from


I I.

all parts of the city flocked and
poked. No one, no matter how
dignified, seemed quite exempt
from the attraction. One woman
living close to the spot was stated
to have secured a cigar box of coins
which were sent to Washington for
The destruction of the old house
was being done at order of a wo-
man described as "Countesse
Mountjoy", who had bought the
place intending to have a fine winter
home put on the lot. Nothing fur-
ther has been learned of the lady
or her later movements except
people can't recall hearing of her
A story believed by many was
that the old house had been once
owned by a priest and that it was
mentioned in his will in a bequest.
Records show such ownership at
this corner and a will is in the files.
Dr. John Vedder, owner of the
Vedder Museum on corner of Bay
and Treasury, had lived in the house
and Mrs. Vedder had rented rooms,

Home Of Capos

Chair From Vera Cruz
Found in 1878 Still
Does Duty

A relic, of the wreck of the Vera
Cruz has been preserved in the
home of Mr. and Mrs. V. D. Capo
at No. 73 San Marco Avenue and is
in fine condition still. A comfort-
able bamboo rocking chair is one
of Mrs. Capo's cherished posses-
sions. Leon Canova, writing in the
Record last year, gave a detailed

among the roomers having been Mr.
and Mrs. H. W. Davis. The loca-
tion was known for a time as Arm-
strong's Corner, but whether from
ownership of the house or some con-
nection with a store nearby isn't

description of the happenings fol-
lowing this wreck, which took place,
he said, about 23 miles off the coast
opposite Daytona in 1878. Only 18
survived of the 200 persons aboard
the Vera Cruz. These survivors
were brought -o St. Augustine.
Bodies of the shipwrecked washed
ashore were buried, as many of
them had to be on or back of the
beach hills where they had been
found, anywhere from Cape Cana-
veral to Fernandir.a.
Barrels of lard, boxes of white
bacon, barrels of flour, casks of
wine, bolts of calico, sheeting, tick-
ing, laces, cigars, crated furniture-
:d a seemingly endless assortment
of articles were thrown on the beach
to be gathered up by coast and back
country folks as well.
V. D. Capo's father, Venancio
Capo, was a pilot and among the
salvage that came to him was this
chair. For years it was in use in
the Capo home. Then it was rele-
gated to a store room. When Mr.
and Mrs. V. D. Capo were married
40 years ago the bride had her eye
on this old chair of which she knew
the story. She told her husband
how much she would like the chair.
The bridegroom told his father and
Venancio Capo said certainly the
bride could havt it. It was scraped

V A C A T I.:O N

105 St. George Street


Phone 1204-J

__ 0, -

i" c; -\ '4 -. *' f.t 1


',' e ,=


A: fK!-4 : *r -l; I


= Many years of participation in the business life of '- -

our community have given us knowledge of local needs, .

- friendly understanding of those we serve, and faith in -

- our common future which can be acquired in no other '
-- way. "

H- As the Anastasia Lighthouse offers guidance and I

service to those at sea, so does The St. Augustine Na- .:

S tional Bank provide safety and service in banking l .....

through storm and fair weather. .

We are glad to be part of the business life of a beauti-

S ful City so rich in history. We believe the Restoration

Program will greatly enhance the charm of our City, will

S provide fitting portrayal of our centuries of romantic --,

history, and by attracting many people to visit or to live j .I
here will add vigor and health to our economic life. "
r Marking the entrance to the Port of St. Augustine, Anastasio LIghthouse guide$ g
coastwise vessels on their course. A 20,000 candlepower light, 165 feet high, throws

SJUNE 30, 1937 i

Cash and Due =
- from Banks .. $587,745.40 Capital ,..,..... .$200,000.00
- U. S. Securities 602,493.25 u p a
S Listed, Municipal Surplus and Un-
SandOther Bonds divided Profits 31,796.64
= rand Other Bonds
and Securities 403,606.86 $ 231,796.64 .
=E Accrued Interest 8,697.34 6e 16,785.02 _
S$1R60254285 Reserves .... ... ...... :. 6,785.02
$1 ,602,542.85
_-- Loans and Discounts ...,., 528,041.36 Bills Payable. ....,....... NONE .
= Overdrafts .. ...... .... o 471.07 DEPOSITS 1 977 565.55 M
he Banking House and Real Estate 94,966.03 "
Other Resources . . 25.90 .

S$2,226,147.21 $2,226,147.21j

Organized August 15, 1919 .

The St. Augustine National Ban



11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11Il I l I l l II l I l l l llS IT S iIIIII IIIIIIIIIIIIII llllllll lllll




Margaret Manford's Music Studio

7,000 ACRES



7,000 acres of the very
finest loam, clay-sub-soil
cut-over Florida land, and at
about 25% of actual worth
-reasonable terms to the
right person. Located 6 miles
west of the thriving city of
St. Augustine, 4 miles east of
the beautiful St. Johns River,
and only 4 miles from rail
transportation. Artesian
wells and drainage both
easily and economically
available. Served by State
Road No. 8, running east and
west, and St. Johns River
Scenic Highway No. 47 north
and south. $25,000 district
school adjoining. In triangle
between the cities of St. Au-
gustine, Green Cove Springs,
Palatka and Jacksonville.
Land equal to, or better than
the Hastings section of this
county, which is nationally
known for its annual produc-
tion of over $3,000,000 in
early potatoes and produce.
As a development for gen-
eral farm and produce pro-
position, this section has no
equal. Wood pulp mills, run-
ning into millions of dollars,
are now being erected in this
part of the state, and as a
reforestation project this
tract could hardly be equal-
ed. Unlike bonds, in that it
would not have to be re-
invested every few months
and at a lesser rate of inter-
est; but would, properly
handled, carry itself; and
after a period of 15 or 20
years, be worth many, many
times the investment.
This is not a wildcat
scheme, but absolutely on
the square and as represent-
ed; so if you are interested
in something that is really
good, have some money to
spend in order to make
money, I'll be glad to hear
from you. Otherwise don't
take up your time and mine.
I am a Florida cracker,
and I KNOW I know Florida
land. As to responsibility in
words and acts-you might
wire St. Augustine National
or Exchange Banks, this city.
P. O. Box 669,
St. Augustine, Fla.

and painted white to suit the bride's
fancy. Now, however, it has been
stained brown. But after all these
years the material is of such fine
quality that there is hardly a break
in it. It brings back the story of
one of the worst tragedies of the
local coast within present mem-
Curramooshas was the odd name
given to the wild coffee bushes that
grew so freely in unoccupied lots
about St. Augustine. Mrs. Beatrice
Shaw Chapel of Ontario, Oregon,
is writing a book about her child-
hood in Florida. The Shaws spent


sometime in St. Augustine and one
of the pastimes of the little girls
was building tepees from curra-
mooshas. Only the older residents
knew the word when a search was
started at Mrs. Chapel's request
for its spelling. The pronunciation
varies so much that the spelling is
uncertain, but curramooshas seems
closest to most forms. Leon Ca-
nova tells how Lewis Point was one
mass of curramooshas and the boys
wofld pole a flatboat in shore, load
it with dry curramooshas, go across
to the oyster flats at low tide, pile
up the curramooshas and make an
oyster roast.


SUNDAY, JULY 4, 1937r

Orange Street

Section Given

To Mrs. Joyce

16 Acres In Old Walled
City Property of
Young Bride

The story that can be read from
an old map ih the possession of Mrs.
E. F. Joyce of No. 62 Valencia
Street reveals detail of property
development of the time.
Mrs. Joyce came to St. Augus-
tine in 1873, as a young bride.,
Her grandfather was already in
Florida, and sent word to Mrs.
Joyce that if she and her husband
would come to St. Augustine, he
would give them a tract of land.
This gift was the Tolomato tract
extending from the present Cor-
dova to Riberia, then called Woodal
Street. This tract is mentioned as
having been sold by Juan Elixio de
la Puente as attorney for Antonio
Monson, et al, to one Jesse Fish in
July, 1764, at the end of the first
Spanish occupation. It had finally
come into possession of Bartolo
Oliveros at public outcry sale in
1846, and the deed went from B.
Oliveros to Mrs. Joyce.
By the time Mrs. Joyce was
given the Orange Street tract con-
ditions were ripening for homes to
appear in that corner of the old
Military city. It was a picturesque
ind attractive place for a home.
%Iuch of it was in old orange groves
gqrold cultivated fields.
'The North boundary was the
f!treet running from the St. Se-
bastian to the moat or ditch of the
lort" and on the street "the bul-
wark of the town Is raised and the
ditch, forming the north line of for-
tifications of the city of Saint Au-
jgustine." The old redoubts added
4o the dramatic features of the
The Joyces have always been
connected with basic improvement
projects in the city and could vis-
ion future possibilities under wise
'direction. Some of the old trees
)long the present Orange Street
rere planted by Mr. Joyce.
SWhen some of the Indians were
Imprisoned at the Fort, Mrs. Joyce
looked out to see squaws in her
hehicken yard just picking up
leathers to use in their handwork.
'There are several pair of moccas-
ins here made by those Indian
women and some of the decorations
"nay have resulted from trips to
the Joyce poultry yard.
The sixteen acres originally
'acquired were held intact for some
years, while it became increasing-
;y evident that Orange Street
would make" fine residential prop-
erty. In due time the tract was
divided. The old map shows among
those who acquired sites were
Speissegers, Mrs. Davis, George
Eastman, Bailey and Cooper, C. E.
Johnson, P. Hulett and S. Woodal,
Hulett and Burgess, Parker, Mar-

Here Since 1873

Mrs. E. F. Joyce came here as a
bride, and lived in historic section.

tin and Mason and the Joyes still
held some of the land.
Names of the redoubts that ap-
pear on this map are Tolomato at
the street of that name, Del Centro
in front of the Joyce home and op-
posite the Mason lot at the ex-
treme west was the Cubo. The
Powder House lot of over ten acres
is shown and also is called The
Governor's Garden.
When Mrs. Joyce describes St.
Augustine of her early years here,
picturesque and dramatic pictures
come to mind at once. She has al-
ways felt historic features should
be preserved and younger members
of her family have acquired the
same feeling and have freely placed
their rare maps and papers at the
service of the Restoration edition
of the Record.
Bathing Suit Styles
Of 1858 Brought Here
By Harper's Monthly

Edicts of fashion were brought
to St. Augustine by Harper's New
Monthly Magazine. In 1858, ladies
who ventured into the ocean or
river bathing must have been thril-
led by the beautiful bathing dress
pictured in the June number of the
magazine. There is no copy of this
volume in the Webb Memorial
Library file, but there are several in
private collections in the city.
The description says, "A bathing
dress at first sight may appear to
lie beyond the domain of fashion.
Still there is no reason why this
should not be pretty as well as ap-
propriate. The one which we illust-
rate may be made of delaine flannel
or any similar material edged with
a darker shade of the same; or of
bombazet, with a fringe of buck-
shot, covered with the material of
the dress, with pellets of lead in the
lower skirt. This latter material
will be found quite available."
Any descendant of women who
wore such a bathing dress who
craves a sensation can achieve a
thrill if she will model a duplicate
on any St. Augustine beach.

Old Treasury Ar

Is Fascinating :

Historic Spot ; s

Rooms Are Filled With
Rare and Beautiful

By Virginia Edwards
At the corner of St. George and
Treasury Streets, in the midst of
one of St. Augustine's most active
business districts, stands one of the
Ancient City's oldest and most in-
teresting buildings, the Old Span-
ish Treasury, or the Anna G. Burt
House, as it is sometimes known.
Presented to the city by its late
owner, Miss Burt, the Old Spanish
Treasury is operated by the Wom-
an's Exchange, and its rooms, filled
with ante-bellum furniture and oth-
er interesting exhibits, draw hun-
dreds of visitors each year.
The old house possesses a glam-
orous history. First there was the
romance of the time of the Span-
iards, when it was built in the year
1690 from stoA and coquina, as
one of the city's store houses to
hold the wealth which was amass-
ed by the earlier settlers in Florida.
Then in 1832, aftei passing through
years of stress and strain, it was
purchased by an American physit
cian. Dr. Seth Peck, who made it
his home for a number of years.
It was through his granddaughter,
Miss Burt, that it became the prop-
erty of the City of St.Augustine.
In 1702 ap disastrous fire swept the
building, and the upper floor of
wood was added. In those days it
was impossible to secure building
material from nearby forests be-
cause of the depredations of the
Indians, so every piece of lumber
had to be brought from New Eng-
land by sailing vessel.
The house today is filled with
rare and beautiful furniture, bric-
a-brac and pictures, brought to fur-
nish it when Dr. Peck and his fam-
ily resided there. Authentic exam-
ples of colonial furniture brought
down from Connecticut as part of
Mrs. Peck's dowry ire true museum
One of the most attractive fea-
tures of the Old Treasury is its love-
ly garden, filled with rare tropical
trees, date palms and myrtle, which
were growing there when Dr. Peck
acquired the property in 1832.
There are old-fashioned flower beds
and exotic plants which make this
patio garden one of the most at-
tractive in St. Augustine.
Inside the building is the strong
room of the treasury where there
is now on display an interesting
collection of old coins which date
to the year 1483. Several in.the
exhibit were dug'from old founda-
tions and other hiding places here
in St. Augustine.
Through the courtesy of Mrs.
Neil Dickman, one of St. Augus-
tine's prominent residents, the Ju-
nior Service League is displaying

chways Of Old Treasury

One of the most fascinating of the old houses of St. Augustine to
which the public has entrance is the Old Spanish Treasury at the corner
of St. George and Treasury Streets. The old garden is a thing of jdy,
and one of its treasures is the old spice tree, sometimes called the
frankincense tree. Age and the prevailing winds are responsible for
its gaunt and twisted limbs. The arched loggia may be seen in the
background of this picture.

in the old Spanish Treasury a num-
ber of small Spanish dolls, which
Mrs. Dickman presented. The dolls,
in pairs, are costumed according to
the various styles and customs pre-
vailing in the different provinces of
Spain. They are displayed in a
miniature bull fight arena, and
make a most interesting exhibit for
those making a tour of the house.
In the north wing of the build-
ing, the Woman's Exchange shop is
located. Long ago, the only
drug store in the Ancient City was
located in this spot. In another
room, where the Junior Service
League now operates a circulating
library, DE. Peck's office was lo-
'The old house,is a favorite gath-
ering place in the winter during the
tea hour. Many large affairs, both
benefits and private afternoon en-
tertainments are given in the patio
and the lower rooms of the build-
ing, and almost every afternoon
finds groups of winter visitors and
residents having afternoon tea,
which is served by the Woman's
Truly, one of St. Augustine's
most interesting structures, the
Old Treasury is well worth'numer-
ous visits, both to enjoy the garden
during the tea hour and to walk
through its interesting and historic

Royalist Sympathizer
Found St. Augustine
Haven In Revolution

A refuge indeed must St. Augus-
tine have been to one Thomas
Brown who preferred English con-
trol to patriotic possibilities during
Revolutionary War times. Brown
is described as living near Augusta,
Ga., when he used his tongue free-
ly. His neighbors held a conference
to discuss Brown's "sarcastic and
unfriendly remarks about the Lib-
erty men." They decided Brown
should be given a coat of tar and
feathers. But Brown managed to
escape such ignominious treatment
by hurried flight to British protec-
tion in St. Augustine. Here he ha~d


Had Predecessor

Back In 1768

Present Group Will Ob-
serve 50th Birthday
Next Year
Ashlar Lodge No. 98 F. and A.
M., is planning to celebrate half a
century of existence, during the
next year. While this marks the
actual chartered operations of Ash-
lar Lodge, it by no means indicates
that there were no Masonic lodges
here previously. B. F. Robinson,
secretary, of Ashlar Lodge, states
that the First Masonic Lodge in St.
Augustine received its charter
from the Grand Lodge of Scotland
March 15, 1768, and was known as
"Grant's East Florida Lodge."
Petition was made by James Grant
who was Governor of the Province
of East Florida, Henry Cunning-
ham late Senior Warden of the
Grand Lodge of Scotland and sev-
eral brethren, who at that time
were residents of the Province of
East Florida. This lodge became
extinct in 1786. Mr. Robinson does
not mention it but this extinction
of the Grant Lodge followed and
was co-incident practically with
the return of the Spanish to the
Several Lodges sprang up and
flourished intermittently between
the above mentioned Lodge and the
present Lodge, Ashlar No. 98. Ash-
lar worked Under Dispensation
during the latter part of 1887 and
was chartered by the Grand Lodge
of Florida January 1,1888.
Among several prized momen-
toes in the archives of Ashlar
Lodge is a gavel made from tim-
ber taken from the keel of the U. S.
frigate Constellation, which was
laid in 1796 when George Washing-
ton.was President. Also of special
interest to visiting and local Lodge
members is a fragment of stone
taken from the Mosque of El Aksa
which stands on the site of King
Solomon's Temple and is said to be
part of the stone used in the con-
struction of the original Temple.
Ashlar Lodge in its 50 years has
had an influential career and has
included in its membership many
men of note who have come to the
city from other Lodges.
The present Worshipful Master
of Ashlar is A. L. Sigman Sr.

plenty of friendly sympathizers
and "became a most relentless en-
emy of the Revolution."
(One of the Record's Histogram



Florida Oranges Are
Mentioned In 1579 In
Letter From Menendez

Regarding the appearance of the
first oranges in Florida, T. Fred-
erick Davis, writing for the Florida
Historical Quarterly, says: "The
earliest mention of the orange in
Florida in available records is a
letter from Pedro Menendez de
Aviles. who founded St. Augustine
in 1566, to the Audiencia of Santo
Domingo, dated St. Augustine,
April 2, 1579, and stating: 'There
are beginning to be many/of the
fruits of Spain in St. Augustine,
such as figs, pomegranates, oranges,
grapes in great quantity. There are
numerous mulberries from mulber-
ry trees produced in this same soil.'
It may be safely inferred that or-
ange trees were growing in St. Au-
gustine as early as 1575. In their
long first occupation of Florida-
nearly two hundred years the
Spaniards seem never to have de-
veloped orange groves for revenue,
and it remained for the English
during their settlement of Florida
in 1764-1784, to discover the possi-
bilities of the orange as a commer-
cial asset."

City Council In 1857 T
Was Called Upon To
Consider Fine Arts

Apparently there was no limit to
the questions that the old city
council of St. Augustine had to an-
swer. In April, 1857, they seem t4
have considered a fine art argu-
ment. It will interest members of
the local fine arts group. The min-
utes record "Application for leave
to sell paintings.does not, in esti-
mation of the council, come under
the head of hawking or peddling,
as the seller of pictures cannot, so-
cording to their opinion, be consid-
ered correctly speaking a hawker or
peddler, according to the intention
of state law which must be under-
stood to contemplate a seller goods,
wares and merchandise. The coun-
cil therefore consider themselves as
having no jurisdiction in the case
before them and dismiss the sub-
It would be of value now to know
who the artists were whose paint-
ings were the cause of the appli-
cation and this decision. In the
Historical Society Library is a
group of sketches, some of which
bear the 1857 date.
(One of the Record's series of

- ii- i|niii i l._ li"


First of American Guide Series for Florida

By Federal Writers Project



$1.00 per copy

Authentic Data
Original Sketches


St. Augustine, Florida
for Copies

This property was developed by the St. Augustine Rotary Club for a Boy Scout Camp, the need for which has been eliminated. The sale of this property
is desired to provide funds for the furtherance of its boys' work activities.



An Organization Consisting of the Members of










P ,- 7, Z.4.Z Large Community House,

S4----- 1 Three Bunk Houses, Elec-

X -- -1' I trick Power Plant,,Caretak-

S-- her's House, Fifteen-Thou-

,5 9 sand-Gallon Cistern, Dock

......... s C. on River, Etc.
I e- W Pa A-V .. i' c



Will Be Granted to the

Proper Parties Over a

Period of 20 Years.

---E, -- --;- --- -------


I .._.. ...... ..9 ..I .. I

'" I 'A'

1 11-1 no-o no-o 5 111 -





SUNDAY, JULY 4, 1937

Dr. Lingelbach

Writes Of Phase
.t f t l

Noted Historian




Bartola Genovar, Aged 91, Was Responsibility

Early Theatrical Magnate Up To Citizens
_* n, --. ^

' A-1.

Is Officer

I group.
Ithe co
least 1

Ut Lite Here Helped to Give Amuse- ineatre roneer dy I C111 I sponsi
ment to Past Gen- in suc
Late Victorian Era in rations People of Oldest City is not
St. Augustine Fasci- With his 91 years crowded with e Opportunity it
nates HiW to Decide not sh
ateaction and participation in public -owned
___; __affairs, Bartola Genovar is a perfect a freq
FLA LE PE IOD. encyclopedia of information about When asked "Will the program 4 that h
FLAGLER PERIOD StAugustine. In addition to his for the Restoration and Preserva- rented
own memories, he has wide knowl- tion of St. Augustine succeed?"
edge of events of his father's gen- X. L. Pellicer, native-born local
This City Became Fore- eration which included several of banker, and secretary-treasurer of
most American Spa Florida's critical decades, the St. Augustine Historical Pres-
A" Usually he is referred to as "B, ervation and Restoration Associa-
He Points Out Genovar" and there are plenty of tion, answered emphatically that
understand who is referred to if of this Oldest City. He says, think- | sto
Dr. William E. Lingelbach, noted one simply says "Bee" in mention- ing along this line: t me
historian, and a member of Mayor ing Mr. Genovar. "In my judgment it will succeed, sel
Walter B. Fraser's National Co- The Genovars live now in a provided the people of this city de-
ter e action d Spanish-looking house on Treasury sire it to; if they do not, it will surely
mittee for the Preservation an Dr. William E. Lingelbach, noted Street and Mr. Genovar takes pride fail. Dr. Merriam stated emphat- X. L. Pellicer, local banker, who
Restoration of Historic St. Augus- educator, writer, historian and in the flowering shrubs and vines all ically, that the participation of the is secretary-treasurer of the St.
tine, has written a most interesting author, is enthusiastic over the Res- about it. But best of all are the Institution depended entirely upon Augustine Historical Preservation
message for the Restoration Issue toration Program. He writes espe- roses that seem forever blooming the wishes of the people of St. Au- and Restoration Association. Mr.
of the Record, taking a phase which cially of the glamor of the Flagler under the close care their owner gustine. Pellicer is one of the most ardent
he feels has had but scant attention. Era. ives them.was a io- "The Carnegie Institution of proponents of the Restoration
Say "Theatre" to Mr. Genovar, B. Genovar, 91, who was a pio-
He writes as follows: and instantly a smile appears on his nea r in the theatre line in St. Au- Washington is a great scientific and movement.
He writes as follows: rand instantly a smile appears on hi gustine, being a theatrical magnate historical organization which has
ST. AUGUSTINE OF THE LATE Speissegger's Is Old face, for not least among his num- of the long ago. Genovar's pera the confidence of the American itself is ideal, but because the Car-
DrugFirm Successor House is still remembered by many people. The scope of their work is negie Institution, after having con-
By Dr. William Lingelbach Tintended for the entertainment of the older residents of the com- world-wide and research is con- ducted extensive research, places
n the study of history, whether TO Genovar And opz st Augustieve. Mr. bodyvar firmly nit ducted along many lines. The mere its tamp of approval upon it.
Inbelieves that everybody should give fact that they accepted the offer of "I am confident that as long as
itbe the history of civilization as a plenty of time to enjoyment in life the City of St. Augustine to make the magic name of Carnegie is
whole or that of a particular peo- In 1872 Bartola Genovar and J. and he has had Share in seeing h i St.Au i ma e ag e o arne is
plole or that of a particular peo In 1872 Bartola Genovar and J. and he has had a Share in seeing an historical survey is sufficient in- associated with the program it will
pie, city or institution, the recent D. Lopez, a druggist, opened the that St. Augustine had the best that Spanish dilation nof their interest. Its suc ed Wh the ciiz en are
period is apt to be very slightly D. opz, a drug gist, opened the that St. Augustine had the best that dication of their interest. Its succeed. When the citizens are
erioeated isr elected altogver ether secondrug storein St. Augustine, could be provided. h t president, Dr. Merriam, and several asked to give expression of their
The memory of it is still fresh in this being in the Genovar grain The first "opera house" he built, members of its board are members approval to the plan by their vote,
he memorinds of persons living, and house. Jerome Lopez, a youth, was or theatre or just "hall", whichever of the National Committee which it would be a splendid gesture to
rms, so to speak, an iintricae part the clerk. This grain house, which you like to call it, was located on approved the plan submitted by the this great philanthropic organiza-
fo the present. Why therefore, later became the St. Augustine old Charlotte Street which for some Director of the Survey, Dr. Verne tion to pass it with an overwhelm-
orry about its history? iously Yacht Club House, was at the site years had been the business sectin Governor Never Signed E. Chatelain, who is also a member ing majority."
enough, this attitude for a long time of the western foot of what is now of the town, even if many people of teve ihe Carnegie Institution. This
also pervaded the minds of profes- the Bridge of Lions, according to did have their homes on both sides Any Documents Af- plan has been given further study
sional historians. History that was information given the Record. of it. It was only a few steps from and is now being published in this M l
not a hundred years old was not re- T. W. Speissegger, a druggist, the family home of the Genovars ter Drinking special edition of the Record, so
at the southeast corner of Charlotte the ecor
garded as history. Even professors came from Charleston, S. C., to and Ctns. He had been running a tha people may study it and come H
of the subject had the temerity to Mill Creek, Florida, in the summer a n Governor W third ruler in t people a stud it andne ar
announce courses dealing with the of 1868. He came as far as old business in an old coquina house on Governor White, third ruler in to appreciate the wonderful oppor-ticipate ne Of Charm
ast fifty years. American history Picolata where the forts were. Al the east side of the street when he the second Spanish regime, was tuty tat is teirs to patcipae
stin our colleges usually ended with though he ame the forts were. Al-nd raise decided to put up a good sized two- credited with making some huge in a program of restoration and ___ _
b or co il rees usually e nded with though he to settle and raise story wood building on the west grants of land. One of them was esevaton of an historic e Was Part of Holdings of
therut on. In England, the battle of taught schro he catemp or y side. In the lower part he had his for 30,000 acres described as on e elsefwhere ias no th een C emptF il
truction. In England, the battle of taught school. Later he came to business having many vessel loads Tampa Bay and in some notations ed elsewhere in the world. Canova Family
Vyaterloo was the deadline for many St. Augustine and in 1875 bought of stock shipped in from time to as "Tampa". This grant caused a To mny o us this seems to be
ears. Later it entrenched itself t out the drug store of Genovar and time. Mr. Genovar's account of genuine investigation after the a tupendous undertaking, too bi In City
the Franc-Prussian War in 1870. Lopez. The firm was registered the manner in which he received United States came into Florida for this little town to attempt. The
SFortunately, a complete change August 1, 1875, in the Centennial shipments of prunes in barrels, and Pedro Miranda was trying to question is asked--where is the the attractive couina house
Sfsu occurred in this respect. As a Autographic Register, and the which would be chopped out with a have the grant allowed to him by money coming from to accomplish I the northwest corner of St.
result of the recognition of the ev National Director, which were de- hatchet, is told to illustrate the dif- the new control. Miranda de- this ideal plan? I will answer that George andr test rer St
u tionary processes of historic posited in the archives of the ference between store keeping then scribes himself as a second pilot on question as Dr. Merriam answered as demurely distinctive as l, it
forces, the attitude that history Smithsonian InstitutionatWashing- and modern methods the bar having been promoted after a similar question that was put to is easy to understand that Prince
must be something remote and de- ton, D. C. The firm was originally If store keepers object nowadays serving long time at the oars. him on the occasion of the National Achille Murat could have enjoyed
taehed from the present has largely known as T. W. Speissegger and to shops keeping miscellaneous The evidence presents a vivid feasible and pratinIcabl e an the saying under the tCanova roofi
disappeared. In its stead there has Sons. Now it is knows s Speis- stocks of goods, Mr. Genovar says picture of pressure on Governor people of St. Augustine want it, soon after Florida became part of
cme an interpretation of history as segger's, the Old Drug Store. It those store keepers ught to go White for distribution of land then the matter of financing will n te da became part of
Continuing process right ow removed in 1880 to the corner through lists of what he would have spoils. Much effort was made to work itself out. From that state- In the escrituras of 1803, Gover-
vlto the present. The story of a of Bay and Hamblen Streets, and in his store. k From that state- In the escrituras of 1803, Gover-
city or a nation is regarded as the went through the 1887 fire. It is Ustr th build identify Whte's signature the ment I drew the inference that in nor Enrique White makes an offi-
life history of a living organism n through the building at the Upstairs in this building was document of grant to Miranda. his judgment a program as splen- cial sale to Antonio Canova of a
from the day when man first made corner of Orange and Cordovat the provided a good hall where enter Modern hand-writing experts would did as this one, a program which lot which had been bought in 1791.
the place his home down through Stree of O e which was built in 1886. egie Toand anoe have enjoyed the efforts has such a deep significance upon This lot extended from St. George
ccessive enrations to our own ree built in 1886. held. o many this was an opera One witness closely associated the early formation of the Ameri- Street, its east front, to the marsh
time. Its fenerat is studied in the house" in the language of that time.
time. Its "etry is studied in the house" in the language of that time. with the governor's office described can Republic, will draw support of Maria Sanchez Creek at the
light of its ent characteristics south became a part of the history When this building went up in the Governor as a very sick man from many sources, both private west, and Bartolome Suarez was
apd peculiarity s we as in rela- of St. Augustine. Furthermore, the flames, his next amusement vente for the last months of his life. But and public. It will not draw this on the north.
tion to its geo -hy, soil, climate story of St. Augustine for this pe- was a real theatre on St. George no matter "how much he drank in support entirely because the plan The Canovas were a numerous
A\d proximity to.ighbors, and the nod even in its decline parallels Street north of Treasury Street th afternoon he never signed any
impact of those larger historic closely that of other places of the where the St. Augustine Paint and documents after drinking." As
forces of national and world history. same type far removed from the Hardware Company occupies a White's general reputation for
:'It is this view of history and the influences operating in the history building that followed the theatre. land granting showed he was
Vistoric process that underlies the of the State. It reveals the play of This theatre of Mr. Genovar's was against sc h g rants shas the
& f conception in the program fot cultural influences of a national designed to accommodate the best against such huge grants as their
ije preservation and restoration of character, and the story of St. Au- class of traveling companies. It Miranda figure the investigation
Sit. Atigustine. It will seek to bring gustine reflects a significant frag- had full stage equipment of the rounding White's possible signing
to light facts and conditions of the ment of the larger and more com- time and the audience was provided rounding White's possible signing
ast heretofore little known or neg- plex pattern of our whole national with regular folding theatre seats of any such enormous grant.
ected, preserving everything that history. The appearance of Emma Abbott In one case it was insinuated that
reveals the life and culture of the With these conceptions clearly in here was an unqualified success. a grant paper could not have been
city as a living community, and in- mind, the St. Augustine Restoration Joseph Jefferson did Rip Van in the papers in the secretary's of-
tegrating it with the narrative his- has before it a task of real signifi- Winkle here. Such companies as lee until after a period when it
tory from the days when the Indians chance in American social and cul- Al Fields Minstrels and Jim Corbett could have been put there in a night O T H E R C A R
buried their dead in urns, through tural history, as well as the prob- the ring champion in "After Dark" when papers and office were not
the Spanish, French, British and lem of preservation and restoration were sure of good audiences. One guarded in any manner.
successive American periods down in the nation's oldest and most pic- very successful date was a week (One of the Record's series of Read W hat Som e
to the present. It can attain its turesque historic communities. The that John Templeton's troupe play- Histograms.)
maximum success only as a cooper- problems of the "Flagler period" ed here in light opera at "popular -
tive enterprise of the city, the call for the cooperation of the best prices." Mr. Genovar mentioned Skins Sacred
state, historical societies. Founda- talents of the historian, economist, that Templeton himself had two o S Cre
tions, and individual scholars and sociologist, architect, and engineer, wives among the performers. His To Feminine Members
scientists unite, all directing their if it is to be properly done. When first wife was from Palatka. They
efforts toward the common objec- completed, it will of itself find its were divorced and he married again Of Tribe Martyr Says
tive not only of preserving and in place in the history not only of the But the Palatka wife was very
jart restoring what remains of the city and the community, but also of talented and Templeton hired her, "-e'l save $70 before the yea
past but in seeing to it that plan- our national history, for the company in which was his In the days of the early Indian a out." says Iing our "rve pumped enough
ning and building for the future will The record is not found, as for second wife also. when the job of the modiste and Barron of ChicagO omprisn g"e poknomd eu ou
s o wf also. when todt ar for comparison, gas tokno, .9t about
be in harmony with the spirit and the earlier periods, in archaeologi- Nothing was saved when this tailor went no farther than trap- old smaller more miles to ha a car wil do
the traditions of the past. cal remains and archives, but in theatre building was destroyed so ping and killing wild game and we're from or eoe- on a gallon. So. even
Being a student of recent history pamphlets, circulars, advertising the gallon from our goregouso
Being a studentof recenthistory, pamphlets, circulars, advertising Mr. Genovar has no souvenir pro- hanging the skins to dry, there looking new Dodge. ur ol though I'min m bus-.
my own particular interest was first folders, newspapers, real estate and grams. Possibly there may be some existed nevertheless a distinction and lubrication costs are much nres. I Inls on a car
aroused in St. Augustine through tax records, civil and political docu- to be met with in the city as people between the ladies of fashion and lower." that' long on gas
my study of the cultural and socio- ments, plans, maps, photographs start examining old papers once the beau brummels of the day for mileage That why l
logical implications of European and pictures, building plans, hotls, more.- we learn from the account of Peter witchedio Dodge I'm
health resorts of the Carlsbad and railroads and bridges, architectural Dances were also held in this Martyr that the women wore lion e getting 22 ml- to the
Wiessbaden type. Among its many remains, banks, accounts, memoirs, building and it was a favorite with skins, but the men had the privi- galn r~,jl:. "--R.
peculiar characteristics, the Late- diaries and other biographical data dancers until the time of its de- lege of wearing the skins of all s W. Holmes, Los An-
Victorian-Era had a predilection for associated with the realization of struction. other wild beasts. gls..
very substantial, well-ordered re- Flagler's "dream" of St. Augus-
sorts, associated with mineral tine." The Ponce de Leon and the
Springs, baths and cures. As a rule, Hotel Alcazar, with its sulphurous A
the appointments were rich and swimming pool, sanitariums and PRINCE M URAT
luxurious, pervaded by an atmos- hospitals, provided with mineral.
here of propriety and respectabil- spring baths for invalids and COFFEE HOUSE 1 1
ity so greatly esteemed by our convalescents, the Presbyterian ".You can't beat Dodge for economy." said Immle
grandparents. By contrast with the Church like the Roman Catholic Corner St. George and Baidge Streets HuS.i,,on. Valley Park, Mo. ". am gtLng 2' ree to
noisy popular shore resorts of our Cathedral of an earlier period, the OPEN ALL SUM ER on of as 'hh i h miles mit tn m clo
time these Spas of the "late 90's" spacious private estates and resi- HARRIS M e. A he re I have had ts new Dodge
are as different as day is from night. dences, and even the railroad, are t' DOROTHY P. HARRIS, Mgr. to i. saved by the time h dh ew Dde
It is this period in the history of as much historic monuments for Breakfast Luncheon Dinner Byear.
St. Augustine which is sometimes their period as are the Pyramids of
Called the "Flagler period that has Egypt for the history of the Ptol- FAMOUS FOR SEAFOODS, STEAKS AND SOUTHERN DISHES
aroused the special interest of a emys or the castles and walled
group of historians, economists, so- towns of medieval Europe for the .
ciologists and architects. It is the history of knighthood and feudal-
period in which St. Augustine, ism. Furthermore, they are more
through the work of Mr. Henry M. accessible, are still in use, and if
Flagler, became, so to speak, not properly cared for will continue so
only the foremost American Spa, for a long time to come. In the fn
but a pioneer in the great transfor- meantime they are among the most IT A 1 UCR I 1 Ul
nation of Florida into the most prized possessions of the city not
popular health resort of the nation, only as types of American Spanish
The story of Mr. Flagler, a partner architecture, but reminders in stone
of John D. Rockefeller, Sr., from his and mortar of an age of increasing .
first appearance in St. Augustine in wealth and leisure when the kings U
1884, over fifty years ago, is too of industry and finance were in the "The H of
well known to be repeated here. ascendant. Even the accessories of I The Home of
Tired and recovering from a severe these mid-victorian Spas, are al- '
illness, he was more than usually ready objects of real historical value
susceptible to the peculiar charm and should be made a part of the
and possibilities of St. Augustine. whole program of conservation. The Good Furniture
Under its spell, he had a dream, a structure now known as the oldest ritu r
vision, which he never lost sight of schoolhouse in America is a treas-
and under the influence of which a ure, the possession of which might
new St. Augustine developed as if wellbe the envy of any community, --Priced Ri
by the magic of Aladdin's lamp. but so is the hospital given by Flag-
It became the Queen of American ler. With the "Ponce" it is as typi-
health resorts which included such cal of its age as are the City Gates
renowned places as Saratoga or the Fort of theirs, and all are of
Springs, and the Thousand Islands rare cultural and historical sig-
in New York and Long Branch in nificance. h VISIT THE U
New Jersey. Its spectacular rise From the local standpoint, the VISIT THE

Florida Ostrich-Alligator Farm

Museum of Natural History

The Largest Exhibit of Wild Life
in Florida
Just Across the Bridge of Lions
B. 0. CRICHLOW, Curator


1,400 acres of land suitable for farming or cat-
tle grazing. One tract contains 560 acres and
the other 840 acres. In vicinity of school house
and about twelve miles from St. Augustine.
For further information and price write P. 0.
Box 290, St. Augustine, Florida.



of Them Say... Learn How
ves Them Money!

and prosperity, and even its subse- period is of special significance in
quent decline reflect in a remark- that it emphasizes the extraordinary
able manner not only the rise and natural advantages of St. Augus-
decline of this type of resort, but a tine. Its natural beauty, its fine
fundamental economic and socio- climate, its curative waters, its re- St A u ustine TO THE BIG
logical development in American markable beaches, its excellent fa-*
social history. cilities for inland and ocean boating LUXURIOUS U U Lf
There were, of course, special and sailing, and its superb harbor, I* e L
reasons and conditions both for the the excellence of which did not es- M usic and ur ture o.
rise and the eclipse of St. Augustine cape the discerning eye of Flagler
which were peculiar to Florida and and his friends. All these are still t. George St. St. Augustine, Fla.
Mr. Flagler. But even an extension present and, properly developed, 119St. George St. St. Augustine, Fla.
of the Florida East Coast Railway will reveal again the practical, some
to Miami and Key West, and the say, the "profit"-motives of Flag- 90 Riberia St.
shift of interest and capital to the ler's "Dream of St. Augustine." -

ZC~ /

Telephone 77I


Between Antonio at the at least long enough to place his
of St. George and Bridge to connection with it firmly in local
rner of St. Francis were at tradition. We do know that Murat
three Canovas, possibly an- became woven into the city life suf-
ficiently to be accepted as one of
general air of the house to the two bondsmen of a City Treas-
urat's name is given in- urer, a very strong indication that
question as to who was re- his residence in the city must have
ble for its small refinements had an appearance of permanency.
h good taste in the design. The There is good reason to believe, that
balcony up in the end peak while the Prince joined the Semi-
like any other remaining in nole campaigners the princess made
ty. Members of the Canova ner home here.
y do not know and records do It is one house that seems to con-
low any time the house was tinue to gain in individuality with
by Prince Murat, but he was passing years so that guests who
uent guest, and it is possible stop over for luncheon or dinner
e and the princess may have find the atmosphere full of simple
I part of the house for a time, refined charm.

F 0 R;:..;S A L E
Located on U. S. No. 1-three blocks from Post Office: two-
ory house with fourteen rooms; equipped now for three apart-
ents. Can easily be converted into Tourist Home. Owner will
I for $10,000, easy terms.



Mrs. E. G. Snow

Has Abstract Of

Over 100 Years

Ownership Is Traced in
Papers Dating Back
to 1834

A very interesting abstract dat-
ing back to 1834, is the one that
covers the property of Mrs. E. G.
Snow, on Bay Street. At this time
a large number of families had
h-ises on this section of land, a-..
cording to the survey made in the'
4th quarter of the year 1834, and
the 1st quarter of the year 1835, by
Benj. Clements and I. B. Clements,
commonly called the Clements of
Block 5, of the City of St. Augus-
It seems that Bay Street was
called Marine Street at that date,
the owners on Marine Street were
Joseph Cabatchecha; heirs of A.
Berta, Jane Narvarro, heirs of C.
W. Bulow, and directly behind this
section were Jesse Fish, heirs of
Joseph Sanchez, Joseph Cabat-
checha, Antonio Berta, John Leslie
and the Hernandez property. South
of this, the property belonged to
Joseph Ponts, and Margaret Cook.
In 1842 sections of this property
were conveyed to B. E. Carr and
Company. Also a section was trans-
ferred from John Peck to Burroughs
E. Carr. (John Peck was one of
the partners of the firm of B. E.
Carr & Co.) During 1853, another
interesting item appears, convey-
ing from Burroughs E. Carr and
*Sophia R. Carr, his wife to Peter
SB. Dumas, "All those certain
Houses and Lots, Furniture, and
Negro Slaves, hereinafter men-
tioned with the future issue and
increase of the female Slaves."
"Also the Lot of Ground and the
SStore and Buildings thereon, sit-
uate, lying and being in the City
of St. Augustine, on the East side
of Charlotte, and extending
through to Bay Street, and now
occupied by the Burroughs E.
Another transfer was made in
April, 1869, from B. E. Carr and
Sophia R. Carr to Daniel M. Edgar,
reading in part as follows: "Also
a small lot or parcel of land lying
immediately South of the described
Slot and used as an alley-way being
three feet and eleven inches front
on Bay or Marine Street extending
Northwardly from the Northeast
corner of the Stone House, the
' present residence of Burroughs E.
Carr, and extending back along the
Line of the house. Privilege of the
North window in the Stone House
overlooking the Alley and eaves of
Said house being reserved."
For five consecutive weeks in
* 1873, the "St. Augustine Examiner"
Carried a notice of sale, to be sold
Sat public outcry, before the door
Sof the Couthouse in St. Augustine,
the property across the street from
the Courthouse described as the
Real estate belonging to the Estate
of Christina Hill Sanchez, situated
and bounded on the west by Char-
lotte Street, on the north by Treas-
ury Lane, on the East by the land
of Edgar M. Edgar, and on the
south by the land of Misses Pink-
., M.JnB i205 Mrs. Eliza B. Joseph,
" wife of B. Joseph acquired all the
property where Mrs. Snow's home
' Bow stands.

Florida Clays Were
Used In Old-Time
Wedgewood Potteries

With gift shops in town showing
reproductions of Wedgewood blue
and white ware it is interesting to
know that in The Florida State
SGeological Survey, 15th annual re-
port of 1824 entitled "A Report on
the Claya of Florida," it is said that
in a life of Josiah Wedgewood an
account it given of Florida clays
Being used in Wedgewood potteries,
this early during the British occu-
:pation of Florida.
The late Robert Ranson stated
in conversation that he had located
the source of this clay tried by
.Wedgewood, that while it was very
satisfactory the particular deposit
had too much overburden and meth-
ods used in securing the clay made
it too costly to be a profitable ven-
ture so that the attempt was aban-
(One of the Record's Histogram


One of City's Showplaces

/ .. .


Villa Zorayda on King Street, formerly the private home of a noted
architect, Franklin Waldo Smith, is now a showplace and museum. It

has numerous distinctive features which make it well worth seeing.

Lovely Villa Zorayda Is Purely
Moorish In Design; Arches And
Traceries Replicas Of Alhambra

Lovely Villa Zorayda, now a
show place, and museum, is part of
the foreign picture presented by
Old St. Augustine. The property is
owned now by Mr. and Mrs. A. S.
Mrs. Nina Smith Duryea, of The
Mill, Stockbridge, Mass., tells us
that this was built ..by her
father, the late Franklin Waldo
Smith, whose discovery of Florida
and St. Augustine antedated Henry
Morrison Flagler by some years.
Mr. Smith built it for his home and
Mrs. Duryea, in a special story cov-
ering her father's work as an
architect in Florida and elsewhere,
"It was built about a lovely
patio, its upper gallery supported
by Moorish arches, which, as were
the walls, were covered with airy
traceries, replicas from the Alham-
bra. Tiles for floors and wainscots
were made expressly in Spain; rugs
and furnishings were imported
from Spain and northern Africa.
Gay embroideries fell from the
upper gallery, flowers and hanging
vines lent perfume and color, and a
great banana tree, its wide leaves
unbroken by wind, shed a pale green
light from the center of the court.
"D. Appleton and Company pub-
lished an edition de luxe entitled
'Artistic Homes of the United
States' and said of this house 'It is
the only Moorish house in America,
its whole aspect one of curious
beauty. It is massive yet not heavy.
It must be an extremely common-
place and unimaginative person
who can look up at the facade of
this building, and not begin to
dream dreams. It is not that this
architecture and these ornamenta-
tions are a great deal like the
Moors; they are absolute facsimi-
les, and the visitor is safe in giv-
ing himself up to the admiration
and enthusiasm which he will feel.
Just in such places did those won-
derful people put just such tracery
and just such figures. Precisely
such arches rose in their courts;
such dark, rich painting in the
same marvellous geometrical fig-
ures adorned their walls. It is like
nothing I have ever seen.'
"Mr, Henry M. Flagler came to
St. Augustine, visited the Zorayda,
and wished to purchase it for a
large sum, but the offer was de-
Mrs. Duryea in her memoirs re-
calls that her father foreseeing St.
Augustine future begged that a
committee of architects be formed
which would control all future con-
struction. She says he realized that
the preservation of what was old
and lovely was of vital importance
and equally important was the
necessity to have all new construc-
tion conform to the Spanish style
of architecture, creating slowly
through the years a unique city of
pure taste, suitable to the climate,
which was like that in Spain, where
the Moors and the Spaniards had
learned what manner of building
was wisest for sanitation and com-
fort, rather than to allow a congo-
meration of tasteless buildings to
mar the ancient city. Unfortunately
this was not done, and today the
lovely old Plaza is surrounded by
banal buildings, utterly out of keep-
ing. Real estate operators have
lost their opportunity to create a
unique city which would have at-
tracted thousands of tourists who


would in many cases have become
So it is evident the late Franklin
Waldo Smith was one of the first
exponents of preservation, a pro-
gram on which St. Augustine is
now launched, with Carnegie Insti-
tution cooperating.
City Ballot Of 1887 -
Carries Names Probably
Known To Many Today

An old ballot of 1887, kept evi-
dently because it formed a book
mark in an old book, came to light
the other day and was shown to the
Record by Mrs. E. F. Joyce. It
showed that John G. Long and Dr.
Andrew Anderson evidently were
candidates for mayor. Aldermanic
candidates were D. M. Papy, James
L. Colee, S. G. Whitney, E. F. Joyce,

Quaint Old Spanish House

W. Milford Ingraham. OiLher can-
didates were: or City Clerk, Wil-
liam H. Atkins; for City Marshal,
John Papino; for City Collector,
Edward J. Houston; for City As-
sessor, A. A. Papy; for City Treas-
urer, James W. Allen. S. Bangs
Mance' was a candidate to fill out an
unexpired term as alderman.
Fine Honesty Given
Emphasis In Olden
Records Of Florida

Various early records of Florida
Oricntale incite suspicion that pos-
sibly a few men were rather more
selfishly shrewd than actuated by
strict honesty in days of old in
17th and early 18th century St.
Here is proof that fine honesty
did exist and in high places. This
instance concerns one of the most
famous names of this city.
"Whereas Sam'l Betts deceased
late merchant of the city of Ia-
vannah was a partner of the third
part in the mercantile house of Fer-
nando de la Maza Arredondo of
the said city and the said Betts
never having had an article of co-
partnership with said partners his
heirs and devisees consequently
having no evidence of the rights
of the said Betts this is to ac-
knowledge that the said Betts was
a partner and entitled to one-third
part of the said concern when the
accounts are settled and paid and
recovered likewise one-third part
of the benefit which will result
to the said firm of one tract of land
granted by the Spanish government
in Allauchua territory province of
East Florida on the 22nd day of
December eighteen hundred and
eighteen to F. M. Arredondo of
Havannah. Signed in presence of
Joseph Fenwick, 7 April, 1823, F.
M. Arredondo and Son."
The Arredondo interests in St.
Augustine were notable from early
times, including that Arredondo
whose name is linked to construc-
tion of parts of Castle San Marco.
(One of the Record's Histogram

Men of today who complain of
the ordeal of the daily shave, might
take consolation from the early
Indian who, according to Hewat:
"To appearance the men have no
beards nor hair on their head, ex-
cept a round tuft on its crown, but
this defect is not natural, as many
people are given to believe, but the
effect of art, it being customary
among them to tear out each hair
by the root."
On the other hand from the ac-
count of Aylllon of the land called
"Duharhe" we learn that the hair
of the men was brown and hung to
their heels. While on the other
hand, in the region of Tihe, the in-
habitants wore distinctive priest-
ly costume and they are regarded
as priests and venerated as such
by their neighbors. They cut their
hair, leaving only two locks grow-
ing on their temples, which are
bound under the chin.
Most southeastern Indians soak-
ed their hair in bear grease.

Old writers on St. Augustine lay
great stress upon its healthfulness,
saying that people came here from
other sections of the state, especial-
ly during the months of July, Au-
gust and September, that they
might, avoid malaria from the
marshes. The fresh sea breeze
which comes out every morning
they named "The Doctor."
One writer in dwelling upon this
subject refers to the ocean pound-
ing these shores as "a great saline
aquarium," and said that breezes
from there were "freighted with
the germs of health, productive of
beneficial effect in many forms of
pulmonic complaints."
St. Augustine still runs true to
form, and is known far and wide as
one of the most healthful cities to
be found anywhere.
(One of the Record's Histogram

Old San Carlos

House Is Truly

Quaint Edifice

Owned by Montgomery
Sisters; Garden Is
Rare Spot

One of the quaint and picturesque
old houses in the city is the San
Carlos House, located on narrow
Treasury Street.
This is owned by the Montgomery
Sisters, who operate a gift shop,
and carry unusual things that ap-
peal to the discriminating. The
house is built of coquina, first dis-
covered on Anastasia Island, we are
told, in 1580 by Gov. Domingo Mar-
tines Avendano. The exact date of
construction is not known, but this
is definitely one of the older struc-
tures of the city, and is built di-
rectly on the street, as were the
earlier houses.
A delightful surprise is the gar-
den of this old house. Between two
interesting old buildings is a walk
with stretches of greensward on
either side leading to the garden
in the rear. An old spinning wheel
and garden jars add a quaint note,
while through the iron gate one
glimpses colorful vistas of lawn
and flower beds. The graceful ba-
nana trees give a note of the trop-
ics. A sandstone jar, made prob-
ably 300 years ago, and the old co-
quina well are quaint features
which link the past with modern
For some years past the Mont-
gomery Sisters have been inter-
ested in 'maintaining, preserving
and restoring historic locations in
this vicinity. Their fine work in
connection with the Treasury
Street property is evidence of this.


Electric Shop
Established 1914

___________ U "







Arthur offers the

Perfect Service to you.

Plan to spend a pleasant

hour with us soon, you will enjoy

your favorite cocktail more when

mixed by one of our expert bartenders

in addition... when it is from Arthur you

can be sure that whatever you buy is of the high-

est quality.

A Complete Line of the Finest Domestic and Imported



(Formerly Driz & Charlie)

Arthur L. Wendel



Program Is Making History

-and Arthur is ready to serve refreshments

of the highest quality to the many addi-

tional thousands of visitors who are

coming and will continue to come

,'s ^ to the shrine of our Nation's









Phone 35

For Sale Liberal Terms

Trailer Camp, Tourist Home


Filling Station

All located on city block with 240 feet frontage on San
Marco Ave. (U. S. 1), one mile north of old city. Improvements
consist of ten-room tourist home; running hot and cold water
in every room; bath upstairs and shower downstairs; home
completely furnished including all linens; Five-car garage
with laundry room, all new; New filling station equipped with
all modern equipment; calculating pumps, etc; Space for 20
trailers with 350 feet of paved driveways 15 feet wide through
the grounds. In center of block is new administration build-
ing,.'fuFy equipped with all toilet facilities required by the new
state leg'!ation for trailer camps; Grounds and driveways are
partially shrubbed; 20 full-grown trees and 30 smaller trees
on property.



.23 King Street


W. .*


The Montgomery Sisters are alo
the owners of Portenope, nqar
Moultrie, the famous old plantatn i
at one time owned by Prince
Achille Murat.
It is delightful to note that Miss
Gertrude Montgomery has for her
hobby, aside from that of the
charming antique and gift shop, the
collection of dolls. She has a rare
group of these, representing dif-
ferent periods. All are charmingly
and appropriately gowned, for the
periods represented, and the ef-
fect is very lovely. Miss Montgom-
ery has been most gracious in show-
ing this really rare collection. It
was the outstanding group at a doll
show sponsored several years ago
by the Girl Scouts in the Garden of
the Old Spanish Treasury. Another
time, Miss Montgomery showed Ier
collection for the benefit of the
Rosalie James Circle of the King's
Daughters. Her cooperation is gl-
ways appreciated by local grouAs.

Kelvinator Refrigerators

R. C. A. and Grunow

Hoover Sweepers

Hotpoint Ranges and
Water Heaters

San Carlos House on Treasury Street, narrowest street of this Old-
est City, has atmosphere and great charm. The garden at the rear is
a fascinating feature.

Early Indians Suffered Old City Records Are
Hair To Be Pulled Baffling; Details Of
By Roots, Writer Says Entries Tantalizing




--d dr _I








:i~1 x



BUNDAY, JULY 4, 1937

General Collins

STells Romantic

Story of Site

De cla r e s Reservation
Unique; None Like
It In Country

By Adelaide Sanchez
From a Franciscan Monastery to
:he headquarters of the Military
SDepartment of the State of Florida
,-such is the interesting contrast
and authentic history presented by
the State Arsenal.
Located in the southern part of
City overlooking Matanzas Bay
up which sailed Juan Ponce de Leon,
Pedro Menendez/ de Aviles, Sir
Francis Drake and other colorful
Figures of history, the present State
Arsenal enjoys a unique distinction
and is recognized as one of the out-
standing properties in the United
In the words of the present offi-
cial head of the state military de-
partment, Brig. Gen. Vivian Collins,
adjutant general of Florida, the
local State Arsenal is "the most ro-
mantic of all military reservations."
Bearing out this statement is the
following outline, in which an effort
has been made to recreate from va-
rious files, records and histories, an
authentic picture of the structures
which occupied the site.
The property in St. Augustine
known as St. Francis Barracks, now
Sthe State Arsenal for the Florida
National Guard, was donated to
Florida in 1907 by the Federal Gov-
ernment, in whose possession it had
remained since its purchase from
Spain in 1821.
S First records of this property as
verified from old Spanish docu-
ments, relate that the Franciscan
Monastery Nuestra Senora de la
Concepcion originally occupied the
,,pt, having been built of logs in
the .year 1588. Destroyed by fire
-"March 14, 1599, were the convent
I and fortifications. Some three years
later the King of Spain sent 800
ducats for their restoration and in
1610 selected the newly-built wood
convent as the Capitular House of
,the Province of Santa Eleno de la
', According to John Lee Williams
Sin hls history of Florida, "it was
h" h that the See of Rome chartered
Jtigreat religious province under
/order of the Franciscans. All
je minor establishments through-
ut' the province were represented
at the great Franciscan house in St.
Augustine." It has been said that
in 1634, 35 priests and a number of
laymen were attached to the Fran-
Sciscan Monastery, ministering to 44
settlements between the city and
Chesapeake Bay. They are said to
.ave converted 30,000 or more In-
During the War of the Spanish
Succession in 1702, Governor Moore
of South Carolina attacked the city
on October 22, burned the convent
and, with true medieval zeal, de-
eoyed the convent library valued
T00 pounds sterling. However,
.on of the Spanish Government
1 7 6 3 w h e n b y t r e a t y w i t h E n g -
4 'Florida ceased to belong to
For years during this Spanish
Occupation, Appalachian Indians
and convicts from Mexico had been
employed in re-building the Monas-
tery. Native Coquina rock was
Sused, this being quarried on Anas-
tasia Island and ferried across the
; blue waters of the bay.
In an effort to protect church
J property from being seized by the
SBritish, the Spanish Government
conveyed the convent of St. Francis
Sto John Gordon, an English Cath-
-.olic, for the sum of $1500. How-
e6ver, the British Government chose
to ignore this agreement. Finding
that the convent had the best well-
water in the city, Major Moncrief
of the British Army converted it
into military barracks. The excel-
: lent well mentioned in early ac-
Scounts has not run dry from that
", day to this.
St. Augustine was returned to
Spain by the treaty of 1783, the
property being occupied as barracks
by the Spanish from that year to
1821 when it was purchased by the
United States and used as a Mili-
St7tary Post by the government.
tA On June 28, 1932, by an Act of
Congress, St. Francis Barracks be-
Scame a Military Reservation and a
year later was occupied as a mili-
tary post by a regiment of Light
-. Artillery, remaining a military post
S.until September 12, 1900. It was
u in August, 1907, that the then unoc-
*: cupied reservation was leased to the
1' .tate of Florida for the use of the
Jy National Guard, and the office of
I the Adjutant General changed to
St. Augustine from Tallahassee.
The present State Arsenal not
only occupies the site of a Francis-
Scan Monastery, it also served as an
\ abode for a year of the orphans and
Sisters of the Convent, Church and
St. Mary's Home, maintained by the .
Sisters of St. Joseph in Jacksonville
and destroyed by the devastating
fire of May 3, 1901. The orphans
i \ and Sisters were immediately trans-
ferred to the convent buildings here,
'i-he re fortunately occurring on the
first day of school vacation. How-
ever, these buildings had to be va-
cated by the opening of school in
October, so permission was obtained
From the proper authorities for
them to have the temporary use of
St. Francis Barracks, which they
occupied for one year before return-
ing to Jacksonville.
The main barracks building was

gutted by fire in December of 1915.
-and for some years its dismal ruins
were eloquent reminders of past
greatness and present neglect. On
June 14,1921, the State Legislature
approved an appropriation of $40,-
000 for the repair and restoration
of the structure. F. A. Hollings-
worth, local architect, under the
direction of the late Adjutant Gen-
eral Charles P. Lovell, drew the
Slans for the restoration of the old
barracks, modelling them after the
nes of the former structure.
The transfer of Military Head-
uarters to this Ancient City has
roved a wise move, not only for
convenience but for strategic rea-
ons. The State Arsenal, as it is
ow familiarly called, proves of un-
iling interest to visitors. On the
anonymous gray of the, original
lls of the old Monastery, still


State Arsenal Formerly Site Of Monastery

This interesting old building, with sturdy walls of coquina, is one of the historic treasures of St. Au-
gustine, with its story running back to the Spanish origins of this Oldest City.

standing, the dramatic defeats and
triumphs of the Indian, Spaniard,
British and American in turn have
left little imprint.
Today, the modernly equipped
headquarters are occupied by 17 of-
ficers and employes. The large
warehouse in the rear of the prop-
erty contains surplus military stores
sufficient for mobilization needs in
case of emergency. In this connec-
tion it is interesting to note that
from these administrative head-
quarters of the National Guard of
Florida, are controlled the activities
of a total strength of 2,568 soldiers
distributed throughout the State of

Name Origin Of

Maria Sanchez

Is Still Lost

Legend of Christening of
Famous Creek Is Elu-
sive Tale

The origin of the name of Maria
Sanchez Creek seems quite lost.
Maria Sanchezes seem to have been
as numerous as Mary Smiths, and
many of them either themselves
owned land that was "bounded on
the west by Maria Sanchez Creek"
or some husband of a Maria Sanchez
and his wife were frequently deed-
ing such lands.
Then there was Augustus Pou-
joud, who owned much of the land
and marsh-west of the creek at
the southern 'end of the creek. His
wife was also Maria Sanchez. Be-
tween them all it is quite confusing.
The earliest allusion probably is
on a map of 1737 made by Arredon-
do where the creek is listed as
Maria Sanchez. But its true origin
is still left for determination.
Possibly there is a legendary
Maria, and her fate may have been
tragic enough to,form basis for the
legend that appeared in a magazine
in 1874, but the form and expres-
sion and sentiments hardly seem
what might be hoped for. Here it
is as printed in the course of an
article written by Constance Feni-
more Woolson.
Mrs. Neil Dickman has had
photographs made of a possible
scene illustrating the legend and
they are on display in the Old Span-
ish Treasury and Woman's Ex-
The Legend of Maria Sanchez
Maria Sanchez
Her dug-out launches,
And down the stream to catch
some crabs she takes her way,
A Spanish maiden,
With crabs well laden;
When evening falls she lifts her
trawls to cross the bay.
Grim terror blanches
Maria Sanchez,
Who, not to put too fine a point,
is rather brown;
A norther coming,
Already humming,
Doth bear away that Spanish
maiden far from town.

Maria Sanchez,
Caught in the branches
That sweetly droop across
creek far down the coast,
That calm spectator,
The alligator,
Doth spy, then wait to call
mate, who rules the roost.



She comes and craunches
Maria Sanchez,
While boat and crabs the gentle
husband meekly chews.
How could they eat her,
That senorita,
Whose story still doth make quite
ill the Spanish Muse?

Civic Worker

M. H. Westberry, immediate past
president of the St. Augustine and
St. Johns County Chamber of Com-
merce, who heartily endorses the
Restoration Program.

M. H. Westberry

Cites Study That

Went Into Plan

Urges Unselfish Coopera-
tion in Securing Great
M. H. Westberry, past president
of the St. Augustine and St. Johns
County Chamber of Commerce, and
member of the St. Augustine His-
torical Preservation and Restora-
tion Association, cites the careful
study that has gone into the mak-
ing of the plan for the Restoration
Program. he emphasizes the won-
derful opportunity that has come
through the program, and the in-
finite possibilities for St. Augustine
and urges unselfish cooperation.
His full statement follows:
"The proposed plan of restoring
and preserving the City of St. Au-
gustine is being carried to the peo-
ple in this issue of the Record, in
a very complete way. This plan
has been adopted by the National
Committee, the various local com-
mittees, and the City Commission,
after much study and a great deal
of hard work extending over the
period of the past year. It is very
comprehensive -taking into con-
sideration not only the restoration
and preservation of certain his-
torical buildings and sites, but also
contemplating a zoned and well
planned city. This will mean that
the entire city and the surround-
ings will gradually be developed
into harmony with the general
scheme of the atmosphere of his-
tory and old world culture, which
we are seeking to restore and pre-
"St. Augustine possesses some-
thing that no other city in this
country could possibly own-that
is, its historical background. We
now have a plan to restore and pre-
serve this history, romance and
beauty which is ours alone. This
is the greatest opportunity that has
ever knocked at the door of St. Au-
gustine. We cannot afford to allow
it to slip through our grasp. St.
Augustine needs this program from
an economic standpoint. The ful-
fillment of this restoration pro-
gram means, that employment will
be furnished to a great percentage
of our population over a period of
several years. It further means
that St. Augustine will become an
Historical Mecca for the people of
the United States and the world

not only for today, but for future
generations. This constant stream
of tourists to our city will bring
business to our citizens.
"Both-as a citizen of the com-
munity and as a member of the
St. Augustine Preservation and
Restoration Association, I desire to
urge upon the citizenry of this city,
a complete and harmonious cooper-
ative spirit in the accomplishment
of this wonderful plan. There is no
influence in any community more
potent and powerful for the accom-
plishment of good than that of the
business and professional men and
citizens generally, unselfishly bond-
ed together for the purpose of pro-
moting the general welfare of the
entire citizenship. 'It is my earnest
hope that such an unselfishness
may take hold of the citizens of St.
Augustine and mould them into a
solid group, with the one great pur-
pose in view, of carrying out to a
final and glorious conclusion-the
Restoration Plan as now adopted."
Miss Anna Arnau Is
Still Living On Land
Granted To Her Family

Miss Anna Arnau lives in a cot-
tage on Spanish Street that is on
part of the property the Arnaus
owned for long years, starting in
the second Spanish occupation.
Miss Arnau's family owned' and
lived in the coquina house on St.
George Street, known now as the
Old Curiosity Shop.
The garden was at the south of
the house and until quite recently
one of the old grapevines was still
living in Miss Arnau's present
garden, that was at the west of
the old coqdina home.
Miss Arnau states, as did the
late Mrs: George Gibbs, that the
portion of the house north of the
big chimney in the main room of
the Old Curiosity Shop used to be
but one story in height. When the
house was divided into two hold-
ings Miss Arnau does not know.
Many things grew in the Arnau
gardens. Among others, lufas hung
from vines. When her brother had
dried and prepared them, .Miss
Arnau says she made them into

hats, made trimming from the ing a portion of their old lands and
lufas for the hats and they were living upon them. The Arnaus were
sold in Mrs. Segui's shop. Miss early listed and in 1788 Francisco
Arnau does not recall any one else Arnau had the last house on the
making lufa hats for which there west side of St. George Street with
was a great craze at one time as no building between his house and
their light openwork fibre made the fortified line and city gates.
them particularly adapted to a Arnaus were prominent in city
warm climate, affairs and a Paul Arnau resigned
Miss Arnau is one of the limited as mayor rather than officiate in
number of descendants of second handing St. Augustine over to the
regime families who are still hold- Federal army.



At the City Gates

Modern Equipment, Expert Workmanship







"Belief In St. Augustine and Full

Cooperation With the Restoration

Program Is An Investment In the

Future That We Are Happy to






New seven-room bungalow on Davis Shores. Modern kitchen,
all electric. Three bedrooms, sunparlor; all completely furnished.
Water view from every angle. $60.00 per month. Available
until November 1st.







North San Marco Avenue
Tires and Tubes, Alemiting, Washing, Polishing, Accessories
Cars Sent for and Delivered
Phone 311 24 HOUR WRECKER SERVICE P. O. Box 1081

a-16 T


Is Issued By

Mayor Fraser

Declares Holiday, Urging
Citizens to Join in

Mayor-Commissioner Walter B.
Fraser has issued a proclamation,
declaring tomorrow, Monday, July
5th, a holiday in St. Augustine and
calling on the citizens of St. Au-
gustine to join in the local cele-
bration. The proclamation is as
By the Mayor-Commissioner of the
City of St. Augustine, Florida
Whereas, Sunday, July 4, A. D.
1937, is the natal day of our great
and magnificent nation, the great-
est Christian nation in the world,
a nation which has known over a
hundred years of peace with its
northerly and southerly neighbors,
Whereas, it is due and fitting,
meet and proper, that the mother
city of the nation should celebrate
the birthday of our homeland, and
inasmuch as this great holiday falls
on Monday for the purposes of
celebration, I shall designate Mon-
"day, July 5, A. D. 1937, for the pur-
poses of civic celebrations in the
City of St. Augustine, Florida.
Therefore, I, Walter B. Fraser,
Mayor-Commissioner of the City
of St. Augustine, Florida, by vir-
tue of the ordinances and laws of
the State of Florida in me vested,
do hereby proclaim and declare
Monday, July 5, A. D. 1937, as. a
holiday in the City of St. Augus-
tine, Florida, and I call upon all
of our good citizens to join such
celebration, and it is requested that
the officials of the City of St. Au-
gustine, Florida, do celebrate this
wonderful day in the history of
our nation, and that all depart-
ments close in such cases where it
may be permitted.
In witness whereof, the seal of
the City of St. Augustine, Florida
is hereunto affixed.
City Auditor and Clerk.
Sunday School
To Continue
The Sunday School at Trinity
Episcopal Church will continue
throughout the summer months,
the rector, Rev. Armand T. Eyler,
announced yesterday. The Sun-
day School meets every Sunday
morning at 9:40 o'clock.
-- O------------ -
Flock Of Sheep Proves
Undoing Of Salt Highway
RICHMOND, Va., July 3. (AP)
-Virginia's experiment with salt
roads was very successful, said
highway department officials, ex-
cept for the sheep. A flock found
a section of road in which salt was
being tried as a binder, and licked
big holes in the surface before
they could be driven away.

Daily Cross Word Puzile

1 Neckpiece
4. Dq.wrongly or
9. Serpent
12. Botanical
garden of
14. Form used 'j
I5. Back of the foot
16. Resisting pres-
sure or the
effect of it
I. Renting
20. Ring sharply
21. Protective
23. Final
25. Musical note
27. In excess
28. Exclamation
30. One who copies
S32.. portive or
'M. rowing in .
36. Inquires
37. Fall
39. Decay
40. Compass point
41. On the ocean
13. Silly
is. Wise men from
the East
17. Small islands
49. Zone of deposi-
tion along
low coastal

Solution of Fridny's Puzzle



Endorse a
Greek letter
Expression of
whose seeds
are used in

Al. Favorite
13. Butter
17. Giant
19. Sandarac tree
2L Book of maps
22. Stirring appeal
24. Pulpit in early
2.L Mountain ridge
Z9. R. L. Stevenson
31. One living at
33. American
85. Timber tree of
the Pacific
38. Showered
42. Implement for
applying a
44. Glacial snow
46. Region
48. Dry'
49. American poet
50. Town in
52. Tftleof a
53. War aviator of
56. Proceed

Claudette Colbert Lovely Heroine

Of "I Met Him In Paris," Romantic

Comedy Opening At Jefferson Today

The special brand of humor that Paris on her vacation, is the object
Claudette Colbert has made her of the affections of both Douglas
own sparkles throughout "I Met and Young, who portray, respec-
Him in Paris," brilliant comedy- tively, a playwright and a novelist.
romance which opens today at the Both men are masters of the gen-
Jefferson Theatre. tle art of the "gag" but discover
With two leading men, Melvyn that the innocent little "gal from
Douglas and Robert Young, fight- back home" is just a shade too fast
ing to win Miss Colbert's affect- on the comeback for them.
ions, "I Met Him in Paris" offers The action of the film is at whirl-
a 'double guarantee of sparkling wind pace; the trio of stars is
situations and bright dialogue to whirled from Paris to Switzerland
the legion of Colbert fans who and then back again to Paris. But
thrilled to her earlier comedy hits, no matter where they are, both men
"It Happened One Night" and "The find the time -and the inclination
Gilded Lily." -to keep right on the trail of the
In "I Met Him in Paris." Miss girl.

Colbert, a young American girl in

pI U

-Signs That Tell the Story


Window, Wall; Glass, Board,'
S- T --- ^

process WorK, Cqmmercial
and Outdoor Advertising..

78 St. George St. Phone 586



SUN and


At Lighthouse Park

and there's

Delicious Food

at the




Did It"

A Hearty Welcome
Lee & Sterling

f Tasty

Cold Plates




In a flurry of some of the most
breath-taking winter sports scenes
ever brought to the screen, both
try to sweep Miss Colbert off her
feet, but they manage only to con-
fuse her so much that she can't de-
cide which one of them she loves.
She flees back to Paris, resolved
to forget them both, but the per-
.sistent young swains pursue her
back to Paris, and force a show-
"I Met Him in Paris" is grand
comedy, grand fun and a fast-mov-
ing, thrill packed yarn. Claudette
Colbert, Melvyn Douglas, Robert
Young and the balance of the cast
rate as superb, and Wesley Rug-
gles' direction is tops.
Catholic Daughters
Meet Tuesday Night
The regular business meeting of
the local court, Catholit Daughters
of America will be held Tuesday
evening at 8 o'clock, at the CD of
A Home on King Street. All mem-
bers are urged to be present, it is

Offices Easy

Of Access To

All Interested
Main offices of the St. Augus-
tine Historical Restoration are
maintained on the fifth floor of
the First National Bank Build-
On the first floor rear, W. J.
Winter, archeologist of the pro-
ject, has quarters including filing
cabinets for the thousands of
artifacts uncovered, during the
progress of the archeological
work. Offices of the engineers
and architects are located in the
building at the foot of the Munic-
ipal Yacht Pier.

4. Written form of
a title of
5. Those who do
ally: suffix
6. English
T. Press for pay-
8. Leaves out
9. Arabian seaport
10. Card which is
the only one
of its suit in
the hand

Early Banking

Is Indicated

By Research

Story of Panton, Leslie,
Forbes Shows Wealth
of Material

This very brief account of the
influential house of Panton, Lei-
lie, Forbes has been prepared at
request of a local banker.
Panton, Leslie, Forbes figured in
the British occupation and was the
first licensed trading house in the
Floridas under the second Spanish
regime. Historians designate them
as fiscal agents of Spain. In fact
repeatedly during that period the
King of Spain was in debt to this
house 'hundreds of thousands of
dollars, this condition still existing
when Spain finally relinquished
This firm has been referred to
as the first "banking house" in
Florida. The building they occu-
pied on Charlotte Street has been
described as the "first bank" also
as "the English bank." They car-
ried on transactions of exchange
and credit for individuals as well
as for the government. No such
institution as a modern bank was in
existence at that time.
While much attention has been
given to extensive operations of the
firm in other sections of the Flor-
idas none has been given to the
valuable source material relating
to the St. Augustine branch which
was located by Miss Emily Wilson.
Before the American Revolution
three young Scots meeting in the
Carolinas had started Indian trade.
When the "Rebels" gained power
the three Scotchmen found the
Carolinas unsafe, came to St. Au-
gustine, made themselves useful to
the British government through
presents and successful trade with
the Indians.
The firm consisted of William
Panton, John Leslie and Thomas
Forbes. Leslie was the one who
remained in St. Augustine, repre-
senting the firm. When the Span-
iards came back a wide business
had been built up with, it seemed,
almost unlimited resources.
The Spanish government had
made no provision for presents for
the Indians who at once began com-
ing to St. Augustine when the
Spanish came back. Governor Zes-
pedes turned to Panton, Leslie,
Forbes who supplied the money and
presents necessary to keep the Ind-
ians friendly to the Spanish at a
time when the colonies to the north
were desirous of turning the Ind-
ians against the Spanish settle-
ments. Zespedes needed their con-
tinued aid and a royal decree issued
by the king authorized the firm to
continue-its business without tak-
ing an oath of allegiance simply
signifying their obedience. They
were also exempted from certain
import taxes and had other privi-
leges. All members of the firm
families, all employes and their
families need not swear allegiance
to Spain.
John Leslie occupied the large
coquina house belonging to the
King located at the northwest cor-
ner of Bay and Treasury Alley. As
he was the king's recognized finan-
cial agent, this probably gave rise
to the house being alluded to as
the treasurer's. Leslie kept up a
large establishment which develop-
ed into a veritable hive of drama.
The firm soon owned a large prop-
erty extending through into Char-
lotte Street where the house stood
in which much of the firm's busi-
ness was conducted. So large was
the total of the St. Augustine
branch operations that in 1796
Panton in his will estimated "My
share of the profits with the prop-
erty thereto belonging cannot
amount to less than 5000 pounds

/ .". .""* i'' "

. -;. ... ........... ;

J. W. Hoffman, vice president of
the Model Land Company of this
city, is a member of the St. Augus-
tine Historical Preservation and
Restoration Association, and one
of the enthusiastic endorsers of the
Restoration Program.

Hospital Notes

Mrs. W. H. Westberry, of Jack-
sonville, who has been receiving
treatment at the East Coast Hos-
pital for a broken ankle, is now at
the home of Mr. and Mrs. M. H.
Westberdy on Markfand Place.
Mrs. J. B. Fickling, of Washing-
ton Street, was admitted to the
East Coast Hospital yesterday.
Porter Higginbotham returned
to his home in Bunnell Friday from
Flagler Hospital, where he had been
a patient for several weeks.
Mrs. F. S. Hawley and infant
daughter expect to return to their
home at No. 52 Charlotte Street
this afternoon from the Flagler
Albert Birch returned to his home
on Shenandoah Street Friday from
Flagler Hospital.
Friends here of Talmadge Ben-
nett will regret to learn that he is
a patient in the East Coast Hos-
pital, where he is being treated for
a severe foot injury sustained
while working on a steam shovel
between Titusville and Cocoa. Tal-
madge is the son of Mr. and Mrs.
A. B. Bennett, of No. 15 Clark

sterling." In Panton's will he
states "he has frequently received
thanks of the Spanish government"
It is possible to bring only a few
of the many angles of the Panton,
Leslie, Forbes story into this ac-
count. Especially connected with
St. Augustine was the admission
into the firm of John Forbes,
brother of Thomas Forbes, one of
the original three. In the begin-
ning John Forbes wasonly a junior
firm member in the Mobile branch
house. Yet when the original three
are dead and John Forbes is.one of
the executors named in the wills of
all the big three, an act of his led to
a law suit in 1878 that resulted in a
judgment being rendered against
Venancio Sanchez of St. Augustine
as executor of the will of John
Forbes de bonis nisi for $2,202,049.
The aged executor was directed to
turn all assets of John Forbes in-
to form to be distributed to the
long list of impatient heir claim-
ants. It was a big shock to the
executor but later as it was claim-
ed he had given in and agreed to
the judgment; fortunately for
Sanchez the same judge who
signed the two million dollar order
suspended its immediate operation.
These sketchy facts give only a
faint indication of the interesting
possibilities when the St. Augus.
tine portion of the Panton, Leslie,
Forbes history may be unrolled.

Fine Statement

Committee Member

,.< .. -
', 5.


Is Given By

J. W. Hoffman

Says Restoration Project
Should Have Ardent

J. W. Hoffman is one of the prom-
inent citizens of St. Augustine
closely identified with the Restora-
tion Program, who has made a fine
statement concerning the worth of
the program to the City of St. Au-
gustine and its citizenry. He says:
"If there ever was a project which
should have the wholehearted sup-
port of every citizen of St. Augus-
tine, it is the proposed plan of Res-
toration. I doubt if very many of
us realize what it will ultimately
mean to every individual citizen and
the city itself, and how fortunate we
are to have the Carnegie Institution
back of the program, which, with
the help of every citizen, practically
assures the success of the venture.
"To me it means one of two
things-Progress with Restoration,
or remain as we are and accept
what comes to us without any effort
and be satisfied.
"I am not unmindful of the fact
that we may be inconvenienced in
many small ways during the prog-
ress of the work, but I think we
can well afford to be inconvenienced
to have something of interest to
show the people of the Nation, and
make St. Augustine the show place
of the United States.
"Therefore, let us all back the
program one hundred percent, and
let the Carnegie Institution show.
what can be done."
Joint Convocation Of
Masons Will Be Held
Tomorrow Afternoon

A joint convocation of St. Au-
gustine Chapter of Rose Croix, An-
cient Accepted Scottish Rite of'
Freemasonry, and the Jacksonville
chapter will be held here tomorrow
in the Fraternal Building at 1 p.
m., at which time a class of 36
candidates will receive the degrees.
Of these, 20 are from here and 16
from Jacksonville.
Following a banquet at 6 p. m.,
at which the local chapter will be
hosts, the conferring of degrees
will continue.
A motorcade of Jacksonville Ma-
sons will arrive here tomorrow
morning, escorting their teams and
candidates. Visitors are expected
from points along the east coast
as far south as Miami.
All candidates and the members
of the 15th degree team are re-
quested to be at the Masonic Hall
in the Fraternal Building by 12:45
p. m.
PGN Association
Meets Tuesday i
The Past Noble Grands Associa-
tion will meet Tuesday night at 8
o'clock at the home of Mrs. Mary E.
Moeller on Rohde Avenue. A good
attendance of the membership is

As You Like Them Prepared


Delicious Food

No Meeting Of
Executive Board
There will be no,meeting of the
Executive Board of the Woman's
Auxiliary of Memorial Presbyter-
ian Church tomorrow, because of
the holiday, it is announced. All
circles of the church will meet in
the church house parlors, however,
on Monday, July 12th, at which
time Mrs. J. J. Spencer will com-
plete the review of the study book.
League Library To
Close Until October
The Junior Service League Li-
brary in the Old Spanish Treasury,
at the corner of St. George and
Treasury Streets, will be closed af-
ter Tuesday for the remainder of
the summer months, reopening on
October 4th. Those who have books
out are asked to return them Tues-
day between 10 a. m. and 12 noon,
or 3:30 to 5:30 p. m.
Opponents Clad in White To
Stage Duel With Tomatoes
INDIO, Calif., July 3. (AP)-F.
A. Purcell accused E. J. Grace of
welshing a bet. Grace challenged
him to a duel. Their seconds chose
over-ripe tomatoes as the weapons.
Garbed in white, the men are to
stand in 10-foot circles 30 feet
apart and let go for three minutes.
The spotches will tell who won.



Coca-Cola Bottling

239 San Marco Ave.
Phone 124
'A 9.''











Union Services Tonight
At Baptist Church
The Union Service will be held
this evening at the Ancient City
Baptist Church at 8 o'clock, with
Rev. A. E. Calkins, pastor of the
church, presiding. Rev. S. A. Wil-
son of the First M. E. Church,
South, will deliver the sermon. Mu-.
sic will be under the direction of
Mrs. Arthur D. Manucy, church
organist, and Owen Griffin, choir
director, and there will be solos by
Mrs. Robert Tigert and Harry Lee
Hood. The public is cordially ih-i
vited to attend the service.'
Some parasites infest one kind
of animal in their early stages and
another kind in adult life.

Ladies' Ready-to-Wear Fashions

The Y /4, Shop
Corner St. George and Hypolita Sts.






The first bridal couple to register at the St.
George Hotel may occupy the bridal chamber of
the "Gold Rose of Paris", now on exhibit.
Breakfast will be served on crested china and
gold plate of the famous French Princess.
These articles loaned by the Royal Museum.







; 1



SUNDAY, JULY 4, 1937

Dedicated to the Best

Interests of This

"Oldest City

"Alli the Neiwu Estalishe



Section B


St. Augustine Restoration Reaches Into This Great Nation's Past

Florida Found;

Ponce de Leon's

Feat Recounted

Date of 1513 Is Fixed in
National Con-


Chronicle Told in Words
of Ancient His-

Florida, 1513--On April 2 we dis-
covered a new island and named it
Floridal We named it so because
it is a most beautiful sight of many
fresh woodlands and it is level and
smooth; and also because we dis-
covered it at the time of Pascua de
Flores (Easter), Juan Ponce,
SKnight of Leon, wished to name it
Sso. We went ashore (in the vicinity
Sf what is now St. Augustine)
ere Juan Ponce made observa-
ns and took formal possession of
land in the name of our King
Three vessels had sailed from
qJuan, Thursday afternoon,
13. On Easter Sunday we had
/' small island, but did not stop
/ amine it. The discovery on
Same after three days' run
pril 8 we hoisted sail and
S--oe d without difficulty until
April 21, when all three vessels
struck a current which, although
S we had the wind in our favor, we
could not stem. Although it seemed
we were moving forward, the cur-
v rent was so strong that it was
stronger than the wind. Two of our
Vessels cast anchor, but the current
strained the cables. The third ves-
S el, a brigantine, was farther out to
ea and could not find bottom, or
' .:was ignorant of the current and
was carried seaward and lost to
view, although the day was clear
With fair weather.
SAt this point Juan Ponce and
others of us went ashore, summoned
by Indians who attempted to seize
K the, boat, oars and arms. Ponce
'ed. to avoid conflict, until one
""struck-a sailor over the head
dick and nearly killed him
se had to fight. The Indians
SjSatheir arrows and armed shafts
with points of sharpened bones and
Sfsh spines, and wounded two
/ astilians. The savages themselves
received little hurt from us. Night-
fall stopped the battle, and the
Adelantado brought us together and
went to a stream for water and fire-
wood. Three score Indians followed
to btolest us, and we captured one
That he might serve as a pilot and
perhaps as an interpreter. This
stream, which we called La Cruz
(the Cross), was brackish, so we did
not finish taking water, but set sail
On May 8 we rounded a Cape
(Canaveral) which we named Cor-
S, rientes (Currents), since the water
flowed stronger than the wind and
prevented our going forward even
with full sail. We anchored near an
Indian village called Abaioa. Then
we continued south along the coast
until we saw a string of islands
which we named Los Martires (the
Martyrs) because seen from a dis-
tance their twisted rocks resemble
Smartyrs, or men in agony. We con-
Stinued sailing, sometimes north,
sometimes northeast, until May 24,
when we ran along the western
coast of La Florida to some isles
out to sea (neTr Charlotte Harbor).
There we careened the San Christ-
oval and took on water and fire-
Some Indians came in their
canoes to reconnoiter, and as we
were attempting to raise an anchor
for repairs, they thought we were
departing, came close in their
canoes and seized the cable in order
to take our vessel. Therefore our
longboat was sent among them and
we landed and seized four women
and smashed some of their canoes.
Fighting ceased, and we bartered
ldes and b;uanin (base gold).
While we were awaiting wind to
go in search of the chief Carlos,
who the Indians said hd gold, there
came among us an Indian under-
standing our language and who
must have come from some island
inhabited by Spaniards. He told us
that we should wait, for the chief
,wanted to send us gold for trade.
But it was a deception, and the
Indians attacked us, although we
beat them off. June 14 we re-
solved to return to Hispaniola and
San Juan, and we sailed for seven
days southwest' to Las Tortugas
(the Turtles), which we had passed
before. I think we named those is-
lands well, for there in one night we
took 160 turtles, and might have
taken many more, had we wanted
Thence sailing and with many ad-
ventures we returned to Puerto
Rico in October.
Juan Ponce made this hazardous
voyage to discover new lands for
the glory of Spain as well as to
search for the wondrous fountain or
river of youth, giving credence to
the story of the Cuban Indians, and
those of Espanola who said that
bathing in it,'br in the fountain, old
men become young and many Cuban
Indians believing in this river went
over not many years before we dis-
'covered Cuba, to lands in Florida
in its search, and there settled and
four I a town where the same
(Continued on Page B-14.)

Menendez Is

Founder Of

St. Augustine
St. Augustine, Florida, 1565,-On
the 28th day of August, St. Augus-
tine's Day, we came in sight of the
Florida coast after a most discour-
aging volage.
We went ashore at the River of
Dolphins. The following is the
account of Father Mendoza, who is
the chaplain of the expedition, re-
garding the founding of the new
settlement which we have called St.
On Saturday, the 8th day of Sep-
tember, the day of the Nativity of
Our Lady, the great captain disem-
barked with numerous banners dis-
played, trumpets and other martial
music resounding, and amid salvos
of artillery.
Carrying a cross, I proceeded at the
head, chanting the hymn, Te Deum
Laudamus. The Adelantado march-
ed straight up to the cross, togeth-
er with all those who accompanied
him; and kneeling they all kissed
the cross.
A great number of Indians looked
upon these ceremonies, and imitat-
ed whatever they saw done. There-
upon Menendez took possession of
the country in the name of His
Majesty. All the officers then took
an oath of allegiance to him as
their general, and as Adelantado of
the whole country.
On September 10, the fleet of the
French heretic, Jean Ribault, was
seen by our fleet, anchored off the
bar of St. Augustine. But before
they reached us, and the fleet was
collected for action, Ribault found-
himself in the midst of a sudden
gale. The tempest rendered the
ships unmanageable and finally
wrecked them all at different points
on the coast south of thp lower
Matanzas Inlet.
The Adelantado, realizing that it
would be impossible for the fleet
to beat its way back decided to at-
tack the French fort, and so with
a picked force marched across the
country under the guidance of two
Indians. The march was difficult
on account of the pouring rains and
the swamps, and "baygalls", which
made us often waist-deep in water.
Before daybreak when we were
close to the fort, Menendez in
spiteaof .the straits we were in,
without food, without ammuni-
tion, the soldiers being very tired,
bewildered and disheartened; went
ahead, taking with him a French-
man he had with him as guide, his
hands bound behind him. A scout-
ing party, also gone ahead, came
upon a French sentinel, who shout-
ed as he fell backwards. Menendez
believed they were killing his
scouts and without hesitating he
cried in a loud voice "San Diego, at
them, God is helping. Victory, the
French are killed, the camp mas-
ter is inside the fort and captured
We found the principal gate to
the fort open. Some of the French-
men came out in their shirts to find
out what was happening, and were
killed. Others took flight. When
Menendez arrived at the fort he
said in a loud voice: "Under, pen-
alty of death, let no one wound or
kill any woman or boys under 15
years of age." Thus about 70 of
these persons were spared. Mean-
while 50 or 60 others who had
jumped off the walls, took refuge in
the woods.
There were there French vessels
near the fort, so Menendez took
four pieces of bronze artillery,
found some powder, and sank the
ship nearest shore. The other two
vessels managed to set sail down
the river and escaped. A check
was made on the supplies captured,
the fort renamed San Mateo, and
leaving some of our men there we
returned to St. Augustine, where
there was great rejoicing.
Shortly after our return, Ind-
ians came to tell us of white men
at the lower Matanzas Inlet, who
could not cross because of lack of
boats. Menendez took 40 soldiers
and started out at once for the
Inlet where one of the French
swam the river telling how they
had been shipwrecked, and asking
for a boat and safe conduct. Me-
nendez told them that their fort
had been captured and all killed
except women and children, and
furthermore that they he did not
have ships to give them.
The French captain then sought
permission to remain at St. Augus-
tine until the ships could be ob-
(Continued on Page B-14.)

Drake Attacks

And Sets Fire

To Old City


of Company Is
Raconteur of

By Thomas Cates,
Lieutenant in Drake's Fleet.
St. Augustine, Fla., 1586-Coast-
ing alongst Florida and keeping
the shore still in sight, the 28 of
May, early in the morning, wee
described on the shore a place built
like a Beacon, which was indeed a
scaffold upon four long mastes
raised on ended, for men to discover
to the seaward, being in the lati-
tude of thiertie degrees, or very
neere thereunto. Our Pinnesses
manned and coming to the shore
wee marched up alongst the river
side to see what place the enemie
held there; not none amongst us
had any knowledge thereof at all.
Here the Generall took occasion
to march with all companies him-
selfe in person, the Lietnenant gen-
eral having the Vantguard; and
going a mile up or somewhat more
by the river side, wee might dis-
cover on the other side of the river
over against us a Fort, which newly
had been built by the SpaniArds;
and some mile or thereabout above
the Fort was a little Towne or Vil-
lage without walles, built of wood-
den houses, as the Plot doeth
plainely shew. Wee forwith pre-
pared to have ordinance for' the
batterie; and one peece was a little
before the enenie planted; and the
first shot being made by the Lieu-
tenant general himself at their
Ensigne, strake through the En-
signe, as wee afterwards under-
stood by a Frenchman which came
into us from them.
In the night, the Lieutenant gen-
erall tooke a 'little rowing skiffe
and halfe a dozen well armed, as
Captain Morgan and Captaine
Sampson, with some others besides
the rowers, and went to view what
guard the enemie kept, as also to
take knowledge of the ground.
And albeit he went as covertly as
might be, yet the enemie taki an
Alarme, grew fearful thni the whole
force was approaching to the as-
sault, and therefore with all speed
abandoned the place after the
shooting of some of their peeces;
They thus gone and hee being re-
turned unto us again, but nothing
knowing of their flight from their
Fort, forthwith came a Frenchman,.
being a Phipher (a fifer, one of the
French musicians saved from the
massacre at Matanzas Inlet pre-
viously) in a little boate, laying on
his Piph the tune of the Prince of
Orange his song; and being called
unto the guard he tolde then, before
he put foote out of his boate, what
he was himself, and how the Span-
iards were gone from the Fort;
offering either to remain in hands
there or else to return to the place
with them that would. goee
Uon this intelligence. we put
presently over towards the Fort..
and in our approach some of the
enemie, bolder than the rest, having
stayed behind their companies, shot
off two peeces of ordinance at us;
but on shore we went and entered
the place without finding any .man
When the day appeared wee found
it built all of timber, the walls
being none other but whole Mastes
or bodies of trees set up right and
close together in manner of a pale,
without any ditch as yet made ....
There were in it thirteene or four-
teene great peeces of Brass ordi-
nance and a chest unbroken up,
having in it the value of some two
thousand pounds sterling, by esti-
.mation of the King's treasure, to
pay the soldiers of that place, who
were a hundred and fiftie men.
The Fort thus wonne, which they
called St. John's Fort, and the day
opened, wee assayed to goe to the
towne, but could not, by reason of
some rivers and broken ground
which was between the two places;
and therefore being enforced to im-
barke again into onr Pinesses, wee
went thither upon the great maine
river, which is called as also the
Towne by the name of S. Augustin.
At our approaching to land, there
some that began to shew them-
selves, and to bestow some few shot
upon us, but presently withdrew
(Continued on Page B-14.)

Indians Here 600 Years Ago

St. Augustine is the site of a gigantic shell mound, once the habita-
tion of aboriginal Indian tribes, here more than six hundred years ago.
Dupont's Mound, 25 miles south of St. Augustine, was first investigated
archeologically by Andrew M. Douglass in 1885, who wrote in the
American Antiquarian of that year: "It required but small imagina-
tion to picture each wigwam nestled in its separate enclosure, its oc-
cupants lounging about the fire or crowding the narrow pathways,
while by day the shell ridges grew in height and threatened to fall in
and crowd out the tribe. At this point some calamity has swept them
away forever. Steadily, surely but slowly vegetation closes over the
scene, centuries pass and the shells are buried far out of sight in a
soil which nurtures the most massive trees. I know of no shell mound
in Florida which tells its own story so eloquently as Dupont's Mound."
"Tells its own story", wrote Mr. Douglass fifty-one years before the
inception of the Restoration project, which has for one of its objectives
that very ideal of retelling the story of the past through the redevelop-
ment of its physical remains. The Indian left no written record of his
life but the objects which he made and used as well as the very stratifi-
cation of the shell in the mounds where he lived tell us the story of his
life, his trade, his manner of waging war and even his preference in
food, so that we are able to piece together the long lost story of these
ancient Timucuan tribes. Today, the Restoration project is continuing
this great archeological work and as more varied objects are uncovered
so the story will grow rich in content until we will be able to piece into
a complete and accurate whole this fascinating story of the predecessor
of the white man here.

St. Augustine Restoration

Is Sponsored By Carnegie

Institution of Washington

Six Hundred Years of History Now Being Re-
constructed in Colorful Oldest City
of United States

ST. AUGUSTINE, Fla., July 4, 1937-The St. Augustine
Historical Restoration is reaching back more than six hun-
dred years into the history of this vicinity in order to present
in graphic fashion the successive stages of the grand story
of the development of this region. It is the objective of this
Special Edition to give to the people of St. Augustine and
the entire Nation, insofar as is possible, a comprehensive
view of the scope, the philosophy, the methods of research
and the plans of this program which is concerned primarily
with the portraying of that history by means of an adequate
preservation and interpretation of its physical remains.
In the fall of 1936 Carnegie Insti-
Two Patriots tuition of Washington became ac-
Two Patriots" tively interested in this proposed
-n T 'I project. A National Committee had
Burn In Effigy been appointed under the authority
of the City Commission by Mayor
yIn Old Plazta Walter B. Fraser, of which Dr. John
C. Merriam, President of Carnegie
St. Augustine, Fla., July 4, Institution was named temporary
1776.-In 1775 came the Ameri- chairman. The first meeting of this
can Revolution. Of the fourteen National Committee on October 26,
British colonies Florida alone re- 1936, in Washington, D. C., resulted
mained loyal. The thunders of in the determination to commence
Lexington and Bunker Hill woke at once a preliminary historical
no responsive echoes in St. Au- survey to be directed by the Institu-
gustine. For two hundred years tion under the active supervision of
"the ever faithful city" had main- Dr. Verne E. Chatelain, staff iem-
tained her allegiance to the her, and who had served previously
Kings of Spain, now in like man- for several years in charge of the
ner she would prove her faith to historic sites work in the National
the King of England. No Sons Park Service.
of Liberty held secret conclave in The preliminary survey culminat-
her halls; no liberty pole rose in ed in a second meeting of the Na-
her public square. Loyal as ever, tional Committee in St. Augustine
on the fifth of June, 1776, the on March 2,1937, at which time two
citizens joined in the celebration subcommittee reports were present-
of the King's Birthday; and now, ed and adopted; one dealing with
four weeks later or today, when fact finding, which outlined the
the tidings have come from Phila- fct nd ch utned
delphia of the Declaration of In- method and se)pe of the future his-
dependence, the citizens have as- torical studies; and the other on
dependence, the citizens have as-recommendations for the future
sembled on the square in the cen- recommendations for the future
ter of the city to express their physical development of St. Augus-
abhorrence of the document and tine itself. These reports were offi-
its signers by burning in igno- cially endorsed without delay by
minious effigy the two arch-reb- the City Commission and a local
els, John Hancock and Samuel planning body called the St. Augus-
Adams..- H e tine Historical Planning Commis-
sion was set up, pending the forma-
Sr s "s tion- of am incorporated business
organization to carry forward the
ort Kesists program of development.
Sn p e On May 11, the St. Augustine
f s Historical Preservation and Re-
glethorpes storation Association, the incor-
porated business organization for
Bomb rdment conducting the development enter-
prise, was perfected, at which time
Dr. Chatelain was named Director
of the general program of develop-
Batteries Besiege Old ment, including the supervision of
Stron l for 27 a far flung research activity.
Stronghold for 27 The various phases of this pro-
DayS gram are dealt with in detail else-
where in this issue, but in broad
outlines it may be said here that
St. Augustine, Fla., 1740-Some the St. Augustine Restoration Pro-
3,000 men and women including the gram is a unique experiment in the
inhabitants of the town, old and educational use of the historic site
young, the garrison of the regu- as a means of popularizing histor-
lars, the host of friendly Indians, ical knowledge. Existing monu-
the negro troops and the convicts, ments and other physical remains
now given their liberty and supplied will be preserved and restored, in-
with arms, have been fighting star- so far as is necessary, and those
ovation now 2.7 days behind the pro- which have been lost will be recov-
tecting walls of Fort San Marcos, ered to whatever extent is possible.
while Oglethorpe's Battery located The general environment will be so
on Anastasia Island, has bombard- organized and planned as to give
ed the staunch coquina walls with- these sites their proper setting in
out avail, n an effective presentation of the en-
This is a trial of strength, not tire story of St. Augustine. Thus
between our coquina battlements the history of the region, by objec-
and the crashing cannon balls but tive physical treatment of its en-
between our fortitude pitted vironment, supplemented by a brief
against the pangs of starvation, interpretation of the facts in oral
and the courage of the enemy en- or written form, will be presented
during the terrible ug onslaughts of in a complete panorama from its
the fierce summer heat and the earliest stages to the modern day.
maddening insect hordes bf Ana- Simultaneously the plan serves to
stasia Island. Bitterness over the preserve historical remains which
escape of the runaway slaves, who are fast disappearing.
have joined the regiment of negr6 The means for the accomplishment
fugitives here, and the encroach- of this project is a new venture in
ment of' the English, whose out- the field of history and science, for
posts were planted in their very rather than relying on written rec-
peninsula of Florida in the struggle words to reconstruct this story, as is
for the supremacy of the seas n the usual procedure of the historian,
b rough u s all to this. E athe pan-scientific method will be
brought us all to this. used, employing all the arts and
Our coastguard, established to sciences in the reconstruction of a
sweep out all pirates mistook an scientifically as well as historically
English vessel for a pirate ship accurate results; thus the archeo-
and boarding it, cut off the ear of list, architect, engineer, geolog-
Robert Jenkins and told him to stooe otit the
present it to his majesty with their sent, astronomer, botanist, the stu-
compliments. This Jenkins did, of cartography, physical and
preserving his ear in a bottle and uman geography, languages,
appearing before Parliament where medicine, agriculture, plant ecology,
he pointed out our supposed cruel- anthropology and paleontology will
ty. We have heard that the Prime contribute to enrich most of the
Minister objected but the people story by their activities.
cried for war. There were bon- Reconstruction will proceed as all
fires and the ringing of bells and available information is developed.
we learn that Horace Walpole said There may be a few instances where
then: "The are now ringing bells, buildings representing one period
but they will soon be wringing their of history will be reconstructed in
hands." And now it is proven so. detail, but the general plan is to
But what is this! Even as I give to the visitor the "feeling" of
write, there is much crying and re- the centuries which have preceded
joining in the Fort. Word has been our own. In many instances a
brought that the Indian runners single house tells the story of
sent down the coast so many days succeeding occupations over a
ago, were taken over in canoes to period of many centuries. Built of
the Governor of Cuba, and now coquina, which is peculiar to this
this very night our rescuers have region, and is distinctly American,
eluded the vigilance of the vigilance of the English these houses have Spanish features
and have smuggled provisions past of windowless north walls, gardens
the English scout-boats at Ma- and patios facing south, overhang-
tanzas Inlet. We shall' not die! ing balconies, living rooms on the
_____ second floor and the added English
Tempests have begun to blow, feature of gable roofs and chimneys.
those tempests, which once before before But the balconies themselves are
saved the Spanish from the hands not quite like the balconies in
of the enemy, running the fleet of Europe. Therefore in one house is
Jean Ribault down the coast and represented the story of the
wrecking them below Matanzas In- Spanish followed by the English
let, have come to our aid again, for occupation and all flavored with the
the English obviously fearing lest personality that is American. It is
the fate of Ribault's fleet should be this blending of old civilizations
their own, have slipped their cables with the distinctive American flavor
and, putting out to sea, are dis- that gives to St. Augustine a per-
appearing from our sight, sonality which is unique.
This terrible ordeal through The monuments might be called
(Continued on Page B-14.) .(Continued on Page B-14.)

Making History Live Again

History is important in explaining how we, as a people came to be
what we are today and suggests the guiding principles by which we
can predict the probable future course of activities and development.
Not only can we learn from the past but we can, by surrounding our-
selves with the physical evidences of that past, make our own environ-
ment more beautiful and inspiring. The St. Augustine Restoration is
predicated upon these premises and its purpose is to make history more
meaningful by preserving and restoring the physical remains of that
past, harmonizing these traditional values in terms of modern growth
and progress.
On this page are recounted some of the major events in the history
of St. Augustine, the reader being carried back to the time of their
occurrence as though he were a contemporary of the events, picking up
his morning newspaper and reading about things which directly touched
his life. Some liberty has been taken in the method of presentation
but we hope not with historical facts. Since one of the main objectives
of the Restoration Program is to present history in such a manner .s
to make outstanding events over six centuries of time as vivid and re '1
as the events of today, it is desirable to give the reader in some degr !e
the "feeling" of the important events of his historic past, as well as their
scope and relationship to each other, in the great pattern of growth or
progress which is being reconstructed for you and all the people of these\
United States by means of this Restoration Program.

Old Glory Is

Floating Over

St. Augustine

Stars and Stripes Now
Replace Banner of

St. Augustine, July 10, 1821-
Spain having ceded Florida to the
United States on January 19, this
year, in consideration of the pay-
ment of five million dollars, the
Stars and Stripes were raised to-
day over this ancient eity and Spain
has relinquished forever her claims
to the town her knights founded
two and a half centuries ago; here
where the stag of Seloy once greet-
ed the Fleur-de-Lis of France, and
the yellow standard of Spain gave
brief place to the Red Cross of Eng-
land, is waving at last th; banner
whose bars and stars symbolize the
strength and aspiration of the
youngest born of the nations of the
The formal ceremony of the
transfer began this morning, with
a salute fired from Castle San
Marcos at the hoisting of the
Spanish flag. As American troops
disembarked, the United States
flag, delivered to the fort by an
American officer, was hoisted into
place with the Spanish flag, and the
fort guns again saluted. While
American troops formed near the
fort, the Spanish flag was with-
drawn under a salute, then the fort
guards were relieved and the
Spanish forces marched out past the
United States soldiers. The troops
mutually saluted, and the Amer-
icans then marched into the famous
old fortress.
United States sloops were ready
to transport the Spanish troops,
civil and military officers and their
families to Spanish soil. Certain
ordnance stores had already been
embarked for transportation, al-
though the fortifications retain
their ordnance andc sufficient stores
for defense.
This ceremony marks the fulfill-
ment of Colonel Butler's mission;
he has been in St. Augustine since
May 24.
This memorable day brings to
mind two other occasions when
flags were changed over St. Augus-
tine. By the treaty of Paris in
1,763, England having previously in
the French and Indian Wars by
fc-ce of arms gained possession of
a considerable portion of North
America including Cuba, restored
that Island to Spain; and Spain in
return gave over to England her
possessions in Florida. This period
of English occupation was import-
ant to our city for during it there
was inaugurated a very large agri-
cultural project at New Smyrna
which finally brought the Minorcans
to St. Augustine and made them
part of the St. Augustine popula-
tion. Also during this period St.
Augustine becaitA a place of refuge
for many of the King's servants
and the Tories, who had fled from
the revolting thirteen colonies. The
City Gates were opened to an
oddly-assorted throng that came
flocking in. From Georgia appeared
the Tory Colonel, Thomas Browne
-the tar and feathers given him
by the Liberty Boys still sticking
to his skin, and not long after fol-
lowed Daniel McGirth once as
stout-hearted a Liberty Boy as any
in the South, then victim of official
wrong, and so deserter to the King's
cause. Still another accession was
the valorous Scotchman, Rory
McIntosh, captain of His Majesty's
Highlanders, who, attended gener-
ally by his pipers, paraded the nar-
row streets of St. Augustine,
breathing out threatening and
slaughter against the rebels. The
Scopholites, a turbulent and lawless
band, 60.0 strong, marched down
from the back-country of North
Carolina, plundering, burning and
laying waste all in their path
through Georgia.
With such elements St. Augus-
tine was not long contented with
passive loyalty and as the center of
military operations against the
Southern colonies and as the depot
from which arms were furnished to
the allies of Great Britain, this city
soon attracted the attention of the
Patriot leaders and repeated cam-
paigns were planned for its over-
While contending with her Amer-
(Continued on Page B-14.)

War Between

States Over;..

Peace Reigns
St. Augustine, Fla., April 19,
1865.-The War Between the States
has ended. Although no major bat-
tles were waged in Florida, our
state supplied the Confederacy with
beef, corn, cotton, salt, and leather.
There has been many a tense mo-
ment when the citizens of this town
waited to know if our ships, sailing
without lights in the deepest night,
had been able to slip through the
blockade to carry cotton to Europe
in order to get money for the much-
needed military supplies and ammu-
nitions for the Confederate army.
.It will be recalled that on March
11, 1862, the Union forces threat-
ened to shell St. Augustine and the
fort was surrendered. At first the
naval commandant, Rodgers,
thought that a majority of the in-
habitants might be won over to the
Northern cause, but his compla-
'cency was upset when he found the
flagpole at the fort cut down and
that it had been done by women of
the town. "They seem to mistake
treason for courage," he reported
For the rest of the war, the city
has remained under control of Fed-
eral forces. The fort has been re-
paired, earthworks strengthened
and barracks built.
However, our Confederate forces,
under General Dickinson have pa-
trolled the countryside and at one
time captured a party of Union of-
ficers who had ventured out for a
dance and it is said at another time
that Dickinson, disguised as a
Union officer, came boldly through
our ancient winding streets.

Seminole War

Ended After

Weary Years

Proved Heavy Drain in
Men and Millions
of Nation

St. Augustine, Fla., 1843.-The
Seminole War has ended after seven
years of most extraordinary war-
fare, the employment of twenty
thousand volunteers, the expendi-
ture of forty millions of dollars and
the sacrifice of two thousand lives.
In January, 1836, the stoutest
hearts in St. Augustine were
thrown into trepidation by porten-
tous signs of Indian revolt. By
day, above the pines in the west
we saw great columns of smoke,
rolling up from fired plantations
and at midnight the heavens were
lurid, with the glare of blazing
homes. Terrified refugees came
flocking in from the country and
their stories of Indian outrages
added to the general alarm.
So long as the Spaniards ruled
Florida, the Seminoles enjoyed un-
disputed possession of its fairest
lands. But when the United States
took possession of the territory, the
Indian's peaceful life was rudely
interrupted. Bitter conflicts en-
sued until at length, provoked be-
yond endurance, the savages took
to the warpath. Then the United
States Government with a a treas-
ury and army at its command set
about the task of driving out of
Florida this paltry remnant of a
savage race, but they had not
counted on a conflict waged against
a mysterious, unseen foe, for Na-
ture had provided for the protec-
tion of the Indian. In the impene-
trable fastnesses of the swamps and
Everglades, the Seminole estab-
lished his powder magazines, cul-
tivated his fields and found a secure
retreat for his wives and little
ones. From there, in bands of ten
and twenty, the warriors sallied
out. The Indian came, none knew
from where. A yell, a deadly
whizz, the flash of a scalping knife,
and he was gone. To follow often-
times was useless. In the, mazes
of the trackless wilderness of Flor-
ida the savage was at home, and
t white man at a tremendous dis-
Finally after years of terror, the
war has been ended by capturing
Coacoochee, after which he was
given the bitter choice of either
within forty days bringing.the peo-
ple of his tribe in to surrender
(Continued on Page B-14.)

Flagler Era Is

Launched Here

With Luxury

Magnificent Hotels Are
Opened in Old St.


New and Glamorous
Story Unfolded in
Historic City

St. Augustine, Fla., January 9,
1888. With the opening here of
the magnificent Hotel Ponce de
Leon and the running of the first
all-through vestibule train from
New York to St. Augustine, reduc-
ing 90 hours travelling time to 30,
St. Augustine is launched on a new
era as one of the most magnificent
resort towns in these United States.
Prominent men and their families
from all parts of the country have
come to Florida for this first time
to be present on this auspicious oc-
casion, for at last, through the ef-
forts of Henry M. Flagler, Florida
is no longer a "frontier" State but
promises to be the new-found play-
land of America.
Today Mr. Flagler himself greet-
ed each guest at the door of his
palatial hotel and conducted them
personally to sign their names on
the register, the-pages of which are
the first in the new and glamorous
story of St. Augustine. It was a
glorious sight, the women in their
flowing colorful gowns, their great
plumed hats, laughing and chatting
by the sides of the elegant men
strolling through the beautiful gar-
dens. George M. Pullman, of Chi-
cago, of the Pullman Car Company
was among this excited throng as
was, General Horace Porter, Henry
Dexter, President of the American
News Company, with his wife; Mr.
and Mrs. Eugene Pitou and family)
Mr. James L. Hutchinson, P. T.
Barnum's partner; Allen Forman,
Editor of the Journalist; Hamilton
Disston, with a large party from
Philalelphia; P. L. Lorillard, Jr,
of the Lorillard Tobacco Company
and son pf Pierre Lorillard, found-
er of Tuxedo Park; M. C. Bouvier,
Frank Thompson, vice-president of
the Pennsylvania Railroad, and
many others.
Henry M. Flagler, one of the
founders of the Standard Oil Com-
pany, vacationed in St. Augustine
in 1883. Only 53 years old, he had
accumulated a vast fortune and had
decided to retire, but the unusual
beauty of this oldest city gave him
a new interest which grew so strong
that he soon decided that St. Au.'
gustine had such possibilities as a
tourist and health resort that only
limited accommodations in the
town and the inadequacy of the
railroad had retarded its develop-
ment as such. And now five years
later we are seeing the glorious.
results Mf the imagination and ef-
forts of this great man who At last
has opened up our great State for
'a glorious future.

Sea Rovers Of

Davis Attack

St. Augustin

Buccaneer Depredations
Carry Out Tales of

St. Augustine, Fla., 1668.-That
dreaded scourge of the high seas,
the boucaniers buccaneerss) have
attacked our town. Long have we
heard tales of these pirates of the
seas and have steeled ourselves'
against such an outrage. Little
good, did it do for Spain to land
her troops on the island of 'His-
paniola and wage a war of exter-
mination upon its wild cattle hop-
ing to thereby eliminate the bou-
caniers, whose subsistence was
these cattle and who even took their
name from the manner or prepar-
ing the meat which was after Carib
fashion, being smoked or "boucan-
ed" (from the native word "lou-
can"). But now their means of
subsistence gone, the boucaniers
have exchanged one savage occu-
pation for another, and from seek-
ing food, have turned to seek re-
venge; from the forests they have
taken to the sea; and from hunting
wild bulls, they have turned to
hunting Spaniards.
It is believed that a Frenchman
who was surgeon in St. Augustine
for two years and who was mis-
treated, so he.' says, by our Gover-
nor, is involved. He left St. Au-
gustine and meeting Captain John
Davis, the leader of these pirates,
told him how easy it was to gain
entry to the St. Augustine harbour.
And so today, the sentinel in the
watch tower having seen to the
south a Boucanier sail, fired the
alarm gun, and hoisted the signal
flag, whereupon most of the men
fled to the woods with their fam-
ilies. The Governor, o1eifer, fled
to the Fort where ther'.were only
33 men. He rallied 37 more and
they all fought bravely for one and
one-half hours, and though there
were so few, Davis was unable to
.(Continued on Page B-14.)




Railroad History

Should Be Carefully


100 Years Of

Rail History

Is Rehearsed

In 1877 Horse-Car Line
Ran Into This Old-
est City


Other Primitive Means f
Transport Preceded
Flagler Regime

By Arthur L. Marsh
Sixty years ago, railroad faci'i-
ties in Northern Florida were limit-
ed. In 1877 there was only a
"horse-car" railroad into St..Augus-
tine, the St. Johns Railway. Into
Jacksonville, there was only one
railroad, the Florida Central. One
ran from a landing on the St. Johns
River to the oldest town; the other
ran from Jacksonville to Lake City,
where it connected with the Jack-
sonville, Pensacola, and Mobile Rail-
road, which terminated at Chatta-
hoochee. Both lines wer, in miser-
able condition, and a trip over them
was any thing but pleasant. The
"getting off" place in St. Augustine
was, at that time, near where the
Ponce de Leon Hotel now stands,
- while the terminal at Jacksonville
was near the foot of Hogan Street.
To reach Savannah from the oldest
town required twenty-four hours to
get as far as Jacksonville, then an
additional fifteen hours to reach
Savannah. The trip to Lake City
required six hours from Jackson-
ville. To reach St. Augustine, one
landed at Tocoi, "thence by train."
Prior to 1877, a "tram-car", pulled
by a mule, had been the only mode
of transportation, but the track had
been improved by this date and soon
a small steam locomotive and pas-
senger car replaced the "mule-car".
Trains to New York went to Live
Oak, to Dupont, Ga., then on to
Savannah, Charleston, Florence,
and Wilmington. It was necessary
for the coach passengers to change
trains, and the railroads had to
maintain costly car huists and extra
sets of trucks and wheels to trans-
fer the cars from one gauge to an-
other. Wood-burning locomotives
pulled small, wooden coaches, with
open platforms and without the lux-
urious conveniences.
It may be said that the railroads
in Florida, especially the Northeast
section of the State, may be divided
into three periods.
First, we had the mule, horse, or
tram-car period. Next, we had the
wood-burners, and next the present
day equipment with the monster
coal and oil burners. "Pioneer rail-
roads" were first laid in Western
Florida between the years 1832 and
1834, and those were the days when
the trains consisted of a dinkey
engine, with a couple of combina-
tion cars. The first road was built
to connect the ports of St. Marks
and St. Joseph on the Gulf. The
Seminole Indian War and the panic
of 1837 caused the abandonment of
another road that was to have been
built from Jacksonvilli to Talla-
hassee. In 1858, the St. Johns road
had been chartered, and partly built.
The Union troops destroyed it dur-
ing the War. Also during the War,
the railroads in North Georgia
played their part in transporting
troops for the Confederacy, and rec-
ords indicate that the roads in the
Southeast have also made history,
because if it had not been for the
railroads, perhaps, progress in the
South would not be so far advanced.
Meantime the Northern States
had advanced considerably with
their railroad construction, and
were running trains long before a
locomotive reached the Southern
territory. In 1832 the Central of
Georgia was organized, and the first
rail was tamped down in Savannah,
December 15, 1835. During 1831, in
South Carolina, an engine hauled a
tin of cars over a six-mile stretch.
The true spirit of the railroads
began after the Civil War. They
had tracks relaid, road beds re-
built, and equipment repaired. The
early railroads into Florida were
the real "pioneers." Next came the
settlers, and so the roads began to
extend in all directions. Small
steamboats ran the inside route to
Savannah, and pre-war side-wheel
ocean steamships ran to Savannah
and Charleston. All traffic to points
south was with river steamers, then
the small narrow gauge railroads
would carry the settlers into the
interior. There were steamboat
lines to Green Cove Springs, Palat-
ka, Crescent City, Enterprise, and
Mellonville on Lake Monroe. The
first boats stopping at Sanford in
1877. From Enterprise, freight was
carried in wagons to Daytona,
New Smyrna and Titusville and
other points. There were lines run-
ning up the Ocklawaha to Silver
Springs and Leesburg. They used
wheelbarrow boats, so called be-
cause the narrow and crooked chan-
nel which they traveled made it
necessary to have the wheel-offset
in the stern. Today, the river banks
and territory adjacent to the St.
Johns River have played part in
Developments of the Railroads in
Northeast Florida
The period of the railroads up to
1880 will never be forgotten. But
perhaps the most appealing parts
of the railroads relate to that
period from 1880 to 1898, or up to
the Spanish-American War. From
1880, and subsequent years, the rail-
road into St. Augustine was greatly
improved. A larger type of motive
power was used, and perhaps a
larger or more comfortable style of
coach came into use. The mule
and horse-cars had been abandoned

for better.transportatio. facilities.
The topA-bturning engines, al-
though riLWsomewhat crude, were
making their way towards the Old-
est City in the United States. Many
of the early settlers coming to St.
Augustine tell how that train ser-
vice had improved, and of less dis-


Florida's Great Benefactor

I g

More than 50 years ago Henry Morrison Flagler came to St. Augustine, and showed to the people
new way of life and living. His work here launched a tremendous period of development and expansion
that was to extend over the entire state. In any preservation and restoration program, the memory
Mr. Flagler's tremendous work must be cherished, and never lost sight of.

comforts in traveling. The road
had been reconstructed and an
epidemic of intensive railway con-
struction had invaded the territory.
A person did not have to be bumped
and jerked into the Oldest City. The
little "coffee grinder" had been re-
placed, and St. Augustine had be-
gun to grow.
Fortunately, for Northern Flor-
ida and the East Coast, Henry M.
Flagler began to develop the ter-
ritory, and the early railroads soon
entered into another period.
St. Johns Railway
In 1881, the President's office of
the St. Johns Railway was located
in Jacksonville. Richard McLangh-
lin was president, William Astor
and J. F. D. Lanier, New York, and
John Westcott and J. M. Hallowes
were directors. Henry Gaillard was
general freight and ticket agent up
to May, 1880. The headquarters of
the auditor was Tocoi. Several
forms of tickets were issued by the
St. Johns Railway in 1886, cover-
ing four points on the St. Johns
River. The most interesting ticket
issued covers a "special limited
ticket" for one first-class passage
from St. Augustine to Orange Park,
1-agnolia, Green Cove Springs and
Palatka, for account of the Jack-
sonville, Tampa and Key West Rail-
way. Another ticket read from St.
Augustine to West Tocoi, for a
"special limited passage", and was
printed under the name of the Saint
Johns Railway of Florida, dated
March 14, 1886. F. M. Clark was
general ticket agent at that time.
St. Augustine's First Railroad
Time Table
On December 1, 1883, a narrow
gauge line operated into St. Augus-
tine from the south side of the St.
Johns River. This railroad was
called the Jacksonville, St. Augus-
tine and Halifax River Railway.
This road was opened fcr commer-
cial service on June 28, 1883, and
was advertised in 1884 as the "St.
Augustine Route". Offices were in
Jacksonville. W. Jerome Green was
president, W. L. Crawford was
treasurer and general manager, and
G. D. Ackerly was general pas-
senger agent. A new winter time
table, dated October 29, 1883,
showed seven stations or stops be-
tween St. Augustine and Jackson-
Mr. Flagler Purchases Old Narrow
Gauge Railroad
It was in May of 1886 that Mr.
Flagler purchased the Jacksonville,
St. Augustine and Halifax River
Railroad, and in 1888, the road be-
tween St. Augustine and Palatka on

the east side of the St. Johns River,
was known as the St. Augustine
and Palatka Railroad. There was
a branch to Tocoi, on the St. Johns,
a distance of 12 miles, known as the
St. Johns Railroad, At this time
additional narrow gauge roads were
acquired by Mr. Flagler, and with
the construction of numerous short
stretches of roads at East Palatka
and St. Augustine, were later con-
verted into standard gauge lines and
consolidated into the "East Coast
Lines". Shortly after Mr. Flagler
purchased the St. Johns Railway, a
part of the track was abandoned,
leaving a portion between Tocoi
Junction and St. Augustine to be
used as the railroad running into St.
Augustine from the west.
Old Depot Located on Riberia Street
According to some of the old resi-
dents who were living in the vicinity
of Orange Street, the original depot
for St. Augustine was located on
what was then called Woodall
Street, now called Riberia, and was
located between Orange Street and
Grove Avenue, at a point approxi-
mately 200 ft. north of the old moat,
on the east side of the street. Upon
completion of the new Union Depot
on Malaga Street, which is the
present depot for St. Augustine, the
old depot site on Woodall Street
was abandoned, and the building
used at that time was moved across
the street, and is now owned by a
local resident.
New Union Depot
The new Union Depot as it was
known, was built by Mr. Flagler, in
the late 80's, and was the depot used


by all the roads running into St.
Augustine. This depot was used by
four small railroads, the Jackson-
ville, St. Augustine and Halifax
Railway, which had now been made
standard gauge, the St. Augustine
and North Beach Railway, the St.
Johns Railway, and the St. Augus-
tine and Palatka Railway. The
most patronized road at this time
was the St. Augustine and North
Beach Railway which ran to North
Beach, called in later years the
"Original North Beach". It was
advertised as the beach of suburban
residences, with charming locations
for winter and, summer homes. It
had low taxes, good artesian and
surface-well water, and had rapid
and easy access to St. Augustine by
all rail, or by water. The draw-
bridge over which the train ran, was
listed as being exactly four miles
north of the Post Office.
Railroad Transportation Has
Railroad transportation has cer-
tainly changed in the past fifty
years. When one sees a modern
streamlined string of rolling
palaces streaming through the
woods, making between sixty and
seventy miles an hour and rolling
as smoothly as if on rubber, his
mind reverts back to the oId fash-
ioned wood burners with bulging
smoke stacks that used to clatter
along the rails at thirty and forty
miles per hour, stopping every fifty
miles or so to "wood up" at some
rack beside the track. "Wooding
Up" those days was a job dreaded
by all hands of the train crew

When in St. Augustine
Visit the Famous

A Reproduction of the World Famous
Alhambra of Granada Spain

A gem indeed is the Villa Zorayda, worthy of a visit,
and a place where one may while away hours of interest,
in contemplation of the Old World styles and customs.
Interesting guides will make your visit one to be remem-
bered always.

Dennis Fotinos, Proprietor
Cathedral Street
Known Everywhere for the Excellence of our
"Cooked to The King's Taste"

originall Road

Into City Was

Narrow Gauge






tcept the conductor. Brakemen,
remen, and even the baggage
aster at times, aided in pitching
itered knots" into the tender and
he firemen who had to feed the
'ry maw of the engine with fat
ood had no soft snap. Those old
ood racks were great aids to farm-
rs who picked up fat wood on t-heir
rms and carted it to the rackssl,
*ceiving about six dollars a cord
r it.

Augustine and Palatka was "in very Train Reac
bad condition, the embankments Train Rea
very narrow and the road poorly
ditched. Some portions requiring T% n
at least forty per cent of new ties to a t 1 *
make it safe."
By 1889 the entire road bed be- U it O- ven
tween St. Augustine and Palatka HllStry Ulven
had been reconstructed for a dis-
tance of 25 miles, embankments
widened to fifteen feet and thor- Later Became Part of
oughly ditched. The San Sebastian
bridge was filled in for a distance of Flagler Interests on
about 500 feet. Also 450 feet of
the Deep Creek trestle was filled East Coast


Entire Road Bed From
Here to Palatka

Some very interesting facts on
early railroads in the vicinity of St.
Augustine recently found while
searching for historical data are
part of a report on the physical
condition of the old Jacksonville, St.
-'.ugustine and Halifax River Rail-
way that operated between Jackson-
ville and St. Aagustme prior to
1889. The report states that "on
February 3,41889, the gauge of this
r-ilroad formerly three feet was
made standard". This necessitated
that the "entire thirty-six miles" of
narrow gauge road which was
operated at that time, "be taken up
and stored-the material consist-
ing of light steel, fish plates, bolts,
and spikes".
"At St. Augustine the main track
was extended from Orange Street
Depot to the New Union Depot, a
distance of one-fourth of a mile. At
the St. Augustine Passenger Depot,
a platform was laid between the
tracks, thirty feet wide and five
hundred and twenty-five feet long.
Three wells for water supply at
New Augustine were sunk and
boxed, each sixteen by sixteen and
twelve feet deep. Depots were built
at Bowden, South Jacksonville and
In New Augustine, "the yard
across the river"-consisted of six
sidings, "all laid with 30-pound
rails." The new and old yards to-
gether, at St. Augustine, consisted
of eighteen sidings, while at Jack-
sonville there was 5,660 feet of 60-
pound and 1,390 feet of 40-pound
The report further states that
when acquired the road between St.

interesting Facts
Found in Old Rail








St. Augustine is the headquarters, summer and winter, of a diversified group of
tourists seeking both entertainment and relaxation. With a colorful background
of early history the city offers many "different" spots for the sightseer Our
beaches are among the finest for bathing and driving. Golf, tennis, boating,
fishing, horseback riding, and other sports can be had for your enjoyment.

ALSO A Delightful Place to Make Your Home..
This interesting city has become the permanent home of many residents of other
cities and states who enjoy and appreciate the economical living conditions here,
the healthy climate, and the pleasant friendship of our people. We now have listed
a number of real bargains in homes and homesites which can be purchased on a
convenient payment plan.



L. Barnes & Son

ealtors-Insurors Established 1895




s__ II

to standard gauge and had com-
pleted the transition by Monday
.morning so that the schedules were
not interrupted, but that a narrow
gauge train left Daytona Saturday
night and a standard gauge train
arrived in town early Monday. Mr.
Spencer relates that every other
spike had been pulled, so that the
change was merely a matter of hav-'-,
ing ample crews to hurriedly com-
plete the work." The Daytona paper
goes on to say:
"Through trains from Daytona to
St. Augustine were first operated
after the standard gauge change in
1890. Mr. White operated the road
between Daytona and Palatka until
1889 when it was sold to the Jack-
sonville, Tampa and Key West Rail-'
way, and shortly thereafter to the
interests controlled by Mr. Flagler. -
Mr. Flagler had previously acquired ,-
ownership of the narrow gauge
road from South Jacksonville to St.
Augustine as well as a 60-inch
gauge-railroad from St. Augustine
to a point on the St. Johns River
north of Palatka. Mr. Howard and
Mr. Spencer remained with the
Flagler interests until the fall of
"Mr. Spencer relates a number of
interesting human experiences. He
recalls that during the yellow fever \
epidemic at Jacksonville in 1888, the
town council of Daytona passed an-
ordinance prohibiting the train
from coming into Daytona if .i
passed through Ormond at a speed
slower than three miles an hour.
"He also recollects an instance
when Mrs. U. J. White desired to
give a party at the Hotel Ormond'.
She sent for Mr. Spencer, asked him
to gather all the young people he
could find, and bring them to the
Ormond Hotel on a special train. He
sent out two runners, and by 8'
o'clock that evening had gathered
together about 100 couples, and the
train departed over the five miles of
track to Ormond. They danced,
until 11 o'clock, when a rule of the
hotel required lights to be put ouJt
at that hour. The young
were not in a mood to go to beI
they returned in the train to Day-'
tona, routed from bed Mrs. Fanni
M. Davidson (mother of Mrs. Frant'
W. Pope, and a musician of her
day), gathered at Jackson's Hall,
and danced until daylight.
"Mr. Howard relates that o -
tickets were sold in the early &9
until after an agency was establish-
ed' There was not very much paper .
money at that time, and Condiuctor*
Howard was obliged to carry a con-
siderable number of silver "cart-
wheels" for change in collecting '
fares. The railfare from Palatka
to Daytona Beach was then $2.50. -
"Both Mr. Spencer and Mr.
Howard, were sufficiently familiar
with driving a locomotive to take
charge of one in an emergency when
necessary. Once Mr. Howard
'pulled' a Negro Sunday excursion
from Daytona to Palatka, and re-
turn; he allowed the fireman to pull i
out of the yard while he collected '
the fares, and then climbed over the
tender and made the run."

The bridges between Jacksonville
and St. Augustine were in a very
bad condition and "all the timber
entirely too light for locomotives".
Few of the bridges "had pile
foundations", the majority of the
stringers resting on "mu' sills".
During the year 1889, all of the
trestles and water ways, 39 in num-
ber had been rebuilt and bulk-
headed, and now admitted, "the
p: -sing of the heaviest engines".
Early Cars Used On
Florida Road Built
At Busy Fernandina

The early passenger and freight
cars used on the Florida Central
and Peninsular Railroad were built
in Fernandina, we are told. The
former were beautifully finished in-
side in native woods, natural colors
--curly pine, cedar, sweet gum, red
bay, etc.
There were no water coolers
those days, but once in a while a
man came along with a sort of port-
able tank, carried on the arm like
a basket, and a glass or two, for
the thirsty ones. The water was of
the same temperature as the atmos-
phere, but it was as wet as any,
and that sufficed. The track was
very rough, the more so because
the fishplatess" did not allow of
suspended joints, but had to be on
ties. For that reason the springs
had to be kept from breaking by
means of solid rubber cylinders,
about 10 inches high and the same
in diameter: one was put inside of
each eliptical spring. But soon
these shock absorbers lost their
elasticity, became packed and as
hard as wood, which did not make
riding any easier. The absence of
brakes on the freight cars-the
only ones being on the engine and
passenger cars-made it difficult to
stop trains at the proper places.
They often went by stations and
had to back up. Firing a wood-
burner was a more artistic job than
cracked up to be. The sticks were
not shoved in end foremost. They
were thrown so that their middles
hit the lower edge of the firebox
door, which gave them a swinging,
forward motion, piling them cross-
wise to promote burning. A skilled
old fireman could cause the sticks
to come into any part of the fire-
box he wanted to.

The Daytona Beach Observer,
edited by T. E. Fitzgerald, on Janu-
ary 4th, 1936, issued an historical
edition which devoted a great deal
of space to the advent of the first
train that ran into Daytona Decem-
ber 2, 1887. This was the St. Johns
and Halifax River Railroad.
In this connection the Observer
"There still resides in Jackson-
ville Myron L. Howard, the con-
ductor of the first passenger train
to enter Daytona and Edwar4 S.
Spencer, who was at the time su-
perintendent of the railroad. Mr.
Howard, now 68, is in the real estate
business, while Mr. Spencer, five
years his senior, is engaged in the
building supply business."
The railroad was built to the To-
moka River in 1886, and passengers
were transferred by hack, and
ferried across the river, as they
were when Dupont was the southern
terminus, and brought to Ormond
and Daytona. U. J. White built the
railroad, which was financed by a
Wall Street operator, "Deacon" S.
V. White, no relation to the builder.
Louis G. Willaume, a resident of
St. Augustine for many years, was
engineer of that first train which
ran into Daytona.
It is interesting to note that the
schedule from Palatka to Daytona
was three hours, but in the winter
a fast train was inaugurated with
a schedule of two hours for the 52
It is evident that youth had its
day then, for Mr. Howard as con-
ductor, who brought the first train
to Daytona, was only 17 years old,
the youngest passenger conductor
in the United States south of Wash-
ington, and east of the Mississippi
River, while Mr. Spencer as su-
perintendent at that time was but
The Observer says that Mr. Spen-
cer relates, shortly after Henry M.
Flagler acquired control of the road
in 1889, the gauge was changed
from 36-inch to standard.
The method in which the change
was effected might be of interest.
The Daytona Beach paper says:
"Mr. Howard as conductor and Jim
Brennan as engineer came into Day-
tona one Saturday evening, im-
mediately picked up all narrow
gauge rolling stock from the vari-
ous sidings, and took it to Palatka.
As they passed northward in the
night, ,rews were all along ,the
track ready to change from narrow




*I ,

~ra~et~ ~

SUNDAY, JULY 4, 1937

Many Specimens

Of Timetables

Are Discovered

Old Railroad Literature
Interesting to Many
Among the files in the office of
J. T. Van Campen, advertising
manager of the Florida East Coast
Railway, there was located recently
many specimens of railroad time-
tables, folders and flyers that date
back to the early days of Florida
railroading. Probably many of the
readers of this paper would recall
those days after seeing some of
these old specimens, and would be
glad to tell us more about the rail-
roads concerning the early days.
The oldest flyer, dated, Sunday,
-pril 6, 1884, and issued by the
-' Jacksonville, Tampa and Key West
Railway, announces "Another
Cheap Excursion to St. Augustine
and Palatka," the "Gem City"
Route. Fare for the round trip only
one dollar. M. R. Moran, Gen. Pass.
Agent. Another advertises a J. T.
& K. W. Ry. Excursion for Sunday,
June 14, 1885. Only 50c to Green
Cove Springs or Tolulu Spring and
return. $1.00 for the round trip to
St. Augustine or Palatka and re-
turn. A very interesting flyer
issued by the St. Augustine, Jack-
sonville, and Halifax River Ry., an-
nounces an Excursion, round trip
between Jacksonville and St. Au-
gustine for $1.00. Also a round
trip to Palatka and return for $1.00.
The Palatka train will start from
The Florida Southern Ry. Station.
iW. L. Crawford, Supt. G. D. Ack-
erly, Gen. Pass. Agent.
Another reads: A "New Route"
from Jacksonville via St. Augustine,
Ormond, Daytona, New Smyrna and
Titusaville reading, "The St. Augus-
tine Rout.! o your best passport to
All Resorts in the state. If you
Hunt, Fish, Swim, or Sail, make no
mistake, but remember that the J.
St. A. & H. R. Ry. leads to all points
where such delight abounds. Apply
to local agents of J. St. A. & H. R.
Ry, or to Pursers of the Indian
River Steamboat Co.
Among the flyers is one dated
May 1, 1889, advertising a "May
Day Excursion" to St. Augustine,
sponsored by the Presbyterian Sun-
day School. Train left Palatka,
Florida-Southern Depot at 8:45 a.
m. and arrived at St. Augustine
10:80 a. m. On this flyer was a
noted letter from Mr. H. M. Flag-
offering to do all in his power
to make the excursion a success.

Resident Tells

Good Story Of

His Collection

nssts of Rail Folder-
0era Timetables, and

Specimen of Timetable Over 50 Years Ago

This interesting example of an
gustine and Halifax Railway fr.
one traces the progress of transpi

Rail Comfort
Today Is Based
On Pioneering
Enjoyment of modern facilities is
one of the compensations of living
in the present age.
But the people of today would be
neglectful and unappreciative in-
deed if they failed to cherish the
memory of the past, and recall with
real delight the things on which
the conveniences of the present are
based. That is why we feel that
Florida railroad pioneering should
be made a matter of record, and all
data carefully preserved. That
seems to be very much a part of the
preservation and restoration pro-
gram on which St. Augustine now is
launched, with old records being
searched for information, and data
of other days being assembled.
The Record is appreciative of the
assistance given by J. Tyler Van
Campen and A. L. Marsh of the
Florida East Coast Railway in as-
sembling the stories carried in this
section of the Restoration edition.
Because of the interest taken by
them, this particular issue of the
pa.Pr"wilie placed in the hands of

Sqtes Pailroad men the country over.
'As a result of his hobby for4 ...tnterest of the passengers, even the
leting railroad data and Inateri, negro deck hands collected at night
'Arthur L. Marsh, an employs of the to sing their quaint weird songs and
Florida East Coast Railway, has a lullabies for the entertainment of
decidedly unusual display of rail- the tourists aboard.
road timetables folders, posters, "After the War, the Federal gun-
tickets, passes, etc. He tells the boats swept the St. Johns clear of
Record the tory of his collection as steamboats. The Robert Lear was
Follows: the first boat to Enterprise. The
fFor many years I have been sav- orange trees set out after the War
Fg or collecting old maps of St. Au- on the estates up the river had come
Instine and the northeast section of into full bearing, and as there were
lorida, especially old maps con- no railroads south of Jacksonville,
morning the early means of trans- this was a lucrative business for the
portation to the Oldest City. It's river boats.
really amazing the valuable old ma- "In the early days the steamboats
trial that I have accumulated, just burned light wood knots for fuel,
small articles, such as old railroad and a great volume of dense black
photographs, railroad passes, and a smoke was emitted from the stacks.
few old timetables. My collection Some idle person was generally on
has grown immensely within the the lookout, and when the smoke
past ten years. I have some old rail- of a steamer was seen, he would
road tickets used on the St. Johns start the cry, 'Steamboat, Steam-
Ry., between Tocoi and St. Augus- boat, coming round the point' when
tine back in 1886, an old timetable the inhabitants would collect at the
dated 1883, showing the schedule wharf, to hear the latest news. The
between Jacksonville and the Old- arrival of a steamer in those days
est City; an annual pass, dated was an event of much importance."
1894, issued by the Jacksonville, St.
Augustine and Indian River Ry. |
Co., and signed by Mr. Flagler. Also I
an annual pass dated 1885, and
issued by the South Florida R. R.
Co., signed by J. E. Ingraham,
"Perhaps my most important
relic is an original (dated Decem-
ber, 1884) folder, issued by the
Jacksonville, St. Augustine and
Halifax Ry., advertising 'The St.
Augustine Route', the 'New Short
Air Line' to St. Augustine. From
Jacksonville the fare one way was
$1.75 and round trip $3.00. Three
trains each way a day were oper-
ated over the route. According to
a map appearing on the back of
the folder, the trains ran only to
St. Augustine, with connections
with the Atlantic Coast Steamship
Co., Steamer 'Greenwich,' Captain
Fulford, sailing for New Smyrna
on Mondays, Wednesdays and
"Many of the reminiscences of
the older citizens relate to the man-
ner in which St. Augustine was ap-
checking some of my old maps, I T he Eli
find that prior to 1883, the only
means of travel to the Oldest City
was by boat down the St. Johns
River, to Tocoi, often referred to as
the romance of the St. Johns. The
spirit of rivalry among some
of the steamboat lines developed a A
number of passenger boats the
equal of those anywhere in the
United States. The John Sylvester S
and Sylvan Glen were fast boats be-
longing to different lines, and their
schedule to Palatka was the same R
so each round trip was a race. The
passengers entered into these races
with the greatest enthusiasm, and
accounts of these exciting incidents,
sometimes from the pen of nation-
ally prominent people, often ap-
pea-'ed in the Northern press. We l i itist n
read 'Hundreds of people go to the
wharves to see the steamboats off.
.Strains of music fill the air and all
in hurry and bustle. Just as the
minute hand of the clocks reach the
hour of departure, they are off; the,
mulic grows fainter and fainter as
it recedes, and the crowds return to'
the fashionable promenade to as-
semble the next day.'
"Everything was done in the

old railroad timetable covering the route of the Jacksonville, St. Au-
om Jacksonville to St. Augustine in 1883 is of general interest, as
ortation in this vicinity.

Ocklawaha River Craft
Were Strangely Built;
Names Of Boats Given

The Ocklawaha River boats which
served Florida tourists in early
days were strange craft built ex-
pressly for navigation on the Ockla-
waha River. They were propelled
by a small recessed wheel built in
the stern to protect it from snags,
and it is probable that no such con-
struction was used anywhere else
in the world. Some of the boats
were the "Tuskawilla", "Hiawatla",
"Osceola", "Alligator" and "Silver
With the building of the railroads
south of Jacksonville, the passenger
boats one by one were sent away to
other waters. The first steamer to
ply the waters of the St. Johns
River and the first in Florida was
the "George Washington" in 1830.
In 1834 the steamer "Florida" was
running more or less regularly be-
tween Savannah and Picolata on the
St. Johns. The Darlington came in
1852, and up to the time of the War
was the regular boat between Jack-
sonville and Enterprise. The
Hattie Brock was captured far up
the river by'a Federal gunboat in
1864-she was confiscated and sold
in 1866. The William Gaston was
taken off her run in 1854, and was
used as a river boat. She towed
many rafts up and down the river,
and it was a peculiarity of her cap-
tain as soon as he rounded the point,
-which was usually late at night, to
begin to sound his whistle and keep
it blowing until he had reached his
landing, to the great annoyance of
the midnight sleepers.
Thirty-one trades were represent-
ed in the colonists that came with
Menendez and settled St. Augustine.


Of Olden Days

Is Discussed

Long-Time Residents Re-
call Primitive Ways
and Means


Plans Made To
Place Flagler
Statue In 1915
Announcement was made in the
Record of July 22, 1915, of plans
to erect in Railroad Park a statue
of Henry Morrison Flagler, mil-
lionaire developer of Florida's
east coast. The statue is there
and is always a center of atten-
tion for people visiting the park.
The story says "the statue is a
splendid, bronze life-size figure,
Said is to be erected by the Flagler
System officials." The further
information given reads thus:
"The statue will face south to-
ward the walk leading across the
park from the exit to the station
"The base will be of concrete
five feet in diameter, and two feet
and seven inches in height. Above
this will rise three concrete steps
each nine and one-half inches
high, imd converging toward the
center. Next comes a beautiful
pedestal of fine Italian marble,
and upon this, which is three feet
and three and one-half inches in
height, will stand the bronze
figure. It is about six feet, eight
inches, being a little more than
life size, as Mr. Flagler was about
six feet in height. The bronze is
a splendid work of art, the fea-
tures of the face being most na-
The statue was formally dedi-
cated in the next January.
The last funeral from the old
Cathedral of St. Augustine before
the fire of 1887 is said to have been
that of Mrs. Sayers, a daughter of
Mark Manucy, brother of John

22 Cathedral Place
Tasty Home-Cooked Meals-The Best You Ever Tasted
Try Our Fried Shrimp

Here are some recollections of
early transportation in the vicinity
of St. Augustine, as recounted by
some of this city's old residents,
and gathered together by A. L.
Marsh: -
A. M. Taylor: "There was no di-
rect railroad to St. Augustine in
those days. You took a boat at
Jacksonville, went to Tocoi on the
St. Johns River and then got on the
little narrow gauge road for St.
Augustine. We left Jacksonville
at 9 a. m. and arrived at St. Au-
gustine at 5:30 p. m. It was on one
of those 'quick trips' that I saw
blind mosquitoes for the first time.
Blind mosquitoes do not bite, they
just sing and crawl all over, you.
I was sitting under a tree waiting
for the mail boat to arrive before
getting on the dinkey train when
a swarm of'blind mosquitoes cov-
ered me all over. I kept my mouth
shut and breathed out."
Mrs.'E. F. Joyce: "Mrs. Joyce
says that she and her husband were
about a week making the trip south
by train to Jacksonville. From
there they came by boat to Tocoi,
where they boarded the mule train
which ran from Tocoi to the west-
ern edge of St. Augustine. The trip
by mule train lasted four or five
hours. The station at that time was
near where the Ponce de Leon now
stands. Mrs. Joyce says that many
times the mules pulling the cars
would lie down and the drivers
would have a hard time to get them
up and moving again."
W. A. Sherman: "I came in the
years 1882-83, arriving at Tocoi,
and from there across by means of
the funny little railroad."
The late T. Julius Speissegger:
"I recall when the first train, com-
posed of an engine and two passen-
ger cars, chugged into St. Augus-
tine and how the entire town flocked
to the station to observe the novel
Victoriano Capo: "Railroads were
not in existence here when he was
a youngman, Mr. Capo reminded
his listener, pointing out that mail
and passengers were transported
by boat down the St. Johns River to
Picolata Landing, coming to St.
Augustine from there by stage
coach. At that time St. Augustine
numbered about 600 people," he
said. Mr. Capo stated "that when
the first narrow gauge railroad was
put through to this city the depot
was located at what is now Daven-
port Park. Later, he added, when
Mr. Flagler bought the road, he
filled in and reclaimed all the
marshy land where the present rail-
road offices are located and moved
the station to a spot near where
Orange and Malaga Streets inter-
H. .Hernandez: "Starting at
the present location of Riberia
Street there was a causeway lead-


ing across a stretch of marshland
and a bridge across the San Sebas-
tian River to the settlement of New
Augustine. Here the depot of the
Tocoi Railroad was located and
visitors arriving in the city had to
drive across the two bridges and
the causeway to reach the city
"John Jacob Astor built the Tocoi
Railroad by which tourists, who
made the trip down the St. Johns
by river steamer, could reach St.
Augustine. The fare for the trip
was $2.00 and the engine on the
railroad was so small that if a cow
strayed on the tracks the engineer
had to dismount from his cabin and
drive the animal off with a cattle
whip, which was always carried for
just such emergencies. An occa-
sional excursion boat came down
from Jacksonville by the ocean
route and these were only two ways
of reaching the Oldest City in those
Charles Hopkins, Sr.: "A great
boost for St. Augustine was the pur-
chase of the Jacksonville, St. Au-
gustine and Halifax Railway by
Henry M. Flagler, December 31,
1885. There used to be a stage line
from Picolata to St. Augustine, a
distance of approximately 18 miles.
The line was operated by two broth-
ers, John and Mony Irwin. In com-
ing into St. Augustine they blew a
horn to let the people know that the
stage coach was approaching. This
service was followed by a tramway
from Picolata to St. Augustine.
Dr. John Wescott was the general-
issimo. One day a stranger said to
Dr. Wescott, 'I have never heard of
a charge of $2.00 being made by any
transportation line to travel a dis-
tance of 18 miles.' Dr. Wescott,
holding his corn cobb pipe in his
mouth, tightly gripped between his
teeth, replied, 'Quite true, sir,
though I want to tell you this, you
will travel longer over this line for
$2.00 than over any other line in the
United States for the same sum'."
Mrs. John F. Currier, of Skow-
hegan, Maine, who before her mar-
riage was Miss Florence Bean: "In
those early days people getting over
to the island had to go either in row
or sail boats. If they did not go
around and land on the beach, they
went up the creek called Capo's
Creek.' They were met by a horse-
drawn car, and taken part way to
the lighthouse. The railroad with
its dummy-engine, and the ferry-
boat, the Myth, formed the connect-
ing link between St. Augustine, the
Lighthouse and South Beach."
Ex-Postmaster George Alba: "At
that time (58 years ago) the mail
was sent by boat from Jacksonville
to Tocoi and brought into St. Au-
gustine by train from Tocoi. The



Established In 1886 by J. H. Slater





Opposite Slave Market

15 King Street



We Are With You!

Our city is launched upon a program which will mean the
perpetuation of the name of St. Augustine through the
years to come. The ancient lore which is this city's right-
ful belonging shall remain history for the present and fu-
ture generations to enjoy.

The Kiwanis Club is proud to endorse the Restoration and
Preservation program and we urge the cooperation of each
citizen to join in this great undertaking which is for the
good of St. Augustine, our county, our state and our coun-

Listen to the

The Kiwanis Club KIWANIS

Of St. Augcustine, Fla. iHO
MEETNGS EVERY Interesting Program of
Kiwanis Activities
MEETINGS EVERY TUESDAY-12:15 P. M.-Monson Hotel -4.

uver Radio Nauton


ks of St. Augustine




Slks Are Cordially Invited

To Our Home



fare per passenger on the train
from here to Tocoi, a 14-mile trip,
was $2.00."
Approach to St. Augustine in
early days of tourists as described
by writer in Harpers of 1874: "We
found Jacksonville a thriving, un-
interesting brick and mortar town
with two large hotels, from whence
issued other tourists, with whom
we sail up the river as far as En-
terprise, and then on a smaller
steamer up the wild, beautiful Ock-
lawaha, coming back down the St.
Johns again as far as Tocoi, where,
with the clear consciences of tour-
ists who have seen everything on
the river, we took the mule train
across the fifteen miles to the sea,
arriving toward sunset at the shed
and bon-fire which form the rail-
road depot of St. Augustine. :The
bon-fire is lighted by the waitng
darkies as a protection against-the
evening damps. They told us the
town was across the river. 'De om-
nibuster waiting,' said a colored
official armed with a bugle. The St.
Augustine Hotel was our destina-

Many a heartache story is behind
lettering carved in stones above
graves in old Tolomato Cemetery.
But none implies tragedy so simply
as this one which must have
brought grief to two of St. Au-
gustine's most influential families
of that period. The lady was "Anita
H. Gibbs". She was only 21 when
she died and the importance the
dates had for her relatives seems
indicated by the fact that instead
of recording her birth date the
stone says "Married Feb. 7, 1833;
Died Feb. 7, 1836". Only three
years this daughter oi the great
house of General Hernandez had of
married life. One can vision the
social importance of the wedding of
Jose Mario Hernandez's daughter
to Kingsley Gibbs, whose name is
connected with so many important
matters of East Florida. And then
only three years as his "consort",
and death on the third anniversary
of the nuptials.

For Fifty-One Years


Now ...

with Restoration and Preservation of our
ancient landmarks in prospect, the outlook
for investment in carefully selected proper-
ties was never brighter.









Amusing Tales

Of Railroading

Are Recounted

Man Who Came to Florida
in 1879 Does Some

In assembling Florida railroad
data, and getting the personal col-
lections of pioneers, some amusing
stories have been developed that
would have been lost entirely, with
the passing of these men of an older
generation. Here are the recollec-
tions of one man who has been a
Florida resident for almost 60
"I came to Florida in 1879 and
settled on the railroad between
Fernandina and Cedar Keys. The
trains were 'mixed' and only the
passenger coaches had brakes. The
rails were 35 pounds of soft iron,
having been brought from England.
The principal job of the section
hands was to straighten bent rails.
A fire of old ties was built, the rail
put on the fire, when hot enough,
straightened. The track was full
of 'snake heads', that is, ends of
rails bent upward, but as the trains
seldom went faster than 15 miles
per hour, if a 'snake head' was only
two or three inches high, it mat-
tered not.
"Those days the engines were
named, not numbered. I remem-
bered the name of two engines-
the 'J. J. Dickison' and the 'Ala-
"They were holy terrors for looks.
"In 1893, a branch road was built,
it was laid out by a young surveyor
of romantic temperament. He
carried it through a swamp, so as
to get 'graceful curves', between
some lakes. The muck composing
the roadbed took fire after drying
out and a half mile of the roadbed
was burned up. A culvert that was
rather narrow became choked up by
an alligator that got caught in it,
causing a damming up of water that
swept away another half mile of
track. The engine, the 'Grover
Cleveland' was a heavy 4-6-0
machine and had to travel mighty
slowly over the poor track. Once,
on a windy day, it became stalled
on account of the heavy grass along
the rails blowing across them and
making them slippery.
"Another old Florida railroad
was built by slave labor, hired from
the planters. Only shovel and wheel-
barrows were used for moving bal-
last. The highest fills were made
that way, the trees were cut off at
the ground, leaving the stumps. The
piles were driven by manpower. A
section of live' oak trunk, about 4
feet long and 16 inches in diameter,
had four handles, and these were
grasped by four stout negroes, who
.drove the piles down. It was called
'horse maul'. The slaves were
worked very hard, and when any
died, they were dumped in the track
and buried under the ballast.
"As to wrecks, the trains moved
s. slow for that. Neither were hot
boxes heard of in those days. 'The
first wreck I ever heard of was at
the depot'. A switch had been left
open and a passenger train ran
into it at 11 p. m., striking a string
b box cars. The train had slowed
up for a stop and the engineer was
thrown out of the cab window.
"Racing horses with trains was
common in the old days, especially
in the cattle country, all were good
riders and had good horses. The
horses invariably won, first because
the trains had not had time to
gather speed after leaving the sta-
tion, and second because no one
cared to keep his horse on a dead
run more than a half a mile. The
engines had the best wind.
"Enginemen had to put hominy or
rice in the tender tank to somewhat
stop the leaks. The conductor
carried a pail of sand in the com-
bination car, and when the train
threatened to stall on a curve, he
filled a tin cup with dry sand,
hopped off, ran ahead of the engine,
and sprinkled sand on the inside of
the rail. The combination car had
its sides repaired with pieces from
bacon boxes.
"On September 29, 1896, there
Swas a great storm. Trees blew
down along the track and broke the
windows of the 'combination'. The
day after I had to take the train.
We started out a 6 p. m., but
the cold and rain made the window-
less car so uncomfortable that it
was decided to use a box car instead.
A pile of sand was put on the floor,
and a cheering fire was built. After
a while the box car caught fire and
the train had to be stopped in a
swamp, while we all had to get
down and by means of buckets,
empty tomato cans and hats, dip up
water to put out the fire.
'Wood cutters' placed their
stacks along the line, as all the
engines burned wood in those days,
and if fuel was needed, the train
would stop anywhere for it. The
wood cutters were sharp, would
stay by their stacks and have a pot
.of coffee ready on the nearing of
the train. The engineer would then
stop for wood, whether it was
needed or not. A darkey would
throw wood on the tender.
'The Best Friend of Charles-
ton', was the first locomotive built
in America for regular service. On
January 15, 1831, it hauled the first
train of cars in this continent over
the six-mile stretch of the South
* Carolina Railroad. It also enjoyed
another distinction of being the
'First', when the fireman fastened
down the safety-valve and ended
the career of the 'Best Friend', in

America's first boiler explosion.
The 'Texas' and the 'General' were
two pudgy old wood burning loco-
motives which raced through fire
and wate to immortality during
the Civil War. The shiny, proud
'General' and the somber, 'Texas',
which outran the 'General' saved
Georgia for the Confederacy. The
'General' as a chunky little engine
that waR'stpte'n by Union Spies."
Another pioneer tells that he
remembers the train that used to
"flash-south," in the 80's, between
Jacksonville and Tampa. This
train was called the "Flying Crack-
er". She was a wood-burner, and
had to stop at various places down
the line to "rack litered knots," for
the richest and best wood was
placed on the racks for the "Crack-
er". Her running time was around

not so good. She was some
train-those days. The advertising
of this "crack" train always carried
the picture oe a man on the cow-
catcher, dressed as a Florida cow-
boy with his extremely wide brim-
med hat. The "Flying Cracker"
was pulled by two wood-burning
engines, with their big smoke
stacks. One engine was named the
"Key West" and the other was the
"Baker". Other old engines were
the "Nassau", "W. S. Ache",
"Marion", "Gainesville", "Governor
Marvin", "Santa Fe", "M. 0. Ro-
berts", "Clay", "Panasofkee",
"Columbia", "Havana", and the
"Orange". The "Cedar Keys" was
another well-known old engine.
One of the most picturesque
sights of old time railroading was
the ."cabbage head" locomotive, a
wood.burner. Inside the top of the
sfgkos.-are cones, or propeller-
shap'ed devices, which are revolved
by the draft and beat the sparks to
pieces against the screen of the

Oil Burners

Installed On

FEC In 1915

Marked Improvement in
Comfort of Travellers
Was Result

Clean and comfortable travel over
the Floricd- East Coast Railway has
been possible for many years, the
company having installed oil-burn-
ing engines in 1915.
Under date of July 7, 1915, the
Record carries a news story say-
ing that the first oil burning
engines have gone into use on the
southern division, the work of con-
verting the coal burning locomo-
tives into oil burners having been
undertaken in the main railway
shops at St. Augustine. This meant
a real departure from the accepted
rules for railroading in this part of
the country. From that date on,
the plan was to convert about two
locomotives a week from the old
style coal burners to oil burners,
until finally 50 oil burners were to
be in operation on the road.
The news story also says "There
will be some 48 lighter engines
which probably will be converted
The Miami Herald printed quite
a long story on this important rail-
road change and said "The new oil-
burning feature should prove of
great worth to the railroad com-
pany, being smokeless, doing away
with the necessity of coaling, stok-
ing, etc.; also putting an qnd to the
smoke, cinders, etc., of the coal
burning locomotive.
"On the converted oil burners the
oil tank is placed on the tender, in
the location where coal is now
carried. This tank carries 3,500
gallons of crude oil, which is con-
sidered the equivalent of 21 tons of
coal. The tenders on the coal burn-
ers hold 12 tons of coal, so that the
oil burners will be capable of cover-
ing nearly twice the distance that a
coal burner may go on a load of
"Oil is fed into the furnaces by a
steam atomizer, which is equipped
with a firing valve permitting the
fireman to regulate the flow of oil,
and consequently the amount of
steam generated."
A rock-ballasted roadbed, and
double-tracking, add to the present-
day modern system of this fine rail-
road, over which trains rush to and
fro during the busy winter season,
with a service of surpassing excel-
lence being offered. Summer sched-
ules are ample, and make possible
through travel from various parts
of the country to stations along the
line of the Florida East Coast Rail-
way with a maximum of comfort
and convenience. Air-conditioning
is the latest phase of this comfort
plan of travel. Coach travel has
assumed a new and luxurious note
on this railroad as well, and as a
result coach travel is becoming in-
creasingly popular.

Frost Warnings

Given By Toots

Of Locomotives

"Flying Cracker" B
Six Long Blasts of


Orders were issued under date of
February 14th, 1896, to all agents
south of Baldwin by T. A. Phillips,
Assistant General Manager, of the
Florida Central and Peninsular
Railroad Company.
"In order to forewarn fruit and
vegetable growers along the Cen-
tral and Southern Divisions that
cold waves likely to produce frost
are approaching, this company has
arranged with the United States
Weather Bureau to obtain advance
information of a probable fall in
temperature and to communicate
the same by signal from the engine
whistle of passing trains.
"The signal will be given by the
whistle sounding six (6) long blasts,
requiring 30 seconds (5 seconds to
the blast) and will be repeated at
intervals of every three miles. It is
intended to give this warning 12 to
24 hours in advance, and the sound-
ing of the whistle in the above man-
ner will indicate a forecast for the
first or second night thereafter. You
are directed to circulate this in-
formation through all possible chan-
nels to reach the public. Post one
copy of this notice at the Post
Office, and request newspaper near-
est you to give it prominent publica-
"Approved: D. E. Maxwell,
"General Manager."
Back in the 'eighties another
system of whistle-blowing was in-
augurated to warn of frost danger.
The "Flying Cracker", a fast train
which made the dash down the
State, between Jacksonville and
Tampa, blew six long blasts of its
whistle if frost was expected that
night. Farmers along the line,
when they heard the "Cracker
screech", covered their vegetables
or placed fire pots in their groves

Over 100 Years

Of Rail History

Told In State

Attempt Made in 1834 to
Run Line From Jax
to Tallahassee

As early as 1834, an attempt was
made to organize a company to
build a line of railroad from Jack-
sonville to Tallahassee. Jackson-
ville's first railroad was named the
"Florida Atlantic and Gulf Central
Railroad", and financed through a
bond issue. Grading began during
the summer of 1857, but a yellow
fever epidemic caused cessation of
the work for several months. The
track was finally completed to Lake
City, March 13, 1860. Two days
later the railroad ga4e the people
of Jacksonville an excursion to
Lake City, and many people availed
themselves of the opportunity to
ride for the first time in their lives
on a railroad train. On March 21,
the people of Lake City were
brought to Jacksonville on an ex-
cursion and a ceremony was carried
out whereby the waters of the St.
Johns were mingled with those of
Lake DeSoto. The name of the
engine that pulled the train was
named "Jacksonville". An amusing
incident is told about its first ar-
rival, a large crowd had assembled,
the engineer saw his chance for
some fun, he suddenly, pulled the
whistle cord and released the escape
valve. There was a scramble for a
safe distance, many supposing the
engine was about to explode.
The War Between the States
played havoc with the railroads.
Tracks were torn up. Some of the
old railroad iron found its way to
the navy yards. Up to 1881 there
was only railroad to Jacksonville.
The St. Johns Railway was chart-
ered in 1858, and operated between
Tocoi and St. Augustine. The sta-
tion was originally on the west side
of the San Sebastian River. During
1881 and 1883 two more railroads
were constructed on the East Coast
of Florida.
In the late 1860's and the early
1870's, a ferry-boat, named the
"Louise" connected the railroad
terminals at Tocoi and West Tocoi.
Nearly all of the boats passing
down the St. Johns River stopped at
Tocoi to let off passengers for St.
Augustine and other interior points,
and these boats became famous
locally in one way or another.
The St. Johns Railway of Florida
ran from a point on the St. Johns
River, called Tocoi, and extended to
a point on the San Sebastian River
at St. Augustine. In the 70's, St.
Augustine was reached by boat to
Tocoi, there entraining behind a
hissing little peanut roaster; and
you were jerked and bumped to the
Oldest City. No street lights were
in the smaller towns and the hotels
had hung sheet iron pans on tall
posts and when the velvety south-
ern darkness dropped down, sput-
tering orange-flamed pine knots
were burned to the delight of the
touring Yankees. Those were the
pioneer days to Florida.
Late Robert Ranson Had
Made Record Of Early
Transportation Days

The late Robert Ranson of this
city as a young man lived at Titus-
ville, and the following record was
made by him of primitive early
transportation facilities:
"The trip in those days (1885),
from Jacksonville down, was by
primitive means as the railroad
then had gone about as far as Pa-
latka, but the palatial steamers
plied the St. Johns River as far as
Sanford, and from then on, there
were two routes to reach the Indian
River. At that time practically all
freight was transferred at San-
ford, to smaller stern wheel boats
and a long tortuous passage would
follow along south on what was
known as the upper St. Johns, first
to Salt Lake with a transfer from
there to Titusville and then further
south to Lake Poinsett, a few miles
west of Cocoa.
"A third route and the one that
brought most passengers and the
mails was a hack-line from Enter-
prise to Titusville that made the
trip figured as 42 miles by start-
ing from Enterprise at 6 a. m. and
arriving at Titusville at about 9
p. m., 15 hours, and half the way
ankle deep or waist deep in water.
"It was on August 31, 1886, while
we were having a dance that the
Charleston earthquake gave us a
severe shaking up, but it didn't last
long, and only broke a few dishes
from the shelves and stopped
Florida Travel Talk
Appears In Northland
Paper Some Years Ago

The following Florida Travel
Talk appeared as a news item in a
northern newspaper many years
"For the people who have the
means at hand, and they wish to
escape the wintry winds for a short
period, they should go 'Down
South.' Wrapped in heavy winter
garments the traveller crosses the
ice-choked river to New Jersey and
from there begins the journey to
Florida in luxuriously appointed
cars. In a few hours the piercing
cold, the drifting snow, and dis-
comforts of winter are left behind;
the enthusiastic tourist arrives

at St. Augustine, under a sunny sky,
and looks upon a scene so different
from the one he left behind. Rem-
nants of the old city wall, with its
fortified gateway, and a 'little
public square' which, in the early
days was an imposing park, are
"Further down the East Coast,
sixty-five miles from St. Augustine,
is Ormond, or 'Ormond-On-The-
Halifax.' It is known as the 'Half-
Way' point on the trip."

and thousands of dollars worth of
vegetation and produce was saved.
The "Cracker" was a wood-burner,
and outside of wood racks and water
tanks, made about eight stops be-
tween Jacksonville and Tampa.

Citrus In Early Days
Moved By Boat; Pioneer
Shipper Came In 1871

Much of the citrus fruit moved by
bort in the early days. In Florida
Chronicles is found the following
concerning A. M. Terwilligar,
pioneer shipper. He came to Flor-
ida in 1871, and made headquarters
at St. Augustine.
At Mandarin and Plummer's
Cove, 18 miles west of Jacksonville,
he started a number of orange
groves. All fruit was shipped by
water. A steamer, the "Orange
Maid," owned by him, plied the St.
Johns River, picking up oranges
which were brought to the wharves
by ox teams. Packing was done on
the boat as it proceeded up and
down the river, and the fruit was
transferred at Jacksonville.
The freeze of the winter of 1894
and 1895, however, brought disaster
to the citrus industry, and it never
regained its former importance in
the Jacksonville and St. Augustine
vicinity. After the freeze Mr.
Terwilligar operated on the Florida
Keys shipping pineapples, and
afterwards located in the Titusville

Traveler With

Sense Of Humor

Describes Trip

Made Journey From St.
Augustine to Palm Beach
Back in 1896

A traveler with a sense of humor
recorded a trip made to Palm Beach
in 1896. Here is the way he tells it:
"In the spring of 1896 I read that
the East Coast Railroad had
reached Palm Beach, and of what a
beautiful place it was. But where
was it? It was not on any map.
Later I learned it was on Lake
Worth. One morning of that year
I boarded a train from St. Augus-
tine for Palm Beach. We first went
to East Palatka, then southeast to
Ormond, where the train stopped
for dinner. Not being hungry, I
did not feed there, thinking we
would rather stop for supper some-
where. The track was good; but
as we got farther and farther south,
it was newer and newer and had not
had time to be grassed over, so the
dust was terrible. Then right of a
sudden the coach was' invaded by

'buffalo gnats' and the windows had
to be closed in spite of the heat.
Then came the news butch, an-
nouncing 'Ile o' pennyrile. Only ten
cents a bottle. Each passenger
bought a bottle, annointed himself,
and the windows could be opened
"The little towns we passed, all
on Indian River, seemed to have
only two ways of transporting
goods-by boat and by wheelbar-
rows. Planks were laid on the
sandy streets for the latter. No
animals except cats and dogs were
seen. After passing Melbourne the
landscape became exceedingly de-
solate. No buildings except occa-
sional Indian camps. Stations were
known only by names painted on
boards. Little pineapple patches
were sometimes seen unfenced, for
there were no hogs or cows to hurt
them. We began to get hungry and
calculated that we would stop at
Fort Pierce for supper. But nary
supper there. The country became
more and more dreary with its sand
dunes and chaparral. Things
began to look serious. The news
butch's peanut supply had given out.
A deputation called upon the con-
ductor about feed. He said that if
the winds were favorable, a man
would come in a sailboat from
Waveland, and bring sandwiches.
We craned out our heads to see
which way the smoke from the
engine blew. Looking east, we at

To the modern Florida mind it
seems unthinkable that any one
would eat palmetto berries, unless
they were literally starving as was
Jonathan Dickltinson after his artv

last saw a. sailboat heading our
way. Soon the train slowed up and
stopped where a line of planks were
laid over the deep sand to the water.
The boat made fast, and soon a man
came pushing a wheelbarrow up
the planks. In it he had a big jug
of hot coffee, a pail full of sugar, a
string of tin cups and a basket full
of sandwiches. We cheerfully paid
the moderate prices asked,ate and

blessed 'the god in the machine:' We
got to Palm Beach at 11 p. m. A
man captured me and brought me
to a hotel. All Palm Beach gather-
ed there at night to drink and listen
to a negro band from Nassau. Only
the best was served, for all had
their pockets full of Flagler money
and could pay for it."
Shipwrecked Mariner
Of 1696 Managed To
Live On Palm Berries

was shipwrecked in 1696 as he
says "Cast away but spared from Old hunters, who furnished game
the cruel, devouring jaws of the in- for St. Augustine market, accord-
human cannibals of Florida." His ing to an advertising folder of
account of the affair and his trip December, 1884, "kill many deer
up the coast from "Hoe Bay" to with occasional shots at black bear".


You Haven't Really Seen Florida

Until You've Visited


St. Augustine






Here you can see Man-eating and Thrasher Sharks,
the Jew Fish, Octapus, Whip Ray, Porcupine Fish,
Parrot Fish, and other rare varieties that will thrill you,
al caught from local waters.






Here the sightseer will find a group of the largest of
existing birds that attain a height of 6 or 8 feet and
with an average weight of 300 pounds. They are in
abundance, living in natural haunts at this unusual


Six thousand of them! What is said to be the largest
collection of its kind, marvelled at by world travellers.
The oldest, Old Ponce, is estimated to be more than
900 years old and weighs over 1,200 pounds. Also of
interest is the very unusual Albino alligator and another
that has five legs. There is also a Crocodile display.


See the largest Diamond Rattlesnakes in the world on
display. Our large collection is supplemented by the
Moccasin, Coachwhip, Harlequin, Spreading Adder,
Glass Snake, Coral Snake, Rainbow Snake, Indigo Snake
and other interesting species.


One can hardly imagine sea turtles, large and strong
enough to carry the combined weight of three grown
men, but this farm has them for you to see!


St. Augustine includes stops at
several Indian "towns" where he,
his wife and six months old "suck-
ling infant" were only saved from
being eaten through "God's Pro-
tecting Providence".
For many days it was beyond
their power to eat the palmetto
berries offered them even when
they had been without food sev-
eral days. The Indians sometimes
had the berries to eat as it was the
ripening season. At one Indian
town many bags of berries were
brought in by messengers from
Indian towns to the cassekey who
ruled over that country.
Finally the Dickinson castaways
got so a handful of palmetto ber-
ries now and then was received
with gratitude.
He chronicles a tragedy. "About
midnight I had a 'great loss having
a quart of berries whole and as
much pounded to mix with water to
feed our child with; the fire being
disturbed, the cloth which we had
our feed in was burned; all was
lost and nothing to be had until we
could get to the Spaniards which
was two days' march at least", -
(One of the Record's Histogram


SUNDAY, JULY 4,1937j



has always been


Ever since the purchase of the Jacksonville, St. Augustine and Halifax River Railway by Henry M.
Flagler, in 1885, the Florida East Coast Railway has been known as "THE ST. AUGUSTINE ROUTE."
Here Henry M. Flagler launched his first great development and established his railway headquarters.
Realizing the value of St. Augustine's historical background, he constructed buildings in harmony with this
atmosphere,-buildings, which today add to, rather than detract from, the city's Old World charm.
The Florida East Coast Railway has always stressed its distinction as "THE ST. AUGUSTINE
ROUTE," because of the unique position and appeal of St. Augustine as the Oldest City in
the United States. This historical interest has attracted more people to St. Augustine than
all pther factors combined. It should be heightened rather than be allowed to decay.
As "THE ST. AUGUSTINE ROUTE", the FloridayEast Coast Railway is therefore fully
in accord with present plans for St. Augustine's Restoration. I

St. Augustine
The Florida East Coast Railway is the only line
serving historic St. Augustine, oldest and quaint-
est city in the United States, founded by the
Spaniards in 1565.
This city is truly old, unique, romantic! It ante-
dates the founding of Plymouth, in New England,
by 55 long years, and had been in existence 210
years when the Revolutionary War began.
Many interesting relics of its storied past remain
to charm and enlighten those who linger awhile
within its gates. Quaint narrow old streets, over-
hanging balconies, walled gardens; its massive
medieval castle of San Marco, now Fort Marion;
the oft-pictured city gateway; its beautiful
shaded Plaza and many interesting old houses
bespeak its age and history.
Combined with this rich historical charm and Old
World atmosphere, one finds in St. Augustine
varied resort attractions...splendid golf, boat-
ing, fine fishing, marvelous beaches and con-
genial social life. Here the magnificent Ponce
de Leon, a celebrated Flagler System Hotel,
offers its cordial hospitality in addition to many
smaller hostelries.

The Florida East Coast Railway and Flagler interests have consistently
advertised St. Augustine for 50 years. They have done more in this respect
than has the city itself as a community. Space featuring St. Augustine is
used in Florida East Coast Railway winter time tables, an example of
which is shown above. These have a wide circulation of over 100,000 per
year, St. Augustine receives such publicity from its railway without



The Florida East Coast Railway and its associated Flagler enterprises are St. Augustine's and
St. Johns County's largest taxpayers. Their combined assessment amounts to approximately one-
third of the City and County total. Railway taxes help to educate your children and maintain local
governments. It is to the interest of every local citizen to aid in protecting their railway from the
unfair competition of transportation agencies; which, instead of providing local tax revenue, require
tax revenue for the creation and maintenance of their facilities.

St. Augustine's largest payroll is its railway payroll. This amounts to approximately $1,000,-
000 per year, or almost $3,000 per day, all of which directly benefits local business interests. A
dollar spent for railway service returns many fold to the community in the form of taxes and wages.
BesWes these extra values to the community, the Florida East Coast Railway provides St. Augus-
tine with steady, dependable, improved passenger and freight service at economical rates every
day in the year.

Each year St. Augustine is given generous representation in thousands of descriptive booklets
issued by the Florida East Coast Railway. The above map, three pages of text and illustrations, were
devoted to St. Augustine in a booklet issued and widely distributed by the Florida East Coast Railway
last winter. No other transportation agency publicises St. Augustine so extensively.

-_ --. I.. I ... FLAGLER SYSTEM I ..... .. A .

Always Safe, Reliable, Comfortable

W. R. Kenan, Jr., and S. M. Loftin, Receivers






SUNDAY, JULY 4, 1937




St. Joseph's To

Celebrate Its

71st Birthday

Noted Boarding School
for Girls Is Outcome
of Work


First Sisters Came as
Mission Laborers
From Le Puy

September 2, 1937, will mark the
passage of 71 years since the
Sisters of St. Joseph arrived in St.
Augustine to minister to the spirit-
ual and educational needs of the in-
habitants, but especially to enrich
the lives of the slaves who a few
years before had been given their
It was for the betterment of the
liberated slaves that these worthy
children of the eldest daughter of
the'Holy Mother Church left their
beloved France to face untold priva-
tion and hardships. Of them a
chronicler has written: "They put
in practice that self-forgetfulness
that, thank God, has characterized
the true disciples of Christ since the
dawn of Christianity. It would re-
quire the inspired pen of an angel
to recount the generous devotion
and the self immolation on the altar
of charity of these first Sisters of
St. Joseph in St. Augustine."
The missions of Mandarin, Jack-
sonville, Fernandina, Palatka, St.
Ambrose (Elkton), Orlando, St.
Mary's Home in Jacksonville and
Ybor City (Tampa) were all found-
ed by the "mother mission" in St.
Augustine, they, too, having an
interesting history, fought with
difficulties and tales of self-sacri-
Information set forth in this
article is from the work of the
above unnamed author, contained in
a booklet entitled "1866-19,36.
Sheaves Gathered From the Mis-
sionary Fields of the Sisters of
Saint Joseph in Florida."
First Bishop
Florida's first Bishop, the saintly
'Augustine Verot, toiled with un-
remitting zeal to bring hope and
encouragement to hearts bowed
down with sadness and to increase
and revive the faith within them.
'In this trying mission Bishop Verot
needed co-laborers. He turned in-
stinctively to his homeland, France,
land of missionaries and martyrs,
finally wending his way to the
Mother House of the Sisters of St.
Joseph at Le Puy Where he asked
--- for volunteers to go with him to
"--Sixty members offered them-
selves, the following eight being
chosen: Sisters Sidonia, Julia,
Celenie, Julia Clotilde, Clemence,
Josephine, Peter, and Louise
Joseph. The study of English was
begun at once and months spent in
,collecting from the communities
and friends pious articles' of every
description. Pictures, medals, beads
and scapulars were packed for the
Mother Sidonia was appointed
the Superior of the little band of
missionaries. A woman of great
taith, highly educated and posses-

Famed Convent and School

=~~. -'" "i~~
: "~'I r b I

St. Joseph's Convent and Academy, religious house, and school conducted by the Sisters of St. Joseph,
founded here almost 71 years ago, as a successor to earlier religious institutions.

sing executive ability beyond the mission of Irish and American
average, Mother Sidonia proved an postulants, thus establishing the
able and beloved leader, later being first school fdr colored children in
chosen to preside over the com- the State of Florida. The Sisters
munities in Florida. encountered much opposition be-
The heroic volunteers sailed from cause of the spirit of that period,
Havre, France, on the Lafayette on the aftermath of the Civil War.
August 3d, 1866. On the 23d of Sister Julia Clotilde was placed in
that month they embarked from charge of the school.
New York for Savannah where they Postulants From Savannah
were met by Reverend Father Du- Reverend Father Delafosse
fau, V. G., who conducted them to brought five postulants from Saan-
the Convent of the Sisters of Mercy nah in November of the same year
where they were given a cordial nah November of there Sidonia toyear
welcome. Following a day's rest, and advised Mother idenca to
the Sisters began the last lap on move into the former residence of
the Sisters began the last lap on the Christian Brothers. This was
their boat journey, which ended at theChristian Brothers. This was
Picolata where Father Aubril met situated on the church property on
them. The stage coach he had South Charlotte Street, in the same
them. The stake t coah he hd lot, and east of where the Paro-
engaged to take them to St. Augus- chial School and Lyceum now stand.
tine unfortunately could accom- Although this building provided
modate only four, the others being better accommodations it was far
forced to remain on board until thebetter aommoations a fr
following night. The ride from from being a suitable abode for the
following night. The ride from Sisters, who occupied it for nearly
Picolata, the chronicler relates, was ten ears, w ho o next and final
dreadful. The road was covered n years. Their next and final
with roots and in numerous places move was nto the then new and
deep mud holes caused the coach to permanent St. Joseph's Convent,
p from side to e oacTh eo one of the places of interest in St.
sway from side to side. They Augustine.
were nearly exhausted wen they The Sisters of Mercy, who had
reached the haven of the Sisters of continued to conduct the school or
Mery in St. Augustine continued to conduct the school for
Mercy St. Augustine. the white girls here were compelled
This Convent of Mercy was sit- to withdraw to Hartford, Conn., in
uated on St. George Street, opposite 1869, because of the dearth of sub-
the Bishop's residence. The Sisters jects and the poverty of the people
remained there for several weeks who were unable to support two
until their removal to "Old St. communities. The saintly Irish
Joseph's House" on Hospital Sisters of Mercy, Sisters Monica
(Aviles) Street. Reverend Father and Mary Anna remained with the
O'Reilly.had willed this property to Sisters of St. Joseph to assist them
a religious community in 1789, and in the outdoor work of the com-
Bishop Verot deeded it to the munity. This was done at the re-
Sisters of St. Joseph. The tract of quest of Bishop Verot.
land extended through from Hos- The Sisters of St. Joseph in Flor-
pital Street to St. George Street. ida owe to the Sisters of Mercy a
In those early pioneer days events debt of gratitude which can never
moved rapidly for the Sisters who be paid. Their unfailing kindness
were chiefly occupied in making and cooperation paved the way for
themselves proficient in the Eng- speedy success for this early mis-
lish language and endeavoring to sion.
make the old dilapidated houses in .Chosen to replace Mother Sidonia
which they lived more comfortable. as Superior was Mother Stanislaus,
They were also busily employed in who viewed with increasing alarm
preparing an old building on their the ruinous condition of the house
St. George Street property for the in which the Sisters were living and
use of a school for the colored to be teaching. Handicapped for want of
opened- in November, 1866. This funds, she could not even provide
work was made possible by the ad- the necessities for the community.

Railroad Fashions Then and Now

An excursion train on the Jacksonville,
old type wood-burning engine.

St. Augustine and Halifax River Railway in the 80's, showing

A modern train Wueeding over the double-track Flokida East Coast Railway.

I arrived from France but a year be-
The public school for poor child-
ren was continued after the open-
ing of the Academy for boarders
and day pupils. No tuition was re-
quired and the teachers only re-
ceived a salary of $20 a month. The
Parochial School System and the
erection of the beautiful Cathedral
Parish School building on St.
George Street, a block south of the
Convent, followed the withdrawal
of the teachers from the public
Then an unexpected sacrifice was
expected of the French Sisters.
They were asked to sever their con-
nection with the Mother House at
Le Puy and to become diocesan,
Mother Lazarus, who was Provin-
cial at the time, being replaced by
Sister Eulalia.
A school was opened at the cor-
ner of Rohde Avenue and San
Marco Avenue for the children of
the parish living in North City.
Eleven years later fire destroyed
the building and in 1891 Dr. Gar-
nett donated sufficient property on
San Sebastian Avenue for a school
and church. Sisters solicited funds
for the new school, the St. Agnes
School being finished and opened in
the next two years with 80 pupils
Mother Elizabeth succeeded
Mother Sidonia as Reverend Mother
who was made Mistress of Novices.
Mother Stanislaus had been the first
Mistress and she was succeeded by
Sister Alypieus, then by Sister
Theresa. Mother Elizabeth was fol-
lowed by Mother Marie Louise as
Superior General.
Where St. Joseph's Academy now
raises its imposing structure, form-
erly stood an old, dilapidated cot-
tage which poor people often oc-
cupied, rent free; the old Penelton
house in which the first, second and
third grades of girls of the Sisters'
public school were taught, and a
comparatively new building erected
to house the boys of the public
school. All the structures were de-
molished with the exception of the
latter which was moved to Aviles
Street, next to the Old Don Toledo
House. -
The coquina in the present stone
fence on St. George Street was
originally in the building which
served as the first school house for
colored children in the State of
Florida, and which was on the prop-
erty given to the Sisters in 1867.
This structure was also the music
hall and was situated on St. George
Street, northwest of the parlors
(then the chapel) and separated
from it by a concrete walk.
Mother Mary James has been
the Superior since 1925, and assist-
ing her is Sister Thomasine.
One story told of the old pilots
of St. Augustine is that the regula-
tions sometimes chafed the men and,
instead of taking vessels in rota-
tion, one of the boats with its crew
would slip away up North River in-
to Guano Creek, where the boats
could be very near to the ocean
beach. Close watch would be kept
for vessels coming from the north,
and, when one was sighted, the pilot
boat could be put across into the
ocean and- a pilot put aboard long
"before there was any chance for the
watch here to signal a pilot.

F. E. C. Official

Dean Of Florida

Passenger Men

For Restoration

J. D. Rahner Has Long
Record With FEC Rail-
way Here

J. D. Rahner, general passenger
agent of the Florida East Coast
Railway, is often referred to as
"the dean of Florida passenger
executives". Mr. Rahner began
railroading in what are often re-
ferred to as pioneer days in Florida.
Wood-burning locomotives were
stirring the southern wilderness
into life when he began his career.
He was born in Augusta, Ga. His
father, upon his return from the
War Between the States, became a
foreman in the shops of the old
Port Royal and Augusta Railway.
After graduating from the public
schools of Augusta, Mr. Rahner
entered the service of the old
Savannah, Florida and Western
Railway at Savannah as freight
billing clerk. In 1890 he was trans-
ferred to Jacksonville as chief rate
clerk of the same line.
On July 1, 1892, he joined the
Florida East Coast Railway at St.
Augustine as chief clerk in the Pas-
senger Department. This line was
then known as the Jacksonville, St.
Augustine and Indian River Rail-
way, and was at the time building
south from Daytona to New
Smyrna. In 1896, the year that
Miami was founded, Mr. Rahner
was promoted to the post of assist-
ant general passenger agent, under
Joseph Richardson, who was then
the general passenger agent. When
Joseph Richardson went to Atlanta
as chairman of the Southeastern
Passenger Conference, Mr. Rahner
remained in charge of the passenger
department at St. Augustine.
During the early years under
Josenh Richardson, and later when
in charge of the passenger traffic
department, Mr. Rahner was a
pioneer in advertising the East
Coast of Florida, and in the develop-
ment of tourist travel, which has
since become such an important
industry and source of income to
this territory. He has seen Miami
grow from a little Indian trading
post to its present position of im-
Restoration Vital
As a long-time resident of St.
Augustine, Mr. Rahner has seen
great changes come over the Oldest
City, some for the better, and some
very much for the worse. He has
seen interesting old landmarks dis-
appear, and views with apprehen-
sion what the next 25 years may
do in destroying the individuality,
quaintness and charm of this com-
munity unless a program of the
kind offered by Carnegie Institution
is carried out. Mr. Rahner recalls
the unique character of the build-
ings that have been swept away,
and says that St. Augustine must
preserve what she has, and follow
out a restoration program if the
identity of this Oldest City is to be

Roaming Stock

Reported In 1828

Troubles of One 'John
Lowe Are Cited in'
Old Records

That no restoration will be asked
for one feature of one period in the
Experience of- the Government
J. D. Rahner, known as dean of House garden of St. Augustire is
Florida Passenger Executives. very certain. It relates to the sad
troubles of one John Lowe. He was
one of the first messengers to the
Pioneer Recollections City Council and he addresses kwo
communications to the aldermen
Of Titusville In 1886 and mayor. One says:
A"Much Interest Thursday, July 31, 1828, about
Are Of Much Interestthe hoursof two and three o'clock
in the afternoon a sow with a young
one came into the Government
A pioneer's recollections of his House yard." The hogs were no
advent on the lower east coast, respecter of power apparently.
-around Titusville, has been recorded Lowe goes on "I endeavored to
for us as follows: confine them agreeable to the city
ordinance at the time by securing
"My most vivid recollection of the gate, the sow forced her way
arrival in August, 1886, is how out, and I could only secure the
reiharkably cool the breezes small one. I then went round with
were when we got outside under the the bell as the city ordinance di-
shade of a palm tree. I, with my rects and on my return I procured
mother and family, came in on the a boy to assist me in catching and
first passenger train from Jackson- roping him. On my way to the
ville. The Jacksonville, Tampa and market place I was met in 'the mid-
'Key West Railroad was making its dle of the courthouse yard by Judge
terminus here in connection with a Cotter Who knocked me down and
boat that Merrill and Stevens of forcibly took the creature from me
Jacksonville had ,engaged my which was tied with a.-bed clo-rd--
father, Captain Paddison, to operate six or seven feet long without say-
between Titusville and Rockledge, ing, one word, the sai~i chord is re-
the latter place being the only tained till this day."-.
winter resort on the lower east On August 15 he wrote again to
coast. .the Council of his hog troubles. He
"Enjoyable memories include heard there were some hogs got
those moonlight evenings spent on in a yard and he went after them.
the dock, with the negro band made On his way back he met "Tab
up of banjoes and guitars and the Smith." Tab demanded the hogs,
pat of their feet for a drum. and "called for a knife to cut ,them
"'Oh, dem darkies how dey did loose." In a few moments Tab re-
play and pat and sing, and dem turned with a knife and cut two
crackers how dey did dance and loose and headed them home. Mean-
flirt and fling, time Lowe reached the shelter 'of
"'And the moon and the stars his hog pound and says Tab "i m-
and the water, how dey did smile, mediately came to the Government
and shine and twinkle.' House with an intention of liber- /
!'Those were the pioneer days in ating the other one."
Titusville when two boards were Lowe must have had much more
laid lengthwise for side walks and trouble than he got cash from try-
it took two good-sized mules to pull ing to carry out the city ordinances
the family carriage through the to take up hogs. An ordinance of
sand of the streets. 1827 directs that after catching a
"The first railroad into Titusville loose hog notice must be given by a'
was the old Jacksonville, Tampa and bell man going round the city and
Key West, a narrow gauge road at once there would be a public
which connected Titusville and San- outcry in the market place to sell
ford. The first train leaving Jack- the porcine creature. That one gov-
sonville for Palatka was on March ernor had a rabbit hutch has' ben
6, -1884, over the Jacksonville, much noted but that the yard was
Tampa and Key West Ry., which a pig pound seems to have escaped
was chartered in 1875, however attention.
actual construction of tlUmad-be- (One of the Record's Hist ,m
tween Jacksonville and Palatka ad.series.) -

Their only remuneration was thirty
dollars a month for each of the two
Sisters teaching the boys.
Make French Lace
By the light of candles and
kerosene lamps the Sisters began
fashioning French lace and other
articles of fancy work. These they
sold to the winter visitors; also
teaching them conversational
French. Music, painting and draw-
ing were taught after school hours.
By these means they were able to
meet expenses.
Such progress was made by the
pupils that in 1868 Mother Stanis-
laus obtained the Bishop's permis-
sion to solicit funds for a convent
and school to be built on the Sisters'
St. George Street site. Ladies of
the parish consented to hold a fair,
$400 being netted for the convent
building fund. From that time until
the building of the Parochial School,
these fairs were annual events in
St. Augustine. The plans, for a
building 110 by 75 feet, met the dis-
approval of everyone with the ex-
ception of His Lordship and the
Cornerstone Laid
Permission from the government
to procure coquina from the Anas-
tasia Island quarries was obtained
by the Bishop. The cost of bring-
ing it across Matanzas Bay on flat
boats proved so high, however, that
the work was discontinued for two
years, the greatest amount received
in donations not exceeding $450.
On January 15, 1874, the corner-
stone was laid, the impressive cere-
mony marking a momentous relig-
ious and educational event in St.
Augustine, and being witnessed by
a large gathering of people, Sisters,
clergy and the Bishop.
The words of the Bishop on that
occasion have been recorded thus:
"The congregation of the Sisters of
St. Joseph was founded by Father
Madaille, S. J., at Le Puy, France,
in 1650, and wherever these Sisters
are established they aim above
everything to procure the Glory of
God by doing good to their neigh-
bor. This building will be a con-
vent, a novitiate for' candidates to
the Sisterhood, and a normal school
for the training of teachers who
will devote their lives to the Christ-
ian education of youth. Moreover,
the Sisters visit the poor and the
sick. This school will be a solemn
protestation against the false and
injurious ideas of modern times
which tend to-separate religion
from education. It will be like a
fortress raised against the pesti-
lential influences of a system where
infidelity and atheism creep into
the education of youth."
Although opposition to the work
continued, financial aid came from
many unexpected sources: from
those who insisted on being board-
ers, families who voluntarily paid
for their children; friends in
Statue of St. Joseph
From the Mother House in France
came a beautiful statue of St.
Joseph, which was placed in the
niche over the front door by
Mother's orders before the Sisters
took possession. It was on July 1,
1875, that Reverend Father Clav-
reul blessed each room and offered
the holy sacrifice of the mass and
on the following day the Sisters re-
turned there to make it their per-
manent abode.
Sister Margaret Mary, the organ-
izer and first principal of the first
high school conducted by the Sisters
of St. Joseph in Florida was from
Brooklyn, N. Y., and it was largely
due to her untiring efforts that the
school maintained its high standard
and kept abreast and in advance of
the times, at least in Florida. Of
her it is said that she did more thari
any one person to break down pre-
judice among the Protestant
population in the state through the
boarders she attracted to St. Au-
gustine by reason of the reputation
of' St. Joseph's Academy as an
educational institution.
In 1876 the community suffered
the loss of their Bishop and protec-
tor, whom all Florida recognized as
a man of sterling worth, an apostle
of peace and good will to all men.
On May 3, 1877, Reverend John
Moore of Charleston, S. C., received
his appointment to the See of St.
Augustine. He was consecrated in
the Charleston Cathedral on May
13, and accompanied here by the
Most Reverend Bishop Lynch of
New Fields
The years unfolded new fields of
missionary work for the exercise of
heroism in the cause of religion.
They cared for the sick during the
yellow fever epidemic in Fernan-
dina, two of their number, Sisters
Celenie and de Sales dying from
the contracted disease. With the
advent of the Indians at Fort
Marion for an indefinite period in
1885, the Nuns, after many rebuffs,
opened separate classes for the
children and adults, until their
pupils numbered 300. In 1887 yel-
low fever ravaged Jacksonville, the
Sisters again volunteering to nurse
the patients and suffering the loss
of Sister Rose de Lima, who had







Daily Delivery

Tested For Purity

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the famous Hood-Sealed bottle gives extra ,
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St. Augustine SUPERIOR

You'll Like Its Creamy BEST!
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X' 'lT~r- I -~(LY I~i~g~n I rl


not commence until March, 1883. In
1885, the J. T. & K. W. R. R. began
the construction of a line from
Palatka to Sanford over the right of
way of the Palatka and Indian
River Railway, which was incor-
porated on March 4, 1881. (Pas-
sengers were transferred at West
Tocoi by ferry to Tocoi, where they
entrained for St. Augustine, a
distance of 15 miles.)"







PVNDAY, JULY 4, 1937

Fact-Finding Report

Made By Chatelain Is

Restoration Summary

Result of Study of Several
Months; Vital in


Expresses Expert's View
on Possibilities in
Oldest City

The following is the Fact-Find-
ing Report submitted to Mayor
Walter B. Fraser's National Com-
mittee for the Preservation and
Restoration of St. Augustine, at
the meeting held at Hotel Ponce de
Leon last March, and presided over
by Dr. John C. Merriam, president
of Carnegie Institution, and chair-
man of the committee. The report
was adopted unanimously by the
committee, and immediately form-
ed the basis for work since under-
taken and now contemplated:

Executive Secretary of the National
Committee for the Preservation and
Restoration of St. Augustine.
The proposal for some form of
development program for the con-
servation of important features and
values in the ancient city of St. Au-
gustine, Florida, is one which has
had consideration for many years.
It has been noted on numerous oc-
casions by visitors and local in-
habitants alike that the physical
conditions in St. Augustine have
been gradually drifting more and
more into a chaotic state, wherein
the chief historical assets and much
of the charm of the old city is be-
ing lost.
Those appreciating the rich his-
torical traditions and assets of this
region, where the first white settle-
ment having continuous history in
America was established, have
watched ancient landmarks disap-
pear time after time through one
cause or another. Disastrous fires,
the thoughtless action of private
property owners as well as city offi-
cials, and the general destruction
that comes through the operation of
natural causes in time arfd change,
all have conspired to bring about a
condition in which historic sites
have been lost sight of, ancient
edifices have passed into oblivion,
and the elements making for objec-
tive physical evidence in history
have been, squandered.
For the moment it does not make
so much difference bow the idea
originated of saving what is left, or
who contributed to the. beginnings
of the program which has resulted
.--.atMu _-Breijnroary survey now
drawing to a close. Suffice it to say
that it remained for Mayor Walter
B. Fraser to take the action which
led to the organization of a Na-
tional Committee for the conserva-
tion of this area. Matching Mr.
Frasr's deep interest in this pro-
gram is that of Dr. John C. Mer-
riam and others of the staff of
Carnegie, Institution of Washing-
ton, who, at the psychological mo-
ment threw the weight of their
influence and support to the carry-
ing out of the survey program,
which it is hoped in time may lead
to a plan for saving what remains
of the physical history of St. Au-
gustine and utilizing a well-arti-
culated city plan, based upon the
development of the natural and his-
torical assets existing here.
After a series of conferences be-
tween Mayor Fraser and repre-
sentatives of Carnegie Institution
and the National Park Service dur-
ing the summer of 1936, a com-
mittee was appointed with a mem-
bership containing certain of those
locally interested as well as a num-
ber of persons of nation-wide pres-
tige interested in the possible con-
tributions which the story of this
area might afford to the American
history. Also, i'. was decided to
hold a preliminary meeting of the
National Committee in Washington
on October 26, 1936, at which time
the organizations of an historical
survey was discussed and certain
tentative conclusions reached.
Among other things, the committee
took cognizance of "the importance
to, future generations of the his-
tory and culture' of early Spanish
settlement on this continent", and
particularly "of the first permanent
white settlement in the United
States (at St. Augustine)" where
the committee believed "that the
historic setting should be faithfully
preserved and that it should ex-
plore every avenue and possibly to
the end of preserving, restor-
ing and constructing such sec-
tions of the old part of the city as
were once within its fortifications
to the extent which documentary
evidence and other reliable data and
research will permit".
As a first step in the study of a
proposed plan of development it
was determined that a sub-com-
mittee should be formed, to furnish
to the full committee information
regarding the documentary data,
"legendary and factual, bearing on
the settlement of the city by the
Spanish and subsequent occupa-
tions and development relating to
the architecture, customs, and
means by which early settlers util-
ized local material to replant old
world civilization in the new". This
sub-committee furthermore was in-
structed to begin archeological ex-
cavation work immediately to un-
earth and bring to light such evi-
dence as would enable the National
Committee to consider fully the cul-
ture, customs, and development of
St. Augustine. It was thought that
such information would be useful
in determining to what extent a
development program should be
carried out, affecting city planning,
the possible preservation, recon-
struction and restoration of historic
sites and the general treatment of
St. Augustine as a part of its im-
mediate environment.
Immediately after the formation
of the National Committee and its
first meeting in October, Dr. John

C. Merriam, who had agreed to
serve as temporary chairman, in
consultation with Mayor Fraser
and other representatives of the
City of St. Augustine, agreed upon
the setting up of a staff having as
its purpose the conduct of the his-
torical survey to provide data for
the report of the sub-committee on
fact finding.
In passing, it should be noted that
a second sub-committee was decided
upon to formulate recommendations
on policies of development. The
work of the Historical Survey staff
was also to provide a basis for the
report of this second sub-commit-
For the purpose of facilitating
the activities of the sub-committee
on fact finding, the' National Com-
mittee placed in Dr. Merriam's
hands the problem of selecting and
organizing the personnel to carry
out the work of the historical sur-
vey. Verne E. Chatelain, formerly
the chief historian and acting as-
sistant director in charge of the
Branch of Historic Sites and Build-
ings of the National Park Service,
Washington, D. C., was selected to
direct the historical survey, follow-
ing his appointment as Research
Associate on the staff of Carnegie
Institution of Washington. Subse-
quently, the members of Sub-Com-
mittee No. 1 on fact finding were
named, as follows: Dr. Waldo G.
Leland, Permanent Secretary,
American Council of Learned So-
cieties, Washington, D. C.; Dr. Her-
bert E. Bolton, Professor of His-
tory, University of California; Dr.
A. V. Kidder, Chairman, Division
of Historical Research, Carnegie
Institution; Dr. William E. Lingel-
bach, Professor of History, Univer-
sity of Pennsylvania; Dr. Matthew
W. Stirling, Chief, Bureau of Amer-
ican Ethnology, Smithsonian In-
stitution; together with Dr. John C
Merriam and Mr. Chatelain.
It should be added that to finance
the historical survey, the City of
St. Augustine and other interested
persons pledged two thousand dol-
lars, which sum was supplemented
by funds provided through Dr. John
C. Merriam from various Carnegie
sources, as well as by certain as-
sistance given by the Florida WPA
Mr. Chatelain began his work on
November 15, starting first with a
survey of materials to be found in
the libraries in Washington. On
December 7, he came to St. Augus-
tine, where, with the cooperation of
the Mayor and other civic leaders
offices were provided for the sur-
vey in the First National Bank
Building and other personnel se-
lected to assist in carrying out the
program. Including those selected
were: Rogers Johnson, Engineer;
W. J. Winter, Archeologist; Albert
Manucy, Historian; Mrs. Blanche
Reyes, Typist; Miss Vera Smith
,Typist;,and Miss Ruth E. Harris
Secretary. Also it was provided
that Miss Frances Benjamin Johns-
ton, under a grant from the Car.
negie Corporation, should come to
St. Augustine in order to make a
photographic record under the di-
rection of Mr. Chatelain for the
purposes of this survey. Miss
Johnston arrived on December 15
and continued in St. Augustine un-
til January 24. The nature of her
work will be referred to hereafter
and some of her pictures are incor.
poratea in this report.
It should be added that through
the cooperation of the City Man.
ager, Eugene Masters, a WPA la-
bor crew was provided for the
archeological excavation work
which was inaugurated officially by
Dr. Merriam upon his visit to St
Augustine on January 12. This
work has continued to date under
the direction of Mr. Winter, Ar
cheologist, and Mr. Johnson, Engi
neer. On February 1, owing to ai
interruption in the WPA program
a reorganization of this part of the
work was undertaken, and a nev
arrangement made with Mr. Mas
ters, whereby the city furnishes di
rectly a crew of six men to be paid
out of the funds of the City of St
Augustine. This arrangement wil
continue at least through the firs
week in March.
In addition, several members oJ
the staff of Carnegie Institutior
have paid visits to St. Augustine
during the course of the prelimi
nary survey, among them Dr. Mer
riam himself, Dr. Leland, an4
Charles W. Eliot, connected witl
the National Resources Board. A
the time of the October meeting o:
the National Committee it was de
cided to hold a second meeting o.
the committee in St. Augustinc
during the month of March, 1937
The date of that meeting, March 2
marks the end of the period of the
preliminary survey and the report
which follows represents a" state
ment covering the general activi
ties of the research program ti
date and the report of the first sub
committee on fact finding.
Objectives and Values
In approaching the problem o
research relating to St. Augustin
and its environment, several con
siderations may be pointed ou
which have a definite bearing, it i
thought, upon the nature, extent
and justification for such activity
Unlike other problems of historic
research, which have sometime
confronted students of history, i
need here only be mentioned tha
this program has been set up anm
conducted for the purpose of shed
ding definite light insofar as tha
is feasible upon the life history o
this community and with the idea
in mind of translating the result
of this effort into a plan of physical
development, and wise city plan
ning for the conservation, stabili
zation, interpretation and genera
educational use of the material
and values thus discovered.
The student will note among oth
er things that St. Augustine is th
oldest community of the white rac

having continuous history in th
United States, that its racial stock
while basically Spanish, has beer
influenced by other races-Indian
Negro, and other Caucasian stocks
All of these have had their part ir
creating the physical and cultural
environment in St. Augustine. I


- nouse, machines usea, ana metnoas The published guides of the Came-
t of transportation, cannot only be gie Institution of Washington are.
f ascribed to certain causes, but in indices to the masses of archival
a turn are conditioning factors in the materials, many of which are to be
s mores and culture of the people. found in foreign countries.
,l For these reasons they constitute Without exhausting this subject
i- proper objectives of historical re- it may be indicated that during the
i- search and shed light upon the his- preliminary survey a bibliography
.l tory of a city and a region. It of printed materials has been
s should be noted in passing that made, which, while not complete by
very few people, even students of any means, affords an opportunity
.- history, can describe and explain of suggesting further researches
e the primitive machinery and the looking toward the preparation of
e methods of manufacture, from su- a completely adequate bibliogra-
e gar cane, of syrup and sugar, the phy. For this purpose the card in-
:, appearance in the growing condi- dex and other aids to be found in
n tion, and use of, indigo, the proc- the Library of Congress, as well as
i, esses of spinning and weaving cloth in the libraries in this vicinity have
s. from cotton and wool, the prepara- been used.
n tion and the character of certain efforts have been made to dis-
al Spanish dishes, the methods of cover and estimate the value of
It dress and appearance of various special sources of materials such as

should also be emphasized that the social classes which once lived in t
history of white settlement in this this community, or the types of s
community, which dates from the schools and teaching which once had M
year 1565, has passed through many vogue here. i
successive and distinct phases of A full utilization of the pan- I
development. Each of these has its scientific method of research in this 1
own peculiar significance in the historical field will lead, it is. sub- I
story as well as a relationship to mitted, to a much more complete I
what existed before and to what comprehension of the life history t
was developed afterwards. It of St. Augustine. And when these s
would seem, therefore, unwise to studies have been made and their f
settle upon any one particular time full significance has been brought A
level as the point of emphasis, to the attention of scholar and the 1
either in the matter of historical layman alike, there should be de- t
interpretation or physical develop- veloped in the citizen of this com- i
ment. Rather, it is thought that unity, as well as in the visitor, a 1
the philosophy of research and de- better realization of the charm and I
velopment should be one having as historical values of St. Augustine, I
its purpose the gradual unfolding represented in its climate, its nat- Y
of the story, considering origins, ural scenery, its physical historical I
causes and effects and the various resources, and such modifications 0
contributions of all natural and hu- and artificial elements as have been l
man influences to progress as mea- introduced by man into the natural
sured in terms of time and change. setting. The preservation of the I
In this connection, the fact should assets of St. Augustine--its natural 1
be stressed that St. Augustine, far charm and its historical resources i
9 from being a dead and abandoned -presents a social challenge, which 1
area, is a living, growing social or- it will be interesting to discover
ganism. The object of research whether the community will meet.
should be to single out the individ- Viewed in its entirety, a pro-
ual historical sites, buildings, other gressive research and development
structures and remains, to find eve- program in St. Augustine should
dy possible shred of historical evi- result in making this place a great
'dence as to the record of these laboratory of history, as well as in
places and the general life story of the fine arts and social democracy,
this community, and to stabilize, useful not only in understanding r
preserve and accentuate this physi- more fully how life progresses, but
cal history and the story which effective because of its objective
goes with it, insofar as possible realism, far more than the books
consistent with civic progress and and the class-rooms can be, in edu-
social well-being. Research should eating all classes of citizens in
give the student the clue to the fun- what may be termed "historical-
damental historical values existing mindedness".
here, and then a wise program of Finally, it should be pointed out
development should serve to put that research respecting St. Au-
these resources in a setting which gustine should pay careful atten-
will unify their physical treatment tion to the relationship of this area
and presentation under conditions to other regions in the United
as harmonious and as conducive to States. Comparisons and contrasts
public welfare as is possible. between colonizing efforts here and
elsewhere under different auspices,
Insofar as the written source ma- will prove both fascinating and
trials are concerned, the ideal pro- valuable, and will lead to a better
gram of research certainly should comprehension of the entire scope
be to ascertain fully the nature, ex- of American history. As in study-
tent, location and condition of this ing history elsewhere, attention
material, and to effect the concen- must be given to the fact that St.
tration of the original manuscripts, Augustine was, through several
et cetera, or copies thereof, in a centuries, a frontier outpost and
central place of deposit, preferably conditioned as such, that it repre-
* in the historical museum and li- sented the northern-most advance
brary, which it is to be hoped may of Spain along the Atlantic sea-
be developed in connection with the board, that much of its story is in-
general program hereafter for St. extricably interwoven with con-
Augustine. This material not only flicts involving other nations, first
will throw light upon the many France, then Great Britain, and r
problems of proposed development eventually the Americans them-
and restoration, none of which selves. Throughout its history, un-
should be made except inthe light til the time of the American Civil
of rigid tests of historical accu- War, the military theme is very im-
racy, but also will lead to the time portent, as is the relationship of
when monographs dealing with St. Augustine to other centers of
particular aspects of history in St. Spanish and French culture and to
Augustine and eventually a defini- cities such as Savannah and
tive history, dealing with the entire Charleston.
story, can be written. Undoubted- Sources of Information and Their
ly, too, much of this source mate- Treatment in the Preliminary.
E rial itself eventually should be pub- Survey
lished, not only the manuscript rec- The first consideration involves
ords, but rare editions of books now the problem of printed materials,
f several centuries old which at pres- insofar as they exist for the study
ent are almost entirely inacces- of the history of St. Augustine and
' sible. Added to these prospects for its'environments. The student will
research and scholarship will be the not be disappointed in the number
development of studies looking to- and variety of printed books, pam-
Sward the complete collection of the phlets, circulars, newspapers, et
1 traditional stories, to be gathered cetera, for the study of this re-
systematically from different fam- gio. Of course, there is no such
ilies in the region, a collection of tiing at present as a definitive his-
e pictures and the recorded studies tory of St. Augustine, and no pub-
, involved in the engineering, photo- listed work has appeared which
graphic and archeological activi- considers all possible sources of in-
i ties, begun under the preliminary formation for such a study. There
survey, and possibly to be continued are monographs concerned with
in a further program of research. special aspects of the field, which
0 Respecting archeological re- have been done reasonably well,
a search, it should be noted that the such as those of Mrs. Connor on the
preliminary survey already indi- period of Menendez and the earli-
c cates its great value not only in est Spanish period, and Miss Bre-
I the field of prehistoric origins, but yard's pertaining to the British,
5 as well in the historic period. Ar- the second Spanish, and the Amer-
cheological studies and the written ican periods, in the Florida State
r sources will go hand in hand in the Historical Society series. In this
r ideal program of research, and in connection every volume of the
passing it is well to note that such series, edited by Dr. J. A. Robert-
a method has been used in the pre- son, eleven in all, as well as the
h liminary survey with interesting quarterly magazines, have been
- results to be referred to hereafter valuable. Mention should be made
- in this report. here of works, also published under
The iaeal method of research for these auspices, such as Siebert's
, this program, it is believed, should work on the Loyalists of the Revo-
Y be pan-scientific, that is to say, lutionary period and Whitaker's.
t every science and art should be having to do with the commercial
s given full consideration in order trade with the Indians in the Brit-
r that all aspects of community life ish and Spanish periods, notably
- may be fully appreciated. Signifi- that of the Panton, Leslie Com-
" cant studies for this region mnay be pany.
n made in the fields of physical and Interesting published works,
, human geography, climate, foods, many of them rare books in French
* medical history, anthropology, ag- and Spanish now out of print and
riculture, plant ecology, paleontol- difficult of access, give to the stud-
- ogy and geology. ent the sources of the earliest
The ordinary methods and dis- Spanish and French colonization.
ciplines in history encompass a For instance, De Bry's Brevis Nar-
i much more limited field of research, ratis preserves the unusual pic-
involving often a consideration tures of LeMoyne dealing with the
t only of written source materials, early Indian life of this region.
f However, the subtleties of human Probably no single collection of
life are rarely to be gleaned and early pictures of Indian life in
understood as a result of mere writ- America has comparable value, un-
Sten records. Few men ever record less it is that of White's collection
" a full analysis of themselves, their relating to the Indians of the Vir-
i neighbors and their environment ginia region. Fortunately, also,
in writing, and even to the extent there are fairly accurate accounts
t to which they make a practice, the in published form containing the
f subjective coloring of prejudice sources for the Ponce de Leon
Sand attitude necessitates great cau- story, and that of Menendez.
f tion on the part of the student in General narrative histories of St.
e the use of written sources. Conse- Augustine, such as those of Fair-
Squently, the practice of using con- bauks and Reynolds, provide illu-
, sciously, as a contribution to his- minating if not altogether com-
e torical evidence, the collective dis- plete surveys. Moreover, several
t ciplines of all other sciences and important contributions have been
- arts, particularly physical records made to the church history of St.
- in the realm of natural sciences and Augustine such as those of Shea,
o archeological evidence, will stimu- Kenny and Urte, the last pub-
- late interest on the part of the stu- lished in the Historical Records andt
dent, all of which will add to the olic Historical Society. There is
sum total of information and un- also published in a recent pamphlet
f derstanding of life in St. Augustine. from the Smithsonian Institution
e The physical environment of a peo- a Seventeenth Century letter of the
- pie, when carefully studied, will Catholic churchman Calderon, de-
t shed much light upon the reasons scribing the Indians and Indian
s for their successes and their fail- missions of Florida. Works like
;, ures respecting their individual and that of Winsor, in his Narrative
. collective enterprises. The geog- and Critical History, afford dis-
.1 raphy of St. Augustine is very sig- cussion of bibliographical material
s nificalt, as is its climate, its fauna, as well as an historical summary
t and its flora. The study of the do- especially of the earlier period, in
t mestic equipment of a Spanish the same way, Parkman has value,
d kitchen, other furnishings of the and likewise Bourne and Priestley.

and East Florida, as well as the
laying of plans for their copying
and eventual concentration in one
magnificent deposit is an enterprise
worthy of any research institution
in this country. It is believed that
no more valuable contribution to
the study of American history
could be made at this time than the
massing and systematic use of all
documentary materials, wherever
found, on St. Augustine. While in
this report no attempt can be made
to deal with all the ramifications
of this problem, yet it should tbe
pointed out that it is a task which
will take careful organization and
skillful workers, in libraries cov-
ering many parts of the United
States and foreign countries to
bring this material together as a
partial basis for a definitive history


hose in the Buckingham-Smith
and Lowery collections, some of
which are in manuscript as well as
n published form. Such work as
has been done thus far in this pre-
iminary survey with newspapers
points to the fact that there is
probably a great deal of informa-
tion to be gained from such printed
sources of material, although un-
fortunately newspaper files in St.
Augustine are not available local-
y except for the period from 1889
;o the present. It should be said
n passing that newspapers were
published here as far buck as the
Eighteenth Century and there is a
published here as far back as the
with the period of American occu-
pation. Such a private collection
of newspapers, as that of Mr. Phil-
ip Yonge of Pensacola, containing
St. Augustine newspapers since
1830, can be mentioned as one col-
ection offering considerable possi-
bilities for investigation. The
newspaper files in the Library of
Congress offers much, as also
newspapers of Jacksonville, Savan-
nah and Charleston, wherein ma-
terials relating to St. Augustine
are likely to be found.
Bibliographical studies of this
preliminary survey have dealt in
the second place with problems of
manuscript material. In consider-
ing this field it should be noted that
in the aggregate this form of writ-
ten sources constitutes by far the
largest single field of endeavor for
future research. Such guides as
those of Carnegie Institution of
Washington, already mentioned,
and Dr. .Corse's list of Floridiana
to be found in .the Library of Con-
gress, point to the almost appalling
masses of manuscript source ma-
terials, comparatively little of
which has been published. Among
the foreign archival deposits cer-
tainly the most significant is that
of the Papeles Procedentes de la
Isla de Cuba, to be found in the
Archive General de Indias at Se-
ville, Spain. In this collection, ap-
proximately 58,000 documents have
been calendared by Carnegie Insti-
tution of Washington, covering in
general the period from 1761 to
1821 and dealing with such subjects
as Indian problems, colonial fi-
nances, military, social and relig-
ious matters. While copies of some
documents of the Papeles have been
made, a great proportion of them
are still inaccessible to students of
this region and the working of
them presents a practically virgin
field for investigation.
Another great deposit of manu-
script material pertains to the East
Florida papers to be found in the
Library of Congress. These con-
tain for the years from 1740 to
1821 a variety of items, such as
correspondence with the British
authorities, royal regulations and
orders, documents relating to the
delivery of East Florida to the
United States, the embargo and the
revolution of 1795, Indian presents,
negro problems, plans of fortifica-
tions and public buildings, edicts,
proceedings, secret correspondence
of the Governor, and many other
subjects. The Papeles and the East
Florida papers constitute only two
of many such archival deposits.
Others are to be found in libraries
in France, Great Britain, Rome,
Mexico City and elsewhere. At
Tallahassee in the State Archives
are found source collections in
manuscript form for the period
from 1821, such as data upon land
grants and other official documents.
In the city vaults in St. Augustine
are official manuscript records in-
volving various transactions of the
city government, particularly since
the beginning of the American pe-
riod of occupancy in 1821. These
last named records are fairly com-
plete from the year 1840.
Manuscript sources involve the
student in researches in almost
every direction. The St. Augus-
tine Historical Society Library con-
tains photostats and copies of many
sources of this type. The library
of Fort Marion National' Monu-
ment also contains valuable photo-
stat material, secured from the
War Department through the his-
torical activities of the National
Park Service. The Fountain of
Youth Library has a collection of
photostats of source material some
copied from the Lowery collection
in the Library of Congress, includ-
ing maps, the Buckingham-Smith
collection in New York, and from
the Library of the Wisconsin His-
torical Society. Of value also are
such records as the field notes of
engineers, more particularly those
relating to the Clements' survey of
1833-34 and those recorded with de
la Rocque's survey in the year 1788.
Of most unusual significance are
the early Catholic church parish
records of births, marriages and
deaths, of which there is almost a
complete series from the year 1594.
The condition of these records is a
matter of great concern and it is
hoped that out of the activity ol
the preliminary survey there may
come some plan for their preserva-
tion and more general use. Al
present they are in such shape as
to be practically inaccessible. Dr
J. A. Robertson, already mentioned
has collected several thousand pho-
tostats of manuscript source docu-
ments pertaining to Florida his-
tory, of which many involve espe.
cially St. Augustine. There is much
material of a similar nature in the
collections of Brooks, Mrs. Connor
Buckingham-Smith, and Lowery.
It can be stated without fear of
contradiction that the work of in-
vestigating, classifying, and giving
careful study to the manuscript
materials relating to St. Augustine

this City.
Along with the photographic rec-
ord prepared by Miss Johnston
there has also been prepared a
"case history" of the house struc-
tures so photographed, setting out
in as much detail as possible the
history of these structures. An
effort has been made to arrange a
chronological grouping of the sub-
jects of these photographs. Case
histories for other houses and
house-sites also have been prepared.
Another type of pictorial record
with which the survey has been
concerned is that of archeological
excavation work. Each step of ex-
D cavation, as it has been developed,
a would become the subject of care-
r ful pictorial study, which used in

and publication for St. Augustine.
As another consideration of im- i
portance, the subject of carto- I
graphic material will appeal (
strongly to the student. During ]
the preliminary survey photostatic
copies have been made of many
important maps applying to this
region, involving every period of
white occupation. In this connec-
tion, guides to certain map collec- r
tions and bibliographical references
to many published maps have been
noted. To attempt to evaluate com-
pletely the importance of carto-
graphic material in this field of t
course would be impossible in this c
However, a few observations
should be made. The best single
index to maps is of course that of
Lowery involving his valuable col-
lection, now deposited in the Li-
brary of Congress. Dr. Corse had
made a valuable map collection and
has brought together as well, ma-
terials on the Minorcan colony at
New Smyrna. The guides to man-
uscript materials in the Library of
Congress and in foreign archives
contain many references to maps,
many of them in manuscript form
and as yet inaccessible and unused
by students of American history.
Publications such as Winsor's, re-
ferred to previously, list and pub-
lish interesting maps relating to
St. Augustine. The Florida His-
torical Society publications have
also been the means of publishing
important maps, sketches, and
Some of these map records, es-
pecially those in pictorial form,
give much information regarding
the extent and degree of the city
from time to time. They are, of
course, the best sources regarding :
the position of various houses, the
location of ancient defense lines,
the moats and other military for-
tifications and outposts. Especial-
ly significant in this connection are
the maps of Drake 1586, Arredondo
1737, de la Puente 1764, the British
tax map for the period 1763-1783,
Stork's map for the British Ad-
miralty 1766, the unsigned British
map of 1782, de la Rocque-1788, the
Clements' Survey 1834, and a
sketch map made about 1885, which
pictures the streets, houses and
other structures of that period.
The preliminary survey has given
much attention to pictorial materi-
als, which of course have peculiar
value in research, having as one of
its principal objectives the possible
re-development of certain physical
features including houses and other
structures in St. Augustine. Pic-
torial materials, to be'found in the
period prior to the American Civil
War, are of course somewhat
scanty. Attention has already been
called to the work of the artist Le-
Moyne, dealing with early Indian
life in this region. Noteworthy
also is the pictorial element upon
some of the early maps of St. Au-
gustine, of which a good example
is the Drake map of 1586, showing
the Fort, some of the houses, ves-
sels lying in the harbor, and the
geographical setting. Mention has
likewise been made of the map of
St. Augustine, dating about 1885,
which contains pictorial represen-
tations of various houses and
streets as they appeared at that
time. In the survey thus far there
have been accumulated certain
sketches, probably antedating the
Civil War period, such as one fea-
turing the Moat and City Gates and
the coquina bridge crossing the
Moat, and another sketch from the
harbor emphasizing the entire
shore-line of St. Augustine front-
ing upon Bay Street, dating pos-
sibly before 1861.
With the more general use of
photographs in the post-bellum pe-
riod there has come down to us a
fairly complete record of features
of the town and region for this pe-
riod. Old stereotypes, of which the
St. 'Augustine Historical Society
has a large collection, cover a range
of subjects including exterior and
interior house views, street views,
pictures of gardens, and of trans-
portation facilities, such as the an-
cient ox-cart, and the horse-drawn
tram cars.
Of great value from an historical
standpoint is the comparative
study of the street scenes and
houses of earlier periods in con-
junction with recent pictures taken
from the same locations. In the
survey there has been an attempt,
more or less successful, to arrange
pictures dealing with the same sub-
jects in different periods of time
which show the effects of time and
change on the physical environ-
ment in St. Augustine and vicinity.
Very significant was the discovery
during the course of the survey of
Sthirty-three 11x14 plate negatives
taken probably in 1882, and found
Sin cleaning out a storeroom in the
* City Hall, all made apparently at
the same time and covering more
Sor less completely the principal
Streets and features of St. Augus-
tine. Possibly no prints had ever
Been made from these negatives
Before being ordered under the sur-
vey program. They constitute
most important historical evidence.
As a special feature of the survey
the photographic activities of Miss
Frances Benjamin Johnston should
be mentioned. Following the prep-
aration of a list of approximately
fifty historical buildings and other
structures, Miss Johnston in her
very effective way has made a most
unique record of the major physi-
cal historical aspects in St. Augus-
tine. Her contribution in preserv-
Sing a faithful record through pho-
Stographs of historic architecture,
: splendidly artistic, and yet faith-
; fully accurate, is one of the fea-
! tures of the survey likely to have
e lasting significance. Such work of
Course calls attention to the chief
historical assets still remaining in



T TELI EDNl E 14`0 U '


New St. Johns Ice Co.,,


conjunction with the field notes of i
the archeologist and the drawings i
and measurements prepared by the I
engineer, give a summary of this
phase of the program. Photographs
also have been used to record the i
appearance of important artifacts I
discovered thus far in the prelim- i
inary survey. The pictorial ma- i
trial to date includes old prints, i
maps with pictorial features, photo- I
graphic enlargements, such as those
prepared by Miss Johnston, stero-
types and film strips. In this last
connection film copy records of
manuscripts, maps and other illus-
trations have been made as a part
of the records of the survey. Many
groups and individuals in St. Au-
gustine have had a part in contrib-
uting to the collection of pictures,
and this work represents one-of the
finest cooperative activitjes'.4jithe
program thus far. Fortuifathe, too,
is the student in history in having
for his use rather adequate collec-
tions of pictures at the St. Augus-
tine Historical Society, and at the
Public Library, as well as less com-
plete collections of Fort Marion,
the Fountain _of Youth, and in the
files of several local commercial
One of the principal sources of
information developed by the pre-
liminary survey involves the inter-
esting field of archeological inves-
tigation. This investigation is giv-
ing attention to both the prehistoric
and historic periods in this region.
The archeologist, as a part of his
activity, has made a preliminary
study of prehistoric mounds, both
sand and shell, and while no sys-
tematic effort, has been made to
compile the full data on the loca-
tion and nature of these mounds, a
tentative bibliography dealing with
the work of earlier archeologists
in this region has been brought to-
gether throwing light upon prel
historic man as well as prehistoric
animals. There of course remains
very much to be done in this field
of investigation in any future re-
search program which will be de-
veloped in St. Augustine. In pass-
ing, it should be noted that even in
excavation work, the primary pur-
pose. of which is to determine the
nature of historic sites, pottery and
their artifacts relating to the abor-
gines have been discovered, pre-
served, and photographed. Arche-
ological effort relating to the his-
toric period has involved excava-
tions for the purpose of obtaining
the exact location, measurements,
and other data on the Moat along
Orange Street to Fort Marion and
a "sampling" of certain historic
house-sites, such as that at 56 Ma-
rine Street, to develop evidence
regarding ancient house founda-
tions and artifacts which pertain
to the life of the people. This
sampling process during the period
o- preliminary survey,, indicates
the considerable potentialities of
this method of developing historical
evidence. Archeological work re-
lating to historic sites is, of course,
closely coordinated with the. re-
search in the written records to de-
termine as fully as possible "the
case history" of such sites. Need-
less to say, no reconstruction work
could be done in St. Augustine in
a development program without the
accompaniment of a basically sound
archeological research. The field
notes of the archeologist, as in the
case of the field notes of the en-
gineer, and of the photographer
accompanying such activities as has
been mentioned, constitute impor-
tant historical evidence developed
during the course of the prelimi-
nary survey., I
Aside from archeological remains
developed through excavation, be-
low the surface of the ground, there
are left in St. Augustine many in-
teresting structural materials in
the forms of walls, portions of
walls of ancient -buildings, arches,
gardens, wells, chimneys, et cetera.
Some of these have been the sub-
jects of photographs and a partial
recorded list has been prepared.
Undoubtedly much historical value
is to, be attached to this form of
In addition, structural remains
include, of course, the historic
,house itself, constituting as it does
one of the probable historic records
of St. Augustine. In connection
with the comments regarding pho-'
tographic activities of Miss Johns-
ton, attention was .called to the
preparation of a list of approxi-
mately fifty historic structures,



among them the Burt House, the
so-called old Spanish Treasury
building, which is an outstanding.
period house both from the stand-
point of its exterior and interior
furnishings, and having important
historical value, contributing to a
knowledge of historical architecture
and also of many phases of the do-
mestic and cultural life in St. Au-
Such historical evidence has, of
course, tremendous psychological :
appeal in the educational program
to be associated with the proposed
plan of development and provides
one of the main features of objec-.
tive reality linking the present with
the past.
The problem of collecting histor-
ical evidence concerns, to be sure,
many other possible sciences and
arts. Local historians from time
to time have made records of oral
traditions, recollections and specific
unrecorded information, dealing
with the home life of the people,
special events, religious obser- \
vances, goods including recipes for
now almost entirely forgotten'
Spanish dishes, dress, military
events, famous legal battles and,
in fact, an almost unlimited range
of information which is of interest
to the community in connection
with its -political, economic and
cultural background. Fortunately,
this material has become the sub-
ject of papers of the local Histori-
cal Society as well as for special
feature articles in the newspapers.
Needless to say, there is much yet A
to be done in this connection and a-
systematic attempt should be made
in any research program hereafter
organized to carry forward this
Furthermore, a study of language .
elements and the electrical recoird- *
ing of voices of representatives of -
chief language groups in the com-
munity offers a range of possibili-
ties which might eventually lead to
the production of a linguistic atlas, '
such as as been worked out in New
England under the auspices of the '
American Council of Learned So-
A point of close connection with ,
the study of language is the con- /.
'sideration of other types of demo-
graphical'material as a part of the
general historical evidence, of this
area. For instance, there is an.
opportunity for anthropological
studies concerning both prehistoric
and historic stocks in this area.
Already extensive skeletal remains
have been uncovered which will en- :
able the student to study the size, .
bony structure and other anthropol-
ogical features of various racial
groups here. As a special feature,
a local committee organized by the
St. Johns County Medical Society
is engaged in an affiliated Invest'
gation of the history of medicines, -
surgery and health conditions in St. :
Augustine. In addition, much at-
tention can be given to the minutiae |
of mores and customs for which
not only the written records con- |
tain material, but information toir""
secured from representative living
persons of different racial stocks.
A study of names also offers fasci-
nating questions from such stand-
points as the consideration of the
origin of the name, the transfer
from one place to another of names:
and persons, as well as variations.
i:L names which have been developed.
from time to time. Again the de-
velopment of folk songs and Io
tales in their relationship to th
cultural development of St. Augus
tiiie, it is submitted, will be o
great interest and worthy, of se.
rious 'research.
Finally, there should be cons*
ered in connection with the deve!l6..9
ment of historical evidence relay
ing to the life..and growth in St.
Augustine, certain ecological ._Sa1,.-I
trials. This field of researca p- '
eludes the problem ofnatural tea-
sation in its affect uponhuman bl- .:
ings. Aside from general questis 's,
of climate, soil, rainfall' and' syA-
shine, considered' intheir.)ffe on the development ,of certain so-.
cial forms and activities, there, are
involved such specific considera- i
tins, Las .: meteorology, zoelogy,
g -ography, both physical and hu-:
man,'biology and botany. Wi hput
taking up in detail consideration -
of the special contributionsi: o.
these fields of scientiflc.acti %i to
the problems in human histo y, aa- ,4
affecting this region, i should be '
said that human jausation fnds
(Continued on Next Page) : i



John Temple Graves II Has

Fine Message For Citizens

Strikes Inspirational Note
as He Talks on

SOne of St. Augustine's sincerest
admirers is John Temple Graves II,
of Birmingham, Ala., a former
Floridian, and one of the South's
best known newspaper men, editor,
author, columnist, and orator.
Mr. Graves was in St. Augustine
for several days this past spring,
renewing old acquaintances. He
made some interesting discoveries,
and one of the most interesting was
the scope of the Restoration Plan.
Knowing Mr. Graves' interest, the
editor of the Record invited him to
contribute to the Restoration Issue
of this newspaper. He sends the
following inspirational message,
which every citizen should read
carefully and take to heart:
By John Temple Graves II
No one can visit St. Augustine at
this moment with a mind's eye to
the restoration plan and fail in ap-
plause for those statement of the
plan who say that restoration is
only a part of what is offered.
Neither can one take inventory of
the almost infinite historic wealth
there without understanding that
even in restoration the problem is
not merely how to restore, but also
what to restore.
Unlike Williamsburg, St. Augus-
tine comes to its grea' day a "go-
ing concern". Williamsburg was a
forgotten hamlet when the restor-
ers came, but St. Augustine meets
its own restorers as a modern com-
munity, a .amous and popular holi-
day place, a city as living and alert
at this moment as ever in the cen-
turies it recalls. Also unlike Wil-
liamsburg, St. Augustine's mem-
ories are many-colored. The history
that is cherished in Virginia has a
wealth of chapters but they are
chapters all in the progress of a
single people, records of one great
Anglo-Saxon epic. The history St.
Augustine knows, on the other hand,
with even more chapters, is not a
story of one civilization but rather
a drama of several civilizations that
crossed, contended and fused.
Williamsburg is a descendant of
John Smith, the Englishman, but
St. Augustine descends from Osce-
ola, the Indian, Ponce de Leon, the
Spaniard; Ribault, the Frenchman;
Oglethorpe, the Englishman; An-
drew Jackson, the American, and
Flagler, the modern developer. And
still unlike Williamsburg, St. Au-
'v gtind seems to have more historic
products intact, more original stone
standing, more first things remain-
ing. So much of the history that
was sofght to be served at Wil-
liamsburg was without material
remainders that reproduction was
the great job. But in Florida's
shrine a wealth of originals re-
mains, and the great job would
-seem to the discovery, selection,
l location, environing and preserv-
g of these.
An office building hides an an-
ilent church spire. A circus banner
advertises incongruously the oldest
/ school house. A gas tank affronts
t kn old world sky line. A stream of
modern traffic dissipates the spell
of quaint and memory-laden streets.
Newt door to lovely things are un-
fL To*I ely ones that don't belong.
Crowding historic treasures are
utilitarian. things that spoil the
treasuryr and could serve the utility
elsewhere just as well. Spain is
confused with England, Indian
trinket with French art, Menendez
with Andrew Jackson, the sixteenth
century with the seventeenth or
eighteenth, and from many a
storied stone or plank the sun and
rain take ruinous annual toll.
To separate one civilization from
Another and save them all. To pro-
:tect history from holiday and holi-
day from history and have them
both. To take inventory of a mil-
lion precious relics and administer
them with a science that will pre-
serve them and an art that will dis-
"l play them. These are the triple
tl.ks in which the Carnegie Insti-
tutiofr, the American Council of
SLearnem Societies, the Smithsonian
Institution, the Social Science Re-
search Council and the Carnegie
Corporation, under direction of
Verne Ohatelain, with the assist-
ance of the St. Augustine Historical
Society, the mayor and press and
commerce chamber of St. Augus-
tine, and Florida's leading citizens,
are joined. They are tasks which
require, it seems to me, an even
wider joining. Not all the state
r: and national attention and aid that
Fa*ure given now to St. Augustine's
dream will let tha, dream come
: rue unless there is a certain una-
ilimity of sentiment and of sacri-
urce on the part of the people of St.
w-as/ ugustine themselves. Even at
Williamsburg where there was so
mucl less complication of problem
,and of interest many feelings were
hurt as the restoration program
was pushed. Many individual citi-
Szens were unable to value the total
,above their own fraction. Many
'little interests were cried against
\- the big interest. Many temporary
advantages were sought to be re-
Ij i'jned against the long advantage.
id in St. Augustine, from the very
S ure of things, a human inclina-
h to hold out one's own against
j great co-operative enterprise may
r 'even more pronounced.
l s an outsider who has arrogated
himself the right to love this
-Iied and beautiful city both for
t it is and for what it is dream-
Si compound the arrogance per-
S when I attempt thus to preach

ie people of St. Augustine on
necessityy of supporting their
project. Bpt there are times
,the outsider's eye, if it is hon-
'its reio'4d,.rees more clearly
ioes the one closer up. In my
Ve all that is planned at St.
tine now and that has at-
the glowing attention of the
country depends for its at-
St upon the ability of the
of St. Augustine to agree
fhis instance the whole is not
u grual to the sum of all its
is considerably greater


John Temple Graves II, news-
paper editor and columnist, who is
sincerely in love with St. Augus-
tine and is following the Restora-
tion Program with deepest interest.
Mr. Graves was a visitor here this
past spring, and revelled in this
quaint oldest city, also in the' Res-
toration plans, which he said he felt
were vital to the preservation of the
charming atmosphere that people
come here to enjoy.

Fact-Finding Record
Made By Chatelain Is
Restoration Summary


(Continued From Previous Page)
many of the well-springs ir envir-
onmental conditions, whether such
are realized directly or indirectly.
The foliage on the trees, the flow-
ers in the gardens, the humidity in
the air, the general esthetic prob-
leis affected by plant life, the river,
the bay, the ocean; the types of
food, the absence of mountains, the
presence of various forms of a-
quatic and land life, the length of
seasons, the temperature-all these
considerations and many others, de-
veloped through careful ecological
studies, will go far in explaining
human existence as it affects St.
Augustine and its vicinity. It is be-
lieved that such studies should be
made a part of the program of re-
search, which is being suggested in
this survey report.
In connection with the survey, it
should be added that research has
been conducted in several special
fields, looking toward the develop-
.,:ent of an orderly plan of growth
and well-being for the future of
F Augustine. Questions have been
raised and partially answered as
to the economic basis of this com-
munity, its industries, its trades,
its businesses, or in other words the
means by which community life is
now sustained and the question of
how the proposed development plan
n.ay modify such conditions here-
after. Questions have been raised
and answers sought to the prob-
lem of why the tourist business,
which centered in St. Augustine
fifty years ago, has been displaced
at least in part and has gone to
other parts of Florida or elsewhere.
Studies have been made relating to
traffic and traffic control in re-
lationship to a proposed plan of de-
velopment. All of these problems
need further research, as do special
legal considerations involving the
effective use of zoning, eminent do-
main, the possible development of
easements relating to private prop-
erty and the question of what is the
best form of business organization
to carry forward fad the incidents of
tourist trade in the event of a de-
velopment program. Needless to
say, modifications of state law and
city charter along the right lines
will be necessary, and the research
now being carried forward through
such local committees of citizens
and the bar as they have been
formed, are very necessary, look-
ing toward ideal civic planning.
This report has not referred spe-
cifically to a great deal of historical
evidence, the details of which are
to be found in the files and special
reports of the St. Augustine His-
torical Survey. An examination of
bibliographical records, photostatic
copies of maps and other data, stu-
dies of the pictures of different
periods and subjects, special re-
ports, sketches, and case histories
of sites and houses, and studies
contributed by certain local his-
torians such as Miss Emily L. Wil-
son and Mrs. E. W. Lawson, and the
artifacts uncovered thus far in ex-
cavation work, as well as other
records developed in the course of
the survey, while incomplete in the
sense that no exhaustive research
has been made, points to the amaz-
ing range of possibilities for future
activity in this field.
Historical Features in St. Augus-
tine and Vicinity
A-Indian Mounds
1. In St. Johns County, Dupont's
and Rhotan mounds (Pellicer
Creek vicinity), Moses Creek
Mound, Sanchez Mound and
others (north of St. Augus-
tine), and mounds along St.
Johns River.
B-Indian Village Sites
1. Seloy.
2. Tolomato.
3. South Indian Village.
4. St: Johns River Indian Village
1. Tolomato Village.
2. North Indian Village Site.
3. St. Augustine Harbor Channel.
4. Anastasia Island Battery Po-
sitions and Coquina Quarries.
5. Fish Island.
6. North Beach.
7. Kurth's Island.
8. Matanzas Inlet and Fort.
9. Cape Canaveral (place of Ri-
bault's shipwrecks).
10. Plaza.
11. Plantations: Portenope, etc.
12. Powder lots, south and west in
city limits.
13. Missions, Tolomato and Cano
de la Leche.
14. Tocoi.
15. Picolata.
16. 1840 Massacre.
1. Marion.
2. Matanzas
3. Diego.

4. Picolata.
5. Francis de Pupa.
6. Peyton.
7. Moultrie (Camp).
8. Caroline.
9. City defenses:
a. Moosa.
b. 2nd line.
e. 3rd line.
d. Redoubts.
10. Powder House lot south at
Lewis Field.
1. Spanish Trail.
2. Bellamy Trail.
3. King's Road.
4. Shell Road.
5. Anastasia Island Road.
6. Tocoi Road.
7. Picolata Road.
1. Fort Marion.
2. City Gates.
3. Old Wooden Schoolhouse.
4. Arrivas House.
5. Watkins House.
6. Old Curiosity Shop.
7. Spanish Inn.
8. Slater House.
9. Spanish Treasury.
10. U. S. Post Office.
11. Trinity Episcopal Church.
12. Lindsley House.
13. Bigelow House.
14. McMillen House.
15. St. Joseph's Convent.
16. Murat Coffee House.
16A House, 46 Bridge.
17. Graham House.
18. Llambias House.
19. Casa de Cannonosa.
20. Webb Memorial Library.
21. Oldest House.
22. St. Francis Barracks.
23. King's Bakery.
24. Archway near Bay and Treas-
25. Worth House.
26. Sanchez House.
27. Slave Market.
28. Catholic Cathedral.
29. Public Library.
29A Davis Shores Building.
30. Fatio House.
30A House, Green & Aviles.
31. O'Reilly House.
32. Don Toledo House.
33. Alcazar Hotel.
34. Ponce de Leon Hotel.
35. Villa Zorayda.
36. Memorial Presbyterian Church.
37. Spanish Cemetery.
38. Huguenot Cemetery.
39. Shrine of Nuestra Senora de
la Leche.
40. Fountain of Youth Park.
41. Indian Burial Ground.
42. Seawall.
43. Treasury Street.
43A Puerto Berde.
44. St. Augustine.
45. Fort Matanzas.
46. Arcade, Snow Residence,
47. Constitucion Monument.
48. Cordova Hotel.
49. Grace M. E. Church.
50. Bridge of Lions.
1. St. Johns River.
2. Moultrie Point.
3. Lewis Point.
4. Ocean Shore Boulevards.
5. North Beach.
6. South Beach.
.7. Palm Valley.

Col. Humphreys

Had His Home

On Bridge St.

Came to Florida as In-
dian Agent Over Cen-
tury Ago


Settled In St. Augus-
tine After Planta-
tion Destroyed

There was no Cordova Street
when Col. Gad Humphreys picked
out land on the west side of Maria
Sanchez Creek near the bridge for
his home to replace the plantation
establishment that had been burned
and pillaged by Indians a mile from
Fort King. The house, with its
wide porches stood about where the
building now is at the northwest
corner of Bridge and Cordova.
There were few houses in that
section, and those not so near that
a man accustomed to life in wide
spaces was likely to find his neigh-
bors too close.
Col. Humphreys was born in Con-
necticut in 1786. His wife was
Mary Stoddard Lamed of Pittsfield,
Mass., a fit helpmate for a man born
to spend the best years of his life
in active military service and Indian
controversy. He was in the 1812
War and wounded at the capture of
York, Upper Canada. He rose
steadily in the army until the peace
establishment resulted in a short
time of rest for him. But the
President sent him to Florida as
Indian agent in 1822. Humphreys
brought his wife and two little
daughters with a third child soon
to be born. It must have been a
difficult life, accustomed as Mrs.
Humphrey was to the fates of an
officer's wife's existence. For eight
years the Humphreys lived at their
plantation half a mile frdm the can-
tonment at Fort King and the
greater parrt of the place was run as
a sugar plantation. Humphreys
i ade friends with the Indians. He
was a big mani who weighed 250
pounds, and impressive in Indian
minds. He is described as having
a memory in keeping with his phy-
sique and is said to have learned
Seminole in. nine weeks so that no
interpreter was needed.
Several children were born while
the Humphreys were living on the
plantation, but family records list
only one, Catherine as "born at
Seminole Agency". Catherine and
another daughter did not marry.
One of them became a teacher in
St. Augustine and is recalled by
several pupils for her clever dis-
Humphreys served until 1830 as
Indian agent, but remained on the
plantation afterward until Indians
finally destroyed it.
A story is told of Humphreys
that gave rise to the expression
"Colonel Humphreys and John
Hicks compromise." Hicks was a
leader among the Indians. Time
came when Hick's visits to the can-
tonment or to the agent's own house
half a mile away became less and


St. Augustine's CITY GA


Proxy Marriages

, Recorded Here

less frequent. Then came a day
when Hicks and his Indians ap-
peared in a haughty mood. They
went to Humphreys' house and,
while his Indians waited oun on the
ground, Hicks strode up the high
steps to the porch and, when in-
vited in by the Colonel, Hicks re-
fused to shake hands. Instead he
strode across he room to the special
big chair in which the colonel
always sat during talks and drop-
ped into it, announcing "My chair,
my house, my land. You no like."
Realizing that the time had past for
soft words, Humphreys told Hicks
to take another seat. Hicks repeat-
ed his statement of ownership of
everything more strongly than at
first. Humphreys knew it was
action or else the Indians would be
out of hand. Reaching over, the big
man picked up Hicks, walked to the
piazza rail with him anl threw him
over down among the surprised
Indians who had come expecting
anything but the downfall of their
leader. Picking him up the band
got away, while Humphreys pre-
pared for mont any trouble. In a
few days Hicks appeared once
more, in quite a different mood, and
from that time Hicks and Hum-
phreys got along particularly well.
After Colonel Humphreys came

to St. Augustine he became influ- Frances Humphrey, daughter of
ential and for last ten years was Colonel Gad.
judge of the probate court of St. Mrs. Humphreys' continued to
Johns County. He .:as Worshipful live in the Bridge street home with
Master of St. Johns Lodge of her daughters. She lived twenty
Masons. He was a member of the years after her husband's death.
City Council, mayor for a time, She is described as being "excep-
and among the papers found in the tionally lovely." A photograph of
city vault by the staff of the His- Mrs. Peck and Mrs. Humphreys,
torical Records and State Archives taken in hat is now the garden of
Surveys are invoices, receipts and the Old Spanish Treasury, shows
inventories from U. S. Arsenals and Mrs. Humphreys still a fine looking
warehouses at Albany, N. Y., woman with refined face and pleas-
Philadelphia, Schullkill and Boston, ing expression under the lace trim-
once records of Col. Humphreys in med long tie cap she is wearing.
1816. The inventory is in his hand- Next west of the Humphreys on
writing, when he was a Major at Bridge street was the Atwood
Pittsfield in charge of recruiting, place, with a fine grove. A tragic
Colonel and Mrs. Humphreys were affair whispered by old folks con-
grandparents of Charles Floyd cerns a death of one of the family
Hopkins, former postmaster of St. from yellow fever. The story runs
Augustine. Great grandchildren that the young son of the family
are Charles F. Hopkins, Jr., George bravely arranged a funeral pyre
Couper Hopkins, Mrs. Howard E. and cremated the body out in the
C. Hawkins, Mrs. J. D. Ingraham, orange grove.
Mrs. Arthur Sackett, and Robert Now all this corner is filled with
Kingsley Hopkins. I siness houses.
Colonel Humphreys died in 1859. _____
While the old colonel passed away
just in time to miss the tragedy In Spanish Escrituras, it appears
of the War between the-States, the that in December, 1784, "Capt. Juan
family had a representative in a Utrar having met a British pirate
son-in-law, father of Charles F. and being responsible for value of
Hopkins, who had resigned after his cargo, empowers agents to col-
the Mexican War and married lect monies due him in Havana."

Early in April Washington
papers contained a little account of
the doings of a member of the dip-
lomatic corps, whose wedding was
taking place by proxy in his South
American country. The bridegroom
in Washington found himself a se-
cluded spot, with a piano therein,
arid, during the time it was esti-
mated the actual marriage cere-
mony would be going on, the ab-
sent bridegroom played appropriate
melodies, and in his own mind went
through the same ceremony in
which his proxy was representing
him in South America.
This brings to notice the many
records contained in the Spanish
Escrituras of proxy marriages for
residents of old St. Augustine; also
in briefs from the East Florida
papers which Miss Wilson made for





30 Cathedral

Telephone 182

Koolie Says:
"What a Contrast! The old method of preservation and the new. The Ancient City Gates of
St. Augustine, one of the best known historic relics in America, formed an important part of the
defense system of the old city, being a part of the old wall which protected the early settlers from the
attacks of Indians and other enemy. Life was just as precious to our early ancestors in those days as it
is to us during the present era. It is true that the Indian has become a peace-loving citizen of our
country, there is no invading enemy-BUT ravaging disease still attacks, and against this "invader"
Electrolux GAS Refrigerators can be a very helpful guardian. Food can be kept at proper temperatures
in this modern device and will dispel those germs which work havoc during summer heat .. and, too,
there are many beneficial delicious dishes which can be prepared in an Electrolux that will bring new
energy and vitality to tired bodies. One of the 1937 Electrolux models is pictured above together with
a replica of the City Gates which today comprises one unit of Fort Marion National Monument."

We Heartily Endorse St. Augustine's Restoration Program

'me *m et~gj

"When better meals are prepared-the coqk will surely
select one of our efficient gas ranges. Their efficiency has
made them famous, their economy accounts for their un-
usual popularity. Our modern gas ranges come in the style
and size that will add to the attractiveness and efficiency
of your kitchen."


flw sir

"Hot water in your home is a present day convenience that
haes become almost a necessity. What a comfort to always have
hot water at the turn of a faucet handle, especially when the
cost is only a few cents a day! We invite you to further In.
vestigate the pleasures to be had from a modern auto-
matic gas water heater."


Old Spanish Custom,
Is Evident by Many

the St. Augustine Historical So-
ciety collections.
In 1784 power of attorney was
given by Josef Thadeo Mazot. In1
tending to marry Maria Michaela
Josefa de Burgos Trias (Havana)
he deputies Nicholas de Trias,
father of the bride or her brother,
to take his place at the betrothal.
In 1786 Pablo Catafal gave pow-
er of attorney to Pedro Carne to
be his proxy in marriage and just
before Christmas in the same year
Geronimo Olivi authorized Naciso
Joseph Cantos to be his proxy at
his marriage.
The most influential bridegroom
who was too busy, family tradition
states, to go to Cuba for his wed-
ding, was one of the Fatios and
the bride was Maria de la Luz Arre-
dondo of the noted family of that
name connected both with the first
and second Spanish regimes in East
Modern bridegrooms who abhor
the paraphernalia of the ceremony
and its immediate preliminaries
m.y wonder if -ome of the old
bridegrooms might not have taken
advantage of an easy way to evade
their supposed duties.
(One of the "Record's series of

Ir '-I I I-?-LI- I -L L~

I Il I I I I III r

_ I___. ~


I ,

I (





SUNDAY, JULY 4, 1937

15U TY NJOi AV ITV IOJ JT4 l U 0 X I 1r 1 iI j"fr

The Entire NATION---
Is Watching the Progy& Of Our





* we have reason to SMILE and show our -


The Program



As a result of our successful ef.

In the few weeks that the ma~
chinery of intensive research has
been in operation preparatory to
the actual restoration of the his-
toric "Mother City of the Na.
tion," the eyes of the nation and
the world as well have been fo-
cussed on St. Augustine.

forts millions of additional visi-

tors from over the world are be-

ing and will be attracted to our
city. St. Augustine will become
a shrine of our nation. All will

come to St.. Augustine with aln
awed reverence in honor of the

The time has come for us, the citi-
zens of St. Augustine, to put our
shoulders to the task and cooper-
ate to the limit in the launching
of our program of restoration
and preservation.

fearless and intrepid explorers,
as well as those patient settlers

who braved untold dangers that
we may live a life of peace and
prosperity today.

St. Augustine is now a center for
historical study and research; a
place for the world to see history
as a continuously growing thing
from the earliest times down to
the present. Ours is a program
that will continue over a long pe-
riod of time, and one which when
completed we can point to with
pride of achievement.

Yes, millions will come and manny
will remain, to become one of us.
Our city will grow and with it
added prosperity and the fullness
of life.


The Restoration program will
give great impetus to our city,
St. Johns County and the State

Preservation and Restoration
will be possible only by real ac-
tion. All must help. It is a def-
inite appeal to our CIVIC
through our wholehearted coop-

of Florida as a whole.

These things and many otlierS

will be our reward for our full

cooperation prompted by our

CHAS. LEYVRAZ, Colimrissionier

C. S. SMITH, Commissioner

WALTER B. FRASEB, y& Comi~ iss~ionft

GLEN THOMPSON, Comiffissi6, '
RAY V. WILSON, Commissioner,



















Biographies Of Women Of Earlier Day Show Much Of Interet

Old Plaint Of

"No Clothes"

Echoed Then

Eternal Feminine Notable
in Stories of Early


But Great Strength of
Character Shown in
Time of Stress

A Spanish Flora McFlimsey came
to St. Augustine in the 16th cen-
tury. It is one of the first detailed
mention of women there is in St.
Augustine history.
She wrote a letter and plaintively
wailed "And I have not enough
clothes in which to fall dead." She
adds a painful reason for her
"Nothing to Wear" condition. It
was on account of the loss of St.
Elena. This colony was one of the
first fostered by Menendez and it
met with such disaster that the
women were moved here for safety.
Mention of women in the very
earliest chronicles is scanty. Mrs.
E. W. Lawson, chairman of the pro-
gram committee of the St. Augus-
tine Historical Society, recently ar-
ranged a series of biographical
sketches on interesting feminine
characters of an earlier St. Augus-
tine. Some of the results, carried
on this page, are compiled from
written records, family chronicles,
recollections of old family friends,
servants, etc.
The Smith-Treschka Group
Introducing Miss Lizzie Smith.
If she had been christened Eliza-
beth, she most assuredly left it far
behind, for everyone referred to
her in the familiar manner as "Miss
Lizzie". Mere mention of her name
makes it evident that only pleasant
memories attach to Miss Lizzie
The first thing usually brought
out is her musical talent, specifi-
cally that she "played the organ
in the Cathedral. It clings to her.
One story relates to a prominent
business man, who declared when
he knew Miss Lizzie had gone into
the Cathedral to practice he would
steal very quietly in the back way,
find a place out of her sight and
revel in the music she produced
when free with her own thoughts,
unconscious of any listeners. It was
a rare treat at such times.
Some of her pupils still recall
pro he pleasure they had in receiving
stan*er instruction, since she rarely
ing. sented to take a pupil unless
was A showed real desire to study and
licambtAY. application.
remain dney Lanier, poet of the Soutl,-
the gr, whose visits to Florida have
shrine ,n much written about, and who
mains,'turn wrote in friendly style of
...estne state, found a congenial com-
K.panion in Miss Lizzie. She has
kg cold several people that Lanier
Arplayed on a wind instrument and
ien that she used to play his accom-
ad' paniments with much enjoyment.
pr Whether Miss Lizzie's memory
Is most closely connected with her
music or with the home in which
the family lived might be ques-
tioned. For the two storied, bal-
conied, coquina and wood house at
the northwest corner of Treasury
and Charlotte Streets, seems to
have been impressed on memories
of people.
At the time of which most is re-
called the family consisted of three
sisters, Mrs. Smith and two unmar-
ried ladies, Miss Josephine Tresch-
ka and Miss Mary Treschka; with
Miss Lizzie as the fourth in the
family group. ,
Miss Lizzie had a delicate ap-
preciation of humor and was quite
sure she had a relative who pos-
sessed the most uncommon combi-
ration of the three most common
.lames in use. His name was John
Brown Smith, and he was her own
father. Some richly bound books
eI contain the inscription "To Lizzie
M. Smith from her mother, Mrs.
'tJohn Brown Smith."
-The date of the Florida arrival
Bf the family of Mrs. Smith herself
s nbt yet found, but it was prob-
ably about the time the United
States took over Florida. The name
of Mrs. Smith's parents is spelled
Strischka on the small monument
in Tolomato Cemetery. Joseph
Strischka died in 1854, aged 83
years. His wife, Christina Otilia,
lived four years longer, but was
only 75 when she died. There was
an idea in the family that these old
people could have told something
f a connection with the Royal
S Court of Sweden. Once a year a
faithful Lydia visits this lot. Miss
Lizzie had just had the stone
cleaned when she took Lydia to the
cemetery, pointed out the burial
place of her grandparents, and told
Lydia not to forget it so long as
she lived. Lydia Papino, who is
still living, remained with the
Smiths and Miss Lizzie for over 30
years, attending the latter at the
time of her last sickness and her
During the fire of April, 1887,
when the blaze started in the St.
| Augustine Hotel, spreading both
west and north, and the Cathedral
was so badly damaged, the fire was
checked at Treasury Street, but not
before the Smith home at the north
side of the street had been dam-
et so much that the family went
\ for the summer and the house
paired on their return. Some
Is were made and the parlor,
had been on the second floor,
Isly, was arranged on the
\ floor afterward.
called that during this fire
o2;Miss Lizzie's aunt, Miss
te.Treschka, who had died
previous day, was carried
'ihe threatened home and

the bay front. It is said it
to be moved twice as the
.d. One account says it
y placed in front of the
another locates it in the
he corner of Hypolita and
4ere the Elks Club is now.
L-red in La Leche Ceme-
Slater removed to San Lo-
,where Mrs. Smith was


tine Strischka, and school closed in
1829, still are carefully kept. They
are signed by the Sister Superior
of St. Joseph's for Diligence in
Geography, Improvement in Gram-
mar and last but not least pleasing
is the wide gilt-bordered Premium
card for History.
Rare souvenirs of a school girl
of a century ago.
Mrs. Reginald White who read
this paper before the St. Augustine
Historical Society in May, 1937,
supplied many of the facts about
Miss Lizzie's personality and ex-

"Grandmother Avice" Notable

Figure Of Old St. Augustine

buried, and also Miss Lizzie.
The father, John Brown Smith,
it is said, came from Virginia or
South Carolina. The family was
held to have been well-to-do before
the war of the 60's. Losses during
the war years resulted in Mrs.
Smith and her sister opening the
little store often described as The
Thread and Needle Shop.
It occupied the southeast room in
the house and older St. Augustine
women used to describe shopping
there for the merest ribbon or bit
of finery a dignified operation
verging on the purely social, not at
al; commercial. The stock carried
*ist' have included fine articles,
for one lovely lace collar given to
Lydia, and which she still preserves,
bore the price mark, $15.
Several descriptions insist on a
customer having to enter through
a door in a garden wall. In this gar-
den, next to the Hernandez house,
later a hotel, was a very old and
large pittosporum, pronounced in
that unspoiled time as "Petty
Sporum." At one time a door was
cut into the house wall for entrance
into the store but it was walled up
after the business was finally
Miss, Lizzie belonged to the so-
cially ceremonious era of St. Au-
gustine. Having received 'a call,
she was most punctilious about re-
turning it within ten days, always
leaving all tie calling cards eti-
quette then required.
After the war when the Bar-
racks provided a full round of gay-
eties, Miss Lizzie was always
among the guests and has been de-
scribed as a popular partner at
dances, because of her grace and
ease placing her among the best
dancers of any evening.
Just when Miss Lizzie's fondness
for cats became pronounced is not
known but the cat tribe found her
a devoted friend. One of her cats
was described as 15 years old. This
delight in the feline tribe was so
well known to her friends that any-
thing in the cat line, pictures, trick
cats, statuettes, big cats, little cats
were showered on her at any gift
day and many times in between.
One little white china cat, with two
tiny bells on a ribbon around its
neck, is still leading a cherished ex-
There are many who remember
with pleasure the joy a visit with
Miss Lizzie meant. Opening the
wooden door in the garden gate,
the caller was at once translated to
another age. The fragrance of .a
Devoniensis rose brings back a re-
membrance of the large bush at the
north of the house, usually cov-
ered with bloom and one was given
a bouquet. The old cat sunned him-
self on the walk and yawningly
greeted the caller.
When dusky Lydia, aristocrat of
her race, opened the drawingroom
door one was indeed in an atmos-
phere of charm. Petite Miss Lizzie
with her "Grecian bend", her tight-
ly drawn back hair, distinctive
voice and enthusiastic interest in
the world, welcomed one with the
grace of the socially great.
On the large mahogany table
one always found the latest books,
the French and English magazines.
She always continued her French
and, with some of her young
friends, studied Spanish at an age
when few attempt any new study.
The Tuesday Morning Readings
were of particular interest and
brought together a delightful group
of cultured women.
Her handwriting was as. unusual
as her character. In an age when
it was fashionable to have quite.
angular letters Miss Lizzie wrote
with each letter vertical and sepa-
More than once she loaned for a
fancy dress affair the beautiful
white taffeta dress which she had
worn when presented at the French
SIt is indeed a loss that she did
not write her reminiscences, for she
liked people and had known so well
the socially prominent among St.
Augustine's winter guests, the lit-
erary men and women and others
of distinction, who only knew cor
city as a winter resort.
In 1914, when the fire started in
the Florida House, west of the
Smith home, Miss Lizzie was ill,
aloneand helpless. Almost forgot-
ten, her friends suddenly recalled
her condition and hurried to her
aid. She was removed before the
fire reached the house, but few ar-
ticles were saved. The old house
was wrecked beyond repair. The
lot was finally sold but not without
much dread for Miss Lizzie of liv-
ing elsewhere. It was then Miss
Lizzie gave some of her silver to
Miss Blanche Alexander, believing
that they had the same ancestress,
a Queen of Sweden.
#After visiting Mrs. Martin Hard-
in and Miss Burt, she lived for a
while at the Bennett. When the
Monson was remodeled, she made
her home there. So true was she
to her home street that she pre-
ferred to occupy a room on the
Charlotte Street side of the hotel,
giving as her reason however "that
the salt air from the Bay was too
strong" for her.
Her pupils were devoted to her
as were members of the Cathedral
choir. Mrs. Hamblen, who was the
soprano, each year sent to Miss
Lizzie Fromajardis, crispes and
other Easter cakes.
The closing months of Miss Liz-
zie's life were spent with Miss Lon-
don, still on Charlotte Street. For
more than eighty years she had
been a part of this old town and it
is well that her name be kept in
While three romantic explana-
tions are given why Miss Lizzie
never married, it is not likely any
can be substantiated, so they are
not developed here.
Three awards given Mrs. Joseph
Brown Smith when she was Chris-

have been cramped to maintain the
family home in good style.
In spite of the continual dangers
to which St. Augustine had been
exposed, the girlhood- of Senorita
Avice must have had much gayety.
Stories of horseback rides on the
Cubo (the San Sebastian River
strand west of the city) dancing

Charming Story Is Told
of International

"F. Avisse" is the mark on the
upper edge of the gracefully fash-
ioned silver mug that Francis Jul-
ian Avice brought with him to St.
Augustine when he came from his
home in Le Mans, France.
A smaller similar cup, the small-
er being for his son, went to a
grandson, Gordon Avice Oliveros,
who carries the old Avice name.
Avice Oliveros has this smaller sil-
ver mug in Key West.
But this perfect piece of the sil-
versmith's simplicity of art stands
on the altar in the home of one of
Francis Avice's granddaughters in
St. Augustine. Day after day it
holds its handful of flowers, in
memory of the unknown grandfath-
er who lies buried in his homeland
across the Atlantic. But Grand-
mother Avice sleeps on this side of
the ocean in old Tolomato Ceme-
tery, the Campo Sento of the Span-
iards of Floride Orientale.
While this is intended to be a tale
of Grandmother Avice, naturally
one cannot tell of a grandmother
and not speak of grandfather espe-
cially as Grandfather Avice seemed
such a romantic sort of person to
the grandchildren who had never
seen him.
Francis Avice was a lumber man
in the days when Florida was one
great forest full of big old trees,
oaks particularly that shipbuilders
in Europe wanted. So Avice traded
in lumber lands in East Florida and
shipped his lumber abroad. His
close companion was Charles Rob-
iou. He also came from France.
Avice and Robiou, with their French
gallantry and politenesses, with
their devotion to all the sports of
St. Augustine, soon became much
desired beaux of the city.
So when Avice plainly showed his
devotion to Maria, daughter of the
house of Acosta, granddaughter of
Don Juan Villa Longa, and Robiou
began to look for favor from
Maria's intimate friend, Rufina Mi-
randa, daughter of Pedro Miranda,
the two girls became the envy of
all their acquaintances.
The home of Mrs. Margaret
Acosta, mother of Maria Necia,
was on the street from the Gover-
nor's House to the City Gates, St.
George Street, adjoining the home
of Senora Acosta's father, Don
Juan Villa Longa. That Villa Longa
at one time owned the entire west
side of the block from what is now
Hypolita Street, once San Patricio,
to the Street of the Cradle or Cuna
Street. The Villa Longas and their
children and grandchildren had
more than the average pride, for
hadn't this Don Juan been sent
from Spain with a detachment of
the King's soldiers to guard the
great fort, when it was completed
years before the Spaniards first
left Florida to the English? His
wife and son and two daughters
had come with him.
Margarita had married Don Do-
mingo Acosta, and it was their
daughter, Maria Necia, to whom
the Frenchman became devoted.
The name of Avice is connected
with a number of grants and tracts
of woodlands, some on the North
River, another down the Matanzas,
others out on the St. Johns where
in 1834 one tract he acquired the
right to buy is distinctly described
in the contract as that tract on
which old Fort Picolati was built by
the early Spaniards.
Whether it was his frequent ab-
sences or his many references to
his desire to return to live in Le
Mans, where his old home and his
sister were, made Maria Acosta
hesitate to consent to be his wife,
the descendants weren't told. But
for some years Avice wooed in
vain. Then at last, so family tra-
dition runs, Maria Acosta laugh-
ingly declared "Francis, Truly do
I see I shall have to marry you to
be rid of you."
And when Grandmother Avice
told that, her small granddaughter
would say "But, grandma, how
could you be rid of him if you were
married to him."
So they were married. Avice
continued to make at least one trip,
sometimes more than one, a year
to France where his sister, the
Countess le Bouttier, kept begging
him to bring his wife. But nothing
would move the wife to make the
voyage across the Atlantic, no not
in spite of all the loving messages
that came from her sister-in-law,
nor the attractions of his French
home, as Avice described them to
B- when a little daughter caje,
she could make her gesture and the
child was named Carolina Eulalie
for the French aunt. Each time
when Avice returned from France
he brought fine presents to his
family. One the grandchildren
loved was the dearest tiny watch.
Then there came that terrifying
time when Francis Avice failed to
return to St. Augustine. Instead
came desolating words of sickness,
death and his burial at his old
home. But his memory lived in the
St. George Street house. Mean-
time the little namesake of the
French aunt was growing up.
They lived with Grandmother
Margaret Acosta in her house. She
had sold her share in the old Juan
Villa-Longa house after her father's
death. She was the same Marga-
ret Acosta who sold the tract of her
father to Mary Ann Davis, wife of
the deputy marshal and jailer in
Fort San Marcos. This has since
been known as The Mary Ann Davis
Range on many a deed, its south
border being the north side of
Joyner Street.
Plainly the Acosta-Avice house-
hold with its two widows could not

She was always arrayed in her best
Indian finery, and brought us chil-
dren all sorts of Indian trinkets
and beads of every description.
Then the day came to be moved
back to the reservation and Fran-
ciska came to say 'adios'. She

Miss Dummett,


Famous Here

parties, of events in which army
officers were escorts, picnics at
Gianoplys appear and sailing par-
ties, too, with Tia Sebia for favor-
ite duenna. Carolina Avice was
never a background figure. So it
was no wonder that Bartolo F.
Oliveros was attracted so seriously.
The Villa Longa pride sometimes
came to the surface. But times
were changing even then and more-
over the young man was son of
that old Bartolo Oliveros who lived
hard by the City Gates and every-
body knew that he did not .ack for
anything. This Bartolo his name-
sake, was high in favor and, as the
father aged, Bartolo handled much
business for him with sound results.
So the wedding day was set for
the Oliveros-Avice marriage. The
bridal robe was begun-finest sheer
gauzy stuff. The skirt was very,
very full, "bouffant," Francis Avice
would have said, if he had watched
its making. Row upon row of nar-
rowest satin ribbon was sewed
round the flowing skirt. The bodice
also had its share of the fine ribbon
decoration. It was adorable. Caro-
lina Eulalie was filled with breath-
taking pride as she pictured the ap-
pearance 'she would make in it as
she would kneel at the altar to
pledge her marriage vows.
And then the unexpected hap-
pened. The Cathedral priest-he
was French-appeared at the Acos-
ta-Avice home.
"But Carolina, daughter, you
cannot, surely you will not come to
the altar in such a dress-that
bodice so low in the neck-no my
child, it is not possible."
Then started a struggle. It
wasn't going to be satisfactory to
insert a bertha to shield the low
round neck Carolina so delighted in.
Truth to tell, Carolina had no mind
to spoil the pet effect.
It resulted in Carolina and her
mother rushing at another wed-
ding dress and with only a week
to the wedding day. The new dress
was just like the original wedding
gown-copied with all its rows
upon rows of stitched ribbon trim-
ming, but with a neck high enough
to satisfy any church authority
when the wedding party faced the
That, however, didn't end the
wedding dress story. So soon as,
the wedding party returned from
the church to the Avice home, the
bride dashed upstairs and when she
came down to greet the reception
guests, much to their delight, it
was in the banned low neck original
wedding gown. That is how Mrs.
B. F. Oliveros became noted for
havifig two wedding gowns for one
wedding. It is said one of them was
kept in the family for many years
until quite recently indeed, but it
has now vanished just as so many
other bride's dresses have done.
The sister of Grandfather Avice
was still hurt because, the broth-
er's wife and widow would not
cross to France to visit her and see
her husband's grave. So no men-
tion of her godchild appeared in
her will. But, after her own hus-
band's death, word of an inheri-
tance reached the Oliveros family
in St Augustine. After much cor-
respondence (still in family pos-
session) and, after many taxes had
been taken from it in France, a
small remainder of what had once
been a sizeable estate finally
reached St. Augustine for the
daughter of Francis Julian Avice
and Maria Necia Acosta.
This is the second chapter in the
local Chronicle, "Account of, the
Oliveros Family," "A Sunday Aft-
ernoon in Old St. Augustine" being
the first. As a sequel to "Grand-
mother Avice" Mrs. George Alba
told of her own mother, Mrs. B. F.
Oliveros, and her interest in and
kindness to strangers, whether a
lieutenant's wife or an Indian
chief's squaw.
Mrs. Alba said "While St. Augus-
tine was a military post years ago
there came a young lieutenant with
a Spanish bride and although there
was much gayety at the garrison
the Spaniard was lonesome as there
was no one with whom she could
speak her native tongue. So the
Colonel's wife, who was a friend .of
my mother, advised her to call on
my mother. Next day the beautiful
wife coaxed, her husband to go with
her to see my mother and so it hap-
pened that I responded to the knock
at the door and there stood this
handsome couple and asked to see
my mother, who came in, and with
the grace of a Queen, greeted them
as they explained the motive of
their errand. At once my mother
was this homesick Spanish wife's
friend. Every day she came to our
home through heavy sand and dust
(as there was no pavement in those
days), happy in conversing in her
native language with my mother,
whose Castilian Spanish was per-
fect. When their company was or-
dered away and they came to say
"Adios," it was with tears and re-
grets, and the Lieutenant thanked
my mother for the, happiness she
had offorded his wife through her
kindness and interest.
"During the time Indians were
imprisoned in Fort San Marcos in
1883, there came the notorious chief
Geronimo and his squaw Franciska.
It was the custom to take the In-
dians in groups for exercise accom-
panied by a guard and interpreter.
One day as they were passing our
home my mother standing in the
doorway and as they passed, the
squaw Franciska (who spoke Span-
ish having been raised in a Mexi-
can .home) sajfl 'Buenos Dias
Senora.' My mother answered in
Spanish, and the squaw ran back
to the guard and begged him to al-
low her to stop a minute to speak
to the 'Bonita Senora' which he did.
Then my mother asked him to allow
Franciska to come and talk with
her. So it was she was a frequent
visitor and always her dinner was
served in the back patio from a
small table by our cook and oh,
how she enjoyed her Spanish meals.




4 I
*0a 1~


With St. Augustine's well planned restoration the value of property will increase arnd' .
'it is our suggestion that you purchase now and participate in the pleasant experi-
ence of living in your own home, enjoying your value-increasing investment.


11 1 1 1. iT

124 Charlotte St.


Real Estate-INSURANCE-Rentals

St. Augustine, Fla.


Telephone 563:

Your Own Home

Local UDC Chapter Was
Named for Adopted
Daughter of City

These facts about Miss Anna
Dummett were copied from the files
of Anna Dummett Chapter, No.
1089, United Daughters of the Con-
federacy, by Sister Esther Carlotta,
S. R., president of the chapter.
The organization was named for
her. The history was originally
given by Miss A. M. Llambias, and
verified by Miss Lucy Abbott. Miss
Dummett was born of English par-
ents, on one of the Bahama Islands,
in the early years of the 19th cen-
About 1830 her father brought
his family to Florida, buying a
large sugar plantation near New
Smyrna, and going largely into the
sugar industry. During the Semi-
nole uprisings of the later 30's all
of that locality became unsafe and
Mr. Dummett moved his family to
St. Augustine, which city remained
the home of Miss Dummett until
her death in 1899, at something
over 80 years of age.
"Miss Dummett remained an Eng-
lish subject to the end of her life,
but was an ardent lover of the
South and warmly espoused its
cause during the War Between the
States. Throughout those' years
she was in charge of the then
motherless children of General
Hardee, her brother-in-law. She
kept them much of the time as near
his camps as possible, rendering
many services to the South and
ministering herself to sick and
"After the end of the war years,
she returned to St. Augustine and
immediately began to devise ways
to honor the memory of the South-
threw herself down on her knees'
and hugged my mother, and cried
as though her heart would break,
repeating over and over 'ah buen
senora adios, adios'. And so my
mother was a friend to an Indian
chief's squaw or Lieutenant's wife,
if she could help or comfort any-
one, that was her great delight."

ern soldiers. To this end she be-
came the moving spirit in raising
funds to erect a monument to the
memory of the Southern dead.
She became the first president of
the Ladies' Memorial Association,
organized in St. Augustine in the
fall of 1866 and was never allowed
to give up the position as long as
she lived. Other ladies working
with her were Mrs. Julia Gibbs,
wife of Col. George Gibbs; Miss A.
M. Llambias, Miss Lucy Abbott,
Miss Isabel Benet and Miss Anna
Humphrey. The monument which
stands in the Plaza is almost as
much a tribute to these undaunted
women and their co-workers as to
soldiers of the Southern Armies,
whose name it bears.
During the latter part of her
life she lived with her niece, Mrs.
J. A. Enslow (nee Madison) and
her great-niece, Miss Anna Dum-
mett Enslow, who later became
Mrs. Sabin.
Eight years after her death,
when a chapter of the United
Daughters of the Confederacy was
organized in St. Augustine, the
name unanimously chosen for it
was Anna Dummett.
There are so many anecdotes of
Miss Dummett it is planned to
bring as many as possible together
in the Woman's Biographical file
of the Webb Memorial Library of
the St. Augustine Historical So-
As president of the Ladies' Me-
morial Association she was instru-
mental in securing the first space
for a inonument site in the north-
west corner of what is now the Ly-
ceum location on South St. George
Street. The shaft stood there until
application was made for its re-
moval to the Plaza. A long peti-
tion sent to an old city council has
been unearthed by the Historical
Records Survey staff, which car-
ried a long list of names of promi-
nent residents. Miss Dummett as
president of the Memorial Associa-
tion was granted lease of a twenty-
foot square in the Plaza for the
monument site. It is related that
in raising funds for the monument
Miss Dummett arranged many en-
tertainments, some apparently spe-
cially intended to capture a junior
audience. One is recalled as fea-
turing ten small boys costumed as
Indians who came on the stage to
the notes of "One Little Indian,
Two Little Indians" and so on.
Possibly some of the "Ten Little
Indians" who assisted in that per-
formance are still alive.
Referring to perils of life on the
Dummett plantation home, The
Historical Society has in its keep-
ing a poster bedstead that was in
use when Indian attacks made

I ---- : -s

flight to St. Augustine necessary. formed one residence at the time of
Two poster beds became mixed, so its building.
that the article in the Society's This is borne out by the fati1ihat
keeping is marked for having the the coquina wall running east and
two head posts of a different pat- west between the two is party
tern from the posts at the foot. wall and the one chimney serves the
The wood is now so frail that the two with fireplaces. Also the arches
specimen is not in condition to be in this wall, which have been closed
displayed. are done with such flimsy material
Although Miss Dummett did not by contrast with the heavy coquina
marry, she brought up three fami- construction as to leave no room
lies of nieces, all children of sisters for any but belief that they were
who married army officers. There originally openings between two
were three girls in each of the large rooms.
groups that made the house their A Spanish coquina wall well is
grandfather, Thomas H. Dummett, located on what is now a party line
had bought around 1840, a merry but from its position and relation to
establishment when all were there, the main section, No. 54, indicates
This is the house known as the the usual location in a patio.
Graham House which has the un- That same Don Juan Sanchez who
usual corner balcony on its second lived in the stone house on the op-
story. posite side of St. George :Street
A descendant of the Dummetts, bought the property at a sale in
who was in St. Augustine recently, 1791, according tb the declaration
said that in the family records is an of his widow Maria del Carmen
account of the escape of Thomas H. Sanchez when she sold her interest
Dummett from the Islands. One in what is now No. 54 St. George
version says from the Baham'as; Street, told in the Spanish Escri-
another says the Barbados. Any- turas of 1803.
way, it is stated, there had been an Since this property was bought
insurrection in that Island and by the St. Augustine Historical
Dummett had to make his escape. Society in 1935, much worf thas
He was smuggled aboard ship, been done under the direction of'the
tucked into one of his own sugar Curator, W. J. Harris, in an''en-
hogsheads. As his, record after ar- deavor to save the structure 'which
rival in this country shows that he showed evidence of decay tand ap-
was not an especially meek person, preaching condition that would be
the insurrection and hogshead story difficult to repair.
seem quite in keeping with other The stairway leading to the upper
known matters, story of No. 54 is in an open terrace
o room at the west, as was custom-
ary at the date of its building.
WO House There are no indications of'bal-
conies on this house as on several
of the 'houses in this group. It is
not known what influenced persons
On S. G rge of similar financial ability and
Sg social standing in their decision to
In ere g include or omit balconies.
Many small details in this house
S have interest for the student of old
architecture. No. 52 St. George
Nos. 52 and '54 have Street, at the north side of the
Com n W l d chimney, has. been known as the
Common Wall and Watkins House from the name of
Chimney the owner, for many years, Miss
Mildred Watkins. Mrs. Gedrge
Gibbs, one of the heirs, stated that
The building at No. 54 St. George when it was purchased it was a.one-
Street, called The Old Curiosity story building and the upper or-
Shop in recent times, is a never- tions were added, the house being
ending object for speculation as to then converted into a rooming
when various portions of it were house.
constructed. Its venerable appear- At the rear of the north wall of
,ance supports the statement that this house are remains of a high
references in the Escrituras of 1803 coquina wall, possibly an enclosure
indicate portions of the house had wall between this and the Arrivas
then been built some time. place.
The.place next north numbered An old headstone was found on
52 St. George Street with a wooden this lot and in the rear garden of
second story and attic, is joined No. 54 it is believed there were
to No. 54 in such a manner as to made several burials at some earlV
compel belief that the two houses date. '

Milanucy- Lolee

""I ~~





of Ancient Coquina Fort Is

Traced Through Centuries

Spain Erected

San Marcos To

Defend Empire

New World Holdings En-
." angered After Ar-
n ada Destroyed


Steps Taken by Don ,
o;to Safeguard Trade
: -Route

,. By Evelyn Drysdale
-New persons realize that the de-
struction of the Spanish Armada by
:.Ahejnglish and the consequent re- .
mq.uishing of the title "mistress of
:'th'esea" by Spain to England, was
:'th1 indirect cause of the construc-
tion of historic and picturesque
Castillo de San Marcos, also known
as Fort Marion. En s The old Spanish fort at St. A
pain, realizing England's su- t the mecca for tourists
premacy on the seas, knew that she Ir. It is tih m ea for tourists
.would have to depend upon her It is a national monument, under t
.would have to depend upon her
*fobrifications to hold her new world Costillo de San Marcos was incud-
'oPsessions, and so it was that on ed the following: "IBy the plan of
:.a- unday afternoon, October 2d, St. Augustin and its suburbs you
'1612; the governor and captain gen- have seen how exposed and defense-
t'y1al.marked out the place were less is the condition of that city-
-Castillo de San Marcos was to be the wall that surrounds it, if such
-Jddtrd, in the name of King can be called, is composed of cactus
-hares II of Spain. Also partici- and plants, as you have noticed. The
-_Ptifig in the impressive ceremonies fort, which is built at the northern
w*te -judges, royal officials and extreme of the city, is incapable of
Sergeant Major Don Nicholas sustaining 24 hours of living, al-
PFihce de Leon. The governor, though its walls are in good condi-
.with spade in hand, broke the tion and are thick and strong, yet
o- oind for -he foundations. The the interior works are very much
'.rst stone was laid about a week deteriorated, the rooms that form
"k'ta ond the work proceeded under the lower part of the four bastions,
St direction of the engineer, are crumbling down owing to the
.ti'naeio Daza. joists being rotten. These bastions
The old wooden fort had occupied should be built upon regular stone
some of the same area on which the arches. To this must be added that
proposed stone fortification was to its accommodations are too small
S ,t^ad. This wooden structure was to shelter all the neighborhood in
So6 dq ed after work began on the the event of an approach by the
k "'!feWstone fort. enemy."
The part started first was the To give protection to the soldiers
I ida. of outer wall along the bay. To ive protection to the soldier
Pt--'By 11 the east, south and west and the citizens of St. Augustine he
'4ill0s ere completed and a small had rooms or casemates construct-
' 6nYwas finished in the northeast ed in the fort. These rooms with
bastion. This room was used as a their six-foot ceilings, were bomb
aai6- 96 the outer walls were entrance, called the demilune, was
&'ie'pTed and a series of buildings built higher, and walls were raised.
t-hRtftg arms and powder and liv- Five thousand palmetto poles were
jjgp quarters for the officials were cut, negro labor was sent over, and
age~rmucted in the parade ground, the line of defense from Castle San
,ore commonly known as the Marcos to the City Gates was con-
Im.ourtyard. These foundations are structed.
still visible. Oglethorpe Comes
W Funds Needed The work had not been completed
Many difficulties were involved in when the English under General
'the construction of the fort, chief James Oglethorpe invaded Florida.
*among these being the securing of They planned a surprise attack.
und Since St. Augustine was Part of the forces went down the
Sestablishe as a military outpost to St. Johns River, captured the little
L: protectt the trade route from Mexico forts known as San Francis de
Sto Spain, it was decided that Mexico Pupa and Fo t Picolata, both on the
eandf ontal-America should pay its, S aRFsl i leading from St. Au-
ehare for the fort's construction. gdstine to Pensacola. The Spanish
SAnother big problem was getting-.utposts were driven in and warn-
5abor. Pleas were made for negroes, ing was received well in advance
rand it was pointed out that the price of the attack on St. Augustine. The
r local slave labor was high. people of the city packed up their
dian day laborers were not found meager belongings and sought
o be very efficient. A practice shelter In Castillo de San Marcos.
uite common in those days was to Oglethorpe, .with a number of
nd jail birds to new regions to vessels and troops appeared at the
workk o',t their sentences, inlet of St. Augustine, landed his
I The .walls -of, Castillo de San troops on Anastasia Island, and
arcos had been completed a com- captured the cattle of the Spanish
aratively short time when the which had been sent there for pro-.
English, -who had. been active in tection. He placed his guns in popi-.
estroying Spanish, missions, made tion and asked the Spanish Gover-
raid on St. Augustine. This was nor Montiano to surrender. Mon-
"Cin 1702.' Governor James .Moore, tiano replied that he should.like to
".ywho was in 4Zharge. of the expedl- shaeq the hand of the Englishman,
motion, trained his guns on the fort in Castillo de San Marcos- This
stand found them ineffective. ie aroused, the ire of Oglethorpe. and
r;sent vesels tb Jamaica to get larg- a, vigorous -bonmbardment ensued.
` er guns and while he waited sev- The bombardment, however, did
,.eral SSantsh vessels entered 'the little damage to the fort. -It shat-
:^harbor,. frightened Moore, 'Who tered the sentkr box, the lookout
-lmade a rather elusive retreat over- tower and part of the parapet wall.
Tland. He 4dd succeed, however, in But 'in the main structure of:the
",,burning a part of St. Augustine. fort the balls did .not penetrate
SThis was th first occasion that more than one ,and one-half feet.
sturdyy old Castillo -de San Marcos d The English tried ,to coax the
i determined the fate of the Sp anish Spanish to leave the protecting
# in Florida. walls of the' frt and only on one
In 1725 Col. Palmer of South occasion' did they 'sallk forth to
tarolina came to the Gates of St. make a surprise attack on the
Au ustine and found that little Scotch Highlanders under Col.

-, could be done with such a fortifica- Palmer. Thb attack brought pri-
ution as San Maros. 's6ners to the dungeon of Castillo
h Rivalry Grows de San Marcos..
S The rivalry between Spain and It was not the guns of the Eng-
d ngland grew. There were diffi- lish that the Spanish feared as
ulties with the Indians, both na- much as the lack of food. The
ions making bids for the fur trade English had blockaded the inlet at
with the red men. Both nations Matanzas and St. Augustine. The
cited their Indian allies to take siege lasted for 27 days and with
he war path against their enemies. a population of approximately
Excitement grew to white heat 2,500, plus soldiers and Indians, it
hen General James Oglethorpe a"n be readily understood why
established the settlement of there should be a food shortage.
Shavawash in 1733, and claimed the Runners were sent to Mosquito In-
St. Johns River as the southern let and further down the coast to
boundary of English territory. He get passage to Cuba and inform the
uilt fortifications at strategic governor of the plight of St. Au-
,points:-to protect his empire, and gustine, .
secured the aid of other colonies The people here were very rest-
nd Great Britain in in making less and eager to return to Havana.
;is buffer state. The lack of guns and the fact that
SThedie were difficulties on sea as many of the soldiers had not been
well m s on land. The Spanish paid contributed to the discontent.
established a coast guard along the Only 613 soldiers were available,
Jklorid6 coast to protect their trad- these including armed Indians and
ing rute from the pirates. free negroes.
S Jenkins' Ear Food Shortage
*; Robert Jenkins, an English- The governor made earnest pleas
bnan, was sailing along the Florida for food, warning that if it were
boast when a Spanish coast guard not sent the garrison would perish.
ehip was patrolling the shoreline. The siege took place during June
'The ctew of the coast guard board- and July, 1740, and the huddling of
Id the English vessel, the Spaniard such a large number of people in
i command whacked off Jenkins' the fort made living conditions in-
jar, handed it to him and asked him describable.
o present it to his majesty with The English became less vigilant
s compliments. Jenkins present- at Matanzas Inlet and supply ves-
d his well-preserved ear before the sels managed to get in the harbor
members of parliament, and told of and succored the people of St. Au-
he depredations of the Spanish gustine. The English made no
directed against English merchants, progress in their siege. Their
Parliament members made a vigor- soldiers suffered from heat. the

*us plea for war, over the protest gnats and mosquitoes and the lack
ef Prime Minister Horace Walpole. of drinking water. Finally be-
.That night bonfires burned and coming demoralized, they left these
tells rang and it is reported that shores.
'Walpole, leaning out of his window, St. Augustine rejoiced when the
Said, "The people are now ringing English lifted sail. They realized
bells. They will soon be wringing that Castle San Marcos had saved
-their Bands." them from destruction.
S Spanish Alarmed Another attack was anticipated,
The Spanish became alarmed and so the Spanish organized a large
he royal engineer Antonio de Ar- fleet. The king of Spain sent over
dedondo, made an inspection of a number of troops and so, in the
(panish fortifications and urged year 1742, we find St. Augustine a
fiat nany of them be reinforced, place humming with activity. The
SIn his report on the condition of Spanish took the initiative and

Old Castillo de San Marcos

ugustine is the finest specimen of mediaeval fortification in this coun-
from all the United States, and many foreign lands, the register shows.
;he care of the National Park Service.

decided to drive out the intruder.
The objective of the Spanish plan
was the destruction of the English
forts on the coast and the taking
of Savannah and Charleston. The
Spanish plans were foiled when a
surprise attack was made by the
English on St. Simons Island, near
Fort Frederica. In the Battle of
Bloody Marsh the Spanish advance
was stopped and Georgia remained
English territory.
Oglethorpe made a return visit to
St. Augustine in 1743. Coming to
the Gates of St. Augustine he heard
the guards on top of the fort calling
to each other, but thought it futile
to scale the walls of the old fort.
Failing to coax the Spanish from
their invulnerable position, Ogle-
thorpe returned to Georgia without
striking a blow.
France and England
The story of the struggle be-
tween France and England for the
possession of North America is
well known. The 13 colonies played
a prominent part in that story .but
little is known of the part Florida
played in the struggle. While
Washington, Wolfe and others were
driving the French from North
America, the English navy was
attacking Spain's position in the
West Indies. In 1762 Havana,
Cuba, was captured by the English
and in the following year Spain and
England made a treaty in which
Cuba was returned to Spain in ex-
change for Florida.
Castillo de San Marcos, called by
the English St. Marks, became im-
portant during the American Rev-
olution. Florida did not join with
the 13 colonies. On the contrary,
it remained loyal to Great Britain,
and became the southern head-
quarters for British activities
against the other colonies. Many
stories from the southern colonies
flocked to St. Augustine. Troops
were drilled at Fort St. Marks. Ad-
ditional room was provided at the
fort by adding a second floor to a
number of the rooms. The holes
where the rafters were strung
across are still visible.
War Scares
At times St. Augustine suffered
:from war scares. Patriot bands'
were formed in Georgia for the pur-
pose of attacking this city. Troops
that were drilled in St. Augustine
took part iri.the attack on Savannah
and Charleston. When Charleston
fell, a number of prisoners were
brought back to-St. Augustine, in-
cluding the lieutenant governor of
South Carolina, General Christo-
pher Gadsden and three signers of
the Declaration, of Independence,
Arthur Middleton, Edward Rut-
ledge and Thomas Hayward, Jr.
Gadsden was confined in the fort
for 42 weeks.
From 1783 to 1821 Castillo de
San Marcos did not play an import-
ant part in the history of Florida.
It was not until the purchase of
.Florida by the United States that
the importance or significance of
the fort comes into the limelight.
With the purchase of Fort San
Marcos, the United States received
all the fortifications in the terri-
Change of Flags
Castillo de San Marcos was in
holiday dress when on Tuesday,
July 10, 1821, the Spanish flag was
hoisted over the fort for the last
time. During the disembarkment
of the American troops, the Amer-
ican flag was hoisted over the fort
for the first time and a salute was
fired. As the American troops
formed near the fort the Spanish
flag was withdrawn under a salute
and the Spanish guards relieved of
duty. While the Spanish troops
marched out of the fort and passed
the American forces, they saluted
each other and the American troops
marched in.
The only light that was ever shed
on the change in the name from
Castillo de San Marcos to Fort
Marion was an order sent out from
the adjutant general's office in 1825
requesting that volunteers who had
enlisted/ be sent to Fort Marion at
St. Augustine. It is known, how-
ever, that the new name honored
the Revolutionary war patriot,
General Francis Marion.
The encroachment of the white
man on Indian territory, and the
efforts to transfer the Seminoles to
the Indian reservation in Oklahoma,
led to the Seminole War. In those
days the Indians had negro slaves
and since the negroes received bet-
ter treatment from their Indian
masters than from many of the
white owners, it was often that
slaves ran away from the whites to
join the Seminoles. This added to
the difficulties between the red men
and the whites.
The Second Seminole Indian War
started in 1835 and was fought in
desultory fashion for an indefinite
period. The Americans imported
boodhounds to run down Indians in
the Everglades. They were unsuc-
cessful, however, since the blood-
hounds were unable to trace the

scent of the Indians into the Ever-
In the fall of 1835 General Her-
nandez captured King Phillip and
his son, Coacoochee, and imprisoned
them in Fort Marion. Coacoochee
was released with the understand-
ing that he would arrange a parley
with the other Seminolesi The
parley was arranged, at which
Osceola was captured under a flag
of truce and brought to Fort
Marion. The purpose of the cap-
ture was to break their spirit and
thus end the war, as well as to rec-
oncile them to the idea of moving
west. To give them encourage-
ment a number of Cherokee Indians
were brought to the fort to parley
with the Seminoles. An unusual
meeting was held in the courtyard
at Fort Marion between the gaily
bedecked Cherokees and the Sem-
inole prisoners. The Seminoles re-
fused to accept the suggestion to
go west, so the meeting was ad-
journed and Osceola and his party
moved to Fort Moultrie in Charles-
ton Harbor. Osceola had suffered
from throat trouble while at Fort
Marion and the cold salt air at Fort
Moultrie aggravated the disease.
In January, 1838, in the presence of
his two wives, Osceola died of
quinsy. He was buried at Fort
Moultrie and his grave is one of
the points of interest in Charleston.
It is popularly believe* that
Osceola died of a broken heart, and
it is true that his grief over the un-
fair treatment to him and his people
might have shortened his days.
The Seminole War, though very
costly, did have the effect of bring-
ing much needed repairs to Fort
Marion. The southeast bastion was
repaired, the seawall was started
and a number of shallow gun boats
were recommended, though strange-
ly enough the Indians had not at-
tacked the fort and there seemed
little danger that the enemy would
approach by water. The Seminole
Indian War brought a period of real
prosperity to St. Augustine. The
city was not only a port of entry
for troops and supplies, but also
the place where troops were drilled.
Confederates Take Fort
Before Florida seceded from the
Union, the fort was seized by Con-
federate troops. At the time of
seizure, there was only the caretak-
er in charge, and he handed over
the keys under protest. Had there
been Union troops here, the spark
that set off the war might have been
at Fort Marion rather than at Fort
Sumter. Seized in January, 1861,
the fort was held until March, 1862.
The Union fleet in 1862 sent gun
boats into the harbor at St. Au-
gustine. The Confederate troops
and the ardent sympathizers of the
Confederate cause left St. Augus-
tine at the approach of Union
The mayor of the town met the
gun boats with a white flag and sur-
rendered the city on the condition
that it be not shelled. The Union
flag was hoisted to the top of Fort
Marion. The next morning the flag
pole was gone and it was suspected
that Confederate women were re-
sponsible for the act.
The Fourth New Hampshire
Volunteers occupied St. Augustine
until the close of the war. Raids
were made by such able Confeder-
ate leaders as Dickison, who kept
Union troops on their guard.
Indians Imprisoned
During 1875 and 1876 the fort
served as a prison for about 72
western Indians who were rounded
up and sent to St. Augustine fol-
lowing many'depredations commit-
ted against the whites who had en-
croached upon their territory. In
charge of the band of prisoners was
Captain R. H. Pratt, who dressed
them in cast-off military uniforms
and drilled them. He decided that
the way to civilize the Indian was
to teach him the English language
and have him mingle with white
people. Women of St. Augustine
volunteered to assist him in teach-

History Of Old

Sea Wall Goes

Back Century

Earlier Barrier Cited;
Description Given From
Dewhurst History

The present Sea Wall which pro-
tects the Old Spanish Quarter from
Matanzas Bay, was built about 100
.years ago, and it is understood that
there was an earlier wall, remains
of which are located probably in
what is now the middle of Bay St.
Here is what Dewhurst's History
has to say about the wall as we
know it:
"The present Sea Wall was built
between 1835 and 1843, under the
supervision of Colonel Dancy now
living (1881) at his orange grove
called Buena Vista on the St. Johns
River. He was then a captain in
the U. S. Army. The Sea Wall is
ten feet above low water mark,
seven feet thick at the base, and
three feet wide at the top, capped
with granite, and extends along the
entire front of the city, from the
old fort on the north to the bar-
racks on the south, about three-
quarters of a mile in length.
Under Colonel Dancy the govern-
ment spent three appropriations of
approximately $50,000 each, hav-
ing spent $20,000 previously in
preparation for the work. Captain
Benham spent two appropriations
of $50,000 each in covering the wall
with granite slabs, as it was found
that the coquina was rapidly wear-
ing away under the tread of pedes-
trians using the wall as a prome-
nade. Much of the pleasure of this
delightful promenade is marred by
the narrowness of the curbing,
making the passing difficult. This
feature is said to be inoffensive to
lovers, who are credited with the
opinion that to see St. Augustine
aright it is necessary to promenade
the Sea Wall by moonlight, view-
ing the rippling waters of the bay,
with the roar of the surf and the
neighboring beach as an interlude
to the sweeter music of their own
It may therefore be seen that the
wall filled social uses as. well as
proving a barrier against the wa-
ters of the Matanzas.
Suggestions made from time to
time with regard to widening Bay
Street, or to filing out beyond the
Sea Wall, and building another
street to the east of the 'old wall,
have brought vehement protests
from various quarters.
The Sea Wall has its very real
place in the historic setting of the
city, and in the hearts of the peo-
ple. The accompanying verses,
which are anonymous, appeared
some years ago in an old guide
book of St. Augustine.
In 1836 Wm. Barcalow advertised
in St. Augustine that he had "re-
ceived a good assortment of Liquors
and Brandies, Holland Gin, Jamaica
Rum, Peach Brandy, Madeira Wine,
Port Wine and a number of other
wines direct from the importer. Any
articles of liquor purchased not
found to be pure will be taken back
and money refunded."

ing the Indians to read and write,
and to give them religious training.
One of the teachers was Miss
Mather, one of the first graduates
of Wellesley College, who ran a
boarding school in St. Augustine.
There was also Miss Caruthers who
assisted with the teaching.
Pratt had the Indians go to school
one-half day and work one-half day.
The Indians took a liking for this
type of education and Pratt de-
cided that if he could establish
schools he could civilize the In-
dians. He started the Carlisle
Indian School at Carlisle, Pa., and
transferred his band there. The
school at Carlisle became a model
for many others in the country.
During 1886-87 about 500 of
Geronimo's band of Apache Indians
from the Southwest were held here
as prisoners. They spent part of
the time in school here and showed
considerable aptitude in drawing.
Their colored pictures of buffalo and
horses have become valuable rec-
ords of their learning. A few of
these pictures still exist. After be-
ing held here for about two years
Geronimo and his band were taken
to Fort Sill in Oklahoma. Some of
this group decided to go to the
Carlisle School.
During the Spanish-American
War the fort was used as a prison
for American troops. About 150
soldiers were held here for dis-
ciplinary reasons.
Fort Marion was used as an
arsenal until about 1907 and about
1915 the St. Augustine Historical
Society was given permission to
have exhibits in the fort and to
operate a guide service.
In 1924 Fort Marion was declared
a national monument and in 1933
it was transferred from the War
Department to the National Park
Service, Department of the Inter-



One of St. Augustine's Old Established Concerns,
Where Friendliness, Cooperation, and
Moderate Prices Prevail.
Job Printing-Engraved Stationery

of Every Description
63 Hypolita Street Phone 440

The Old Sea Wall

The wind blows north and the wind blows south,
And the tides surge in at the harbor's mouth-
The white gulls circle and poise afar
Where the breakers foam on the hidden bar.
The slant sails glisten, the bright beams fali,
And the waves lap low on the Old Sea Wall.

Clear in the Plaza, the three bells chime
At morn, at noon, at vesper, time.
The quaint fort lies in a dream of days *.:'.**
When the Spaniard wended the sandy ways,
When the fair-haired children laugh and call
To the floating ships from the Old Sea Wall.

Progress leaps on the heels of change,
The new grows old, the old grows strange,
And a gayer life flows up and down
The narrow streets of the ancient town
Than ever they knew, those soldiers tall
Who strode long since on the Old Sea Wall.

Now when the moonlight's mellow sheen
Silvers the roofs of St. Augustine,
The lovers linger side by side
On the path that looks on the gleaming tide-
And peace and joy hold the night in thrall-
For love is lord of the Old Sea Wall.
Some Minorcans Of the Turnbull colonists, was their
S spiritual adviser during the stay at
Old St. Augustine New Smyrna and afterward their
In Touch With Home priest in the little Capilla Minor-
quin here to which so many refer-
-ences are made in various property
transfers, of St. Augustine and in
That some Minorcan residents in sfs, f Aug and in
t. A st census Items.
St. Augustine retained relations Also in March, 1786, Dorotea
with their island home is evident Hernandez Gomila gave a power of
by records of the Escrituras. In attorney, saying she owned a house
December, 1785, Luis Busentine, in Minorca and money inherited
owning a house in Minorca left by there. She empowered Jaime Llam-
his wife, gives it to Fr. Pedro Cam- bias to manage the property for
pos to be converted into masses, her.
Fr. Pedro Campos was the priest (One of the Record's series of
who sailed from Port Mahon with Histograms.)'

Indian Visitors From
Other Tribes May Have
Left Relics Behind

Considering what happened in
St. Augustine in January, 1783, it
will not be remarkable if Indian
"relics" are found from tribes far
to the north and midwest. Prof.
Siebert in his Loyalists in East
Florida writes "On January. 12,
1783, not less than 2,000 Indians
attended ten days conclave at St.
Augustine, chiefs of the Mohawks,
Senecas, Delawares, Shawnees,
Mingos and Tuscaroras and 1,200
Cherokees and delegations of
Creeks and Choctaws-they were
subsisted by the Indian superinten-
dent Brow and Deputy Secretary
(Lieut.-Col.) John Douglass. They
said they came to learn about af-
fairs in the south to express attach-
ment to the British Crown and con-
firm the southern tribes im this
sentiment and particularly promote
a confederation among all the
tribes. At this time food had to be
shipped in to feed the many refu-
gees from Georgia and the Caro-
inas and it was described as fortu-
nate their visit lasted no more than
the ten days. Indian affairs Supt.,
Brown recorded that St. Augustine
people were used to such things and
that more than 8,000 Creeks had
been there since his return and still
persist in their visits pleading
"their poverty and their friend-
If the weather in St. Augustine
was at all balmy it is likely these
Mohawks and Senecas and Shaw-
nees and Mingos quite enjoyed their
trip from snow of the north to sun-
shine of Florida. Especially as no,
matter how short of food the Brit-
ish were at that time the Indians
had to be kept friendly and enter-
(One of the Record's series of

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Search For Youth Fountain

Has Endured Through Ages

Had Part in History
of Ponce de Leon and

Since the dawn of civilization,
there has been an almost continu-
ous search made for a fountain of
youth. It is understood that Japan
was discovered more than 2,000
years ago by a thousand young men
and maidens in search of a foun-
tain of youth. The Great Empire
of Japan was founded as a result of
this search for what might be
termed a legendary fountain of
magic waters. ,
Biblical history shows that many
people threw away their crutches
after bathing in the pool of
So at the height of the Great
Empire of Spain, during the 15th
and 16th centuries, while that coun-
try was extending her frontier to
the far corners of the earth, it was
still believed that there existed
somewhere a fountain whose waters
would perpetuate life and even
make one youthful by drinking or
bathing in its waters.
And so Ponce de Leon, famous
conquistador of Spain, who accom-
panied Christopher Columbus on
his second voyage in 1493 learned
from the Indians of Porto Rico that
in the land to the noi hwest there
was a fountain-of eternal youth
from which one might drink and
perpetuate his youth or be made
young if he was old.
This legend appealed to Ponce de
Leon because he was growing old.
He had just served as governor .of
Porto Rico and had been forced to
give up the governorship for poli-
tical reasons. And so, finding him-
self without anything to do on the
tropical island of Porto Rico, sur-
rounded by flowers and beautiful
senoritas, he decided it was time for
him to spend some of the wealth he
had amassed in search .of waters
which would make him young
again. He remembered longingly
the grandeur of his youthful days
when he was in the court of the
Fitting out three ships at his own
expense, he set sail for Bimini, the
Indian word meaning simply "the
Iand to the northwest." Three boats
were selected since a voyage had to
include that number to make a dis-
covery official.
On March 27th, 1513, during the
Easter period Ponce de Leon, with
his three ships, sighted the coast of
North America. Because of the
Easter season and the profusion of
flowers which could be seen on
shore, Ponce de Leon called the land
Florida. On April 3d of the same
year he landed in the vicinity of
which is now St. Augustine, which
spot was destined to become later
the site of the first permanent white
colony in North America. Ponce
Sde Leon disembarked and remained
in the harbor of St. Augustine for
five days, according .to reliable
Overlooking the harbor of St. Au-
gustine, hidden away amongst moss
covered oaks, cedars and magnolias,
in a picturesque setting of tropical
growth, flows the sparkling waters
of thi spring from which, accord-
ing to legend, Ponce de Leon drank
in his search for eternal youth.
For many years people from all
parts of the world have beaten a
path to this spot. They have found
great fascination in the story of
Ponce de Leon, and have come from
far and near, lured by the romantic
One who visits the Fountain of
Youth Park at St. Augustine will
find many things of interest which
date back for centuries.
In 1934 while setting out orange
trees within a short distance of the
Fountain of Youth spring, workers
accidentally discovered an Indian
Burial Ground, where several hun-
dred Indian skeletons were found.
'According to the Smithsonian Insti-
tution these Indians were buried be-
tv-een 300 and 400 years ago. Some
82 of these skeletons have been un-
covered by archaeologists and can
be seen exactly as they were placed
there centuries ago.
Visitors will also see large
Spanish tennajones, or water jars
weighing approximately 1,000
pounds each, which, are some 200
years old. They will see also a
number of cannon approximately
400 years old, taken from Morro
Castle at Havana, Cuba; cannon
from Old Ironsides, and a collection
of rare relics, the heritage of cen-
turies ago. A varied and interest-
ing collection of relics of Spanish
Florida is housed in the old ston4
museum on the grounds.
Mayor Walter B. Fraser has been
in possession of the Fountain of
Youth property since 1927, and dur-
ing the past ten years he has done
much to beautify the lovely
grounds, and make this romantic
and historic spot even more appeal-
ing to the thousands of visitors who
yearly drink from the sparkling
waters of the spring.
Quarantine Issued In
Days of 1839; Sanchez
Is Rider With Message

Winter of 1839-40 hadn't ended
when word of breaking out of con-
tagious disease came from Picolata.
There were detachments of soldiers
at the Picolata post at Fort Searle,
Fort Hanson and Fort Peyton.
The city fathers promptly voted
a quarantine against Picolata and
Mauricio Sanchez was the express
Rider who conveyed to the com-
manding officer at that post word
of the city's action. All the forts
had to be notified. No easy mat-
ter. No quick radio orders, no air-
plane-just the express riders and
at this time with Indians on the
east.sii~k of the St. Johns not the
safest.iding. Hardly were the or-
ders pit through before the scare
subsided and the quarantine lifted.
This Mauricio Sanchez is prob-
ably brother of that Lola Sanchez

whose thrilling night side from
the Sanchez home on the shore of
the St. Johns led to the surprise of
Federal soldiers and the killing of
Captain Chatfield, for whom the
G. A. R. Post of St. Augustine was
(One of the Record's Histogram

Mrs. Hernandez

Known As Strong,

Fine Character

Lived Through Troublous
Times in Old St.
..... Augustine

Mrs. Joseph V. Hernandez was
'the oldest daughter of Captain
John Masters, whose life span
came near covering the past cen-
tury, as he had been born in 1806.
Mary Dolores Masters' first hus-
band was named Tebault. Three
children were born to the Tebaults,
while they lived in Jacksonville
but only one, the little girl, Borgia,
was living when Mrs. Tebault mar-
ried Joseph V. Hernandez, brother
of Diego Hernandez, of that Her-
nandez family most frequently
linked with the north end of the
old military city, its members ap-
pearing as substantial property
owners on old records. This Her-
nandez family does not seem con-
nected with the family of that Gen-
eral Joseph Mario Hernandez who
was present at the capture of Os-
ceola but Mrs. Joseph V. Hernan-
dez's father, Captain John Mast-
ers was a rather unwilling mem-
ber of the group when Osceola
was held.
Mrs. Hernandez is always allud-
ed to as having been of striking
figure and, although not especially
tall, she made a rather command-
ing appearance. Possibly she had
also gained from her father the
great power of endurance that en-
abled her to cope with the constant
emergencies of her life. Also the
two, the father and daughter, did
not always agree on what was best
for Mrs. Hernandez, yet it was in
later years always demonstrated
that her judgment was able to pull
her through all the crises, even if
old Captain John did storm his
disapproval sometimes.
In 1860 the Joseph V. Hernan-
dez family was living in a house
on the west side of Charlotte
Street, their neighbors on the south
being the Smith-Treschka hotse-
hold at the corner of Treasury
Street. When war started between
North and South, Joseph Hernan-
dez was not slow in offering his
services. Captain John Masters
was part the army age, and, after
years of Indian fighting, he had to
remain at home.
St. Augustine was intensely pro-
South. Other husbands and fath-
ers had joined up, leaving their
wives to struggle with the prob-
lems that soon complicated exist-
ence. So long as the Federals did
not reach St. Augustine, Mrs. Her-
nandez managed to ace for 'ier

young children. All the men of
fighting age of her onT and hus-
band's Iamilies were with the Con-
federate forces as soon as they
could get into service. There were
farms to be carried on somehow to
provide food. Most families had
land in outlying sections that they
cultivated previous to the war.
Some families soon went into the
country, hoping to raise corn at
least. It was no time for idle
Then came rumors of the coming
of Federal vessels, also reports
that there might ,be bombard-
ments, if the city did not yield
promptly. There was much dis-
agreement over what to do. The
o'der men left in the city argued
some one way, some another.
Mayor Arnau resigned-refused to
have any part in handing over the
city to Federal troops. The women
were much wrought up, so that
when Federal officers finally came
ashore many wom6n were active in
their indignation. Mary Hernan-
dez wasn't among those to show
any friendliness.
Indeed so spunky was she in her
expressions, and in assertion of
her beliefs and rights, that with
87 non-conmbatants, old men, wom-
en and children, Mrs. Hernandez
and her own three little girls were.
put on board what is described as
a tugboat belonging to the Feder-
als. Because her husband was
with the Confederate army, Mrs.
Hernandez had her Charlotte
Street home confiscated, just as
number of other wives of Confed-
erate soldiers.
Not knowing what might be
ahead of her, Mrs. Hernandez tried
to carry with her a few possessions
she had taken out of her home.
But she saw these put on another
vessel, never to be seen again. The
tug on which she and the children
were put didn't get away that
night. It was rough cn the bar.
The Federal pilots were too unfa-
miliar with the inlet's risky pas-
sage to attempt it until smoother
weather. The deportees, huddled
"is',er-blv on the small vessel, d;d
not see Anastasia's vanishing
shores until next morning, when
the tug once outside headed north.
It was at St. Mary's that the boat
finally prepared to discharge the
unhappy party., There all were put
ashore and left to find food and
shelter anyway they could. After
long wanderings and many adven-
tures, -":s. Hernandez brought her
liAle family to Orange Mills, where
she managed to care for them un-
til the war ended. One of these
little daughters devoted herself to
the religious life at the age of 15
and now, quite an.old woman, is in a
Fernandina convent. She was too
small however to have any memor-
ies of her own about the trip on
the boat.

After the war was over, Mrs.
Hernandez got back to St. Augus-
tine. Her husband had been in
prison since the last battle of
N..shville and as a result was a
sufferer to the time of his death
a',out 1877. The paper granting
his discharge from a prison camp
at Camp Chase in Ohio is in pos-
session of his son Mr. Henry Her-
nandez, owner of the Ocean View
Hotel. Mr. Hernandez believes
his mother was the first woman
after the war to open a real board-
ing house in St. Augustine.

Scenes at Famed Fountain of Youth


The famous grotto within which is found the Fountain of Youth, around which history, tradition and
legend center, and from which thousands drink annually. The facade, a replica of one of the old Spanish
missions, with its arches and bell tower, is of old coquina, time-worn and stained. Over it clambers vines,
and great magnolia trees cast their shadows. :


'Grandmother Peggy' Showed Old Yuletide

Ability To Save Her Money Customs Re

Mother of V. D. Capo hold the fort and be bombarded Gayety and Sorr
Was Able to Buy Home, Another tale of wartimes con- countered' a
cerned punishment meted out to R
Surprise Husband soldiers. Canvas strips were made Recorded
with a hole through which the sol-
dier put his head and ends of the Christmas has not al
V. D. Capo's mother was Bonito canvas formed into bags both be- cheerful or merry for
Garito before she was married to hind and in front. These bags were
Venancio Capo, son of old John filled with rock depending on the tine. Certainly not in
Capo, head pilot on the bar. The degree of the soldier's offence, two days after Chris
wedding took place in a house on St. usually some petty infringement, mother of General Kil
Francis Street on what is now prop- Then the soldier had to march wrote from her room in
erty of the St. Augustine Histori- around the top of the fort until his
cal Society. Mr. Capo says he al- sentence was carried out. Some- on Aviles Street, now
ways understood that at the time times soldiers were punished in this portion of the Public,
the Widow Garito, known later in manner when they had been caught see from my window s
life as Grandmother Peggy, owned flirting too freely with girls of the men busily employed in
the house where she lived then. city whose parents complained to a tremendous flagstaff t
A story was told in the family of the officer in command. a tremendous flagstaff t
her ability to save money. Venan- ed on the Plaza. The f
cio Capo was a pilot, or oarsman, being made by the ladies
with his father and when he re- Old Writers Failed all here in a state of e:
ceived money would hand it over to This went to her son in
his wife. They had been living in To Mention Many Of Mrs. Smith wrote, the
a house on Charlotte Street, near Flowers Of That Day have been too excited t
the fort. One day Venancio told Christmas in the ordir
Bonito they'd have to move be- Claus manner that year
cause the house was to be sold. I discussing old gardens in St That ancient St. Aug
r want In discussing old gardens in St. some Christmas pleasure
"How much does your father want Augustine it is difficult to hear of from Governor Pedro d
for it?" Bonito asked. "Tell me many flowering plants of the gar- lett Governor Pedro ing.
when you come back tonight." n y letterstohis King.
Venancio had no idea that his wife den type. Governor 1603-09. At
hadn't spent all he had given her. In a chapter on St. Augustine charges were made ag
When he came in again Bonito Charles Lanman in his "Adventures that he not only allowed,
wanted to know what the price of in Wilds of the United States and but took part himself.wl
the house was to be, and when he British Provinces" which was orously denies "except
told her she just said "I've got all printed in 1856 mentions "the jon- mas time"` and then be
but $50 enough. If you can raise quil, Spanish pink, rose, oleander, only for small amounts
that much we can buy it." An as- datura, geraniums in blossom." It ficient to damage any be
tonished husband had to know all has been customary to think of he had the worst kind
about where the money had come the wide cultivation and commer- cards."
from, and when she told him it was cial culture of jonquils in Florida Less happy is the r,
money he'd handed her and she'd as a comparatively recent devel- the city record of 184C
saved, he decided he had a smart opment. This mention at that date plication is made for
wife. will interest plant lovers, costs of bringing the
During the war Venancio Capo Lanman makes another refer- man to town. It is
didn't have to go away because he ence that will interest persons es- Christmas and the man
was a pilot. Bonito Capo used to pecially versed in Castle San Mar- himself in the woods of
tell her children how she had made cos' affairs. He refers to seeing lass plantation, which %
the flag of truce that was run up a "heavy huge Spanish money Macaris in the present
at the fort when the federal forces chest" in the fort when he went section and State Sia6
were off St. Augustine waiting to through it while in St. Augustine. Deaf and the Blind.
hear whether the city would sur- (One of the Record's series of (One of the Record's
render peacefully or proposed to Histograms.) series.)

We Are Heartily

In Favor of The


Here is a lovely garden scene from the Fountain of Youth Park, one of the beautiful spots in St. Au-
gustine, which has been artistically developed and landscaped by the owner, Mayor Walter B. Fraser.

time spent in applying she got a
Ride of Lola Sanchez Is pass to go through the Yankee
lines, and boarding one of their
Retold Most Th willingly transports, this young woman went
SIalong to St. Augustine and gained
her father's freedom, taking him
with her back to the old homestead.
Daughter of Southern should go out from St. Augustine. There is the Emily Geiger Ride,
"On hearing this Lola Sanchez and Lill Servosse's Ride, but none
Confederacy Performs stopped her work, and listened. more daring than that of Lola
After hearing of the road the forag- Sanchez, the young Floridian of the
Brave Deed ing party would take, and gaining Southern Confederacy.
_all necessary information, she told "The U. D. C. should look to it
i t b Panchita to entertain them until she that one chapter at least should be
The interesting account below returned. Lola Sanchez chapter.
was written by Elizabeth W. Mul- "Stealing softly from the house "Lola Sanchez married Emanuel
lings and-published in a well- she sped to the horse lot, and Lopez, a Confederate soldier of the
known Atlanta paper in the early throwing a saddle on her horse rode St. Augustine Blues; Eugenia mar-
nineties, and in 1910 reproduced for life to the ferry a mile distant; ied Albert Rogero, another sol-
in the Florida Times-Union. The there the ferry man took her horse dier."
story deals with an incident in the and gave her a boat. She rowed
life of Lola Sanchez, who during herself across the St. Johns, met one *o I
her married life was Mrs. Emanuel Confederate picket, who knew her, pa I
Lopez, a resident of St. Augustine. and gave her his horse. Out into-the
Mrs Leoniece Davis of this city, night, through the woods she rode y
a member, of the family of the gal- like the wind to Camp Davis, a mile history Given
lant Lola, says that the same story and a half away.
was often repeated around the "Reaching the camp she asked
family circle in the evenings. The forCapt.Dickinson(afterwardsGen.
story follows:. Dickinson),and told himthe Yankees Belonged to Don Juan
"The daring ride of a Florida girl were coming up the river Sunday Sanchez, Old Records
through the forest at night, and the morning, and that the troops from
disaster which befell the Federals St. Augustine would go out forag- Reveal
in consequence is a thrilling annual ing, in a southerly direction.
of the Southland. "Then leaving the camp Lola
"During the war for southern in- Sanchez rode for her life indeed. Back in the second Spanish re-
dependence there lived just opposite "She knew she must not be gime that house No. 43 on St.
Palatka, on the east bank of the St. missed from home. Giving theGeorge Streetcommonly called the
Johns River, Florida, a Cuban picket his horse she recrossed the George Street commonly called the
gentleman, Mauritia Sanchez, by ferry, then mounting her waiting Old Spanish Inn, was pledged by its
name, who early in life had left the animal she struck out for home. owner, Don Juan Sanchez y Soto-
West Indies to seek a home in the Dismounting some distance from mayor, as security for the funds of
state of Florida. Many years had the house she turned her horse the Brotherhood de la Rosario. The
passed since then and Mr. Sanchez loose, and reached home in time for. S
was at the time of the following in- supper and pleasantly entertained name "Juan Sanchez is most
cident an old man, infirm and in her guests until a late hour. closely connected with this old
wretched health. The family con- "That night Capt. Dickinson house, because his father was also
sisted of an invalid wife, one son marched his men to intercept the Juan Sanchez. His mother was
who was in the service of the Con- Yankees. He crossed from the C a d oo The youn
federacy, and three daughters, Pan- west to the east side and surprised Catalina de Soto. The younger
chita, Lola and Eugenia. them on Sunday. Juan was 45 years old when Fath-
"Suspicion had long fastened up- "A severe fight ensued. The er Hassett was listing all the people
on Mr. Sanchez as a spy for the Yankee, Gen. Chatfield, was killed in the city in 1793. He had married
Confederates, and at the time of and Col. Nobles wounded and cap- a woman six years older than him-
this incident, the old man had been tured. On the same Sunday morn- self, Maria del Carmen Castenada,
torn from his home, and family, ing the Yankee gunboats went up who was a daughter of Guisepe and
and was a prisoner in the old Span- the St. Johns to surprise the Con- Sebastina du Burgos. This latter
ish Fort San Marcos at St. Au- federates. They were very much family seem to have possessed sev-
gustine. The girls occupied the surprised in turn. The Confeder- eral houses at the close of the first
home with their old mother, and ates were ready for them, disabled Spanish occupation and as at one
were entirely unprotected. Many a gunboat and captured a trans- time a Du Burgos owned property
times at night their house was port, also many prisoners were next to Juan Sanchez on the south,
surrounded by white and negro taken by the Confederates. it seems to indicate that Juan
soldiers expecting to surprise them "The foraging party lost all Sanchez had found a wife in his
and find Confederates about the their wagons and everything they neighbor's house.
place, for the Yankees knew some had stolen, and again many pris- While Senora Maria del Carmen
one was giving information, but owners were taken and Capt. Dicki- Sanchez was older than her hus-
thought it was Mr. Sanchez. son sent for the three sisters to be b_-~d, she survived him and after
"The Southern soldiers were at the ferry (the one Lola San- his death is heard of as having gone
higher up the St. Johns on the west chez crossed) to see the prisoners, to Havana to live. The two daugh-
side. It was usual for the Yankee and wagons that had been taken, ters, Maria de los Delores and
officers to visit frequently at the "Time and again this daughter Maria del Rosario, seem to have re-
Sanchez home, and the girls, for of the Confederacy aided and abet- mained unmarried when last heard
policy, (and information) were ted the Southern cause, of. At that time they are selling
cordial in their reception of them, "Some time after a pontoon was the house which it is known had
and 'hereby gained some protection captured, and renamed "The Three been in the family fifty years.
f om the thieving soldiery. Sisters" in compliment to these The earliest description shows it
"One warm summer's night three brave young women. The pontoon as a "one story house of stone in
Yankee officers came to the Sanchez was coming from Picolata to one of the divisions in good state
home to spend the evening. After Orange Mills. property of Don Juan Sanchez",
a short time the three sisters left "Mr. Sanchez still languished in and the original walls of this first
the officers, and went to the dining Fort San Marcos, however, and story are in evidence today.
room to prepare the supper. The Panchita grieved continuously over In part of this house at least there
soldiers thinking themselves safe her father's unjust incarceration, is an old stone floor under the pres-
entered into the discussion of a plan The old man was truly innocent, ent wood floor. At one time there
to surprise the Confederates on his daughters were the informers, was a balcony on the second floor
Sunday morning by sending the but he did not know this. over St. George Street. This was
gunboats up the river, and also by "Panchita determined to obtain removed only a few years ago, resi-
planning that a foraging party his release if possible. After some dents of the city recall.

*" N*s '. -

.Y --'" ** csr '-Poll

We wisl to give expression of our appreciation" for tie

good work of those who had the vision and. success in

launching this historical work.

Our store antedates any clothing establishment in St;,

Augustine, completing forty-three years in one store

room. We have not been content to live in the past, but

have endeavored to keep pace with the everchangind

conditions as evidence by the fine merchandising we

feature, naming a few well-known, well-advertised lines:i


"Clothes Beautiful"


Popular Summer Clothes.


Underwear and Accessories


Skipper Sport Shirts





We invite you to inspect our store-We willconsider if

a privilege if we can be of any service to you.

Davis-Saunders Co.

"All That's Best In Men's Wear"






ways been
St. Augus-
1860, when.
stmas the
rby Smith
the house
the north
Library, "I
Group of
o be erect-
lag is now
is. We are
excitement "
Texas., A-
city must
o celebrate
nary Santa
gustine had
e is evident
Ie Ybarra's
'barra was
one time
against him
d gambling
which he vig-
at Christ-
Ssays it is
s "not suf-
dy, even if
of luck at
reference in
) when ap-
payment of
body of a _
just before
has hanged
the Doug-
rould be at
ool for the -


SUNDAY, JULY 4, 013t-

ORD B-13






The Eyes. of the NATION'





"The Cradle of American History"





In St. Augustine and St. Johns County will play a

4ost important part in the "Ancient City's" Historic



The Chamber of Commerce is firm in the belief that the history of
St. Augustine is the heritage of every citizen in this country. As
one writer has said:

"Possibly no where else in the world is there a situation offering a
parallel to this program where the visitor will be able to see the
physical manifestation of the complete long-time range story of a
great civilization in all the stages of its past forever running into
its present. With this great vision of past and present, the possi-
bilities of contemplating what its future-and so the future of our
entire country-may hold, will be unique in the history of man-

The Chamber of Commerce has resolved to work hand in hand
with the officials of the Restoration Movement, supporting them
always in the carrying out of this tremendous historical project.

CHAS. E. YOUNG, President

W. J. COZENS, JR., Secretary.







1 5







ii' i~v





I' I


'k ,









I! ,i


rWmLk ~~--- a I rr


















On Old Aviles Street 12 years old. He admired Black-
Old House f On Old Ailes Streetstone immensely himself."
It can be easily seen that Pedro
Don Toledo H ...... ...... ..'' ..Benet had capacity. In 1828 he ap-
Don Toledo Has :: pears in the Father Madeore papers
S ..as a Warden of the Roman Catholic
M..f m Pib.' : Church and he was only 29 years
Museum Pieces old. About that time he married
_____ Juana Hernandez. At first they
.' lived in a house on Charlotte Street
Quaint Structure Is and the son, Stephen, christened in
17int Str s. 8' '- "-',"'- Spanish Esteban Vincent Anastasia,
Well Worth In- was born there. Miss Isabel loved
section Mto speak of this brother, and tell of
his college days intending to study
law with Robert Raymond Reid,
ON AVILES STREET .- whose son, Robert, married one of
ON AVILES STREET Stephen's sisters.
----I 'It must have been the sight of so
Overhanging B a I c o n y / '" many officers around St. Augustine
-"___ "'"l / efi; "" - during the Seminole war days that
Adds Picturesqueness .**'. decided Pedro to ask Delegate Levy
Sand C :s .- for an appointment to West Point
an | ,-, for Stephen and the young man
Si' obediently went quite undreaming
Containing unusual collection of of the military dignities that would
St. Augustine relicsand antiques is i i come to him.
the Old Do.i Toledo House on quaint His own two sons followed in the
Aviles Street, one of the most inter- tradition and James Walker Benet
eating showplaces in America and 1* became a Colonel, while Laurence
The structure itself is believed to ( 7 West Point, joined the Hotchkiss
have been one of the first houses Arms Company in Paris, where he
built entirely of coquina; and is' spent half a century. He finally be-
perhaps best known, because of its came head of the firm and few
romantic 'legend. According to ). j ,Americans were better known from
tradition, Don Juan Toledo built. r '\ one end of Europe to the other. He
the house for his Indian bride. The '' i has never been in St. Augustine but
first white man to marry an Indian, one of the oldest residents tells how
Don Toledo is said to have so his father, the famous general of
aroused the ire of his native people the federal army, came to St.Au-
that he finally consented to give up gustine after the war to see the
his bride and return to Spain. The .. parents whom he had not been able
Indian girl remained here, to die of .' to visit for some years and how the
a broken heart, or so the fascinating army men in the city paid him their
old legend goes. -s i n g S respects but .some of the old
S Auustine was founded in families, .still unreconciled, did not c
St. Augustine was founde Aviles, On picturesque Aviles Street, one of the quaint and narrow thor- come to see him. And old Pedro did
the565 first colon consisin of oughfares which is in the heart of the Old Spanish Quarter, one finds not forget the slight.
houses fashioned from cedar. With the Old House of Don Toledo, one of the really delightful old houses, When Miss Isabel started, there
the coming of the English in 1586, which one is privileged to see. The overhanging balcony, the old garden was no end to the stories of the
under Sir Francis Drake, the settle- at the rear, and the interesting museum collection are such as to intrigue Benet family. The one about Uncle
ment was destroyed, nothing being the visitor. Stephen was a favorite. He was one
left standing after the devastating of the younger brothers whom
fire tewhichr Drake's dthelittleicolony. of enet Fam ily A nnals A re Pedro had helped raise. He lived in
Soon after Drake's destruction of Matanzas in Cuba, was a merchant
the colony, the Spaniards discov- with many warehouses, a bachelor C
ered coquina rock, a formation of Of Truly Vivid Interestand was rated a wealthy man.
broken sea shells found on the is- Sometimes he came to visit in St. c
land across the bay, and used this Augustine, always elegantly dressed
S llan d across their bay, and house and radiating success, a delightful
to rebuild their homes, the house
of Don Toledo being one of the first Eteban, First of Name to decided against her becoming a nun. figure of elegance. But a hurricane
constructed. eHaner visitors entered the house by swept away his warehouses, he him-
.Oneof its greatest charms is the Come Here Had Ad- a door on the St. George Street side self was drowned and when his
of the house, stepping directly in- estate wag examined it as found his
quaint, overhanging balcony facing venturous Life to what might have been part of a investments had been poor. There
on narrow Aviles Street in the Old terrace or patio at the south, where was little left of the supposed for-C
SpanishoQuarter, and a smaller one shutters kept out the hot afternoon tune. It was said this Stephen
affording a glimpse of the lovely That large stone house on the sun, and a shuttered door gave en- bought tickets in the Havana lot-
old garden in the rear. southeast corner of St. George and trance to the rose garden, tery every year for fifty and never
The flooring is rough and un- Cuna Street was known both as be- Stairs leading up from this en- drew a prize.
even, what remains of the old tr- ing the Pedro Benet house and the trance way gave immediate en- Miss Isabel always had much
racefloor of earth and shell bf a home of Miss Isabel Benet. It may trance to the spacious sitting room news coming to her. All through
byc ne era, and its stone walls have had other residents of note at on the second floor enthusiastically the War between the States she
chipped and scarred with tare only me time but these two dominate recalled by Miss Isabel's intimates, was active in trying to aid the
two rooms of the ages. There are only its history Its handsome furnishings were southern soldiers. With members
liwoe numberrooms on the lower flstor with a While recollections of Miss Isabel visible evidence of the position of the family in both armies every-
originally reached by means of a are vividly related by many, there Pedro Benet had made for himself, thing that happened might prove of
lad llr thrust through a trapdoor are several of the oldest native born since he had been left fatherless at personal concern.
and pulled up after the ascender as who can speak of Pedro or King -14 to help bring up the younger There was one reason for the at-
Smeans of protectionBenet as he became known, children, traction the house and Miss Isabel
Contained within the old struc- He became a powerful "Boss" of Sometimes Miss Benet's visitors had for the devout women of the
ture are. articles of furniture and -his time, so powerful indeed that if wanted to talk again of the two Cathedral Parish. It is difficult to
relics of a varied character, the any dared suggest action the King's Benet boys, that Esteban and separate what might be fact from
interesting old collection having adherents knew contrary to his Pedro, adventurous pair, who de- what might be fancy. But there is
been accumulated through a period policies, at once the independent cided they could no longer endure a trace of an aunt who was the first
of years with many pieces coming one was warned "Que Da, Pedro their stepmother and so ran away recognized owner of a statute of the
from old families in ,St. Augus- Benet," the Minorcan form of "Take from their Minorcan home. The Blessed Mother. Tradition says
tine. care for Pedro Benet". group of Miss Isabel's visitors that 'in several times of great
The manager and hostess at the Many men struggled for a could argue whether the father of danger to the city this statue had
Don Toledo House, Mrs. Clara B. measure of power in those days but the runaway boys had been Spanish been borne in Procession through
Mier, is a member of one of the old- Pedro is the only one of whom any or French. Some said it was from the streets.
eat families in St. Augustine. Her such dominance is clear. Barcelona in Catalonia, where there Many women it is said have had
father was Joseph D. Lopez, who While Miss Isabel wasfi't influ- were many from the Provencal, that their prayers' before the statue
served as this city's postmaster ential in the same/ line as Old he had gone to Minorca. But this is happily answered. It was held in
under President Cleveland's admin- Pedro, her father, nevertheless she all family records have gathered devout esteem and reverently cared
istration, his death occurring dur- possessed much influence and where, about him. for.
ing his term of office. The Lopez four decades ago the house would One of the runaways, Esteban, Sometimes, so it is said, the aunt
family came here with the first have been referred to as Pedro made his way to St. Augustine and had brought it with her from some
Minorcan colony from New Smyrna. Benet's, anyone in the past two de- grew up into the coasting trade. He vague foreign country. Others say
The late Mr. Lopez, who was affec- cades would have emphasized it as had several vessels often going to a sea captain brought it to the aunt.
tionately known as "Doc" was at the house .f his daughter. Havana where his brother, Pedro, That well might be since the orig-
one time in the drug business Bay- After the death of her mother, the second runaway arrived. He had final Esteban was a sea captain. But
establishment being on thet clay- Juana Hernandez, property matters gone into the Spanish Navy, became the aunt's identity never seems quite
front where the old yacht club clear. When she died she left the
stood over 57 years ago. Mrs. Mier's' were so arranged that Miss Isabel Captain Benet and the family story statue to Miss Isabel. Many women
mother was Adelaide Usina, also a remained in sale possession of the runs that he was in command of brought offerings to it and would
member of an old family, old coquina house. Her own room naval forces in Cuba when assas- gladly car i fo it rbs O
Meeting the eye, as one steps was at the immediate corner of the sinated at Havana. This Pedro gladmily carelates a deathbed scene
down into the main room through ground floor, instead of on the bal- married and one son was a profes- ily relates a deathbed sceneging
the old doorway on Aviles Street, conied second floor as might have sor in the University in Havana.thestatuetothe dyingmanwho
is a handsome old brass samovar, been expected unless one knew her Esteban married Caterina Hernan refused Miss Isabel's request and k
made by one of the finest brass thoroughly. She had an intense dez here in St. Augustine and died without the last offices of the
welders in Europe. This was much interest in all the happenings of the bought this corner of the Cuna and church.
admired by Mrs. Herbert Hoover on neighborhood and this corner room St: George Streets from Don An- When Miss Isabel died in 1915
her last visit here, says Mrs. Mier. gave her vantage for keeping in tonio Pacett during had ithe firm the figure passed into the care of an
Of particular interest is an old' touch with all that happened near- Atonioaged relative and her children and
piano, said to be the first imported by. This keen concern in all the rush of the Spaniards' return, when aged it is now in t herome here in St.
to St. Augustine.. This belonged to comings and goings of her world the British were leaving St. Au- Augustine. Still the older women t
the Bernardo Segui family, says was sometimes believed to have had gustth relate its history as they have heard
Mrs. Mier, the son owning the piano some weight in her decision to re- house showed his success'. But only it. Still they are pleased to pay it
being the clerk of the court in St turn to the world when she had been a brief time it lasted, loving reverence.
Augustine in 1821 when Spain ceded in the convent a few months. Others "Drowned, wasn't he," would It is not possible to tell half of ,
Florida to the United States. Al- maintained the state of her health interrupt one of Miss Isabel's list- the events of King Pedro and his
though age has laid a heavy hand eners when she reached this far in relatives and his house. As com-
upon this relic, there still remains the story. plete a history, however, as can be t
intact a porcelain plate with this the hidden treasure found a corn- "Yes, yes, the St. Catalina went collected is being prepared for the
inscription: "New Patent. Broderip paratively few years ago by its down, was lost and my grandfather files of the Webb Library of the St.
and Wilkinson. No. 13 Haymarket, one-time owner, John Whitney, who Augustine Historical Society.
London." The piano is said to have first opened the house to the public perished. My father Pedro, the Stephen Vincent Benet's St. Au-
Lobeen in th house, which is anow the as a showplace some 45 years ago. oldest child, was only 14. But he gustin story "Spansh Bayonets"
Public Library and which was built Several Spanish doubloons, worth helped bring up the younger child- didn't appear quite soon enough to
for the Segui family in 1755. Ac- about 20 each in American money, ren, picked up some education and give happiness to Miss Isabel. But
cording to the story told of this old were found, one bearing the 1591 he thought so much of learning that if old Pedro and Miss Isabel could I
piano, it was brought to St. Augus- date. hemademy oldest brother, Stephen, have known how William Rose
tine in a sailing vessel, it taking The Don Toledo House belongs you know the General, read Black- Benet and Stephen Vincent Benet
two years to fill the order, to the Sisters of St. Joseph. stone's Commentaries before he was were going to achieve in the world c
Also of especial interest is the
first typewriter used in the convent View of Old St. George Street a
of St. Joseph. Over fifty years r
old, the odd but ingenious contrap- -r ~ ... .. i -
tion, a forerunner of the modern C S .. .. -
typewriter, evidently required more i :, '
time and patience than pen and ink. B
An almost illegible inscription !*! ^ ^
shows it was made by the Rose .. m*' t
Typewriter Company of New York. L : i t
Catching the eye is a handsome "i, j iUi | "'t
Spanish Wedding Chest of ebony, ; 1 t
intricately carved, which is said to i B i 1 I
have come from the Province of
Granada in Spain. The beautiful
design, which likewise covei's the ,"T,
uses for its motif the pomegranate, = ,i ---- t
one of the three fruits brought here i i
by the Spanish. The fig and sweet -
orange were the others, historians [:L" | ..
The showpiecee of the house" is ; I "_. '." T..,' w

a huge Told four-poster, canopied V
bed, which is said to be over 200 tl
years old and to have belonged to .t we .ie s i
the first John Masters who came to
St. Augustine. Fashioned entirely a d t i is
of red cherry, the handsome old a.
bed is beautifully hand-carved in j ..
the rAte agapanthur leaf design. of --t e :'ili
!kI'et- outstanding articles of
furniture displayed in the Don me f
Toledo House include the fine col-
lection of old tables, among which r o ,
is an Early American snake leg, g
bird cage, tilt-top, revolvin, table : i
made in 1731. The revolvi.ag fea- ..''.i
ture of this particular type of table n
is said to be unique. There are also Here we have a view of old St. George Street before some of the interesting and distinctive old houses r
several antique chests, including a which made this street so fascinating were torn down or otherwise removed. At the left is shown the B. F. t:
"blanket chest", dated 1640. 1Oliveros house. The second house north on the left was occupied by the late Dr. DeWitt Webb. The fence n
A secret fireplace bank in the old on the right guarded the Lorillard Villa grounds. The house with the high pointed roof was the Pedro F
kitchen, the main room, is one of Benet residence. Pedro was the great-grandmother of Stephen Vincent Benet and Wiliam Rose Benet, ii
the interesting features of the notable men of letters and internationally famous. These buildings of the Spanish occupation remained to
house. A coin dated 1591 is part of until probably 40 years ago, and some until a much later date. f

Where Restoration Is In Progress

The old Sanchez house at the corner of Bridge and Marine Streets, which is now being beautifully
restored by the owners, Mr. and Mrs. W. A. Lewis of The Plains7 Virginia, who will occupy it as their
winter home. All plans for the restoration of the building were submitted to the Restoration Office, and
checked over by Dr. Verne Chatelain, director, and the engineers and architects working on the Restoration
Program. It is pointed out that this evidence of cooperation is one of the most delightful phases of the
early endeavors of the Restoration Program. The house will have modern conveniences, and be essentially
livable, but olden charm will prevail.

of letters there is no doubt they
would have felt the old coquina
house was honored.
The House ? It was not torn down
until after Miss Isabel's death. It
included some of the best features
of the second Spanish regime. Its
roof lines were interesting. It was
one of the largest on St. George
Street and the great shutters on
both stories of the south end added
to its picturesqueness. The rose
garden was at the south and the ad-
joining handsome grounds of the
Lorillard Villa property added to
the attractiveness of that east side
of the block.
And what's there now? The shoe
store at the corner of St. George
and Cuna Streets.

Wine Tank Of

1690 Features

Display Here
Perhaps one of the most inter-
esting articles on display in this
city's showplaces, is the fine old
porcelain wine tank of 1690,
which is a feature of the collec-
tion of relics housed in the Old
Don Toledo House on Aviles
Garrette Pier, of New York,
for 20 years curator of the Met-
ropolitan Museum, has said of
this wine tank, "Porcelain of
Imari. Japan. Date, 1690. Type
unique!" Mr. Pier, whose collec-
tion is considered one of the finest,
in the world, had the difficult task
of passing upon the merits of all
the old china and crockery in the
Metropolitan Museum and is an
outstanding authority in. his
Upon a recent visit here, Gar-
rette Pier greatly admired this
unique porcelain wine tank, de-
claring it the only one of its kind
in the world.
The coloring Is exquisite, the-
original tints untouched by.time.
A bronze top covers the opening
and there is a wooden spigot at
the bottom.

St. Augustine Restoration
'Is Sponsored By Carnegie
Institution of Washington
(Continued from First Page,
Section B.)
the body of the story but its color,
richness and life will result from
studies of folk-lore, traditions,
religious observances to the end of
staging historical plays, pantom-
mes, pageants, festivals, fiestas
and pilgrimages that those tradi-
tions, which are the heritage of this
region and people may again be-
come part of their consciousness.
Creative activity and the desire to
preserve folkskills, home manufac-
turing of handicrafts such as linen
ind lace making, traditional dom-
estic foods and dishes, stories and
literature will all contribute.
In order that a harmonious and
esthetic result may be reached, the
city is being replanned for the con-
struction of boulevards, promen-
ades and parks; traffic will be re-
'outed out of the historic areas and
parking lots will be developed.
Anachronistic buildings will be
razed; overhead wires, signs, poles
ind other disfiguring objects will
be removed.
In a great Historical Museum this
project will reach its great culmina-
ion, developed in order to tie all
he threads together as a completed
picture. The Museum will be a de-
pository of culture presenting in
objective fashion the entire story
of St. Augustine by means of period
'ooms each containing dioramas,
models, pictures, charts of explana-
ion, and artifacts relating to each
individual stage of this history.
With these objective realities in
nind, the visitor may then go out to
he actual scenes of great historic
vents in a position to appreciate
heir meaning and relationship to
he life progress of this region.
(Continued from First Page,
Section H.)
generation of Cuban Indians still
The same motive stirred all the
native kings and caciques of those
egions to be interested in the loca-
ion of such a marvelous river. And
ot a river or brook remained in all
'lorida, nor even ponds and swamps
n which they didn't bathe, and even
oday a number insist on hunting
or this mystery.

Old Sanchez House Is One

Of Fine Coquina Treasures

Stories Center About Jos-
eph S. Sanchez and
His Daughters

The most important -name con-
nectedwith the house at the south-
east corner of Bridge and Marine
Streets is that of Col. Joseph S.
Sanchez. There were Sanchez in
St. Augustine from earliest days-
various Francisco Sanche.. Later
Francis Sanchez, are noted as years
pass, Venancio Sanchez continually
appears in public records. The Juan
Sanchez seem to be a line of their
own. No Sanchez can be. so easily
traced and described as this Col.
'Joseph S. Sanchez, who received
added lustre as being the father of
"the beautiful Sanchez girls".
In the Sanchez family Bible, a
Spanish edition of 1829, the Sanchez
sons and daughters are listed.
Mary V., named for her mother, was
firstborn, arriving in 1817. She
married W. W. Oates and was only
40 when she died. Compared to the
ages most of the daughters reached,
Mary Oates was young at her death.'
She left no children. Next was a
son, Francis, born in 1820. It is
only through this son's descendants
that the race of Col. Joseph S.
Sanchez lives today.
Two girls followed the son, one
died young, the other married was
quickly widowed and left no chil-
dren. Two sons followed. Neither
added anything to the Sanchez
name. Then four daughters com-
plete the list. All four lived to be
over 80 years 61old. All had marked
characteristics that resulted in their
leaving behind dramatic stories of
their later life. Possibly equally
picturesque occurrences marked
their earlier years, but they have
faded and only the late years are
Dolores, oldest of this quartet,
married Major Davis Foster of
Boston and was buried in 1901 in
the National Cemetery. Their son,
General J. Clifford R. Foster, had a
notable military career and only
passed away a few years ago. While
the three old aunts lived out their
days in the old coquina house, Gen-
eral Foster was devoted to their
When Mrs. Foster passed away,
there remained in the Bridge Street
house the three sisters, Eugenia,
.Miss Christina, and Ellen, youngest
and most spirited of all, who had
married John Lott Phillips.
In the earliest lists of property
made in 1763 by de la Puente there
is shown no building on this corner,
but the lot belongs to Domingo
Rodriguez de Herrera who how-
ever had two small houses just
across Bridge Street. The lot ex-
tended to the bay front. In the
next census of 1788, de la Roque
places two wood houses "en muy
mal estado" on this corner. They
belong to Josef Rosey and the land
to Mr. Fish. This indicates the
Rodriguez de Herrera holdings may
have been among those Jesse Fish
"bought" when the Spanish had to
sell and the English took Florida.
The Joseph Sanchez name appears
when Clement does his 1835 survey
and he probably had been in posses-
sion for some time. Memoranda
indicate that he made extensive re-
pairs to the house in 1835 and prob-
ably added a wood kitchen.
'When he first appears, he is Jose
S;mion Sanchez or J. Simion. Grad-
ually the 'name changed, possibly
as he gathered honors, for the Jose
is anglicized into Joseph. Next
Simion fades into an S. rarely ap-
pearing afterward in connection
with the various public offices he
filled. Col. Joseph S. Sanchez be-
came one of the foremost men in
St. Augustine. City positions were
simple honors. He was city treas-
urer and city tax collector. He had
a war or fighting record that justi-
fied the title Colonel. He was
United States Marshal for East
Florida at a time when nerve was
required in covering the district.
Between Indians, highwaymen and
gangs from the Georgia border ter-
rorizing East Florida Col. Sanchez
had to be speedy in action. Later
he was sheriff during a period when
it took a fearless man to conduct
the affairs of the office.
When he died in 1853, eight of his
eleven children were still living.
The house went to Francis Sanchez,
tl oldest sop, and it is only through
his descendants, his six sons and
daughters, that Col. Joseph S.
Sanchez is represented in St. Au-
gustine today. A namesake grand-

son lived on South Marine- Street.
While old Col. Sanchez is' only
represented directly through the
one son Francis, as an indication of
the extent of the Sanchez connec-
tion, it is said that in a recent
enumeration it was found there
were over 70 relatives connected in
some way with Col. Sanchez.
But it is through the quartet of
daughters that the most pictur-
esque events ,attach to the old
house.' For example, one of the
very old ladies declined to follow
changing fashions. Instead, she
insisted on clinging to styles she
had liked years previous, so that
when she emerged for a stroll to
town, or for a social call, it would
be clad in a "Grecian bend" gown
and all accessories that went with
that period. While her friends.
might smile, it was indulgently, and
sne was described as a "very sweet
old. lady".
Then there was the very contro-
versial one, who had many disputes,
and seemed destined to be continu-
ally involved in some argument in
which she distributed much very
positive printed and written, even
chalked up, language. It is said
there is till a house in town on
r'hicni she decaretir, had put an
eternal jinx. The owiie- of the
house laughs at the idea buf admits.
there's been plenty trouble since it
came into their possession. This
woman preserved her Spanish type
of good looks, having a striking
appearance with Castilian form of
face and her satiny black hair part-
ed and smoothed down both sides of
her face.
Another one of the "beautiful
Sanchez girls" is said to have been
on her honeymoon in another State
when she sent her husband down,
stairs in the hotel to find out "what
the row down there was all about."
He was shot. It is hard,to find foun-
dation for some stories .current
about the house.


(Continued from First Page,
Section B.)

themselves. And in their running
thus away, the Sergeant Major,
finding one of their horses ready
sadled and brideled, tooke the same
to follow the chase; and so over-
going all his companies was (by one
layd in a bush) shotte through the
head; and falling down therewith,
was by the same and two or three
more stabbed in three or four
places of his body with swords and
daggers, before any could come
neere his rescue.
We burned the Towne, demol-
ished the Forte, took on board the
ordinances and the treasure and
with the French phipher' sailed
away from S. Augustin.

(Continued from First Page,
Rppf^iA" 1R I

tOnlU.i ) D.
which we have gone brings to mind
that other attack of 1702 which
still lives in the mind of many of
us, at which time Governor Moore,
of Carolina besieged our town and
Fort. Then as now the brave
people of this -town shut them-


selves in this great Fort for three
months and-laughed defiance at all (Continued from First Page, "-
the sorties, feints and strategies of Section B.)' ".-
the enemy, who finally, when two
vessels, flying the Spanish ensign, 'themselves for transportation from
hove in sight off the bar, raised Florida, or on the fortieth davy, .o
the siege, abandoned their ships, being hanged with his feilow-pds-
stores and ammunition, and vanish- oner at the y.+rd armnn. Since frpryn "
ed as those same English are doing these conditions there was- n, eno i
this very day. cape, the Seminoles have yielded,. ,
-o Their men, women and children
Great beams 33 feet long from have been placed on the ships to be
the old Captain John Masters carried away from the land they
house, said to have been first house loved so well. One even noxt, after
built north of the City Gates, are all the cruelties of the war. find? it
to be seen in the home Lee Sink possible to sympathize, somewlut
built for himself in Fullerwood. with these haughty warriors. ,, ;"
They are fine cypress, handhewn, they left the shore, to start on. h~lir.,
and Mr. Sink used them in an ex- long journey, they knelt and kissed,
posed beam ceiling in the living its sands, and when the' transportsL,-.
room. The Masters house is stated sailed away, the men sat in sullen.
to have been moved over on to the silence about the decks, while weo,
San Marco lot about where the men and children were weeping. It
present tennis court is. It was given is said that Costoochee stood min the ,'\
a piaza on three sides, and used as sternsheets gazing fixedly upon the
a golf club. Some of the old doors receding, shore remarking: 'l am. ,'
are also in use and portions of the looking at the last pine tree on my
stairway, land."



Continued from First Page,
Section B.)

trained from France. Menendez re-
plied that he would aid Catholics
and friends, but those who belonged'
to the new religion (Huguenot ) 'he'
held to be enemies. If they want-
ed to give up their arms to him and
place themselves at his mercy,
they could do so, in which case he
would do with them what God-
should direct.
After two hours the Frenclfcap-
tain returned and offered 50,000
ducats as ransom in exchange, foe
their lives. Menendez refused and
within half an hour the French
brought their flags, about 60 arque -.
buses, 20 pistols, swords bucklers,
helmets, and breastplates, saying
that all the Frenchmen would give
themselves up to his mercy. Where-
upon Menendez ordered 20 soldiers.
to enter the boat and bring-the
French over, ten at a time. je-
nendez told the French captain that---
we were few and the French we
many; therefore he would have'to :
bind them. Thus the 208 French-
men were bound. Menendez asked
if any were Catholics who might,
want to confess. Eight of ,them '
said that they were. .- r.
Our great captain thereupon
commanded that they be marche& :
towards St. Augustine, and thattiat:
a line which he would draw they
should be killed. And so it wis
Qn the day following our return:
to St. Augustine. Indians stated
that more men had strived at Ma-
tanzas Inlet. The Adelantado real-
ized that this must be the party
of Jean Ribault, and so he return-
ed to the Inlet, and much the'samr"
proceedings took place as before,
our leaders sparing only the drurm.
mers, fifers, trumpeters, and fouri
more who said that they were Cath-
olics, in all 16 persons.'
When Menendez -etup.a to- t.
Augustine some--t hiT followers
considered him cruel, and others
thought he had acted as his Kink
would expect of him, for even if.
they had been Catholic, and so had
been spared, both the Frenchl an8
Spaniards would have starved on
account of the limited supplies.

(Continued from First Page,-
Section B.)
ican colonies, England had become-
involved in hostilities with Spain
and the town which, as a Spanish
stronghold had sent out many an'
armed force against the British, a
a British possession dispatched
armed forces now against the
Spaniards. Among the Tory WFfi-
cers who had found their way to'Sir
'Augustine, was Colonel Andrew "de '
Veaux of the Provincial Dragoynm.
who captured the Spanish town .of
Nassau, on the island of New PIo-'
vidence with a nondescript force'ofr-
Rangers, Minercans, Seminoles,
ragamuffins and negroes. DB3 ,
Veaux surprised the sleeping cij.
del. put the gMaf-soFi-nw iroi, 6dirM '
cupied the heights, deployed MSh
forces- to-thf best advantage' d,.
because.there were not enough mth.
set, up dummies of straw, and de-
'manded surrender of the Govuobi'.-"
whereupon the Spaniard submitted.
This was one of the last expl6dis
of loyal St. Augustine in the caqs "
of her British sovereign. The re-
bellious colonies were victdiidus,
The Florida planters returned't.
their fields. But in 1783 Spain.
yielded Jamaica to England a i'
England gave Spain to Florida. .Th,
treaty moreover provided that the
British should immediately evac-".
ate the province. Plantations we'r j '
abandoned, homes deserted, fritacdc
ships severed, and the Btitk .
sailed away in the transports sef"
to convey them though many.set-
tlers fled to new western lands be-
yond the Appalachicola. And so
in 1783 started the period. f. thf
second Spanish occupation which
has ended with the momeniteus
event of raising the flag of, the
United States here today.

(Continued from First Page,
Section B.)
take the fort. The invaders wer
In the town about 20 hours, sacked
one third of the place and so cam"-'
pletely destroyed everything that.
the Goverior has complained "t~ey-
have left nothing but what I hava'
on my back.'' '.
Alas this bold pirate leader lso@.
took several of our young woerien
onto his shop, saying that he, would
hold them until the town should
furnish him with food and water,-
One of the priests went out tojin-
tervene and they .held him 'to8,
When the pirates "were ready, to sail
they took the canvas and the Sails:
of our vessels so that we could trot
follow them, and only when .they
were safely across the bar did they
release the girls and the priest.
and sailed away. leaving us to the
sad task of building our town again.


iAY, JULY 4, 1937

trstory Group

SHas Struggled

Over 50 Years



Charming Garden of Oldest House

of Local Society Is
One of Great



Webb Memorial Library
Is Used By Many Re-
search Workers

By Phyllis W. Usina
Every citizen in this community
uld. -ake it a point to visit the
ebb Memorial Library on St.
Francis Street, adjoining the Old-
ePtt House, and become acquainted
with the amazing collection of in-
valuable'treasures there, which link
the past-the very beginning of
leorida-with the present and fu-
ture, and every citizen should also
be made to appreciate fully the
meaning of the St. Augustine His-
torical Society and Institute of
k Science, which group put forth a
Tremendous struggle, encountering
tter disappointment, along the
Fay, so that we today, and the fu-
ure generations may be enriched
An knowledge by the use of the rare
En 1884 a gropp composed of Dr.
SeWtt Web; wh 0-had a collection
f.prehistoric implements and rel-
ps;,Rev. Milton Waldo, then p-is-
pr of the Presbyterian Church,
-ho was an expert in shells and
)ssessor of a taste for natural
tory in many lines; Miss Mary
lxolds who was an accomplished
,Mnist, living on Cedar Street,
i Charlie Johnson, then a lad of
/clerking in Hamblen's Store (he
Zer became professor and curator
the Boston Museum and the ac-
4nowledged head of his profession
-*"the line of insects and shells),
*nd a Miss Sparks, combined their
Ipllections, met every week or two,
tnnd organized the first society.
"4 parlor in the Presbyterian
rnse was used as the first meeting
Ice, then later, as the collection
Bw beyond the room, cases were
lut' and placed in the Alcazar
11, this space having been of-
d by the late Henry M. Flag-
e-When those rooms were need-
the collection was moved to a
im occupied by the late Judge
UP. Mackey, in what is now the
;Augustine Public Library Build,
Later the collection was moved
i stairs in that building. Upon
e-death of Dr. Vedder, a dentist
no was an expert in natural his-
Cy. and who had a collection which
I had previously wanted the so-
ity to purchase, the collection was
chased by Dr. Webb for the so-
.- He was partially repaid for
Specimens by the society
e time after that.
^The growth of the collection
mowded the society out of that
house and it was then compelled to
the Hernandez House on Char-
e Street, in which house they
dthe home until the fire of
sdn the collection in the
dez House were some pre-
implements, so large that
the duplicates were sent to
mithsonian Institute; the col-
lion of shell implements which
dated the Indian occupation and
-hwere put down by Danish
rvers as some 6,000 years old,
coming from kitchen mid-
; pottery from the shell
ads; human bones which showed
Scannibalistic habits of the shell
,d builders; a prehistoric col-
ion of Indian arrows and vari-
i tone implements and fine speci-
Snsof Indian pottery and Indian
One of the finest specimens of
~ian pottery came from Homo-
saF Fla. It was like a Greek vase
K was greatly admired by Elihu
oaer, the artist nephew of Dr.
he historic period-the early
oryof St. Augustine was shown
by maps. These maps were
complete and valuable, cov-
every period of the town from
undation down to the time the
y was organized.
e collection of books covered
Sthe history of the city and
An exhibit of armor, loaned
gMrs. Weiss was in the house, al-
'a cabinet from Spain which
ted'from the time of the Moors,
is having been donated by Miss
Anda Brooks. A spinet, the gift
Miss Anderson, belonging to her
eat-grandmother, and glass musi-
1 instruments given by Miss
hurst, were also in the group.
vings covering St. Augus-
d the history of Florida from
early date, the natural his-
ollection of over 10,000 in-
ere in the collection, and one
e most valuable items was
re copy of the provisional con-
of the Confederate States,
signatures, maps and manu-
natural history, going on from
s, the society had almost all
animals of Florida, almost all
birds and nearly all of the fishes.
collection of rare fishes was
ost entirely complete-far more
plete than those of the common
seen every day. There was also
ecological collection of fossils
near Fort Myers, the work
shares Johnson who made two
actions of which one went to
society and the other to the
er Institute of Philadelphia
he was curator there.
Il this work of 30 years went up
few minutes in the flames of
devastating fire of 1914, caus-
an outlook most discouraging
ose who had given so much,
ked so ceaselessly for some-
which was going to mean so
to the citizens of Florida and
united States as a whole.
daunted, however, this small
started all over again,
ed on.by the encouragement
Webb and Hon. Chauncey M.
v, with just one piece of iron
nearly a foot square which
en the breast plate of a 15th

y suit of armor, as the only
salvaged from the fire.
ugh the efforts of Mr. Depew
iety was then allowed by the
States War Department to
ver the old fort and in its

Arched loggias, patios, and gardens filled with tropical shrubs and flowers, are striking features of
the gardens of Old St. Augustine, and the above gives a lovey glimpse of foreign charm as exempli-
fied in the garden of the Oldest House, property of the St. Augustine Historical Society on St. Francis

casemates another collection was
started. Mr. Depew had been in-
terested year after year in the
work of the society but had given
constant warnings as to what would
happen unless the valuable collec-
tion was housed in a fireproof
building. So when the society
started anew within the protective
walls of the old fortress, Mr. Depew
helped farther by pLrchasing for
it the private collection of Mr.
Chapin which had been st',rd in
a building on St. George Street for
some 15 years.
When this was installed in the
casemates of the fort, the new
career of the St. Augustine His-
torical and Institute of Science be-
gan in reality. The War Depart-
ment gave the society the privi-
lege of selling photographs of the
fort and vicinity, and with dona-
tions of coins by visitors there, the
society's operating expenses were
provided for. It was Mr. Depew's
purchase of the Chapin collection
which enabled the society to begin
Dr. Webb and Mr. Depew were
great friends from the time they
were young men, and in a state-
ment appearing in the society's
1916-17 Year Book, it is written,
"That the society now owns the
Chauncey M. Depew Collection, an
exhibit wider in its scope than the
most ardent could anticipate, is
largely due to Dr. Webb's inspiring
enthusiasm, untiring zeal and,
above all, to his faith that has never
In an inspiring address delivered
by Dr. Webb, appearing in that
same year book, he states:
"Tbo hard work before the soci-
ety is this: that it is very difficult
after all these years and after all
the work that has been done in the
past to get together another such
collection. What was comparatively
easy years ago in the way of col-
lecting shell implements and relics
is today very difficult. We must
add to the Depew collection in every
way possible. What the future calls
upon us to do is to add to this col-
lection of natural history, which we
can do very easily by purchase or
otherwise of the animals, fish, and
the birds and insects of Florida,
as well as the other lines of work.
In the historical line we must not
only duplicate, but add very largely
to what is properly an historical
library so that the history of Flor-
ida can be worked out in the books
of the society. This is a line of
work that I take it the society
should devote itself to doing. Its
work instead of being finished is
just beginning. Everything that re-
lates to the history and science of
our state and perhaps, of the South
should be the future work of the
"With the other work before us,
too, it seems to me that the future
is all our own and it seems to me
that -instead of being discouraged
now is the time, when we have a
fireproof building and an assured
income which is to be expended in
all proper ways for the society's
use, to look forward to greater
With funds saved up by the
society from money paid at the
fort for souvenirs, guide service,
etc., the Webb Memorial Library'
Building, adjoining the Oldest
House, on St. Francis Street, was
built. This was constructed in 1918,
shortly after the death of Dr. Webb,
and was named for and dedicated
to this nman who will always be
remembered for the magnificent
work he did in endeavoring to pre-
serve the history of this city and
Into this museum was placed the
society's collection, along with the
valuable collection which was in the
Oldest House when it was purchased
by the society on November 15,
1918, from George Reddington.
This is one of the rarely interesting
old houses of the city, as shown by
documentary evidence. The collec-
tion of old armor, however, re-
mained at the fort until the old land-
mark was taken over from the
society by the National Park Ser-
vice a little over two years ago.
This armor may now be seen in the
Casa de Cannonosa, adjoining the
Webb Memorial Library Building
on the west.
One of the Early Members
Mrs. A. W. Underwood, one of
the early members, has served as
assistant librarian ever since
the Webb Memorial Building was
constructed. Her death, which oc-
curred suddenly last month, is a
matter for great regret among
members of the society and those
using the library for research.
The shelves and cases are filled
with rare books, the oldest of which
are some Italian and Spanish trans-
lations dating back to as early as
1596, and writers and research
workers in all lines spend many
hours there during a season, dig-

History And Tradition Are

Blended In Oldest House

Three Coquina

Houses Held By

One of the finest pieces of work
of the St. Augustine Historical
Society and Institute of Science
over a long period of years, is the
purchase, ownership and pre-
servation of three old coquina
houses of the city.
The watchword "preservation"
has been with the society for a
long time, and is responsible for
this fine program. The Historical
Society owns the Oldest House on
St. Francis Street; the fireproof
Webb Memorial, a new structure,
adjoining; the Villa Cannonosa,
still further west, and on the
corner of St. Francis and Char-
lotte Streets. Several years ago,
in order to preserve it, the Society
bought what was kribwn for so
many years as Dodge's Old Curi-
osity House, on St. George Street.

Henry Hernandez Says
This Oldest City Has
Long History' As Port

Mr. Henry Hernandez resents
what he feels was an unintentional
slight to St. Augustine's ancient
prestige as an export port when no
mention was made of it in the
transportation section of the Know
Florida Week publicity.
Mr. Hernandez maintains St.
Augustine was the first export port
of any importance of the present
United States. While numbers of
statements have been printed from
time to time relating to trans-At-
lantic shipments especially of lum-
ber, naval stores and indigo as
products of adjacent territory the
following may show that it must
have, had some importance as a
trans-shipment port. Certainly
some of the items couldn't have
been collected very near St. Au-
gustine. If they were and the
archaeological attaches of the His-
torical Survey don't find out where
they came from, there will be a
situation perplexing. Where did
the eight tons of elephants' teeth
come from that were shipped out
of St. Augustine in 1776, accord-
ing to Siebert? Had they been
taken from some undetailed prehis-
toric mound in Florida? Also next
year two tons of ivory went from
here. It is suggested that these
items may have been brought here
from Africa on slave ships.
If coffee was not raised in Flor-
ida it must have been brought here
for shipment as a quantity appears
in the 1776 list and in 1777 there
were shipped 3,700 barrels of cof-
fee and 21 half barrels. The same
year 1,900 bushels of salt are list-
ed, also one case of raw silk and
93 gallons of honey. Sugar had
been shipped in both years but in
1778 only 11 casks went. Coffee
shipments had risen and 4,300 casks
are in manifests, also 16 hogsheads
of orange juice, 2 casks of old cop-
per and 2 casks of pink root.
(One of the Record's Histogram

going into the wealth of material to
be found. All types of people,
artists, photographers, students,
museum experts from the larger
cities, historians and novelists are
frequent visitors at the Webb Mem-
orial Library.
Not long ago two outstanding
entomologists from Washington
made several trips to the museum
to study the number of unusual
paintings of insects which were in-
cluded in the Chapin collection. The
insects are greatly enlarged on
canvas, and are decidedly accurate
and beautifully done. The color-
ing has been remarkably preserved,
and it is believed the work was done
by a Latin. The entomologists, up-
on returning to Washington, pub-
lished a pamphlet on the paintings.
The present society meets regu-
larly every second Tuesday in each
month during the winter season, in
the library building. It has a mem-
bership of between 75 and 100 and
does a great deal of interesting and
valuable work. It is headed by
Judge David R. Dunham as presi-
dent and other officers are X. L.
Pellicer, vice-president; Mrs. Fred-
erick S. Vaill, secretary; Otis E.
Barnes, treasurer; W. J. Harris,
curator; J. Tyler Van Campen,


Manucy House

On St. George

Is Described

Family Story Is Told
of "The Yellow House"
As It Was Known


Was One of Interest-
ing Old Places of

It may have had, and no doubt
did have, in some earlier time, an-
other name attached to it, but it
has come down to this year as "The
Manucy House". While it was
typical of houses of the second
Spanish period it was marked as be-
ing a "yellow house". Three child-
ren of the old woman, who always
insist- d on having the colored work-
man tint it yellow, say so. They are
Mr. John Manucy and his sisters,
Mrs. Caroline Canova of Hypolita
street and Mrs. Catherine Mickler
of St. Andrew's Court. Mrs. Oliveros
Manucy, a daughter-in-law, Mrs.
Charles Marucy whose father-in-
law was a brother of old John
Manucy. All these mention the yel-
low tint that made the house at the
northeast corner of Cuna and St.
George Streets stand out from the
coquina tint of the neighborhood
When Sebastian Oliveros married
Caterina Usina they lived in this
house where Bartolo Oliveros was
born. When Sebastian died, his
widow married a John Manucy.
Many times in ancient St. Augus-
t: records this r.ame is spelled
Manuse. The Manucys had several
children to be step brothers of
Bartolo Oliveros. It is with the son,
John, namesake of his father, that
the house was most closely related,
for John married Dynecia Gorito,
whose father had left a widow with
five or six daughters known as the
handsome Goritos. Yet while the
house seems so closely connected
with the John Manucys, not all their
life was spent there. Indeed it
seems as if the impression was
made in few years compared with
the age of the old building. Mrs.
Joseph Canova (Caroline Manucy)
says her mother and father were
living on Bay Street, where later
was the Edgar house and now is
the residence of Mrs. Elbridge
Gerry Snow, when their son, John,
was born. When the war of '61
broke out, the father joined the
southern army as a veterinarian
and the wife took her children out
to the home of her stepfather, Mr.
Masters, at Fort Peyton. .
What happened to the house dut
ing the war years is vague and how
it got out of the family hands is
not related. Possibly it was "sold
for taxes" as so much of the prop-
erty of Confederate soldier owners
here was "sold".
When John Manucy came back
from war, Mr. Atwood persuaded
him to live in the big house that was
on what is now the nbrth side of
San Marco lot. That house had the
reputation of being haunted by
some one or more people who had
died there. It had belonged to Miss
Lucy Abbott before the war. John
Manucy decided to move in. "We
never saw any ghosts while we lived
there," says his daughter Carolina
As so much dispute was on about
its ownership possibly the ghost
was a rumor put out to make folks
unwilling to live in it. But the
Manucys met nothing supernatural
Then John Manucy got a chance
to buy back the old house at Cuna
and St. George but did not move
into it until sometime later as the
famous Dr. Shine had been its
tenant and continued to live there
for some months.
When they did move in, John
Manucy made few changes beyond
having stairs built to reach the
second story. A ladder had served
before that. There were two small
windows at the St. George street
side of the upstairs and two dorm-
ers on the side toward the Bay.
The family needed the two bed
rooms on the upper floor, for there
was always a numerous family
clustered about Grandmother
Downstairs there was a parlor on
the St. George Street side with a
door opening into it directly from
the street. The chimney at the
north end was very large. There
was a "tarish" floor that had to be

Exact Date May Now Be
Established Through
Father Geiger

Of special significance at such a
time, when history is foremost in
the minds of St. Augustinians, is
the discovery made by members of
the Historical Society within the
past few weeks that possibly the ex-
act date of the building of the Old-
est House, located on St. Francis
Street, has been uncovered.
During the approximately 50
years that the house has been
shown commercially, those in
charge have been able to give only
the approximate date of the build-
ing, so this discovery has naturally
created a great deal of interest
among members of the society and
others who prize this, one of St. Au-
gustine's leading attractions.
The date, in the light of a book,
"The Franciscan Conquest of Flor-
ida, 1572-1681" written by Rev.
Maynard Geiger, OFM, is believed
now to be 1597, for in this book it
is written that the house was partly
built upon the arrival of Governor
Canzo, when he came here on June
2, 1597, to be governor.
Romance, tradition and quiet,
peaceful beauty cling closely to the
Oldest House and its- lovely garden,
endearing it to the thousands who
visit it annually.
Within the walled garden and in
the picturesque low-ceilinged rooms,
the spell of old-world charm steals
over one along with the knowledge
that there, many colorful, fascinat-
ing and possibly tragic incidents of
the past more than three centuries
are cloistered.
According to tradition the Oldest
House was used by the Franciscan
Friars who came from the convent
of Pedroso, diocese of Palmata, in
Spain, and founded the convent of
St. Helena of St. Augustine. This
convent was located where the State
Arsenal now stands, just across the
street from the Oldest House.
In the records of the Historical
Society and Institute of Science
there is a copy of a letter written in
1601 by one of these friars stating
that in 1599 their convent burned
and they took refuge in the Hermit-
age and Chapel of de la Soledad,
then being used as a hospital, where
they remained until their convent
and cells were rebuilt in 1737.
It is believed that the Oldest
House was the chapel referred to in
this account. Drake's map of St.
Augustine (1586) shows a church in
the vicinity of St. Francis Street
and there is no proof th that all the
houses were destroyed in Drake's
attack nor in that of any other fire.
One of the early historians of St.
Augustine, Roman, wrote in 1783,
"The date on one of the houses I
remember to be 1571," showing that
houses built previous to Drake's
attack were standing 200 "years
When the English took possession
of Florida in 1763 the property had
been transferred by Thomas Gon-
zales Hernandez in confidence to
Jesse Fish, to whom all the Spani-
ards were selling their ancestral
possessions. When Florida again
became a Spanish possession in
1788 the Spaniards were able to re-
possess their old homes, and this
one in question was purchased by
Don Geronimo Alverez, son of
Michael Alverez and Theresa Men-
endez. The house descended through
the Alverez family until it was sold
in 1882 by Ella Acosta to William
On May 9th, 1884, Dr. Charles P.
Carver purchased the house and
lived there with his wife. It was
badly decayed at the time of this
transfer, records show. Dr. Carver
was a dentist and received patients
in his home. So many sightseeing
tourists stopped there to examine
the building, asking if they might
be admitted to it and permitted to
look around, thus constantly inter-
rupting the dentist, that one day he
put down his instruments, went out
into garden where he found his
wife, and told her he would no long-
er continue to practice dentistry,
but from that time on they would
start charging admission to the
house and using it as a show place.
That was the beginning of commer-
cializing of the famous old struc-
In the year 1898, on January 5th,
the house was bought by a Mr. and
Mrs. James W. Henderson who
lived there and continued to show
the house. A son was born to the
Hendersons there and at the pres-
ent time, whenever he comes to St.
Augustine the son never fails to

__ -15

Olden Charm On St. Francis Street

Old Resident

Llambias Home

Is Fascinating

6 .. Aa "

Mrs. Oliveros Manucy has vivid
recollection of gates that swung be-
tween pillars of ancient gateway.

Is Part of Picturesque
Setting on Old St.
Francis Street

Standing as it does, surrounded
by lawns and open grounds, No. 81
St. Francis Street, the Llambias
house, acquires special dignity, and
its age takes on emphasis since-
three of its walls have their full
effect with no adjoining structures
to obstruct the view.
Its front door seems ready to
open at the slightest touch, so close
is it to St. Francis Street surface.
The balcony seems literally to hang
over the street, its distance above
the street probably being nearer
to the usual wall height than some
of the other balconied houses. With
this balcony on the south side of
St. Francis Street and just west, on
the opposite side, the one earner
balcony in the city at the Graham
or old Dummett House, a most
artistic vista results.
According to Miss Emily Wilson,
this area was styled Moncrief's
Quarter during the English occu-
pation, and this was Convent Lane,
in 1783, when Nicholas Turnbull
measured the lot. De La Roque's
map of 1788 shows this house as
well as an earlier deed of 1783 in
Later it was owned by Llambias
and his descendants occupied it
many years. During their time the
women of the family became known
for their beautiful Spanish lace
work. It is related by Mrs. E. L.
Reyes of Moultrie who lived with
her relatives there that they told
her when they came back to- the
house, after,the War Between the
States, nbt a stick of furniture re-
mained except one table so heavy
and large that it had not been
chopped up.
It is a private home at present
and not open for exhibition under
any conditions.
There was more social pride in
St. Augustine than seems, possible
in view of its numerous population
changes and depressing occur-
rences. There were what seemed
mesalliances. Sometimes a man
married a girl not acceptable to
his family's pride. More often it
was the girl who had an idea she
was marrying "beneath her."

scrubbed and scrubbeJ to satisfy
the old woman. So after a while
John Manucy had a wide board floor
laid above the stone. An eight
panel folding door took up the wall
between the parlor and grand-
mother's bedroom on the southeast
corner of the house. With windows
on both west and south Grand-
mother Dynecia could have easily
seen how often all her neighbors
went to Bene Benet's store or who
was visiting the Benet family on
another corner. But when weather
was fit, grandmother preferred to
sit in her rocking chair in the piazza
room with shuttered windows to the
west and the door opening out on
the board walk that lead to the two
stored kitchen and dining room
Here the family expected to find
her afternoons. If the big grape
arbor hung with its long bunches of
white, blue and black grapes, every-
body knew that grandmother would
have some ready for the family and
visitors. This grape arbor was very
large and pleasantly shaded the east
windows. Then there was a huge
old fig tree. And bananas, pome-
granates, lemons and oranges.
Once when the yellow fever was
in St. Augustine it looked as if
every leaf had been stripped from
the orange trees. John Manucy is
described as a fearless sort of man,
a large heavy man who must have
been a load for the saddle horses
he always kept in the stalls on the
east end of the place. But he was
not afraid of anything. i He'd strip
the leaves from the orange trees
and boil them to make a drink. He'd
fill a gallon can and take it to the
sick folks to give them to drink.
When he'd get back his wife would
say, "John Manucy, you go right up
in the attic over the kitchen and
take off them clothes. You'll be the
next to catch the fever". But he
didn't and he kept on stripping off
the orange leaves until every tree
behind the house was bare.
Everybody was waiting for frost
to kill off the fever. Grandmother
Dynecia would roll assafoetida pills
for her family and made them wear
bags of assafoetida or garlic around
their necks. Every afternoon she'd
take ap old copper boiler and make
a smoke with coal tar so the fumes
would carry the fever away from
her house.
A high board fence ran along
Cuna Street from the house wall
and there was a gate in it. Grand-
mother Dynecia as she sat in her
rocking chair in the piazza room
could hear anyone at that gate. She
always wore a long full apron and
when anyone touched that gate
quick her pipe went under -the
corner of her apron. She always
smoked a pipe. All the sisters did,
and so did Great Grandmother
Gorito. Once that old lady set her
apron afire thrusting her pipe under
it so some visitor wouldn't see her
smoke. Yet everybody know the
women smoked. In fact many of
the women liked the little Spanish
cigars better than pipes and they
were favorite Christmas gifts.
But Grandmother Dynecia kept a
number of little pipes. She care-
fully boiled them out and dried
them thoroughly before selecting
one to put in a cigar box where
she kept matches and tobacco. This
box. always went into her room
when she went to bed and during
the night she always waked and in-
sisted she could never get to sleep
until she had smoked a pipe.
John Manucy of Rohde Avenue,
the I.st of the Johns, is a story in
himself. He married Frances
Woolover, a northern New York
State girl whose folks had come to
Florida and lived at Moultrie. They
too lived in the Cuna-St. George
Street house where a daughter,
now Mrs. Maude Hartley, was born.
Others of Grandmother Dynecia's
children .were in the old house when
sons and daughters came to them.
The old yellow house was busy
with just living-births, marriages,
Sometime stop to look at a broken
headstone at the left after entering
the old cemetery outside the city
gates. It is part of the unwritten
history of St. Augustine and be-
longs to the second John Manucy
who had no fear of ghosts. '
(Editor's Note:' Here we have a
very vivid and interesting descrip-
tion written by Mrs. E. W. Lawson
of the home that occupied the site
at the northeast corner of St.
George and Cuna Streets, where the
Observer office is now located.)
The Duke of Newcastle is de-
clared to have said the Hotel Ponce
de Leon of St. Augustine is the
most magnificent building in the
world. It covers nearly six acres
of land, and has 375 rooms, with a
grand, dining hall that will seat
800 persons. The hotel is built
around three sides of a court-
yard 150 feet square, with an ela-
borate fountain in the center.

Recalls Gates

That Swung On

Ancient Hinges

Mrs. Oliveros Manucy, 88,
Has Old Spanish

Mrs. Oliveros Manucy of No. 49
Rohde Avenue, 88 years old, is one
of the few persons who recall seeing
the actual gates in the City Gates.
Mrs. Manucy was a daughter of
Gaspar Masters and they lived in a
16-room house, the last one on the.
west side of the road, just inside the
barrier. So that things that hap-
pened at the gates formed a con-
stant source of interest to the small
girl. The big iron hinges are fixed
in her memory particularly. Some-
times when the tides were very high
the water reached the top of the
moat and overflowed.
At the time of the fire in April,
1887, when the Gaspar Masters
house was destroyed, it was occu-
pied as a young ladies academy and
boarding school and operated by
Mrs. L. M. Mundy.
At her home on Rohde Avenue,
Mrs. Manucy has, so far as can
be discovered, after long search, the
only grapevine left descendant
of any of the bunch grapes that
covered arbors of old St. Augus-
tine homes. Along St. George
Street every house had at the back
or side vines bearing these bunch
grapes, white, blue or black. These
are said to have come from fa-
mous vineyards of Spain. Much at-
tention was given to cultivation of
the grape here in St. Augustine, al-
though at one time the King of
Spain outlawed grape cultivation
for wine industry in this city be-
cause of possible rivalry with
Spain's own wine industry. This
vine at Mrs. Manucy's came from
the old Manucy home at the corner
of Cuna and St. George Street
and continues to fruit.
--------o--*--- ^-
Election Days Came
Thick And Fast, Old
City Records Indicate

If some people growl nowadays
about "too many election days"
what would they have to say if one
election required as many days as
in 1781? Then a royal writ com-
manded "all inhabitants of 21 years
or over who possessed 50 acres of
land to meet at the courthouse in
St. Augustine to elect 19 fit and
discreet persons severally possessed
in their own right of 500 acres of
land within the province of East
Florida to be their representa-
tives." This was part of the Gov-
ernor's council. Election days ap-
pointed were March 13, 14, 15 and
16-four. The 19 elected were Rob-
ert Baillie, Wm. Brown, Peter Ed-
wards, Stephan Egan, Thomas
Forbes, George Kemp, Jacobus Kip,
John Leslie, Francis Levett, Benja-
min Lord, Wm. McLeod, John Mar-
tin, Philips Moore, Wm. Moss, John
Mowbray, John Ross, Thomas Ross,
Robert Scott and Robert Payne.
The last named is possibly the
Payne to whom allusion is made
when on various occasions posters
were stuck up at "Payne's Corner."
One was so free in its attacks on
Governor Tonyn that it was "re-
(One of the Record's series of










First Florida Council
No. 611

_I_ UC_



visit the place of his birth.
George Reddington who is now
living in this city purchased the
property on October 31, 1911, keep-
ing it until the St. Augustine His-
torical Society and Institute of Sci-
ence, the present owners, bought it.
The valuable collection that had
accumulated in the building was
moved by the society into the Webb
Memorial Library Building when it
was built in 1918. A few pieces of
antique furniture and bric-a-brac
have been placed in the rooms on
the lower floor, and upstairs the
bedrooms have been furnished with
fascinating old bed steads, marble-
topped wash stands and old
dressers, in keeping with the anti-
quity of the structure.
The walls and floors are of co-
quina and a close inspection con-
vinces one of the primitive con-
The restful patio and lovely
garden are sights to linger long in
the memory of the visitor to that
famous spot.
The romance of the garden has
lured many couples there to be
married. A year hardly passes that
several couples do not pronounce
their marriage vows there, and
their names are recorded in a
special book kept for that purpose.
The old wishing well in the garden
is the subject of a colorful tradition.
It has been said that the well was
once blessed by the friars and that
anyone seeing his reflection in the
well and making a wish will be sure
to get his wish.
Truly the Oldest House is an out-
standing attraction in the South,
and it is fortunate that the old
building has been preserved so well
down through the ages.

The Llambias House on St. Francis Street, which is part of the old-world charm on that narrow
thoroughfare, down which one catches glimpses of the enchanting blue of Matanzas Bay.



These Leading


() s^










Best Quality Food Popular Prices
Your Patronage Appreciated
On Bay Front Opposite Yacht Pier

189 San Marco Ave.
On U. S. Highway No. 1
Owner and Manager

All Modern, Fir
Thirty-Five Outside Rooms, Al
Hot and Cold Running Wat
Connected. Private Sto:
Rates: One Dollar to One
Open All the
24 St. George Street-One Block
Prof. and Mrs. R. L. Park

A good Place to Stop While in St. Augustine
Opposite the Famous
Hotel Ponce de Leon


e ,, t --O I:
4deI '2

rage Garage on Premises. OCEIAN HOTE

South of the Ancient CityGates "Bay Front Hotel
:s, Owners and Proprietors H.E. Hernandez, Proprietor '

On the Water Front Just Inside the City Gates
'. ". 1' /-" "" ".' -,
-'4,. ,

.4 ab, t,^fe g tkg^ .-'ai

reproof Building.
I Steam-Heated. Private Baths,
ter, Beauty-Rest Beds. Cafe '
e*Year Round St. Augustine's Most Reasonable
k South of the Ancient City Gates Bay Front Hotel
is, Owners and Proprietors H. E. Hernandez, Proprietor $^

The Gilbert-Plaza Hotel Dixie Highway Hotel |S

\ .. ,'v ^ '


- I ih


i i __IL-_~~-~
IL I~. i


Dedicated to the Best

Interests of This

Oldest City

tgi TAaenn/ istt



Section 0


Dr. Chatelain

Says Issue Is


Cites Patriotic Signifi.
chance of Date in


It Will Afford Oppor.
tunity for Study of

By Dr. Verne E. Chatelain
Director of the St. Augustine
Historical Restoration
This Special Issue of the Recorc
which affords people generally the
opportunity to study the Restora
tion Program in a more comprehen
sive way than ever before, anc
which is appearing so propitiously
on this the 161st birthday of the
Nation's Independence, is indeed
Old St. Augustine, a city of glor.
ious traditions and a history whici
reaches far back beyond that mo-
mentous day in 1776, has made for-
itself a new Charter of liberties anc
is today setting its eyes upon a
Goal as idealistic in many ways as
That which was set out so dramatic.
ally in that immortal document oj
American freedom.
And there are fundamental les-
sons in that situation applicable to
the present moment. The worlC
will' probably always contain some
who will scoff at idealism, who wil
point to precedents and methods
sanctioned by usage and time, who
will refuse to dare to look ahead
and who will argue that things have
gone too far in certain directions
to permit the re-charting of the
course, and who will say that
v'cdhange is impracticable and unnec-
essary. The idealism of the Restora
tion Program may be open to the
same kind of cynicism.
Fortunately, not only for them.
selves but for some of the Na-
tion's finest historical resources
the citizens of St. Augustine are
i^ imbued with the same spirit which
filled our forefathers with ar
eagerness for changed and im-
proved conditions. Personal sacrifi-
ces and inconveniences they were
perfectly willing to assume, for the
better days to come.
During the American Revolution
there were dark hours, moments of
obscured vision, and disheartening
experience, when the weaker souls
altered and lost their courage. But
a'-nw freedom held the young na-
tion enthralled. They had signed
their own Emancipation Proclama-
tion-declaring that certain condi.
tions that had held them in econ-
omic, social and political bondage
in the past'were gone forever.
With something of the same at-
titude St. Augustine must face its
present problem; without holding
steadfastly to the idealism of a
better community-and improved
conditions for the future to be
gained by the Restoration Program,
there can be no freedom from the
shackles that have retarded this
community's growth heretofore.
St. Augustine is making on July
4, 1937, a Declaration of Indepen-
dence before the eyes of the world,
just as truly as a young nation did
161 years ago. Whether it makes
good on that Declaration is de-
pendent altogether upon its having
-, the same devotion to its cause as
Sthe great leaders of that tremen-
dous era displayed.
Minorcan Residents
Have Every Right To
Feel Greatest Pride

Minorcans of St. Augustine have
every right to pride themselves on
some of their men and women who
have made reputations.
After the colonists came from
New Smyrna and located here,
S numbers of them enlisted in the
royalist troops and fought on the
British side with much bravery.
Meantime one of the Minorcan
population left the home island and
hastened to this country where he
enlisted in the ranks of the Col-

'ive onial Army. George Farragut saw
distinguished service in the War of
the Revolution later in the Span-
ish-American conflict in Western
Florida and also in the War of
1812. But when his name and serv-
ices have been forgotten, fame was
given the Farragut name by his de-
scendant David Glascoe Farragut,
first admiral of the U. S. Navy.
| e Many Minorcans came to St. Au-
I gustine during the first Spanish
regime. The mother of Gabriel
Perpall, who was really the first
mayor of St. Augustine after the
Spanish left Florida for the second
time, was a Minorcan. Isabel Per-
pall was listed as a trader and
much property is traced in her
(One of the Record's Histogram
De Caceres' report made about St.
Augustine, in November, 1574, says
that here there "are 13 married
laborers without the soldiers and
some of them are married. Each
laborer and settler among them has
a-b---zbout enough land to make a med-
ium size garden, which, for what
one man alone can dig with a hoe,
is enough for him, especially as
half of every day is occupied in
grinding the corn which is to be
eaten that day, for it cannot be kept
ground or cooked for the next day,

and it is a great and constant labor
to eiri"d it by hand. No more is
): because each one is alone
with his hoe."
I' ,


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Dr. John C. Merriam Speaks

To People Of St. Augustine

J. E. Pickering

- Voices Ideas

a On Restoration
l __ -
SSays St. Augustine Will
Become Center for
s Students

S John E. Pickering, member of the
St. Augustine Historical Preserva-
tion and Restoration Association,
and one of the members of Mayor
Fraser's National Committee on
Preservation and Restoration from
its inception last October, sets
forth the benefits of the Restora-
I tion Plan, as he sees them, as fol-
The restoration of St. Augustine
Sand its development as a national
Historic site will not only bring an
increased number of visitors to this
city but it will bring a large num-
ber of permanent residents to this
area. The historic project will not
only provide a physical picture of
history that will tell the story of
This region back through 500 or 600
Years but it will become the capital
for all information of the Spanish
colonization of this part of the New
The latter feature will tend to
bring here a great number of his-
torians and writers who will find at
their disposal originals or copies
of every piece of data in the world
gathered and catalogued under one
roof. It will open up a vast field
Sfor research work since it means
that the student, writer, scientist
and historian will be able to find
here what is now scattered in
archives Cuba, Spain, France, Eng-
land and Washington.
A great number of these profes-
sional groups will spend long
periods of time here, become per-
menant residents for a reasonable
length of time. While this group
will form a small permanent colony,
the greatest number of permanent
residents will be made up of a cer-
tain class of people in the United
States who like to live in the
shadow of the past because of a
charm that cannot be found in
modern cities, no matter how great
are the conveniences.
How true this is, is exemplified
in Europe where this writer lived
for more than ten years. In Paris
the American colony at times
reached 50,000. Of this number it
is fair -to say that at least half
sought out quarters in the old sec-
tions of Paris rather than dwell in
shining new apartment buildings
facing the famous Bois du Bologne.
There is an undeniable attraction
and charm for the things that are
old. It was more interesting in
Paris to live in some narrow street
where the great figures of litera-
ture e oncewalked and worked than
to live next door to some great
banker or industrialist of the pres-
ent day on a modern up-to-date
boulevard. Thousands of Americans
coming to Paris to live, forsook
scores of modern conveniences to
which they were accustomed in the
United States to live in a house or
garret where history was made. The
same is true in London, Florence,
Venice and Rome, all of which have
large American colonies.
It will be the same in St. Augus-
tine. There is virtually no old world
setting left in the United States.
There will be a demand here for old
houses, not new, or at least new
ones constructed like the old. It
may seem odd to the people here
that people want to live in an old
house (which can be thoroughly
modernized inside) when there are
so many "marble halls" at their dis-
posal. Yet they have flocked to
Europe to live against a back-
ground of and in the past and they
will come here. The restoration
will bring not only increased busi-
ness to St. Augustine but a healthy
and desirable growth.
There was a Lieutenant Gover-
nor of Florida back in the earliest
times, who got investigated and was
found guilty of dishonorable con-
duct. He must be the first exile.
Three years' exile from Florida was
the sentence pronounced on him. He
may have been glad to get away
about that time, but three years out
of his job may not have been so


Expresses Pleasure
Progress Made
Thus Far

Dr. John C. Merriam, president
of Carnegie Institution, of Wash-
ington, D. C., whose interest and
support of the Restoration Program
mean so much, has addressed a
special message to the people of St.
Augustine through this Restoration
Issue of the Record. He says:
"I am much pleased to learn that
the Legislature has passed various
measures including regulatory acts
and appropriations, relating. to the
St. Augustine historical and de-
velopment program. The whole
country is watching St. Augustine
with great interest and the effect of
the work already done is having its
influence over the United States and
in other countries. I am sure that
what is done with the fine program
at St. Augustine will have favor-
able influence on the whole develop-
ment of Florida. I wish you to
know that I am planning to push as
vigorously as possible the coopera-
tion of Carnegie Institution and
other scientific agencies in further-
ing this important work.
"In St. Augustine what you are
attempting to do is to create a
perspective of the history of the
city in its relationship to the city,
the state, the nation and the world.
"When I came to St. Augustine
it was with the feeling that there
was here an important work to do
in which our staff at Carnegie
Institution might help by gather-
ing facts and putting them together
in such a way as to maintain the
value of the history of St. Augus-
"I am glad to have a part in the
great program being carrieC on by
you. You have my good wishes
and my prayers, for prayer must
accompany great works if they are
to be done in the right way."
In a pamphlet written by Very
Rev. H. P. Clavreul, V. G., for a
long time priest in the old Cathedral
here, he refers to the records of
marriages performed by the priest,
Father Pedro Camps who accom-
panied the Minorcan colony from
their sailing from Port Mahon until
his death in 1790 at St. Augustine.
The distressing number of deaths
in the New Smyrna colony, and also,
following their arrival in St. Au-
gustine, these last due to the hard-
ships endured at New Smyrna, is
evident from the fact that out of 57
marriages performed here from
1777 to 1781, in 31 the bride was a


Of Big Issue

Any who may feel that they
have family archives and history
that should have been included
in this edition of the Record, the
purpose of which is to arouse
interest in the Restoration Pro-
gram undertaken by Carnegie
Institution, in cooperation with
the City of St. Augustine, are
asked to remember that there are
limitations even to a newspaper
of this size.
It has been simply impossible
to follow all the interesting leads
that developed as members of the
staff and special assistants have
been at work for the past six
weeks in gathering together un-
usual material. It seemed that
every interesting story followed
up led to more and more unique
situations; also genealogies of
great value, showing the cross-
current of the races in this little
city, which for many years was
veritably what might be called
the crossroads of the world.
So for all sins of omission and
commission, the Record is most
apologetic, offering this edition
of the newspaper as an indication
of the type of material that is
here, underlying the modern
strata of life which apparently
moves along as it does in other
cities. But there are deep-mov-
ing currents, with hundreds of
the inhabitants being descendants
of those earlier settlers who had
a part in creating the St. Augus-
tine of another day, which we
have sought to portray in this

Restoration Is

Vital Matter

Says Dunham

Speaks as

Official and

as Citizen; Is Long-
Time Resident

When Judge David R. Dunham,
president of the St. Augustine His-
torical Society and Institute of
Science, and vice president of the
St. Augustine Historical Preserva-
tion and Restoration Association,
was asked to make a statement
concerning his reaction to the Res-
toration Program, his answer had
all the enthusiasm that might be
expected from a man who has de-
voted so much of his time to the
preservation of the history of St.
Augustine over a period of years.
Since the Restoration project was
broached, Judge Dunham has been
even more generous with his time,
and has devoted a great deal of
attention to various phases, includ-
ing the legal angles that entered
into program, including necessary
legislation at Tallahassee. Judge
Dunham's statement, made in his
official capacity, also as a private
citizen, follows:
"St. Augustine and its citizens
have been presented with a won-
derful, opportunity. The foresight
of Mayor Walter B. Fraser and
the interest of the Carnegie Insti-
tution and of Dr. John C. Merriam
of said Institution resulted in the
formation of a National Commit-
tee for the Preservation and Res-
toration of this historic city.
"To the St. Augustine Historical
Society and Institute of Science the
Preservation and Restoration of
historic St. Augustine is of vital im-
portance. The aims, objects and
purpose of the Society will thereby
reach their fullest realization. For
over a half century this Society
has been struggling with its lim-
ited means, and in the face of what
might appear to some as almost in-
surmountable obstacles, to preserve
St. Augustine's ancient landmarks
and historic sites and to collect and
make available for future genera-
tions all historical data .such as
books, maps and other records re-
lating to the early history of Flor-
ida and St. Augustine.
"The Historical Society has given
and will give to the National Com-
mittee, the Carnegie Institute, the
City of St. Augustine and all other
agencies interested in the preserva-
tion and restoration work its full
moral and financial support and co-
"Naturally there will be differ-
ences of opinion as to the plan and
the manner and methods of preser-
vation and restoration, but we can
and should adjust these 'differences
as nearly satisfactorily to all as
possible, and keeping in view the
main objectives of the whole plan,
make of our old city a place not
only of beauty and charm but such
a place that people from all over
the nation and the world will come
to see and visit, not merely because
of its climate or that they have read
somewhere in history that St. Au-
gustine is the oldest city in the
United States, but because here
they can see an old city as it was
when the Spaniards first founded it
and as it grew through the centu-
City Authorities May
Feel Some Sympathy
For Officials Of 1855

St. Augustine authorities may
feel some sympathy for the city
rulers of 1855 in connection with
their efforts to rid the city of some
of the half decrepit structures that
had been ordered condemned.
In 1855 the city council ordered
that "Ignacio Lopez, agent of
George Washington" be instructed
to "pull down forthwith the old de-
cayed building on General Hernan-
dez lot, it being a public nuisance
and endangering the public safety."
Our George Washington was still
on the wrong side when in 1887 the
city council described the lot at
Green, Bay and Marine Streets as
being the site of a pool which was a
menace to public health. George
Washington was owner, the records
state, of said-lot and he or his agent
was ordered to have this lot filled
:in properly within 30 days or-
(One of the Record's series of

Scott M. Loftin Endorses


Best Opportunity for City
Since Flager Came,
He Says

Scott M. Loftin, former United
States Senator, and Past President
of the American Bar Association,
who has been identified with the
Preservation and Restoration Pro-
gram for St. Augustine from the
very beginning, being a member of
Mayor Walter B. Fraser's National
Committee, feels very keenly the
importance of the Restoration
As president of the St. Augus-
tine Historical Preservation and
Restoration Association, the organ-
ization which will officially handle
details of the program here, Mr.
Loftin was influential with other
leaders of the project in St. Au-
gustine, in arousing sentiment in
the Senate and the House of the
1937 Legislature for the passage of
legislation that appropriates $50,-
000 from state funds for the Resto-
ration Prograim.
Mr. Loftin, when asked for a
statement concerning his views on
the Restoration for inclusion in this
I~estoration Edition of the Record,
said unqualifiedly that he considers
the present plan St. Augustine's
finest opportunity since Henry
Morrison Flagler came here, and
launched his wonderful program
that was to' give this Oldest City
some of its greatest treasures.
Speaking along this line, Mr.
Loftin says that Mr. Flagler had
a deep love for this Oldest City,
and that he always appreciated to
the utmost its quaintness. He felt
that old buildings which dated from
the English and Spanish occupa-
tions were most valuable and should
be saved for posterity. It was be-
cause Mr. Flagler sensed the for-
eign flavor of St. Augustine, the
charm of its little old houses, and
narrow streets, its grim old fort,
and its dreaming Plaza, that he was
willing to pour out his millions,
spending so lavishly that his friends
marvelled at his prodigal program
of expenditures. "However," Mr..
Loftin continued, "he brought thou-
sands upon thousands of people to
St. Augustine, and started the
Florida winter sunshine cult, which
later was to sweep the nation,
bringing people here in ever-in-
creasing numbers.
"Mr. Flagler extended the line
of his railroad on further south, to
Miami, and then fo Key West. He
had a beautiful home in Palm
Beach, but he always maintained
his residence, Kirkside, in St. Au-
"Essentially a builder, Mr. Flag-
ler visualized Spanish beauty in a
tropical setting, which would sup-
plement the quaint simplicity of
the original Oldest City, and
through his work here it seems we
have one of the strongest impulses
toward the Restoration program.
Mr. Flagler spent his millions here,
and revivified what was a quiet,
sleepy little town.
"The present plan of the Car-
negie Institution, in cooperation
with Mayor Walter B. Fraser, the
City of St. Augustine and its citi-
zenry, is so far-reaching, and so
fraught with possibilities for the
people of this community, that we
who have looked into it most care-
fully feel through it prosperity
can and will smile again upon the
people here.
"From time to time I have heard
an echo from a few who fear the
town is to be disrupted; that vast
and sweeping changes are to be
made. I think it can be safely said
that the whole program will be so
carefully worked out in the inter-
ests of all concerned that no ap-
prehension need be felt.
The program will cover a long per-
iod of time, possibly ten years.
There need be no sudden disruptive
forces at work that will upset our
people unduly. Each move will be
carefully considered, and certainly
the cooperation of the citizens is
"I am confident of the future of
St. Augustine if the program now
launched is carried through, with
the approval and cooperation of the
people, and assistance that is com-
ing from outside.
"Surely when we view the dis-
asters of the past few years, with
old houses being pulled down, and
the whole character of the quaint
streets changed, the outlook is
gloomy for the coming decades, un-
less the program which Carnegie
is willing to sponsor is undertaken."

Of Restoration

Corporation Is
Composed Of

Ten Citizens
The non-profit corporation
known as the St. Augustine His-
torical Preservation and Restora-
tion Association, formed to lead
in the program of Preservation
and Restoration for St. Augus-
tine, includes the following: For-
mer U. S. Senator Scott M. Lof-
tin, president; Judge David R.
Dunham, vice president; X. L.
Pellicer, secretary-treasurer.
Also Mayor Walter B. Fraser,
M. H. Westberry, Verle A. Pope,
chairman of the board of county
commissioners;, J. W. Hoffman,
Mrs. Neil Dickman, Miss Nina
Hawkins, John E. Pickering.
This corporation has the right
to accept gifts of money, prop-
erty, etc., to further the. Resto-
ration program. Dr. Verne E.
Chatelain has been named execu-
tive secretary for the, group, and
is directing the program.

Night Watches

Were Taken By

Civic Leaders

100 Years Ago Prominent
Citizens Did Patrol

Patrol reports of 1837, 100 years
ago, showed that with the ever-
present possibility of Indians ap-
pearing, even the most important
men of the City of St. Augustine
were usually willing to take their
turn on the night watches. Many
small slips of paper are in the city
vault that were turned in to the
mayor or judge after each night.
One report is made out by D; R.
Dunham, captain for that night,
late in May. Charles Downing, who
had been twice territorial repre-
sentative, was on duty that night.
Bartola Canova and Donate Bravo
were in U. S. service so they were
not summoned. Other well-known
men who served, were D. W. White-
head, John M. Fontane, Ira Wood-
ruff. Another, night when Pedro
Benet was captain, P. B. Dumas,
Venancio Sanchez, Wm. Travers
and Morris Tucker whose wife at
one time inherited from her mother
all the strip from Tolomato to the
San Sebastian River along Orange
Street, were on the list.
Most of the arrests the patrols
reported were for not having pass-
es. The report slip was home-made
and the last column was devoted to
"occurrences". In that column the
most frequent report was "nothing
extraordinary." Another night "a
soldier mounted passed over the
bridge and fired off his gun at the
sea." Several excuses told how the
man who was named on the patrol
had "gone to Charleston."- One pa-
trol station was at the St. Sebastian
Bridge, the other in the City Coun-
cil Room, apd there were several
appeals for some cots, so the watch
not on duty could rest until sent
out. The patrols seemed to end at
4 o'clock in the morning, plenty of
time to get a nap before breakfast.

100 Years Ago

A hundred years ago, in May,
1837, the tax collector in St. Au-
gustine, George Phillips, was able
to report that all city taxes but $3
had been collected, but he com-
plained that "some however have
made no return of slaves."
In 1837 there plainly wasn't much
use of some streets in St. Augus-
tine for a committee of three of
the council were named to see that
weeds that were growing very high
in some streets were pulled up.
In 1837 the "sickly season" was
approaching and the city council
of St. Augustine decided that "lime
be furnished such persons that are
unable to buy it to throw into their

Restoration Is Given

Start By Mayor Of

This City Of History

Dr. Leland Is Walter B. Fraser Last
L n I Summer Formed Nation-

SFnthuineetC al Committee

LlX Ui U105 am.

Over Program

Speaks in Glowing Words
of Old City as His-
toric Treasure

Dr. Waldo G. Leland, executive
secretary of the American Council
of Learned Societies, and member
of Mayor Walter B. Fraser's Na-
tional Committee for the Preserva-
tion and Restoration of Historic St.
Augustine, is most enthusiastic
over the Restoration program. He
speaks in glowing terms of St. Au-
gustine as a great historic treasure,
and in a special statement made for
this Restoration Issue of the Record
he said:
"The history of St. Augustine has
a special significance for in this
city there has evolved, during near-
ly four centuries, a cultural tradi-
tion that is extraordinarily rich in
content and variety. It has been
derived from the many diverse ele-
ments that have come into contact
with each other on this spot.
Spanish, Minorcan, Italian, Levan-
tine, English, and aboriginal Am-
erican cultures, as well as many
traits from other regions of the
United States have been fused into
a truly 'great tradition.
"It is this cultural tradition that
imparts to Saint Augustine that
personality that distinguishes it
from other cities, and that is ap-
parent to the discerning visitor
from the moment of his arrival.
Such a tradition is perhaps the most
really valuable possession that any
community can have. It is a spirit-
.ual asset which neither depressions
nor political crises nor even booms
can destroy.
, "The history! of. this cultural
tradition is of transcendent inter-
est and may be studied in, many
ways, from many points of view;
for the tradition itself is the sum
and substance of all the spiritual
manifestations of human existence
--of religion, of education, of art
and music and literature, of love of
the beautiful, of recreation and
play, and of the amenities of daily
"Any plan to bring out the his-
torical values of any town must be
based on common sense. A town
is a living thing. It is not in the
strictest sense a museum nor the
stage of a theatre. Certain houses
and certain sites will be museum
pieces, of which the Old Spanish
Treasury, (Anna G. Burt House)
is one of the finest examples
I have ever seen. But you cannot
freeze a town into any period pf its
past. It must live its life and con-
tinue to grow and historical values
can be brought out without inter-
fering with this growth."

Adjacent River

Was Busy Place

In Olden Days

North Stream Active as
Great Rafts of Logs

What a contrast with recent
conditions the North River, and the
water north of the Fort, must have
presented for many years beginning
in the first Spanish occupation.
Imagine the North River alive with
great rafts of logs being floated
down from as far as Pablo to the
mills, several of which were located
between the Fort and the next creek
Often there was much rivalry
among the raftsmen of whom there
would be several crews poling be-
ing the only power under which
they moved and the condition of
the tide being of prime importance.
Sometimes the rafts tangled, with
active arguments.
King's Landing, up the North
River, was an important point in
the movement, particularly if the
logs being rafted down were for
some public project of the King. The
supply was by no means exhausted
and the English continued to cut on
the North River.
In later years there were steam
tow boats, but the tailsmen on the
rafts were still of prime impor-
One old mill for years was locat-
ed on the south bank of the creek
near the east end of Pine Street.
A picture exists which shows the
remains of the machinery of a saw-
mill. This particular mill was
located on the shore between the
north side of the fort and the Dar-
row property now the Devlin home,
and for years the remnants of the
wheel hung there. This mill be-
longed to W. J. Reyes. Much lumber
was exported as well as logs. Sev-
eral of the older people who lived
around "Punkin Hill" recall that
the children played in the ruins of
the old wheel of the saw mill as if it
were a merry-go-round.


Sets Forth Program as
He Understands Its

Mayor Walter B. Fras4r, who last
summer at this time was busy with
plans for the forming of a National
Committee which would consider
ways and means and plans for the
preservation and restoration of his-
toric St. Augustine, and who was
successful in getting a committee
of notable personages formed, is
an ardent lover of this Oldest City.
He feels very keenly the importance
of getting the Restoration Program
Mayor Fraser was asked by the
Record to write a statement for the
Restoration Issue of this news-
paper, and this is as follows: n
What the Restoration of St. Augus-
tine Will Mean as I Understand It.
St. Augustine, the birthplace of
a nation, was at the height of- its
splendor and development in the
17th and 18th and early 19th cen-
turies. This Spanish city was built
around the massive fortification of
Castillo de San Marcos, which is
now one of the finest examples of
mediaeval construction in the Unit-
ed States. After it was finished,
about the year 1754, a canal and
moat were constructed connecting
this fortification on the Matanzas
River with the San Sebastihn
River, completely surrounding the
city with water and converting the
location of the first settlement vir-
tually into that of an island,
Within this area there developed
a city of Spain in every sense,-in
language, architecture, customs,
habits, and Catholic religion. The
flower of the youth of Spain, both
soldiers and seamen, with the finest
ships Spain could build, together
with millions of dollars in gold
were used in at effort to extend a
great civilization of Europe to the
new world.
The foundation and bed rock of a
new nation was laid here as a re-
sult of the intrepid leadership of
Christopher Columbus in 1492, Don
Juan Ponce de Leon in 1513, and
Don Pedro Menendez de Aviles in
In 1821 the United States bought
Florida from Spain for five million
dollars, and the Spanish people
soon began to leave Florida and the
English speaking people take their
places for the most part.
The history of the past four cen-
turies has now been written and,
apparently, Spain has not been
given the credit she deserves for
the pioneer work done by her dis-
coverers, and those who established
the first permanent white settle-
ment in what is now the United
States of America, also for the role
she played in paving the way for
a new civilization on this continent
through the bravery of her soldiers
and the faithful guidance of her
religious leaders.
Now, lest St. Augustine the birth-
place of our nation, crumble to dust
and be a thing of the past except
in recorded history, and this sacred
heritage be lost to this grpat na-
tion, it is planned to preserve all
that now remains of this ancient
city and restore as much ef its old
historic ruins as possible.
For instance the National Com-
mittee formed for the Restoration
and Preservation of St. Augistine
will most likely build back the old
moat connecting Fort San Marcos
with the San Sebastian River. This
no doubt will necessitate that the
old bridge at the City Gates be re-
constructed and small coquina rock
bridges built across the moht in
order to accommodate traffic for
the beautiful waterfront on Bay
Street, also similar construction to
Orange Street.
Most likely many of the streets
will be worked over with different
material, and objectionable feature
removed and overhanging balconies
replaced, with signs regulated, etc.
All electric wires and overhead
cables in the old city limits will
likely be placed underground. Parks
with orange trees, flowers and
tropical shrubbery and fountains
will most likely take the place of
unsightly spots that now have it-
tie or no attention.
Also, in all probability, old relics
of all sorts of the kinds that once
decorated the street nd parks, as
well as furnishing .n1 homes, will
be brought here fr6m Cuba,.Spain
and South American/countries to
take the place of the old relics that
have been carried away from St.
Augustine by souvenir hunters. (
This will help create an atmosphere
for the old that remains here and
the restoration work that will be
For instance all the rooms in
Fort San Marcos can be refurnished
throughout with old oil lamps, j
chairs, wine casks and all other
furnishings typical of the earlier -
centuries. These relics may be ob-.
tained from Cuba, Spain or South
America. Furnishings for the old;
Chapel in the Fort may be obtained '
from cathedrals from Cuba or other /
.(Continued on Page C-38


Suggested Restoration Plan For Old St. Augustine

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;The plan of development for St. Augustine, Florida, gives considera- secured and will continue to secure through donation and other means
'tfOh to the following objectives: First, civic organization and control, adequate resources with which to finance the plan as well as to conduct
kand second, physical elements of the plan. the general tourist business within this historical area. This corpora-
Civic Organization and Control tion will have charge of the entrance station features, the dissemination
Si. p an e h of information to the visitor, the conduct of guide service, the general
, The entire program will be handled under the auspices of the City management of parking lots, the development of recreational features
f, St. Augustine. Every feature of the plan depends upon the willing and parks, in cooperation with other agencies already established for
cooperation of the citizens themselves, upon their ability to qee clearly that purpose, the dealing with the individual owners of historic build-
their own future welfare as a part of the related program, and upon ings, where the visitor will go, and in short, the general conduct of the
thbir cheerful compliance with certain features of preservation and business features of the program.
conservation which should be stressed and respected by local citizen Physical Elements of the Plan
ad, tourist alike. Physical Elements of the Plan
: A careful revision of the City Charter has been worked out with the The physical elements of the plan involve the following considera-
consent and authority of the Florida State Legislature, as well as the ns
pressed declaration by the Legislature involving the principle of (a) The treatment of zoned areas A-l, C-1 and C-2 of the attached
eminent domain in its relationship to the conservation of historic map. This is the district, generally speaking, within the defense lines
houses, sites, and remains, in the interest of the public welfare. Au- of the old city, bounded on the north by the moat, the City Gates and
thority also has been secured from the same body for zoning to prevent Fort Marion Reservation, on the west by the north and south defense
*the danger of destruction, or the alteration of historic buildings. Like- lines which ran along Cordova Street, on the south by St. Francis Street,
wite, by zoning, possible alteration and change inconsistent with the and on the east by the Matanzas River-front.
general Restoration plans, of business places, residences and various (b) The development of park-like areas, indicated on map as the
forms of use of private property within the limits of areas affected by series from A-i to A-9.
h program, will be regulated. In this connection it should be noted (c) The development of certain boulevards and drives outlined on
that the plans propose the simplification of traffic, the removal of con- the map in heavy black lines.
gertion and confusion of whatever sort it may be, the development of (d) The development of certain promenades, as for instance, a
harmony, the proper handling of tourists and the intelligent protection proposed boardwalk feature along the entire waterfront of the zoned
o 0411 historical values within the city. areas C-1 and C-2, extension of 'which may include the front of Port
> A semi-public business corporation has been chartered, having a close Marion grounds and the park-like area A-4 as indicated on the map;
relationship to the city government. This organization has already also a promenade along Orange Street, paralleling the City Gates and

House Still Stur-
Despite Numerous

.Rarely have the names of any of
the builders of the houses dating
in the Spanish occupations re-
mained connected with them. Mig-
tel Ysnardy was a Spaniard of
prominence yet no one but histori-
ans recall that he is credited with
having built the General Worth
House, one of the points of inter-

eat shown all visitors in the city. Worth formed part of the picture.
Worth's name gives it its prom- It was a substantial house origi-
inence. nally and has well stood all the
The house at No. 16 Marine Street alterations and additions that have
has had a long career as a place been made from time to time, with
Srno sign of weakness, such as some
of entertainment. While Leving- of the very old buildings develop.
ton ran the Union Hotel everyone Levington controlled the house for
of importance among arrivals from some years, during which he must
the north was taken to his house, have made additions for in the
Whenorth a s ie t h h. Court records are papers in a suit
When Worth first lived there, he brought by a neighbor for damages
was Col. Worth, but after he de- resulting from Levington's closing
cared the Indian War ended in the windows of the petitioner's
1842, Washington named him house by building too close to it.
Brevet Brigadier General. When e t y
the War between the States ended, The story of the Worth House
Worth's son-in-law, Col. J. T. would be a long and valuable one
Sprague, was the military head in if it could all be gathered together.
East Florida. The house then be-
came the social centre of the city, The first iron safe to be shipped
and an English visitor to St. Au- to Titusville was in 1879, and was
gustine has left an attractive de- shipped by water to Deep Creek at
scription of a scene in its great the north end of Lake Harney and
drawing room, when Mrs. Sprague transported over the sandy roads, a
was entertaining and old Madame distance of 26 miles.

Governor Moore Of
South Carolina Led
Expedition In 1702

St. Augustine had a rough time
of it when Governor James Moore
of South Carolina came down and
tried to take the city in 1702, but
what happened in Charleston after
Moore got back was a five days'
The governor had been voted
2,000 pounds to fit out the expedi-
tion against St. Augustine, but he
lost all the ships here, and all his
supplies and ammunition. When he
got back to Charleston, the colony
was 6,000 pounds in debt-all his
fault, because, historians say,
Moore was a poor man who tried
to get control of Indian trade for
his own profit, after he became

the moat, following the ancient defense line running east and west, and
a promenade on either side of the bridge-head on Anastasia Island
immediately facing the Matanzas River and overlooking the city of
St. Augustine. (These promenades are not shown on the above map.)
(e) The development of certain parking concentration areas, such
as B-l, B-2, B-3, and B-4, having as their purpose the bringing of
cars within comfortable proximity of the principal business districts
of St. Augustine as well as the ancient historical section shown on
the map, as C-1 and C-2.
(f) The development of other zoned areas including several im-
portant residential districts, the series from D-1 to D-5, inclusive, hav-
ing important relationship, especially from the esthetic standpoint to
other areas and features of the proposed plan.
(g) The development of a system of traffic circulation, involving the
general use of boulevard drives, the limited use within restricted areas
of automobiles, except as specially permitted, and the putting of em-
phasis on walking tours specially within the areas designated as A-l,
C-1 and C-2. The complete exclusion of automobile traffic is nowhere
contemplated on any existing street in St. Augustine.
(h) The development of an historical museum presenting in objec-
tive fashion the complete story of St. Augustine from its aboriginal be-
ginning up to modern times, featuring period rooms, each containing
dioramas, models, pictures, charts of explanation and artifacts relat-
ing to the various stages of history of this region. This museum, further-
more, would serve as the point of concentration and deposit of the
masses of written historical materials and archeological "finds" dis-
covered thus far and to be discovered in the research activities accom-
panying the general program of development hereafter.
The objects of this program of physical development are: First, to
put the major historical areas in their proper setting, to relate them to

governor and, when that didn't
succeed, his expedition against St.
Augustine was the next move.
When he fled back to Carolina,
Moore wasn't hailed as a hero, and
when he called the legislators to-
gether and tried to get money voted
to pay the 6,000 pound debt, there
followed confusion and violence,
both in the assembly house and all
through the streets of Charleston.
One woman was knocked down
during the rioting, in her own home,
and her child was born showing re-
sults of the injuries to such an ex-
tent that Oldmixon thinks fit to
quote the account in his history of
the British Colonies in America,
printed in 1708.
(One of the Record's Histogram

Prince Murat's Duel
With His Neighbor At
Tallahassee Recounted

The story of one duel in Territor-
ial Florida, concerns Prince Achille
Murat. Miss Mary Graff, of Man-
darin, in preparing a paper on
"Duelling in Territorial Florida,"
included the account as used by
Ellen Call Long. in "Florida
Breezes." It describes the duel as
fought on the outskirts of Talla-
hassee between Prince Murat and
Mr. McComb. They were neighbors,
but came to words over loss of Mr.
McComb's hogs. It was Murat's
custom when he had no money and
had no meat in his smoke house to
say to his negroes "I have no meat
for you, but you shall not work-
take the holiday, and when I get
the money you will work again."

their general environment, and to develop a unity of treatment and in-
terpretation through educational use of the same; Second, to create an
atmosphere having elements of basic historical accuracy and a high de-
gree of esthetic harmony and beauty; Third, to facilitate the movement
of visitors, to increase their opportunity to enjoy in leisurely contempla-
tion the natural beauty and the historical resources of St. Augustine,
and to develop high recreational features in the drives, boulevards, and
beaches; Fourth, to stimulate a development in St. Augustine among
civic clubs and other groups and individuals of cooperative activities such
as those relating to garden clubs, the development of an art colony and
other creative work in the field of art and.history, in the staging of
pageants, art exhibits, other special exhibits, historical pilgrimages, his-
torical programs, historical pantomimes and theatricals, and special ex-
ercises and commemorative holidays such as fiestas, days in Old,Spain,
Ponce de Leon celebrations, tourist activities, and many other special.-;
events and features which will lend color and drama to the natural set V
ting in St. Augustine and which through the medium of state and na-
tion-wide publicity will do much to attract the visitor to this region and-
develop in him a consciousness of the meaning of this program; Fifth,
to encourage creative activity in the development of a consciousness of,
and a desire to preserve, the folk traditions, skills, and home manufac-
turing of handicrafts, such as linen and lace making, the preservation
of traditional domestic foods and dishes, and the traditional stories, lit-
erature, religious observances, and folk culture generally of various
racial groups, in all of which program the local Historical Society can -
be of much assistance and through participation in which the Society
itself should develop new fields of worthwhile investigation and inter-
est; and Sixth, to develop and prepare a definitive history and publica-
tion on St. Augustine which will take account of all phases and all forms
of historical evidence uncovered in the exhaustive study of the source
materials in this rich historical field.

That resulted in the negroes roam-
ing and pillaging for food, and, it
was alleged, despoiling the hogs
of Mr. McComb. A trusted friend
was sent to Murat for satisfaction,
and word was returned by a trust-
ed friend of Murat, that the Prince
would preserve his honor and satis-
faction would be gladly granted.
Accordingly they met, each to
avenge his honor. Murat fired his
pistol in the air, but McComb
aimed and hit Murat on the little
finger, a thing to be regretted, as
he sadly remarked "Ah, Mr. Mc-
Comb, you have made one mark on
me I will have all my life."
Henry Capo had misfortune yes-
terday by loosing a handsome mock-
ing bird. The singster made his
escape from his confinement in a
cage.-Local in old St. Augustine

That there were English people
living in the 17th century in St. Au-
gustine, is shown by the diary of an
Englishman who visited the city.
He writes "the chiefest in esteem
was-one William Carr of the Isle
of Man, who about thirty years
ago, was in a vessel bound for
South Carolina, but missing their
port, were cast away nigh this port;
many were drowned but he anSL-
some .others were brought hithi
by Indians. Some of them got awi
in Spanish vessels, others died he
This man turned Roman Cakit
and married a Spanish wony F
whom he had seven children ,I
an officer in the garrison. Le %
chief interpreter." Carr must h \
been wrecked and adapted him.
to Spanish control in St. Augusi.
about 1660.


Miguel Ysnardy

Was ilder Of

Worth Mansion




1 Y






SUNDAY, JULY 4, 1937

Mrs. Ponce Tells

Of Coontie Use

In Emergency

Was Dug and Cooked as
Other Food Supplies
Ran Short

In speaking of old-time cookery,
Mrs. Eduardo Ponce, of No. 10
Moultrie Street, made the only ref-
erence, thus far met with, to the
actual use of Coontie or Comptie
in St. Augustine. Her father,
Andres Ximanies, was living on the
Bay front near the corner of Hy-
polita, where prominent officers
occupied the Gibbs house during
much of the War Between the
States. Mrs. Ponce was only a
small child and she felt very brave
not to run away when the Yankees
landed, but to stand right at the
gate to watch them pass.
The soldiers seemed always hun-
gry, wanting something to eat and
her mother made little pies, potato
pies sometimes, that the soldiers
seemed to like very much. Her
husband used to tell how he sold
the pies his mother made as soon
as the soldiers would see them. And
"Horse cakes" at 5 cents each were
big sellers. Horse cakes, it seems,
were molasses cakes cut in a design
that passed for a horse.
One thing folks ate was called
"Tanya." Several of the older peo-
ple have mentioned "Tanya" but
have not been able to explain it
beyond saying it was a root and
was boiled or stewed. However, it
was not cassava, which has been
listed by a number. There is a
Tanier, an aroid, the root of which
is eaten in the West Indies. Fur-
ther research may show it was
found here. Apparently it was well
At times the housewives were
hard-pressed for simple supplies.
Mrs. Doria Benet of Osceola Street
described how her mother, Mrs.
John Capo, boiled corn cobs to get
the water to use as basis for a


Typical Old Spanish Chimney

This old chimney was on property adjoining the Oldest House on
St. Francis Street, where the Webb Memorial Library is located now.
The fireplace in old days was very much in the domestic picture, as
may be noted from the old iron cooking pot on the hearth. The coquina
in this old relic now forms part of an old wall at the north of the garden.
This was all that was left of Honoria Clark's house on this site. She
was a woman of considerable means and importance during the Eng-
lish occupation.

Absolute "Tops"

Is Cookery Of

City's Shrimp

starter of raised doughs.
When articles of food became Record's Prize-Winning
very scarce and difficult to acquire, re
Mrs. Ponce says her mother and Recipes Are e-
the boys would go into the woods produced
and dig eoontie, the root from
which the Indians made their sub-
atitute for bread. It grew vety Absolute tops is the Fried Shrimp
plentifully and still does, but it is of St. Augustine. Since attention
a slow long process preparing it was called 18 months ago to the
for use.
,One morning she had gone to unmatched Shrimp known as the
the corner where some cousins lived "St. Augustine Shrimp" and at the
and watched her aunt parch corn same time it developed that the
to grind up for coffee. When they Fried Shrimp served here were un-
sat down to breakfast there was like any served elsewhere and
parched corn coffee, hominy grits
and long sweetening and when she superior to all others, hardly a per-
reached home she started crying. son stays in the city but learns
Her father wanted to know what about this Fried Shrimp when it is
was the matter. So she wept out time to eat.
about the breakfast with nothing to Writers who have come here to
eat. Then her father sent a lot of
things to the cousin's house and the meet the Fried Shrimp have sent
woman couldn't understand it until its story into many quarters of the
told how the small girl cried be-, country, along with accounts of
.cause they had so little to eat. But some of the most noted cooks.
while the Ximanies family were not
so well off as some people yet they People of the city al have their
had enough and to spare if her favorite resorts and their favorite
father thought it needed. And go- cooks. Arguments pro and con get
ing for coontie was only when settled moly by trying them once
kings didn't arrive in time. mr
After she grew up and married But the tragedy f the'whole
Mrs. Ponce recalls that at one time
she and her mother cooked in the thing is that the city realizes that
same fireplace, one at one side, the unless a suitable passage from the
ether at the opposite side. ocean into the harbor is provided
One seasoning much used was ob- soon the Fried Shrimp of St. Au-
tained by drying peppers in the sun. gustine will become a thing of the
They were first split and the seeds Contin ly the queryis
removed. Sometimes they would past. Continually the queryis
be put in a slow oven to hurry the heard, "Why doesn't the inlet situa-
drying but having them in the sun tion which surrounds the fleet of
was best. Next they' would be a million-dollar business with con-
pounded fine in a mortar. Mrs. V. stant danger, constitute an 'emer-
. Capo of No. 73 San Marco Ave. agency' for prompt government
has a hand-made copper mortar and action just as much as some other
pestle that belonged to Mrs. Venan- situations are classed as open to
eio Capo. In this the dried peppers 'emergency expenditure'?"
were pounded to obtain a powder Meantime St. Augustine and the
for seasoning. Both sweet and fiery shrimp men and the shrimp cooks
kinds would be prepared, continue making shrimp cookery
Another pepper preparation was nationally famous.
to put a ripe red pimento in a cup In a shrimp recipe contest con-
and pour hot water over it to ex- ducted by the Record two dishes
tract the red of the skin. This was were judged the two most distinc-
used to color "perlows" and some tive St. Augustine dishes. Minorcan
other dishes where a tint was Shrimp "Perlow," and Fried
wanted. No mention was made in Shrimp. Twenty thousand folders
.this description'of flavor from the containing these two and other
pepper, only'the red color. prize shrimp recipes have carried
_____-_O______ the excellence of St. Augustine
IESTORATION IS GIVEN shrimp cookery all over the coun-
Since this Fried Shrimp recipe
THIS CITY OF HISTORY was first made public, Mrs. Fred
Totams has generously given her
(Continued from First Page, services to benefit affairs where
Section C.) Fried Shrimp was the special
service, always proving a generous
countries so that it can be com- profit producer for the interested
pletely refurnished. organization.
The wine room could in like TWO FIRST PRIZE SHRIMP
manner be furnished, as well as the 0 RECIPES
officers' quarters, etc., all the way
around the patio. These rooms Spanish or Minorcan Shrimp
could have old colored tile placed "Perlow"-
on the floor as they no doubt were Two pounds headed shrimp, one-
at one time. The open patio could third pound salt bacon, 2 cups best
be retiled throughout and Spanish rice, 1 small can tomatoes, 4 med-
Flags and other insignia unfurled. ium size onions, 1 small green or
Flowers and seats for visitors could red sweet pepper, 1 small datil
be placed here in order that Spain pepper. Remove sand vein, wash
might live again as it once did in shrimp, cut in two, medium size
Old St. Augustine. shrimp give best flavor. Cut bacon
And in like manner all the old and onion in small pieces. Fry
part of the city might live again bacon slowly. Take out half of
and look the part, as far as pos- bacon pieces. Cook tomatoes and
sible, without disturbing the peo- onion inbacon fat. Add pepper cut
pie or their businesses. Such a fine. Cook until nice brown, add
restoration plan will be a prelude raw shrinip and cook few moments.
to a general awakening throughout Add enough water to tomatoes and
Florida to a better knowledge of onion to equal 3h cups. Put in
its past. Old missions, once located heavy pot. When it boils add two
every twenty-five miles along the cups rice. Cook slowly until
East Coast of Florida will no doubt finished. Thyme and other spice
be rebuilt, and old fortifications and may be added. Rice grains should I
historic landmarks all over the be distinct. Salt to taste.-Miss
State will take on their old form Anna Pacetti, No. 29 Charlotte St.
and atmosphere, with a general re- Fried Shrimp-
suit that the history of Florida will Average 1 pound headed raw
literally be rewritten and the at- shrimp per person. Six pounds
mosphere of old Spain and the old fresh headed large shrimp, 6 eggs,
c-a'i. v.'l hover over this one 10-ounce package cracker frv-
State permanently, and these sa- ing meal, 1 pound vegetable cil
cred ruins will be preserved to pos- shortening for deep frying, salt and
tci -- pepper to taste. Peel shrimp, split
I feel very confident of the final along the backs, clean out sand sac.
cc:.sunuiation of this project, un- Splitting also allows shrimp to curl
dLr the able leadership of some of when frying and preferably the
the most distinguished historians, first tail joint is left on. Shrimp
educnators a'nd scientists, both of should not be boiled before frying.
this State and the Nation, with Dr. Rinse the prepared shrimp, drain
John C. Merriam, president of the and place in refrigerator for two
1 'C'g.e institution, heading the hours if possible before frying. Beat
National Committee. eggs, season to taste, dip shrimp in



en egg, roll in cracker meal,
m deep hot fat until light brown.
i on brown paper. Serve with
pepper sauce or tomato catsup
esired.-Mrs. Fred Totams, No.
aragossa St.



One Of St. Augustine's. Distinctions
Concerns Old Song And Cakes, Both

Of Which Are Known As Fromajardis

Visitor Here

In 1850 Tells

Old Customs

Many Have Religious Sig-
nificance as Carried

A traveller in Florida around
1850 arrived in St. Augustine when
"Christmas was at hand." The
carnival was on, and he describes
noisy masquerading parties of
young men who invaded many
homes, the occupants having much
patience with the antics of the mas-
querading, unceremonious visitors.
Late at night, after frolicking to
their content, they gathered at
some favorite place for much danc-
ing, as wab their delight.
Evidently the traveller did not
remain until the "close of carnival
week" as he changes from personal
narrative to the account he was
given by some eyewitness o: prev-
ious years. The eyewitness de-
scribed the "antics of a motley
crowd, chiefly young men," in a
spectacle "In honor of St. Peter,
the fisherman of Galilee, and proof
of his skill in use of the net". The
masked crowd proceeded along the
street making "horrid noises, two
half grown men heading the mask-
ers who were clothed in fisherman's
dress. Over the shoulders of the
two were common Spanish nets.
Whenever an unsuspicious person
approached, a net was thrown over
his head enclosing his whole body,
this being followed by boisterous
No mention is made of any pos-
sible reprisals of the netted victim,
who probably realized he was out-
numbered and might best take the
attention in the carnival spirit.
(One of the Record's Histogram

St. Augustine has a rare distinc-
tion that concerns a song and cakes.
The Fromajardis song is sung to
get the Fromajardis cakes. Which
started first hasn't been ascertained
yet, although philologists are try-
ing to determine the derivation and
story of the word itself.
The song is Minorcan, and the
cakes are also. Both were brought
to St. Augustine by the large group
of colonists who spent nine bitter
years at New Smyrna before escap-
ing to St. Augustine where for 150
years these people and their des-
cendants have formed an important
section of the population.
Their customs have changed. So
has their cookery, but a revival of
the Fromajardis cakes has been
accompanied by questions about the
song and the custom that called for
its singing.
Briefly, when the members of the
Minorcan colony began to feel set-
tled in St. Augustine (1773-1783)
among the British they were still
influenced by manners and habits of
their native homes. Not all were
from Balearic Islands. Some
sprang from Greek locations, others
from Corsican roots. But a major-
ity had the Balearid background,
especially Minorcan. When Easter
time was approaching, Miriorcan-
raised housekeepers began prepar-
ing the Fromajardis cakes. Imagine
the first time the women felt like
producing them again after their
troublous lives since sailing from,
Port Mahon.
On Easter eve toward 11 o'clock
groups of men began appearing be-
fore homes of friends. A guitar was
included" and one or more of the
party carried a large sack or basket.-
Arriving at the chosen house the
group started singing the 'seven
stanzas of the Fromajardis devoted
to the Virgin. Then followed a
stanza setting forth the desirability
of refreshments being handed out
and, after a knock at the shutters,
there was a brief wait. If the shut-

ter did not open, a most uncompli-
mentary line was literally shouted
at the house. Often the doorway
framed the head of the family who
brought not only trays of the Fro-
majardis cheese cakes and crispes,
but a jug of homemade wine. These
people were not hard liquor drink-
ers but almostt every family had its
homemade wine and the Froma-
jardis singers were usually friends
of the family to be treated to the
best. Stories are still told of houses
where the wife and her maid would
be baking in the out-door brick oven
for several days before Easter Sat-
urday and half a barrel of Froma-
jardis cakes would be prepared.
When the donation had been put
into the bag or basket the singers
went o:, to another house to tap
again at the shutters and when they
had filled their baskets and bags
the men here in St. Augustine would
go down to the river front to 'sit on
the old sea wall, eat their cakes and
continue singing for the mere de-
light of it.
The custom has fallen into the
discard with changes in hospital-
ity and growth of the city. In re-
cent years the recipes have been
collected through the St. Augustine
Historical Society's efforts, and
much interest now is aroused when
time comes for Fromajardis to be
made. There seem to have been
many methods of making the little
cakes and the recipes finally given
out have been the result of many
inquiries and tests of directions,
until one was found to please the
memories of the very oldest native
In one thing all of the old former
makers of Fromajardis agree; that
the same dough may be used for
both the cheese cakes and the cris-
pes. Or the pastry for the crispes
may be richer.
A rich biscuit dough is made. It
seems a cross between baking pow-
der biscuit formula and pie crust.
Old people of course used hog lard

for shortening. Butter was not
even mentioned by any one of them
in giving directions. One very old
cook made a yeast-raised dough. All
used "lightening" and for modern
cooks that must be baking powder
with half as much allowed to a cup
of flour as present standard bak-
ing powder biscuit rules call for.
Mix with milk. Roll the pastry
quite thin. Cut in rounds the size
of a coffee can cover. Cut a cross
on one half. This cross typifies the
Easter season'and also adds .to the
appearance of the top, since the
filling is supposed to puff up
through the cross v-hile cooking.
On one half put a spoonful, or as
much as one wishes of the filling.
Turn the cross cut half over the
filling. Wet the edges of the dough
slightly and pinch both edges to-
For the filling, grate or crush one'
pound of short cheese. Tough cheese
spoils the Fromajardis. It never will
produce tender filling. Add six well
beaten eggs, also beating well after
adding each. Flavor with nutmeg
or- cinnamon. In some recipes four
eggs were used instead o' six with
the difference in moisture being
made up by a tablespoon of flour
and quarter cup milk. This is less
tasty of course. Add salt and en-
ough cayenne pepper to raise the
flavor. Cheese in such dishes needs
the sharp pepper. Otherwise the
whole result is flat.
Cook in an oven hot enough to
cook the crust quickly but not long
enough to toughen the filling as
overcooking surely will do. Running
under a gas flame to slightly brown
improves the Fromajardis and
saves time. These may be kept sev-
eral days and when needed may be
placed in a very hot oven just long
enough to freshen the crust but not
affect the, cheese filling.
With popularity of beer, Froma-
jardis ought to make headway.
Most Minorcan families think they
are a coffee accompaniment.
The crispes came next to the
cheese cakes in favor. The pastry
should be rolled even thinner for
them and cut smaller. Some wo-
men bake the shells in shallow muf-
fin tins. If to be baked on a sheet
pan turn up the edge of the round



i: I ''I

Florida high-grade beef cattle-the result of breeding
blooded bulls to native cows.



fry ir
as de
62, S


Poultry raising is profitable in Florida.

Diversify your crops -Grow by-
products-Feed the surplus and
soil building cover crops to live-
stock-Maintain a garden patch
for family use Home canned
vegetables and fruits in season
will keep the pantry stocked.
Dairy cows, hogs, beef cattle end
chickens are necessary on the farm
operated on a business basis. Co-
operative marketing through a
central marketing organization in-
sures a better and more stable
market year in and year out.

FLORIDA, with practically 365
growing days each year and soils of
proven productiveness, offers op-
portunities to the business farmer.
The raising of beef cattle and the'
growing 1of timber in Florida are
also worthy of the consideration
of those interested.

It is suggested that you in-
vestigate the farming, cattle rais-
ing and timber growing possibili-
ties offered in Florida. For further
information about the territory
around St. Augustine, in St. Johns
County and other sections of the
East Coast of Florida-write



of winter vegetables-Note irrigation
and drainage ditch.

atoes are grown extensively in the
section, near St. Augustine, and
lower East Coast territory.
*.. -. .

rida oranges-juicy and sweet.


Telephone 776

RESTORATION for the Ancient
City of St. Augustine, that the his-
tory of the first permanent settle-
ment of our great United States
may be preserved in tangible form,
for the benefit of the people of the

Florida farms that they may yield A variety
more and better crops and provide
the better things of life for the

By modernization on the farm is
meant not only modern equipment,
to lessen the daily task of farm-
ing, but also business manage-
ment, including scientific methods,
to get the most out of the soil and
realize the highest values for those Irish pote
things produced. sti e

Management, Crops, Livestock
dnd Marketing are four of the
main factors. Manage your farm
as a manufacturer would his fac-
tory or a merchant his store. Make
it a business-keep a cost record
-systematize the work and make
it a pleasure by studying the best
and most efficient ways of hand-
ling. Flo


Flagler System


I - -L I I II I I I I -
-- ~C~--C-L-b, C-


48s~s~llPllwa~Blola3IsA~Bllr~8~C1 ~e~l I
; r

210 City Building






of dough and crimp as for tart
For filling beat sugar and eggs
thoroughly, using half a cup of
sugar to one small egg. Flavor with
Bake the pastry shells slightly
before putting in each sufficient fill-
ing to reach the top edge of the
crimped shells when cooked. If
the shells have been baked on thb
bottom sufficiently before filling, a
very short time under a gas flame
will be sufficient. In the old method
a sprinkling of cinnamon was given
the top of the filling before finish-
ing cooking. Also some cooks
placed a tiny dab of butter on top of
the filling before cooking. These
shells may be handled just like any
tart shells. This filling can be kept
several days for use as desired. Of
<(urse in that case it needs rebeat-
i* i'each time before any part is
Instead of serving after the hymn
of Easter Eve to the Virgin, very
modern hostesses have found the
Fromajardis capital for a cocktail-
ing. But they do not harmonize
with sweet combinations as well as
with a dry blend.
The song itself has been caught
from old singers and has been pub-
lished, although copies are very
rare, and an effort will be made to
have it reproduced, since it has be-
come a rare type of folksong.
Descendants of families of pilots
of St. Augustine describe life in the
old houses on the bay front, liter-
ally the beach. Mrs. H. R. Baker
of No. 160 Cordova Street, a grand-
daughter of "old John Capo", head
pilot, lived in his house with her
mother, Mrs. Fernanda Ximanies.
The boats of the pilots were kept
right in front of the houses and the
stairs built in the sea wall were of
special accommodation for th. pilots
and their crews. The boats carried
four or six oars usually. The young-
er John Capo lived close by. He was
one of the pilots and when his
father died he took his father's
place as head pilot. Mrs. Frank
Benet of Osceola Street is a daugh-
ter. For a time they lived on the
St. Johns River while her father
took care of the grove of his wife's






Oldest Church

Manuscripts In

United States

Date Back to 1594, and
Go to 1763 in 14


Restoration and Archives
Officials Are Co-

One of the outstanding features
of the St. Augustine Restoration is
the preservation of the St. Augus-
tine Parish Records, the oldest
manuscript church records in the
United States, comprising fourteen
volumes of history of baptisms,
confirmations, marriages and
deaths, the earliest volume begin-
ning with the year 1594. The series
covers the period from 1594 to 1763.
The baptismal records contain full
names and addresses of parents,
grandparents and godparents of
each child, for which reason it is a
genealogical record of unprecedent-
ed importance. Also there can be
traced the migration of families and
their geographic origin, an invalu-
able aid to the understanding of the
various race elements of which the
early St. Augustine colony was
These records were worm-eaten,
and in such fragile condition as to
be almost unavailable either to
student or layman, but now, through
the cooperation of Restoration offi-
cials and the National Archive., it
will be possible to put them in a
permanent form by new processes
of treatment recently perfected by
the United States Bureau of Stand-
ards, and now used for the first
time in the National Archives
When Florida was ceded to Eng-
land in 1763, the St. Augustine re-
cords were taken on the ship "Our
Lady of the Light" to Havana by
Spaniards evacuating the town.
There these volumes were placed in
a dungeon where they were allowed
to mould and rot until they were
brought back to the Parish in 1783
when Florida was retroceded to
The Right Reverend Monsignor
James Nunan of St. Augustine,
Dr. John C. Merriam, president of
Carnegie Institution of Washing-
ton and Dr. Verne E. Chatelain
brought to the attention of Dr.
;Waldo G. Leland, Director of the
American Council of Learned Soci-
eties, the unprecedented importance
of these documents. Dr. Leland in
turn brought the matter to the at-
tention of Dr. R. D. W. Copnor,
Archivist of the United States, Na-
tional Archives, Washington, D. C.,
who is now undertaking their pre-
Upon the completion of this
work, two photographic copies will
be made, one to be deposited in the
National Archives and the other to
be presented to, the St. Augustine
Historical Society. The manuscript
originals, after being processed and
treated, will be returned to the
Cathedral. Probably no single de-
posit of source materials upon the
earliest period of the history of St.
'Augustine possesses the -deep in-
trinsic value of the Parish Records,
and their restoration as a part of
the great program now being in-
augurated to preserve the history
of this Spanish center is of the
utmost importance. It is significant
to add that the National Archives
have chosen to process only one
other early local history manuscript
series, besides that of the St. Au-
stine records, those of the famous
Boston Town Records.
Society Aids
The St. Augustine Historical
Society has taken official action to
pay $500 for the cost of material
for two photostatic sets, comprising
4,090 pages, of the St. Augustine
Parish Records, the oldest in Amer-
ica. The National Archives, Wash-
ington, D. C., which is already
undertaking the great work of pro.
cessing the originals of these valu-
able documents, has agreed to co-
operate with the Historical Society,
Father Nunan and the Restoration
officials on a non-commercial basis
in this important work of photo-
stating the old records. Under the
terms of the agreement National
Archives will receive for its files
one photostatic set, while the St.
Augustine Historical Society in re-
turn for its contribution of, $500
will be enabled to secure one photo-
static copy to be deposited in the
St. Augustine Historical Society
Library. This arrangement wiil
make the records available to the
St. Augustine Historical Restora-
tion, and to the other students and
those generally interested; by plac-
ing the second set in the National
Archives, Washington, D. C., it will
be possible for a great many Amer-
ican and foreign students to make
use of these rare historical docu-
ments. Dr. Chatelain regards the
solution of this problem as well
nigh ideal and extremely fortunate
at this time. The action of the
Historical Society he termed as "a
very splendid piece of cooperation
with the Church, National Archives
and the Restoration alike."
Listed in the censdr'of. t. Au-
gustine of 1783 is Andre&s Pacetti,
from "Napoles", who must have had

a good business, if he was able to
support a wife and four children as
a "Peruke maker". Apparently
peruke-making must have been
fairly profitable for he "had two
and three-quarters acres of land,
house and lot of his own on St.
George Street, a horse and two
When the colony of Virginia was
settled at Jamestown in 1607 mark-
ing the first permanent English
settlement on these shores, St. Au-
gustine, which was settled in 1565,
was 42 years old.

Priceless Manuscripts

These are specimen pages of the oldest church records in the United
States, kept in vaults of the Cathedral of St. Augustine. Many would
have been lost forever, unless the work of restoration had been under-
taken, a wonderful piece of service which was made possible only
through the influence of the Carnegie Institution officials and those who
they were able to interest through the program now underway in St.
Augustine in connection with preservation and restoration of historic

Shrine Of Nuestra Senora De La Leche
Is On Site Of Ancient Chapel Of
Nombre De Dios, BelOved Of Faithful

One of the, most historic spots erection of
in St. Augustine is the beautiful Nothing rep
shrine of Nuestra Senora de la els except i
Leche, for on its sacred ground, the desire o
Don Pedro Menendez landed to 'some day re
found the city on September 8, and bring I
1565, the feast of the Nativity of had found
the Blessed Virgin. A rude chapel Church of
and altar were erected and the Cuba.
great Spanish Admiral knelt and In 1848
kissed the Cross, his followers do- Parish pri
ing likewise. there then followed Congress of
the celebration of the Holy Mass the return
that began the service of the property ta
Church in the new land for all een- of the pure
turies to come. United Stal
On the holy spot consecrated by was denied
the sacrifice of the Mass, a little In 1872,
chapel was erected and called Bishop of S
Nombre de Dios-Name of God,- the site of
in this manner to preserve for fu- Nombre de
ture generations the landing place on a smal
of Menendez and the site of the sacred spot
First Mass. down in a
In Madrid in 1898, a pious Span- not until 19
lard seeing a drunken soldier ir- J. Curley,
reverently displaying a small stat- of Mrs. Ai
ue of the Blessed Virgin feeding stored the
the infant Saviour, bought it for a beautiful li
small sum and erected a small During r
shrine for it In his home. Before been placed
long the wife of the Spaniard be- the historic
came desperately ill. Earnestly little painti
the couple prayed before the shrine, and in the
In answer to their prayers, the the picture
birth of a beautiful baby boy, nurs- painting of
ed by the joyous mother. A mir- in the Cath
acle, indeed! trous fire of
They named the statue then The face
"Nuestra Senora de la Leche y thoroughly
Buen Parto"-Our Lady of the broad door
Milk and Happy Delivery. In* in- statue of S
creasing numbers the faithful came since the v
to pray; Heaven vouchsafed other Christian m
similar miracles and so the couple can mission
built a chapel especially for it, at- martyrs one
tached to St. Martin's Monastery. Within there
The statue was rescued on the antique ir(
first day of the reign of Philip III, candles; on
new King of Spain, and so he paid ues of the
all the expenses of the solemn pro- Child, Saint
cession to the new shrine. The There are
pomp and splendor were almost be- ments front
yond belief. From its new chapel soft-toned
its fame spread continually; for Instead of
years the queens of Spain, as well priedieux of
as other expectant mothers, sought Each yea
Our Lady's special aid. Pilgrimage
Between 1602 and 1820 a replica curs. There
of the miraculous statue was altar and b
brought to St. Augustine and placed faithful wa
in the Shrine of Nombre de Dios derful proce
which in time was named the chapel pilgrim stai
of Nuestra Senora de la Leche. In in mystic
its simple surroundings this replica time shrine
was venerated no less sincerely than la Leche y
the image in Madrid.
Colonel Palmer attacked St. Au- In
gustine in 1725 and probably the LiIUOs
only ornaments saved from the
chapel were the Statue of La Leche |
and the Crucifix. The chapel, be-
ing built of coquina was confiscated
and used as a battery by the Eng- .
lish from which to shell Fort San Historic
Marco. On March 3, 1728, the Impor
Governor of St. Augustine, fearing
another attack by the English, or-
dered the chapel to be dismantled
and erected within the Second Line
of Defense on the south side of La When th4
Leche (now Hospital Creek). The its sprays h
reconstructed chapel was built ly support
along more substantial lines than fringe the
the original having several addi- Lindsley ho
tional rooms besides the main body Street, need
of the shrine, and a steeple that This is ki
could be seen from some distance. all certain
Into this Second Chapel of La Leche Spanish occ'
was placed the replica of the statue longed to a
now famous in its own right. endez himse
In 1763 Florida was ceded to When the
England by Spain and the treaty the first til
required that the inhabitants de- this as a "
clare allegiance to the British Horruitiner
Crown or leave the city. The Span- years later,
iards left carrying the statue with pleted his d
them to Havana on the ship "Our of property
Lady of the Light." after the Sp
When Florida was retroceded to house of coc
Spain in 1784, practically all the "good condi
former inhabitants returned to find Don Francis
their shrine of Nuestra Senora de edition in w]
la Leche a mass of ruins. No at- it indicates 1
tempt was made to restore the been recently
chapel as the statue was not ard, who w
brought back, so in 1791 the re- tary, was hu
maining stores were used in the eration. Fo

the present Cathedral.
gained of the two chap-
the old foundations and
f the old inhabitants to
store their little chapel
back their statue which
a resting place in the
St. Teresa at Havana,
Father Madeore, the
est, memorialized the
t the United States for
to the church of the
ken from it at the time
,hase of Florida by the
tesa in1821. The claim
for a technical reason.
Bishop Verot, the first
St. Augustine, purchased
the original chapel of
Dios and erected there-
1 chapel to mark the
SThis chapel was blown
storm later, and it was
915 that Bishop Michael
through the generosity
nelia McL. Hardin re-
chapel to its present
recent years there, has
I over the inner door of
SCathedral a beautiful
ng depicting the shrine
clouds forming part of
is a copy of the famous
the First Mass that was
ledral before the disas-
f 1887.
de of the little chapel is
Spanish. Above the
rs is a niche with a
It. Francis, appropriate
hole region was made
mainly by early Francis-
laries and among their
i laid down his life here.
'e is a simple altar with
o work, crucifix and
either side small stat-
Blessed Virgin with the
SMartin and the beggar.
other churchly orna-
n beyond the seas and
Stations of the Cross.
pews one finds simple
f dark polished wood.
ir on Low Sunday the
to La Leche Shrine oc-
Sis Mass at an open-air
enediction to which the
lk in solemn and won-
ission. Reverently each
nds or kneels a moment
peace before the one-
of Nuestra Senora de
Buen Parto.

ey Home


Background of
tance, Records

e wisteria blooms, and
ang from every friend-
; when the clusters
wall and balcony the
ise at No. 214 St.George
s no lure of storied his-
round it with appeal.
known, however, to be in
y a house of the first
upation, and to have be-
family related to Men-
SSpaniards went away
me, de la Puente lists
house of stone of Don
y Puero." Twenty-five
when de la Roque com-
etailed map and census
es existing five years
paniards came back, the
quina, so he says, is in
ition" and property of
sco Entralgo. The con-
hich de la Roque gives
that either it must have
y repaired or else How-
vas the English secre-
nting for extra consid-
ur years before de la


Roque's map is dated, Howard says
he has bought the house and lot of
Dr. Robert Catherwood and the
house is uninhabitable.
After the Americans take pos-
session, the owner is the estate of
Fernando de la M. Arredondo.
Every name in chain of possession
through the years, indicates im-
portant position..
During the English control of St.
Augustine for 20 years one of the
King's council was Dr. Catherwood.
The coquina construction of the
two stories is said to be some of
the best stone work remaining. The
third story of wood shows marked
changes in design.
The grounds south and west of
the house have a picturesque man-
ner and have been a favorite with
the older photographers and artists.
Mrs. Horace Lindsley has shown
an appreciative consideration in
preserving many of the old struc-
tural features.

Churchman Enthusiastic

Catholics Recall

Vivid History

In New World

Story of Cathedral of St.
Augustine Interest-
ingly Told

By Jane Quinn
The history of the Catholic relig-
ion in America dates from the
founding of St. Augustine, August
28, 1565, by Adelantado, Pedro
Menendez de Aviles. Many diffi-
culties and hardships were endured
by the pioneer Catholics in the new
land, and it was not until after
the retrocession of Florida by Eng-
land to Spain in 1784 that a per-
manent place of worship was con-
structed of which the pious could
be justly proud.
An Irish Catholic priest, Rev.
Michael O'Reilly, was a man of
energy and foresight who realized
the need for an edifice befitting the
dignity of the Catholic religion, and,
through his efforts, work on the
Cathedral was started in 1792 and
completed in 1797, and was built by
permission of the king of Spain
at a cost of $16,602. Partly Spanish
and partly Moorish in architecture
the building was built of coquina
and stood as it was for ninety
years until in 1887, it was partly
destroyed by fire. However, the
well-constructed walls were left
standing and were used in the re-
building of the Cathedral.
The original structure, which
forms the nave of the present
Cathedral, was in the shape of a
rectangle, 120 feet long and 42 feet
wide, with two long sides running
north and south. The windows
placed about sixteen feet above the
ground, were small and rounded,
like the loopholes in some mediaeval
The facade, which formed the
southern exposure of the old
Church, and which now gives the
Cathedral its unique and antiquated
face, is Moorish in style, with its
impression of a dome shaped bel-
fry. In the walls of the dome are
three niches about four feet high
and two wide, and smaller opening
directly above. Each of these
niches is furnished with a bell; and
before the fire of 1887, these bells
were rung thrice daily for the
Angelus, for ringing out the glad
tidings of marriage or the baptism
of a new-born child, and for tolling
the deaths of the faithful. The
mode of ringing was primitive.
Urchins stood on a small porch
attached to the back of the facade
near the niches and pulled the ropes
fastened to the clappers. All of
these bells are old, but the most
ancient is the one in the western
opening which bears the date 1682
and is probably the oldest bell in
this country. It formerly belonged
to an earlier church. Below the
bells, where there is now placed a
status of St. Augustine, was form-
erly located a clock.
The main entrance to the Ca-
thedral is the doorway of the orig-
inal facade, which has its own spe-
cial antique beauty with two stately
columns on either side and an un-
usual gable of irregular architec-
ture. Horizontal rather than ver-
tical lines as well as the open stone-
work mark the style of this facade
as definitely Moorish.
Within the old church, which was
not a Cathedral until 1870, there
were two galleries near the main
entrance, the upper one for the
choir and the other for the colored
people. The north end of the
church consisted of the sanctuary in
which stood a wooden altar in front
of which hung a beautiful sanctu-
ary lamp of hammered silver, gift
of a Spanish seaman. This seaman
was caught in a great storm and
vowed to present a gift to the
church in whatever place the Lord
would send him if he were saved.
He reached the harbor of St. Au-
gustine in safety. This relic was
in the old Cathedral before the fire.
In a recess southwest of the en-
trance was the Baptistry. It was
here that was kept the Crucifix
saved at the time of the sacking of
the chapel of Nuestra Senora de la
Leche in 1725.
From Chapin's Handbook of St.
Augustine, 1887, we read: "There is
a painting of considerable merit on
the walls (of the Cathedral) which
represents the landing of the
Spaniards in Florida and the cele-
bration of the first Mass". Des-
perate efforts-to save this painting
in the fire of '87 were in vain.
The Cathedral was rebuilt in 1888
and has remained, with few
changes, to the present day with its
ancient facade and oldest walls as
sturdy as they were when the old
church was solemnly dedicated
September 8, 1797.

Catholic Leader Issues Fine

Statement On Restoration

Says Progress Made on Birthplace Of
Program Gratifying First Native
to Him
to Him Author Sought
By Most Rev. Patrick Barry,
Bishop of St. Augustine. Is t possible that the first na-
The progress of the Program for tive born author was born on Hy-
the Restoration of Historic St. Au- polita Street? Francisco de
gustine already achieved is a Florencia was born in St. Augus-
source of deep satisfaction to me tine in 1619. He became the first
as it is to all members of the Cath- naive American Jesuit ahd pub-
olic faith.
Carnegie Institution of Wash- liahed many volumes on history
ington is a great scientific and his- and theology. The listing of his
torical organization, the splendid productions, and their editions,
work and far-reaching results of requires nine columns in a bib-
whose many activities I have come biography. He had a brother,
to appreciate. It was indeed for- aphy H had a broth
tunate for St. Augustine that Dr. Captain Juan Florencia. There
Merriam and Dr. Chatelain and were a number of families of
their able advisory group cooper- Florencias in the city at various
sting with officials of this city, times. One lived on St. George
were interested in the great prob- Street, north of Bridge. A sec-
len here, and it is more important ond lived just south of Treasury,
still that they were willing to un- on St. George Street. But a
dertake the direction of the Resto- Francisco de Florencia lived on
ration Program. Their decision to Hypolita Street in the last house
participate insures sound historical on the west side, near Tolomato.
results and a status for the pro- Further research may determine
gram in the Nation that it would where the first native author did
probably be impossible to secure see the light of day.
in any other way.
Thus St. Augustine is the direct
beneficiary of these activities of
Carnegie Institution, the value of
which in the years to come our com-
munity will more and more certain-
ly recognize.
Ours is a magnificent story-
and involving a long period of R
time. To that narrative the con-
tributions of the Catholic Church
have been so conspicuous that every
scholar realizes the impossibility I
of separating the threads of reli-
gious history from the rest. What
a glorious part was played by the
Catholic Fathers in spreading Regiete
Christianity "to the early Indians,
and how powerful an influence did
the Church through all of its stages
of development play in supplying OVER
the strength and the character to
this-the oldest settlement of white IN
men in what is now the United I
States! Already the Restoration
officials have recognized the value
of the earliest Church records of
America-our own Parish Records, Spec
dating from 1594-and have given
assistance and encouragement in
working out the plans by which
they are being saved for the gen-
erations to follow. What a splen-
did thing this is-and how impor-
tant to all Catholics as well as to YOU ARE CORDIA
the students everywhere and oth-
ers interested in history. This
thing alone is an omen of all that
the Restoration Program in the
future has in store for us.
Soon the people of St. Augustine
will be called upon in a referen-
dum election to make decisions for
this community, which will have nves
tremendous importance in fixing I "Vesfi
the future welfare of our citizens,
as well as effects touching vitally Fo
the historic heritage of the entire
Nation and therefore of great in-
terest to all of the United States.
I am confident that we will not fail
in our civic responsibilities at this
moment of great decision.
In the Asiento as drawn up be-
tween the King arid Menendez who
founded St. Augustine in 1565, it
was included that there would be in
Florida 2 or 3 towns of at least 100 Correspondents of
inhabitants and 1 large house of
stone or wood with moat and draw-


Hypolita and Spanish Streets


George Burt's

House Stands

Out As Reli,

Saved From Demolitio
as Other Structures
Were Lost

At No. 105 St. George Street
an old coquina house, the only or
that was saved when the ruthle
boom took possession of St. GeorG
Street from Treasury to Cuna ax
all the old historic houses were toi
down to make way for the type <
building now occupying their site
This house, which instantly a
tracts attention, was only kept fro
destruction through determination
of 'A. L. Slater and Miss Anna 4
Ilurt's co-operation. Although Mil
Burt's name is attached to the 0
Spanish Treasury, where she spend
much of her life and her declipii
years Miss Burt's father owned N
105 St. George Street, and her gir
hood was passed there. Her inte
est in old homes was keen and whi
Mr. Slater wanted to take-No. 14
St. George and preserve it fro
following the way all the other o
buildings along there had gor
Miss Burt came to his aid., A
though this house is all coquiT
and has never even had the stole
floors overlaid with plank floor
Mr. Slater considered the ancie
shingles of the roof a fire hazard
Moss a foot long he states gr<
along the edges.
Such growths as that mayha'
given rise to the statement of o:
old author who said plants grew o
St. Augustine roofs.
A fireproof roof was next put
the old house. Only an appare
miracle saved it when the Magno]
Hotel burned. With a tall wo
building overshadowing it at t
north, Mr. Slater still felt the <
house needed- more protectik
Again Miss Burt agreed and t
result was the high brick wall tl
marks. the property line ,on t
north, and is to all intents and pi
pose a firewall for the old house.
Miss Burt's father, George Bu
made many investments in St. A
gustine and was a leading sh
keeper in the 1840's. In one isa
of the Florida Herald and Demob
his advertisements, fill severe
columns in 1847.
This house, with its old room
makes attractive studio and g
shop locations.

Don't Fail to Visit

The Old House

of DonToledo

While In

St. Augustine

[olton & Company


red Deears Under State end Federal Low



ializing in Florida Municipals

and Local Securities


gate Our Partial Payment Plan

r the Purchase of Securities

Fenner and Beane; Members New York Stock Exchange

First National Building
St. Augustine, Fla.

Empire Theatre Building
Daytona Beach, Fla.

Valuable Early Cathedral

At Your Service.



AmbTulance :Sevice




I_ _

Winter Of 1839-40 Was
Perilous Time; Indians
Were Roaming Again

The winter of 1839 and 1840 was
a perilous time for St. Augustine
and vicinity.
The Indians were roaming again.
Just before Thanksgiving Day
Francis Rohero, Ramon Rohero
(this is the spelling followed in the
city council records) and Diego Her-
nandez presented! their account for
$9. They had acted as "express to
carry by water to the military post
at the head of North River news of
the near approach of the Indians."
"Mayor Antonio Alvarez had
communicated to the Governor
fears of the citizens some injury to
the city would result should Indian
prisoners be located in the fort."
The Governor answered immedi-'
ately but as the answer was not
read into the record, only "filed,"
we can't know what he said. But
about this time a ship was coming
in from the colonies north with In-
dian prisoners.
Another item says that Joseph
Hernandez presented an account for
$25.10 for 2 barrels of bread and
one cheese furnished a detachment
of volunteers who went to the res-
cue of Mr. E. T. Jenckes at the
time he was surrounded by In-
In the middle of December, on the
20th, so that at least the citizens
might have a slight assurance of
protection at Christmas, a detach-
ment of 11 horsemen from the com-
mand of Captain Robert Mickler
was ordered for protection of the
city and neighborhood.
(One of the Record's Histogram




_ ___ ~~_1_~__11_

___ ___ ~___~__ 1_


SUNDAY, JULY 4, 199i

Be' Restored

Most Rev. Patrick Barry, Bishop of the Diocese of St. Augustine,
member of the National Committee for the Preservation and Restora-
tion of Historic St. Augustine, who has made a glowing endorsement
of the Preservation and Restoration Program in St. Augustine.-


ler Hotels Here Are Veritable Olden Spanish Palaces

Value Grows As

Spain Itself

In War Throes

Fine Architectural Tra-
ditions Are Being Pre-
served Here


Declared to Be Among
Great Treasures of
This City

While modern warfare is being
invoked with its destructive force
to destroy beauty of architecture
and significance of history in Old
Spain, St. Augustine can point with
pride to some of the finest types of
Spanish architecture, given to this
community through the enterprise,
vision, and initiative of Henry Mor-
rison Flagler. Mr. Flagler looked
at the quaint Spanish buildings, the
narrow streets, and sparkling blue
of the waters, and visualized archi-
tecture of a more elaborate nature
than ever had been used in this
little city by the sea. He commis-
sioned young architects, the Messrs.
Carrere and Hastings, to go to
Spain, and get ideas for such struc-
tures as he visualized. The results
are the superb Hotels Ponce de
Leon and Alcazar, which front on
the Alameda. They are set in acres
of garden, and each one has its pic-
turesque patio, its loggias, and
distinctive towers. They complete
the picture of Spanish loveliness
offered by the beautiful Hotel
Cordova across the way, which
antedated the Flagler era, and later
became part of the Flagler prop-
erties. Further down King Street
is the purely Moorish structure,
Villa Zorayda, built after the theme
of one of the towers of Alhambra
of Spain.
These buildings are all given
heartiest praise by Dr. Verne
Chatelain, director of the Restora-
tion Program and declared perfect
of their type. They are declared
to be treasures which add to the
fame of St. Augustine, and assets
which will grow dearer with the
years as the Spanish setting here
is strengthened, and additional
visitors come to seek St. Augustine
as a laboratory of history. It will
be a laboratory for artists and
architects as well, it is indicated.
In fact the appeal is so wide, and
the interest so diversified, it would
seem that this Oldest City, as the
program progresses, will have its
lure for every person whether on
business or pleasure bent..

Arrivas House

At 44 St. George

Is Of Interest

Rele of First Spanish
Occupation, It's In-

The largest house in the block be-
tween Cuna Street and Burial Alley
to the north at the time of the de-
parture of the Spaniards in 1763 be-
longed to Captain Don Raymundo
Arrivas. Sometimes his' name is
spelled Arribas, v and b being in-
terchangeable in many instances.
The house was described as of co-
quina and the neighborhood must
have been particularly desirable,
as not a house of wood was listed on
this west side of the block, when
de la Puente made his official cen-
sus of houses for the King of Spain.
Arribas had married into the Avero
or Abero family and his relatives
owned houses on both north and
south of him, while another Avero
was on the east side of the Calle
The house figured in a transac-
tion with Jesse Fish, the English
,agent, to whom so many Spaniards
sold their property in confidence
:when the terms of the treaty be-
tween Spain and England made it
necessary for'the Spaniards to sell
within a stated time. But on their
return to control 20 years later,
Don Raymundo's son, Tadeo secured
the property for his mother, Ur-
sula de Arrivas, his father being
dead and his mother being in Cuba.
Tadeo married Maria Gracia Per-
pall, a daughter of Dona Isabel
Perpall, who had much property in
St. Augustine and the country near
by. When Father Hassett's census
was made in 1793, there were two
* children in the Arrivas house, lit-
tle Ursela, two years old, named
for the paternal grandmother, and
Maria Isabel, only two months old,
bearing the Isabel for her mother's
Across the street was Dona Eu-
genia de Yta y Salazar, a widow
of 56 years, Tadeo Arrivas' aunt
from the Avero family.
The present porch over the side-
walk is said to enclose remains of
the open balcony, that was part of
the old house. Portions of the old
walls of the enclosure downstairs
can be seen in parts of the modern-
ized section, where there now is a
ladies' garment shop.

One picture of that side of St.
George Street gives a good view of
the street wall, with the large gate
door through which entrance was
had to the terrace at the south of
the house. Upstairs at the south
end was a shuttered porch room so
favored by the older families. The
St. George Street balcony was not
enclosed until recent years and the
interior of the several stories still
contain interesting indications of
the age of the building.
This now is No. 44 St. George

Scenes of Foreign Charm Are Offered

Magnificent Hotel Ponce de Leon, built by Henry M. Flagler, and opened in January of 1888. The
hotel has just celebrated its 50th season.

The colorful outlines of Hotel Alcazar and Hotel Cordova fill in the picture of Spanish charm in the
heart of the Oldest City.

The Cordova Building, at one time the Hotel Alcazar Annex, is
very much a part of the picture of foreign beauty in the Oldest City,
as may be noted from the balconies and arched loggias shown above,
these being interesting details of the structure.

Macmillen Home Is One Of

Most Interesting In City

Dates Back to First Occu-
pation of Spanish

When Col. Andrew T. Macmillen
came from New England and moved
his family into the old Naples yel-
low house at No. 224 St. George
Street the drawing room on the
second floor was a picture in blue
and white. The white doors had
light blue panels. The walls were
white but the ceiling showed lovely
In the gardens at the west\of
the house rows of the bitter sour
orange the true Seville orange,
hung heavy with golden fruit and
the grounds extended to Maria
Sanchez Creek, where the Macmil-
len children coaxed many little fish
from the shallow waters.
The house revealed many fea-
tures marking it as originally in-
tended for persons of more than
average social position in the first
Spanish occupation. The Aguilars
ranked high. Mariana de la Roque
lists the house of coquina on this
lot, mentioning its tile roof and
Juan Aguilar living in it. Later
the title is confirmed to Don Juan
Rodriguez who is supposed to have
married Aguilar's daughter, Fran-
Don Rodriguez describes himself
as "having a sufficient number of
slaves to dedicate himself to agri-
culture and the raising of horned
cattle and also to aid in the main-
tenance of his large family." Also
he stated he was "one of the Span-
ish inhabitants who have sacrificed
themselves in the service of said
province during the turbulent times
which have taken place in it."
Even if Don Rodriguez was ready
to create a cattle hacienda, it did

not mean he would give up the
house in town. It was very com-
fortable. To be sure it may have
suffered from various cannonad-
ings as the Macmillen family have
dug out numbers of grapeshot that
they found embedded in walls of
what might have been a detached
kitchen or slave house. Also in the
garden was dug up the brutal iron
gag which was on display in Fort
San Marcos many years.
The front entrance was through
a door opening off St. George St.
directly into the room used for a
formal dining room. Now this door
has been closed. The middle win-
dow on the east end of the house is
in place of the entrance door. Im-
mediately after moving into the
house, Col. Macmillen decided to
make the entrance through a gate-
way at the south of the house
where the brick floor is the passage
way to the door into the hall, from
which the stairway leads to the
second floor. Possibly at some long
distant time this was an open court
or terrace room as traces of two
arches may be found now on the
wall beside the stairs. The banister
of this stair is a beautiful single
piece of mahogany rich toned with
Under the wood 'floors is the hard
packed rock floor that preceded
wood in most houses. When an at-
tempt was made to put electric wir-
ing into the house contractors were
unable to get through the huge
wood beams over the doors. Finally
they worked through the coquina.
A small almost circular stairway
leads from a small room on the
second floor to the unfinished space,
making a third floor. Because of
his large family Colonel Macmillen
had these inconvenient stairs taken
out and moved to another place to
provide better access to the third

floor which was large enough to
allow four good-sized sleeping
rooms. Miss Amey Macmillen is
now considering restoring the stairs
to their original position and mak-
ing harmonizing alterations. In
this third story, the floor consists
of extremely wide boards, most of
which, it is said, are so long they
extend the entire length of the
house, more than 30 feet, without
a break.
Three fireplaces, one in the din-
ing room on the ground floor, and
two above in the drawing rdom and
an adjoining apartment, were the
only means of heating and until
recent years no additional heating
arrangements were used. These
fireplaces have that peculiar ca-
pacity for throwing out warmth
that the old Spanish fireplaces pro-
vide where ever they still remain
in the city.
The Macmillens had spent their
first winter here in the old house at
No. 56 Marine Street, which was
right in the then social centre of
the city, the Barracks and army of-
ficial life gathering many visitors
into a group in that section.
When it was decided they would
make St. Augustine their home,
much heirloom furniture from their
Rhode Island home was shipped
down and found admirable setting
in the old Aguilar house. The girls
of the family became leaders in
the younger set. People of note who
came to St. Augustine found a con-
genial atmosphere in the Macmillen
There are a number of museum
pieces in various rooms. The din-
ing table is one of the finest double
pedestal Duncan Phyfe specimens
known and by good judges declared
to equal that in the Museum in
New York. There are desks, tables
and chairs to make a collector en-
vious as they note various pieces
In the fireplaces are superb and-
irons and the drawing room fire-
place in addition has an artistic
iron fireback.
The old coquina well curb had a
wood frame above it from which
suspended the bucket that brought
up such fine water. Not a flavor of
sulphur, Miss Amey Macmillen
says, as she recalls the water was
so cool always.
And after renting the old house
for more than 55 years it has at
last become Macmillen property
Possibly the Macmillens take the
palm as renting one house for mbre
than half a century and making al-
terations and repairs themselves
The sisters, Miss Amey and Miss
Anne Macmillen maintain the same
hospitable atmosphere that drew
everyone of note to the old house
when the Ponce de Leon and the
Alcazar were in the height of the
Flagler fame. Whenever one of
the old group visits St. Augustine
a return to the Macmillen house is
one of the pleasant features of the
And Miss Amey Macmillen is still

To Really Se

See the many attractive
of our Horse-Drawn Carri:
or phone our office for thi;

St. Au







pondering how she can get some-
one who can reproduce that. exact
fascinating tint of Naples yellow
of the old house. For a long time
a piece of the old yellow wall at the
rear of the house was kept. Con-
sultation after consultation was
held with workmen, hoping to get
the exact tint. Once the house got
a coat of red which wasn't at all in
harmony. How was the ochre pre-
pared, or blended, to give the house
such a lively personality?

SSt. Augustine

points of interest from one
ges. Hail one of the drivers,





Town Upset In

1784; Printer



Romance Stirs

In Anonymous

Local Verses

Lilting Words Portray
Charm of Garden Set-
ting Here

The writer of the following poem
was said t, have been a member of
the staff of one of the St. Augus-
tine banks. He received an inherit-
ance of sufficient amount so that he
resigned his position and went to
Italy to live. He died in Florence
where his grave has been visited
several times by St. Augustine
friends. The anonymous N. to
whom the verses are addressed is
still living, however, and has been
a visitor in St. Augustine within the
past year.
N * *
Dreamily smoking my cigarette
'Mid the fragrant odor of migno-
I alone and the midnight star
Keep watch in the court o" the
No whispered word of false co-
No heartfelt throe-no vain re-
Naueht save the smoke of that
small cigar
In the moonlight court of the
A clock proclaims the midnight
The air is fraught with her fav-
orite flower
I hear the strains of an old guitar
In the moonlight court of the
So I sit and wait till the clock
strikes four
There's a distant sound of an
opening door
Slowly her window swings ajar
In the moonlight court of the
And there in the casement far
I see the form of my longlost love
No lovers are parted-they ever
In the moonlight court of the
Farewell sweet love, our hearts
have met,
Why idle pang why vain re-
I alone and the midnight star
Keep watch in the court of the
Noted Historian Spends
Time In State Securing
Data On Old Missions

One of the most interesting evi-
dences of the attention being cen-
tered upon St. Augustine and Flor-
ida, historically, is the survey of
the early mission sites in this state
being made by Dr. Maynard Geiger,
noted Franciscan historian of the
Catholic University of America in
Washington, D. C. Dr. Geiger
visited St. Augustine for some days
this past spring, and also spent
some little time at Rollins College,
SWinter Park. He was accompanied
by Robert R. Otis of the Georgia
SArcheological Society, who has been
assisting in that part of the work
which relates to Florida and Geor-
Dr. Geiger's latest contribution
to the history of Florida, "The
Franciscan Conquest of Florida
from 1573 to 1618" is declared by
Dr. A. J. Hanna of Rollins College
to be the most scholarly contribu-
tion yet made to the ecclesiastical
history of the state. In addition to
his work in Florida, Dr. Geiger was
for many years associated with
SFather Zephyrin Engelhardt in his
great work of restoring the Mis-
sions of California.
The present historical studies
and research work, in Florida,
which must of course center about
St. Augustine, will be furthered by
the Restoration program, and will
t bring great numbers here, intent
f upon following through a plan of
such magnitude. The favors shown
SSt. Augustine by Carnegie Insti-
tution, and the personal interest
Shown by Dr. John C. Merriam,
t president of Carnegie Institution
will focus the attention of scien-
tists and other notables upon this
e Oldest City.




H~i R 1111... Iup









linked with it in the eyes of thou-
sands of tourists for years to come.
The Fatio House is probably the
most pictured house in the city
since it started its literary and ar-
tistic career long before artists and
writers had gathered in such num-
bers in St. Augustine and they had
chosen the Fatio House as their
Taken in its entirety, this is one
of the most satisfactory examples
of second Spanish construction
that can be studied. The arrange-
ment of the stairways, the en-
trances into the terrace, the heavy
walls of coquina, its low-placed win-
dows on the first floor, the court
from which access is had to the old
kitchen with its built-in oven for
baking, its huge fireplace for cool-
ing, the slave room attached, every:
thing about the house from the
small balcony on the front to the
galleries upstairs 'combine to pro-
duce the Mediterranean effect.
Earliest ownership of the house
itself attaches to Andres Ximanes
early in the second Spanish occu-

pation, who acquired the lot from
Juan Hernandez.
From the time Miss Fatio took
possession of the house it began to
acquire publicity especially through
the winter visits of the then well-
known writer, Constance Fenimore
Woolson. Miss Woolson spent much
time here and constantly referred to
the house and her life in it. Other
writers began to look for Miss Fa-
tio's. Artists arrived. Before Aunt
Louisa died in 1875, the house had
achieved a reputation that the years
only increase. It is now owned by
Judge David R. Dunham, a nephew
of Miss Fatio, and president of the
St. Augustine Historical Society.
Each winter it is favored by ar-
tists and craftsmen for studios,
-,hile one of the very picturesque
.ift shops has been housed there for
some years. It is one of the high
spots during the Spanish Fiesta of
the Federated Circles of the Garden
Club each year, and imaginative
people often wonder if spirits of old
Spaniards return to join the revels
of the Fiesta night.

Does His Work
That John Wells could manage
to print two "Books," pamphlets
more correctly described, in 1784
in St. Augustine, when the town
was in such an agitated condition
with British trying to leave and
the Spanish already in the city,
speaks volumes for the printer's
One of them is styled "The
Case of the Inhabitants of Flor-
The second was an essay, a
folio of 50 pages, by Samuel Gale
who wrote "On the Nature and
Principles of Publick Credit,
Etc." It was printed for the au-
thor by John Wells and the only
known copy has been in the New
York Public Library. The author
was one of the refugees from

Fatio House Is

Fine Specimen

Long Known for Its
Numerous Charming

When Miss Louisa Fatio, Aunt
Louisa in friendly salutation,
bought the house on the corner of
Hospital Street and Green Lane
Alley, frequently called Green
Street, in 855, from Sarah Ander-
son, she could hardly have antici-
pated that it would become famous,
and that her own name would be

Best Wishes of



C. B. Mercer, Distributor






Carnegie Institution Staff Workers



Archeology Has

Important Part

In Restoration

W. J. Winter in Charge
of This Phase for

Archeology plays its important
part in connection with Historica.
Restoration, says W. J. Winter
archeologist here with the Carneg4
Institution staff group.
In order that this phase may be
brought out in its proper relation.
ship to the project as a whole, W. J
Winter has written the following
for the Restoration Issue of the
Archeology and Its Connection with
Historical Restoration
W. J. Winter
When most of us think of arch-
eology we bring to mind a picture
of excavating ancient Greek cities
exploring Egyptian tombs or dig.
going up Indian mounds. Yet, due
consideration shows us that there is
little, if any, fundamental difference
between digging for information ii
a city that is 4000 years old or do-
ing so in one that is approximately
400 years old. There may be writ-
ten records concerning both of these
but additional and valuable in-
formation, comes from the ground
itself. The methods applied are
essentially the same in both cases
It has been well demonstrated
in the last few years that historical
research from written records alone
is not sufficient to form a complete
and accurate picture. Even where
written records seem plentiful and
adequate, they may frequently
receive a valuable supplement in
the application of archeological
method to the sites concerned.
In the matter of restoration this
may become doubly important.
There is a well-known example in
Pennsylvania, where one of their
earliest historic buildings was re-
constructed from supposedly ac-
curate and complete written rec-
ords, well studied by historians and
architects. Unfortunately for their
peace of mind, some inquisitive and
skeptical individual dug into the
original site of the old building and
exposed the foundations which were
no longer visible above ground. A
.look at these showed that the recon-
structed building was all wrong and
did not follow the original plan at
all. The answer of course is that
the documentary research should
go hand in hand with excavation or
other physical work on the sites
involved. Neither should try to get
along without the other and to-
gether they should achieve as
nearly a complete success as may
be humanly possible.
It appears that an archeological
study of the area in and near St.
Augustine might be divided as fol-
A. Prehistoric:
1. Outside of City.
Examples: Sand mounds, shell
heaps and village sites, within
radius of twenty miles.
2. In City:
Examples: Known sites, such
as Tolomato village area.
Possible sites, determined
from old records and from re-
mains, pottery, etc., found
there at present.
B. Historic:
1. Outside of City:
Examples: Fort Peyton and
Oglethorpe's Battery posi-
2. In City:
Any sites selected by histor-
ians in connection with their
documentary research.
Examples: City Moat site,
Dragoon Lot, 56 Marine Street,
Fort Marion Moat, Northern
Defense Lines, etc.
The use of archeological method
is equally well indicated in all of
these types of sites.
In the St. Augustine area, a com-
plete historical view appears to call
for archeological work in the four
types of sites mentioned. Of course,
the work of the archeologist must
be in connection with that of the
antiquarian who can identify ex-
cavated objects such as house equip-
ment of brass, wrought iron, etc.,
weapons and military equipment
and the like. It must be in connec-
tion with that of the architect who
is informed regarding building
plans, materials, hardware, etc. It
must be in connection with that of
the historian doing documentary
research on the site, searching lib-
raries, records, patents, deeds and
all manner of information-yielding
papers. The archeologist himself
should be able to handle all matters
pertaining to aboriginal sites and
material excavated. All of these
specialists can make good use also
of any old pictures that may be ob-
tainable and this is a source of in-
formation that i not overlooked.
In the matter of recording this
archeological work the engineer and
photographer play important parts.
Exact locations and appearance of
all things mentioned in field notes
should be pictured as a part of a
complete record.
It is hoped that in the foregoing
an idea has been conveyed concern-
ing the reasons for doing arch-
eological work in connection with
the restoration of St. Augustine and
concerning the manner and attitude
in which this work is conducted.. *
Aboriginal Remains "*.'
At the time of the coming of the'
white man, the St. Augustine area
was inhabited by tribes of the
Timucuan stock. The Timucua were

closely related to the Muskhogeans,
and were a later arrival in the state
than were the Calusa to the south.
Archeologically this section is a
part of a distinct culture area ex-
tending along the coast from Palm
Beach to the mouth of the St. Johns
River. This is characterized by the
occurrence of a poor grade of native
pottery usually undecorated or
check stamped, sometimes cord-
marked. Sand mounds and shell
mounds occur throughout the area,

St. Augustine Restoration
.- -r -- -- . i

Staff of the St. Augustine Historical Restoration, after an inspect
House, the restoration of which Mr. and Mrs. W. A. Lewis are undertak
tion office. Reading from left to right: Rogers Johnson, engineer; W.
Reyes, typist; W. J. Winter, archeologist; Ruth Harris, secretary; Dr.
Manucy, historian; Vera Smith, typist; Reece Bowen, engineer: Eleanor

I except in places where they have
Been eliminated by the activities of
the white man. Known village
P sites are within the city limits of
I St. Augustine.
Excavations in historic sites in
the city have brought to light arch-
Seological material of a prehistoric
nature in interesting quantities.
There has been but little written
; concerning the prehistoric archeol-
Sogy of Florida and of this area in
particular. Only a beginning has
been made in a systematic study. A
complete historical survey could
well include in its archeological
phase complete studies of the
mounds and village sites in and near
St. Augustine.
Recent Work Within the City
A number of property owners
have given the Restoration office
permission to conduct exploratory
excavation on their grounds. These
grounds include vacant lots; resi-
dence yards and other types of
property. Each of these sites has
been investigated and data com-
piled from which to determine the
advisability and priority of excava-
tion. Selection from this list of
sites is made by the director.
In a number of cases a "samp-
ling" process is used. It is believed
to be advisable to conduct trial ex-
cavations in a number of different
types of sites. These are only ex-
tensive enough to determine the
content and possibilities of such
sites and to see if further excava-
tion is warranted. Later a return
will be made to completely explore
any sites that have passed the
sampling test.
A good example of this "samp-
ling" is seen in the site at 56
Marine Street, owned and occupied
by Mr. and Mrs. Harry Jones.
There are several reasons for the
selection of 56 Marine Street as a
site for exploratory excavation. The
family has resided there for several
generations, and are familiar with
the history of the house before their
arrival. The house' itself is quite
old, at least in part. The building
is partially coquina and that sec-
tion compares closely in age with
any other old structure in the city.
Various artifacts have come to
light from time to time in the yard.
An old Spanish bit, a knife, bits of
iron and old glass ware have been
found by the occupants of the house.
Blocks of coquina bordering a flow-
er bed in the back yard were taken
from a foundation buried some-
where in the yard. A shed adjoin-
ing the house, in the rear, is known
to occupy the site of the old kitchen,
and from this kitchen to the west
extended slave quarters.
So it may be seen that this site
offered interesting possibilities.
Also, the present owners and oc-
cupants offered enthusiastic co-
operation and invited us to do all of
the digging there that we wished.
We cannot speak too highly of the
most gratifying aid extended to us
by Mr. Jones and the members of
his family.
Such work so far has justified our
expectations, though not exactly in
the manner anticipated. We have
found fewer foundations than ex-
pected, but more and better arti-
The possibility of numerous ab-
original remains had not occurred
to us when we began work. Many
pieces of Indian material have been
found, however, including stone,
bone and clay objects and thou-
sands of fragments of pottery.
Some of this material is very old,
dating back before the coming of
Columbus. Artifacts of the white
man appear in quantities and show
periods covering a range of several
hundred years.
We feel fortunate in securing
through all periods from aboriginal
to present. Things showing such a
complete range of time had been ex-
pected to come from a number of
different sites but hardly from one.
Of the sites now on file, some
:appear to be definitely of certain
pnriods, some Spanish, some ab-
original. Any might surprise us
by yielding material of o their
periods, as has No. 56 Marine
Street. Whatever they may be, it
is believed that our method of work
is proving itself sound and valuable
as it has in the past.
Five excavation projects have
been conducted so far. In addition
to the one discussed above, work
has also been done in the Dragoon
Lot on Cordova Street, owned by
Thompson-Ryman Realty Company
and on three sections of the old City
Moat which formerly ran past the
City Gates from the Bay to the
San Sebastian River.

Reece Bowen's

Family Came

Here In 1856
Reece Bowen, member of the
Carnegie Restoration staff, says:
"St. Augustine and St. Johns
County with its great beauty and
historical background, always
has fascinated me and I am
proud that it is my home. I have
always wanted to do something to
stimulate the idea of preserving
the historical landmarks as my
grandfather found them in the
year 1856 at which time he estab-
lished his own home of hewn
logs on the banks of the St.
Johns River. St. Augustine, with
the splendid foresight of its cit-
izens and cooperation of Carne-
gie Institution, is becoming one
of the most interesting historical
laboratories of the country.
"As one of the engineers of
the Restoration project I have
been detailed to the drawing up
of maps, surveying, supervising
construction and determining the
locations of ancient founda-
tions necessary for the accurate
restoration of historic monu-

Rogers Johnson,

Engineer, Tells

Of His Labors

Details Give Evidence
Careful, Thorough


One of the most significant
tasks in connection with the Res-
toration Program is that under-
taken liy Rogers Johnson, engineer.
Mr. Johnson details his work as
"As engineer of the St. Au-
gustine Historical Restoration, my
duties have been outlined by the
director as follows: the collection
and study, in connection with the
historian, of all existing maps of
this particular area for compari-
son and location of old structures;
the making of a large scale detail-
ed map of St. Augustine and im-
mediate environs; the preparation
of detailed plans, cross-sections and
profiles of proposed construction
projects and the supervision of re-
pairs upon existing structures; the
supervision as work foreman for
the various reconstruction proj-
ects; the drafting of reports to the
director on highways leading into
St. Augustine and its streets, for
the consideration of traffic control;
the keeping of records of the ac-
counts showing the financial con-
dition of the work including daily
balances; general supervision un-
.der the Director, of all field prob-
lems of the Restoration Program.
"The traffic survey was under-
taken for the purpose of assemb-
ling the data necessary for an in-
telligent planning and control of
traffic in the area affected by the
program, including a study of the
size and location of parking lots.
The data already collected shows
the number of cars visiting St. Au-
gustine from various States and
points out the comparative inter-
est.over the entire country as well
as Canada and Cuba during the
period from March 22 to April 16,
1937. Such data will be used in
the public relations program in
sending .out information regarding
St. Augustine and the Restoration
project. It is planned to conduct
another month of traffic survey
again in the fall of 1937 as well as
at the end of the first year of the
program. Thus comparative fig-
ures can be prepared to ascertain
the variation and increase in tourist
traffic as a result of the Restora-
tion Program.
"Relative to this traffic survey,
I should like to take this opportun-
ity to thank the hotel and rooming
house proprietors, the service
station owners and attendants, the
public carriers and others, who so
heartily cooperated in obtaining
these data for us. It is indeed
heartening to know that in all of
our work we were refused assist-
ance by only one hotel. Every-
where else we were accorded splen-
did cooperation.
"This traffic survey disclosed the
following results: of cars calling at


out and systematically pasted in a incidental advantages which accrue stock, but along conserve
huge clipping book. This valuable as the task goes forward.
information is being preserved not The means of achieving culmina- no elaborate set-up wit
only for future reference but is be- tion of such a research program are
ing used daily in connection with indeed numerous but generally overhead, but offering an
our work." speaking they may be resolved
o----- -- under two procedures: collection of stock and a fast delivery-
A belief persisted here for many data, and the following study. can and does sell for less.
years that to make sure one would Museum Library Valuable
return to St. Augustine, it was only In the case of St. Augustine
necessary, just before going to the development, the collection of data
train, to go to the old Market in the is of paramount importance. St.
Plaza and drink from its well. Augustine history is conceived as

~ 7 x -~s Xr~i r
r, ~5'


Staff Albert Man of unique importance in the history El
AIDert I ucy of the nation, and concentration L i
q .] u i of a great mass of collected mater-
Has Important ial in a museum library at St. Au- Se
gustine will be invaluable to student
4 Pha e and layman alike, as well as aiding
,h rnase Of WOrK in presenting the history of St. Au-
.... gustine clearly and emphatically.
----- .The compilation of a bibliogra-
S--- Historical Division Ac- phy, that is, a list of written and Direc
other materials pertinent to the
i tivities Mean Tracing study of the problem at hand, is one til:
Sfor Materil of the preliminary steps in plan-
S* for Material ning this collection. This informa-
~~t tion may be obtained from several
Albert Manucy, one of St. Au- sources: the Carnegie Guides, one Eleal
S' gustine's native sons, and for some of the most important regarding came i
e past connected with the His- St. Augustine; Library catalogs, fell un
ime past connected with the His- and many books from the bibliogra- tine, de
9 torical Division Activities of phies of which pertinent items may the tit
be extracted. lations
a- -* :" l Tin connection with the Preservation her.
"p'. and Restoration of Historic St. Au- To Gather Material sons e
S ustine, has discussed the impor- When bibliographical work has as foll
: tance of his part of the work in progressed sufficiently, an attempt "The
l connection with staff activities. Mr. is made to procure the material or Restor
1A Manucy says: copies thereof from the various de- sis, a
M3 "When the St. Augustine Histor- which,
1When the St. Augustine Histor- positories in which it is to be found. which,
ical Survey was inaugurated in Documents, books, maps, pictorial and pro
December, 1936, the organization material are gradually accumulat- toric r
was, among other things, faced with ing and as they accumulate, re- harmon
Sthe task of accumulating sufficient search becomes more intensive, to mak
Sdata to lay before Mayor Fraser's broadening to include various fields derstar
S' National Committee to indicate in accordance with the extent of the man al
S' whether or not the St. Augustine r triall at hand. tact w:
area was worth of profound study, Mention of work already accom- that h
......-and whether there were available polished may serve to give concrete- tion-wi
sufficient source materials in which ness to this outline of procedure, the pre
.. to'conduct the study. Nor was it The Historical Division has for the to the
practicable to collect material in- most part lent its attention to com- of wha
discriminately: tje work of the pilation of a master bibliography accomr
Survey had to be planned in such a including: listings of primary they n
on tour of the beautiful old Sanchez way that if the Restoration pro- sources, written and pictorial and great
ing in cooperation with the Restora- gram progressed further, there contemporary with an historic them f
A. Woodell, work foreman; Blanche would be no hiatus in the labor and period secondary sources, pert "MaI
Verne E. Chatelain, director; Albert the data already gathered might be ent material but of later date nota- ing pic
Beeson, director of public relations, a groundwork for the studies to fol- tions and listings of likely reposi- in new
low. stories; notations on material in all the ent
service stations during this period, Those ends were accomplished important Florida libraries; of ma- far citi
47 States were represented, in ad- During the three months' period, jor national repositories the Lib- aware
edition to many from the District from December to March, the Sur- rary of Congress has received most ground
of Columbia, Canada and Cuba. vey staff had been organized into scrupulous attention; of foreign great
4164% of total cars coming to St. three research Divisions-Archeo- archives, the work is tentatively would
Augustine, averaged a stay of 2.83 logical, Engineering and Historical, complete in the Archives of Indies them.
days; the average visitor stoppi and had accumulated a mass of at Seville, Spain, in Cuban archives, the firs
at hotels made a stay of 1.86 days heterogenous data which were in Mexican archives, in British on theA
the ratio of tourists travelling by collated and incorporated into re- archives (to 1783), and in Paris place o:
train was 1.5 greater than by bus, ports for presentation. archives, colorful
train was 1.5 greater than by bus, In line with the pan-scientific cvery o
and those by car 25 times greater method of research advocated for Approximately 5,000 bibliography evry
than by bus; cars parked from 6 the pursuit of study in this area, the cards have been made, each naming of this
a. m. to 11 p. m. on Bay, St. Fran- the pursuit of study in this area, the ards have been made, each naming is bein
ci, St.George, Cordova, KiSt. Fran- three staff divisions worked in close the written source, summarizing to rea]
Cathedral Streets, San Marco Cir- cooperation. This discussion, how- (where possible) its content and to real
value, and stating where it is tobe ugust
cle, Orange Street and the Mag- ever, deals solely with the work of found. Of this number, some 3,500 great
nolia Hotel parking lot, showed athe Historical Division, since Eng- found. Of thisma It is al
ratio of three Florida cars to one ineerng and Ardcheological e e tivr s rd indicates variously either a re e
visitor, a fact which indicates that ties are explained elsewhere on this d indicates varioul enter a advant
the local cars of business men are page. r documents which may include aso font
now preventing existing parking t was known that over the world many as 200 papers. In other words, hotelsfish
facilities and are preventing the there exist hundreds of thousands each of the 3,500 cards may repre- otellent
visitor more or less from enjoy- there exist hundreds of thousands t a possible average of 500 docu-ellent
visitor more or less from enjoy- of documents, books, maps and pic- sent a possible average of 500 docu-
ing St. Augustine. important to Flor- ments. Approximately 1,500 of the
"The greater number of visiting ida History. Comparatively little t al5,000 cards list secondary ma-
cars were from New York, Ohio, of that vast amount of material has trial, many books written in recent
Pennsylvania, Michigan, New Jer- ever been utilized for study, per- years on phases of Florida history.
sey, Illinois, Massachusetts, Indi- haps for the reason that it is widely Aside from the bibliographical
ana, Georgia, and the District of scattered and not readily accessible, work, two definite research prob-
Columbia. Most helpful in delineating the na- lems are receiving attention: in
"The average number of cars and ture and extent of this type mater- connection with the City Gates area,
passengers passing over the four ial are the Carnegie Institution of available records have been in-
highways per day from 6 a. m. to Washington publications th e vestigated to reveal historical de-
7 p. m. were as follows: "Guides" to materials for American tails of the moat bridge. Even
Passeng- history. These volumes are the more important from the stand-
Cars ers result of many years'work in major point of the Restoration program
"Over Anastasia archival repositories in Europe and is the beginning of an architectural
Boulevard ........1101 2648 the Americas, and indicate in con- study which involves analysis of
"Dixie Highway- cise form the general nature and existing historic buildings. Find-
South .... .......1287 2969 extent of materials within those re- irgs derived from this study are
"Dixie Highway- positories. From the immense essential to the development of the
North ...........4133 8146 amount of material included in the St. Augustine program.
"Vilano Beach Carnegie Guides, a beginning was -----o-------
Road ............ 302 626 made of extracting the matter per- In 1845 there was going to be an
"(Of course it should be remem- tinent to the St. Augustine vicinity election and an announcement in the
bered that this traffic surrey was Results of this study clearly em- Florida Herald says "electors in
taken when the tide of travel was phasized the fact that the majority the various precincts will be en-
definitely northward. In other of primary source records import- titled to vote for Justices of the
words, winter visitors were return- ant to St. Augustine history exist Peace as follows: St. Augustine,
ing home from Florida). not in Florida and the United two Justices; North River, one;
"The total number of cars check- States, but in Mexico, Cuba, Picolata, one; Moccasin Branch,
ed showed: Canada, the Bahamas, Spain, Eng- one; Palatka, one, and Matanzas,
"Florida licenses (not of St. Au- land, France and Italy. Eventually, one. Nice lot of J. P. jobs in 1845.
gustine) 14565. photographic copies of these records o
"Other State licenses, 27574. will be made and concentrated in a
"It is planned to prepare a full museum library at St. Augustine B. E. Carr & Co. of St. Augus- AG
"It is planned to prepare a full museum library at St. Augustine, tine, had 150 dozen bottles of Soda
report and charts showing this in- where it will be available to the ne, had 150 dozen bottles of Soda
formation together with other student Water to sell in 1845. "Soda water
data now being assembled upon the Local Data Used in pint bottles being portable is
traffic conditions in St. Augustine." In the preliminary work program, etc as being ready for immediate Mn
Historical material available locally use and not inferior to the Foun-
Two Staff Members was not neglected: a sizeable col- tain itself," the advertisement
aalection of historically valuable pic- stated. The flavors were Sarsapa-
Classify Data And trial matter, sketches and photo- rilla, Lemon, Ginger, Cayenne, A
CheckGuideMateria phs, was brought together in Quince, etc. Soft drink manufac-
Chec G ide Maeia the Restoration office, and the His- turers of today please take notice.
torical Division worked with the
Research and classification of Engineering Division in collecting
data form part of the work at the itaps of value in the study. Gen-
Restoration staff office. Vera Smith eral evaluation of local historical
and Blanche Reyes are workers who collections was made from the view-
have this part of program in hand. point of the proposed program, and
The following statement of their a particular study of existing his-
work is of interest: toric sites and buildings was carried
"Tfhere exit w n l l ad forward as far as possible in the
"There exist within local and limited time. In connection with
foreign archives, thousands of docu- Miss Frances Benjamin Johnston's
meon~ts that relateto+the histoy of Miss Frances Benjamin Johnston's
ments that relate to thehistory of work of recording photographically -l
America, and particularly to the historic buildings, the stories of
southern part that was called Flor- her architectural subjects were
ida, in the early days. Systematic compiled in condensed form. Much
Guides of these great masses of
source material in foreign archives of the latter information, incident-
source material in foreign Carngchives ally, came from the notes of Miss
have been published by Carnegie Emily loyd Wilson, who has
Institution of Washington after ked painsakingly in S. ugus-
years of intensive research work in tine history for many years. A
those countries. Our work consists tremendous undertaking of the fu-
of checking through these Guides ture involves study of each lot and
and selecting the different items block within the limits of the older
relating to Florida history and re- city to determine the nature of
cording the information on individ- structures which had occupied these
ual cards which are filed for future sites in ancient times. A few
use. From the date and subject sample studies of this sort suffi-
matter on these cards, work will be cient to show possibilities of this
carried on with facility in obtaining method of research, were made pos-
information. Guides to the Archives e th e ti of
of Spain, Washington, Indies, Lon- ie through Wilthe cooperation f J. H. "Jenks" OWEN
don, Mexico, Cuba, and Paris have Lawison and Mrs. E. W.
been completed. With minor additions, these
"Bibliographical cards are being items comprise a mass of concrete
made from the index of East Flor- material which, together with find-
ida Papers in the Manuscript ings from other activities of the
Division of the Library of Congress Survey, was laid on the table as a
in Washington. basis for further study and develop- 63 SANMARCO AX
"From Miss Emily Wilson's notes ment of a Restoration Plan.
of St. Johns County Archives court One of the ultimate objectives of
files relating to real estate, sugar the historian's work upon the St. WHISKEY-
mills, and family, cards have been Augustine study is the compilation
made. Historical books on St. Au- of a comprehensive and definitive
gustine have been bibliographed as history of the vicinity. Of neces-
well as short histories of points of sity, achievement of this will only
"Newspaper and magazine items long-range program. Aside from J
and articles on St. Augustine his- the extreme intrinsic value of such JE KS operates o
tory and the Restoration are cut a work in itself, there are countless store scale,





Foot of Marion St.
San Sebastian River



939-J Day
939-W Nite


Invites You to Visit

St. Augustine

And Welcomes You to

Package House


n a package
with a large
native lines-

h expensive
n unexcelled
-Yes, Jenks


For Fast Delivery to
Any Part of the City

anor Beeson

ets Forth Idea

Of Restoration

*tor of Public Rela-
ns Has Wide View
of Program
nor Beeson-Carroll, who
lere some months ago, and
der the spell of St. Augus-
eciding to remain here, has
le of director of public re-
with the Restoration Staff
She sums up her impres-
If the Restoration Program
St. Augustine Historical
nation is, in the final analy-
great educational program
through the preservation
oper presentation of its his-
emains in an appropriate
lious setting, is endeavoring
e history more real and un-
idable to student and lay-
ike by means of actual con-
ith the objective reality of
history. A program of na-
de publicity is essential to
esentation of this great plan
public, that they may learn
t is being done and will be
)lished in the future that
may take advantage of the
opportunities being offered
or study and enjoyment.
my stories with accompany-
tures have appeared already
papers in leading cities over
ire Nation. In many of these
ies are citizens who are un-
of the rich historical back-
of St. Augustine and the
plan for Restoration, which
be of paramount interest to
St. Augustine, as the site of
st permanent white settlement
Atlantic Seaboard is the birth-
f the Nation and, as such, its
1 history is the heritage of
ne of its citizens. This fact
g pointed out to the people
country that they may come
lize the importance of St.
;ine in the growth of their
Nation and so to themselves.
,lso being pointed out that
xist all the great natural
ages of a magnificent water
vith its beaches, its sailing,
ing; that here are splendid
for their convenience; ex-
golf courses; hunting, ten-

SUNDAY, JULY 4, 1937

nis and gardens to explore.
"Carnegie Institution of Wash-
ington is releasing shortly a story
on the St. Augustine Restoration.
This story will be syndicated
throughout the country, as well as
reaching leading newspapers in
all cities, and it will also be sent
abroad. Pamphlets are being pre-
pared here also with beautiful il-
lustrations for distribution over the
entire country.
"The people of the United States
are being made aware of all that
St. Augustine has to offer them in
beauty, in enjoyment and in edu-
cational advantages appealing to
the earnest student or the most
casual layman, and as this interest
grows through an understanding
of this program, prominent men
and great organizations will be in-
terested to come here and not only
witness the development of this
great project but will take active
part in the furthering of it."

Ruth E. Harris Of
Restoration Staff Has
Secrptsrial Position
Ruth E. Har. is, in connection
with her work for Carnegie Insti-
tution, and the Restoration Pro-
gram, says:
"My secretarial work for the St.
Augustine Restoration includes tak-
ing dictation, handling correspon-
dence and telephone calls, and keep-
ing all records filed so that they can
be quickly referred to. Most im-
portant of the work accomplished
was getting out the Fact Finding
Report and the Recommended Plan
for Historical Restoration which
were submit.-- to the National
Committee at its meeting in St. Au-
gustine on March 2.
The most interesting part of my
work has come from the people with
whom I have come in contact. Not
only the famous and learned scient-
ists who have come to St. Augus-
tine in connection with this pro-
gram have made my work inspiring
and interesting, but also the great
number of local people who have,
of their own accord, so generously
taken the time to hunt up old rec-
ords and pictures which have long
been stored away and have brought
them to the office to aid in our his-
torical research. There have been
a number of the oldest inhabitants
who by looking into the past and
giving us enlightening information
from their reminiscences of St. Au-
gustine as it was in their childhood
have made their contribution to-
ward the Restoration Program.









Quaint Social Customs Marked Courtship And Marriage

Soldiers From

Northland Found

Girls Alluring

Many Weddings Solem-
nized Following
War Days

Many marriages took place be-
tween members of the northern
army and St. Augustine girls dur-
ing the time the army was station-
ed in the city after peace was de-
If others didn't take place, it
wasn't the fault of the officers or
enlisted men. Sometimes the girls
were inclined to be coquettish and
showed their Spanish pride.
Times were hard for the moth-
ers and daughters who found it
necessary to do household tasks for
which they had had plenty of help
before the colored race was freed.
Mrs. B. says Mr. A. kept a little
store and the officers would come
there hoping to get a chance to
visit with his very pretty daugh-
"I've heard her tell" said Mrs.
B. "how she would be washing -
they had to do anything, both for
economy and because few colored
women wanted to work after they'
Were given freedom. The officers
could see plainly into the windows
of the house at the street level.
When the officer would be heard
talking with her father, Margarita
might be rubbing clothes. She'd
drop them, run upstairs, quick, put
on her mantilla, grab her fan and be
sitting singing away and fanning
herself as if there was nothing else
for her in life. When the officer
would be heard asking to see her,
Margarita would say to the old
woman who wouldn't leave them
'Puss, say I'm not at home' and
the officer could both hear and see
her. But he'd try it again in a few

San Sebastian's

East Bank Was

Known As Cubo

Recreational Center of
City During Old

Along the edge of the San' Se-
bastian, at the western border of
St. Augustine, was the Cubo, a re-
creational center as' it were. Where
is now Riberia Street was described
as a "beach." Here riding parties
found a desirable rendezvous. How
early this became a gathering place
hasn't been completely determined.
But quite old chronicles also"'de-
scribe driving afternoons on the
beach, east of the San Sebastian.
The younger set had many a
horseback race here. Pretty girls
of the town were escorted by offi-
cers in their afternoon rides. It was
the usual destination for short
rides. Nobody however mentions
what happened to the chaperones
on riding parties.
B. Genovar has repeatedly re-
lated'how pony races among the
young men were staged on the
beach to the east of the present
Y. M. C. A. location. Another man,
in determiningVthat the San Sebas-
tian, and not ,Cordova Street, was
the western boundary of the city,
uses ts absolute proof that when
the youths had a fight on to be
settled with blows they would go
over to the Cubo, beyond the beach
margin, because that was outside
police jurisdiction. As an added
note he says once the chief of po-
licei lived at the corner of Orange
and Riberia and they always made
sure the fight was pulled off be-
yond his house. Many people re,.

Transfer of Florida From Bride's Dowry

Spain Affected Marriages Recounted In 1797

Customs Changed Due To
Conditions; Benet Pa-
per Is Quoted

Due to the change in authority
from Spain to the United States
and questions rising over control
of church properties, functions of
the Roman Catholic Church were
much interrupted for some years.
This particularly affected marri-
In an old book, Father Clavreul
says. "Up to the year 1822 mar-
riages were performed strictly in
accordance with the prescription of
the Council of Trent. There were
three consecutive publishing of
banns, assurance of no impediment
was given and upon parental con-
sent the priest or his assistant per-
formed the ceremony in the pres-
ence of two witnesses at Mass.
The contracting parties received
the nuptial blessing and holy com-
munion. After the change of flags
from 1822-1832, hardly any mar-
riage was performed whose banns
were published or Mass celebrated.
Only thing mentioned is the pres-
ence of two witnesses and mutual
consent of contracting parties be-
fore the officiating priest. When
the priest married non-Catholics,
who did not embrace the faith, he
acted merely in capacity of a Gov-
ernment official and he required
only mutual consent."
Among information about Benet
ancestors supplied by Laurence V.
Benet of Washington in compiling
data on the Benet home and family
of St. Augustine there was includ-
ed a copy of marriage lines of that
Pedro Benet who was known as
"King Benet." This paper covers
a wedding during the date mention-
ed by Father Clavreul and con-
forms to the description given by
him in its conditions.
The bridegroom in the wedding
described was the great-grandfath-
er of the well known writers,
Stephen Vincent Benet and Wil-
liam Rose Benet.
The following is a copy of the
marriage lives referred to:
Thursday the 12th Feb. 1823
After performing all the duties
pertaining to celibacy and' other
necessary formalities before me the
undersigned, and finding no impedi-
meit whatever, I Don Juan Nepo-
museno Gomez, deputy and bene-
ficiary Curate of this parish Church
and province of St. Augustine,
Florida, received the mutual con-
sent of Don Pedro Benet, single,
native of this parish, legitimate
son of Don Esteban Benet, native
of the suburbs of St. Felipe in the
Isle of Minorca, and of D. Catalina
Hernandez, native of this city, and
of D. Juana Hernandez, also sin-
gle and native of this district and
daughter of Don Rafael Hernan-
dez, native of the suburbs of St.
Felipe in the above named Isle of
Minorca, and of Maria Triay na-
tive of the Parish of Cindadela, on
the same Island. They gave their
mutual consent, by word present
which makes a real legitimate mar-
riage. Don Pedro Benet received
solemnly for his legitimate wife D.
Juana Hernandez and the said Don
Pedro Benet for her legitimate
spouse, in my presence and the wit-
nesses who were Jose Hernandez
and Maria Triay, neighbors of this
city. I advised them to visit the
Parish as soon as possible to re-
ceive the nuptial benediction.
They know the Christian Doc-
trine etc and I hereby sign it on
said day and year.
Juan Nepomuseno Gomez.

Fashions Of 1873

call horse races "on the Cubo." The
place evidently got its name from
the small redoubt or sentry house
that marked the western end of the
line of defence extending from
Fort San Marcos to the San Se-
bastian River. Frequent references
occur in very old official records to
this "Cubo".

A Don of Old St. Augustine

A Legislative "screw loose" left
Being a Relation of some of the for one beaver hat and the same the matrimonial situation ina de-
actual Disbursements of a Gentle- shopkeeper included in that bill one plorable state in 1845, according
man, a Militia Officer and a Civil of the rare liquor items "1 gal. to the Florida Herald quoting the
Official, necessary to the proper Monongahela whiskey at $1.50". Pensacola Gazette.
Maintenance of his Appearance on Some miscellaneous items seem They bring out that "The laws of
all Occasions, more than a Century quitd cheap such as 1 silk umbrella Florida forbid under severe penal-
Ago. at $5, white kid gloves at 87%c, and ties the marrying of persons with-
Not every man was saluted as white stockings at 62%c. He had out a license obtained from, thd
Don in that time. But Don L. R. one pair of pants that ran up to Clerk of the Court of the County,
was rightfully entitled to its use, $13. Often the Don had to travel to where the marriage is to be cele-
since he was one of those whose Tallahassee, and once apparently brated. The laws of the past ses-
claim reached back to very early found he was not dressed for what- sion of the Legislature have done
days of St. Augustine's settlement ever entertainment he was invited away with the County Courts after
hat d it costf men te s or and a bill from a Tallahassee the first Monday of October next
What did it cost men of the 1830s tailor appears for one pair blue and have not assigned to any of-
to appear suitably garbed? Don L. pantaloons $13, 1 stock and 1 pr. ficer the duty of issuing marriage
R. was no fop or leader of fashion. suspenders $3.75. licenses."
So it may be assumed he was a The cost of a toothbrush in 1834 The editor considered this situ-
reasonable spender in apparel mat- was 25 cents and the same store ation a predicament, and suggest-
ters. Possibly some of his items sold him 3 vols. of the Scottish ed that as the governor himself
for cigars seem rather frequent, Chieftains, 3 vols. Children of the was a marriaeabe and might find
but if he drank proportionately to Abbey, the 6 volumes costing only it unhandy to wait for another ses-f
his cigar consumption it does not 37% cents each, and a volume of ion o the legislature, that he had
appear in his carefully filed ac- Conversationson Chemistrywas $1, better call an extra session to
counts and, for a man of his connec- but he paid $2.25 for a Prayer Book. remedy the lack.
tions, either he was abstemious or There are numerous charges for
else had some private source of expenses while travelling as he did English Brouht In
liquor supply, very often. When he went to Jack-
Items on a June bill of his tailor sonville or passed through on his Brick For Building
included one pair pants at $6.62%. way to Tallahassee he was "enter-
One wonders what the half cent was tained" by Jno. L. Doggett. Fifteen Of Barracks In City
for. Another pair of pants followed days' entertainment in 1833 cost
at the same figure but a jacket was him a dollar a day and his horse It has been told how the English
twelve and a half cents more, $6.75. feed was three quarters as much per brought In the bricks and other
Followed more pants at the $6.62% day, while ferriagee for self and materials to build the barracks at
figure, but "1 pair super cass. horse" was 50c. There are some St. Augustine and there was some
pants" cost $15. Another cloth queer little scraps of paper receipts criticism of the project. In 1776
jacket was $5, 1 blk. silk cravat $2 while he was on his journeys, oddly Governor Tonyn wrote a letter to
but 1 .pr. satinet pants was only spelled. One place lists "glass some English official on the sub-
$4.50 and he had several pairs soon. liquor" several times. Always en- ject.
"Making uniform coat" made a $5 tertainment for his horse is listed He mentions that the first floor
item while "1 superfine blk. coat" so we can see the Don on horseback of the barracks is of brick and the
stood him $30. The Don evidently making his way through the Indian second story is stone.
had his mind on quality, for he is country in that troublesome time. "As good bricks are made here"
charged soon for "1 fine black silk Sometimes there are small items the Governor wrote, "all houses in
hat $6." 'Another coat item looks for clothes for a son and daughter, town are built of stone. The bar-
like a "Van Buren coat". Anyway Once or twice there are "Sundries racks could have been built of stone
it cost the Don $18. Three years for your wife" and several times the and would have lasted forever with
later he paid $30 for cloth for a storekeeper gave the son and very trifling repairs. If the fort
black coat and $10 for making it. daughter cash and includes it in the should be thought of for a barrack
Making pantaloons was worth $2.50. bill to the Don. it will my lord, require an upper
A pair of Jackson ties $1.75. He But in all the articles charged floor."
evidently liked good handkerchiefs not one mention is made of a shirt. And the Governor goes on de-
for he paid $3.75 for two and 4 Did the women of the house or a scribing what changes might be
"best bandannas" set him back at seamstress keep his linen supply in made in Fort San Marcos.
the rate of $1.75 each. This was in the condition ruffled shirted gentle- (One of the Record's series of
1832 when he also was charged $10 men maintained at that period? Histograms.)

Translation Is Given From
Archives of Historical


that date.' The first house men-
tioned in it refers to one located on
the site of the present Webb Memo-
rial Library Building.
The translation relates:
"Dona Honoria Clark, widow and
resident of this city, declares that
whereas as for the service of God
our Lord and His Holy Mother the
Captain of Infantry and Senior Ad-
jutant of this Fort, Don Antonio
Matama has contracted to marry
according to the ordinance of our
Holy Mother Church Dona Mar-
garita Clark my legitimate daugh-
ter of the lawful marriage I main-
tained with Don Thomas Clark
now deceased, and for the purpose
of consummating it as soon as nec-
essary permission of His Majesty
(whom God preserve) can precede
it seeing that it has been ordered
that wives of said officers must
have a dowry sufficient to meet the
expense of matrimony there must
be set aside 60,000 reals sterling to
the satisfaction of the Governors of
the Military Loan Office and with
this I consign by these presents in
the form most approved by law 1617

Funeral Invitations Are
Preserved In Records
Of Historical Society

In the museum of the St. Au-
gustine Historical Society are a
number of invitations that were
sent out to attend funerals in the
city. Among them is one that was
used at time of the death of Ger-
onimo Alvarez, who once owned the
Oldest House on St. Frances
Street. :"
It was customary for the 's e.
nouncement of death and funeral
to be handsomely engrossed on a
white card, Down one side would
be arranged a wide ribbon, black

silk for aged, white for young per-
sons. This was laid on fine white
linen cloth and carried from house
to house of acquaintances of the
family, this personal invitation
method being scrupulously observ-
ed by all families of standing.


pesos in a stone house roofed with
shingles, a lot fenced and planted
with trees among other property
I own free." It fronted on the street
opposite the Cuban Barracks and
was "bounded east and west by
other houses of Don Geronimo Al-
"Six hundred pesos was the value
placed on Francis and, Isabel, two
slaves. The remaining 783 pesos
was to be covered by another house
in which she lived and she pledged
everything she owned in this dowry.
"Eighteen years later Honoria
was dead but had evidently not re-
mained a widow as she is named
the 'deceased Dona Honoria Cum-
mins.' Margarita has become a
widow also and she is living in
Trinidad in Cuba, from which town
her agent makes a sale of this
'house opposite the Cuban Bar-
racks' to Francisco Pellicer.
"Honoria Clark is one of the lim-
ited number of old St. Augustine
women of whom we have any satis-
factory amount of details."
(One of the Record's Histogram







Extends its Welcome to Those



We are proud of our Historic background. St. Johns County once
included all of Florida east of the Suwannee River, and is the oldest
county in the State. St. Augustine, the county seat, is the oldest town
in the United States. The county now has 461,055 acres, with 56,046
acres in farms. The average elevation of the county is about 27 feet.
The soil survey of 1917 showed 25 soil types, one-fifth of which is
Bladen fine sand. It is in this soil that the Irish potato, for-which St.
Johns County is famous, is grown so extensively.

Facts On the Irish Potato IndustrY]
St. Johw:3

Section has the highest land
from the Federal Land Bank.
16,000 acres of Irish potatoes
each year.

value -in the State, based on figures

planted in this section as an average

q00,000 barrels of potatoes harvested, sold and shipped from sec-
tion every year.

$3,000,000 gross receipts from potatoes shipped.




VERLE A. POPE, Chairman i
H. H. BAILEY, Commissioner
M. H. BISHOP, Commissioner

After Comparison You Are Invited tod


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SUNDAY, JULY 4, 1981



T!! 5T._ ACUTN REOR C-9L~I, I -




Who Are Cooperatinq in the




The principal field crops grown areas Sweet potatoes, Irish potatoes,
corn, sugar cane, and forage orops. Watermelons, and all truck crops
are produced on a commercial scale of importance, and oranges, grape-
fruit, grapes, peaches, Japanese persimmons, pears, plums and pecans
aOe grown.
Beef cattle and poultry thrive in this area. Excellent County
Schools and hard-surfaced roads are conductive to ideal living condi-

the Hastings.Elkton District of

Potatoes are shipped to points from Cuba to Alaska.
There are four sawmills, four millworking plants and three
cooperage plants in the county, also one wagon, auto and truck body
factory, eleven naval stores plants and one boat building establishment.
Six commercial fisheries are operated, and the fishing industry is of
major importance, St. Augustine being the center of the Shrimp indus-
try in the country. Building permits for the county were highest dur-
ing the past fiscal year that has been experienced for several years.


~" I
* ,. -.. .. T.p~. jD"R. : 4





county Commissioners


WALTER E. MOELLER, Commissioner
L. 0. DAVIS, Commissioner

ke Your Home In St. Johns County


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rpa.-l~ *gr r~-'~r






History of Newspapers of'

Early Days Is Rehearsed


East Florida Gazette
Dated From Days
Of Revolution

By Verne E. Chatelain, Director of
the St. Augustine Historical
The early newspapers of Florida
and St. Augustine, of which at least
one, "The East Florida Gazette",
dates from the period of the Amer-
ican Revolution, are a consideratle.
source of information regarding the
colorful romance of the region
which. Ponce de Leon so aptly de-
signated the "Land of Flowers" and
eternal youth.
Nearly every phase of life in this
community, which at that time had
already acquired a respectable and
venerable old age of more than two
centuries, was likely to be recorded
in the pages laboriously prepared
by the hard working "printer's
devil" at the instigation of the
"editor". No modern linotype
machines blessed his hours of toil,
and when one looks at some of the
printing presses of that day, the
wonder is how any one had the
courage to record the happenings
week after week of Spain's north-
ernmost city on the Atlantic sea-
'Nevertheless, the publishing
business had attained a place of
prestige in all the North American
colonies, influencing community
thought, politics and culture. Some
editors like Benjamin Franklin, a
contemporary of John Wells, Jr., of
the "East Florida Gazette" of
-1783, had achieved a position of
world fame in the struggling young
nation now come to be called the
United States of America. And
while Florida and St. Augustine had
not yet joined the parade of Eng-
lish speaking independent states in
the new world, the contacts, eco-
nomic, social and political were
already close enough to indicate to
many a shrewd prophet what was
in store for the "Southern Star of
the American Empire".
In 1783 the British had by the
Treaty of Paris agreed to withdraw
from this region, in favor once more
of the Spanish' allies of the French
and American victors of Yorktown.
But American influence was evident
in a multitude of ways in the nar-
row streets and plaza of St. Augus-
tine, where Hancock and Adams had
once been burned in effigy and in
the dark and sombre dungeons 6f
San Marco, the sanctuary for a time
of three signers of the Declaration
of Independence, who had been de-
tained there by the British, entirely
without their consent.
Stirring times were those days of
1783. The air was alive with rum-
ors of plots and counterplots and
the effects of the Boston Tea Party
and War of Independence even on
this distant frontier were quite
The record of newspapers in St.
'Augustine can best be studied to-
day in the great collection of the
Library of Congress, where guides
have been prepared for early colon-
ial editions, listing their in chrono-
logical order and giving the names
of the men who pioneered the field
of American journalism. For in-
stance we discover that the only
Original copies of the "East Florida
Gazette" now known to the histor-
ian are contained in the far-away
Public Record Office in London. The
credit for saving this priceless news
sheet covering a short period from
March to May in 1783, evidently
belongs to Sir Guy Carlton in whose
collections the originals are now to
be found. Sir Guy was at one time
Governor of Canada. Thus are the
threads of history complicated, and
must be unravelled if we are to
study the romance of the Floridas.
The Library of Congress has
deemed this material important
enough to photostat, and it is the
bnly copy of the first Florida news-
paper available in the United
Apparently the press had to take
an enforced vacation when the
Spanish returned to St. Augustine
in 1784., Newspapers from that
year to the year 1823 seem as com-
pletely lacking as they had been in
the first Spanish period. Evidently
the Spanish authorities preferred
to use other means foi giving their
subjects the liews of the world. So
the presses of St. Augustine took a
long rest until, with the coming of
the American flag, the editors felt
safe enough to go to work again.
But safety even after 1823 was a
relative matter, what with threats
o2 almost constant Indian raids on
a very much unstabilized southern
frontier. Even so, the intrepid
editors of that period were more
likely to meet disaster at the hands
of rival exponents of free speech
and the press in the community.
One needs only to scan the columns
of the "Florida Herald and South-
ern Democrat" published in St. Au-
gustine between 1823 and 1848 to
discover that its editors believed
very much in the integrity of their
political convictions and that rival
sheets, such as the "St. Augustine
News", published between 1838 and
/1846, were something less than
nothing in their estimation. The
story is that most editors of t1baf
day carried one or sometimes two
big pistols constantly while gather-'
ing the news and when appearing
in public. In fact so little comfort
the editor of "The Herald and
Democrat" derived from the jibes
and sardonic demeanor of his 'local
contemporaries of the press that

frequently he was inviting them,
none too diplomatically to take
themselves off to some other region,
remote indeed from the beneficent
climate and environment of St. Au-
gustine. As if the local rivalries
were not enough, the battle was oft-
' e carried to other opponents, even
in Jacksonville, Pensacola, Charles-
ton, Savannah, and New York. Rest-
less men were these editors and
proper progenitors of the modern
American press..
And yet, making allowance for
S.hese intense rivalries, which us-

ually carried the smoke and pow-
der of the National political strug-
gles of the day, local news was not
in any way neglected. We learn,
for instance, of the commerce of
the Port of St. Augustine, of the
arrival of distinguished visitors,
like Ralph Waldo Emerson, William
Cullen Bryant and Prince Murat, of
Florida land booms and the ro-
mance of the free lands then being
offered to hungry and covetous men
from the north through the auspices
of the United States Land Office,
of the strengthening of fortifica-
tions about the town and the pre-
*parations for the struggle with the
redoubtable Seminoles, determined
to resist the white man's "tide of
civilization" and strengthened by.
many refugee whites and blacks
from the regions of the Carolinas
and Georgia.
Further still, the student of early
newspaper files will find a wealth of
material concerning the govern-
ment, the businesses, the religious,
culture and the intimate life of this
community, now undergoing' a re-
naissance so significant that much
of .its sanctified Spanish character
was to disappear forever until in
1936 when the Restoration began
its work of reclaiming it from obli-
vion. Thus we learn of the lawyers
and doctors of the day, the hotels,
the markets, the real estate dealers,
and the articles sold and used by the
average St. Augustinian. We find
also clues as to what means existed
for educating the young, and we,
learn to estimate the degree to
which attendance in distant colleges
of the North occurred. In this "con-
nection it shall be said that some
fairly good private schools were to
be found in St. Augustine, whose
hard working teachers offered
everything from reading, writing
and arithmetic to Latin, German,
French, Spanish, philosophy and
Through it all the charm of the
'ancient city affected populace and
newspaper editor alike, much as in'
later days, and there was genuine
pride in the antiquity and progress
of this great center of Spanish-
American culture. Poets and au-
thors wrote columns extolling the
merits of the region and men came
here then as now to stay a few days
and remained sometimes a lifetime
to sing the praises of the glorious
climate and opportunities to be
found in this new world sanctuary,
hallowed by the names of Ponce de
Leon, Menendez, Ribault; Drake,
Oglethorpe, and .those who came
after them.
Evelyn Elkins, Young
Editor Of 12, Had Her
Youthful Predecessor

We were under the' impression
that St. Augustine had its first
youthful newspaper editor at the
age of 12 when Evelyn' Elkins, edi-
tor' of "The Weekly Gossip," was
welcomed into the ranks last year.
However, with the discovery of the
St. Augustine Star, published in
1873, carrying the name o0 Theo-
dore Whitney, age 12, as editor, we
have to concede that Evelyn had
a predecessor. There is no record