The pictorial museum of sport and adventure


Material Information

The pictorial museum of sport and adventure being a record of deeds of daring and marvellous escapes, by field and flood ; with an account of various countries of the world and their inhabitants, the whole forming a compendium of natural history
Physical Description:
508 p., 8 leaves of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 25 cm.
Frederick Warne and Co ( Publisher )
Butler and Tanner ( Printer )
Selwood Printing Works ( Printer )
Frederick Warne & Co.
Place of Publication:
London ;
New York
Butler & Tanner ; Selwood Printing Works
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Adventure and adventurers -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Sports -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Hunting -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Animals -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Whaling -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1880
novel   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
United States -- New York -- New York
England -- Frome


General Note:
Date of publication from inscription.
General Note:
Added t.p., frontispiece and plates printed in colors.
Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 002224461
notis - ALG4725
oclc - 62121056
System ID:

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THE DREADED MAN-EATER .................... 7 OYSTERS AND OYSTER BEDS ................... 212
SEALS AND SALMON ............................. IO CROCODILE TALES ................................ 217
THE BROWN BEAR ................................ 12 THE EAGLE FAMILY .............................. 219
SKATES AND LAMPREYS......................... 17 RAFTING ON THE TIGRIS ...................... 222
HUNTING THE RHINOCEROS ..................... 20 DOG STORIES ....................................... 225
FISH-HAWKS AND THEIR NESTS ............... 22 RAILWAY TO THE CLOUDS....................... 229
MY FIRST STAG .............................. 25 ELEPHANT STORIES .............................. 232
GALLANT ATTACK ON A SHARK ............... 30 THE KANGAROO ............................... 236
A DAY'S HUNT WITH THE MASSARAS......... 32 ABOUT SPONGES ..................................... 238
INDIAN TRAINING-SCHOOLS ..................... 35 RAT STORIES .................................. 241
THE MUSK-RAT ............................... 40 AMONGST THE GRIZZLIES ...................... 246
THE PRONG-HORNED ANTELOPE... ............ 42 HAMBURG MARKET-WOMEN..................... 248
THE BLACK BEAR ............................... 44 CAUGHT BY THE ARM ............................. 250
FOOTLESS FISHES.................................. 51 AMONG THE KURDS ............................. 252
THE MARQUESAN ISLANDERS .................. 56 CURIOUS BIRDS'-NESTS ........................... 255
MUSTERING CATTLE IN THE BUSH ............ 58 SNAPPING-TURTLES............................. 259
THE FRIGATE-BIRD................................. 63 EAGLE STORIES .............................. 264
HUNTING THE MOOSE ...................... 65 THE ICE-CARRIER'S STORY ..................... 270
THE HERO OF MONT BLANC..................... 70 ENCOUNTER WITH A COBRA .................... 273
THE STURGEON FISHERIES ..................... 75 THE JAPANESE................... ............ 274
MY FIRST LION HUNT ........................ 76 THE CATTLE-BUYER'S YARN.................... 278
A BRAVE WOMAN ................................. 78 A NAVAL HERO ... ............................. 285
THE GORILLA ..................................... 81 AFRICAN SUPERSTITIONS ........................ 287
THE HORNBILL FAMILY ...................... 86 INCIDENTS OF FOREST LIFE ................... 291
THE ROYAL ELEPHANT-HUNTERS ............ 88 THE ZEBRA ......... ......... .................. 296
HUNTING FOR MY HORSES ..................... 93 IN A CYCLONE ............................. .... 298
ADVENTURE WITH A SEAL ..................... 96 A NEW PLAGUE ... .................... ......... 300
ADVENTURE WITH A GRIZZLY .................. 98 HUNTING THE CHAMOIS ........................ 304
SHARKS AND THEIR PILOTS ................... 102 THE MOORS OF MOROCCO ...................... 308
THE CIRCASSIANS ......................... ..1.... I04 A HUNTER'S ELYSIUM ............................. 313
A HOVELLING JOB .......................... ... 107 TREED BY A GRIZZLY ...... ................ ..... 3 317
AN INTREPID TRAVELLER......................... 113 CREMATION OF THE QUEEN OF SIAM ...... 319
THE GOAT .... ....... ......................... 122 IN THE FLOWERY LAND.......................... 321
CHINESE GORDON ...........................1..... I24 THE STRIPE OF WHITE HAIR .................. 324
"THE MYSTERIOUS SHOT..........I............... 130 THE BRETONS .............................. 326
THE HONEY-BIRD ........................ ... 135 THE BEAVER FAMILY.............................. 328
THE TYRANT OF THE LAKE ..................... 137 ROBBING A GENERAL ............................ 333
THE MALAGASY ............................... 39 THE HUNTING LEOPARD ..................... 336
ESCAPE FROM AN ELEPHANT .................. 142 THE WHITE BEAR .. ........................ ....... 338
OUR POOR RELATIONS .......................... 145 THE TURTLE FISHERY ............ ............ 340
THE PIONEERS OF THE FAR WEST .......... 152 MOUND-MAKING BIRDS ........................... 343
THE MACKEREL FAMILY ........................ 156 THE STOLEN STEAMSHIP ........................ 346
MICHAELMAS GEESE ........................... 159 REBECCAISM IN WALES ......................... 351
POLAND AND THE POLES ........................ 164 JEFFERSON DAVIS .......................... 353
A RIDE WITH THE MAIL .................... 166 LIONESS AND CUBS ................................. 355
THE PERCH FAMILY ............................00 168 THE HUDSON RIVER NIGHT-BOAT ........... 358
A BALLOON VOYAGE .......................... 72 THE BALOLO FESTIVAL ........................ 3 360
TOWED BY A WHALE .......................... 179 THE MAORIES ..............................*...... 364
ADVENTURES IN SOUTH AFRICA ............... 184 PORPOISE SHOOTING ....... ........... ...... 367
THE RACOON ....................................... I92 INCIDENTS OF TRAVEL IN THE ANDES ...... 368
CHASE OF THE BISON ........................... 194 LIFE IN ABYSSINIA............................... 371
LUCKY AUSTRALIANS ............................. 199 THE TIGER ............ ...................... 374
THE STORY OF THE PARACHUTE ............... 201 A PRIVATEERSMAN'S LoG .................. 377
THE TROUT AND THE CHAR .. ................ 203 MOONLIGHT MARAUDERS ....................... 381
THE POLAR BEAR ...........................206 THE KING OF MISERS ........................... 385


AN ADVENTURE IN SIBERIA............. PAGE 388 WADING BIRDS............. ............ PAGE 455
LEOPARDS AND PANTHERS ..................... 393 A STRUGGLE WITH A TIGER................... 462
THUROT'S INVASION ......................;....... 397 A LEAP FOR LIFE ............................ 403
THE SWORDFISH ............................ ... 400 THE QUAIL ............................... .... 465
BEAUTIFUL BIRDS .............................. 402 THE PILLAR OF PROVIDENCE .................. 469
ON A COFFEE PLANTATION ..................... 406 OUR FEATHERED SONGSTERS .................471
THE CROCODILE ......... .......................... 4 A REMARKABLE DREAM ...... ................475
A LONDON OPIUM-DEN ......................... 412 UP IN A BALLOON ............................ 478
THE VULTURE................................... 415 ABOUT-SHIP ...........**............*******. 485
ADVENTURES WITH LIONS .................... 418 THE OSPREY ....................................488
RATTLESNAKES AND VIPERS..................... 423 OUT IN THE SNOW ...........................490
A TERRIBLE HERO ............................... 427 THE PATAGONIAN CAVY ........................494
A VISITATION OF LOCUSTS........................ 432 HAUNTS OF THE DOTTEREL .................. 496
THE BARBER OF BAGDAD ........................ 435 THE SPOILS OF WAR ....... ..................499
THOUGHTS ON A CRAB ......................... 437 BEAUTIFUL SWITZERLAND .................501
MAJOR PINTO IN AFRICA ..................... 440 YOUNG FOXES.................... 504
THE OCTOPUS, OR CUTTLE-FISH .............. 446 IN PERIL ON THE CLIFFS .................... 506
DRIFTED AWAY ..... ....................... 40 TAIL-PIECES................. 50


HEAD OF AFRICAN LION, BY SIR E. LAND- BEAR AND PREY ...........................PAGE 46
SEER. ......................................(V ette.) SEA HORSES AND PIPE-FISH..................... 54
CRANES, HERONS, AND SPOONBILL (Frontispiece) MARABOUS .... ....211
THE RHINOCEROS .........................PAGE 20 THE SECRETARY BIRD..... ..................34.
HERONS ... ..... ........................... .... 455


S" 313 IN RENSLU R. 5


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T HE fox is an which secrete a peculiarly offensive
San im a l so w ell sm ell. It n eith er b a rk s n o r h o w ls, b u t
"known that it requires has a short yelp. It is widely met with,
no lengthy description," and known as the Renard in France,
say the natural history Votpe in Italy, Rajosa in Spain, Ra oza in
i books, thus conveniently Portugal, Fuchs in Germany, Vos among
", clearing the ground of the Dutch, Raff among the Swedes, Res
Smu ch tro u b le so m e d iscu s- b y th e D a nes, T od b y th e S co tch ,
sion. It belongs to the dog Llwynog, female Liwynoges, by the Welsh,
family, but is distinguished etc. It breeds once a year, having
From dogs, wolves, jackals, a litter of usually four, five, or six blind
etc., by the lengthened and cubs in April, which attain full growth
iJ sharp-pointed muzzle and in a year and a-half, and are said to
round head, the erect and triangular live thirteen or fourteen years. They
ears, the form of the pupil (elliptical, or dig burrows for themselves in the earth,
almost linear by day, but round, or nearly or take possession of holes already ex-
so, in darkness), the long body, short, isting; the litters are brought forth
slender limbs, and elongated bushy tail underground, whereas those of the wolf
'or brush "), and the subcaudal glands are not. They feed on small quadrupeds,


birds, eggs, etc.; some, however, also at Balaclava: A charge of fox-hunters,
partly on fruits and other vegetable led by the famous fox-hunter, Lord
substances. Cardigan."
The common fox ( Vules vulgaris), the There is abundance of truth in this
"hairy animal," as its name implies, the remark, although the English love of
only species out of the twenty-four which sport and riding finds other outlets, and
is a native of Britain, is reddish-brown there is some fear lest the hard-riding
above, white beneath; the outside of the division may get too powerful for those
ears black, a black line extending from who love the traditional element of plea-
the inner angle of the eye to the mouth; sure induced by the patient persistency
the legs mostly black, the end of the and prompt pursuit of good hounds.
tail generally white. It is hardly correct Costly, exciting, bracing, national, the
perhaps to say this animal is so gene- sport of fox-hunting has drawn over its
rally known as to require little descrip- coarser features a veil of tradition and
tion; it is exclusively known, the subject, poetry. What a landscape and what
par excellence, of British sport," but for life to enjoy it, sweeps over the mind
which it would have long ago been as on merely reading a good hunting-song I
extinct in Britain as its more ferocious Beauty, motion, health flood with every
congeners, and, being such object of cadence, until the pale student feels as
sport, is an animal whose domestic hearty as Squire Western, and amid all
economy and habits are not to be too the stir and storm of the pursuit, grows
closely inquired into by outsiders, quite proud of the gallant fox, whose
It is said that in the recent epidemic motto is "Nil desperandum, and devil
of Anglo-mania in France, messieurs, take the hindmost."
knowing that Englishmen are fond of In spite of the disadvantage arising
le dogue, and also seeing mention of from modern changes in agriculture,
dogs in connection with the nearly the institution of fox-hunting shows no
extinct open hearth of old houses, have sign of decay, but rather of increase. In
forgotten that these dogs were simply the United Kingdom there are at least a
iron supports for blazing logs, and have hundred and seventy packs of fox-hounds
ordered from their ironmongers certain -a fact which, somewhat paradoxically,
"grype and grimlie beastes," which, promises but little towards the extinction
representing to them the guide, philoso- of thisfera natural. It would be a con-
pher, and friend" of many an English genial occupation for the fanciful
full-blooded squire, keep statuary sphinx- statistician to estimate the cost and to
like watch and ward on either side of present a clear idea of the extent of
their drawing-room door. Keen and these establishments; but it is a most
adaptable as was M. Taine, even his remarkable institution to be founded
criticisms on English manners and upon and supported by enthusiasm, and
customs could not fail occasionally to far more can be said in its favour than
cause unintended amusement. But one for the less truly called national sport
feels a great respect for the master- of horse-racing.
spirit which animated or rather nerved The sport certainly requires and pro-
M. Esquiros to go through practical motes daring courage and cool calcula-
experience of English fox-hunting, a tion in those who follow and appreciate
pursuit in which he recognizes that every it, while the peculiar combination of
one has a chance of breaking his neck circumstances that make a good run
at any moment. From this satisfactory happen sufficiently seldom as to enhance
premiss M. Esquiros deduces the real its delight. But when the first burst "
characterisation of the English charge is over, and the exciting and exhilarating


dash and ardour meets with some is not far off! Ha! they stop all at
check, then are brought out the qualities once: all silent, and no earth is open !
of all engaged. The fox himself pro- Listen! Now they are at him again!
bably tries some wily manoeuvre, Did you hear that hound catch him ?-
seemingly too coolly planned to be they overran the scent, and the fox had
prompted by despair, the young hounds lain down behind him. Now, Reynard,
get impatient or fussy, while their more look to yourself! How quick they all
experienced comrades examine the give their tongues !. The terriers, too,
ground with a mute deliberation, pro- are now yelping at him. How close
yoking also to inexperienced young Vengeance pursues !-how terribly she
bipeds, while the huntsman encourages presses !-it is just up with him! What
his pack to renewed exertions. Should a crash they make! the whole wood re-
the scent have failed utterly, he gives sounds! That turn was very short!
the hounds a little time while he thinks There !-now !-ay, now they have him I
of every possible circumstance that may Who-hoop! All is over! The gallant
give him a clue-the set of the wind, the fox, who has tried everything that
position of the nearest shelter, the craft could suggest or courage support
possible means whereby the fox has him to attempt, is vanquished by num-
thrown them off the scent, and a hundred bers. What is he against so many?
things besides. At last an idea will What is he amongst so many? Almost
perhaps occur to him; he instantly before the huntsman can secure his brush
blows his horn, calls or" lifts his hounds as a trophy, it is all that is left. Yet how
from that place, and by gradually tak- wonderful that he, smaller than any of
ing them round in widening circles, or the hounds, should so long have held
even abruptly in a fresh direction, the out against such an army, with their
whimper of some hound shows that superior intelligence and endurance,
scent is recovered, the others reply with which last faculty of the hounds may
a musical chorus, and the chase is re- be considered proved when they have
newed with additional excitement, been known "to run hard for ten hours
See," says Beckford, enthusiastically, before they came up with and killed the
"where the hounds bend towards yonder fox, and the sportsmen were either
furze brake! I wish he may have thrown out, or changed horses three
stopped there. Mind that old hound! times."
How he dashes o'er the furze! I think Many wonderful stories are told of
he winds him Hark, they halloo! Ay, "the wily one," whose name has become
there he goes! It is nearly over with a synonym for craft from the time of
him! Had the hounds caught view he Samson or Herod "the fox," and long
must have died! He will hardly reach before, and when they "spoiled the
the cover! See how they gain upon grapes," as they still do in France and
him at every stroke! It is an admirable Italy, where in the course of a season
race; yet the cover saves him. Now, two or three foxes will eat a few tons otf
be quiet, and he cannot escape us; we fine wine grapes, southern foxes being
have the wind of the hounds, and can- less carnivorous than British. Even the
not be better placed. How short he tales of which the fox is the hero in
runs! He is now in the strongest part legend and fable sound far less absurd
of the cover! What a crash! Every or grotesque than those concerning
hound is in, and every hound is running other animals. It is well known that
for him! That was a quick turn! Again, the fox is a very playful animal, but an
another He's put to his last shifts! amusing writer in Science-Gossip" eon-
Now Mischief is at his heels, and death tributes more gossip than science when


he tells how the facetious animal robbed know thou hast been eating honey.'
the bear of that which enriched not 'Yes, that I have,' said the fox. 'Where
himself but left him poor indeed. didst thou get it ?' said the bear. 'Well,
"Everybody knows how the bear I did so-and-so,' said the fox. 'Thou
lost his tail. North American Indians, art always ingenious,' said the bear;
Scandinavians, and Laplanders, tell the 'good would they be who would show
story much in the same way, though a me where I also might get myself a little
different tail-piece is appended to it by honey.' 'Oh, that is easy enough,'
the Lapps. According to their version, answered the fox; 'if thou wilt only
the bear once when taking his depre- follow me; I happen to know of another
datory rounds in the forest, met the fox bees' nest in the forest.'
with a fish, and asked where and how "But the fox thought only of a roguish
he had got it. 'I stuck my tail in a trick, as he never was anything else but
well down yonder where manfolk dwell, a rogue. He therefore led the bear to a
and let the fish hang upon it,' said the great log which lay cloven in the forest,
fox. 'Couldn't I get a fish to hang on with the wedge in. 'Stick thy tail in
my tail?' asked the bear. 'Thou here now,' said the fox; 'it is full of
couldst not endure what I endured,' bees, and here thou wilt find honey.'
answered the fox. 'Pooh,' growled the But when the bear had stuck his tail in,
bear, 'couldn't I endure what thou hast the fox was ready, and took out the
endured, old fox fool ? ' Yes, yes, then, wedge. Now thou hast them,' said the
grandfather,' said the fox, 'so thou also fox. 'Jerk now quick !' So the bear
mayest stick thy tail into the manfolk's jerked with such force that the tail, being
well and try, I will show thee the way! fixed fast in the log, was jerked off. And
So the fox led the bear to a well, and the bear has been tailless from that day.
said: 'See, grandfather, here is the "Another story in the same work also
well where I caught my fish.' So the contrasts the simplicity of the bear with
bear stuck his tail down into the well. the arch cunning of the fox. A bear
Meantime, the fox skulked about a little, and a fox once joined in a rye-field, and
while the bear's tail was in course of after shearing the rye, took it home to
being frozen fast. Then, when the right thresh. Then said the fox, 'Thou art
moment had arrived, he shouted: 'Come not good at striking so that the straw
hither, manfolk, with your bows and may lie still.' So the bear struck harder
spears. There is a bear here, sitting and harder, and the more he struck the
and polluting your well!' So the more hopped the straw.
people came running with their bows "When the threshing was over they
and spears; and when the bear saw had to winnow. Then said the fox,
them, he hobbled up with such haste 'Whether wilt thou have the great heap
that his tail broke short off; but the or the lesser heap?' 'I will have the
fox sprang into the forest, and crept great heap,' answered the bear. Yes,
under the root of a fir-tree, the fox winnowed, and when all was
"Some of the Swedish peasants have ready the bear took the chaff. But the
another version: The fox found a fox, poor fellow, he contented himself
bumble-bees' nest, and would fain get with taking the lesser heap."
the honey. So he stretched out his tail, It is very difficult successfully to en-
and all the bees settled upon it; he then trap foxes; they can sometimes manage
ran off with them, and afterwards turned to set off the trap and then quietly enjo
back and ate the honey. Rambling a the bait, first looking it all over and
little farther, he met the bear: 'Thou smelling it very carefully to find out if
art licking thy lips,' said the bear; 'I it is genuine. They are said to have


been seen drawing near waterfowl by led the dogs into a maze of boulders in
swimming slowly with a turf in the the bed of chasms from which they can
mouth, so as to remain concealed. One never extricate themselves and perish of
has been known which, on seeing a starvation. An American fox-of course
group of hares in a field, gradually as "smart" as a mere Britisher-has
limped towards them, keeping his head been known to escape by getting upon
down as if eating clover, till by a the rail of a fence and running along it
sudden rush he secured a more con- for some distance till the scent was lost.
genial meal. Foxes captured in hen- Another Yankee, on one occasion, ran
roosts have often been known to along the newly-laid rail of a railroad
simulate death, and to submit to being elevated above a swamp. One would
dragged about and very roughly treated, lead the hounds in full cry to the top of
till a chance of escape presented itself, a rather steep hill, where the scent was
If they are driven to their holes, when invariably lost; he simply laid down
these are surrounded by traps they will and pressed himself close, while the im-
not unfrequently rather starve for days petus of his pursuers bore them over the
and even weeks than risk the danger of hill to the farther descent, and while they
a sortie. were discovering they had lost the scent,
But it is of course when hunted that he was leisurely returning home. One
the cunning of the fox chiefly manifests would swing himself over a chasm into
itself. A thousand artful wiles are tried a hole by snapping at a twig; hounds
to break the scent or divert the hounds would do just the same-but miss the
on to a false track-perhaps returning twig. But a curious story is told of a
upon its own steps, and then jumping on Britisher, which is vouched for by Mr.
one side while the headlong hounds Gordon Stables. A fox in danger of
stream on, only to find themselves at being dislodged from a wood by the
fault just as Reynard has escaped; leap- hounds made his escape to a piece of
ing into a stream and emerging on the furze waste, where it had its hole and
opposite bank at a well-chosen spot; young ones. But two of the hounds,
mingling with sheep, or trying to scent having caught scent of him, pursued him
itself with any odorous substance it meets to his hiding-place. But Vulpes (not, in
to make the hounds believe themselves this case, surely, vulgaris) proved himself
mistaken. One untameable, who had quite equal to the occasion. His hos-
been brought up by hand with some pitable heart (even in face of such
cubs, with whom it played rather short- imminent danger) opened to his intrusive
temperedly, though with great vivacity, guests; he made them welcome, showed
and who had been turned adrift like them his cubs, and danced and gam-
Ishmael, used to be hunted season after bolled about with the visitors, till they
season. His particular cover for a long could no longer cherish the hostile feel-
time could never be "drawn with suc- ings which had thrust them upon his
cess, till one day he was routed out of domestic privacy, and the chivalrous
an old tree and gave his pursuers a most hypocrites drew off and kept the matter
tremendous run and escaped, but never a profound secret from their baffled
did he trust again to that old tree. companions.
Many a "tod" has been known to But foxes sometimes hunt on their own
plunge into the whirl of a Highland account. A clever writer in Bailey's
stream, and as the miniature maelstrom Magazine," gives experiences of the
swept him round to jump out on to a Irish fox. "For some reason or other
rock at the nick of time while the dogs the rabbit tribe proved wild and wary
are carried away and drowned; or has this morning, so I wandered wearily on


without firing a cartridge, and found scent and not by sight. I think they do
myself presently in a region of some- both, and my morning's experience con-
what rough and coarse grass and weeds, firms me in the idea, for if bold Reynard
Through the centre of this vast tract, had viewed the hare he was winding all
,many times larger than the famous Port along he would have killed it in little or
Meadows at Oxford, flowed a dark, no time, but he followed puss's gyrations
sullen stream, while the only divisions through the meadows, possibly since she
and boundaries were marked by great had left her farm at daybreak.
rhines, occasionally margined by a small That foxes hunt like cats, feign sleep,
bank. Coarse cattle were here feeding and baffle the most careful precautions of
in different herds and in great numbers, less-gifted animals is a matter of com-
and my attention was suddenly arrested monest observation. But that they
by the movements of one of these herds appreciate fish like cats may not be
who were slowly reconnoitring at a generally known; but a friend of mine
respectful distance what appeared to me told me that he had deported some
a sheep-dog of one of the colley breeds, foxes to an island about a mile from the
who was quartering the ground like a shore, and that they were to be seen
pointer, and evidently hunting something, regularly each tide pulling up the flotsam
judging by his pace and manoeuvres. and jetsam floated in by the waves, and
Now the young cattle stalk in, and what that they did not seem to lose condition
I imagined a dog, on finding himself on the strange diet."
pressed by the beasties, squats in an Is fox-hunting cruel ? The arguments
old drain, and more cattle seem pouring for and against this are many, but the
in and form all round, as if they had an discussion is generally of a tu quoque
evil design on the trouble of their morn- character. An enthusiast will argue:
ing meal. Whether he thought so or All animals must die at some time or
not I can't say, but very soon out of his other; every animal's death is more
lurking-place jumps a noble old dog-fox, or less painful. Between birth and
and I now understood his morning ma- death many and grievous are the ills
nceuvres, as a hare, with a hind leg animals bear-from most of which foxes,
broken by gun or trap, came hopping up so well able to hold their own, are
close to me. I ought to have shot it for exempt: the fox but for us would not
sheer humanity's sake, but the terror of exist at all; we give him a dozen or so
the law and its myrmidons was upon years of luxurious existence, for which
me, and I saw the poor tired beast stop- he provides for us an occasional hunt-
ping to watch and rest every sixty or besides, he likes it.
seventy yards. The cattle saw it too, The last argument is unanswerable,
and whether they wished to befriend the and pet-keeping objectors may save their
wounded hare or not, they certainly breath to prattle to their canaries and
drove off the fox, who could be seen song-birds, and rejoice in the occasional
slinking off discomfited and baulked of song of the heaven-aspiring lark as he
his prey. Now, 'tis said foxes hunt by flutters in his six-inch cage.

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ST H E R E A D E D A N A T E R ,

HEN driven by hunger, the they would not now be safe in their
tiger will boldly enter houses at night, and some of the outlying
l the villages, and seize hamlets would have been temporarily
the unsuspecting man, abandoned had the tigress lived much
woman, or child that longer. But this was to be her last
may cross his path. victim: though our chances of killing
"Once having acquired a her seemed still as remote as ever, a few
.taste for human flesh the more hours were to end her bloody
tiger will rashly risk his skin in endea- career.
vouring to gratify his appetite. Like a Next day, on the 15th of January, I
skilful general, he rapidly changes his determined upon a more organised plan
scene of operations, and swoops down of hunting her. I arranged that Bommay
where least expected. In his journal, Gouda and three trackers should go to
Major Sanderson records the devasta- Iyenpoor, at one end of her usual beat,
tion caused by a tigress, and the efforts whilst I remained at Morlay. In case of
for its capture, which at length were any one being killed near Iyenpoor the
successful:- men were to let me know immediately;
"When I pitched camp at Morlay, in and I supplied them with strychnine, and
September, 1873, to commence the ele- a gun charged with powder, as a safe-
phant kheddahs, the country-side was in guard in their jungle wanderings. The
a state of considerable alarm from the four men started early in the afternoon.
attacks of a man-eating tigress. This About an hour afterwards one of them
tigress's fits of man-eating seemed to be came running back, pouring with per-
intermittent, as, after killing three or spiration and covered with dust. I
four persons some months before, she feared some accident had happened
had not been heard of till about the until he found breath to say that the
time of my arrival at Morlay, when she party had met the tigress, and that she
killed two boys attending goats. I was then on Karraypoor Guddah, a
anticipated some trouble from her in our small hill two miles from camp. This
kheddah work, as it would be unsafe for hill rose to a height of about 200oo ft. out
one or two men to go alone through the of a level cultivated plain ; on three sides
jungles; but whether it was from the it was almost bare granite, a few bushes
disturbance caused by seven or eight and boulders being the only cover, and
hundred work-people, or other reasons, the country was open all round it. On
we heard nothing of her for some time. the east face there was a little more
During the next three months, this cover, and the main jungle was distant
savage creature carried off and devoured 500oo yards, but between it and the hill
several human beings, 'amongst them was open ground, so that the tigress was
being a woman who was crossing the in an isolated position.
street of the village late in the evening, I ordered a pad-elephant at once,
and a priest when quietly jogging along whilst I thought over the best plan for
on his bullock, to the little temple in the hunting her. Such a chance as getting
jungle. The death of the poor woman, her into a detached hill could hardly be
so close to her home, caused great con- hoped for again, and the present situa-
sternation; the villagers concluded that tion offered a fine opportunity ot extin-


guishing her. The only plans were to were going across open fields and saw
drive her out, or to watch for her return an object moving over the bare ground,
to the carcass. The first I saw would which they could not at first make out,
not do, as all the Morlay men-the only but presently discovered to be a tiger on
ones amongst the villagers who would the far side of, and partly hidden by, a
have been useful for this service, the bullock, which it was half dragging.
others were too terrified-were at their half carrying towards the hill. They
fields, and time would be lost in collect- immediately divined it to be the man-
ing them;, and though this might eater, and ran shouting towards her,
possibly have been effected, and the obliging her to drop the bullock at the
tigress have been driven out, as there foot of the hill, up which she sullenly


was no doubt she would flee readily trotted. One tracker then hastened to
"from a hunting-party, it would be impos- camp; the others remained to prevent
sible for one rifle to command the entire her returning to the bullock before I
east side of the hill, at any point of arrived.
which she might break. I therefore I need here hardly say, except for
decided to watch for her return to the the information of those who have had
carcass, and hastily securing a bottle of no experience of man-eating tigers, that
water and some bread, and an overcoat they never refuse a bullock or other
in case of night-watching, I started. prey, if such offers, and that when
On the way the tracker told me how opposed by man they give way at once.
the party had met the tigress. They Their tactics in attacking man may be


described in one word-surprise; and if I had drunk all the water in the bottle,
discovered in their attempt, they gene- whilst patient Bommay Gouda, who,
rally abandon it. The most confirmed being of good caste, could not drink
man-eaters never lose the innate fear from my bottle, had sat with his bare
with which all inferior animals regard back exposed to the grilling sun, watch-
human beings, and unless they can stalk ing without a movement. At this time
and catch an unwary cow-herd or wood- of the year-January-the change in
cutter in their own fashion, they are not temperature in Mysore, and, in fact, the
to be dreaded. When the tables are whole of India, between day and night,
turned on them they flee as readily as is very considerable, sometimes upwards
other tigers. of thirty degrees, and as the sun neared
When we got near the hill we left the horizon, the evening quickly became
the elephant and joined the trackers. chilly, but this disturbed Bommay Gouda
The only cover near the carcass was a no more than the heat in his imperturb-
large rock, but the wind was wrong for able watch. A couple of hares appeared
watching from that quarter. About from somewhere and gambolled in the
seventy yards away in the plain was one space between us and the hill, and a
solitary bush, not sufficiently large to peacock perched himself upon a rock,
hide a man; there was neither tree nor and with his spreading fan of purple and
other cover within a couple of hundred gold opened to the full, turned slowly
yards. The situation certainly presented round and round, courting the admira-
difficulties, and it was not easy to decide tion of a group of hens who pecked about,
what to do. At last I hit upon a plan, more intent upon their evening meal than
and sent the men to bring leafy branches the admiration of their vain swain. Satis-
and creepers; when these came we faction with himself, however, rendered
walked past the bush in a body, and the him oblivious to the want of homage in
branches were thrown on to make it his harem.
larger; at the same time Bommay We had been whispering quietly, as
Gouda and I hid behind it, the others we were out of earshot of the cover, and
going on in full view from the hill. By Bommay Gouda had just said, after a
this manoeuvre, should the tigress be glance at the sinking sun, that it was the
watching, she would not perceive that time, par excellence, for the tiger's return
we had concealed ourselves, to its prey, when a peahen, which had
We sat till evening. The sinking been hidden amongst boulders on the
sun threw a strong light from behind us hillside to our right, rose with a startling
upon the granite hill, whilst in the distance clamour. This signal, as well known as
the Billiga-rungun hills were bathed in unmistakable, made us glance through
purple light, deepening to blue in the the leafy screen, and there we saw the
gorges. The smoke of evening fires man-eater, a handsome but small tigress,
began to ascend from the small hamlet her colour doubly rich in the light of the
of Hebsoor away to our left, and a thick sinking sun, walk from behind a rock
white cloud of dust moving slowly along across the side of the hill, here a bare
the river bank towards the village sheet of blue granite, and come down-
marked the return homewards of the wards towards the carcass. She hailed
village herds. There would only be now and again to look far out into the
sufficient light to shoot at so long a plain behind us. Was the beast, dreaded
range as seventy yards for half-an-hour by thousands, hunted by us so long, and
or more, and I was beginning to fear which we have never even seen before,
the tigress might not return during day- the guilty midnight murderess, really
light. The afternoon had been hot, and before us?


I followed her with my rifle so gasps, and I settled her. The trackers
eagerly that Bommay Gouda whispered came up in great glee; they had seen
to me to let her get to the carcase before the tigress come over the summit of the
I fired. When she reached the bullock hill and enter the rocks on our side half
she stopped, and at the same instant I an hour before we saw her; they were
fired at her shoulder, broadside on, with in a large tamarind tree away in the
my express. Bommay Gouda could plain. On examining her we found that
contain himself no longer, and jumped she was in milk, which was the first
up before I could stop him; I did so intimation we had that she had a cub;
also, but could see no tigress! It was she was m the prime of life and condi-
extraordinary, certainly; we looked up tion, and had no lameness or apparent
the hillside, but she was not there. Was injury to account for her having taken to
she really a devil, as all believed, and man-killing.
had vanished in air? Just then up I may here say that we never killed
went a tail on the far side of the bullock her cub. It was heard calling to its
in a convulsive quiver-she had fallen mother for several nights around lyen-
exactly behind the carcass. I ran along poor, but we could not find it in the
the hillside to intercept her should she daytime, and it must have died of starva-
gain her feet; but it was all right, she tion, as had it lived we should have
was only opening her mouth in spasmodic encountered it."


SEALS, which a few years ago almost totally expelled the latter from
abounded along the north- this part of the coast. An old seal has
,west coast of Scotland, are been known to frequent a particular
now comparatively rare, and range of stake-nets for many years,
before long will be entirely escaping all attacks against him, and
banished to the undisturbed becoming so cunning and so impudent
and unfrequented rocks of that he will actually take the salmon out
the more northern islands, of the nets (every turn of which he
SThe salmon-fishers on the becomes thoroughly intimate with) before
coast wage a constant war against them, the face of the fisherman, and retiring
in consequence of the great damage with his ill-gotten booty, adds insult to
they do to their stake-nets, which are injury by coolly devouring it on some
constantly torn and injured by these adjoining point of rock or shoal, taking
powerful animals. Nor is the loss they good care, however, to keep out of reach
occasion to the salmon-fishers con- of rifle-ball or slug. Sometimes, how-
fined to the fish which they actually ever, he becomes entangled in the nets,
consume, or to the nets that they destroy, and is drowned but this seldom happens
for a seal hunting along the coast in the to a full-grown seal, who easily breaks
neighbourhood of the stake-nets keeps through the strongest twine if he can
the salmon in a constantly disturbed find no outlet. From the shore opposite
state, and drives the shoals of fish in the Cromarty I one day saw a large seal
deep water, where they are secure from swim into the stake-nets and take out a
the nets. There is consequently a con- salmon, with which he retired to a small
stant and deadly feud between the rock above the water, and there devoured
fisherman and the seals, which has it entirely in a very short space of time,


Sometimes, at high water and when and the most feasible points of attack, I
the river is swollen, a seal comes in got the men to row me out to the end
pursuit of salmon into the Findhorn, of the stake-net, where there was a
notwithstanding the smallness of the kind of platform of netting, on which I
stream and its rapidity. I was one day, stretched myself, with a bullet in one
in November, looking for wild ducks barrel and a cartridge in the other. I
near the river, when I was called by a then directed the men to row the boat
man who was at work near the water, away, as if they had left the nets. They
and who told me that some "muckle had scarcely gone three hundred yards
beast" was playing most extraordinary from me when I saw the seal, who had
tricks in the river. He could not tell been floating, apparently unconcerned,
me what beast it was, but only that it at some distance, swim quietly and fear-
was something "no that canny." After lessly up to the net. I had made a kind
waiting a short time, the riddle was of breastwork of old netting before me,
solved by the appearance of a good- which quite concealed me on the side
sized seal, into whose head I instantly from which he came. He approached
sent a cartridge, not having any balls the net, and began examining it, and
with me. carefully, to see if any fish were in it;
The seal immediately plunged and sometimes he was under and sometimes
splashed about in the water at a most above the water. I was much struck by
furious rate, and then began swimming his activity while underneath, where I
round and round in a circle, upon which I could most plainly see him, particularly as
gave him the other barrel, also loaded he twice dived almost below my station,
with one of Eley's cartridges, which and the water was clear and smooth as
quite settled the business, and he floated glass.
rapidly away down the stream. I sent I could not get a good shot at him
my retriever after him, but the dog being for some time; at last, however, he put
very young and not come to his full up his head at about fifteen or twenty
strength, was baffled by the weight of yards distance from me; and while he
the animal and the strength of the cur- was intent on watching the boat, which
rent, and could not land him; indeed, he was hovering about waiting to see the
was very near getting drowned himself, in result of my plan of attack, I fired at
consequence of his attempts to bring in him, sending the ball through his brain.
the seal, who was still struggling. I He instantly sank without a struggle,
called the dog away, and the seal im- and a perfect torrent of blood came up,
mediately sank. The next day I found making the water red for some feet
him dead on the shore of the bay with (as round the spot where he lay stretched
the man who skinned him expressed him- out at the bottom. The men immedi-
self) "twenty-three pellets of large hail ately rowed up, and taking me into the
in his craig." boat, we managed to bring him up with
Another day, in the month of July, a boat-hook to the surface of the water,
when shooting rabbits on the sandhills, and then, as he was too heavy to lift
a messenger came from the fisherman into the boat (his weight being 378 lbs.)
at the stake-nets, asking me to come in we put a rope round his flippers, and
that direction, as the "muckle sealgh" towed him ashore.
was swimming about, waiting for the A seal of this size is worth some
fish to be caught in the nets, in order to money, as independently of the value of
commence his devastation, his skin, the blubber (whichjies under the
I accordingly went to them, and hav- skin, like that of a whale) produces a
ing taken my observations of the locality, large quantity of excellent oil.



(Ursus Arctos).

EW animals are so uni- lacerated by an incensed British bear.
versally distributed as the Aristotle knew something about them.
bear, or more frequently "The bear," says he, "is an omnivorous
referred to in history, animal, and by the suppleness of its
legend, or fable. With body climbs trees and eats the fruits,
the exception of Africa and also legumes. It also devours honey,
and Australia, they are having first broken up the hives; crabs,
found throughout the too, and ants it eats, and also preys
world, adding terrors to Siberian wastes, upon flesh." The philosopher then
Scandinavian forests, and Rocky Moun- describes how the animal attacks the
tain recesses. Retreating from the stag, the boar, and even the bull. And
encroachments of man, it is a rough a latter-day observer, less classical per-
index of civilisation to find them still haps, testifies to the unchanging cha-
inhabiting the fair lands under Turkish racter of the bear's tastes and habits:
domination, while they have long been "The bear is the knowingest varmint for
extinct in the more settled countries, finding out a bee-tree in the world.
In the infancy of history, the laughter- They'll gnaw for a day together at the
loving Greeks, looking upon the celestial trunk, till they make a hole big enough
space surrounding the polar star with to get in their paws, and then they'll
awesome regard, called it the region of haul out honey, bees and all."
the bears, and its two principal con- Bears were to be found in Britain long
stellations afterwards came to be called after the Romans retired. Ray quotes
the great and little bears. The princi- authority tor the brown bear having
pal star in the great bear group was been one of the Welsh beasts of chase,
named by the Arabs Dubbhe or bear; and Pennant adduces the places which
and it is a fact worthy of remark, re- retained the name of Pennarth, or the
corded by historians, that the Iroquois Bear's Head, as evidence that it existed
tribe of Indians were found at the time in the Principality. In the History of
of the discovery of North America to be the Gordons," it is stated that one of
familiar with the constellation of the that family, so late as the year 1057, was
Great Bear, which they called Oquoari, directed by the king to carry three bears'
a word signifying bear. While the heads on his banner, as a reward for his
ancient historians often mention African valour in slaying a fierce bear in Scot-
bears-in the year B.C. 61, a hundred, land.
each led by a negro hunter, being ex- For many years it has been swept
hibited in the circus at Rome-yet the away from our islands so completely,
same luxurious and cruel Romans who that we find it imported for baiting, a
set so high a value on British oysters, sport in which our nobility, as well as
procured bears from Britain for purposes the commonalty of the olden time-nay,
far other than merely to enhance a even royalty itself-delighted. A bear-
general's trophy. Martial speaks of bait was one of the recreations offered
the horrible torture to which the male- to Elizabeth at Kenilworth, and in the
actor Laureolus was condemned-cru- Earl of Northumberland's Household
cified alive, with his naked body to be Book" we read of twenty shillings for

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his bear-ward: "Item. My lorde usith forest, and suddenly seizing the guileless
and accustomyth to gyfe yerly when his fair one in his fore-paws, hurried away
lordshippe is at home, to his bar-ward, with her to its den in the gloomy re-
when he comyth to my lorde in Cristmas cesses of the wood. But as one evil deed
with his lordshippe's beests, for makynge is but the seedling of many, so the bear
of his lordshippe pastime, the said xij. having lost his first state of innocency,
days xxs." In Southwark there was a turned a most notorious and peculiar
regular bear-garden that disputed popu- thief. Game and fruit disappeared
larity with the Globe and Swan theatres, mysteriously, and at last no herd was
on the same side of the water. Now, safe from the abduction of cattle, which,
however, so much do tastes alter (in unlike the other commodities, he re-
this instance certainly for the better), quired for his own use. 'The bear had
such barbarous sports are banished now overshot the mark; and the indig-
from the metropolis. nant populace, who, perhaps, had never
The firm support afforded by the large quite forgiven him for carrying off their
flat sole of the foot enables the bears most beautiful and amiable young
to rear themselves with comparative woman, and who had certainly been
facility on their hind feet, and this has annoyed at the loss of gameandfruit, now
been taken advantage of to teach the collected and gave chase, and between
animal to dance in an erect position. them ended the destroyer's existence.
The discipline put in force to produce But, wonder of wonders, the peasant's
the accomplishment, is said to be so daughter was found again, and, more
severe that it is never forgotten. marvellous still, soon after gave birth
It is only reasonable that an animal to a son, who from the most intimate
which has been exalted even among the domestic reason was called Bjorn (Bear).
stars should hold a distinguished posi- Stronger in body and mind than other
tion among those more or less brilliant men, he grew up a living testimony to
human constellations-reigning dynas- the reputation his forefathers (or rather
ties. Not only is the bear Russia's forbears) had earned: "The bear has
appropriate symbol, but he was the twelve men's wit, and six men's
originator, it is said, of a line of Danish strength." It was to be expected that
kings. For this we have the authority Ulf, the bear's grandson, a descendant
of Saxo Grammaticus, in the eleventh of such a gifted and remarkable sire
century, supported by Olaus Magnus, should attain some high rank in the
in the fifteenth. land; he became Jarl of Scania, and
Near a certain village was a lovely graciously asking the brother's consent,
spot, chosen by the younger members he took to wife Estrid, sister to the
of the community for the general play- Danish king, Knut the Rich. His
ground, where one day the lovely and sagacity saved the royal fleet, as well
amiable daughter of a rich peasant as the king himself, from destruction or
played with her companions. Whether capture by [the enemy; yet there wa.
the game had reached a point awaken- always a lack of cordiality between
ing jealousy or envious rivalry, or was them, which came to a head over a
still pursuing an innocent development, game of chess.
history or legend saith not; but joy was So great was the king's rage that,
soon turned into mourning by the rough- though Ulf fled to sanctuary in Lucius
and-ready attention of an uninvited church, he was murdered there before
guest. A bear, like his Syrian forbears the altar by an emissary of the king. Ac-
who waited upon the corners of the cording to Pennant, Ulva, one of the
prophet, rushed out of the neighboring Hebrides, was named after this son of a


bear. But no good came to the royal Unwieldy as seems the brown bear,
murderer of this action, for Swen the and habitually avoiding human beings,
son of his victim succeeded to the yet, when roused on behalf of itself or
Danish throne after the death of Knut offspring, it is terrible to face. So
the Rich. But some irreverent people quick and unexpected are its movements
insinuate that this ancestor of a dynasty that it will baffle the aim of any but an
was a robber in bear skin. experienced huntsman; while when
The Laplanders hold the bear in wounded anywhere but in heart or brain
great reverence, calling him "the Dog its tenacity of life enables it to fight
of God," avoiding, however, any irreve- with seemingly increasing energy, and
rent use of that appellation, lest it should many a hunter has received a mortal
avenge itself on their flocks. Reve- wound by incautiously approaching an
renced in life, he is utilised after death, apparently dead carcass. It displays
What the cow is to us, so is the brown wonderful dexterity in warding off and
bear to these northern wanderers. He aiming blows, and if a chance occurs, it
seems to give them the necessaries and will seize its adversary round the body,
even the comforts of life. The skin and' seek to overcome the enemy by
forms their beds and their coverlets, squeezing out his life. With terrible
bonnets for their heads, gloves for their cunning it will aim its tremendous blows
hands, and collars for their dogs, while upon the head of the hunter, and fearful
an overall made of it, and drawn over is the effect of one, so powerful is the
the soles of their shoes, prevents them limb independently of the long sharp
from slipping on the ice. The flesh and claws. A single blow will entirely
fat are their dainties. Of the intestines scalp the head; but, strange to say,
they make masks or covers for their the bear having stunned his victim, will
faces, to protect them from the glare of use his paws no longer, but only the
the sun in the spring, and use them as a teeth, biting him here and there, and if
substitute for glass, by extending them under the awful circumstances the
over their windows. Even the shoulder- wounded man can sham death, the bear
blades are said to be put in requisition will most probably leave him.
for cutting grass. But bears are naturally very playful,
The reverence of northern people for and many droll stories are told of
the bear is a great bar to the acquisition tamed specimens, and, what is more
of facts connected with the living animal, remarkable, of wild ones who have
The Lapps observe many superstitious been said to be discovered playing with
ceremonies at the death of "the old children, submitting graciously to their
man with the fur cloak," as they call unceremonious liveliness, and quietly
him, with awe, begging his pardon for leaving them when adults appear on
taking his life, and thus putting his the scene.
inner self to the inconvenience of sum- The most curious provision of nature
mary transmigration. In certain dis- in regard to bears is perhaps to be
tricts the knowledge is said to be yet found in their habit of hybernation. It
retained of the olden sagas that could is believed by Scandinavian peasants
transform human beings into wolves that they make two days' trial of their
and bears, though they are obliged to retreat before finally deciding upon it.
retake the human form at the witching With most scrupulous care they prepare
hour" till cock-crow. The Norwegians their soft and warm bed, thickly cover-
share a little of the Lapp respect for the ing the floor with dried leaves and
bear, calling him by some such title as young twigs of pine. At the end of
"grandfather," or twelve-men-strong." his five months' sleep the bear is as fat


as ever; and experienced hunters some- them; one has been known, rearing.
times have to disturb it rather roughly upon his hind legs, to carry a man,
in its heavy sleep before it will move whose toes only occasionally touched
sufficiently to present a vital part to the ground, about 200 feet; while
their rifle. It is perhaps owing to being another carried in his fore-paws a horse
occasionally disturbed in his winter (Norwegian, and, therefore, smaller
sleep that some report him as being out of than English) along a timber-log cross-
condition when the spring returns. The ing a rushing stream.
Norwegians say that he and the weather In 1872, two bears came upon a
turn themselves on the other side on grazing herd of cattle. They have
January 12th, mid-winter day. been known to kill cattle by repeated
The brown bear will grow to six feet blows upon the head; and mutilated
or more in length, and three feet in cows have been found udderless by the
height, and shares with his foreign milkmaid. As one was about to seize
relations a most accommodating appe- a heifer a little apart fiom the rest, a
tite-grass, berries, tender shoots of two years' ox suddenly charged him
shrubs, ants, honeycomb, and larva- with an awful bellow, and with one
and though able to thrive as a strict thrust of the horn ripped him open from
vegetarian, once having tasted blood, the stomach to the neck. A young
he will risk his life to gratify his carni- herd-boy witnessing the occurrence,
vorous appetite, and doubtless knows hastily collected and drove home the
where have gone a fair proportion of cattle. The dairymaid, arming herself
the six or seven thousand animals with an axe and staff, accompanied the
annually destroyed in Sweden alone, lad back to the scene of conflict, where
In a day and night a bear can eat the they found the wounded bear lying
most of a young heifer. They are very dead, the other, after almost covering
agile, and remarkably strong, running him with moss, having retired.
quicker than a man, climbing trees The dairymaid was soon the richer
with facility, swimming with speed, by the valiantly-won prize-a warm
though the "fur-cloak" soon fatigues shaggy coat.

"" .1 I




A-NY species of skates, movements are undulatory, or sliding,
or rays, are natives of and performed by flapping, more or
Sour coasts. The sin- less violent, of their wing-like fins, the
gular depression of long slender tail being lashed from side
these fish, the wing-like to side. The skates produce their young
expansion of their side- in horny cases, much resembling those of
Sfins, or pectorals, their the dog-fish, but broader in proportion,
SV long and spiny tails, and with thicker and shorter filaments.
their peaked snout, the They breed in the spring and summer,
position of the eyes and temporal orifices and are consequently in the best con-
on the top of the head, and of the mouth, edition during the winter, and the flaky
nostrils, and gills, orifices on the under flesh of various parts is then very deli-
surface, render them at once distinct from cate. The females of the skates, or rays,
all other fishes. In these skates, or rays, of most common occurrence, are called
the internal surface of both the upper by the fishermen maids; as the skate-
and lower jaws are covered with a close maid, the thornback-maid, etc.
array of teeth, like a tesselated pavement; Of the species most frequently met with,.
in some species these teeth are flat or we may notice the long-nosed skate (Raia,
rounded, to act as crushers; in others, chagrinea), a large species, and at once.
they are sharp and conical; and what is distinguishable by its long, slender, taper-
singular, the males of some species have ing snout. In the old males the teeth are,
the teeth sharp, the females rounded or very sharp, but flat in the females. Be-
flat, and the young of both sexes flat sides this, there is the true skate (Raia
teeth. Few fish are more voracious than batis), also called the blue or grey skate.
these tenants of the muddy or sandy bed In this species both sexes when adult
of the sea; they feed on crustacea and have sharp teeth. It is common on our
shell-fish, crushing them with ease; their coast.


A species, termed the sharp-nosed ray, a stone, by means of its sucking mouth,
orwhite skate (Raia oxyrhynchus), is taken that the water is received in through the
in abundance, and great numbers are orifices on one side, traverses the internal
sold at Plymouth to the French fisher- apparatus, and is discharged from the
men for their markets during Lent, as it orifices of the opposite side, a regular
is in high estimation as an article of food. succession of currents being maintained.
Its nose is not so much elongated as it is The hinder caudal portion of the body
sharp and pointed. The male has sharp only is furnished with a continuous fin
teeth, and the skin of the upper surface is above and below.
spiny. The lamprey, or sea lamprey (Petromy-
The homelyn, or spotted ray (Raia zon marines), is widely spread in the seas
maculata), is another common species on of Europe and America. It exists in the
our coast, and is to be seen in consider- Mediterranean, as well as in the colder
able abundance in the London markets. latitudes, and is everywhere migratory in
The upper surface is variously spotted. its habits, ascending the rivers in the
The thornback (Raia clavata) is also spring or summer, according to the
among the most frequent species in our advance of the warmer season in their
seas, and is taken in great numbers for countries. Formerly great numbers
the markets, where the female is sold as worked their way up the Thames to a
the maid. This species, like the rays in considerable distance, in order to de-
general, is in perfection in winter, but is posit their roe, but few are now taken.
chiefly taken during the spring, when it In the Severn, there is a periodical influx
leaves the deep sea for the shallower of these fishes in considerable numbers,
parts in order to deposit its roe. Its fins during the months of April and May, and
are very ample, and the upper surface is also in various rivers which open into the
studded with recurved conical spines, sea, along our southern coast. Many of
The teeth of the two sexes differ very the Scottish rivers are also visited, but
decidedly. Like the rest of its tribe, this not until summer has set in. They re-
species preys on crustacea, shelled mol- main in the fresh water about two months,
lusks, soles, the sand-lance, and other making furrows in the bed, not by boring
ground fish. Some other species of this like the salmon, but by fixing their sucker
group are classed among British fishes, upon the stones, and removing them
but they are rare. from their places, and at this work they
Among the cartilaginous fishes with assiduously labour. Into these furrows
fixed gills are to be placed those eel-like the eggs are deposited, and covered up.
slimy fishes, termed lampreys and lam- The progressive motion of the lamprey
perns, which form a distinct family (Pe- in the water is undulatory, like that of an
tromyzidae). These singular creatures have eel, but from time to time it seeks to moor
the lips thick, flexible, and adapted for itself to any fixed Wobject that offers and
forming- a circular sucker continued then darts again onwards. With regard
around the mouth. The mouth is also to its food, soft animal substances, and
circular, and armed with hard tooth-like even fish, constitute its nutriment. It
processes; it is usually concealed by the fixes on its prey like a leech, and rasps
lips, which cover it when not acting as a away with its hard teeth till it deeply
sucker. On each side of the neck are penetrates. When full grown, this species
seven branchial orifices, opening into attains to the length of twenty-five or
branchial cells. The respiratory ap- twenty-six inches.
paratus of the lamprey engaged the The lamprey has from early times
attention of Sir E. Home, and it would been regarded a delicacy for the table;
appear that when the lamprey clings to the potted lampreys of Worcester are


celebrated Henry I., surnamed the Along the coasts of Europe, including
Beauclerk, who, as Rapin says, was ex- -that of our own island, a singulat- slender
ceedingly regular in his diet, and "never fish, about twelve inches long, is to be
known to be guilty of any excess in found, which Linnaeus regarded as be-
eating or drinking," excepting on the oc- longing to the class of worms. It is,
casion which fatally terminated, brought indeed, one of the lowest in structural
on his illness, as it is said, by partaking organization among the fishes, its verte-
too immoderately of a dish of lampreys, bral column being merely a soft flexible
a fish of which he was very fond. tube; it has no eyes, its mouth is circular,
The colour of the sea-lamprey is olive- with eight feelers or
brown, marbled with a dark green and barbules, and there is
dusky brown. one hooked tooth on
There is a smaller species, termed the the palate, and two
river lamprey, or lampern (Petromyzon rows of teeth are on
fluviatilis), about twelve or fourteen inches each side of the tongue.
in length, of a bluish colour above, Its skin, which is
i Mouth of the .
passing into white beneath, which is a Lamprey. smooth, is most copi-
permanent resident in many of our rivers, ously lubricated with a
and those of Scotland and Ireland. For- slimy gelatinous secretion, poured out
merely this fish was taken in enormous from two rows of glands, extending along
quantities in the Thames, as many as the under surface. The head is blunt, with
a million or twelve hundred thousand only one spiracle connected with the in-
having been captured in a single year. terior of the mouth; on each side of the
At present, the lampern is far less plen- body is an orifice, whence proceeds a
tiful in the Thames than formerly. In membranous tube, leading to 'the respi-
the Severn, the Dee, the Mersey, etc., it ratory apparatus on its own side. This
still abounds. singular fish is called -the myxine, or
This species breeds in May, and is in glutinous hag (Gastrobranchus cecus). It
the best condition from October to March, is a deadly foe to fish, into the bodies of
during which period only its fishing is which it enters, in some way not under-
permitted. Cuvier states that it is com- stood, and devours the whole of the flesh.
mon in the fresh waters of the continent. Nilsson says that several have been
Like the sea-lamprey, the lampern is in found in the body of a single haddock,
repute as a delicacy, which was all eaten away internally.
A distinct species of lampern, called The cod-fishers of Scarborough and
the fringe-lipped (Pe/romyzon laneri), is Berwick often capture this fish in the
occasionally to be met with in our rivers, bodies of cod or haddock drawn up by
and more frequently in those of the con- their lines, and some believe it enters
tinent. It is as thick, but shorter than their mouth while they are held by the
the preceding species, and has its suck- hook. But Cuvier says it attacks and
ing lip peculiarly broad and fringed, pierces the fish; aided, perhaps, by the
This little lamprey lives in the mud, sense of touch implanted in its feelers, it
and so rarely emerges from its lurking- may have the power of suddenly fixing
place that it is never to be discovered itself by means of its hooked palatal
without some search. Cuvier says it has teeth, and then boring and rasping with
been accused of sucking the gills of fishes. its lingual teeth, insinuate itself beneath
He adds, that it is employed as a bait the skin, and gradually work its way into
for hooks: It is for this purpose that the very body of its victim. Indeed, on
the Cornish fishermen use it; it abounds some parts of our eastern coast it is
in the smaller streams of that county. called "the borer."



( N his interesting book, while we determined to return to camp;
"Sport in Burmah," but coming on two quite fresh marks we
(D p Colonel Pollok relates could not resist the temptation, and took
the following adven- up the trail, Macdonald leading. We
ture:- had to go farther than we expected, and
"We started at day- soon came to very heavy grass, when
break, going along the Mainah turned off suddenly to the left
banks of a stream, and and went off full score. I called out.
soon hit off a trail, Mac- "Where are you going to ?-that is not
donald leading, and I the way the rhinos have gone," but I got
slightly on one side, ready to pour in a no reply; and the elephant and his rider
volley if required. We came on the vanished. Sookur, after abusing Mainah's
beast, a male, in about an hour; Mac- mahout, went straight on, and within
donald fired and hit; the beast bolted one hundred yards I came upon two
into grass about twenty feet high, and full-grown rhinos standing together,
into this we followed, but the tracks with their heads towards me; but
were so numerous, we soon lost our the grass was so high, that all that I
quarry; beating our way through the could see was their huge ears and a
grass, however, we came to an unusually dusky form, but guessing for the chest
heavy bit, and into this Mainah refused of the larger, I fired; a shriek and a
to enter, and my elephant hung back headlong charge was the result. Lutch-
too. So we knew there was something mee spun round like a teetotum, and
ahead of us. went off at her best pace; I had just
As the mahout would not drive time to turn round and let drive, as
Mainah in, Sookur called out, "Get out rhino's nose was actually within a few
of the way; it is you who are afraid, inches of my elephant. I was using
and not the elephant!" and giving a two-groove No. o1 rifle, by Lang, the
Lutchmee a few vigorous prods, he bullets hardened with a mixture of quick-
drove her headlong into the entangled silver; the ball entered the back, and
grass. .I looked about everywhere, and passing out at the belly, floored my
had perhaps gone through half the patch antagonist; but the row she made
without seeing anything, when some- frightened Lutchmee to such an extent, it
thing induced me to look back, and was some time before I could get her
there, within ten yards of me, was a full- back. The rhino had picked herself up,
grown rhinoceros, craning its neck and and stood at bay in some very heavy
staring up at me in a peculiarly idiotic grass. Every time I went towards it, it
manner; a lucky shot dropped her dead, made its peculiar cry and charged, and
and I then saw she had a young one by off would go my elephant; so seeing
her side. So leaving the carcass and that the animal could not escape, and
the young one undisturbed, we sent an not wishing to get my elephant cut for
elephant back to the village for nets and nothing, I left it, and went back to our
men to catch the little one, and went on huts.
ourselves. T
ourselves. I picked the rhino up two days after-
It was a nasty damp, drizzly day, wards, dead, where our encounter had
with a high wind blowing, so after a taken place. I bathed and breakfasted,

r.' ," ", I. .' : r ". ~R%~;: i'

]Q A

. . . I- . .

S. .. -AV- R-
-- -:--
... ..,




and still Macdonald did not appear, had come. So Macdonald got off,
but as he had our breakfast-basket bathed and breakfasted, and after rest-
behind his howdah, containing all that ing his weary limbs awhile, returned by
was requisite to refresh the inner man, a long circuitous route-eventhenMainah
even to a bottle of champagne, I knew would not move without some men in
he was all right as far as food went, but front of him! Now what had upset this
wondered at his absence. He returned really staunch animal? I can only
,about six in the evening. It appears account for it in this way: Macdonald
Mainah had turned off as soon as he had a theory (knowing how fond of opium
smelt the rhinos, and going at his best the Assamese are, and what quantities

pace straight across country, had re- they are in the habit of eating daily)
turned to our yesterday's camp, some that if he took some of this drug with
twelve miles off; crossing in his course him, and kept doling it out, the mahout's
several nasty nullahs without slackening zeal and pluck would be increased. I
his speed, and shaking Macdonald into fancy he gave no thought to the man's
a jelly. The mahout appeared to have private supply, and so every now and
lost all control over him, but on reaching then gave the mahout a bit; this, to-
the place where we had encamped at gether with what the man had had pre-
Soonapilly he pulled up, but nothing viously, I believe proved too much for
would induce him to return the way he him; he lost his nerve and communicated


his funk to the animal he bestrode. I A tiger could not have been more savage.
have seen Mainah frequently since, in yet in the course of a couple of days he
several scrimmages with tigers, buffaloes, quieted down, ate plantains out of the
and rhinos, and he never showed the hand, and in a week would follow
least fear again. Sookur about everywhere. I sold him
During that evening, the villagers afterwards to Jamrach's agent for 60,
brought in the young rhino, and when I and I believe I ought to have got double
saw him the next morning, he was that; so, apart from the sport of shoot-
the impersonification of all that is savage; ing the large animals, the catching of
he was securely tethered, but he tried to the young ones would prove a profitable
get at everybody that went near him. speculation."

ONCE spent a summer at feature in the landscape. They are built
S a little fishing hamlet on of large sticks three or four feet long,
the New Jersey coast, and mixed in with corn-stalks, sea-weed, and
Sof all the strange and mullein stalks, piled up four or five feet
interesting things I saw in a solid mass, and lined with sea-weed.
there, nothingwas stranger They are not hollow like a pouch, as
3') or more interesting than you might judge from the outside, but
these birds of which I want are nearly flat on top, and about as deep
to tell you. In poetry and as a dinner-plate.
science they are always called "ospreys." "Of course they are very heavy, and
That may be a prettier word-but fish- the weight, together with the mass of
hawks is the better name; it is the one wet stuff, saps the vitality from the tree
which has been given by all fishermen in a few years, and it gets bare and
on our coast, and it is more descriptive ragged.
of the birds and their habits. This great weight is very necessary,
A broad shallow river, which was only however, for it enables the nests to resist
the sea pushing back into the land, ran the storms and high winds which sweep
just in the rear of our boarding-house, over our eastern shore. And strength is
and there, all day long, we could watch what is mainly needed, for the fish-hawk
the fish-hawks, circling above or swoop- builds its nest as we do our houses-to
ing down from great heights, or diving last a great many years.
headlong into the water, or sitting solemn Ask any one of the old fishermen about
and grave upon their nests. As soon as them, and he will probably say first:-
you come within sound of the ocean, you Wall, they're a curus fowl. No
may see these large pouch-shaped nests matter what the weather may be, they
wedged between the bare forks of the come back on the 21st of March of each
pine, oak, and other strong trees, some- year, all at once; and the 21st of Sep-
times ten, sometimes fifty feet above the tember you can't see one. They go over-
ground. They are placed, without any night, and no man from Maine to Georgia
attempt at concealment, in the open fields, can tell where they go to."
or close to the fisher's houses, or along They say, too, that the same birds
the river-banks perhaps a mile inland; come back to the same nest every year.
and they form a wonderfully picturesque If it has been injured by the winter's


storms it is carefully repaired; some- things you ever saw, awkward and mis-
times even rebuilt entirely in the same shapen, and yet with such a wise, dignified,
place with the same material. One expression! I watched for several hours
morning in the early spring I passed the a couple learning to fly. They sat
ruins of a large nest which had been balanced uneasily on the edge of the
blown down by the wind of the night nest, solemn and grave as judges, and
before. It was a great mass of stuff, looked as if they had come out of the
scattered all around, and would have filled shell knowing everything. The old birds
a good-sized cart. The homeless birds were coaxing and going through various
were flying about in great distress, flap- exercises which I suppose were the first
ping their wings, and uttering their pecu- principles of flying, and the young ones
liar, shrill note-a note that is in strange tilted about and rolled over and finally
harmony with the melancholy sea. In a got fastened between the sharp branches
week I passed again and the ground was of the tree. The mother and father
cleared of the wreck, and the nest loomed fussed and scolded, Bill-ee, Bill-ee,
up large as ever in the tree from which Stu-pid-i-ty." The young are very slow
it had been blown. There is no doubt in learning to fly-and I have heard that
that many of the nests are very old. In they often linger in the nest long after
the field through which we walked on they are well able to help themselves, to
our way to the beach, was a nest which be fed and waited upon, till driven away
I was assured was a hundred years old. by the parents, who beat them out with
"As old as them cedar rails on that their wings, and peck them with their
fence, yonder," said the man; "my sharp beaks. I don't like to think this,
grandfather told me so." I believed it but it may be so, for one day we found
then, of course, for one's grandfather a young bird drooping on the fence. He
always speaks the truth. allowed us to come very close to him,
SYou will suppose that a bird which and we discovered that his wing was
builds such a large nest must lay large broken. It was not shot, so he must
eggs and many of them, but this bird have fallen in his effort to fly. No birds
never lays more than three, and they were near him, he had evidently been
are little larger than a hen's egg, of a deserted. He looked forlorn and pitiful,
reddish yellow, splotched with brown, so we took him home and put him in the
They are laid about the first of May, and wagon-house. The children were very
it takes a long and patient sitting till the attentive to him; they cut up fish for
last of June to hatch them. During this him-pounds of it,-and tried to amuse
time and after the young birds come, the him as if he were a lamed child. But it
care of the parents is unceasing. The was of no use, he drooped still more, and
nest is never left unguarded. The male then died and was buried with martial
bird goes fishing and keeps his family noise and pomp. He would not have
well supplied with food, while the female been a successful pet, for these birds
rarely leaves her nest, but keeps over it have a lonely, isolated nature. They
a tireless watch. If any one approaches seem to have bred in them the wild, un-
she cries shrilly and hovers over her tameable spirit of the wind and wave,
brood, with her broad wings outspread and if deprived of their free, soaring
and her piercing eyes flashing. Peace- flight, and their sporting in air and
able and gentle at other times, she will water, they will languish and die.
defend her nest with claws and beak The largest fish-hawk I ever saw
against the enemy or too curious in- measured six feet across the wings; the
truder. average size is from four to five feet.
The young fish-hawks are the funniest The plumage is of greyish brown except


on the breast and under part of the built into the larger one. He is not a
wings, where it is pure white. The beak greedy robber, like the eagle, but fishes
is sharp and hooked, the claws long, and in an honest, straightforward manner,
the legs very thick. The feet and legs and, in short, has but one enemy-the
are covered with close hard scales, the bald eagle.
better to retain a hold upon the slippery Between them there are many despe-
fish. It used to be a common notion rate battles. The eagle, who is always
among the older naturalists that one hungry, and who seldom works when he
foot of this bird was webbed and the can steal, waits till the fish-hawk catches
other furnished with claws to serve the a fish. As he comes from the water with
double purpose of swimming and seizing the heavy burden, the eagle pounces
its prey. upon the booty. They rise together, and
Nothing can be finer than the sweep in mid-air the contest goes on with beak
and directness of the fish-hawk's flight, and talon. I am sorry to say the eagle
You see one sailing, a mere speck in the generally gets the best of it, and flies off
sky; he stops suddenly, as if viewing sullenly to the nearest tree with its prize to
some object in the water below; poised devour it. Often the fish drops, but there
high in the air, without any visible motion is no escape for it, for the eagle adroitly
of the wide-extended wings, he swoops catches it as it falls. The fish-hawk
down with the swiftness of lightning, and wisely goes fishing again right off, for he
plunges into the water head foremost, never condescends to re-seize his prey.
If he misses the fish he rises again, and The farmers have an idea that the depre-
circles round in short, abrupt curves, as dations of the eagle among the sheep
if from mere listlessness. Again he and poultry are much lessened by the
pauses, darts into the water, and this hostility of the fish-hawk. On this ac-
time comes up with his prey in his talons, count they have great respect for it, and
He shakes the water from his feathers I think they would not kill one upon any
and flies in the shortest line to his nest. consideration. A fine is said to be at-
Sometimes the fish weighs six or seven tached to shooting any of these kindly
pounds. Add to this the struggles of the birds; but I never heard of its being
fish to free itself, and you may fancy the exacted; it is probably meant as a warn-
strength of the bird. I have heard, but ing to stranger-sportsmen, who shoot
I never saw an instance of it, that the wantonly anything which flies.
fish is sometimes strong enough to drag The coastmen all speak of the fish-hawk
the bird into the water, where he is with a curious affection. He foretells a
drowned. The next tide carries him up storm, they say, by a peculiar restless-
on the beach, with his claws buried deep ness, and a repetition of his feeble whistle.
in a sturgeon or halibut. When the storm breaks the birds are
By some naturalists the fish-hawk has abroad in the face of it, however wild
been classed with the eagle, from a simi- and fierce it may be. If one can see
clarity of appearance, but this is not just anything through the blinding mists and
to our friend. He is much nobler in all rain, it is the fish-hawk soaring aloft in
his traits than any of the eagles. Hisonly the tumult, curving and sweeping on the
prey is fish; he never interferes with wild wind, his white breast gleaming
smaller birds, as the eagle does. On the against the black trees and sky. These
contrary, a little timid bird called the birds show great skill in flying against
crow black-bird builds its modest nest in the wind, never fly directly into it, but
the interstices of the hawk's nest. I have tack backwards and forwards as intelli-
seen a half-dozen of these tiny homes gently as a sailor does upon the water.



------- ---
/ )

^ .......... . .... .. par......, -- tw o occasio.s ------ -- -a-. f r o-


Do not envy the ness and instinct of the dogs employed
man who does not than in killing the birds. But far dif-
look back with feel- ferent is the enjoyment derived from
ings of energy and stalking the red deer in his native
delight to the day, mountain, where every energy of the
the hour, and the sportsman must be called into active use
wild scene, when he before he can command success.
killed unaided his first Well do I remember the mountain
stag. Of course, I side where I shot my first stag, and
refer only to those though many years have since passed
who have the same love by, I could now, were I to pass through
of wild sport, and the that wild and lovely glen, lay my hand
same enjoyment in the on the very rock under which he fell.
romantic solitude and Though a good rifle-shot-indeed few
scenery of the mountain were much better-there seemed a
/ and glen that I have my- charm against my killing a deer. On
self; shooting tame par- two occasions, eagerness and fear of
tridges and hares from the missing shook my hand when I ought to
back of a well-trained have killed a fine stag. The second
shooting-pony in a stubble- that I ever shot at came in my way in a
field does not, in my eyes, con- very singular manner. I had been
Sstitute a sportsman, though there looking during the chief part of the day
is a certain interest attached for deer, and had, according to appoint-
even to this kind of pursuit, ment, met an attendant with my gun
arising more from observing the clever- and pointers at a particular spring in the
~~~~LLIU ~~ ~ ~ .. -VILI tc ~i .Vrr~yrr1


hills, meaning to shoot my way home. this takes some time to describe, but did
This spring was situated in the midst of not occupy a quarter of a minute. At
a small green spot, like an oasis in the the same instant that I got the rifle, the
desert, surrounded on all sides by a gillie lifted up his head from the water,
long stretch of broken black ground. and half turning saw the stag, and also
The well itself was in a little round saw that I was about to shoot at him.
hollow, surrounded by high banks. With a presence of mind worthy of
I was resting here, having met my being better seconded, he did not raise
gillie, and was consoling myself for my himself from his knees, but remained
want of success by smoking a cigar, motionless, with his eyes fixed on the
when, at the same moment, a kind of deer. As I said before, I had never
shadow came across me, and the killed a deer, and my hand shook
pointers, who were coupled at my feet, and my heart beat. I fired, however,
pricked up their ears and growled, with with, as I thought, a good aim at his
their eyes fixed on some object behind shoulder. The deer at the instant
me. My keeper, who had been out with turned round. After firing my shot, we
me all day, was stretched on his back, all (including Donald, who by this time
in a half slumber, and the gillie was comprehended what was going on) ran
kneeling down taking a long draught at to the top of the bank to see what had
the cool well, with the enjoyment of one' happened, as the deer disappeared the
who had had a long toiling walk on a instant I fired. I had, I believe, missed
hot August day. Turning my head him altogether, though he looked as
lazily to see what had roused the dogs large as an ox, and we saw him going
and had cast its shadow across me, at a steady gallop over the wide flat.
instead of a shepherd, as I expected- Donald had out the glass immediately,
could I believe my eyes!-there stood a and took a steady sight at him, but
magnificent stag, with the fine-shaped having watched the noble animal, as he
horns peculiar to those of the Sutherland galloped up the opposite slope and
forests. He was standing on the bank stood for two or three minutes on the
immediately behind me, and not above summit, looking back intently at us, he
fifty yards off, looking with astonishment shut the telescope with a jerk that
at the group before him, who had taken threatened to break every glass, and
possession of the very spot where he giving a grunt vastly expressive of dis-
had intended to slake his thirst. The gust, returned to the well where he
deer seemed too much astonished to took a long draught. His only remark
move, and for a moment I was in the at the time was, "There's no the like
same dilemma. The rifle was on the of that stag in the country; weel do
ground just behind the slumbering I mind seeing him last year when
Donald. I was afraid the deer would shooting ptarmigan up yonder, and not
be off out of sight if I got up to take it, a bullet had I. The deil's in the rifle,
or if I called loud enough to awake that she did na kill him; and he'll cross
Donald. So I was driven to the neces- the river before he stops." It required
sity of giving him a pretty severe kick, some time and some whisky also to
which had the effect of making him restore Donald to his usual equanimity.
turn on his side and open his eyes with This was Saturday. On the Monday
a grunt. "The rifle, Donald, the rifle," following, at a very early hour, Donald
I whispered, holding out my hand. appeared, and after his morning salute
Scarcely knowing what he was at, he of "It's a fine day sir," he added,
instinctively stretched out his hand to "There will be some deer about the
feel for it and held it out to me. All west shoulder of the hill above Alt-na


cahr. Whenever the wind is in the airt of it a hind and calf feeding. We waited
it is now, they feed about the burn there." here for some time, and I amused my-
Ve agreed to walk across to that part self with watching the two deer as they
of the ground, and were soon en route. fed, unconscious of our neighbourhood,
Bran galloped round us baying joyously, and from time to time drank at the burn
as if he expected we should have good which supplied the loch. We then
luck. We had not gone half a mile passed over a long, dreary tract of
from the house when we met one of the brown and broken ground, till we came
prettiest girls in the country, tripping to the picturesque-looking place where
along the narrow path, humming a we expected to find the deer-a high
Gaelic air, and looking bright and fresh as conical hill, rising out of rather flat
the morning. "How are youall at home, ground, which gave it an appearance
Nanny, and how is your father getting of being of a greater height than it
on ? Does he see any deer on the hill ?" really was. We took a most careful
said I. Her father was a shepherd not survey of the slope on which Donald
far from the house, and she was then expected to see the deer. Below was an
going down on some errand to my extensive level piece of heather, with a
servants. "We are all no' that bad burn running through it in an endless
thank you, sir, except mother, who still variety of windings, and fringed with
has the trouble on her. Father says green rushes and grass, which formed a
that he saw some hinds and a fine stag strong contrast to the dark-coloured
yesterday as he crossed the hill to the moor through which it made its way,
kirk; they were feeding on the top of till it emptied itself into a long narrow
Alt-na-cahr, and did na mind him a bit." loch, beyond which rose Bar Cleebrich
Donald looked at me, with a look full and some more of the highest mountains
of importance, at this confirmation of his in Scotland. In vain we looked and
prophecy. "'Deed, sir, that's a bonnie looked, and Donald at last shut up his
lass, and as gude as she is bonnie. It's telescope in despair. "They are no' here
just gude luck our meeting her; if we the day," was his remark. But what
had met that auld witch, her mother, is that, Donald?" said I, pointing to
not a beast would we have seen the some bluish-looking object I saw at
day." I have heard of Donald turning some distance from us rising out of the
home again if he met an old woman heather. The glass was turned towards
when starting on any deer-stalking it, and after having been kept motionless
excursion. The young pretty girl, how- for some time, he pronounced it to be
ever, was a good omen in his eyes. We the head and neck of a hind. I took the
passed through the woods, seeing here glass, and while I was looking at it, I
and there a roebuck standing gazing at saw a fine stag rise suddenly from some
us, as we crossed some grassy glade small hollow near her, stretch himself,
where he was feeding. On the rocks, and lie down again. Presently six more
near the top of the woods, Donald took hinds and a two-year-old stag got up,
me to look at a trap he had set, and in and after walking about for a few minutes,
it we found a beautiful marten cat, which they, one by one, lay down again, but
we killed, and hid amongst the stones- every one seemed to take up a position
another good omen in Donald's eyes. commanding a view of the whole
On we went, taking a careful survey country. We crept back a few paces,
of the ground here and there. At a and then getting into the course of the
loch whose Gaelic name I do not burn, got within three hundred yards of
remember, we saw a vast number of the deer, but by no means whatever
wild ducks, and at the farther extremity could we get nearer. The stag was a


splendid fellow with ten points, and The stag which had been feeding so
regular and fine-shaped horns. Bran near us stood for a minute to watch the
winded them, and watched us most others, who were all now several hundred
earnestly, as if t ask why we did not yards away, grazing steadily. I aimed
try to get at them. The sensible dog, at him, but just as I was about to fire
however, kept quite quiet, as if aware he turned away, leaving nothing but his
of the importance of not being seen or haunch in view, and went after the rest.
heard. Donald asked me what o'clock Donald applauded me for not shooting
it was; I told him that it was just two. at him, but told me that our case was
" Well, well, sir, we just wait here till hopeless, and that we had better make
three o'clock, when the deer will get up our way home and attempt no more, as
to feed, and most likely the brutes will they were feeding in so open a place
travel towards the burn. The Lord save that it was impossible to get at them;
us, but yon's a muckle beast." Trust- even Bran yawned and rose as if he too
ing to his experience, I waited patiently, had given up all hope. "I will have one
employing myself in attempting to dry try, Donald; so hold the dog." "You
my hose by wringing them, and placing need na fash yourself, sir; they are
them in the sun. Donald took snuff and clean out of all hope and reason." I
watched the deer, and Bran laidhis head determined to make an effort before it
on his paws as if asleep, but his sharp became dusk; so leaving Donald, I set
ear and eye, pricked up on the slightest off down the burn, looking for some
movement, showed that he was ready hollow place that might favour my
for action at a moment's warning. As getting up to them, but I could find
nearly as possible at three o'clock they none; at last it struck me that I might
did get up and feed: first the hinds rose by chance get up with a long shot by
and cropped a few mouthfuls of the keeping a small hillock, which was in
coarse grass near them, looking at and the middle of the plain, between me and
waiting for their lord and master, who, the deer. The hillock was not two feet
however, seemed lazily inclined, and high, and all depended on the animals
would not move; the young stag fed keeping together and not outflanking
steadily on towards us. me. On I went, not on my hands and
Frequently the hinds stopped and knees, but crawling like a snake, and
turned back to their leader, who re- never rising even to my knee. I could
mained quite motionless, excepting that see their hind quarters as they walked
now and then he scratched a fly off his away, feeding, however, most eagerly,
flank with his horn, or turned his head and when they looked up I lay still
towards the hillside when a grouse flatter on the ground, with my face
crowed or a plover whistled. The buried in the heather. They appeared,
young stag was feeding quietly within however, not to suspect danger in the
a hundred and fifty yards of us, and we open plain, but often looked anxiously
had to lie flat on the ground now and towards the burn or the rocky-side of
then to escape his observation. The the mountain. One old long-legged
evening air had already began to feel hind kept me in a constant state of
chill, when suddenly the object of our alarm, as she frequently looked in my
pursuit jumped up, stretched himself, direction, turning her ears as if to catch
and began feeding. Not liking the some suspicious sound. As for the stag,
pasture close to him, he trotted at once he never looked about him once, leaving
down into the flat ground right away that to the hinds. I at last got within
from us. Donald uttered a Gaelic oath, about a, hundred yards of the whole of
and I fea, I added an English one. tbem; as they fed in a group, turned


away from me, I could not get a shot at play after the hinds, who were gallop-
anything but their hind quarters, and I ing up a gentle slope of the hill. The
did not wish to shoot unless I could get poor beast was evidently moving with
a fair broadside towards me. the greatest difficulty and pain; some-
While waiting for an opportunity, still times coming to his knees and then
flat on the ground, a grouse-cock walked recovering himself with a strong effort,
out of the heather close to me, and he still managed to keep not far behind
strutted on with head erect, and his them. I sat down in utter despair;
bright eyes fixed on me till he came to looking round, too, for Donald and Bran,
a little hillock, where he stopped and I could see nothing of them. Between
began to utter a note of alarm. In- anxiety and vexation I did not know
stantly every deer left off eating. I saw what to do. All at once I saw the hinds
that no time was to be lost, and raised dash away in different directions, and
myself on my elbow, and with cocked the next moment my gallant Bran ap-


-_.: - __ -----------

,-'---,------ --------------=----------- _-----_____

and began to trot away, but their leader for the stag, who stood still for an
:::il .. ........ --"--- - -


rifle waited for the hinds to move, that peared in the midst of them. I shouted
I might get at the stag, who was in the with joy. On came the dog, taking no
midst of them. The hinds soon saw me notice of the hinds, but making straight
and began to trot away, but their leader for the stag, who stood still for an
seemed determined to see what the dan- instant, and then rushed with apparently
ger was, and before he started, turned full vigour down the hill. Down they
round to look towards the spot where came towards the burn, the dog not five
the grouse was, giving me a good yards behind the stag, but unable to
standing shot at his shoulder. I im- reach his shoulder (the place where he
mediately touched the trigger, feeling at always struck his game). In a few
the same time sure of my aim. The minutes deer and hound went headlong
ball went true, and down he fell. I and seemingly both together into the
began reloading, but before I had halt burn. Donald appeared running like a
done the stag was up again and making lunatic; with good judgment he had,


when I left him, gone to cut off the deer stag he was, in perfect order, with noble
in case I wounded one and it took up antlers. Donald added to my satis-
the hill. faction by applauding my manner of
As good luck would have it, the hinds getting up to him, adding that he never
had led off the stag right up to where would have thought it possible to kill
Donald and Bran were, notwithstanding a stag on such bare and flat ground.
his inclination to go the other way. I ran Little did I feel the fatigue of our three
to see what had become of them in the hours' walk, two of them in the dark and
burn, expecting to find the stag at bay. hard rain. We did not go home, but went
When I got there, however, it was all to a shepherd's house, whose inhabitants
over. The deer had probably tumbled were at evening prayer when we arrived;
from weakness, and Bran had got his we did not interrupt them, but afterwards
fangs well into the throat of the poor the wife prepared us a capital supper of
brute before he could rise again. The eggs and fresh trout, which we devoured
gallant dog, when I was up with him, with vast relish before the peat fire, our
lay down panting, with his fore-paws on wet clothes steaming all the time like a
the deer, and wagging his tail, seemed boiler. Such was the death of my first
to congratulate me on my victory, and stag !-From Wild Sports and Natural
to be caressed for his share it. A fine History of the Highlands.


o those who know the nature endeavoured to escape; the British man-
of the chase after slavers of-war was too swift and too well handled
Still dutifully maintained by for such an attempt to succeed, and
British cruisers off the Afri- presently the dhow was safe alongside.
can coast, the story which Then came the process of transferring
< comes from Her Majesty's the slaves which were on board the
ship Wild Swan will cer- doomed vessel to her captor, an opera-
tainly appear one of re- tion often of some difficulty in the
markable heroism. In the seas which treacherous African seas; and thus it
wash that torrid shore abound almost came about that while the work was
every kind of sharks, together with going on a little slave boy slipped from
many a monster without a name-and the ship's side, and fell into the water.
woe to the unfortunate individual who It was but a moment, yet already the
chances to fall in amongst them! With chance of a morsel had been marked
a greedy haste that affords little time and one of the sharks which had closely
for escape, he is bitten in pieces, divided followed the dhow in hope of assisting
amidst the predatory herd, and dis- at some such disaster instantly darted
appears as completely as though he upon the poor lad, and with one snap of
were the merest lobworm. Such an the jaws bit off the right leg at the knee.
incident as this was the cause of the As the blood tinged the water, the
following brave deed. attention of other monsters of the same
Lying off the dreary coast of Mo- swarm was attracted, and one of these,
zambique, the look-out on the Wild arriving on the scene, severed the other
Swan espied a slave dhow, and chase leg of the boy. Just then an English
was immediately given. In vain the sailor on the Wild Swan, fully aware
piratical craft cracked on canvas, and of all the peril he encountered, sprang


overboard, armed only with a sheath covet "black meat;" but that he will
knife, and so violently attacked the eagerly snap at a white man's body,
sharks, and so determinedly held his whether famished or full. The little
own in supporting the poor victim, that imps at Aden, who, for the threepenny
he was enabled to beat off his assailants, silver pieces thrown by travellers in
get the boy into a boat alongside the Indian ships into the sea, will dive as
ship, and escape himself unhurt. Un- often as money is produced, have no
happily the injuries inflicted on the fear of the sharks which are often close
negro child had been so severe that he at hand. They believe that the peculiar
died the same evening. But the mes- colour of their skins offers no great
sage which gives intelligence of the temptation to any but a fish of the most
gallant deed adds that the sailor's ship- sharp-set kind, and that they may safely
mates were loud-as well they might be swim about in the sea, as no unfamished
-in praise of their comrade's bravery, shark will have anything to do with
and were making a movement to obtain them. The sailor must have been well
him a satisfactory reward, aware that no such objection could
Those only who have seen a school of attach itself to him. He would probably
sharks, as these horrible fish follow a have as soon thought of bathing in those
ship in the tropics, when the wind is low deadly waters without the protection of
and the sun hot, and some passenger or a netting, as of jumping from the top-
other is sick, perhaps to death-a cir- gallant-mast on to the deck. The rapi-
cumstance apparently well known to dity with which a bait of fresh meat, or
these piratical denizens of the water- pickled pork, is snapped up by the
can have any idea of what that gallant sharks which follow ships, even though
sailor's leap was like. There are pearl- a huge hook, destined to rend the crea-
divers in the Indian seas who, armed ture's palate, and hoist it out of the water,
with a stick sharpened at both ends or a is quite unconcealed, must have warned
long-bladed knife or dagger, do tempt him many a time of how ready the
the danger of a shark fight, and, by sharks were for food. And he certainly
deftly diving when attacked by that fish, could not tell how many such brutes
and contriving to place the stick or there might chance to be hidden away
weapon they carry between his jaws under the water, with their huge mouths
when those awful rows of teeth threaten wide open ready to snap him in half.
to close, contrive to kill a stray monster, What kind of a reception he was likely
and return unwounded. But even that to get he had already witnessed in the
is a very different thing from jumping severed limbs and the streaming blood
into the very midst of a number of of the boy to whose rescue he had flown.
hungry sharks, and fighting the blood- He could have no doubt that, were but
thirsty array with a jack-knife with one one fish to succeed in getting hold of
hand, while a helpless boy is supported him, if for one instant only, a death
with the other. Besides, the sailor must horrible beyond description awaited him;
have known that from the very fact of his and that from this there could be small
being a white man he ran an extra risk. hope of escape; yet he made the gallant
It is the legend on these coasts that leap, and, as far as it was possible,
a shark must be singularly hungry to saved the poor black boy.



BOUT five years ago I was making boon companions of them, for
hunting in the Massara jovial companions they can be when
ve/dt. Game of every de- the day's work is done, and the deeds
scription was more than of the previous day are being discussed.
usually abundant, and I Time after time I have laughed almost
Shad a staff of the most to split my sides, when witnessing the
Sskilful hunters and trackers antics they would cut when in a spirit of
to be found in tropical mimicry they would exhibit to each other
South Africa. These bush- how this rhinoceros or that elephant
men must not be confused with the pig- behaved before it was laid low.
mies to be found north and on the A glorious sunrise, the equal to which
borders of the Old Colony, who are a can only be witnessed on the plateaux
most debased, filthy tribe, seldom armed in the interior of this continent, greeted
with anything except a bow and poisoned us on this occasion; while the air was so
arrows, living in caves, with their hand cool, yet balmy, that each individual
against every man, and every man's felt equal to any task that might be
hand against them. No, my Massara imposed upon him. It was quite a redT-
bushmen were grand fellows, many of letter day in my diary, for fresh spoor
them standing six feet in height, with a was almost immediately found, and that
magnificent development of chest and of the description of animals that I most
limb. True, they were most erratic, anxiously sought for-viz., giraffe, for
changing their residences every few days, the cows are most excellent eating; but
for as the game moved its position they the bulls, pshaw! require the strong
followed on its spoor. Much inconveni- stomach of a native to be able to
ence did not result from this, for they enjoy it.
were ever satisfied with a few bushes After an hour's spooring we overtook
and weeds to windward, and a fire at the quarry; they were quietly grazing
their feet, to feel comfortably housed, on the foliage of some scattered mimosa
A very few of these men had guns ob- trees. Dismounting without difficulty, I
trained from their chief, at Bamanwatto, succeeded in getting within a hundred
but these were of the most villanous and fifty yards of the game, when a
description, and generally of Portuguese well-planted No. 8 bullet laid a three-
manufacture, quite as likely to be in- parts-grown cow on the ground. Here
jurious to the shooter as to the object our morning's work would have termi-
fired at. This being the case, I had nated but that some of the hunters
little to expect in the way of assistance, viewed a buffalo, and off they darted
provided I was attacked by any danger- after it like greyhounds from the slips.
lous animal, except what they could Being desirous of seeing the sport, I
afford me with their assegais. jumped upon my little mare and followed
Soon after break of day I left my in the rear, for I was confident that these
wagons, attended by about two dozen dare-devils were going to make the
of these swarthy fellows, each full of hazardous attempt of killing this most
glee at the anticipation of the coming dangerous of beasts with their assegais.
sport. What a pity it is that they are The bull, which was a very large one,
so redolent; it interferes so much in did not appear to be aware that he was


pursued, for with the utmost sang-froid Massara was in turn hunted, and again
he entered a clump of bush, the most a third, till the excitement and novelty
dangerous course for his safety that he wore off, and pity for the gallant beast
could have selected, for among the cover took its place. So dismounting, and
his agile pursuers could dodge with leaving the pony, I succeeded in stealing
comparative safety the precipitous and within short range of the poor thing
irresistible charges of this bellicose beast. which had fought so noble a fight, and
The wind just suited our purpose, for I dropped it to shot with a two-ounce
rode within fifty yards of the buffalo bullet driven by eight drachms of powder,
without being perceived; but when that lodged a few inches behind the corner
space separated me, Tom, an athletic of the blade-bone.
scamp ever up to mischief, was only a Time had so rapidly passed that I was.
few feet from the unsuspecting prey. To surprised to observe the altitude of the
attain this proximity, he had crawled on sun, so, as the heat was becoming very
hands and knees for some distance. I severe, I sent a message to the wagon
saw him drop on all fours; from that for my personal servant to bring with-
moment I lost sight of the daring fellow, out delay food for myself and mare. A
and of half-a-dozen others in close at- most charming hollow, that looked like
tendance. Suddenly the bull stopped. a defunct* water-course, being near it,
The abruptness of the halt told me that was selected for an al fresco camping-
the brute apprehended danger, and was place. Shady trees were in abundance,
prepared for any emergency. However, so none were long in making themselves
seeing nothing and scenting nothing, he comfortable. It is astonishing to the un-
resumed gathering his morning's repast. sophisticated how soon these savages
But scarcely had he plucked the first get their fires lighted and strings of
mouthful when Tom sprang to his feet, meat broiling on its embers, for although
and in an instant had buried his spear they do not hesitate to eat meat raw,
deep in the foe's flank. Quick almost still, if a chance is offered them, I believe
as lightning the plucky hunter was they prefer it a little scorched.
charged with a velocity that has to be In time my food arrived, and with it
seen to be believed; but the pursuer in all the wives and female attachments of
doing so had not seen that other foes my hunters, for although the Massaras'
were at hand, who each gave him an life appears one uninterrupted succes-
assegai as he passed, sion of picnics, still this appeared an
The poor stricken brute had now no exceptional occasion, and all went
less than six of these fearful weapons merrily as a marriage bell.
fast in his flank and shoulder, but that A bushman's appetite seems to me
did not deter him from coursing Tom to be gauged by the amount of food
magnificently round all the adjoining that is obtainable, not by the require-
trees. However, our hero soon got an ments of the body; thus, it can scarcely
opportunity he had anticipated, for with be wondered at that, when the entire
the dexterity of an ape he sprang into carcase of a fat buffalo was there to be
the fork of a mimosa, where he was safe disposed of in a short time, many felt
from further danger. But the buffalo very indisposed to, in fact incapable of,
was not satisfied; he butted the tree active exertion.
with a force that would have stove in I nearly reached the end of my cheroot
the bulk-head of a steamship; but while when a cry arose that a rhinoceros was
thus engaged the other enemies again coming that way. Springing to my
stole upon him, and plied the gallant feet I found that such was the case, so
animal with more steel. Another of the shoving the double-barrel eight-bore into


Tom's hands, I grasped my single four- mare which I left tied to an adjoining
bore and hurried to intercept the brute's tree, so I hurriedly took a long shot, but
progress, well knowing that if such was though the bullet told, I felt convinced it
not speedily done it would unquestionably was placed too far back. The fusilade,
enter our place of repose and scatter nevertheless, had had its effect, for all
food and even firing, in slang parlance, my lazy curs, aroused from their slumbers
"all over the shop." by the report of my guns, came forth
Till only a hundred yards intervened to see what was the matter, and per-
between me and the unwelcome visitor ceiving the baby rhinoceros, immediately
did I discover that she was accompanied made an onslaught upon it. This stopped
by a baby, about the size of a Newfound- the vindictive parent, who devoted her-
land dog; this made affairs more serious self some minutes to charging the dogs,
still, for mammas are apt to be more thus affording me time to reload and re-
pugnacious when accompanied by their appear upon the scene of action. Making
progeny. a hasty shot, more by good luck than
Let me say a word about the four- by good guidance, I hit the irate parent
bore; it was too light for shooting large a little behind the back of the ear; this
charges, thus kicked fearfully when sent her sprawling upon her back, from
twelve drachms of powder were behind which undignified position she never
its bullet; still, if held straight, it sent its succeeded in regaining her legs.
leaden messenger direct to the place After a great deal of trouble and an
intended. Now, on this occasion, I have immense amount of amusement, the
reason to believe that it had obtained youngster was secured, and in a few
its full portion of propelling power; thus, days became as familiar with cattle,
when I aimed at the beast the barrel horses, and dogs, as if he had been born
sprang to the right from some unknown and brought up amongst them. I had
cause, and the bullet hit the old lady on much desire to bring this amusing and
the posterior horn. The result was interesting pet home, but it died within a
almost a ludicrous exhibition of activity fortnight of its capture from a severe
and indignation; she wheeled about attack of diarrhoea, to which young
and danced about if not exactly like Jim African elephants are equally subject.
Crow, the reason was that she did not In allusion to that day's hunt, I have
belong to the same genus. Even the not stated that on our way back to the
infant rhinoceros stood awed at the wagons, elands, pallas, and zebra
vagaries and unprecedented activity of might have been easily shot; in fact, it
its staid mother. However, immediately was, as I have previously said, a regular
afterwards the eight-bore was shoved red-letter day in a sportsman's experi-
into my hand by bushman Tom, who, ences; but the only thing I pulled a
confident I would bring the quarry down trigger upon was an immense spotted
at the next shot, heedlessly exposed him- hyena, which I had the luck to destroy
self to view, when he was at once at a distance of eighty or ninety yards;
charged by the infuriated maternal of which act I was not a little proud, for
parent, closely followed by her hopeful the shot was more than a fair one, and
bairn. Somehow or other the indignant the brute that it had bowled over was
old lady lost sight of her intended prey, one of the most bloodthirsty and
and pursued her way towards our late cowardly carnivora on the face of the
breakfasting ground. I thought to my- earth."-Gillmore's Encounters wit/Z Wild
self that she would have a drive at the Beasts.



UMBERLAND valley, extend- which the Indian invariably is the
Sing from Harrisburg on greatest sufferer.
the Susquehanna, to Besides, were the reservation pre-
Harper's Ferry on the served intact, the approach of the settle-
Potomac, United States, ments has so diminished the supply of
was the "frontier" in game that the Indian cannot long hope
the colonial Indian wars, to find subsistence by hunting.
and the scene of many Foreseeing this prospective exigency,
frightful depredations. Thence the ill- the United States Government has
fated Braddock expedition set out, and stipulated in its treaties with the wan-
thither the remnant returned. Its Scotch- during tribes, especially with those on
Irish settlers were among the foremost the agricultural reservations, that parents
in the war for Independence, and to compel their children between six and
Carlisle, Pennsylvania, the principal sixteen to attend schools, which it
town of the valley, the captive Hessians agreed to provide at the several agencies.
were sent. These prisoners constructed Moreover, the government had also
in its vicinity the Barracks," which, for promised to supply for these children
several generations, were used as a both food and clothing; but owing
rendezvous and school for recruits for partly to the demoralising influences
the regular army, soldiers trained and prevailing at the agencies, and more
used chiefly in the Indian service, especially to a want of appreciation of
Meanwhile, the frontier, and with it the advantages of an education on the
the home of the red man, has receded part of the parents, this compulsory
to the far West, and the valley under attendance was found to be unsatisfac-
the culture of one hundred and fifty years tory, if not impracticable, and it was
has become unusually fertile and health- believed that this education could best
ful, and has a population intelligent, and be conducted at points entirely beyond
of a decidedly religious character, a the home influence of the parents, and
garden-spot of civilisation, in both ma- the wild life of the nomadic tribes, and
trial and moral aspects. It seems that some of the unused military posts,
providential that this post, with such with convenient buildings, would afford
surroundings, should have been chosen facilities for such schools with but little
by the government among all its disused expense additional to that necessary for
military stations for the location of a maintaining the pupils and the schools
training-school for Indian children, in the Indian country. Hence the expe-
Many thoughtful men have lost con- riment first made with those sent as
fidence in the ultimate results of the criminals to Fort Marion, Florida, con-
Reservation system. Whatever may be tinued at Hampton Institute, and now
the moral aspects of the case, whatever prosecuted on a greatly enlarged scale,
the pledges of the government, the in- and with remarkable success, under the
trusion of the miner, the trader, the supervision of Captain Pratt, with an
squatter, the projector of railroads, and efficient corps of assistants, at Carlisle.
others upon these lands, cannot be In October, 1879, accompanied by
wholly prevented; and as the past has Miss Mather, an experienced teacher of
shown, they are fruitful of wars, in Indians, he returned from a visit to the


Rosebud and Pine Ridge Agencies, method of teaching is used, with script
Dakota, bringing, with the consent of letters on the blackboard. No text-
their parents, 84 boys and girls, mostly books are put into the hands of the
children of the chiefs or head men of beginners. The diversity of strange
the tribes. Before that month had tongues is no obstacle; the fact that
expired he returned from a similar trip English is the language common to all
to the Indian territory, and with him is an incitement to learn, and gives the
came 52 boys and girls from the Chey- pupil the more frequent practice.
enne, Kiowa, Pawnee, and other tribes. The progress in study is very gratify-
With these and II other Indian children ing. It is believed to be equal to that
who had been under instruction at Fort of white children under similar circum-
Marion and Hampton, the school began. stances. They excel in arithmetic and
The present number of pupils is 288, penmanship, and take great pride and
and the tribes represented are the Sioux, pleasure in writing letters to their friends
Cheyenne, Arapahoe, Kiowa, Comanche, and relatives in the West. While their
Osage, Creek, Pawnee, Pueblo, Apache, English is far from faultless, the thoughts
Menomonee, Ponca, Wichita, Seminole, and sentiments are very creditable.
Keechi, Towacanie, Nez Perce, Iowa, Filial affection, desire for mental and
Sac and Fox, Shoshones, and Lipan, 21 moral improvement, and for the benefits
in all. of civilisation, and even for a Christian
It is designed to instruct these pupils life, and the purpose to return to the
in the rudiments of an English educa- tribes after a certain time in the hope of
tion, to encourage manual labour, to teaching others, and inaugurating these
give the boys a knowledge of farming, same changes there are woven into the
and of the various mechanical trades, warp and woof of these epistles.
and to teach the girls cooking, washing, Every member of the school gives a
ironing, sewing, and, in general, the portion of his time, usually about two
industries that belong to women in civi- days of each week, to some industrial
lised life. "You will go home and have pursuit. The boys choose their trades;
farms," said one chief visiting the school, and, under the superintendence and
"I sent my children here to learn the instruction of master mechanics, they
art of housekeeping," said another, are becoming skilled carpenters, black-
Neither of these conceptions is wide of smiths, wagon-makers, harness-makers,
the mark, and no unprejudiced mind tailors, tinners, bakers, and printers.
can personally see this work in its daily Some agricultural implements are also
processes without the conviction that manufactured. Besides these occupa-
these beneficent purposes are being fully tions, which engage the larger boys, a
carried out. farm of 125 acres is under cultivation,
The educational department is under where a practical knowledge of tilling
the excellent supervision of Miss Semple, the soil, and the management of stock is
a lady formerly connected with Fisk imparted.
University, and for many years at the In this department regard is had
head of well-known schools for both somewhat to present usefulness, but
whites and blacks, in Cincinnati and the especially for the prospective change of
South. The school is divided into nine life from hunting to farming and stock-
sections or rooms, each being in charge raising on the reservations. Part of the
of a teacher. Of course to secure an product of this labour is now utilised at
acquaintance with the English language the school, and the remainder in sup-
is the preliminary step for most of the plying the Indian agencies, for which
pupils. For this purpose the object government provides.



-- .--


The carpenters have repaired and thesurest marks of civilisation, showed
remodelled the buildings, adapted them that the combined work of teachers and
for school purposes, fitted up work- matron was reaching the mind, the heart,
shops, and built an addition to the the whole man, and that the work was
dining-room, and a neat, plain chapel, so thorough as to appear in the ordinary
and are now qualified to erect additional home life. The feature of co-education
buildings as needed, with little expense is helpful both in progress at this point
save that for lumber and builders' hard- and also in its additional guarantee that
ware. the results will be permanent, and in
The shops have been opened about a future these leaders and examples in
year. Three carriages, spring wagons, the tribes will dwell in houses and have
and farm-wagons have been made; homes, and gain a subsistence other
also sets of double harness, and tinware, than that afforded by the chase.
as buckets, coffee-pots, pans, cups, etc. The excellence of the articles manu-
These have mainly gone to the agencies factured is unchallenged, and the con-
where, corroborated by the testimony of trast with the fruits of their previous
the chiefs who have made occasional labour is very instructive. Government
visits to the school, they are to friends at inspectors approve them as of standard
home sure evidences of the progress of quality. Judges at mechanical exhibi-
the absent boys. The tailors, shoe- tions and county fairs have rewarded
makers, bakers, and farmers are kept both the boys and girls with special
busy by the demands of the school for premiums and with honourable men-
home consumption. The three printers tion." Personal examination leaves no
issue the Eadle Keatah Toh (Big Morning room for any other opinion in the pre-
Star), and the School News, both month- mises.
lies of small size, the latter edited by The interior of several of the work-
one of the Indian boys, and the other by shops as presented, shows the manufac-
those conducting the school. ture of harness and tinware, the processes
Corresponding methods are used in of instruction, the use of machinery, and
training the girls to household duties, some of the fruits of this labour. The
The smaller girls darn the stockings, bridles, saddle, and breechings, hanging
and about twenty-five of the older ones by the wall, and the piles of cups and
do good work on the sewing-machine, buckets tell their own story, as do also
In the industrial room, where they work, the faces of the boys, each intent upon
all the mending is done, all the girls' the task in hand. These are but a type
clothing made, and most of the boys' of the several kindred industries.
under-wear. Others ar& employed in Here we have first the raw material,
the kitchen and dining-room and living and then three groups of specimens of
apartments. The teacher in charge the handiwork of the training-school.
seems admirably fitted for her place. Let the tree be known by its fruits. Let
It was my privilege one day to see the these theories of Indian education, and
whole school sit down to dinner. Under their practical application be judged in
her direction girls detailed for the pur- the light of these living facts.
pose moved around the tables with the When the first company of Arapahoes
efficiency of trained waitresses. At the and Shoshones came, October, 1879, it
end of each table containing about was with great difficulty that they could
twenty-five persons, one of the older be induced to allow the cropping of their
boys presided and did the carving. The very long hair. Finally consent was
sexes were intermingled. The table obtained by promising suits of white-
manners, which are in themselves one of man's clothes. These failing to arrive


promptly, the old feeling returned, and of 1868 made definite pledges to provide
a dismal wail of mourning for the lost schools, subsistence, and clothing for the
hair of the savage life began, almost to children of the roving Indians, is believed
the consternation of the teachers. But to have been a most humane, economical,
when an effort was made to break the and efficient provision for settling finally,
monotony of the school vacation by the and for ever, the vexed Indian problem.
offer of an excursion among the moun- That it should put its unused military
tains, and a few days of tent life, the posts to this purpose, and bring the
answer was promptly made that they pupils into an atmosphere of civilisation
had seen enough of life in tents among" and religion, seems, in the light of the
their people; but they had come to practical results at both Hampton and
Carlisle to live in houses like the white Carlisle, eminently wise. That it has
men. It is plain that at this point there detailed for this work a man so admi-
is no immediate danger of relapsing rably qualified, and very cordially given
into barbarism. whatever material aid has been needed
For hygienic purposes the boys have hitherto, will, without doubt, call forth
been divided into companies, and in the warm commendation of thoughtful
suitable weather are drilled in elemen- and patriotic citizens everywhere. That
tary military tactics. A lady friend of schools at the agencies have done great
the school from Boston presented it with good, none can truthfully deny; nor
a set of thirteen brass instruments, and should work at these places be in the
now this part of the routine is enlivened least diminished; that such schools as
with amateur music. the one at Carlisle are vastly more
The government of the school has been efficient seems equally clear; and that,
systematic and orderly; few offences instead of three in all, there should be
have required punishment. In all serious from fifteen to twenty-five schools opened
questions of discipline a court of the as early as practicable, and a like pro-
older pupils has been formed, and to it portion of the 50,000 Indian children
the cases submitted for adjudication, brought under such wholesome, indus-
with good results, trial, mental, and religious training,
That the government in the treaties admits no reasonable doubt.



HE musk rat, which is so coaches more and more on the burrow
closely allied in form and as the soil softens and is washed away;
habits to the beaver, does the animals extend their excavations in
not, like that timid animal, various directions, in order to free them-
Sretire from the vicinities in- selves from the inconvenience of the
habited by man, but, rely- water, and at length, from the co-opera-
O ing on its peculiar instinct tion of both causes, the bank caves in
for concealment, remains, and the water is allowed free access,
secure, notwithstanding the changes in- often laying waste the most valuable
duced by cultivation, and multiplies its parts of the farm. To understand the
species in the very midst of its enemies. extent to which such mischief may
Thus, while the beaver has long since be carried, it is sufficient to take a walk
entirely disappeared and become for- along the banks thrown up to protect
gotten in the Atlantic States, the musk the meadows on the Delaware, on both
rat is found within a very short distance sides of the river. Similar, though not
of our largest and oldest cities, and bids as extensive injury, is produced along
lair to maintain its place in such situ- the borders of ponds, races, and small
nations during an indefinite future period, streams, by the caving in of the burrows
The musk rat owes this security to its formerly tenanted by the musk rat.
nocturnal and aquatic mode of life, as Where musk rats frequent low and
well as to the peculiar mode in which marshy situations, they build houses,
its domicile is constructed. Along small which, in form and general appearance,
streams, mill-races, and ponds, where resemble those made by the beaver.
the banks are of some elevation and These edifices are round, and covered
strength, the musk rats form large and at top in form of a dome, and are built
extensive burrows. These have the of reeds, flags, etc., mingled with mud.
entrance always in the deep water, so Instead of one place of entrance and exit
as to be entered or left without betray- there are several subterraneous pas-
ing the presence of the animal. The sages, leading in different directions,
mouth of the burrow ascends from its and as these are extensive, the musk
commencement near the bottom, and rats when disturbed take refuge in
slopes upwards until it is above the level them. Numerous individuals, compos-
of the high water. The burrow then ing several families, live together during
extends to great distances, according to the winter season; but in the warm
the numbers or necessities of the occu- weather the house is entirely deserted,
pants. Like most other animals residing and the musk rats live in pairs and rear
in such burrows, they frequently excavate their young, of which they have from
them beneath the roots of large trees, three to six at a litter,
where they are perfectly secure from The musk rat builds in a comparatively
being disturbed by having their burrow dry situation, at least not in a stream or
broken into from above, pond of water, but in the marsh or
The injuries done by the musk rat to swamp. He requires no dam, and does
the banks thrown up to exclude the tide not, like the beaver, lay up a stock of
from meadows and other grounds, are winter provision, neither does he erect
frequently very extensive. The tide en- so strong and durable a dwelling, as it


is not to be repaired, but deserted for a which grows abundantly in most of the
new one the following season. marshy vicinities inhabited by the musk
Speaking of the musk rat, as observed rat. It has been imagined that this
by him in the Hudson's Bay country, animal feeds also upon fish, merely from
Hearne remarks, that "instead of mak- its habit of living much in the water.
ing their houses on the banks of ponds There is the same reason for believing
or swamps, like the beaver, they build that the beaver is piscivorous, an opinion
-on the ice, as soon as it is skinned over, which the structure of the teeth, stomach,
and at a considerable distance from the and intestines of both animals sufficiently
shore, always taking care to keep a contradicts.
hole open in the ice to admit them to The musk rat is an excellent swimmer,
dive for their food, which consists chiefly dives well, and remains for a consider-
of the roots of grass. The materials able time under water. It is rare to
made use of in building their houses are have an opportunity of seeing the animal
mud and grass, which they bring up during the daytime, as it lies concealed
from the bottom. It sometimes happens in its burrow, but by watching during
in very cold winters that the holes in moonlight nights, in situations not much
their houses freeze over, in spite of all frequented by human visitors, the musk
their efforts to keep them open. When rat may be seen swimming in various
that is the case, and they have no pro- directions, and coming on shore for the
vision left in the house, the strongest sake of seeking food, or for recreation.
prey upon the weakest, till by degrees The musk rat has its nose thick and
only one is left in the whole lodge. I blunt at the end, and short ears, nearly
have seen several instances sufficient to concealed in fur. Its body and head
confirm the truth of this assertion: for very much resemble those of the beaver,
when their houses were broken open, but differ from it in colour, being a
the skeletons of seven or eight have been reddish brown. The belly and breast
found, and only one entire animal, are ash colour, mingled slightly with
Though I have before said that they ferruginous. The feet and tail of the
generally build their houses on the ice, musk rat are also remarkably different
it is not always the case: for in the from those of the beaver; all the toes
southern parts of the country, particu- are free and unconnected. On the
larly about Cumberland House, I have hinder, instead of a web uniting the toes,
seen, in some of the deep swamps that there is a stiff fringe of bristly hair,
were overrun with rushes and long grass, closely set and projecting from the sides
many small islands that have been raised of the toes. The tail is thin at the edges,
by the industry of those animals, on the compressed so as to be vertically flat-
tops of which they had built their houses tened, covered with small scales, having
like the beaver. The tops of these a slight intermixture of hair, and is
houses are favourite breeding places for about nine inches long, being nearly of
the geese, which bring forth their young the length of the body, which measures
brood there without the fear of being about twelve inches from the end of the
molested by foxes, or any other destruc- nose to the root of the tail. The power-
tive animal, except the eagle, ful odour of musk renders the flesh of
The musk rat feeds upon roots, etc., the musk rat of little value, and few can
of aquatic plants, and is especially fond eat it. The skin is highly valued on
of the Acorus verus, or Calamus aromaticus, account ot the fineness of its fur.



PARTY Of my friends were "Look yonder!" said Calvin. "See
starting down the Platte what a mat of prickly pear! "
river to see their herds of "What of it ?" said I. "I have seen
cattle, many such."
"Don't you want to go "Nothing of it," said he; "only I was
along with us?"said Calvin. going to say that when a wolf tries to
"We may get some ante- catch a young antelope, the old one
"lope." takes her young into the middle of one
The idea of riding and camping, and of these great prickly-pear beds. You
story-telling and hunting for a week see, the thorns don't hurt the antelopes'
seemed charming just then; so, with hoofs at all; but Mr. Wolf can't set his
blankets and rifle, I joined the party. paw on them, any way he can fix it, so
In an hour we came in sight of the the young antelope stands between the
river, of which some traveller has said, mother's feet till the wolf leaves."
It is navigable only for a shingle," so Some three miles from the river we
sandy is its bed and so changing its came to the haunts of the game. We
currents. All day we followed the river became silent, and peeped carefully over
bottom, now near the water, now a mile each ridge to see if any antelopes were
away from it. In the "ox-bows," or to be seen. Soon we separated, with
bends of the river, the grass was grow- the understanding that if a group of
ing abundantly, and thousands and tens antelopes were found, a signal should
of thousands of sleek kine were feeding be given for the party to come. In half
other e an hour, Dana was seen to wave his
Near the highlands we saw great hand, and we rejoined him at once. He
numbers of prairie dogs and little owls, told us that in the next hollow four
living in the same holes. The dogs antelopes were feeding.
wagged their tails, and, barking with Noiselessly we cept to the little
great energy, ran into their houses; the eminence before us, keeping our eyes
owls, old and young, toddled in too wide open for thorns and rattlesnakes.
when we approached. Within sixty yards stood two old ante-
Toward evening we saw tall blue lopes and two beautiful and graceful
cranes alighting on the f sand bars. little ones, that did not seem larger than
Flocks of ducks arose from the water cats, only their legs were much longer.
and fled from the hawks. Jack-rabbits The old ones were about three feet high,
bounded queerly from our path, and, a with bodies about the size of those of
little way off, turned to see what we in- sheep. They made a very pretty tableau,
tended to do. We saw two wolves but quickly turned and bounded away,
sneaking among the bluffs, bu never the little ones ahead, making no more
an antelope. noise than a cloud passing through the
The morning after we reached Dana's sky. Had not Dana been so polite, one
cattle-camp; we went out early among of them might have been secured. But
the sand-hills for antelopes. Just after I was glad, after all, that we did not
daybreak they are busy feeding, and make a break in the happy family.
then may be more easily approached We now agreed to hunt indepen-
than at other times of the day. dently. During the next half hour we


saw plenty of game in the distance. Dana knew him, and asked him to pack
After a time, Dana and I met. Care- our game to camp. But no sooner had
lessly ascending a little sand-hill, we we placed it behind the saddle, than the
started up a lonely buck. We so pony reared and plunged until he had
quickly sank upon the ground that the dislodged his burden. So we cut off the
animal had only a glimpse of us, and haunches, and making pack-horses of
after a sharp run, turned to satisfy its ourselves, took them to camp.
ever-eager curiosity as to what we were. In the month of June it is not a hard
My companion passed his red handker- matter to capture young antelopes
chief to me. They are then so frail and tender that a
"Wave that," he whispered, "on the man on horseback soon overtakes them.
end of your rifle. We'll try the Indian They are then taught to take milk from
game on him. Easy Wave it easy." a bottle, and soon become very tame.
Slowly I waved the flag to and fro, We saw several so tame that they would
just in the creature's sight, while Dana come at call. We passed a turf cabin
settled his body at full length upon the where there were five of these pretty
sand, and rested his Winchester rifle on pets, all with ribbons about the neck,
an unoccupied ant-hill. and one, a graceful doe, with a cherry-
The antelope now advanced a few coloured ribbon tied about the tail. The
steps, retreated, turned and looked Indian woman who owned them, pro-
again. As we presented the same bably fearing our dog, opened the door
appearance, he became as curious con- and called them, when they very sedately
cerning us as Blue Beard's wife about the filed into the cabin.
forbidden room. Several times we The winter before last (1879) was a ter-
thought he had seen enough of us, and rible season for the poor antelopes. The
was off. But no; his intense curiosity snow lay upon the ground for several
forced him nearer and nearer. Unused months. Thousands of cattle perished.
to hunting as I was, I became much The antelopes congregated in great
excited. Had that antelope been an flocks within a few miles of town. From
elephant, I don't believe I could have an eminence, five thousand could be seen
hit it. I had what old hunters call at once. There were millions of little
"buck fever." Suddenly the buck ex- holes in the snow where they had put
posed his side to us. Crack! went their noses down to get the grass.
Dana's rifle, and over went the antelope. At last the poor creatures took refuge
We saw a herder on his pony, not far in the Rocky Mountains, where food and
away, and beckoned him to come near. shelter were more abundant.

.I :, _. s ., .'

. .. ; -... -:. -A ; 0 ,

_. 1 *; *,* .... -
r -2..


Io NG the rapidly-diminish- eccentric charge at its enemies. During
ing victims of creation the the month of June their flesh is of no
Black Bear is one of the value whatever, at other times it is much
most pertinaciously sacri- sought and relished, particularly the
? ficed. Unfortunately for hams, and as they are also then select-
him his fur and his fat are ing their mates, and particularly ferocious
of great value, and soon it among themselves and to man, they are
will not be truthfully said then avoided."
of him that he inhabits every wooded But the Indians are always super-
district of North America from the stitious concerning this bear or. the
Atlantic to the Pacific, from Carolina to Musquaw, as is illustrated in the follow-
the Arctic Sea. It is smaller than the ing account by Mr. A. Henry, who had
brown bear, and though it hybernates been told of one which had taken up his
during the winter in the fur countries, quarters in a pine-tree :-
yet in very severe winters it has been "In the morning we surrounded the
known to migrate southwards to the tree, both men and women, as many at
United States. So much is its fur used a time as could conveniently work at it,
for military purposes that it is called the and there we toiled like beavers till the
Army Bear. There is little if any differ- sun went down. This day's work carried
ence between the general habits of the us about half way through the trunk,
black and brown bear, and what is said and the next morning we renewed the
of the latter may roughly apply to the attack, continuing it till about two
former. Its fur is smoother, and perhaps o'clock in the afternoon, when the tree
the animal is fiercer; and the chase of the fell to the ground. For a few minutes
black bear is exceedingly dangerous, and everything remained quiet, and I feared
it is said that there are very few bear- that all our expectations would be dis-
hunters who do not in the end succumb to appointed; but, as I advanced to the
their intended victim. When brought to opening, there came out, to the satis-
bay, it is a truly furious beast. Seated faction of all our party, a bear of extra-
erect, with its eyeballs darting fury, its ordinary size, which I shot. The bear
ears laid closely upon its head, its tongue being dead all my assistants approached,
lolling out of its mouth, and every gesture and all, but particularly my old mother
glowing with fierce energy, it presents a (as I was wont to call her), took the head
sight sufficient to unnerve any but an in their hands, stroking and kissing it
experienced hunter. Horses are almost several times; begging a thousand
useless, for unless specially trained they pardons for taking away her life, calling
are seized with such terror at the sight her their relation and grandmother, and

come wholly unmanageable in their them, since it was truly an Englishman
frantic plunges. As the bear stands, or that had put her to death. This ceremony
rather sits, at bay, it deals such terrible was not of long duration, and if it was I
and rapid blows with its ready paws that killed their grandmother, they were
that it strikes down the attacking dogs not themselves behindhand in what re-
as if they were so many rabbits, and mained to be performed.
ever and anon makes a furious and The skin being taken off, we found


the fat in several places six inches deep. family, such as silver armbands and
This being divided into two parts loaded wristbands, and belts of wampun, and
'two persons, and the flesh parts were as then laid upon a scaffold set up for its
much as four persons could carry. In all reception within the lodge. Near the



-1L J

the carcass must have exceeded five hun- nose was placed a large quantity of
dred weight. As soon as we reached the tobacco. The next morning no sooner
lodge the bear's head was adorned with appeared than preparations were made
all the trinkets in the possession of the for a feast to the manes. The lodge


was cleaned and swept, and the- head of vivacity. He was friendly and didn't-
the bear lifted up, and a new Stroud mean any harm, but he was a rude
blanket, which had never been used playfellow.
before, spread under it. The pipes were I shall never forget the ludicrous ad-
now lit, and Wawatam blew tobacco venture of a dandified New Yorker, who
smoke into the nostrils of the bear, came out into the yard to feed bruin on
telling me to do the same, and thus seed-cakes, and did not feed him fast
appease the anger of the bear on ac- enough.
count of my having killed her. I He approached a trifle too near,
endeavoured to persuade my benefactor when all at once the bear whipped an
and friendly adviser that she no longer arm about him, took him to his embrace,
had any life, and assured him that I and "went through" his pockets in a
was under no apprehension from her hurry. The terrified face of the strug-
displeasure; but the first proposition gling and screaming fop, and the good-
obtained no'credit, and the second gave natured, business-like expression of the
but little satisfaction. At length, the fumbling and munching beast, offered
feast being ready, Wawatam made a the funniest sort of a contrast.
speech resembling in many respects his The one-eyed hostler, who was the
address to the manes of his relations bear's especial guardian, lounged quite
and departed companions, but having leisurely to the spot.
this peculiarity, that he here deplored "Keep still, and he won't hurt ye,"
the necessity under which men laboured he said, turning his quid. "That's one
to destroy their friends. He represented, of his tricks. Throw out what you've
however, that the misfortune was un- got, and he'll leave ye."
avoidable, since without doing so they The dandy made haste to help bruin to
could by no means subsist. The speech the last of the seed-cakes, and escaped
ended, we all ate heartily of the bear's without injury, but in a ridiculous plight-
flesh; and even the head itself, after re- his hat smashed, his necktie and linen
mining three days on the scaffold, was rumpled, and his watch dangling; but
put into the kettle." his fright was the most laughable part
The following story illustrative of the of all.
habits of the black bear is worth per- The one-eyed hostler then made a
petuating :- motion to the beast, who immediately
What amused us most in the Lake climbed the pole and looked at us from
House last summer was the performance the cross-piece at the top.
of a bear in the back yard. "A bear," said the one-eyed hostler,
He was fastened to a pole by a chain, turning his quid again, "is the best-
which gave him a range of a dozen or hearted, knowin'est critter that goes on
fifteen feet. It was not very safe for all-fours. I'm speaking' of our native
visitors to come within that circle, un- black bear, you understand. The brown
less they were prepared for rough hand- bear ain't half so respectable, and the
linog. grizzly bear is one of the ugliest brutes
He had a way of suddenly catching in creation. Come down here, Pomp."
you to his bosom, and picking your Pomp slipped down the pole and ad-
pockets of peanuts and candy-if you vanced toward the one-eyed hostler,
carried any about you-in a manner walking on his hind legs and rattling
which took your breath away. He hischain.
stood up to his work on his hind legs "Playful as a kitten!" said the one-
in a quite human fashion, and used to eyed hostler fondly. "I'll show ye."
paw and tongue with amazing skill and He took a wooden bar from a clothes.

LiLil, 4

__ L' .~;f,- .......
.7 .. ..=.



horse near by, and made a lunge with it where I was brought up, wall, as many
at Pomp's breast. as forty years ago.
No pugilist or fencing-master could He got his name from the peculiar
have parried a blow more neatly. Then shape of his foot, and he got that from
the one-eyed hostler began to thrust trifling with a gun-trap. You know
and strike with the bar as if in down- what that is-a loaded gun set in such a
right earnest. way that a bear or any game that's
"Rather savage play," I remarked, curious about it must come up to it the
"Oh, he likes it! said the one-eyed way it points; a bait is hung before the
hostler. "Ye can't hit him." muzzle, and a string runs from that to
And indeed it was so. No matter the trigger.
how or where the blow was aimed, a He was a cunning fellow, and he put
movement of Pomp's paw, as quick as a out an investigation' paw at the piece of
flash of lightning, knocked it aside, and pork before trying his jaws on it; so in-
he stood good-humouredly waiting for stead of getting' a bullet in the head, he
more. "Once in a while," said the one- merely had a bit of his paw shot off.
eyed hostler, resting from the exercise There were but two claws left on that
and leaning on the bar, while Pomp foot, as his tracks showed.
retired to his pole, "there's a bear of He got off; but his experience seemed
this species that's vicious and bloodthirsty, to have soured his disposition. He owed
Generally, you let them alone, and a spite to the settlement.
they'll let you alone. They won't run One night a great row was heard in
from you, maybe, but they won't go out my uncle's pig-pen. He and the boys
of their way to pick a quarrel. They rushed out with pitchforks, a gun; and a
don't swagger around with a chip on lantern. They knew what the trouble
their shoulder looking' for some fool to was, or soon found out. A huge black
knock it off." bear had broken down the side of the
"Will they eat you?" some one in- pen; he had seized a fat porker, and
quired; for there was a ring of spec- was actually lugging him off in his
tators around the performers by this arms! The pig was kicking and squeal-
time. ing, but the bear had him fast. He did
As likely as not, if they are sharp- not seem at all inclined to give up his
set, and you lay yourself out to be eaten, prey, even when attacked. He looked
but it ain't their habit to go for human sullen and ugly, but a few jabs from a
flesh. Roots, nuts, berries, and any pitchfork and a shot in the shoulder con-
small game they can pick up, satisfies vinced him that he was making a mis-
their humble appetites as a general take.
thing." He dropped the pig and ran away
The one-eyed hostler leaned against before my uncle could load up for
the post, stroked Pomp's fur affection- another shot. The next morning they
ately, and continued somewhat in this examined his tracks. It was old Two
style :- Claws.
Bears are particularly fond of fat, But what sp'ilt him for being a quiet
juicy pigs; and once give 'em a taste neighbour was something that hap-
of human flesh-why, I shouldn't want opened about a year after that.
my children to be playing in the woods There was a roving family of Indians
within a good many miles of their den! encamped near the settlement; hunting,
Which reminds me of old Two Claws, fishing, and making mocassins and
as they used to call him, a bear that baskets, which they traded with the
plagued the folks over in Bridgetown, whites. One afternoon the Red-Sky-of-


the-Morning, wife of the Water-Snake- very much as any white father would-
with-the-Long-Tail, came over to the have felt under the circumstances. He
settlement with some of their truck for vowed vengeance against old Two
sale. She had a papoose on her back Claws, but consoled himself with a drink
strapped on a board; another squaw of the fire-water before starting on the
travelled with her, carrying an empty hunt.
jug. The braves with him followed his ex-
Almost within sight of Gorman's ample. It wasn't in Indian nature to
grocery, Red-Sky took off her papoose start until they had emptied the jug, so
and hung it on a tree. The fellows it happened that old Two Claws got off
around the store had made fun of it again. Tipsy braves can't follow a trail
when she was there once before, so she worth a cent.
preferred to leave it in the woods rather Not very long after that a woman in
than expose it to the coarse jokes of the a neighboring settlement heard her
boys. The little thing was used to such children scream one day in the woods
treatment. Whether carried or hung near the house. She rushed out and
up, papoosey never cried, actually saw a bear lugging off her
The squaws traded off their truck, and youngest.
bought, with other luxuries of civilisa- She was a sickly, feeble sort of woman,
tion, a gallon of whisky. They drank but such a sight was enough to give her
out of the jug, and then looked at more the strength and courage of a man. She
goods. Then they drank again, and ran and caught up an axe. Luckily she
from being shy and silent, as at first, had a big dog. The two went at the
they giggled and chatted like a couple bear.
of silly white girls. They spent a good The old fellow had no notion of losing
deal more time and money at Gorman's his dinner just for a woman and a
than they would if it hadn't been for the mongrel cur. But she struck him a
whisky, but finally they started to go tremendous blow on the back; at the
back through the woods, same time the pup got him by the leg.
They went chattering and giggling to He dropped the young one to defend
the tree where the papoose had been himself. She caught it up and ran,
left. There was no papoose there, leaving the two beasts to have it out
This discovery sobered them. They together.
thought at first that the fellows around The bear made short work with the
the store had played them a trick by cur; but instead of following the woman
taking it away, but by-and-by the Red- and child, he skulked off into the wood.
Sky-of-the-Morning set up a shriek. The settlers got together for a grand
She had found the board not far off, hunt, but old Two Claws-for the tracks
but no papoose strapped to it, only some- showed that he was the scoundrel--
thing told the story of what had hap- escaped into the mountains, and lived to
opened. make more trouble another day.
There were bear-tracks around the The child ? Oh the child was scarcely
spot. One of the prints showed only hurt. It had got squeezed and scratched
t wo claws. a little in the final tussle; that was all.
The Red-Sky-of-the-Morning went As to the bear, he was next heard of in
back to camp with the news; the other our settlement.
squaw followed with the jug. The hostler hesitated, winked his one
When the Water- Snake- with- the- eye with an odd expression, put a fresh
Long-Tail heard that his papoose had quid into his cheek, and finally resumed.
been eaten by a bear, he felt, I suppose, A brother-in-law of my uncle, a man


of the name of Rush, was one day chop- It was a terrible situation for a poor
ping in the woods about half a mile from woman. Whether to follow the bear and
his house, when his wife went out to try to recover her child, or go at once
carry him his luncheon. She left two for her husband, or alarm the neigh-
children at home, a boy about five years bours; what to do with Johnny mean-
old, and a baby just big enough to while-all that would have been hard
toddle around, enough for her to decide even if she
The boy had often been told that if he had had her wits about her.
strayed into the woods with his brother She hardly knew what she did, but
a bear might carry them off, and she just followed her instinct, and ran with
charged him again that forenoon not to Johnny in her arms, or dragging him
go away from the house; but he was an after her, to where her husband was
enterprising little fellow, and when the chopping.
sun shone so pleasantly and the woods Well, I needn't try to describe what
looked so inviting he wasn't to be afraid followed. They went back to the house,
of bears. and Rush took his rifle and started on the
The woman stopped to see her hus- track of the bear, vowing that he would
band fell a big beech he was cutting, not come back without either the child
and then went back to the house; but or the bear's hide.
just before she got there she saw the The news went like wildfire through
older boy coming out of the woods on the settlement. In an hour and a-half a
the other side. He was alone. He was dozen men with their dogs were on the
white as a sheet, and so frightened at track with Rush. It was so much trouble
first he couldn't speak, for him to follow the trail that they soon
"Johnny," says she, catching hold of overtook him, with the help of the- dogs.
him, "what is the matter ?" But in spite of them the bear got into
"A bear! he gasped out at last. the mountains. Two of the dogs got up
"Where is your little brother? was with him, and one, the only one that
her next question. could follow a scent, had his back broken
"I don't know," said he, too much by a stroke of his paw. After that it
frightened to know anything just then. was almost impossible to track him, and
"Where did you leave your brother ?" one after another the hunters gave up
says she. and returned home.
Then he seemed to have gotten his At last Rush was left alone, but no-
wits together a little. "A bear took thing could induce him to turn back.
him! said he. He shot some small game in the moun-
You can guess what sort of an agony tains, which he cooked for his supper;
the mother was in. slept on the ground, and started on the
"Oh, Johnny, tell me true! Think! trail again in the morning.
Where was it? Along in the forenoon he came in
"In the woods," he said. "Bear come sight of the bear as he was crossing a
along-I run." stream. He had a good shot at him as
She caught him up, and hurried with he was climbing the bank on the other
him into the woods. She begged him to side.
show her where he was with his little The bear kept on, but it was easier
brother when the bear came along. He tracking him after that by his blood.
pointed out two or three places. In one That evening a hunter, haggard, his
of them the earth was soft. There were clothes all in tatters, found his way to a
fresh tracks crossing it-bear-tracks, backwoodsman's hut over in White's
There'was no doubt about it. Valley. It was Rush. He told his story


in a few words as he rested on a stool. the door, and lost sight of the baby-
He had found no traces of his child, but and maybe forgotten all about him-
he had killed the bear. It was old Two when he strayed into the woods and saw
Claws. He had left him on the hills and the bear. Then he remembered all that
come to the settlement for help. he had heard of the danger of being
The hunt had taken him a roundabout carried off and eaten, and of course he
course, and he was then not more than had a terrible fright. When asked about
seven miles from home. The next day, his little brother he didn't know any-
gun in hand, with the bear skin strapped thing about him, and I suppose imagined
to his back-the carcass he had given that the bear had got him.
to his friend, the backwoodsman-he But the baby had crawled into a snug
started to return by an easier way place under the side of the rain-trough,
through the woods. and there he was, fast asleep all the
It was a sad revenge he had had, but while. When he awoke two or three
there was a grim sort of satisfaction in hours after, and his mother heard him
bringing home the hide of old Two cry, her husband was far away on the
Claws. hunt.
As he came in sight of his log house, "True-this story I've told?" added
out ran his wife to meet him, with-what the one-eyed hostler, as some one ques-
do you suppose ?-little Johnny dragging tioned him. Every word of it! "
at her skirts, and the lost child in her "But your name is Rush, isn't it ?".I
arms! Then, for the first time, the man said. The one eye twinkled humorously.
dropped, but he didn't get down any "My name is Rush. My uncle's
further than his knees. He clung to his brother-in-law was my own father."
wife and baby, and thanked God for the "And you ?" exclaimed a bystander.
miracle. "I," said the one-eyed hostler, "am
But it wasn't much of a miracle after the very man who warn't eaten by the
all. Johnny had been playing around bear when I was a baby!"

'141 ,



HHE Apodal, or foot- in the Worcestershire Avon, where, in
S less fishes (Mala- contradistinction to the silver eel, it is

because they are destitute the term snig is applied to eels in
of ventral fins. The fishes general, and the term grig to young
of this order are elongated eels; there is, however, a small eel in
in form, and have a soft and the Thames, called grig by the fisher-
slimy skin, which, although men, which is Cuvier's anguille at-bec,
not without minute scales, and regarded by him as a distinct
'[ may be called scaleless, as far species.
as an ordinary observer is Of these species the broad-nosed, or
concerned. The eels (Miure- glut eel, called by the Severn fisher-
nidce) constitute the typical men the frog-mouthed eel, is thickerin the
family. body in proportion to its length than the
'Mr. Yarrell discriminates others, and has a thicker, softer, and
three distinct species of fresh- more slimy skin. The sharp-nosed eel
water eels, if not four, and is the species most usually seen in the
Cuvier distinguishes four, which London markets, and of which thou-
have all been confounded to- sands are imported from Holland.
gether, although, when the species are The eel inhabits rivers, meres, lakes,
,compared, the distinctive characters are and ponds, but it is highly susceptible of
not difficult to be discovered. The species cold, and during intense frosts, accom-
figured and described by Mr. Yarrell panied by a piercing east wind, thou-
are the sharp-nosed eel (Anguilla sands of eels, though buried in the mud,
acutirostris), the broad-nosed, or glut have been known to perish, and, crawl-
eel (A. latirostris), and the snig eel (A. ing from their lurking holes in the
mediorostris), which last is a yellow colour, agonies of death, have been washed
and found in the Hampshire Avon, and down the stream to the tideway, and


thrown upon the beach. Many instances The eel lives long out of the water,
of this kind are on record. In the high and sometimes, during the warm nights
northern regions there are no eels- of summer, when the dew is on the
none exist in the great rivers of Siberia, grass, voluntarily quits the pond or river,
"in the Volga, or in the lower Danube, and proceeds with an undulatory motion
which receives a vast influx of Alpine on land, either in quest of worms and
water, brought by the Inn, the Fraun, other prey, or in order to gain some
the Save, and Drave. Few or no eels other piece of water; and thus it often
exist in our mountain streams. happens that meres or ponds become
In lakes and ponds, or in rivers re- stocked with this fish, though none had
mote from the sea, the eel breeds, been purposely introduced. One of the
depositing its spawn about the end of finest eels we ever saw we caught in a
April or beginning of May. But when swampy spot, several hundred yards
the way is clear, eels migrate in vast from the river Bollen, in Cheshire; and
numbers to the mixed and brackish we have seen them in the dusk of even-
water of the estuaries of rivers, during ing, moving over the wet grass of fields
the autumn, where they deposit their bordering the Severn.
spawn in warmer water during that The eel is extremely voracious; it
season, or very early in the spring; and preys upon worms, insects, small fishes,
in the months of April and May follow- and the eggs of fish; it also eats vege-
ing, myriads of young eels, about three table matters, and, as we have more
inches in length, ascend the rivers, and than once seen, will swim about the
fix their stations in different localities, surface of a pond, nibbling the floating
Doubtless, many of the young remain leaves of the water-plants.
permanently in the brackish water of Unlike most fishes, the eel is of slow
the estuary, or even in the salt water growth, and does not breed until two
near the river's mouth. With respect or three years have passed. The com-
to the adult eels, their return is not mon sharp-nosed species attains, some-
clearly ascertained; nor are we to sup- times, to a very large size, and indi-
pose that all the adult eels in tidal rivers viduals have been occasionally caught
descend to the sea, for we know that weighing upwards of twenty pounds.
they bury themselves in the mud to the Along the rocky parts of our shore,
depth of twelve or fifteen inches, and and about the mouths of rivers, where
generally in such a spot as is covered sand-banks stretch out into the sea, that
by the water of a land-drain, when the large marine species, the conger-eel
tide is at its ebb. In Somersetshire, the (Conger vulgaris), is often very abun-
people know how to find the holes in dant. It is caught in great numbers on
the banks of rivers in which eels are the Cornish coast, by night-lines; and a
laid up, by the hoar-frost not lying over single boat will often capture a ton, or
them as it does elsewhere, and dig them even two tons' weight of this' fish. Its
out in heaps. Nevertheless, that numbers flesh is principally used by the poorer
of eels make an autumnal descent is classes; it is white and firm, but of in-
unquestionable, and in tideway rivers, different flavour.
such as the Thames, permanent erections Congers hide in the holes of rocks
are constructed for their capture during beneath the sea, or in recesses covered
their progress, trap-baskets of wicker- with masses of sea-weed, and often, also,
work, and other kinds of cages, being bury themselves in the sand or mud;
fixed in a proper manner, so as to inter- they are extremely ferocious, and a
cept and secure them. Eels are also diver, residing'at Herne Bay, told us
captured by night-lines and by eel-spears. that, on one occasion, a large conger,


which he had disturbed, swam several yellow, of the hinder parts a rich pur-
times around him, as if meditating an pie, the whole surface being marbled
attack, but ultimately, to his relief, swam with somewhat annular markings, and
slowly away. It must be confessed that sprinkled with innumerable spots of
a large conger, the strength of which is white, yellow, golden, brown, and
prodigious, and its powers of jaw terrible, purple.
must be no very despicable antagonist On many parts of our shores a little
to contend with in its native element, slender eel-like fish, five or six inches in
We have seen specimens of this fish eight length, is very common. It is termed
and ten feet in length, and upwards of a the sand-lance (Ammodytes lancea), and is
hundred pounds in weight; such a fish, of a silvery brightness. It is captured
when dragged into a boat, would require in large quantities, but principally as a
both skill and courage to manage. bait for the sea-lines, and bushels are
The conger feeds on fishes and crabs sold to the French fishermen. Its
and other crustacea; it breeds in the under-jaw projects in a singular manner,
winter. Vast numbers of congers are and enables it to burrow into the sand,
taken by the French fishermen, who which it does on the ebbing of the tide,
find a ready sale for this' fish in the and emerges from its hole on the reflux.
French markets. This fish is known as the riggle on the
coast of Sussex. We have an
allied species of larger size, but
similar habits, called the sand-eel
(Ammodytes tobianus). It is not
very common.
The fifth order of osseous
fishes, established by Cuvier, is
termed Lopkobranchii, in reference
to the structure of the gills, which
present the appearance of little
The Deep-nosed Pipe-fish. rounded tufts, disposed in pairs
along the branchial arches. They
are covered by a large gill-flap
attached all round, leaving only
We may here allude to that voracious a small aperture for the passage of
fish, the muraena, so much esteemed by the water. These fishes, besides, have
the epicures of ancient Rome. The the whole body invested in a sort
mursena (MAurena Helena) can scarcely of cuirass, or tesselated armour, pro-
be classed among British fishes, during ridges and angularities. To
though one specimen was caught by a this group belong five species of pipe-
fisherman of Polperro, in 1834. It is, fishes found upon our coasts, remark-
however, common in the Mediterranean, able for the length and slenderness of
and is noted for its voracity and the their body, and the tenacity and pro-
severity of its bite; though extremely longation of the snout into a sort of
beautiful in colouring, it is a hideous tube, with a small mouth at its extremity.
fish, with small eyes, tumid cheeks, and The males of some of the species have
wrinkled skin; its teeth are in single an elongated pouch under the tail, closed
rows, long and sharp; the body is by two folding membranes, and in which
rounded anteriorly, compressed and the eggs deposited by the female are
tapering towards the tail. The ground hatched, although the time and mode
colour of the anterior parts is a fine in which they are transferred to this


receptacle is unknown. Unlike most abdomen may represent the chest: the-
fish, the pouched pipe-fishes are strongly tail is long, tapering, and prehensile;
attached to their young, and when the dorsal fin is high; the mail-clad
danger threatens, the pouch serves them body and tail are traversed by longi-
as a place of retreat. Of these fishes, tudinal and transverse ridges, with
the great-fish (Syngizathus acus) is one of angles of intersection.
the most common, and is often kept by Specimens of this fish have, it is said,
the fishermen in a dried state to sell as a been occasionally found curled up in
curiosity to sea-side visitors. It is from oyster-shells, but of their general habits
one to two feet in length, when fully little is known.
grown, and is of a pale yellowish brown, When swimming about they maintain
with dark and broad bands at regular a vertical position, but the tail is ready
intervals. This species may be seen to grasp whatever it meets in the water,
slowly moving about, in a singular quickly entwines in any direction round
manner, horizontally or perpendicularly, the weeds, and when fixed the animal
with the head downwards or upwards, intently watches the surrounding objects,
and in every attitude of contortion in and darts at its prey with great dex-
search of food, which seems chiefly terity.
to be water insects. Mr. Yarrell ob- When both approach each other, they
serves, that these fishes "are supposed often twist their tails together, and strug-
to be able, by dilating their throat at gle to separate or attach themselves to
pleasure, to draw their food up their the weeds; this is done by the hinder
cylindrical beak-like mouth, as water is part of their cheeks, or chin, which is
drawn up the pipe of a syringe." The also used for raising the body when a
male of this species is furnished with a new spot is wanted for the tail to entwine
pouch. afresh. The eyes move independently,
The attachment of the Syngnathi to as in the chameleon; this, with the
their young has been noticed by several brilliant irridescence about the head, and
authors; and Mr. Yarrell says, that he its blue bands, forcibly remind the ob-
has been assured by fishermen, that if server of that animal.
the young be shaken out of the pouch The general colour of this fish is a
into the water, close to the boat, they pale brown, with changeable irride-
do not swim away; but when the science, and variable tints of blue. The
parent fish is held in the water, in a males are furnished with a pouch. Total
favourable position, the young again length, aoout five inches.
enter the pouch. The most remarkable Cuvier terms his sixth order of osseous
circumstance, however, connected with fishes, Plectognathi, from the imperfection
this is, that the pouch-bearer is the male of their jaws, the bones of which are
fish, and that the female is quite destitute firmly attached to the palate bones.
of any such organ. The general structure of the skeleton is
Closely allied to the pipe-fishes are not so hard as in most other osseous
the HiPpocampi, of which one species, the fishes, and the gill-aperture is merely a
short-nosed hippocampus, is to be met small fissure, and the ribs are rudi-
with on different parts of our coast. mentary. In some, as the globe-fishes,
This fish, often called the sea-horse, is or diodons, tetraodons, etc., there are no
of a singular form, the head resembling true teeth, but the jaws are armed with
that of a hog or tapir, with a slender a substance like ivory, resembling in
tubular snout, at the end of which is a form a parrot's beak, but of laminated
small mouth. The neck is arched like structure. These successive layers suc-
that' of a horse, and the protuberant ceed each other in proportion, as the

-- __-- .
_ -.-

'----- ---_:- ---_---.: -:--r i '[ .:!
S.. ..... ----- ---

S.. :

,, .,



more anterior are worn by the effect of The flesh of the Orthagorisci is soft
crushing and grinding the sea-weeds and and very indifferent, and possesses a dis-
crustaceous animals on which they feed. agreeable odour; qualities which cause
In another family, containing the file- it to be very little esteemed. It is, how-
fishes (Balistes), and the box-fishes ever, fat, and yields a considerable
(Ostracion), the muzzle is protruded and quantity of oil. When alive, these fishes
conical, with a small mouth, armed with have a silvery appearance, and at night

The Trunk-fish.

distinct but not numerous teeth in each
jaw. Some of these fishes feed on
corals and sea-weed.
There are three instances on record
of a species of globe-fish having been
taken on the coast of Cornwall, wan-
derers by accident from warmer lati-
tudes. A species of file-fish has once
been taken off the Sussex coast.
P *The Sun-fish.
Two species of sun-fish are occasion-
ally seen off our coasts, of which the
short sun-fish (Orthagoriscus mola) is the they are said to be exceedingly phos-
most common. This fish is of a circular phorescent; from which circumstance,
form, and though there is a caudal fin, coupled with their more or less rounded
united to the dorsal fin and the under form, it is probable that the names of
fin, there is no tail. The jaws are armed Sun-fish and Moon-fish, applied to them
with an undivided cutting edge. This in different places, are derived.
fish is very shining; it often grows to a On very dark nights the sun-fish is
great size, and has been taken weighing sometimes seen swimming in the soft
three hundred pounds, but such large light which emanates from its body, the
specimens are very rare. Generally rays rendered undulating by the rip-
these fishes are observed drifting along pling of the water which it traverses,
as if asleep on their side, but sometimes so as to resemble the trembling light of
swimming in the ordinary manner; they the sun half veiled in misty vapours.
keep much at the bottom of the water, When many of these fishes rove about
and there feed on sea-weeds. They together, mingling their silvery trains,
often, however, ascend in calm sunny the scene suggests the idea of dancing
weather, and lie basking on the surface, stars. The sun-fish is common on the
carried along gently with the tidal west coast of Ireland, also in theMedi-
current. terranean.



HE tribes included under the chief represented in our engraving, which
name of Polynesians in- was copied from a drawing taken from
Habit the eastern part of life. It was begun in boyhood, when the
SOceania, namely, the Sand- principal outlines were traced; these
which Islands, the Mar- were finished gradually as life advanced.
Squesas, the Friendly and As the punctures in the skin had each
Society groups, etc. The time to be healed before the operator
people of all these bear a could proceed with his work, and pay-
close affinity to each other. Their cor- ment had to be made to "the artist" of
plexion is olive, verging on brown, but one or more pigs on each occasion, only
not copper-coloured; they are tall in chiefs could afford the price or give the
stature, and have sinewy limbs, high necessary time, in order to appear in the
foreheads, black and expressive eyes, highest style of Marquesan fashion.
and but slightly flattened noses. Their The islands are of volcanic origin,
lips are generally larger than those of each consisting of a mountain ridge
the whites, but they, nevertheless, have rising to a height of 2,000 feet or more,
handsome mouths and splendid teeth, from which lesser ridges shoot out in
Their hair is straight and black, every direction to the shore, with fertile
Most of the tribes belonging to the valleys between them. The soil con-
Polynesian family are thorough savages, sists of hundreds of layers of decomposed
but their stock is diminishing day by day, vegetation, and produces the yam, sugar-
and the result of neighboring civilisa- cane, banana, plantain, taro, sweet
tion will be to replace the native element potato, cotton, and other tropical plants,
by European races. almost without culture; while the hill-
The Marquesas group consists of sides are covered with forests and under-
thirteen islands in the South Pacific brush, the predominant trees being the
Ocean. They vary from thirty to sev- cocoanut, bread-fruit, pawpaw, and fan-
enty miles in circumference. They are palm. Animal life is very limited, there
called Washington Islands by the Ameri- being no indigenous mammalia, although
cans, who discovered several of them; the hog, cat, and rat have been intro-
and they are now under the protection duced from Europe. There are not
of France. The entire population is not more than half-a-dozen species of native
more than 20,000. birds.
The inhabitants of these islands are a The islanders find an abundant supply
fine race-tall, strong, and healthy. In for their wants in the forest of cocoanut.
former days they carried the art of bread-fruit, and pawpaw-trees.
tattooing the body to a greater perfection With the fruit and vegetables they
than any other people. The bodies of supply the ships that visit the bays of
the chiefs were covered all over with the their islands. Missionaries have suc-
most regular and even elegant patterns, ceeded in inducing the people to give up
The operation of tattooing was a work many of their pagan rites; and even
which required a long time to perform. tattooing is rapidly on the decline.
For it to appear in full perfection, thirty Cannibalism is sometimes practiced.
or forty years were sometimes given to but only as an act of vengeance; not, as
the process, as was the case with the in the Fiji islands, as a repast.




At .' ./ rQ NCIF


Ir ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________



l HE dawn was barely visi- go up to the Peaks, then start down,
= ble when I was awakened bringing all you see worth taking along
Sby hearing a sound of with you. Send Billy over to Oakey
V JR conversation near by. It Creek, and let him meet you down at
was Fitzgerald giving Plumtree Camp. You can clean out
Orders to one of the black the m iddle branch of the station creek,
boys. and then bring all you find down to the
"Are all the horses in main'camp, where you will find us."
the yard, Peter ? These directions, which, perhaps, may
"Yohi," answered the black. seem unintelligible to the general reader,
"All right. Take down my bridle referred to the manner in which the
and the bridle which belongs to that young squatter proposed to gather to-
gentleman who came with me last night, gether the cattle among which he
and send them up." expected to collect the bullocks he
"Yohi, Missa Fitzgell. Me ride 'im, required.
Charcoal ? The two parties now separated-Fitz-
"Very well; and tell one of the other gerald with his assistants to examine
boys to catch Forrester for Mr. Thomp- the southern branch of the main creek,
son." together with the country lying between
John now jumped out of bed, and the many tributaries which flowed into
hurrying on his things, made his way it; while the others were to direct their
outside. The sun had not risen, but attention to the opposite side and the
everybody was astir. Black boys were surrounding country. It was most ex-
bringing up horses from a yard in the hilarating riding along in the cool
paddock, into which they had all been morning air. How pleasant the fresh
driven. Breakfast was being carried smell of the grass! Now they pass
in, and every one was preparing for the through a small patch of Brigalow
day's work. After a hasty meal was scrub. Some one has split a piece
disposed of, the horses were saddled, from the trunk of a small tree. What
The little court in front of the houses a scent the dark-grained wood has!
was crowded with horses awaiting their What numbers of wallabies! They
riders. The party consisted of Fitz- start out in every direction, and, flying
gerald, Thompson, West, two white across the path, swiftly disappear. We
stockmen, cne of whom was Fitzgerald's are in grass once more. Whirr-r-r-r
lad Tommy. Besides these and their a covey of quail start from under the
horses, Mr. Williams's saddle and pack- horses' feet, fly a short distance, and
horse swelled the number, alight on the thick grass. There are
A general mount was now effected, some cattle standing in their camp on
and, bidding good-bye to his enter- a small patch of scrub. We don't want
tamer, Williams started on his way them, however-we can get them any
down country. day. Here is one standing by himself.
"Now, Tommy," said Fitzgerald, It is a two-year-old steer--a white one.
speaking to the youth just mentioned, He stands perfectly still; his hanging
"we are going to divide. You, with head and tucked-up body betray hi
Mr. Thompson and Billy Barlow, can want of health. As we ride past he


shows the whole of his eye, and, gather- unobserved before, but almost under
ing up his strength, he gives a deep your horse's feet, is his mate. Startled
hollow cough which rakes his whole by the horses, she quickens her pace,
frame. "Pleura," said Fitzgerald, read- breaks into a run, opens her large
ing John's inquiring glance; "we always wings, beats the air two or three times,
have it more or less on the run." and rising, wings her way heavily off,
"Does it not carry off immense followed almost immediately by her
numbers of cattle?" companion, uttering a kind of hoarse
"Well, it has done so; but for some croak. There they light again, not a
years past we find its ravages have quarter of a mile away. Now we come
been nothing to speak of. A great deal to a water-course. It is a succession of
has been written on the subject. Some longish holes filled with clear water.
have proposed preventing the attacks Trees, with drooping branches like
of the disease by inoculation; others, willows, fringe its sides. The broad
again, laugh atthe idea. For my part, leaf of the lotus, amid which rises here and
I am convinced that pleura lurks in every there the beautiful flower, floats on the
herd in the country, and that it only surface. Look at the wild ducks swim-
wants favourable conditions to make its ming in twos and threes. Stay for one
appearance." instant. There, on that broad lotus-
"( What are those conditions? asked leaf, two or three little mites of wild
John. ducklings are sitting. Their mother,
"Much knocking about invariably with the rest of the family, is floating
produces it; for instance, it often breaks calmly beside them. Her quick eye
out amongst cattle on a long journey, notes us; she moves away, her little
or that have been herded long. It is brood following. Now those on the leaf
also much more severe among cattle plunge in and swim bravely after her,
feeding on rich swampy pastures than shaking their little tails. The other
on the high hilly stations. Besides ducks, catching the alarm, at once
which, there is no doubt, I think, that it detect the cause. A sudden splash, a
is both contagious and infectious, and, few frightened quacks, and away they
of course, some constitutions have a fly, the water dripping brightly from
hereditary tendency to it." their Webbed feet as they rise, with the
Now they emerge on a plain bounded sunlight glinting on their dark-brown
by scrub, with openings between the bodies and blue-and-bronze wings.
patches, and vistas of plains and more There they go, out of sight in a
scrub in the distance. On the plain, minute. The mother and her brood
about half a mile away on the right, a have vanished in the same instant.
large herd of cattle are scattered, You may search, but you will not find
gently feeding towards their camp. them. The little things understand
What a delightful spot for a gallop! diving as well as their mother, and the
How fresh the horses are! Gaylad feels banks of the creek are one mass of
as if he could devour the space between sedges and long grass. Watch, here
him and that beautiful blue chain whose come the ducks back again. High in
distant peaks glitter in the morning the air they approach, following the
sunshine. "Way horse; steady, Gay- course of the creek with the rapidity of
lad, you'll have your work to do by-and- lightning. Here they come, right over-
by." See, there is a plain turkey, quite head; a confused whizz denotes the
close; he walks steadily along, keeping speed they are travelling at, and down
his head up and his eye fixed on us. the water-course they take their way to
He is quite within shot. There, there, alight in some undisturbed spot.


As you leave the water, pigeons of smelling our approach. They turn and"
all kinds, from the strong beautiful run. The old brutes, they know quite
bronze-wing to the gentle squatter and well what it is to be rounded up; they
little dove, fly from under your horse's have been hundreds of times in the
feet, with strong rapid-flapping noise, or yard; it is all roguery. Now some of
sit crouching on the ground, humbly the rest notice them running, they run
hoping that their insignificance and also; had the old cows remained quiet
homely plumage will not attract atten- the others would havebeen stationary too.
tion. A white crane, and a few dark- Now they are making off in a body.
feathered water-hens, at the far end of Sam, the white stockman with the party,
the water-hole, seeing you moving, and Peter the black fellow, mounted on
conclude to stay. Here is the half-dried Charcoal, spur after them, get in front,
carcase of a beast. It died here on the and, heading them, bring them to a
camp near the water. Whew, what a standstill.
smell! Any one who wants more than There are a dozen nice bullocks in the
one whiff of that is a glutton. Look at mob. After making them stand a little to
that "booming 'guana!" He has been cool them, Peter is sent to take then
feeding sumptuously on the carrion, over the river to a camp, to be picked
He is watching us with his "glittering up by the party on their return down
eye," his head up, his viscous tongue the other side. The party divide once
darting out now and then like a serpent's more. Sam and Peter go one way;
fangs. He knows we are observing John still remains with his friend, arid
him; off he scuttles at an incredibly they have two or three exciting gallops
swift pace, making for that big iron- after different mobs. Gaylad is sweat-
bark tree. Gallop after; hit him with ing now. What a little stunner he is!
your whip. Ah, you are too late! he It will not be his fault if the cattle get
has reached it before you; he is away away. He watches their every move-
up lying flat on a high branch. You ment with a personal interest. Fitz-
can just see the end of his tapered tail gerald and John have got a good mob
hanging over, or his head, the tongue together. They have taken them across
still striking venomously, the creek, and are bringing them down
Now we emerge on still largeadowns. the other side to pick up the cattle on
dotted prettily with cotton bush. Cattle- the camps there. The bullocks and
tracks converge from all points to the steers and heifers go along without
water. They are quite narrow, like much trouble; but some of those old
little footpaths. The ground bears on cows with calves try all sorts of dodges
its surface the impressions of many to get away. They fear that we are
feet. You cannot find a foot square mustering for branding. It will come
without the point of a hoof of some age soon enough. Let us get through with
or another. The grass must be sweet these fat cattle, then we shall set to work
here, the cattle keep it cropped down so branding.
closely. That long line of tall white- There, that cunning old wretch of a
stemmed gum-trees marks the banks of cow has managed to slip away with her
Ithe main creek; here is the junction calf, and she is making off for some
of the southern and northern branches, scrub in the distance., Now, Gaylad;
We must cross and follow up this branch now, boy, fetch her back. Indeed Gay-
next us. Yonder is a mob of cattle; lad wants no bidding, but is flying over
they are not so quiet as those we have the ground at his best. Now he reaches
already seen. Two or three old cows the cow and her calt, a good strong six-
nearer us than the others lift their heads, months'-old bull. She swerves away as


the horse approaches. Now is your home for branding to-day. We cannot
time, John; close on her, turn her, keep draft the bullocks out properly here
her head to the mob; give her a cut or though; we require all hands for that.
two with your whip, and she will be Let us keep as many as we can of the
amongst them once more. Ah! you do others back on the camp, therefore,
not know how to manage your rein; your when they start. It is not quite easily
bridle-hand is fumbling with it; it is too done either; for with stronger perver-
loose; your whip is in your way. Gay- sity those even who wanted to stay
lad flies past the cow about twenty behind previously now desire to go
yards; she once more makes off in her along with the mob, and insist on follow-
own direction, ing up, until effectually driven back to
Once more John charges her with the their camp.
same result, only that this time, as he We have yet a large number, and
holds the rein tighter, Gaylad, obeying still pick up more as we go along. Gay-
the check, props round at the same in- lad makes himself very busy in assisting
stant the old cow does. John finds him- to drive. Should any beast in his vicinity
self sitting on his horse's neck; it is a lag behind to crop a sweet morsel he
miracle how he holds on. He manages marks him; then, laying his ears back,
to get back to his seat, and confining with outstretched neck and open mouth,
operations to a trot, succeeds in heading he rushes at the offender, inflicting some-
the chase back towards the mob. He times a rather sharp bite: The loud
will punish her at any rate for the trouble pistol-like report of a stock-whip is heard
she has given him. Two or three des- again, this time ahead. The leading
operate cuts at the cow fall harmlessly, cattle quicken their pace. Bellows in
another only gets the lash under Gay- the distance are answered by bellows
lad's tail, who resents the indignity by from the mob. We come in sight of a
kicking once or twice, and humping his large number of cattle standing close to-
back, and nearly upsetting his rider, gether on an open yet shady camp, and
Now a camp with a good many cattle some distance apart, under a shady tree,
on it has been reached. Sam and Peter are three horses. Their riders are lying
have evidently been here, and are away on the ground. The two mobs mingle
after more. The cattle stop of their own now, amid terrific roaring, as we ride
accord, mingling with the rest, uttering up to the little party under the tree.
many bellows of greeting. Fitzgerald "Well, Thompson, had much luck ?"
proposes to wait for a little. What a "Got about sixty or seventy head, I
thorough master of his work he looks, think."
as with careless ease he sits side-saddle "There are forty or fifty in our lot,"
fashion on Bugler, his long whip hanging said Fitzgerald; "we had better set to
festooned round him Hark! there work at once. It will take all our time
goes a whip The cattle on the camp re- to get them drafted and yarded before it
commence bellowing. Here they come gets late."
down this gully-the bullocks and young Now they prepare for work. John,
cattle ahead, running towards those on with the lad Tommy and Billy Barlow,
the camp, roaring as they run. A mixed is told off to ride round the cattle, and
lot, with many cows and calves, bring prevent them straggling off the camp.
up the rear, after which come Sam and Peter is to look after the bullocks when
Peter, riding side by side. There are separated from the main crowd, and
so many cows and calves, it is not ad- Fitzgerald, Thompson, and Sam are to
visable to drive them as far as the main draft. A few very quiet animals are
creek. We don't intend taking them driven out, and placed at about one


hundred and fifty yards from the rest, to the intelligent creatures assist their
form a kind of nucleus mob for the riders with all their might. It is a stir-
bullocks to run into. Peter is in atten- ring scene, full of healthy enjoyment and
dance to receive them when they come, wild excitement.
and prevent their making back or run- "How these Australian fellows do
ning away. ride!" thought John, as he notices the
Now, threading his way through the sudden dead-stop and sharp wheel, the
masses of cattle, Fitzgerald selects one rider sitting unmoved in his saddle.,
which his practiced eye tells him is of Look, there is a bullock which has'
the kind wanted, and, riding behind it, proved too much for Thompson single-
urges it quietly to the edge of the mob. handed. He is a large roan bullock,
Bugler knows his work, and loves it with with a red neck, and long, sharp, cocked
all his heart. His undivided attention is horns. He is six or perhaps seven years
given to the animal in front of him. He old. He is one that has been missing
is aware that it is his duty to separate from the run for the last year or two,
him from the herd, and he is determined and has been seen to-day for the first
to do it. Any dodging movement on the time during that period. Most probably
part of the bullock, as, looking from side he has been away on the scrub with a
to side, he approaches the outside ring, wild mob, and in an evil hour has taken
is met with an involuntary motion to balk it into his head to revisit his old haunts.
it on the horse's part, revealing the His temper has not been improved by
intense interest he takes in his work. A his association with the scrubbers. See,
slight raising of the bridle-hand, and he turns on Thompson. What a narrow
Bugler makes a desperate rush. Startled, escape Forrester manages to get out of
the beast singles out from the rest, but his way, but receives an ugly scar on his
immediately tries to double back, and mix thigh, which he will carry while he lives.
up with his fellows. In vain-Bugler's Sam now bears down to Thompson's
quick eye watches him too narrowly; he assistance. Roaney is once again cut
has turned in the same instant, and out of the mob. Watch-now-here!
is racing alongside, between him and here! here they come! The wild-look-
his bellowing mates. Now, so suddenly ing roan bullock endeavours to break
as to be almost instantaneous, the back, while Sam races alongside, his
determined brute has stopped, wheeled body bent forward, uttering short, fierce,
round, and is going at a headlong pace quick shouts, as, waving his hat in his
the opposite way. But it is all of no use. hand, he seeks to intimidate the savage
The practiced stock-horse props at the scrubber into sheering off from the main
same moment, and still at speed bars mob. What a pace they are going at!
the way. A few sharp cuts from Fitz- There they pass side by side between
gerald's whip decide the question, and two trees, that barely allow them room.
the conquered creature joins a couple of The leg of Sam's white moleskins
his mates who have been taken out re- brushes the fire-blackened trunk, and
spectively by Thompson and Sam, and adopts its colour. A sudden fierce prop,
who are now running to mingle with and Roaney has shot behind Sam's
Peter's charge. horse, and succeeds in burying himself
Riding back slowly to breathe their among the many-coloured bellowing
nags, the drafters single out more of herd. Sam rides slowly back, and, dis-
the particular class wanted, and the mounting, slackens the girths of his
scene is repeated. The ground resounds steaming horse, who with hanging
with the rapid battering of the horses' head and quickly-heaving flanks, be,
feet, as, stretched at their utmost speed, trays the exertions he has made.

i ---- -----------
"Well," muttered Sam, rather sulkily, made to rush out into the open the huge
"blessed if he didn't near skiver my beast, whose hot blood is now boiling
hoss! within him. At last he is out, and is
"Now, Sam, as soon as your horse again racing, with Fitzgerald alongside
gets his wind, you and I will tackle him," this time, to get back into the mob.
says Fitzgerald. "Our horses are the "Now then, Sam!" shouts the
handiest. I wouldn't lose that fellow squatter, as the clever bold horse, in
for a trifle. Ten to one, if we don't get obedience to his accomplished rider,
him, after this knocking about, he'll closes on his horned antagonist, and,
make back for the scrubs again." leaning over, presses all his weight
In about ten minutes' time Sam and against the scrubber's shoulder, edging
his master ride side by side through the him towards Peter's mob as they fly
crowded camp. At last they notice along. 'Sam, galloping at the creature's
their savage friend pushing his way heels, has been waiting the word, and
through a thick mob of cattle some dis- now commences a flagellation with his
tance from them. long twelve-footer, which compels the
"Now, Sam," says Fitzgerald, "as red-necked savage to keep his pace up,
soon as we get him fairly out, I'll ride and gladly seek refuge among those
alongside and shoulder him, and you already out.
must keep close up and play on him with It is now time to be making home-
your whip." "All right," growls Sam. wards, and the selected cattle are driven
One or two essays are ineffectually steadily in, and yarded for the night.


ERE is a pirate of the air. The whole bird does not weigh more
S. H e is fo u n d fa r o u t a t th a n th re e p o u n d s a n d a -h a lf, a n d y et
sea, in tropical regions, its wings often measure more than seven
J land alas for any respect- feet from tip to tip. These birds are so
able sea-bird that he may strong and swift upon the wing, that they
) spy carrying home a small are often seen out at sea a thousand miles
S,. cargo of freshly-caught from land, and they will fly straight into
S fish to its expectant family, the eye of the wind, and, when they
Down sweeps this swift choose, can rise high above the hurri-
robber, and before the poor gull or tern cane and the storm.
can make up its mind about terms of They live principally on fish, and, when
surrender, the frigate-bird has forced it they cannot overhaul a weaker and
to drop its fish, which is swooped after slower bird and steal his hard-earned
and caught up by the pirate before it so prize, they will take the trouble to fish
much as touches the water, for themselves. But they seldom dive
It would be a difficult thing for any for their prey. They can see a fish from
bird, respectable or otherwise, to fly an immense height; and when an unfor-
faster than the frigate-bird, which has tunate fellow happens to be swimming
longer and more powerful wings, in pro- near the top of the water, a frigate-bird,
portion to its size, than any other bird. floating in the air so high up as to be
If its wings were stretched out, you would almost invisible, will suddenly drop down,
see this for yourselves, and with a skim over the surface of the


water, will scoop Mr. Fish out of the Sloane, who saw these and Tropic
waves before he has time to flap a fin. Birds when he came into latitude 13 o1',
Sometimes, you know, flying-fish try says:--"The man-of-war bird seems
their hands, or rather their wing-fins, at very large, bigger than a kite, and black;
flying; and at such times, if there hap- they fly like kites, very high, and often
pens to be a frigate-bird about, he gen- appear immovable over the water, to
erally lays in a pretty good stock of fish. wait for and catch small fish appearing
Ile catches the flying-fish as easily as on the surface: they are sharp winged,
you would pull up radishes, and their tail is forked. When flying-
One of the most contemptible prac- fishes are persecuted under water by
tices of this bird is that of stealing the dolphins, bonitos, etc., they rise and fly
young ones from the nests of other for some space in the air, and are often
birds. Nothing pleases a frigate-bird devoured by these birds in that time.
better than a diet of tender, unfledged We saw them first when we came near
nestlings. Barbadoes. These sailors guess them-


He makes rather a poor figure on selves not many days, or about two
land; and as he is not a good swimmer, hundred leagues, off the islands when
he spends most of his time in the air, they spy them first; and it is wondered
where he certainly shows to great advan- how they can direct their course to the
tage, as far as gracefulness and power land at nights, being so far distant; but
are considered, it seems no very strange matter, because
But, as we see, this bird which is they are very high in the air, and can
capable of such grand flights, living see land much farther than those on the
almost entirely in the air, skimming deck or topmast of a ship. The reason
along over the beautiful ocean waves of their flying so high may be to have a
or soaring high up into the upper air greater field before them for prey, be-
above the storms and clouds, makes no cause they may go where they see the
better use of its advantages than to be- dolphins follow or hunt the flying-fishes.
come a thiefand a pirate whenever a They are commonly thought in the West
chance occurs. Indies to foretell the coming in of ships.



HE Cervide is the family spread out from the base into a broad
S name for the elks, rein- palmation, and in mature animals they
deer, fallow deer, stags, have been known to weigh fifty-six
roebucks, and other rumi- pounds, and are generally cast off in
nants whose horns fall off November. The male often exceeds a
periodically and are re- large horse in bulk; the females are
newed. Their horns in- smaller, and have no horns.
crease in size and in the Like the reindeer, its feet are wonder-
number of antlers till the animal arrives fully adapted to enable it to travel readily
at maturity; and in the decline of life over the soft, yielding surface of the snow.
they decrease, till he bears only the Our illustration shows the large space
single horn of the two-year-old animal, covered by the foot when on the ground
They are widely distributed over the in contrast with the foot when raised.
world, Australia and South Africa being The following lively account of a
the only regions in which they are not moose hunt is from the capital American
found In the northern regions of the magazine, "St. Nicholas" :-

Foot of Reindeer.

United States and British America, we "There were four of us, and we were
have the moose deer, the most ungrace- rather a queer party. There were old
ful in appearance of any of the species; Ben Murch, a lumberman and hunter
but those blemishes in its structure, like well known in that region; a young
the bunches of the camel, are provisions Penobscot Indian named Lewis, or, as he
made by the Author of nature to adapt was more commonly called, "Lewey ;" a
it to its manner of life. Its long limbs young Boston chap named Larkin, but
and short neck adapt it for passing whom we had nicknamed "Larks," and
through the tangled swamps, and brows- myself. We had gone up from Bangor
ing with ease on the twigs of the birch, to the head of Chesuncook Lake, then
the maple, and the poplar, that form as now a sort of supply-dep6t for the
the chief part of its .food. They seldom logging-camps.
feed on level ground, but graze from When I mention that one of our party
below upwards. The horns of the male was an Indian, some may perhaps think


that he was a savage,-one of the so-stop both of you stock-still-don't
blanketed, tomahawking sort. Quite the move till I tell ye."
contrary. Lewey was a very sensible, Thus instructed, we moved cautiously
matter-of-fact young man; dressed like on again. "What does the fellow mean
a Christian, and, saving a tendency to by a 'yard' ?" whispered Larks, as we
extreme brevity, spoke very fair English. picked our way along behind. And as
Indeed, the fellow was quite a humorist some others may perchance need a word
in a certain dry, terse way of his own, in explanation, we will try to give it.
and very tolerable company of an even- Suppose, as is often the case, that
ing. Murch and he frequently hunted late in the fall, just as the snows are
together, selling the venison at the coming, a herd of moose-a dozen say,
neighboring logging-camps. And on though, generally, not more than three
the evening preceding the first day of or four-are browsing on the brink of a
our hunt, February 3, Lewey had come river, or along the shore of a pond or lake.
down to the head from his wigwam, or A snowstorm comes on, and then falls a
winter camp, on the Cusabexis. One foot, perhaps. Naturally enough, the
versed in woodcraft might well wonder moose don't go over as much ground
how two experienced hunters should next day after their browse as if the
happen to take a couple of boys with ground were bare. And very likely,
them on a moose hunt! Well, I suspect too, since it is natural for all creatures
that Larks used undue-possibly pecu- to follow beaten paths,-nor are human
niary-influence with them. Such things beings exceptions,-very likely, I say;
are sometimes done. that nightfall will find them retracing
Day broke clear and frosty. We were their steps to the place whence they
off by sunrise-on snow-shoes. The started in the morning. And thus they
snow was crisp. And as the early sun- will remain for several days, not going
rays fell in through the bare tree-tops over more than a mile or two of ground,
the whole air resounded with the sharp unless disturbed by wolves o men.
snapping of the frozen wood, relaxed by Then comes another storm, with another
the warmth. An hour's walk took us foot of snow. This makes walking about
across the loglands between the supply- still more laborious. And the moose,
dep6t and the river (the West Branch consulting their ease, go about still less.
of the Penobscot), which enters the lake So they keep on, narrowing their feeding-
at some distance above. Crossing the ground after every storm, till, when the
river on the ice a little below Pine snow has become four or five or six feet
Stream Falls,-so near that we could deep, it is nothing unusual to find a herd
hear the plunging waters,-we began to of from three to a dozen snowed into a
ascend the ridgy slopes which lead up yard of from five to thirty acres with
"among the highlands. deep beaten paths running through it in
"Now, boys," said Ben, stopping to every direction, the twigs cropped and
tighten the strings of his snow-shoes, bark gnawed from all the trees.
"the less ye say, and the fewer twigs ye I believe this the more satisfactory
snap the better; for, unless I'm much explanation of a moose-yard, though
mistaken," pointing to the cropped many so-called naturalists will tell you
branches of a yellow birch, "we shall that the moose select their yard before
come upon a yard within a couple of the snows come,-that they are in this
hours. So keep whist. Mind the going. matter "governed by instinct." All of
Don't tread on the dry bush. You which you rihay safely believe the mo-
youngsters may as well keep a few rods ment they satisfactorily define that word,
behind, and whenever I raise my hand-- instinct.


Now, if a hunter can steal up unob- Lewey then told us that he once fol-
served, or rather unheard, within rifle- lowed one a fortnight before getting
shot of one of these yards, why, he near enough to shoot him. But when
stands a good chance of securing one there is a crust upon five feet of snow,
of the herd, at least. But the difficulty the moose, going through to the ground
is to approach unperceived. For there at every plunge, can't hold out over
is no keener-eared animal under the sun twenty-four hours, if followed rapidly.
than a moose. They will often hear or All this time we were going forward
smell a man half a mile, and that, too, as fast as we could walk. For the first
where there is no perceptible breeze, six or eight miles the moose seemed to
The only chance of surprising a yard is have run at full speed, scattering the
when there's a stiff breeze from it; and snow and clearing the brush with pro-
then it is a pretty ticklish job, and but digious bounds. In some places they
rarely done. had thrown out with their hoofs the old
A little farther on, we saw where a dried leaves, deep buried since autumn.
cluster of hazel-bushes had been bitten About three o'clock in the afternoon
off; and soon a shrubby pine, with all we crossed the former path of a tornado,
its lower branches stripped of their which, in its terrific course through the
tassels. These were indications of a forest, had torn down nearly all the trees
yard not many miles off. The moose along a clearly-defined belt,-only a few
had been here, but later snows had rods in width, but stretching away east
covered the track, and west as far as we could see. The
We walked with as little noise as prostrate trunks lay piled across each
possible. It was rather blind work, other in the wildest confusion. Over
though ; for the thick, mixed growth made these the moose had bounded in a man-
it impossible to see more than six or ner almost incredible; running without
eight rods ahead. Presently we came the least apparent regard for the snow-
to a clump of moose-wood shrubs buried logs, and making a bee-line
browsed off as before, with a faint trail across the windfalls. One leap especi-
under the more recent snows leading ally astonished us. Three large bass-
away to the left. Among this Lewey and woods had fallen in a rick, the topmost
Ben picked their way softly, followed at lying fully seven feet above the surface
some distance by Larks and myself. of the .snow, which lay from four to five
We had gained the summit of a high feet all about them. This formidable
ridge, and were now descending into the abattis one of the moose had cleared at
valley beyond. The shrubs along the a jump, landing among the logs nearly
trail had nearly all been cropped-all a rod beyond.
save the spruce; moose never touch The short February afternoon rapidly
spruce boughs. waned. A snow-bank" had risen in
"Don't you ever use hounds to hunt the south-west.
them with ?" Larks inquired. "Another snow-storm by to-morrow,"
Not often," replied Ben. "Some do, said Ben.
but we don't. We have better luck It was growing dusk. Presently the
without dogs than with them. A moose forest lightened ahead, and in a few
isn't like a fox. A fox will run round minutes we came out on a broad white
and round from hill to hill; but a moose expanse stretching away to the north-
keeps straight ahead. We've found ward.
that our best way is to keep steady after "Lake Cauquomgomac," remarked
them till they get tired enough to let us Lewey. Then, looking through his
get up within shooting distance." hands, Yonder they go "


Straining our eyes in the deepening taking off our snow-shoes and loosening
twilight, we could just make out some our belts, to make a thorough dinner,
dark objects far out on the lake, one- moistening the same with snow-water,
two-three, yes, three of them. They melted in the palms of our hands.
were three or four miles from the shore, This over with, we broke off great
and making directly towards a small armfuls of fir boughs, and spreading
island situated near the upper end of the them on the snow, lay down with our
lake. When chased, moose will fre- feet to the fire-to sleep. How the
quently run off to an island, or a high flickering blaze lighted up that savage
hill, which commands a good outlook of little glen, with its dark, wild trees, as
the country around, we lay there looking up, with cold noses
"They'll haul up at that island to and colder fingers! while from the lake
breathe," said Ben. "Spend the night came those fearful sounds,-said to pre-
there, like enough, if they don't catch cede a storm,-the moaning and roaring
sight of us on the lake." of the ice; a phenomenon common
"Couldn't we work up to them after enough to frozen waters, yet always
dark?" I hazarded. startling, and especially so by night.
"Not without first getting their con- In spite of these sounds, we fell
sent," said Ben, laughing. Then, turn- asleep,-to shiver through a frigid
nmg to Lewey, "What's to be done? delirium of chilly dreams and visions of
"Two of us stay here-two of us go gigantic moose. A pull at my coat-
round lake-above island," replied sleeve roused me; it was Lewey. The
Lewey. Head off moose." fire had gone out; all was dark.
"And so scare them from the island Get up," said he in a whisper. You
and then shoot at them from an am- go with me. No need to wake Larks.
bush?" questioned Ben. Lewey nodded. I've talked with Ben. You and I go
"Not to-night, I hope," said Larks, round lake; head off moose."
upon whom our long day's tramp was I understood, and scrambled up; but
beginning to tell. I was covered with snow, and felt cold
Ben turned to look at him No, not soft touches in my face; it was snowing
to-night, I guess," said he at length, heavily. Off in the east the dim pallor
Then to Lewey, "We'll camp here, I of a stormy morning had begun to show
reckon," with a nod of his head towards faintly. With numb fingers we tugged
Larks and myself. Lewey assented, at the frozen straps of our snow-shoes;
merely muttering, "No fire: not make then shouldering our guns, started
fire on shore; go back." northward. The light snow cracked
Back we accordingly went to a little and creaked under our feet,-dull and
ravine in the woods, a number of rods monotonous sounds,-as we plodded on,
from the lake. By this time it had on, blindly as far as I was concerned.
grown very dark; but collecting brush Lewey led; it was as much as I could
as best we could, and breaking off do to keep from bumping against the
slivers and bark from an old hemlock tree trunks. But it gradually grew
trunk, we soon had a crackling blaze, light. We were skirting the lake, keep-
A hunter's knapsack is not quite so ing back from the shore.
ornamental as a soldier's, but handier, I After going on for several miles as
think. It consists of a large, deep it seemed to me, the mixed growth
pocket in, or rather on, the back of his changed to a still heavier one of black
hunting-frock. In these we had packed spruce. Beneath the dark, shaggy tops
away two days' rations of beef and corn- all was quiet; but overhead the wind
cake, and now we proceeded, after drove; and now and then the snowy


gusts sifted down through the thick hiding-place, shouting and -brandishing
boughs. Out on the lake the storm my gun.
howled. "Run! Run for your life I" shouted
By nine o'clock we had got round to Lewey. "Get among spruces The
the northern end, or head of the lake, moose had already caught sight of me,
and could just discern, through the and came rushing up the bank with a
driving flakes, the outline of the island a great gnashing and grinding of its teeth.
mile below. If the moose had left it, No time for bravado I I dropped my
they had probably come across to the gun and ran-as fast as a fellow can
woods at about this place. Still keep- on snow-shoes-back into the woods.
ing in the forest, we examined the shore A clump of low, dense spruces were
for nearly half a mile; there were no growing near. I made for them,-the
tracks. It was fair to conclude that moose alter me,-and, diving in amid
they were still below us,-at the island, the thick, prickly branches, went down
Nothing now remained to us but to wait on my hands and knees and scrambled
for a chance to shoot them. aside under the boughs, spider-like. The
"Watch here," said Lewey, pointing moose crushed into the thicket, snorting
to the upturned root of an old windfall, and thrashing about not ten feet from
"Hide here-make gun sure-put on where I lay.
new cap-aim straight." "Lie flat! yelled Lewey's voice from
With this advice Lewey left me and somewhere outside. "Don't stir! "
went on some dozen or fifteen rods, Bang! followed by another crash and
where he took his stand in a similar a noise of struggling. I crawled out
manner. Resting my gun through a and saw Lewey standing near, with the
chink in the root, I began my vigils, smoke still curling from his gun.
An hour passed. The storm still raged "Much hurt ?" exclaimed he, seeing
fiercely. Ben was giving us plenty of me on all fours.
time. But, keeping my eyes fixed on "Not a scratch! cried I, jumping up.
the island, I waited for the earliest ap- A Yankee would have laughed at me
pearance of the moose. Suddenly the heartily. Lewey merely remarked, "He
faint report of a gun came on the snow- most have you," and turned to look at
laden blast; Larks's rifle, I felt sure. the moose, which we found dead.
And the next moment three dark objects In the course of half an hour Ben and
darted out from the island and came Larks came up. The moose was then
straight towards us. How swiftly they skinned, and cut in pieces. The storm
approached, growing larger every mo- still continuing, it was decided to give
ment, till the great unwieldy forms were up the hunt and rest content with what
close upon us! Now for it! we had got. Kindling a fire, we broiled
Setting my teeth, I aimed at the fore- some excellent moose-steaks, off which
most,-he was now within fifty yards,- we made a hearty dinner.
and fired! Almost at the same instant A moose-sled was constructed,-a
another report rang out. The moose rude sled of poles and withes, with
fell headlong into the snow. There was broad runners. About half the meat-
a great snorting and crashing through a weight of some four hundred pounds
the brush; the other two swept past me -was packed upon this, to be taken
like the wind, and on into the forest, back with us. The other half was buried
The wounded moose, too, had bounded in the snow, to be taken away at another
to his feet, and with a hideous whine he time. Thus buried it will at once freeze,
came floundering heavily on. In my and keep sweet till the snow melts in the
excitement I had jumped up from my spring.


are interest- discovery. He was seen the following

ab oust the great making his way towards the head of the

the adventurous Jac- already mentioned, and here they passed
S ques Balmat, the hero ofar the night. The next day the hunter re-
Mont Blanc, perhaps the turned alone, and Jacques Balmat was
hardiest and most indomi- never seen again. His companion be-
table mountaineer that ever trayed great reluctance to answer any
drew breath, even beneath questions concerning him, and when
the shadow of the Alps. He pressed, always asserted that they had
had, unfortunately for himself, separated in the morning, Jacques Bal-
contracted a habit of gold- mat making his way towards the glaciers,
seeking, which kept him poor he returning in the other direction, as
all his life; and he had long had the old man insisted upon going into
an idea that some veins, ap- places of such danger that he dared not
parently of carboniferous earth, which follow him.
streak the calcareous precipices near the Of what befell Balmatv after they
glaciers of Mont Rouan, gold-ore might parted, he declared he knew nothing.
be found. The Val Orsine man stuck to his story
In the month of September, 1834, whenever interrogated, and unsatisfac-
being then no less than seventy-two years tory as his manner was always felt to be,


nothing could be discovered to contra- that he had suffered him to remain so
dict his account; and there the matter long under a cloud, or for what other
rested till fresh light was thrown upon it reason does not appear, but he now for
by an incident which illustrates curiously the first time told this story to the then
the state of society at Sixt, and the nature Vice-Syndic of Sixt. The Vice-Syndic
of the objects of primary importance in communicated the intelligence, first to
the eyes of the village politician. Jean Payot of Chamouni, and afterwards
Years after this occurrence, a disclo- repeated it in the presence of my infor-
sure was made by a man who, at the mant, Auguste Balmat. The children
time Jacques Balmat disappeared, had in question were inquired for, but it
been Syndic of the commune, an officer seemed they had left the neighbourhood.
deriving his authority from the fact of The spot, however, from which the
his being the representative of the central figure had been seen to fall, a little green
administration, not, as now, from being oasis in the desert of rock, was pointed
the free choice of popular election. This out; and a fresh expedition was orga-
person now divulged, for the first time, nised, on an extensive scale, from
that the day after Jacques Balmat was Chamouni.
last seen, a peasant of his commune had Among the explorers were Auguste
informed him, that on 'the previous day Balmat and several other relatives of the
his two children had been playing on the deceased, and one Michel Carrier, the
grassy slopes on the northern side of the artist of the great plan in relief of Mont
Fond de la Combe, when they beheld a Blanc, known to visitors at Chamouni,
man, who had been apparently creeping and a tolerable draughtsman.
along the naked face of the rocks oppo- With incredible difficulty, and taking
site, above a great accumulation of the utmost precautions against accidents,
broken blocks of ice, which had been they succeeded in reaching the green
pushed over a precipice by the advance knoll near and at the side of the glacier.
of the glacier, suddenly fall and dis- Here they found below them a precipice,
appear in a chasm between the rock and and at the foot of this the broken masses
the ice. of ice shot over the edge of the platform
Influenced by motives which the reader on which the glacier rests. Auguste
would scarcely guess, and which it would was tied to a rope, but found it impossible
appear were shared by his informant, to descend the face of the rock, or to get
the Syndic strictly charged the children any nearer to the chasm which had re-
never to breathe a syllable of what they ceived his great uncle. He- described it
had seen, and threatened them with all as a black gulf, the bottom of which. he
the undefined terrors of the law if they could not see, into which a stream issuing
ever ventured to tell the story to any one from the glacier was thundering, and
else. The children were young, and stones and blocks of ice, broken off as
probably living at a solitary chalet, the glacier poured over the ridge, were
where they had no one but their parents continually falling. All hope was there-
to talk to, and either forgot or only fore finally abandoned of the possibility
faintly remembered the incident, and the of finding any traces of the great pioneer
secret had been kept to that hour. The of Mont Blanc. Carrier, however, took
Syndic was well aware that the relatives a sketch of the spot, and the party re-
of Balmat had made anxious but fruitless turned to Chamouni. Some time after-
searches for his remains, and that some wards he and Auguste Balmat went
sort of suspicion of want of candour had together to the Val Orsine.
fallen upon the Val Orsine hunter, and, When they drew near to the hunter's
whether his conscience at last smote him, cottage, Carrier went on alone to the

_c~-z' unil !IF M


5~7e I


7 wr

MO ,



door, and asked Pache if he had seen ceive the importance justly attached by
Balmat, adding, "I expected him some- the members of a mountain community
where about here; he is gone to seek to their forests. Not only do they de-
minerals." The man answered that he pend upon them, and upon nothing else,
had not seen Auguste, but invited Carrier for their supplies of fuel and for their build-
to sit down and wait for him. Half an ing materials, but also for the still more
hour afterwards Balmat came by, as if important service of at once breaking up
casually, and asked Pache if he had seen into detached portions the accumulations
Carrier. The hunter insisted on their of the winter snow which falls upon the
taking a bottle of wine, to which they area they cover, and of forming a pro-
assented, on condition that he should testing barrier against the avalanches
come to Val Orsine and dine with them. hurled from the heights above them.
Accordingly the three adjourned to the These avalanches bring with them not
inn at Val Orsine, where they sat down merely snow, but rocks, stones, and
to dinner, and Balmat and Carrier took debris, and, sweeping over the unpro-
care to ply the old hunter freely with tected mountain sides in prodigious
wine. When it had begun to tell upon volumes and with incredible velocity,
him a little, and the suspicious reserve he not unfrequently tear off large portions
always maintained in the presence of of mould, and, kneading it up with their
those whom he associated with Jacques own substance, cover the comparatively
Balmat had a little worn away, Carrier, level ground, which finally arrests their
who was sitting beside him, suddenly progress, with a compound of earth and
pulled out the sketch he had taken, and snow. When the spring comes round
laid it before him, saying, "Connaissez- and the snow melts into water, the land
vous cette image?" is covered with a thick deposit of mud,
The hunter, taken off his guard, started through which it will perhaps take two or
back, exclaiming, "Mon Dieu! voila ou three seasons for the herbage beneath
Jacques Balmat est peri "-" What, to force its way; so that even if houses,
then," said Carrier, you know where he men, and cattle be out of the reach of
perished ?" The man appeared confused the avalanche, it may do damage enough
for a moment, and then recovering his to impoverish a whole neighbourhood.
habitual caution, said, "No, no, I know Anything, therefore, which tends to the
nothing about it; but I saw the scene destruction of their forest ramparts is
near which I left him, and it struck me as regarded by the peasantry as a deplor-
the kind of place he might have fallen able calamity.
down." He then got up, and no en- Jacques Balmat was a noted gold-
treaties could prevail upon him to stay; seeker, and, despite his ill success,
and by no artifice could he be induced enjoyed considerable reputation through-
to approach the subject again. out the communes near to Chamouni as
It is not difficult to understand that an a person of great knowledge and ex-
ignorant peasant, fearful of being charged perience on such subjects. The moment
with having had a hand in the death of the Syndic heard that the children had
Jacques Balmat, should have imagined seen a man fall down the precipice of
that his safety lay in pretending abso- Mont Rouan, he conjectured that Jacques
lute ignorance of every circumstance Balmat, who had been seen in the valley
connected with his fate; but the conduct a day or two before, had been searching
of the Syndic, to whom the whole mystery for gold in that neighbourhood, and that
was known, requires to be explained a it was he who had met with the terrible
little more in detail. It is not easy for a fate described by the children. A vague
person unfamiliar with the Alps to con- local tradition had long been current,


which asserted that gold was to be found be opened, vast quantities of wood would
in the valley, and that some Swiss ad- be needed to smelt the ore, the interests
ventures had even made their fortunes of the valley would be sacrificed to the
by working it; but little heed was paid influence of persons who could gain the
to the story, and no one had assigned to ear of the authorities at Turin, and their
the popular notion any particular loca- forests would be destroyed to feed the
lity. cupidity of strange adventurers. Such
So if Jacques Balmat were once known was the train of thought which passed
to have selected a definite spot for his through the mind of the wary Syndic,
researches, his example would be fol- and determined him, at all hazards, to
lowed, and the discovery which had been suppress every trace of facts which might
frustrated by his tragical death would put future gold-bunters on the right
be accomplished by others. Mines would scent.





HE cartilaginous fishes weighing upwards of two thousand
(Condropterygii) are those pounds, with a roe of five or six hundred
in which the skeleton is pounds. The other is a smaller species,
never thoroughly ossified, usually from four to six feet long.
but remains permanently The first fishery of the great sturgeon
as tough cartilage. begins in April, at the various stations
In the fishmongers' along the coast. The lines laid down
shops of our metropolis, are on the same principle as the bulters
huge examples of the sturgeon (Acczienser and snoods sometimes made use of in
sturio), a fish regarded as royal, is often cod-fishing, but of course the tackle is of
to be seen. It is, however, only a royal far greater strength. These lines are
fish when caught in the Thames, within examined twice a day, and the fish which
the jurisdiction of the Lord Mayor, it are caught are disengaged, and when a
being by ancient custom reserved for the rope from shore is passed through their
royal tables. The sturgeon has a long, gills, they are put into the water, to be
pointed, conical snout; the mouth opens kept alive till the time for cutting them
underneath in the throat; the body is up arrives. A single vessel will some-
elongated, and defended by indurated times capture fifty of these fish in twenty-
plates and spines, arranged in longi- four hours. The work of cutting up
tudinal rows. This fish is often taken on these fish is managed on planks, along
various parts of our coast, and in the the shore. The sounds are obtained by
estuaries of rivers, where it is frequently the isinglass makers; the roes are put
entangled in salmon nets. Its struggles into tubs, of which the preparers of
are very desperate, and it sometimes caviare take the charge; the fish is then
occasions much trouble. The flesh of cleared of refuse, cut up, and put in
this fish, which is sold in slices, is much layers into brine vats in underground
esteemed by many; it is firm and white, cellars, for the sake of coolness; after this,
like veal, and generally prepared as a the fish are taken out, again sprinkled
stew, with a rich gravy; it is also pre- with salt, and placed on layers in store
served by salting. The roe of the stur- cellars, lined with ice. One or more
geon on the continent is made into a large vessels are continually passing to
condiment, called caviare, and the best Astracan from the fisheries, and back
isinglass is prepared from the membrane again, bringing salt and needful imple-
of the air-bladder. ments, and returning with salt-fish,
In the Caspian Sea, and in the northern caviare, isinglass, and fish-skins, which
districts of Europe, extensive sturgeon latter, in some parts of Russia and Tur-
fisheries are established, the roe and key, are made into a sort of leather, or
air-bladder being the great desiderata, used instead of window-glass.
The Russian fisheries on the Caspian After the spring fishery of the great
Sea are extremely valuable. In this sturgeon is over, that of the sevruga, the
great inland sea, besides the common smaller species, commences, and lasts
sturgeon, two different species exist: one about a fortnight. This fish is very
is the great sturgeon Beluga (Accipenser abundant, and a single fishing-vessel
Haso), which is from twelve to fifteen, sometimes takes from fifteen to twenty
and sometimes twenty feet long, and thousand. The total number taken in one


season has been calculated at 1,300,000, sturgeon produced annually 103,500 fish,
affording the value of 16,ooo in isin- which afford 30,000 pounds of isinglass,
glass, and 40,000 in caviare. Of the and 414,ooo pounds of caviare.
common sturgeon, the number captured The common sturgeon of our seas
amounts to 300,000, yielding in isinglass sometimes attains to an enormous size;
6,500oo, and in caviare 1o,ooo. one recorded by Pennant, which was
Late in the autumn, and during the caught in the Esk, weighed 460 pounds;
winter, a second fishery of the great and in 1802, a specimen, eight feet long,
sturgeon is carried on. Large holes are was caught in a weir below the castle of
cut in the ice, for the introduction of the Shrewsbury, and weighed 190 pounds.
apparatus of lines and hooks, and the The mouth of the sturgeon is destitute of
fish, when caught, are sent off direct, in teeth, and it is said to feed principally
a frozen state, to Astracan, by means of on mollusks, and various soft substances
sledges. it may find at the bottom of the water.
Some years ago it was calculated that The under side of the snout is garnished
the spring and winter fisheries of the great with four barbules or feelers.


HERE were five Dutchmen had jumped, and we had to follow the
and ourselves, seven in all. spoor by riding on the bank above.
We started at daybreak, These gullies are numerous in that part
and made for the spot where of the country, and are formed by the
the two horses had been heavy rain or thunderstorms; they con-
killed. It was one of those tinue for some miles on the flat grounds,
mornings in South Africa starting from the foot of hills or moun-
when a thick fog precedes tains. We knew that this gully must soon
a very hot day. We reached the dead terminate, as we were then approaching
horses-or rather what was left of them, Tea-bus, or Tea-canister Mountain, so
for there was nothing remaining but the called from its likeness to that article ot
backbones and heads-just as the sun furniture of the Dutch shape.
had risen. The mist was so thick that When we had got to within about 200
the rays of the sun made a complete yards of the termination of the gully, and
halo round you for about twenty yards close to the mountain, out jumped the
distant, and beyond that distance you seven lions-two males, two lionesses,
could see nothing. This made it the and three cubs. They walked majesti-
more critical, as the lions had only left cally away from us, rather to the right,
the carcasses just as we got to the spot. so that we had to continue to the head
We could tell this by the sparkling dew of the gully before we could get at them,
having just been knocked off the grass and the lions were then about 150 yards
and not replaced by the heavy mist. from us, and a little scattered, a great
We counted the spoor or trace of seven black-maned lion being on the left. Old
lions, and could not tell at what moment Dederick Putter, who had been appointed
we might come up with them, for we captain of the hunt, told us to dismount
could ride at a fast walk on their track, hastily, which we did; the horses were
All at once we came to a deep gully, then turned with their tails to the lions,
about eight feet deep and twenty or and were held by the bushmen after-
thirty feet wide; into this gully the lions riders, while we formed up between the


lions and horses, the Dutchmen telling us farmer immediately sat down, and, with
that if the lion charged us and we did his elbows resting on his knees, waited
not kill him we were to retire through or till the lion was within about sixty yards,
between the horses, whereupon the lion when he pulled trigger and the ball
would spring on a horse. entered one of the brave beast's eyes.
When we were all ready he directed a The lion bounded into the air, making a
young Dutchman, a nephew of his, named spring to the front, and then a second
Streydom, to fire a shot, not at but to the one, which brought him to our very feet,
left of the left-hand male lion. The ball where he was dispatched by several
struck the ground about forty yards from shots. The lion's face was perfectly
the noble beast and raised the dust. covered with the brains that oozed out of


The lion made one spring at the spot, the bullet-hole; and the other eye was so
and was seen clutching the air in the covered that I attribute our safety partly
utmost rage; but without one moment's to that circumstance.
delay he turned on us, and, lashing the During this time those who had fired
air with his tail, came towards us, alter- were rapidly re-loading; and it is well
nately making short springs and crouch- that this was done, for without any
ing. We stood with our rifles ready and further provocation the second male lion,
the finger almost on the trigger. The a large brindled one, with a short, up.-
captain told another young Dutchman to right mane, at once turned and came.on
take aim and fire at his own time, while to attack us. The horses were much
we all stood in reserve. This young frightened, and kept turning about, but


we were too intent watching the lion to back, without much danger to ourselves,
prevent it. This time old Dederick turned making a bag of four killed, which was
to me and said, "Englishman, it is your not considered bad sport even in those
turn to fire first." I thereupon stepped days.
three paces to the front and stood wait- The next thing was to skin the lions,
ing for the noble brute. I allowed him which the after-riders did in the most
to come rather nearer, and he was about expert manner; but none of the horses
forty yards distant when I fired; and I would allow the skins to be put on them
should possibly have allowed him to take to be carried home, except my old
another short spring first had it not trooper, who did not so much as wink
been that the Dutchman kept saying, his eye, having considered it, I fancy, a
Schiet! schiet! Allemagtig Engelsch- rather good field-day.
man, schiet." One thing struck me as very curious
They were. not, however, disappointed; -the two male lions, which were of
my ball entered the front joint of the enormous size, were of distinct species,
shoulder and passed out on the opposite although they were fraternising together.
flank, and the brute rolled over at once; The first one killed was a large cream-
but although the bone was broken high coloured lion, with black hairs inter-
up the lion was up again in a moment on mingled, and a mane larger and longer
his three legs, and came on bounding as than any horse's, broad, spreading, and
if nothing had happened. My friend more ragged; while the other was of
Crause fired another ball into the lion's equal size and age, but entirely brindle
head, and several other bullets passed and of one colour, while the mane was
through its body. By this time the re- short, scrubby, and upright. The cubs
maining lions were near the foot of the were, I think, of the short-mane species.
mountain, but two of the cubs were to The skins of the two lions were given
the right, of the others. We at once to Crause and myself, and I sent the
mounted our horses and cut them off black-maned one to follow Sir Harry
from the bush and rocks at the foot of Smith to India; and he long used it as a
the hill, and before they could get into carpet for his tent, a worthy one for the
another gully had shot them from horse- lion-hearted old soldier.


",, C ou must look out for sheep too much to have them carried off
the sheep, wife. These by bears."
warm days will bring "I wish you understood using the gun,
the bears out of their wife. When I am gone, I worry about
dens. They will be leaving you and the baby all day alone.
S ravenous, and like as The woods are so near, I can't help
not they will break into thinking some wild animals may come
the yard and carry off down from the mountains and attack
some of the sheep. I saw bear-tracks up you."
the mountain this morning." "You needn't fear about that," an-
"Well," said Mrs. Pope, "they needn't swered Mrs. Pope. "To be sure it is
expect to get any of our sheep. If they lonesome with neither man nor doo
come prowling round here, I'll drive about. I presume I should feel safer i
them off in some way. We need the I understood handling a gun, but I don't


believe anything will come near in the house, she went on with her work as
day-time. So don't worry about us, usual.
only be sure to get home before dusk." After the breakfast dishes were washed
"Well, good-bye, then. Don't expose and put away, she brought out her little
the baby or yourself to any danger, and "linen-wheel" and went to spinning flax.
I'll be back before night." They must have clothes for summer
So saying, Mr. Pope, with a bag of wear, and that was the season to spin
grain on his horse, started off to mill, and weave, before the summer fully set
leaving his wife and baby alone in their in. I can remember my mother and her
solitary log-cabin in the wilderness, spinning-wheel, and I can imagine just
This. conversation occurred in the how Mrs. Pope looked, sitting with one
town of Kirby, Vermont, in the Spring foot on the treadle. I can hear the buzz
of the year 18II, when that region was of the wheel as it flew round; I can
but little settled, when even women see just how often she dipped her
understood they were in constant peril fingers in the little cup of water, as she
from wild beasts. Jesse Pope's cabin drew out the fibres of flax, and dexter-
stood close to the foot of the Kirby ously shaped the strong symmetrical
mountains, in whose rocky fastnesses thread, in a manner that would astonish
bears, catamounts, and wolves had their modern housewives.
inaccessible dens. Bears especially were All the long forenoon her musical
so thick as to be a source of constant wheel kept humming its pleasant tune,
dread to those who had flocks, or were stopping only now and then as its mis-
compelled to leave their homes unpro- tress either crowed to the baby in the
tected, while they went to the larger cradle, or looked out to see that no wild
settlements on necessary business, animals were prowling about. Noon
Mrs. Pope fully understood the peril came and went, and nothing disturbed
that surrounded her during her hus- them. The baby in the cradle went off
band's absence. Her cheerful talk with to sleep, and she kept on with her work.
her husband was mere bravado. She After a time she rose and looked out
said what she did as much to keep her again. This time she saw an astounding
own spirits up as to dispel her hus- sight! Coming down the mountain side
band's anxiety. She knew that he must from the woods, she beheld a full-grown
go to the mill, and there was no way for bear, not a hundred yards distant. He
her but to stay at home and be as brave was on his way to the yard where the
as possible. sheep were in fold, and she knew he was
However, she was a brave woman, after the sheep. She had a gun, but
Nature had endowed her with courage, that would not avail anything, for she
and the surroundings of her early life had never learned to use it. She had an
had all tended to foster and strengthen axe, but she knew an axe to be a poor
it. She fully understood her situation, weapon to fight a bear with. The next
and when her husband passed out of thing she thought of was a pitchfork.
sight she knew she and her baby were Their few sheep were a treasure to the
alone in the great wilderness, beyond family. All their winter clothing was
the reach of help should anything serious to come from the sheep, and now that
occur. But she had always lived in the they were in peril, she was aroused to
wilderness. The howl of the wolf and instant action.
the growl of the bear were familiar But the one absorbing thought of
sounds to her, and she had become ac- saving the sheep banished all sense of
customer to a lonely life in the woods, personal danger. Instead of shutting
So, instead of shutting herself in the herself up in the house she darted out


and closed the door after her lest any- out: "Well, wife, I am thankful nothing
thing should molest the baby. Then has happened to you while I was gone. I
running into the log barn, she snatched suppose it was foolish, but I couldn't help
up the pitchfork, ran around the barn, worrying all the time."
and planted herself directly in the bear's "I don't know as it was foolish, hus-
path. Brandishing her pitchfork and band. But hitch the horse, and bring
screaming at him, she attempted to scare the bag in. I want to talk with you."
him back to the woods. But the bear When the bag was deposited in the
was ravenous with hunger, and he came house, Mrs. Pope said: "So you were
straight down the hill at her, showing nervous about us, then ?"
his teeth and growling fiercely. As he Yes. I don't remember ever being
approached and sprang towards her, Mrs. so nervous before in all my life."
Pope dodged and dealt him a blow, the "Well, husband, I was nervous too.
iron ring of the fork striking him violently I couldn't help thinking what could I do,
on the end of the nose. The shock if a bear should come down from the
stunned the bear for an instant, and mountain after the sheep."
during that one instant, with almost "Why, common sense would tell you
superhuman strength, Mrs. Pope plunged what to do; shut the door, take care of
both tines of the fork into the bear's yourself and baby, and let the sheep go."
side, where she supposed the heart "Do you think so, husband ?"
to be. Either good fortune, or the hand "Of course I do. What else could
of Providence, directed the weapon, for you have done? "
one of the tines passed clear through the You will see if you go out behind the
bear's heart, and he fell over dead, leav- barn and look."
ing her not only victorious, but unharmed. "Behind the barn! What do you
After the excitement of the contest was mean ? "
over, Mrs. Pope went back to the house, "I mean what I say. Go and look
shuddering at the extremity of peril she behind the barn."
had been in. But after a time her ner- Mr. Pope started out in the greatest
vousness passed off, and she went on wonder, while the wife buried her face
with her work again, and so the after- in the baby's apron, to smother the
noon wore away. womanly tears she could no longer re-
At length, when the sun was about an strain.
hour high, she saw her husband emerge To his utter astonishment Mr. Pope
from the woods near the house. She left found the dead bear behind the barn,
her spinning-wheel, and, with the baby with the pitchfork sticking in its side.
in her arms, met him at the door as if When he went in and heard the whole
nothing unusual had occurred, story from his wife, he fully realized that
As he came up to the door, leading the something had happened in his absence,
horse with one hand, and holding on the and that he had more reason than ever
bag of flour with the other, he spoke to be thankful.


Af i

'N I



T HE common walk of the gorilla the beast a curious waddle. It can
is not on his hind legs, but on run at great speed. The young, which I
all-fours. In this posture, the arms are have pursued (says M. Du Chaillu), never
so long, that the head and breast are took to trees, but ran along the ground;
raised considerably; and, as it runs, and at a distance, with their bodies half
the hind legs are brought far beneath erect, looked not unlike negroes making
the body. The leg and arm, on the off from pursuit; the hind legs moved
same side, move together, which gives between the arms, and those were some-


what bowed outwards. I have never In the adult male the chest is bare.
found the female to attack; though I In the young males it is thinly covered
have been told, by the negroes, that a with hair. In the female, the mam-
mother, with a young one in charge, mae have but a slight development, and
will sometimes make fight. It is a the breast is bare. The colour of the
pretty thing to see such a mother with hair in the female is black, with a
the baby gorilla sporting about it. decided tinge of red, and not ringed as
When the mother runs off from the in the male. The hair on the arms is
hunter, the young one grasps her about longer than that on the body, and is of
the neck, and hangs beneath her breasts, a like colour. The reddish crown which
with its little legs about her body. I covers the scalp of the male is not ap-
think the adult gorilla utterly untame- parent in the female till she is almost
able. Several young gorillas my men grown up. In both male and female
captured alive, and they remained the hair is found worn off the back; but
with me, for short periods, till their this is only found in very old females.
death. In no case could any treat- The hands of the animal, especially in
ment of mine, kind or harsh, subdue the male, are of immense size, strong,
these little monsters from their first and short, and thick. The fingers are short
lasting ferocity and malignity. The and of great size; the circumference of
gorilla is entirely and constantly an the middle finger at the first joint being,
enemy to man-resenting its captivity, in some gorillas, over six inches. The
young as my specimens were-refusing skin on the back of the fingers, near
all food except the berries of its native the middle phalanx, is callous (hard),
woods, and attacking, with teeth and and very thick, which shows that the
claws, even me, who was in most con- most usual mode of progression of the
stant attendance upon them. animal is on all-fours, and resting on
The strength of the gorilla is evidently the knuckles. The thumb is shorter than
enormous. A young one, of between in man, and not half so thick as the fore-
two and three years of age, required finger. The hand is hairy as far as the
four stout men to hold it; and even then, division of the fingers; these, as in man,
in its struggles, bit one severely. That being covered with short thick hairs.
with its jaws it can indent a musket- The palm of the hand is naked, callous,
barrel, and with its arms break trees and intensely black. The nails are
from four to six inches in diameter, black, and shaped like those of man, but
sufficiently proves that its vast bony smaller in proportion, and projecting
frame has corresponding muscle, very slightly beyond the end of the
The colour of the skin in the gorilla, fingers. They are thick and strong,
young as well as adult, is intense black, and always seem much worn. The hand
The colour does not appear, however, of the gorilla is almost as wide as it is
except in the face, on the breast, and in long; and in this it approaches nearer
the palms of the hands. The hair of a to man than do any other of the
grown, but not aged specimen, is, in apes. The foot is proportionally wider
colour, iron-grey. The individual hairs than in man. The sole is callous and
are ringed with alternate stripes of intensely black. The toes are divided
black and grey, which produce the iron- into three groups. Inside the great toe,
grey colour.' On the arms the hair is outside the little toe, and the three
darker, and also much longer, being others, partly united by a web. The
sometimes over two inches long. It two joints of the great toe measured, in
grows upwards on the fore-arm, and one specimen, six and a-half inches in
downwards on the main arm. circumference. The foot of the gorilla


is longer than the hand, as in man; "The gorilla is not gregarious. Of
while, in the other apes, the foot is some- adults, I found almost always one male
what shorter than the hand. With the with one female, though sometimes the
exception of the big toe, the others pre- old male wanders companionless. .In
sent a great likeness to those of man, such cases, as with the 'rogue' elephant,
being. free only just above the second he is particularly morose and malignant,
phalanx; they are slightly covered with and dangerous to approach. Young
thin hair." gorillas I found sometimes in companies
In 1877, a specimen was located in of five; sometimes less, but never more.
the Royal Aquarium, Westminster, They are difficult to approach, as their
London, and was stated to be the only hearing is acute, and they lose no time
living one, with the exception of one in in making their escape; while the nature
Wombwell's Menagerie many years ago, of the ground makes it hard for the
that has been seen in Europe. It was hunter to follow after. The adult animal
brought from Africa by Dr. Frankenstein, is also shy; and I have hunted all day,
of the German West African Expedition, at times, without coming upon my quarry,
and for the previous year and a-half had when I felt sure that they were carefully
been an object of great interest and avoiding me. When, however, at last
curiosity in the Berlin Aquarium. It fortune favours the hunter, and he comes
arrived in London at the end of July. accidentally or by good management
This gorilla, which had an air of juve- upon his prey, he need not fear its run-
nile antiquity about it, was three and a- ning away. In all my hunts and en-
half years old, three feet high, had counters with this animal, I never knew
grown three and a-half inches during a grown male to run away. When
1876, and increased II lbs. in weight in I surprised a pair of gorillas, the male
the same period. It was coal black; the was generally sitting down on a rock or
face human in expression; the form against a tree, in the darkest corner of
pudgy, with long arms and legs, capable the jungle, where the brightest sun left
of rapidly assisting locomotion. It was its traces only in a dim twilight. The
a docile, amusing, and performing female was mostly feeding near by; and
animal; turned on a trapeze, and climbed it is singular that she almost always gave
a rope, and was largely exercised in the alarm by running off with loud and
watching the gambols of a young Chim- sudden shrieks. Then the male, sitting
panzee (a year and a-half old), and the for a moment with a savage frown on
German dog "Flock." The gastrono- his face, slowly rises to his feet, and
mic capacities of the gorilla were most looking with glowing and malign eyes
comprehensive. Whereas in its natural at the intruders, begins to beat his
state it would live on bananas, pine- breast, and, lifting up his round head,
apples, and birds' eggs (rifled from the utters his frightful roar. This begins
nest), one of its first meals at the with several sharp barks, like an en-
Aquarium was rump-steak and potatoes, raged or mad dog, whereupon ensues a
the guest dipping the food in the salt to long, deeply guttural, rolling roar, con-
obtain the requisite zest. Wine and tinued for over a minute, and which,
beer were also taken with a relish. It doubled and multiplied by the resounding
died in the following November, at echoes of the forest, fills the hunter's
Berlin. ears like the deep rolling thunder of an
Du Chaillu, in his "Explorations of approaching. storm. As I have men-
Equatorial Africa," gives the following tioned before, I have reason to believe
description of the animal when en- that I have heard the roar at a distance
raged:- of three miles. The horror of the


animal's appearance at this time is be- the African forest. .He was not afraid of
yond description. At such a sight I us. He stood there, and beat his breast
could forgive my brave hunters for being with his huge fists till it resounded like
sometimes overcome with superstitious an immense bass drum, which is their
fears, and ceased to wonder at the mode of offering defiance; meantime
strange, weird 'Gorilla stories' of the giving vent to roar after roar .
negroes." He advanced a few steps-then stopped
In another part of the same work, M. to utter that hideous roar again-ad-
Du Chaillu gives a life-like picture of his vanced again, and finally stopped at a
first sight of a gorilla:- distance of about six yards from us; and
"Suddenly, as we were creeping along, here, just as he began another of his
in a silence which made a heavy breath roars, beating his breast in rage, we
seem loud and distinct, the woods were fired and killed him."
at once filled with the tremendous bark- Since M. Du Chaillu published his
ing roar of the gorilla. work, not very much has been added to

^---------- -----------------

Sole of the Foot of the Gorilla.

Then the underbrush swayed rapidly our knowledge of the habits of the
just a-head, and presently stood before gorilla. His immense strength is one of
us an immense male gorilla. He had the most remarkable features of this
gone through the jungle on his all-fours; animal; and certainly the muscular de-
but when he saw our party he erected velopment of the arms, chest, and legs,
himself and looked us boldly in the face. is of the most extraordinary character.
He stood about a dozen yards from us, The stuffed specimen in the British
and was a sight I think I shall never Museum, although apparently young,
forget. Nearly six feet high (he proved gives an idea of what the gorilla would
four inches shorter), with immense body, be in his native haunts. The face has
huge chest, and great muscular arms, a fierce appearance. The teeth show
with fiercely-glaring, large, deep grey prominently from the mouth, and the
eyes, and a hellish expression of face, canines call to mind those common in
which seemed to be like some nightmare carnivorous animals.
vision-thus stood before us the king of The gorilla has been the subject of
b Te gorilla has been the subject of


lively discussions among anatomists and having observed the kind of life led by
anthropologists. Saint-Hilaire has created the gorilla, and its mode of progression,
for the gorilla a separate genus, to dis- I am convinced that in all its movements
tinguish it from the chimpanzee, a it more nearly approaches the human
monkey which, according to him, bears species than any of its congeners."
more resemblance to man than the The natives of Africa have an idea
gorilla. Such is also the opinion of Mr. that these, and other large apes, are
Wymann. Professor Owen, on the con- really men; but they pretend to be
trary, has claimed for the gorilla the stupid and dumb, in order to escape
honour of being' placed next the human impressment as slaves. Work, indeed,
species, and M. Du Chaillu shares his seems to be the summum malum in the
opinion. African mind, and a true African never
"It must be acknowledged," says this works if he can help it. As to the
traveller, "that at first the gorilla offers necessary household labours, and the
in every one of its traits something more task of agriculture, he will not raise a

Back of the Hand of the Gorilla.

bestial than the chimpanzee or the orang. finger, but makes his wives work, he
All the characters of the gorilla, par- having previously purchased them for
ticularly of the male, are pushed to that purpose. In truth, in a land where
exaggeration; the head is longer and the artificial wants are so few-unless
narrower, the brain is behind, the the corruptions of pseudo-civilisation
cranial ridges are enormous, the jaws have made their entrance-and where
are very prominent, and possess pro- unassisted nature is so bountiful, there
digious strength, and the canine teeth is small need of work.
are very thick. The skull is marked by The daily life of a "black fellow"
the immense development of the occipital has been very graphically described in
crests; but the other parts of the gorilla's a few words:-" He gets a large melon;
skeleton resemble that of a man more cuts it in two, and scoops out the
than do those of any other monkey, inside; one half he puts on his head,
After carefully studying the zoological he sits in the other half, and eats the
characters that I have just noticed, after middle."



T is not strange that Africa, age of the bird may be ascertained from
Sthe home of the gorilla the wrinkles on its bill, as the age of a
Sand hippopotamus, should cow is sometimes told from the wrinkles
possess the most curious around her horns.
specimens of the great Before proceeding further, it may be
class of birds; for it has well to notice a family of birds, inhabit-
been found to contain ing South America, often confounded
S within its tangled jungles with the hornbills, from their resem-
the rarest and most gro- balance. These are the toucans. They
tesque forms of animal life, though we are confined to the warmer portions of
must except the island of Australia, where the New World, as the hornbills are to
the laughing jackass and the kangaroo those of the Old. Their bills are large,
are found. of the same structure, but lack the hel-
One of the most interesting and attrac- met; they are brighter-coloured and
tive families of birds is that of the horn- more gaudy of plumage. Their voices
bill. Although this bird is found in are loud and harsh, and can be heard a
India, it is much more abundant in long way.
Africa. It is from the cry of the Brazilian
If we may believe report, the bill species, "toucano," that they derive their
of the hornbill is nearly one-fourth the name. When feeding, they post a sen-
length of its body. The bill is very long, tinel. They have a habit of sitting upon
curved, deep and thin, and has a helmet the topmost branches of trees, chatter-
upon its crown, of various shapes and ing, lifting their heads at regular inter-
sizes; and this helmet is used to vals, clashing their bills together, and
give to many species their specific, or crying out so loudly as to be heard at
proper, names. Thus, there is the Buceros the distance of a mile. From this the
bicornis, or two-horned hornbill; the natives have given them the name of
Buceros rhinoceros, or rhinoceros hornbill, "preacher birds." They have great anti-
so called from the immense helmet resem- pathy to any bird uglier than themselves,
bling the horn of a rhinoceros. Buceros and will mob an owl with the zest of
is the generic name applied to them from crows, nearly frightening the poor bird
some peculiarity they all possess in to death with their clashing beaks and
common; the specific, or individual, names loud cries.
being derived from the shapes of their To return to our friends, the hornbills.
helmets. From the great size of their bills, they
Though seemingly heavy and un- cannot walk easily upon the ground, but
wieldy, the bill of the hornbill is very hop along awkwardly. The trees are
light, being composed of light cellular their homes, and they hop from limb to
tissue, resembling in this respect the limb with great ease, climbing to the
skull of the elephant; and the walls of tree-tops, where they remain for hours
thin bone are so fragile, that in dried shouting gleefully in their bravest tones.
specimens it may be crushed in the hand. They feed upon pulpy fruits, small
The edge of the mandibles, or beaks, animals, reptiles and insects, and make
are very sharp, frequently breaking off their nests in hollow trees.
and being renewed. It is said that the The largest species is the rhinoceros
e argest~~~ ~ pei-i-sh rince


hornbill, which has a stretch of wing of female, she is shut up a close prisoner for
about three feet, and a bill ten inches in weeks; that the entrance to the hole is
length. The general colour of this bird plastered over with mud, until only a
is black, the tail tipped with white. The little slit is left, three or four inches long
bill is black at the base, reddish in the and half an inch wide-just large enough
middle, and yellow tipped. to admit the beak.
The most attractive species, as to The male bird, who has walled up the
plumage, is the crested hornbill, which hole, feeds the female through the slit
has a crown of feathers, like the spread until the young are hatched and fledged-
crest of a cockatoo, and a long, beautiful a period of eight or ten weeks. In this
tail. time the female has become very fat,
But the most interesting species is one and is often hunted out and eaten by the
noted, not for its plumage, but for a habit negroes of the country, who esteem her
of nesting and living peculiarly its own. a great delicacy.


This is the red-billed hornbill, the Buceros Sometimes the female hatches out two
erythrorhynchus of naturalists. We have young ones, that are nearly able to fly
been told by Livingstone, the African before the other two appear. Then, with
explorer, that this bird breeds, like the the two older birds, she leaves the nest
other members of its family, in hollow and walls in the younger ones, which are
trees; that it makes its nest in holes in fed through the slit, by their father and
the trunks of these trees; that the female mother, until able to take care of them-
lines its nest with feathers from her own selves. Writers have speculated upon
body, and lays four or five eggs, white, the reason for this peculiar style of
and of the size of pigeons' eggs. hatching out and bringing up the young
In this there is nothing remarkably hornbills; but, although they cannot tell
noteworthy; but we are astonished when exactly why the plan is adopted, there is
we read further and find that, after the no doubt but that the old birds know
nest is prepared to the satisfaction of the what they are about.



HE following account of meter is supposed never to sink to the
elephant -stalking in the freezing point, and even on the highest
easterly cliffs of the Abys- tops you feel the beams of a tropical
sinian range of mountains sun. The year has two summers and
is given by the Duke of two winters, and all seasons are refreshed
Saxe-Coburg :- by storms.
"" Elephants in the moun- To our own astonishment we met with
tains ? No huntsman or elephants' traces before we expected,
friend of nature will believe it. But, viz., in our second day's journey in the
however they may shake their heads in narrow valley of Mensa, after having
astonishment, there they are neverthe- crossed the Samhara. The eyes of the
less. It is a peculiarity of that vast hunters beamed with joy; butwe scarcely
range, which in the east almost reaches believed in what we saw, and were greatly
the Red Sea, in the north runs out into afraid of mistake and disappointment:
the deserts of Habab, and in the west for how should elephants come to these
into the lowlands of Barka-being only places? Our doubts vanished, however,
in the south connected with the moun- by degrees, and our misgivings were
tainous countries of Hamarfen-to be relieved as we proceeded. There were
visited in regular intervals by large cracked branches and young trees all
troops of elephants. They do not stay around us, and likewise some traces in
in the valleys and on the table-lands, as the loamy sand.
would seem more probable, but chiefly When, however, in our third day's
occupy the highest and roughest cliffs, journey we ascended the table-land of
They move on and change their places the Mensa, we lost those traces again,
three or four times a year, being in all and thought that some stray elephants
probability connected with those large had only crossed the Mensa valley.
flocks which in the low countries of But after remaining in Mensa for some
Central Africa lead a migratory life, days, and roving with indefatigable
and, according to Vogel and the few eagerness through the surrounding
other Europeans who have penetrated so mountains, we soon learnt something
far, have rendered themselves masters more of the peculiar habits of those
of these regions. migrating elephant tribes. The indi-
The mountains in question consist genous inhabitants told us that these
mostly of coarse-grained granite and strange animals were within a few weeks
mica slate, and rise up to an elevation of sure to make a short stay in the imme-
about 9,00o feet. A thick vegetation diate neighbourhood of Mensa. More
covers them, changing by degrees ac- certain and trustworthy accounts were
cording to the height of the mountain, not to be had, since no elephant-hunter
on the tops of which our native European was to be met with, the thin population
shrubs and plants are growing. The of Bogos being, as a rule, no huntsmen.
tropical vegetation is, besides, quite But, after having left Mensa and crossed
different from that of America and Asia: the Aimsaba river, we had the good
it resembles in its appearance rather chance to meet an elephant-hunter at
more the mountains of Upper Austria Keren, who joined us to consult our
and the Bavarian Alps. The thermo- physician about a lingering disease. It