Cow family

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Material Information

Title:
Cow family
Series Title:
Prang's natural history series for children
Physical Description:
18 p., 4 leaves of plates : coll. ill. ; 25 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Calkins, Norman A ( Norman Allison ), 1822-1895
Diaz, Abby Morton, 1821-1904 ( joint author )
L. Prang & Co ( Publisher )
Welch, Bigelow & Co ( Printer )
Publisher:
L. Prang and Company
Place of Publication:
Boston
Manufacturer:
Welch, Bigelow & Co.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Ruminants -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Cows -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Juvenile literature -- 1878   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1878   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1878
Genre:
Juvenile literature   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Massachusetts -- Boston
United States -- Massachusetts -- Cambridge

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
classification by Norman A. Calkins, ... and text by Mrs. A.M. Diaz.
General Note:
Stiff paper covers.
General Note:
Publisher's advertisement on back cover.
Funding:
Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001580353
oclc - 22947316
notis - AHK4259
System ID:
UF00048509:00001


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Full Text



isPRANGS #

NATURAL HISTORY SERI ES
FRo CHILDREN













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"The Baldwin Library
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PRANG'S



NATURAL HISTORY SERIES


FOR CHILDREN.





COW FAMILY.



CLASSIFICATION
BY
NORMAN A. CALKINS,
SUPERINTENDENT OF PRIMARY SCHOOLS, NEW YORK CITY,
AND TEXT BY
MRS. A. M. DIAZ,
AUTHOR OF "THE WILLIAM HENRY LETTERS."









BOSTON:
L. PRANG AND COMPANY.
1878.









































COPYRIGHT.
BY L. PRANG & CO.
1877.































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PRANG'S


NATURAL HISTORY SERIES FOR CHILDREN.



HOLLOW-HORNED RUMINANTS.

THE COW. "You are right," said Uncle Willie.
"CHILDREN," said Uncle Willie, "This story could not be true. I
"I want to tell you a story and hear made it up to show you how different
if you think it is true. One day is the cow from the animals we have
as I was walking through a pasture just been speaking of. The picture
in which a horse was feeding, I shows you other differences. Her legs
saw a fierce but graceful and beau- are slenderer than theirs, her eyes set
tiful Moolly Cow skulking behind more at the sides of her head, her
some bushes. Her glaring eyeballs ears are farther back, and her face
shone like balls of fire. Her flexible is longer and narrower, especially to-
body was drawn along upon the wards the mouth."
ground, and when she was within She has hoofs instead of claws,"
eighteen or twenty feet of the horse said Fred, "and she has horns."
she sprang suddenly, reached him in She has no smell -I mean feel-
one tremendous bound, bore him to ers," said Nannie; and see where her
the earth, ripped open the body with nose comes! It touches her mouth!"
her hoofs, and gorged herself upon the Fred can tell us why," said Cousin
flesh. In the next pasture I saw Kate. "Fred, don't you remember
another Moolly Cow leap lightly from the cents you were going to have ?"
a tall tree to the ground, coming "O yes!" said Fred, laughing.
down upon her feet. What do you Once grandpa told me he would
think of this story?" give me as many cents as the cow
"I think it is not true!" cried had upper front teeth, and he held
Fred and Nannie together. Even her mouth open and I looked in and
Tiptoes laughed. Hoo! hoo! hoo!" found she had n't any."
cried he," Moolly eat a horse! Moolly "That drawing at the top of the
climb a tree! picture shows us the jaws and teeth
Fred and Nannie were prompt and of a cow," said Cousin Kate, "and
eager with their objections. A cow shows that they are not made for the
does not skulk! Nor creep! work of tearing flesh from bones."
Nor spring !" She has not glar- "But how does the cow bite
ing eyes! She is not fierce! grass?" asked Nannie.
"Norbeautiful!" "Nor graceful!" She jerks it off with the front









2 HOLLOW-HORNED RUMINANTS.

teeth of her lower jaw by shutting it whole. The stomach which it
them against the hard gum of her drops into is large enough to hold a
upper jaw," said Uncle Willie. large quantity. Afterwards when she
" Watch a cow when she is feeding, is at rest say under a tree, or in her
and you will notice that she bites with stall she begins to chew her grass,
a jerk of the head upward, and if very a part at a time. When you swal-
near, you will hear the ripping of the low, you make a little motion with
grass." your throat and the food goes down.
I see that she has a double set of When the cow is ready to chew, she
good strong grinders," said Cousin makes a little motion with her throat
Kate. The cat family, you re- and a part of the grass in her stomach
member, children, have cutters in- comes up. This is what I meant by
stead of grinders. They could not swallowing up. When the grass has
grind if they had grinders, for their been chewed it slips down into
jaws move only up and down. Cows another stomach and never comes up
move their jaws sideways and grind any more. This way of eating is
their food." called 'chewing the cud,' or rumi-
I've seen a cow chewing when nating."
she was n't eating!" said Nannie. But cows don't travel," said Fred,
She was only chewing the cud, "they always have time enough to
you know," said Fred. eat."
"You will remember," said Uncle Our common cow does not
Willie, that when we were travelling travel," said Uncle Willie, but there
to the mountains last summer, the are plenty of ruminants which do.
cars stopped and somebody shouted, Bisons, antelopes, wild goats, wild
'Ten minutes for refreshments,' and sheep, vast herds of cattle left to
that when the cry sounded, All shift for themselves in Africa, South
aboard !' the passengers who went America, and on our Western prairies,
out to get refreshments' came back all these travel, though not by rail-
grumbling that they had to leave ways. They roam from place to
their soup, or meat, or pie, half eaten. place, looking for the best feed; for
Now a cow would n't have lost her a thick spot, as berry-pickers say. If
dinner in that way. She would have they come to a spot where there is
swallowed it all down whole into one not much grass, they snatch what
of her four stomachs, and afterwards there is and hasten on. Or these
she would have swallowed it up, a roving Ruminants may be approached
part at a time, and eaten it." at their meals by wild beasts or by
0 Uncle Willie! cried Nannie. hunters. Then their sentinels sound
" Now you are joking us the alarm, All aboard !' or what
"Not at all," said Uncle Willie. amounts to that, and they are off in
" A cow, feeding in a pasture, does a twinkling. On the whole, therefore,
not stop to chew the grass. She rolls it is better for them to take their
it between her grinders and swallows food when they can get it, put it into









HOLLOW-HORNED RUMINANTS. 3

one of their stomachs, and eat it at' or covering. The inside part is an
their leisure." extension of the bony structure of
O dear! cried Cousin Kate. the forehead. This bony extension is
"Four stomachs! How dreadful it called the core of the horn. It grows
would be, in case of dyspepsia, to slowly, and continues growing during
have four stomachs the life of the animal. But we don't
The Ruminants run clear of dys- see it; we see only its horny covering.
pepsia," said Uncle Willie. Plain This covering is closely fitted to the
food and exercise and out-doors air bony core, and is attached to it by a
preserve them from that calamity. sort of skinny substance. After the
Deer, buffaloes, and cattle upon the animal dies this skinny substance de-
plains, wild sheep, wild goats, and cays, and the horny covering then
chamois upon the mountains, get slips off quite easily and is ready to
plenty of air and exercise, and they hold our powder, or our peanuts, or
take their food, you know, just as it to blow our grandpas to dinner.
grows." A cow's horn is well supplied with
"Do deer belong to the cow fam- blood-vessels,-especially at the lower
ily ? asked Fred. part, and is therefore very sensitive
They are Ruminants," said Uncle and always warm, provided the ani-
Willie, that is, they chew the cud, Imal be in health. A cold horn is a
but they are not Hollow-Horned Ru- sign of ill health, for it shows a poor
minants: deer's horns grow rapidly, circulation of the blood."
and fall off every year; for they are Grandpa's cow is n't like that
not joined to the bone of the forehead, one," said Tiptoes," she 's a red one."
The horns of cows and of other Hol- Cows are of various colors," said
low-Horned Ruminants are joined fast Cousin Kate, and of various dispo-
to the bones of the forehead, so that sitions. Some are gentle, others are
they cannot drop off. The animals cross. Even in shape they are not
in this set of pictures are Ruminants exactly alike. But they all have four
and Hollow-Horned Ruminants." toes, and dewlaps, and I think that
Tiptoes knows that a cow's horn our common cows always have long
is hollow," said Cousin Kate, for slender tails with bushy ends."
last summer at grandpa's he had a "I don't see any toes," cried
cow's horn full of peanuts." Tiptoes, looking close at the picture.
"And they tipped a-11 over in the "The hoofs cover the two front
high grass said Tiptoes. ones," said Cousin Kate. The two
And sometimes Tiptoes wanted back ones are so small that they are
to take the horn and 'blow Grandpa sometimes called false .toes.' The
to dinner !' said Nannie. dewlap is that long fold of skin which
Perhaps this point should be you see under the neck."
made more clear," said Uncle Willie. "I want to speak of one thing be-
" A cow's horn consists of two parts, fore I forget it," said Uncle Willie.
an inside part and an outside part, "You will remember that the eyes









4 HOLLOW-HORNED RUMINANTS.

of the cat family are placed in front, "Do cows and oxen run wild any-
and that the seeing spot, or pupil, where now?" asked Fred.
runs up and down. This is good for Not entirely wild," said Uncle
the cat family, for as they pursue Willie. "In Australia, however, and
other animals, and spring upon their in some parts of Africa and of South
prey, they must look at what is America, and on our own Western
directly before them. The eyes of prairies, roam vast herds of cattle free
the Ruminants are placed towards as air. They belong to different own-
the sides of the face, and the pupil ers, but they have the habits of wild
runs across the eye. This is good cattle, and are not taken care of by
for the Ruminants, for with their their-owners."
eyes placed towards the sides of their If we look back, or read back,
head, and the pupils running across thousands of years," said Cousin Kate,
the eyes, they can perceive the state "we shall find that even then cattle
of the feed all around them, and can were used very much as we use them
be on the lookout for danger." now. In fact, they were the chief de-
Their ears must help to warn pendence of the people of those times.
them of danger," said Cousin Kate, In the early ages of the world, when
" for they are set far back on the there were no stores, no factories, no
head, and can be turned so as to catch markets, and few garden vegetables,
a sound wherever it may come from. the people clothed themselves with the
This also is good for the Ruminants, skins of cattle and fed upon the flesh
considering that usually they would of cattle and the milk of cattle. They
rather run than fight, and that they wandered with their herds from place
have no means of defending them- to place, stopping where feed was most
selves except by butting or hooking." plentiful. Their wealth was reckoned
"But when they do undertake to not by money, but by the number of
defend themselves, I should not like their cattle. Their property, you see,
to be standing in the way," said Uncle was always in motion, and itis rather
Willie. I would go some distance curious that the word cattle comes
around, rather than encounter a herd from a word which means, to go;
of wild cattle. They are not fond of chattels' comes from the same word,
visitors. If a man approaches them and even to this day movable property
they gaze at him as much as to say, is sometimes called chattels."
'What do you want here ?' Then they Cows have some of that old rov-
toss their heads, paw the ground, and ing nature in them yet," said Uncle
at last begin to gallop round and round Willie. Don't you remember how
him in a circle, now and then coming grandpa's cow was always straying
to a full stop and looking at him, but away ?"
making the circle smaller and smaller, I do," said Fred; I have had to
drawing nearer and nearer; and the go and find her many a time! "
man, if he is wise, will leave while he "And they have the old instinct of
can." keeping together," said Cousin Kate.















































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HOLLOW-HORNED RUMINANTS. 5

" I remember that when the neighbors Willie," how much of what we call hu-
took their cows out of grandpa's field man feeling is seen in animals; cows,
his cow was lonely, and grandpa said as well as men, like to be the leaders,
she did not give nearly as much milk and to have the highest place and
as before." the best of everything. In a herd of
And, 0 Cousin Kate," cried Nan- cows the oldest or strongest one leads
nie, "' don't you remember how she the herd. She must be the first to
cried for her calf ? step into the pasture and into the
Yes, indeed," said Cousin Kate. barn. She takes her choice of stalls,
"She grieved and moaned, and showed and if the food of any of the other
her sorrow almost as plainly as if cows is better than her own, she eats
she had spoken. Grandpa says that it. If a strange cow is added to a
cows have tones of joy as well as of herd she fights for a place in it, and
grief, and that some cows become that place is high or low, according to
strongly attached to their homes. He her strength. If the new-comer is a
told me that cows.have been known half-grown cow, she is pushed about
to find their way back twenty miles by all the others and made to walk
to their old homes." behind. This young cow treats in the
I knew a cow who was so glad to same way the next young cow that
see her former owner that she shed comes, and so on, and so on."
tears," said Uncle Willie. She be- Bloomfield speaks of this in his
longed to an aunt of mine. The cow Farmer's Boy,' said Cousin Kate.
had been much petted and fondled, Describing the going home of the
but for some reason she was sold. cows, he says,
A few weeks after the sale my aunt 'The strong press on, the weak by turn succeed,
paid a visit to her cow. The cow And one superior always takes the lead.'"
seemed delighted. She rubbed her Aunt Hattie told me that people
chin on my aunt's shoulder, and was ride cow-back in some parts of the
so much overcome with pleasure that world," said Nannie.
the tears came to her eyes! My aunt "So they do," said Cousin Kate,
said this was an actual fact, and al- and they make cows draw the plough
most cried herself in telling the story." and bear burdens."
And cows become attached to Why, I think that is too bad !"
animals," said Cousin Kate. "I read said Nannie.
a story of a lamb which was brought I think so too," said Cousin Kate,
up with some cows and afterwards considering how many other things
taken away; when it was carried back the cow does for us. Suppose we
all the cows ran to meet it, and then, mention some of the things for which
one at a time, they all licked it over we must thank the cow. Tiptoes,
and showed as well as cows could what do you thank the cow for?"
show that they were glad to see the For milk! shouted Tiptoes.
lamb again." Butter "" Cream! "" Ice-cream!"
"Yes, it is curious," said Uncle "Cheese!" Custards!" Puddings!"









6 HOLLOW-HORNED RUMINANTS.

Shoes " Roast beef! Har- "They are done up in curl-papers
nesses " Carriage-tops cried the every night, and the cows have theirs
others. put in crimps," added Uncle Willie,
Plastering! added Uncle Willie. with a sober face. Nannie smiled; but
The hair of cattle is mixed with she knew very well that this time her
mortar, to make the mortar firm." Uncle Willie was only joking.
"Furniture said Cousin Kate. I was reading the other day,"
Some parts of furniture are stuck said Cousin Kate, that in some an-
together with glue, and glue is made cient language 'ox' is spelt, ochs,'
from the hoofs and hides of cattle; and that the word ochs' means a
combs, buttons, and various other rushing river.' I suppose this does
things are made from their horns." not imply that the Ox is remarkably
And farmers say," added Uncle swift, but only that lie is strong. In
Willie, "that the biting of cattle some parts of Africa a few of the
loosens the roots of the grass and strongest Oxen are trained to protect
makes it grow fine, and sweet. Also the flocks and herds. They are called
that their breath enriches the roots bachleys,' from a word that means
of the grass. By cattle we mean both war.' These bachleys charge at cat-
cows and oxen. tie-thieves, wild beasts, and all intrud-
ers."
THE OX.
"You see there a picture of the Ox. THE ZEBU.
Oxen give us no milk, but in other "0, WHAT a funny cow that one
ways they are as useful to us as the is "cried Tiptoes, touching the hump
cow is, and in some ways more so. on the Zebu.
In the way of work, for instance; to She would be a good one to ride
be sure, they are slow, but for many horse I mean cow-back on," said
kinds of work they are better than Nannie. "You could take hold of
horses. They have more patience that hump."
than horses, more steadiness, more Zebu-back would be the most
skill in picking their way over dan- exact word," said Uncle Willie.
gerous places." Zebus live far over the sea, in a
We find cows and oxen in all country of Asia called India. They
parts 6f the world," said Cousin Kate. are good-natured creatures, and seem
In Africa, where people sometimes willing to be made useful in almost
ride ox-back, there is a kind of ox any way. They will draw a plough
whose horns are over' three yards or a carriage, or be ridden Zebu-back,
long One horn will hold ten quarts. or carry loads. Zebus are also made
The account said that, to prevent useful in the way of food, though this
these monstrous horns from troubling is probably without their own cdn-
the riders or the drivers, they are slit sent, and it probably would be with-
down in strips, and the strips are out their own consent, even if they
made to curl." [knew that their humps make remark-
...Y-.-nSTr- ..)~c ~I r









6 HOLLOW-HORNED RUMINANTS.

Shoes " Roast beef! Har- "They are done up in curl-papers
nesses " Carriage-tops cried the every night, and the cows have theirs
others. put in crimps," added Uncle Willie,
Plastering! added Uncle Willie. with a sober face. Nannie smiled; but
The hair of cattle is mixed with she knew very well that this time her
mortar, to make the mortar firm." Uncle Willie was only joking.
"Furniture said Cousin Kate. I was reading the other day,"
Some parts of furniture are stuck said Cousin Kate, that in some an-
together with glue, and glue is made cient language 'ox' is spelt, ochs,'
from the hoofs and hides of cattle; and that the word ochs' means a
combs, buttons, and various other rushing river.' I suppose this does
things are made from their horns." not imply that the Ox is remarkably
And farmers say," added Uncle swift, but only that lie is strong. In
Willie, "that the biting of cattle some parts of Africa a few of the
loosens the roots of the grass and strongest Oxen are trained to protect
makes it grow fine, and sweet. Also the flocks and herds. They are called
that their breath enriches the roots bachleys,' from a word that means
of the grass. By cattle we mean both war.' These bachleys charge at cat-
cows and oxen. tie-thieves, wild beasts, and all intrud-
ers."
THE OX.
"You see there a picture of the Ox. THE ZEBU.
Oxen give us no milk, but in other "0, WHAT a funny cow that one
ways they are as useful to us as the is "cried Tiptoes, touching the hump
cow is, and in some ways more so. on the Zebu.
In the way of work, for instance; to She would be a good one to ride
be sure, they are slow, but for many horse I mean cow-back on," said
kinds of work they are better than Nannie. "You could take hold of
horses. They have more patience that hump."
than horses, more steadiness, more Zebu-back would be the most
skill in picking their way over dan- exact word," said Uncle Willie.
gerous places." Zebus live far over the sea, in a
We find cows and oxen in all country of Asia called India. They
parts 6f the world," said Cousin Kate. are good-natured creatures, and seem
In Africa, where people sometimes willing to be made useful in almost
ride ox-back, there is a kind of ox any way. They will draw a plough
whose horns are over' three yards or a carriage, or be ridden Zebu-back,
long One horn will hold ten quarts. or carry loads. Zebus are also made
The account said that, to prevent useful in the way of food, though this
these monstrous horns from troubling is probably without their own cdn-
the riders or the drivers, they are slit sent, and it probably would be with-
down in strips, and the strips are out their own consent, even if they
made to curl." [knew that their humps make remark-
...Y-.-nSTr- ..)~c ~I r









HOLLOW-HORNED RUMINANTS. 7

ably nice eating. The Zebu ox, though "Why, how foolish! cried Fred.
not swift, is a livelier animal than our Yes, it does seem foolish," said
common ox. He can travel from Cousin Kate, "but I suppose there
twenty to thirty miles a day." is a reason behind it. In the early
"Do Zebu cows give milk? asked ages of the world, when people lived
Nannie. in an ignorant, half-civilized state,
"Yes, indeed," said Cousin Kate. they reverenced almost any animal
"All animals which suckle their young which helped them to keep alive and
give milk. The cat gives milk to her to make their lives comfortable.
kittens, the lioness to her cubs, the You remember that cats, storks, and
sheep to her lambs, the goat to her ibises were once reverenced for their
kids, the cow to her calf." usefulness in destroying mice, rats,
Perhaps you would like to know and other vermin."
how the people in India make their "A Zebu could n't hook you or
butter," said Uncle Willie. First toss you very well with those short
they boil the milk until the water in horns," said Fred.
it has boiled away and left the oily "Yes, r see that her horns are
part. The oily part is then put into short," said Cousin Kate; still, if
a bottle and corked up. This Zebu she were a furious or ugly creature
butter is called 'ghee.' she might do damage with them.
Please wait a moment," said But what other marks do you notice
Fred, and let me make a rhyme. in the Zebu ? "
If I had- "I think her ears are pretty long,"
No- said Fred.
If I lived in India, over the sea, I think her tail is very big at the
I 'd buy a kind Zebu, and learn to make ghee." end," said Nannie.
Your rhyme is better than the "And the dewlap of the Zebu is
ghee," said Uncle Willie. I have so large," said Cousin Kate, that it
tasted the latter, and I know." gives her a chunky appearance about
"I have lately read something the neck. But, after all, the most
quite interesting of these Zebus," said striking mark of this animal 'is its
Cousin Kate. In India some of hump."
them are marked by the priests with
a sacred mark. It is considered a THE BISON.
great sin to kill one of the Zebus thus THAT Bison seems to have a big
marked. They roam where they will, hump," said Fred, but it looks more
through gardens, fields, even in vege- sloping than the Zebu's."
table-markets and fruit-shops, taking This may be because it is covered
their pick of the best as they go. thick with long shaggy hair," said
People are allowed to shout at them, Uncle Willie. "It is much larger
but not to touch them, and as no- than the hump of the Zebu. It
body dares to touch them they don't weighs sometimes a hundred pounds.
mind the shouts." The Zebu's weighs only about fifty.









8 HOLLOW-HORNED RUMINANTS.

What should you say if I told you spoons, pins, and spear-heads; of its
I had seen thousands and thousands feet they make glue. Its hair they
of Bisons, all at once ? twist into ropes and halters.
0 Uncle Willie cried Nan- "Its flesh they eat, both fresh and
nie. So many could n't get into dried. Bison-flesh is sometimes made
anybody's pasture !" into pemmican. Canadian hunters
The vast prairies of the West are going into the Arctic regions to hunt
their pasture," said Uncle Willie. fur-bearing animals usually carry a
" On those vast prairies they wander good supply of pemmican. It is made
up and down, immense herds of them, of dried and powdered Bison-flesh,
seeking their food. They form close mixed with wild berries. This mix-
ranks, and the tramp of their hoofs ture is stirred into hot fat, and the
sounds like the rumbling of thunder, whole is then cooled off into cakes.
Their bellowing can be heard many Hundreds of Bisons are killed
miles off." every year just for their humps and
He is a ferocious-looking animal," tongues, for these are the nicest
said Fred. parts. The remainder of the body is
"He is not really a ferocious ani- left for wolves and other wild beasts.
mal," said Uncle Willie. On the In Kansas, hundreds of thousands
contrary, he is rather timid, and would are yearly hunted and destroyed
sooner run than fight. But it is not merely for their hides, no other part
safe to attack him, for when enraged of the body being used. It is said
he will make a rush at you and gore that if a herd is attacked and shows
you with his horns, and toss you and fight the father Bisons usually pro-
trample you." tect the mothers and children, and
But not eat you," said Cousin that the oldest males take the outside
Kate. ranks and present front to the enemy.
0 no," said Uncle Willie; Sometimes in crossing a frozen
" Bisons are wild creatures, but not river great numbers of Bisons break
flesh-eaters, like lions and tigers. through the ice. Many save them-
They live upon grass, the same as selves by swimming, others are
other Ruminants. Vast numbers of drowned."
them are destroyed by hunters. It "Are Bisons and Buffaloes the
is said that there are about three same ?" asked Fred.
hundred thousand Indians who sub- No," said Uncle Willie; Buffa-
sist almost wholly upon Bison-flesh. loes do not have this thick shaggy
In fact, I hardly know how the hair covering the head and shoulders,
Indians could live without the Bison. nor the hump. Their horns turn out-
Of its skin they make their tents, ward, and are joined at the roots.
their beds, their boots, their saddles, The Bison's horns turn inward, and
their bridles; of its bones they make are set far apart, as you see. But
saddle-trees, clubs, and musical in- Bisons are usually called Buffaloes,and
struments: of its horns they make their skins are called Buffalo-robes.'









HOLLOW-HORNED RUMINANTS. 9

"There are plenty of interesting be easily tamed; but you know you
things to tell about Bisons. Drink- would have to first catch your Bison,
ing-places in those vast prairies are and perhaps the farmers think it
not always to be found. The Bisons, would be easier to get cattle in some
therefore, often have to make long other way.
journeys in search of water. They "I could tell you more about the
follow each other in single file, and Bison, only that there are so many
in this way wear deep trails or paths other pictures to look at. You see that
in the prairies. In making these he has short horns curved in at the
journeys they choose the best and points, and a short tail, and that his
smoothest routes, and travellers have back goes down along from the hump
found by experience that these Bison- to the tail, instead of straight like the
paths always prove the best places Zebu's. His legs look small to carry
for roads that can be selected. The so large a creature, but they carry
Bison delights to wallow in the mud, him well, and swiftly. He is not as
and he knows how to procure for him- heavy as he looks, for a large part of
self this pleasure. He lies down on his bulk is made up by hair, and hair
his side in a damp spot,-- perhaps is lighter than flesh and bones. You
the bed of a dried-up stream, and see by the figures that he is only
whirls round and round till he makes about the size of our common ox.
a great hollow place; when the water But he is a great deal fiercer, and it
begins to drain into this hollow is a grand and almost terrible sight
place, he whirls more than ever, and to see a herd of these wild creatures
so, as you may say, he makes his own rushing across the prairie, stamping,
mud. After he has wallowed, others bellowing, tearing up the earth with
of the herd wallow, and thus the hol- hoofs and horns."
low grows larger and larger. The
grass springs up thick and green
around these wallowing-places, and THE MUSK-0X.
the track of the herd may be traced THIS chap in the next picture
by them." seems to be fitted out for cold
I should think the Bisons' hair weather," said Cousin Kate.
would be covered all over with mud," Is n't he rather large to be called
said Nannie. a chap ?" asked Fred.
"That is just what they want," "Like the owl, and some other
said Uncle Willie. The mud dries people," said Uncle Willie, "the
on, and so protects them from mos- Musk-ox depends greatly upon his
quitoes and other tormenting insects." clothes for making an appearance.
Are Bisons ever tamed and set to Stripped of that shaggy cloak, he is
work? asked Cousin Kate. quite a small animal; and he is
"Not often," said Uncle Willie, scarcely over a yard high, hair and
though in Nebraska there are a few all, the figures say."
used in this way. They are said to His cloak comes almost down to








10 HOLLOW-HORNED RUMINANTS.

his hoofs," said Nannie," and his tail young ones being in the centre. The
hardly shows any." males tear up the earth with hoofs
What curious horns said Fred. and horns, and some old grandfather
"Take off those great horns, and I stands in front like a general. But
should sooner call him a sheep than usually at the first gunshot the whole
an ox herd take to flight, except that some-
I suppose he has a neck, some- times a-wounded one turns upon a
where," said Cousin Kate, but it hunter.
does n't appear." "I read a story of a sailor who
Besides his outside garment," came near being killed by a wounded
said Uncle Willie, he has an inside Musk-ox. The affair ended in this
one of soft wool. But he needs all way: Musk-ox charged at sailor;
his clothes to keep him warm, for his sailor dodged behind rock; Musk-
home is the rocky, barren grounds of ox hit rock instead of sailor, and
the cold northern regions of North dropped down dead; the brutish Es-
America. You would not think it, quimaux ate him raw, gorged them-
but he is a swift runner, and delights selves with the flesh, then lay down
in skipping over those rocky plains, with pieces of flesh in their hands
browsing on grass and mosses. waiting to be hungry."
The Esquimaux and Indians But I thought the flesh was too
hunt him, but he is so swift that musky to be eaten," said Cousin Kate.
only bullets or arrows can overtake It is musky only a few weeks in
him. Hunters say that he is not the year," said Uncle Willie; at
frightened at the report of a gun, other times it is called pretty good
unless he sees the man who fires it, eating."
for he thinks it is not the noise of a
gun, but some other noise, perhaps the GRUNTING COW, OR YAK.
falling of rocks or cracking of ice." "0, WHAT a great long cow!"
How can they tell what a Musk- cried Tiptoes, drawing his finger
ex thinks ?" exclaimed Fred. along the animal in the next picture.
How, indeed! said Uncle Wil- Grunting Cow," said Fred. "
lie. But sometimes hunters have should think she would grunt, with
a chance to know what a Musk-ox that load of hair to carry "
thinks; for instance, when he thinks She carries more load than that,"
he will face about, and charge upon said Uncle Willie. She carries
them!" people on her back, and often other
"Then they show fight sometimes?" burdens. If her load is too heavy,
said Fred. she makes a loud, doleful sound,
"Yes," said Uncle Willie, and much like the grunt of a pig, and
especially if wounded. And it is said keeps it up continually, and some-
that the males will fight to defend the times the rider becomes so tired of
females and their young ones. If a hearing it that he jumps off and
herd is attacked, they all face out, the walks."









HOLLOW-HORNED RUMINANTS. 11

"I think that tail is something in Asia. They are excellent climbers,
wonderful," said Cousin Kate. though you would hardly suppose so.
"Yes,and somethingbeautiful," said Their hoofs are thin, and made just
Uncle Willie. The hair of it is long right for climbing. The Yak in its
and silky, and in some cases wholly native state is said to have fiery eyes,
white. The Chinese dye these tails red and to look quite fierce."
and wear them in their caps. Some-
times they are mounted in silver or
ivory handles and used as fly-brushes. HORNED HORSE, OR GNU.
In India you may often see a rich WHAT strange creature have we
man sitting at his case, attended by here ? asked Fred.
his fly-brushers with their fly-brushes. He is not only strange, but Gnu,"
Yak cattle are useful to their owners said Uncle Willie.
in the same ways that our cattle are So you do make bad jokes some-
to us, but Yak butter-churning is not times ? said Cousin Kate.
like our butter-churning. To churn The Gnu himself seems to be a
Yak butter, three poles are set in the sort of bad joke," said Uncle Willie.
ground and fastened together at their He has legs like an antelope's, -
tops. From this fastening hangs a and he is one kind of antelope, but
leather bag containing the milk. Two he has the horns of an ox and the
women pull this bag backwards and mane and tail of a horse."
forwards by means of two strings, His breast is covered with hair,"
and thus the butter is churned." said Fred, and his whiskers look
What a funny way that is said some like a tiger's."
Nannie. "No wonder the people of South
I thought the Yak might be a wild Africa call him the Wildbeeste," said
animal," said Cousin Kate. It has a Cousin Kate.
wild look about the head and horns." Is he wild ? Will he hurt you? "
It is a wild animal, and a moun- asked Nannie.
tainous animal," said Uncle Willie. "He is wild," said Uncle Willie,
" Its home is in the mountains." but he will not hurt you unless you
0, then you don't mean the hills try to hurt him, or put yourself in his
and hollows of its back ? said Cousin way. If he comes at you he comes
Kate." by dropping upon his knees and spring-
No, indeed I would not make ing suddenly forward. It is not safe
so poor a joke as that," said Uncle to attack a herd, for if one is killed,
Willie, especially about a creature the others all run at the hunter. If
whose hair makes so much pretty the hunter climbs a tree, they throw
Yak-lace for the ladies. The Yaks themselves against the tree. They
are domestic animals, that is, they are timid, but at the same time have
are used for the comfort and con- a great deal of curiosity."
veniences of man, but their native If you will wait a moment," said
place is in the mountains of Thibet, Cousin Kate, "I will read you some-









12 HOLLOW-HORNED RUMINANTS.

thing from Mr. Cumming's book of "A creature's back legs are its
travels." Cousin Kate brought Mr. hind legs," said Fred.
Cumming's book, and read a little of Do you notice anything curious
what he says of the behavior of Gnus about his horns ? asked Cousin
when attacked. Kate.
"'They commence whisking their They are joined together at the
long white tails, then, springing sud- roots," said Fred, then they curve
denly into the air, they begin pawing out, then almost meet at the tops."
and capering, and pursue each other "He is a pretty, graceful little
in circles at their utmost speed. creature," said Cousin Kate.
Suddenly they all pull up together to And a springy creature," said
overhaul the intruder, then, quickly Uncle Willie. "It is easier for him
wheeling about, they kick up their to spring than to keep still. When a
heels, whirl their tails with a fantastic Spring-bok is startled, it springs into
flourish, and scour across the plain, the air eight or ten feet. It is so
enveloped in a cloud of dust.' timid that if it comes to the track
"I have read somewhere," said of a man, it springs over it with a
Cousin Kate, that Gnus have so bound ten or twelve feet high. Still,
much curiosity, that if a hunter will it is easily tamed, and Nannie's tame
tie a red handkerchief to the muzzle Spring-bok will be as gentle and play-
of his gun, they will go within gun- ful as a lamb. It will probably fol-
shot to get a good view of it." low her to school one day."
I wonder if a Gnu can be tamed," The scholars would be afraid of
said Fred. it," said Nannie.
"I think the Dutch settlers in It would n't mean to hurt them,"
South Africa have succeeded in tam- said Uncle Willie, but if it sprang
ing a few, but for some reasons this about after the fashion of that one in
is not done very often. Other cattle the picture, it might take the curl out
don't like them at all." of their hair "
He does n't look like an animal "And might make bad work
we should care to have about us for among the slates and inkstands!"
a pet," said Cousin Kate. said Fred. And if the teacher tried
to turn him out, he might break
through a window! "
THE SPRING-BOK. O, 't would be too bad to have
IF you want a pretty little crea- him cut his dear little nose!" said
ture for a pet, Nannie," said Uncle Nannie, looking sober at the very
Willie, "you might send to South thought of it.
Africa and get a Spring-bok." "We won't feel badly before the
do see him spring! cried time," said Cousin Kate. "But how
Nannie. "See his knees! See his will you feed your Spring-bok ? "
back legs stretched out! See his tail With hay, Uncle Willie ?" asked
a flying !" Nannie.






















T - HORNEDI HORSES N i 6t7ofRh
~"....;~ HORET) H~fi.BEiOR 1AN













I .
: W., ,';Si E. . . .. .. .. .'




a. SPRING K IT, P ,'^ HC

HHollow-HomBr i a r imci /








HOLLOW-HORNED RUMINANTS. 13

"You will have to hire a pasture races over the prairies at the rate,
for him," said Uncle Willie, and sometimes, of a mile a minute. He
when he has eaten all the grass in goes like a meteor.' He runs races
that, you will have to chase the an- with the winds,' so travellers tell us,
telope o'er the plain,' for he will mi- and so I have seen myself. I have
grate to some other pasture, according seen one run so fast that you could
to the habit of his tribe. In South not see his legs. They seemed to
Africa, his tribe, in countless num- stand still, just as do the spokes of a
bers, start from some place where feed swift-whirling wheel. These animals
is scarce, and migrate to a place where are graceful and slender and flexible.
feed is plenty." In running, they bound lightly from
"Mr. Cumming describes these the ground, and come down hard
migrations," said Cousin Kate. He upon their fore feet. The coming
speaks of standing for two hours, down of the fore feet of a whole herd
looking at a mass of Spring-boks makes a loud noise."
which were pouring across the coun- Fast as they run, I suppose they
try like some great river. And he cannot escape the hunters," said
says that this living river was half a Cousin Kate.
mile wide !" They could easily escape by run-
ning," said Uncle Willie; "for, besides
THE PRONG-HORN. being swift runners, they are so quick-
"IF Nannie's Spring-bok should sighted, and have so keen a smell,
spring away and never spring back," that. it is no easy matter to get near
said Fred, she might get a Prong- them. But their curiosity often
horn, and tame that. You see he is proves their ruin. If the hunter will
almost the same size, and the color is but wave a bright handkerchief, or
nearly the same,-reddish, with white stand on his head, or lie on his back
underneath." and kick his heels in the air, some of
"But not as pretty!" cried Nan- the herd will be almost sure to come
nie. Only see his tail!" to inquire into the matter.
That is what I am trying to do," The skins of Prong-horns are not
said Fred, but there is n't much to of much value, but their flesh is very
see. He seems to leave short off, good eating, and thousands of them
like a Manx Cat." are destroyed for food. Hunters out
The Prong-horn in the picture is a in Wyoming Territory along the line
stiffer-looking animal than the Spring- of the Western Pacific Railroad ship
bok," said Cousin Kate; "but it them to the California market by hun-
would be easier to find a Prong-horn, dreds. Their flesh is considered better
for he lives in our own country." than any other kind of venison."
It might be easy to find him, but "I suppose the animal is named
hard to catch him and hard to tame from the shape of its horns," said
him," said Uncle Willie. He is Fred; the prong shows very plainly
the swiftest animal in America. He in the drawing."







14 HOLLOW-HORNED RUMINANTS.

When wolves come to carry off have read that if in flying from a hunt-
the little Prong-horns," said Uncle er he comes to a deep chasm, where
Willie, the mother Prong-horn fights you could look down hundreds of feet
them off with her pronged horns and and both sides smooth rock, or ice, he
her fore feet." does n't stop for that; he bounds
I suppose these spry little fellows across, hits the opposite side, bounds
migrate," said Cousin Kate, that is, back to a lower point, and so on till
follow the feed." he finds standing-room; or perhaps
"Yes," said Uncle Willie; "they he slides down, down, down, as Fred
are at home wherever grass is plenty says, and escapes in that way. You
and water is within twenty or thirty see that his fore legs are much shorter
miles. They like to have their drink- than his hind ones, so that he is par-
ing-place handy, you know! ticularly well fitted for sliding. His
pointed hoofs are a great assistance;
his false toes behind-pointed also
THE CHAMOIS. help him to steady himself, and his
HERE is an animal I would like fore legs bend so as to break his fall.
to see," said Cousin Kate,-" the He has beautiful eyes, round and
Chamois. I have read a great deal sparkling, and for his food he chooses
of the Alpine mountain hunters, and the sweetest, tenderest grass and the
of what they endure climbing rocky most delicate parts of plants and flow-
heights, creeping along edges of preci- ers. Perhaps this is why his flesh is
pices, living days and nights on giddy so remarkably nice."
mountain-tops among ice and snow And why his skin is so soft," said
and sleet." Uncle Willie. Chamois-leather, you
Our teacher told us about the know, is in great demand. But the
Chamois," said Fred. Look, Tip- man who would go Chamois-hunting
toes, there 's a slider for you, and a must have skill in climbing, strong
jumper! That fellow will plant his nerves, a strong body, courage, pa-
fore feet on the face of a rock that is tience, and endurance. And with all
as high as the biggest building you these he often fails. These creatures
ever saw, and as straight up and down have so keen a smell that they can
as the wall of a house, and will slide detect the scent of a man at an im-
down, down, down, until his feet hit mense distance.
a ledge, then jump to another rock, A herd, when feeding, have a sen-
then take another slide, or another tinel watching. If he gives the signal
jump, up, down, across, no matter of danger they are off like the wind.
where. He can bring all his hoofs This signal is a sharp hiss or whistle,
together and stand on a point where and by means of it the sentinel not
the standing-place is no bigger than a only tells that there is danger, but
man's two hands! where it is, so that the herd know
This jumping across is the most which way to run! This shows that
wonderful," said Cousin Kate. I they have a sort of language."









HOLLOW-HORNED RUMINANTS. 15

Do this kind come to look at about fifty thousand men employed in
bright handkerchiefs ? asked Nannie. weaving them. To make a fine shawl,
"Sometimes," said Uncle Willie, with a pattern all over it, employs
"for, like other antelopes, they are three or four people nearly a year.
curious to examine strange objects. The borders are worked in with
With all their shyness they are easily wooden needles, a separate needle for
tamed, if taken young. I heard of a each color."
tame one which had so much curiosity It is no wonder the shawls are so
that it was always prying into bags, costly!" said Uncle Willie. "Three or
boxes, and bundles, or watching peo- four people working a year would put
ple at their work." a good deal of work into one shawl."
The Chamois and Prong-horns But work is cheap in that coun-
fare pretty nearly alike for tails," said try," said Cousin Kate, and the rea-
Fred, but the white about them son why the shawls cost so much is
comes in different places, and the that those who carry on the business
Chamois' horns stand up straight in have to pay heavy taxes all the way
front and bend back at the tops." through, from the buying of the wool
"The Chamois' body has not so to the selling of the shawl."
square a look behind as the Spring-
bok's," said Uncle Willie.
THE MOUNTAIN SHEEP.
THERE 't is! cried Tiptoes."
THE CASHMERE GOAT. There's his ear in that big horn! "
THE Cashmere Goat's horns don't Tiptoes had been busying himself in
stand up very straight from his head," drawing his finger along the curling
said Fred. They start together, horn of the Mountain Sheep, and had
and then stand out wide apart." at last spied its ear, peeping out at
So that is the Goat which gives you the centre.
the hair for your cashmere shawls," The smallest tail yet," said Fred,
said Uncle Willie. and the largest horns."
He seems to have plenty of it," That does n't look like a sheep,"
said Fred. said Nannie.
"He needs to," said Cousin Kate. "No," said Fred, "it looks more
"I was reading the other day that like a goat."
it takes ten goats to furnish material That is a wild sheep," said Uncle
for one shawl a yard and a half Willie. "Wild sheep and wild goats
square. But it is the inner coat only look so much alike that you can
which is used. The inner coat is hardly tell one from the other, except
finer and softer and woollier than that the sheep have very large horns
the outside one. and no beard. Both are active, spring-
The Goat himself is a native of the ing, climbing creatures, though the
mountains of Thibet, but the shawls goat is bolder and stronger and swifter
are made in Cashmere. There are than the sheep. He leaps from rock









HOLLOW-HORNED RUMINANTS. 15

Do this kind come to look at about fifty thousand men employed in
bright handkerchiefs ? asked Nannie. weaving them. To make a fine shawl,
"Sometimes," said Uncle Willie, with a pattern all over it, employs
"for, like other antelopes, they are three or four people nearly a year.
curious to examine strange objects. The borders are worked in with
With all their shyness they are easily wooden needles, a separate needle for
tamed, if taken young. I heard of a each color."
tame one which had so much curiosity It is no wonder the shawls are so
that it was always prying into bags, costly!" said Uncle Willie. "Three or
boxes, and bundles, or watching peo- four people working a year would put
ple at their work." a good deal of work into one shawl."
The Chamois and Prong-horns But work is cheap in that coun-
fare pretty nearly alike for tails," said try," said Cousin Kate, and the rea-
Fred, but the white about them son why the shawls cost so much is
comes in different places, and the that those who carry on the business
Chamois' horns stand up straight in have to pay heavy taxes all the way
front and bend back at the tops." through, from the buying of the wool
"The Chamois' body has not so to the selling of the shawl."
square a look behind as the Spring-
bok's," said Uncle Willie.
THE MOUNTAIN SHEEP.
THERE 't is! cried Tiptoes."
THE CASHMERE GOAT. There's his ear in that big horn! "
THE Cashmere Goat's horns don't Tiptoes had been busying himself in
stand up very straight from his head," drawing his finger along the curling
said Fred. They start together, horn of the Mountain Sheep, and had
and then stand out wide apart." at last spied its ear, peeping out at
So that is the Goat which gives you the centre.
the hair for your cashmere shawls," The smallest tail yet," said Fred,
said Uncle Willie. and the largest horns."
He seems to have plenty of it," That does n't look like a sheep,"
said Fred. said Nannie.
"He needs to," said Cousin Kate. "No," said Fred, "it looks more
"I was reading the other day that like a goat."
it takes ten goats to furnish material That is a wild sheep," said Uncle
for one shawl a yard and a half Willie. "Wild sheep and wild goats
square. But it is the inner coat only look so much alike that you can
which is used. The inner coat is hardly tell one from the other, except
finer and softer and woollier than that the sheep have very large horns
the outside one. and no beard. Both are active, spring-
The Goat himself is a native of the ing, climbing creatures, though the
mountains of Thibet, but the shawls goat is bolder and stronger and swifter
are made in Cashmere. There are than the sheep. He leaps from rock








16 HOLLOW-HORNED RUMINANTS.

to rock like a Chamois, dashes him- THE SHEEP,
self against the face of a precipice, "No," said Uncle Willie, "if we
alights on narrow ledges, or some- want to see wool we must look at that
times stands on the tiptop of a high common Sheep, in the last picture."
rock with all his four hoofs gathered Our common sheep are not much
together upon the point of the peak. like the wild ones," said Fred. In-
Goats cannot be kept in flocks, like stead of being bold and active, they
sheep. They are always in motion, are timid and lazy."
always wanting to climb; even tame Because they are taken so much
goats will climb when they can." care of," said Cousin Kate. The
Tame goats are curious, peeping, wild ones have to look out for them-
prying creatures," said Cousin Kate, selves. This makes them strong and
"but they sometimes become much daring. The same thing holds true
attached to their owners." of boys and girls. Get for them
"Robinson Crusoe's goat, for in- everything they need, let them do
stance," said Fred. nothing for themselves, learn nothing
Sheep and goats are found in al- for themselves, and they would n't be
most all countries," said Uncle Willie; good for much, would they ? "
" but to find our big-horned friend in We should n't even have any wool
the picture you will have to go West, to give people! said Nannie.
to the Rocky Mountains. They climb "I wonder," said Fred, "if we
far up on the highest and craggiest should follow our leader like sheep,
places, places which no man can and all jump over the same place in
reach,- eating what patches of grass the fence! I have heard of a hundred
can be found among the rocks, but sheep going one after the other over
they like also to roam in the valleys, a high steep bank."
where feed is more plentiful. If a I read a funny story of sheep fol-
man goes towards them, they sound lowing their leader," said' Cousin
their warning whistle and are out of Kate. A flock of sheep in being
sight in a twinkling. driven through a city ran up a street
When wild sheep are suddenly in which was an old street-sweeper.
-attacked, they show fight. The flock He tried to turn them back with his
forms itself into a wedge-shaped com- broom. The head one,instead of turn-
pany, with an old ram in front. In ing, leaped over the street-sweeper.
fighting they bend their knees and This so startled the old man that he
charge suddenly upon the enemy. crouched down and held his broom
The female big-horn has much I above his head with both hands, and
smaller horns than the male. In the whole flock went over him."
some breeds of sheep the female has In some parts of the world," said
no horns, but goats, whether wild or Uncle Willie, "this following-the-
tame, male or female, all have horns." leader instinct in sheep is turned to
The wool of the Mountain Sheep account. A shepherd trains a few of
is not very woolly," said Cousin Kate. his very tame sheep to follow him, and




















S0- -.-- -. -- T' CASHMERE GOAT.
Anteopt. Uwh.or.e. dI















", ,n ,0,J'. SH EEP ., o .

1 NsAot . .-OKy M..
- w ,,-, ,] --m-om nn s Lit-i- .









IIOLLOW-HIORNED RUMINANTS. 17

the others follow them, so that instead her and found her dear little lamb
of driving his flock he leads them, way down among some rocks, where it
which I think is much the prettier fell down, and the man got it for her."
way." Sheep are sociable animals," said
"I have read," said Cousin Kate, Uncle Willie. They like each other's
"that no matter how large the flock, company. No matter how much room
the same sheep will always be found there is in a pasture, the sheep feed-
together. Sheep are called stupid, but ing there will be huddled together in
it seems that they know enough to one spot. If a storm is coming on
know each other." they huddle still closer."
They are not so stupid but that "And sometimes those that are
they can find their way home, even away off among the mountains get
from long distances," said Uncle buried in the snow," said Fred. I
Willie. Let me tell you a sheep read in a book about it."
story. A sheep was bought and then And then do they freeze ? asked
driven a hundred miles across the Nannie."
country. Afterwards she had a lamb. No," said Fred, the warmth of
She took that lamb and went all the their bodies melts the snow, so that
way home with it." there 's room made for them to move
"In her mouth ?" asked Nannie. about some. They eat every bit of
0 no !" said Uncle Willie, it the grass under there, and sometimes
walked. They were heard of at vari- eat the wool off each other's backs."
ous places along the way, the sheep And then what do they do?"
hurrying the lamb forward with im- asked Nannie.
patient bleatings, and always taking Then they die, unless the shep-
the direct road." herd finds them. After a big snow-
Sheep show strong affection for storm, the shepherd goes about with a
their lambs," said Cousin Kate. "1 long pole, trying the drifts ; very often
read a story of a sheep which stayed his dogs help him find the right
with her dead lamb until its body be- places."
gan to decay, a period of two weeks. "Sometimes sheep die from too
After that she went to it every morn- much sunshine," said Cousin Kate.
ing as long as there was a vestige of Too much sunshine causes a drought,
it left, lamenting each time by utter- which dries up the grass. The papers
ing a few mournful bleats." state that the recent drought in Cali-
Aunt Hattie told me a lamb fornia occasioned the death of two
story said Nannie. Once, when million five hundred thousand sheep."
there was a man walking along, a Why, I did n't know there were
sheep kept coming up to him and go- so many sheep in the whole country! "
ing away again, just like a dog when said Fred. Were there any left ?"
he wants somebody to do something Yes, about half as many left,"
for him, only instead of barking she said Cousin Kate; and California is
bleated. At last the man went with not our only sheep-raising State, you









18 HOLLOW-HORNED RUMINANTS.

know. There are about thirty-six mil- hosts of wild pigeons move through
lions of them in the whole country. the air in almost endless processions
They give us one hundred and fifty- to find food. Calling to mind the
five million pounds of wool a year, Waders, we remember that the stork
and from foreign countries we get and crane set forth on their airy
about seventeeen and a half million caravan, 'high over seas flying, and
pounds. It takes a great deal of wool o'er land,' and that others of their
to make woollen clothes and woollen family, rails, plover, woodcock, flit
carpets enough for all of us, to say up and down the country, from lake
nothing of the mutton and sheepskin to lake, or along the margins of sea
which are used. We depend upon and river -to find food. The Birds
sheep, you see, as well as upon cattle." of Prey mount aloft, circle in air,
"It has always been so," said survey with their telescopic eyes a
Uncle Willie. In those early days wide extent of land or of ocean--
we spoke of just now men reckoned sometimes wandering far from their
their wealth not only by their herds craggy nests -to find food.
but by their flocks, and the chief oc- "The Cat Family, with stealthy step,
cupation of women was spinning and creep, and skulk, and hide, and watch
weaving the wool." to find food. The Ruminants are
Have you noticed, children," forever roaming over the face of the
asked Cousin Kate, "that nearly earth, scaling mountains or scouring
all these different kinds of Ruminants the plains- to find food. With us
go in flocks or herds ? people, you know, it is different.
"And they are always roving from We must have food, but we want
place to place," said Uncle Willie. other things. We want houses,
"To be sure, they are obliged to, clothes, furniture, pictures, music,
in order to get their food. Getting books, schools, churches. So you see
food is about the only business of that we have all the needs of animals,
their lives." and higher ones beside."
"This seems to be true of most But to satisfy our needs we de-
wild creatures," said Cousin Kate. pend very much upon the animals,"
Let us recall those we have been said Uncle Willie. Suppose we
speaking of and see if it is not so. think over all these six kinds we
Numbers of the Swimmers, you know, have been looking at, and find how
ducks, geese, and other wild fowl, many are helpful to man, how many
leave their Northern homes, fly thou- are hurtful to man, and how many
sands of miles to the South, spreading do him neither good nor harm."
themselves far and wide along lakes, And after that," said Cousin
rivers, and sea-coasts to find food. Kate, "let us try to think how many
When speaking of the Scratchers, of these helped to build this house,
it was interesting to hear how wild and furnish it, and stock it with
turkeys fly over broad rivers, and provisions."




















































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PRANG'S

NATURAL HISTORY SERIES

FOR CHILDREN.
CLASSIFICATION BY
N. A. CAIkINS,
Superintendent of Primary BShools in New York City,
AND TEXT BY
MRS. A. M. DIAZ,
The Author of The Wic ha Henry Letters," etc.

This Series of Juveniles consists of a number of volumes treating of the
habits and peculiar characteristics of Birds and Quadrupeds in a manner
interesting to children.
The works already published in this Series are as follows:-

Swimming Birds, Birds of Prey,
With Thirteen Colored Illustrations. With Thirteen Colored Illustrations.

Wading Birds, Cat Family,
With Thirteen Colored Illustrations. With Thirteen Colored Illustrations.

Scratching Birds, Cow Family,
or Gallinaceous Birds, or ollolow-hrned Ruminants,
With Thirteen Colored Illustrations. With Thirteen Colored Illustrations.


PRICE OF EACH WORK FIFTY CENTS.

L. PRANG & CO., Publishers, Boston.




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