Front Cover
 Title Page
 The Golden Eagle
 White-Headed Eagle
 Osprey, or Fish-Hawk
 Peregrine Falcon
 Mississippi Kite
 Red-Tailed Hawk
 The California Vulture
 The Condor
 The Bearded Vulture
 The Screech Owl
 The Great Horned Owl
 The Snowy Owl
 Back Cover

Title: Birds of prey
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00048460/00001
 Material Information
Title: Birds of prey
Series Title: Prang's natural history series for children
Physical Description: 1 p. ., 17 p. : 4 col. pl. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Calkins, Norman A ( Norman Allison ), 1822-1895
Diaz, Abby Morton, 1821-1904 ( joint author )
L. Prang & Co ( Publisher )
Publisher: L. Prang and Company
Place of Publication: Boston
Publication Date: 1878
Subject: Birds of prey -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Juvenile literature -- 1878   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1878
Genre: Juvenile literature   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Massachusetts -- Boston
Statement of Responsibility: By Norman A. Calkins ... and Mrs. A.M. Diaz.
General Note: In double columns.
General Note: Multi-colored paper covers.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00048460
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001591042
oclc - 17632809
notis - AHL5036

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    The Golden Eagle
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    White-Headed Eagle
        Page 4
    Osprey, or Fish-Hawk
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Peregrine Falcon
        Page 7
    Mississippi Kite
        Page 8
    Red-Tailed Hawk
        Page 9
        Page 9
    The California Vulture
        Page 10
    The Condor
        Page 11
    The Bearded Vulture
        Page 12
    The Screech Owl
        Page 13
    The Great Horned Owl
        Page 14
    The Snowy Owl
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Back Cover
        Cover 3
        Cover 4
Full Text






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Birds ofPrey.

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There's a fierce gray bird with a bending beak,
With an angry eye, and a startling shriek."
CHILDREN," said Cousin Kate,
"we have looked at three kinds of
birds, where will you class this Golden
Eagle ? "
Not among the Swimmers," said
Fred," Tiptoes can tell us that." The
little fellow had already placed the
tip of his finger between the toes in
the large drawing of the Eagle's claw,
and even while Fred was speaking
had called out, Not any web! "
"The legs are too short for a
Wader," said Nannie, and they are
not bare legs."
I am almost sure that he is not a
Scratcher," said Fred. I don't be-
lieve you find flocks of Eagles running
about on the ground, picking up worms
and seeds."
No, he is not a Scratcher," said
Cousin Kate.
Why, Cousin Kate! cried Nannie.
"If he does not belong in the water
with the Swimmers, nor on the land
with the Scratchers, nor on the edges
where the land and water come to-
gether, with the Waders, then where
does he belong ?"
He is a land bird," said Cousin
Kate, but not a ground bird. The

home of the Eagle is far away in the
T was the Golden Eagle's rock,
Craggy, and wild, and lone.'
He is a lonely bird. He chooses his
mate, and chooses her for life. They
fly to some lofty mountain crag, or
rocky cliff, often in places which men
cannot reach either by climbing or
by shooting, and there they build a
nest, and there they reign supreme.
You will not find two pairs of Eagles
in the same district, any more than you
will find two kings in one kingdom.
The nest, too, is for life, and the same
pair come back to it every year.
When I say 'come back,' I do not
mean that they migrate like Storks
and Cranes, but only that they go
from place to place in search of food.
The nest is made of dead bushes,
made strong, rather flat, with a cavity
in the centre for eggs, and it is large
enough to fill a cart. In this nest
are laid two thick-shelled eggs, white,
blotched with faint purple and brown.
They are nearly round, and measure
from two to three inches through.
When the young ones are hatched,
the old birds begin to bring them food.
They bring rabbits, geese, cranes, kids,
lambs, and lay them on that large,
flat, platform nest, around the cavity

_ ql


in the centre. They even kill calves,
and bring away parts of them."
0 yes," said Fred, now I see."
What do you see ? asked Cousin
1 see what those strong claws are
for, and what that stout beak is for,"
said Fred.
The claw, or talon, on the middle
toe is two inches long,- about the
length of my thumb! said Cousin
Just look up in the corner, Nannie,
where his beak and claw are drawn
large," said Fred. I should think
they might do some damage! "
"Yes," said Cousin Kate, "es-
pecially when used by a large and
powerful bird, and when that bird
drops from a lofty height in the air.
The Eagle has a telescopic eye. We
spoke of this kind of eye, you remem-
ber, in looking at the Pigeons. The
Eagle, far up among the clouds, looks
down with his telescopic eye, sees per-
haps a kid or a lamb, and falls upon
it like a thunderbolt.
He comes with such force that the
creature is killed almost before it has
time to be frightened. It is stunned
by the shock, and the Eagle's talons
pierce it through and through. The
Eagle usually kills its prey in this
way, that is, by striking its talons
deep into the heart of its victim.
Those powerful claws then clutch the
body and bear it aloft and away to the
nest. It is said to be a grand sight
to see an Eagle mount in air. He
rises in circles straight up into the
sky, until he is out of sight."
"The Eagle rises to an immense
height," said Uncle Willie. "I was

reading the other day that a traveller
on a mountain-top three miles high
saw a Golden Eagle far above him,
dashing through the air, head to the
wind, in a strong gale. There is
hardly a bird in the world which can
fly as high as the Eagle. And not
many birds are as hard to tame. I have
read of an Eagle which after being
caught refused to eat, and went with-
out food two weeks."
I suppose it is because the Eagle
is so bold and so untamable, that
different nations have taken him for
their emblem," said Cousin Kate.
" In Scottish stories we often read of
a brave chieftain wearing in his bon-
net one feather of an Eagle. Indian
chieftains, too, wear Eagle's feathers.
The old Romans chose the Eagle for
their emblem, so did the Persians, so
did the French, and we Americans
have chosen him for ours."
His strength is another reason,"
said Uncle Willie. He is called the
King of Birds. If an Eagle alights
on a spot, smaller birds tremble with
fright. When countries or when
chieftains choose the Eagle for their
sign, they mean to say, We are
strong! We are free !"
But although the Eagle is so fierce
and so bold," said Cousin Kate, it
has its kindly side. A pair of Eagles
are as strongly attached to each other
as a pair of Doves are, and as fond
of their children. When the mother
Eagle is sitting on the nest, the father
Eagle brings her food, and when the
young ones are out of the shell, both
parents bring them food. They bring
more than can be eaten. The great
nest is piled full of rabbits, kids, young





deer, young pigs, as well as partridges,
plover, and other birds. I once read
a story of a man who found his way
to an Eagle's nest, and kept himself
in food by what he took from there.
He clipped the wings of the young
ones, and he always went to the nest
at times when the old ones were away."
If the old ones had happened to
come back," said Uncle Willie, that
man would have wished himself some-
where else. Eagles are terrible crea-
tures to deal with when they think
their young are in danger."
I read a story about that," said
Fred. There was an Eagle's nest
on an island, and a man thought he
would swim across while the old ones
were away, and take the young Eagles.
He took them and tied them around
his neck, and started to go home.
When he had waded in up to his chin,
the old ones came back. As soon as
they saw their young ones fhey -flew
down upon the man and beat him with
their beaks and claws till they beat
him to death."
"I can tell an anecdote of an
Eagle," said Uncle Willie, which
shows that, as Cousin Kate says, the
Eagle has his kindly side. This was
a tame Eagle. Some cruel person
gave him a sick chicken to eat. In-
stead of eating it, he befriended it,
kept it under his wing, and would let
nobody touch it. A man tried to take

much time and patience, and even after
being tamed they may fly away at the
first chance."
May I tell my Eagle story now,
the one Aunt Hattie read to me?"
asked Nannie.
Yes, indeed," said Uncle Willie.
So Nannie began.
Once there were some hungry
travellers travelling on a high moun-
tain, and they were going to cook some
meat. It was the meat of a goat. And
while they were sitting there a great
Eagle came down just as swift as
an arrow, with a great noise of his
wings, and snatched away some of the
meat before they had time to speak' a
word! "
"In some wild,mountainous places,"
said Uncle Willie, Eagles carry off
so many animals that farmers offer
rewards for their destruction. Any
person who kills an Eagle has a henl
given him by every family in the place.
I read of an Eagle's nest which could
not be reached, either by climbing, or
by letting down from above, or by
shooting. At last a firebrand was
hurled at it, and it took fire and was
burned up." *
Can Eagles really carry off chil-
dren, as the story-books say ?" asked
We knowthat Eagles dosometimes
carry to their nests living animals,"
said Uncle Willie, and it is not im-

it away, but the Eagle gave him such possible that a very strong Eagle might
a blow on the leg that he was glad to carry away a young child."
let it alone." I remember a story of this kind,"
Then Eagles are sometimes said Cousin Kate. "The Eagle sud-
tamed?" said Fred. denly flew down, snatched an infant
"Yes, but the taming process must from the ground, and flew off to its
begin when they are young. It requires nest. Though the nest was in sight,

-- ----- --


not a man of all the lookers-on dared
climb to it. But the mother, made
frantic by her distress, went spring-
ing from rock to rock, leaping over
chasms, and at last brought down her
child alive. The Eagles seemed afraid
of her, and held themselves aloof."
I read a case of this kind which
happened far away in the Orkney
Islands," said Uncle Willie. "In my
story the child was a year old, and
was brought back by a man."
Aunt Hattie told us that Eagles
have been known to live a hundred
years!" said Fred.
And she told other things," said
Nannie. She told that the old Eagles
teach the little Eagles to fly, and when
the little Eagles are old enough to take
care of themselves, the old Eagles push
them out of the nest. But if the little
Eagles try to fly too soon the old Eagles
strike them with their great wings and
make them keep still."
And 1 thought I heard her reading
something about the Eagle's beak,"
said Uncle Willie.
0 yes," said Fred, putting his
finger on the drawing. "Look, Tip-
toes; do you see how that upper part
bends down ? Aunt Hattie read that
as the Eagle grows older and older,
that upper part grows down longer
and longer, and at last becomes so
long that the Eagle cannot eat with
it, and he starves to death. But some
people say that when it has grown very
long the Eagle shortens it by rubbing
the end against a rock."
Birds of Prey," said Nannie, read-
ing from the lower left-hand corner.
"Yes," said Cousin Kate. "These
large land birds which live, each pair

by itself, in wild, lonely places, and
which swoop down upon animals after
the manner of the Eagle, are called
Birds of Prey. They prey upon other
animals. Their marks are plain to be
seen in that picture of the Golden
Eagle. They have very large wings,
strong, hooked claws for seizing, and
strong, hooked beaks for tearing in
pieces. Another mark is the long and
drooping tail. The Golden Eagle is
named from the golden brown color
of his head."

THS one is our American bird,"
said Cousin Kate, this White-Headed
Eagle. You will notice his white head
and white tail at the first glance."
How thick the feathers are about
his neck said Fred. "And what
an eye he has!"
He is sometimes called the Bald
Eagle," said Cousin Kate. Its head
does have a bare, flat look, but it is
not bald. This Eagle too builds its
nest in far-off, lonely places, usually
at the top of some lofty tree. It lays
two whitish eggs, three inches long,
both ends rounded alike. Its love for
its young is so strong that it will not
leave them even if the tree be set on
fire. The nest has something added
to it every year, by way of repairs, so
that an old nest becomes immensely
large. I once read a story of an
American Eagle which with his mate
sat on tall tree-tops, one each side of
a stream. As his mate called to him,
he answered back with a cry like a
sort of wild laugh. They sat there
a long time, waiting and calling. At


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length the trumpet-tones of a Wild
Swan were heard in the air. The
female Eagle shrieked. The male
Eagle answered with an awful scream,
and as soon as the Swan passed by
they swooped down upon him."
We have all heard of Old Abe,'
who went to war with a company of
soldiers," said Uncle Willie. He*is
said to be a fine specimen of the
American Eagle."
"I have read many interesting things
about Old Abe,' said Cousin Kate.
" He used to shake hands with his
attendant, and sometimes lie would
grasp the fingers in his bill, press
harder and harder, chuckling, as if to
say,' Does it hurt ?' His voice had
many tones. If you startled him, he
would whistle wildly. When meeting
old friends, he would speak his How
do you do?' in a soft, cooing tone,
and show pleasure at the meeting.
When people came into the room who
were not wanted there, a word or
look from the person in charge would
cause him to drive them out. He
knew the step of his attendant, and
when he heard him coming would be-
gin to cheer and chuckle before the
door was opened. Sometimes when
men were at work near by Old Abe'
would run off with a tool, just for a
frolic. If invited, he would walk up
his attendant's arm, stand on his
shoulder, rub his white head against
his face, comb the beard with his
beak, whistling merrily all the time.
Once a beautiful red rooster was given
him for dinner, but instead of eating
it, he kept it for a companion, and they
two played together, and roosted on the
same perch. He showed much fond-

ness for the persons who took care of
him, was grateful for kindnesses, but
never forgave an affront. One day a
man handled him roughly, and mim-
icked his motions. Several months
after, when this man returned from a
journey,' Old Abe' fixed his eye upon
him, flew at his head in a fury, and
drove him away. He was just as good
at remembering his friends. At one
time when a crowd of people were
looking at this Eagle, a man who used
tohave the care of him came in among
them. The meeting of these two friends
is said to have been a beautiful sight.
The man patted the Eagle's head, and
the Eagle spread his wings, screeched,
cooed, and seemed full of joy. These
incidents show how much even a fierce
Bird of Prey can be changed by kind
treatment and by living with human
"It is this same fierce Bird of
Prey which robs fish-hawks of their
fish," said Uncle Willie, "this same
White-Headed Eagle. He is not
content with the land creatures which
he swoops down and carries off;
he must sometimes have a fish din-
And his fisherman is in that next
picture," said Cousin Kate.

You see by the figures that the
Osprey is smaller than the Eagle. Its
beak and claws are like the Eagle's,
and it is like the Eagle in keeping the
same mate and the same nest. Its
nest is built in some old ruined build-
ing, or at the top of a high tree near
water. If the tree is a living tree it

_ __

__ ______



soon becomes a dead one, on account He does not always carry the fish
of the fish-oil and salt materials to his nest, you know," said Fred.
brought there by the Osprey. The Sometimes the Eagle gets it."
nest looks like a great ant-hill with 0 yes! cried Nannie, Aunt
the top taken off. It is made of long Hattie read about that. First the
sticks piled, sometimes, two yards high Osprey goes down and gets a fish.
and a yard across. Inside these are Then the Eagle-no--then the Os-
smaller sticks, mixed with cornstalks, prey flies up with his fish. But the
mullein-stalks, sea-weed, and wet sods. Eagle is keeping watch on a high
The eggs three or four eggs are tree. He flies down. The Osprey is
creamy white, blotched with gray and so frightened at the Eagle that he
a reddish brown. The Osprey is kind lets go the fish, and the Eagle hurries
to little birds, and allows them to build and catches the fish before it hits the
their little nests on the outer side of water."
its great big one. Sometimes a hun- Aunt Hattie read other things,"
dred or more Ospreys live in one neigh- said Fred. Sometimes if an Eagle
borhood. If a new pair come to build comes to a place where there are many
a nest, the others help them. The Ospreys, they club together and fight
Osprey is an interesting bird. It is him off. And sometimes when an
like the Eagle in being fond of its Osprey is holding a fish the crows
family. I read an account of a female come and peck him. They know he
Osprey which having by some accident can't do anything to them then. And
lost her leg could not catch fish; so fishermen will never hurt an Osprey.
she stayed in the nest, and her mate They like him because he shows them
brought the fish to her." where fish are plenty. Aunt Hattie
"The under parts of the Osprey's taught Nannie averse about this. Do
toes are rough," said Uncle Willie, you remember it, Nannie? "
" and this roughness helps the sharp I think I do," said Nannie. It
claws to hold the slippery fish. Do is what the fishermen say about the
you see what long wings he has? IOsprey.
They reach to the end of his tail. She rears her young on yonder tree,
When about to go a fishing, he spreads She leaves her faithful mate to mind 'em.
these great wings, mounts high over Like us, for fish she sails to sea,
the water, and sails round and round And, plunging, shows us where to find 'em.'"
in circles. When he spies a fish, he The Osprey has a pretty tuft of
falls through the air like a shooting feathers on its head," said Cousin
star, plunging headlong into the waves Kate, "and the upper part of its wing
with a splash that makes them foam. is a beautiful golden brown."
The next moment lie is out with the "The Osprey is a most wonderful
fish in his claws. He takes it to his flyer," said Uncle Willie. "An Osprey
nest, and there he holds it between his will rise in air, spread those tremen-
toes, and with his beak picks the flesh dous wings of his, and hold himself
from the bones." there, perfectly still, in a squall of

_ _P_

_ I _III



wind that no man could stand, and
will even fly in the face of it. And
here is another powerful flyer; just
look at this big-eyed, flat-headed, long-
winged, strong-winged fellow.

"PEREGRINE means a traveller, or
pilgrim. The Peregrine Falcon can
take long flights in the air, at the rate
of one hundred and fifty miles an
hour. His wings are so strong, and
he has such a grip with his claws,
that he can carry off a creature larger
than himself. He pounces down upon
a bird with such force that some-
times the blow bursts its body; and
he kills hares just by dropping upon
Falcons must be very long-lived
birds," said Cousin Kate. I was
reading the other day of a Falcon
which was taken in the year 1793,
with a gold collar upon its neck dated
1610. It had belonged to James I.,
King of England."
"A gold collar on a bird ?" cried
"0 yes," said Cousin Kate. These
birds were once very highly prized.
Two or three hundred years ago there

ular business. The falconer who had
the care of the king's Falcons was a
high and mighty person, and sat at
table the fourth seat from the king.
When this falconer came home from
a remarkably good day's hunting, the
king himself went forth to meet him,
and held the stirrup for him to alight.
The falconer to one French king had
fifty gentleman attendants and fifty
assistants, and on grand occasions,
when the king rode out with all his
court, this falconer made one of the
But I don't understand how men
could teach wild birds to catch other
birds," said Fred.
"In the first place," said Uncle
Willie, "the Falcon had his head cov-
ered with a sort of hood. He was then
kept upon a small allowance of food
until he was weak and hungry. Then
his hood was taken off and he was
fed, standing on the skin of a hare,
and the hood put back upon his head.
The next time this hare-skin, with his
food on it, was placed some distance
ahead, so that when his hood was
taken off he pounced for it. Next the
skin, with the food upon it, was drawn
along, and he had to follow it. By
this time he had learned to look about

were neither guns nor gunpowder. for his food as soon as the hood was
Wild fowl could not be shot except taken off. Afterwards, a man gal-
by arrows, and so Falcons Pere- loped swiftly on horseback dragging
grine and other kinds were trained the hare-skin behind, and the Falcon
to bring them down. Every great had to fly to reach it. In these ways
personage had his Falcons and fal- his trainers taught him to catch hares.
coner, and on hunting days parties They taught him to bring down birds
would go forth, lords and ladies, with by tossing in the air the stuffed skins
trains of attendants, all in grand ar- of Herons and other birds, and letting
ray, to enjoy the sport. him fly up and pounce upon them. At
The training of Falcons was a reg-i hunting parties, as soon as a Heron,





Swan, or other game was seen to rise,
the falconer took the hood from his
Falcon. Like an arrow from a bow
the Falcon would fly at the bird and
try to get the sky of it,' that is, try
to rise above it in the sky, so as to
pounce down upon it."
If I had been the Falcon, I would
have flown away," said Fred.
If you had been the Falcon, you
would have been called back by the
lure," said Uncle Willie. "A falconer
when hunting always kept fastened to
his belt a pretty little thing called a
' lure.' It was made of leather and
bright feathers, and it had attached
to it a whistle, and also some dainty
bit of food. By means of such dainty
bits the Falcon had been taught to
come back at sound of the whistle or
sight of the lure. I must not for-
get to say that to train a Falcon re-
quired gentleness and patience, and a
great deal of both."
The Falcon would no doubt be-
come fond of its master," said Cousin
Kate. "I once read a story of a gen-
tleman who lost a pet Falcon. After
a long time it was found. The mo-
ment it saw its master it darted
towards him, perched on his shoulder,
rubbed its head against his cheek, and
took his buttons in its bill."
I see by the drawing," said Fred,
" that the Falcon's bill has a deep
notch in it. I suppose that helps him
in tearing his food in pieces. He's
a stout, chunky-looking bird."
Yes," said Cousin Kate. "He is
very different in shape from the Eagle,
and the figures say that he is only half
as long as the Eagle. Uncle Willie
will tell us about the eggs."

The Peregrine Falcon," said Uncle
Willie, lays its eggs in the bare
hollow of some craggy rock; four
eggs, two inches long by an inch and
a half through. They are of mixed
colors, dark and light browns."

"THAT Mississippi Kite has a small
notch in its bill," said Fred. Who
knows anything about the Mississippi
Kite ? "
He is a kind of Falcon," said Un-
cle Willie, "but not a fierce kind, since
he eats nothing bigger than locusts
and beetles. As he darts past a tree,
he puts out his claw, snatches a locust
or a beetle, and puts it in his mouth."
I wonder why he is called a Kite,"
said Fred.
He flies high," said Uncle Willie,
" he has large wings, and the under-
neath part of him is white. Another
reason is, that he flies without flapping
his wings, so that when you look up
at him he seems poised in the air, like
a boy's kite. He may well be a strong
and easy flyer, for his wings are im-
mensely long. The whole length of
his body and tail is only fourteen
inches, while the wings, when spread,
measure thirty-six inches across.
Now for the eggs. Three eggs, nearly
round; light green, blotched with
brown and black. Nest in the fork
of a tree; made of sticks loosely put
together with moss, strips of bark, and
dry leaves."
Poor little Tiptoes can't find any
wobs in these birds," said Nannie.
No," said Cousin Kate. He
must look now for hooked bills and

_I I




long hooked claws. He will see these
in every picture."
"Tiptoes, you can find something
pretty in that next picture," said Nan-
nie, pointing to the

"I SEE a red tail! cried Tip-
toes, as he touched the long red tail-
His neck is pretty, too," said
And how curiously his feathers
are marked!" said Cousin Kate. His
head is not flat, like the Eagle's; it
has a tuft. Who knows anything
about this fellow? "
Farmers know something about
him to their cost," said Uncle Willie,
" for this is the fellow that steals their
liens; this is the Hen-Hawk. He
mounts into the air, sails round and
round in circles over a farm-yard,
comes down with a loud cry, and as
he swoops past, snatches up a chicken.
He snatches squirrels and mice in the
same way. Hen-Hawks are found all
about the country. They build large,
shallow nests in the tops of high trees.
The nest is made of coarse sticks and
twigs, and lined with moss, leaves,
and dry grass. In this nest are laid
three or four eggs, yellowish white,
with purplish blotches."
A friend of mine once had a tame
Hen-Hawk," said Cousin Kate. He
was taken from the nest when very
young, and brought up in the poultry-
yard. He fed with the chickens, and
roosted with them without ever doing
them any harm. He used to follovr
his mistress about the garden, and

sometimes when she was sewing he
would sit by her, chuckling, and watch-
ing with his large bright eyes every
movement of the needle. Whenever
a Wild Hawk came to attack the
chickens he was as frightened as any
of them, and screamed as loudly. In
some places these Hawks are called
Red-Tailed Buzzards; but I hardly
see why this bird should be called a
Buzzard. I think the Buzzards belong
to the Vulture family, and Vultures
have bare necks and heads, which this
bird has not.

"IN the next picture we are shown a
Turkey-Buzzard; he does have a bare
neck and head, and the card says he
belongs to the Vulture family. You
must remember, children, that those
Birds of Prey which we have just been
talking about belong to the Falcon
family. They have their heads and
necks covered, and they strike living
prey and carry it to their nests. The
true Vultures do not kill their prey;
they feed upon the dead bodies of
animals wherever they can find them.
This being the case, they do not need
the very strong feet and very long
curved claws of the Falcon family.
Just compare this Turkey-Buzzard's
feet with the Fish-Hawk's. You will
find the claws shorter and less curved,
and the toes slenderer."
I wonder why Vultures have bare
heads and necks," said Fred.
Perhaps," said Cousin Kate, it
is because they are obliged to thrust
their heads so far into the filthy dead
bodies they are devouring."

_ I __

- ---C L- -- I


long hooked claws. He will see these
in every picture."
"Tiptoes, you can find something
pretty in that next picture," said Nan-
nie, pointing to the

"I SEE a red tail! cried Tip-
toes, as he touched the long red tail-
His neck is pretty, too," said
And how curiously his feathers
are marked!" said Cousin Kate. His
head is not flat, like the Eagle's; it
has a tuft. Who knows anything
about this fellow? "
Farmers know something about
him to their cost," said Uncle Willie,
" for this is the fellow that steals their
liens; this is the Hen-Hawk. He
mounts into the air, sails round and
round in circles over a farm-yard,
comes down with a loud cry, and as
he swoops past, snatches up a chicken.
He snatches squirrels and mice in the
same way. Hen-Hawks are found all
about the country. They build large,
shallow nests in the tops of high trees.
The nest is made of coarse sticks and
twigs, and lined with moss, leaves,
and dry grass. In this nest are laid
three or four eggs, yellowish white,
with purplish blotches."
A friend of mine once had a tame
Hen-Hawk," said Cousin Kate. He
was taken from the nest when very
young, and brought up in the poultry-
yard. He fed with the chickens, and
roosted with them without ever doing
them any harm. He used to follovr
his mistress about the garden, and

sometimes when she was sewing he
would sit by her, chuckling, and watch-
ing with his large bright eyes every
movement of the needle. Whenever
a Wild Hawk came to attack the
chickens he was as frightened as any
of them, and screamed as loudly. In
some places these Hawks are called
Red-Tailed Buzzards; but I hardly
see why this bird should be called a
Buzzard. I think the Buzzards belong
to the Vulture family, and Vultures
have bare necks and heads, which this
bird has not.

"IN the next picture we are shown a
Turkey-Buzzard; he does have a bare
neck and head, and the card says he
belongs to the Vulture family. You
must remember, children, that those
Birds of Prey which we have just been
talking about belong to the Falcon
family. They have their heads and
necks covered, and they strike living
prey and carry it to their nests. The
true Vultures do not kill their prey;
they feed upon the dead bodies of
animals wherever they can find them.
This being the case, they do not need
the very strong feet and very long
curved claws of the Falcon family.
Just compare this Turkey-Buzzard's
feet with the Fish-Hawk's. You will
find the claws shorter and less curved,
and the toes slenderer."
I wonder why Vultures have bare
heads and necks," said Fred.
Perhaps," said Cousin Kate, it
is because they are obliged to thrust
their heads so far into the filthy dead
bodies they are devouring."

_ I __

- ---C L- -- I


A Turkey-Buzzard," said Uncle
Willie, when feeding upon a dead
animal is sometimes seen sitting in-
side the skeleton of the animal, like a
bird in a cage, picking the bones clean
of flesh. After he has gorged himself
so full that he cannot eat any more,
he flies heavily to a tree, and there he
sits, with his head sunk on his breast,
and his wings hanging open, as if he
were too lazy to shut them.
The Turkey-Buzzard lays its eggs
- two to four eggs on the ground,
or in the cleft of a rock, or in the
hollow of a log in the woods. The
eggs are nearly three inches long, and
two inches through, in the widest part.
They are of a creamy white, splashed
with brown and gray, particularly at
the larger end. Turkey-Buzzards have
sometimes been shot by mistake, for
Turkeys. We will look back at the
picture of the Turkey and compare
the two birds."
Buzzards are said to be very fond
of sitting on eggs," said Cousin Kate.
" I have read of a tame one which was
made to hatch out hens' eggs. Give
her eggs enough and a nest, and she
was contented. She defended the
chickens furiously, and was quick to
fly at any prowling cat or dog which
dared come near. She brought bits
of meat to the chickens, and seemed
troubled that they left the meat and
ate corn instead. She lived in peace
with her own broods, even after they
were full grown; but chickens not
hatched by herself she would destroy
if she could get at them."
What a small head that Turkey-
Buzzard has," said Fred, and how
different his eye is from the Eagle's!

Just look at the Eagle's and see the
Yes," said Uncle Willie, Eagles
and others of the Falcon family are
noble-looking birds.

"THE Vulture family are larger
than the Eagles, but they are lazy
and cowardly, and their appearance
is disgusting. Notice that California
Vulture. See how loose and slovenly
the feathers are in front, and those
about the lower part of the neck are
even more so."
0, what an ugly neck! cried
Nannie. I don't like to look at it."
But Vultures do so much good,
that they are sometimes protected by
law," said Uncle Willie.
In hot climates every bit of dead
flesh rots quickly. The animals of
those places are sometimes killed for
their skins, and the bodies are left to
rot; or perhaps they die of wounds.
Even of animals used for food some
parts are thrown away. All this car-
rion* would poison the air and cause
disease if left long. It is not left
long, for in warm countries Vultures
are plentiful. They have a wonderful
sense of smell, and wonderful eye-
sight. When a body first drops upon
the ground not one of them may be in
sight. Presently will be seen, away
up, high in air, several small black
specks. These black specks are Vul-
tures. They have scented their prey
from afar; with their telescopic eyes
they discern it, and they are swooping
down to devour it. If Vultures are

* Rotten or putrid flesh.

_ L __ __

__ _111_ __



disturbed while they are eating they
make a hissing sound, like that of
hot iron dropped into water. This is
the only sound they can utter. They
have no scream, no startling shriek,'
like the Eagle. Should any person
attempt to capture one after it has
eaten its fill, it will throw out the
food; for unless it did this it could
hardly fly at all."
The man who wrote this big book,"
said Cousin Kate," never saw the nest
of a California Vulture, but he has
seen its eggs. They are yellow-white,
blotched with different shades of red-
dish brown. The blotches are larger
and darker on the large end of the egg."

THAT one has got something on his
head !" cried Tiptoes, touching the
picture of the Condor.
That's his head-dress! said Fred.
" His head would be pretty flat with-
out that."
He has some more red trimming
that comes down under his chin no,
not chin bill," said Nannie. And
look! his ruffle reaches only part way
round! "
Yes, you must look; look hard at
the Condor," said Cousin Kate, for
he is the highest flying bird in the
world. Think of six miles up in the
air! How would you feel, all alone,
six miles up in the air, far above the
clouds, above the storms and the thun-
derbolts? I think you would feel
What! above the clouds ? cried
Yes, above the clouds. As a poet
says, addressing the Condor, -

'The storms that shake

Earth's towers, and bid herxooted mountains quake,
Are never felt by thee.
Beyond the bolt, beyond the lightning's gleam,
Basking forever in the unclouded beam,
Thy home, immensity !' "
Condors not only fly high," said
Uncle Willie, but they live high.
They live on the mountain-tops, where
there is everlasting snow. Their home
is in South America, among the lofty
peaks of the Andes. A mountain trav-
eller, gazing upwards, may see them,
five or six together, sitting on some
huge rock that stands out against the
sky, their heads sunk so far between
their shoulders that they look almost
as if they had no heads. They stand
so much on bare rocks that their claws
become blunted, and they lay their two
grayish eggs on those same bare rocks,
without making any nests. They never
come down from this region of ever-
lasting snow unless driven by hunger.
They are wonderfully quick at smell-
ing. Humboldt a very learned man
- says the word condor means 'to
smell well.'"
The Condor is of the Vulture fam-
ily," said Cousin Kate, "and prefers
carrion, but he does sometimes seize
living prey, for I have read that several
of them together will attack a calf, or
even a cow. They always aim at the
eyes, and when the animal becomes
blinded, it is easily killed. The part
they like best is the tongue, and that
is eaten first. Sometimes when a
Condor has so gorged himself with
food that he cannot fly, men try to kill
him, but he is a tremendous fighter,
and dies hard. A strong man fought
with one a long time, and had to give
up beaten."

_ -- -




Nannie, are n't you going to tell
that Condor story Aunt Hattie read to
you?" asked Fred.
"If I can;" said Nannie. "They
were in a menagerie ; two of them -
Mr. Condor and Mrs. Condor. Mr.
Condor was cross to Mrs. Condor, but
she used to coax him to be pleasant.
Perhaps he did not feel well, for he
grew sick, and all the while he was
sick she would sit by him and smooth
his feathers with her bill, and some-
times she would hold his bill in her
bill. She would sit and look at him
hours at a time. When lie died, she
tumbled up her feathers, and hid her-
self in a corner of the cage, and would
not eat her food, and she mourned for
him more than a year."
I once saw a Condor flying," said
Uncle Willie," and I shall never forget
the sight. It moved in large circles,
higher and lower, and without the least
flapping of the wings. It is wonderful.
to see so large a bird gliding about,
high over sea and land, hours at a time,
seeming to make no effort at all."
I think that all the Vultures, ugly
as they are, have this strong, easy,
graceful flight," said Cousin Kate.
"It is owing to the immense size and
powerful muscles of their wings. Just
look at the wings of all these Vultures.
Look at those of the Bearded Vulture."

THE bird himself looks somewhat
like the White-headed Eagle," said
Fred. "Bearded? 0 yes. Look, Nan-
nie! Look, Tiptoes! Don't you see
his black whiskers ?"
The home of this bird is in the

mountains of Europe and Asia," said
Cousin Kate. "He is not a true Vul-
ture, for his neck is covered; and I
see that he has another name given.
Lammer Geyer, or Lamb Eagle. He
carries off lambs, and we read in books
that lie has been known to carry off
children. His feet look as if lie might
do this. They are stronger and have
the claws more hooked than the Con-
dor's. The Lammer Geyer prefers
dead flesh, but when hungry it will eat
rats, mice, birds, rabbits, lambs, and
so forth. Sometimes if it sees a goat
or other animal standing on the edge of
a precipice, it will hurl itself against
the animal and knock it off. Some-
times it kills a hunter in this way."
"I know a story of one of these
Vultures," said Uncle Willie. It is
much like a story told just now. It
has hungry travellers in it, and some
mountains, and the hungry travellers
were travelling over the mountains.
They got some goat's meat, the story
does n't say how,- the other story
did n't say how its hungry travellers
got their goat's meat, and they put
this goat's meat in a pot, over a fire
made out of doors on a mountain-top.
Suddenly there came down into the
midst of them a Lammer Geyer, and
as suddenly clapped his claw into the
boiling water to clutch the meat. His
claw came out in a hurry, but in dart-
ing away he snatched a leg of goat's
flesh lying near by and carried it off."
"I wonder what kind of eggs this
big bird lays," said Fred.
Uncle Willie looked in the bird book,
and found that the Lamlner Geyer lays
two eggs, of a dirty white color, patched
with brown. It builds its nest on

_ _e



I -. ; t;


In: T 0 ./

!.* f!



high trees," said Uncle Willie; a
flat, rough-looking nest made of sticks.
One was seen built on three oak-trees ;
it was so large that in case of rain it
could have sheltered a wagon."
"Take care, Tiptoes," said Cousin
Kate. Don't pick those eyes quite
"out." Tiptoes was passing his hand
over the Owls, touching each eye with
the tip of his forefinger.
Great big ones said he, spread-
ing both hands wide.
O, how those Owls do stare!" said
You can see that they are Birds
of Prey," said Cousin Kate; they
have the hooked beak and the hooked
claws. But they are different from
the others; they are short, chunky,
fluffy, feathery, downy, soft, all the
way alike, and the eyes are set in
front. Compare their heads and their
shape with the Eagle's."
The feathers cover the bill so that
you can hardly see it," said Fred.
" They cover even the legs and feet."
"The Owl's feathers are so very
soft and fine," said Uncle Willie, "par-
ticularly at the edges, that he can
make his way through the air without
noise. He works in the night and
sleeps in the day."
Cousin Kate, does the Owl work?"
asked Nannie.
"Yes," said Cousin Kate, "he works
hard, hunting food for his children.
At the twilight hour, when he is no
longer dazzled by the sunshine, the
Owl goes forth to hunt. The dim light
just suits his large eyes. His large
ears are formed to catch the slightest
sound ; not the feeblest motion, not
the faintest rustle, escapes him. Per-

haps a field-mouse glides through the
grass. With silent wings the Owl
drops down upon it, and bears it away
to the young Owls that are waiting at
home. This home is probably a nest
in the hollow of a tree, very likely a
squirrel's nest, stolen by Mr. and Mrs.
Owl, for they do such things,- or the
nest may be in some old ruined building.
'In the hollow tree, in the gray old tower,
The spectral Owl doth dwell.'
A writer who spent much time in
watching Owls speaks of one which
brought a mouse to its nest as often
as once in every twelve or fifteen
minutes. He says that Owls help
farmers a great deal by eating mice
and other creatures which would do
harm in grain-fields. The reason that
farmers do not know this is because
Owls work in the dark."

"IT is that little chap there, that
Screech Owl, which does all this,"
said Uncle Willie. He likes to
prowl around barns and farm-houses.
People who have watched him say that
his way of swallowing a mouse is quite
curious. He catches it in his claw,
kills it by a smart bite across the back,
tosses it up, and catches the head in
his mouth. With a jerk of his head
he swallows the body, sometimes leav-
ing the tail hanging out of his mouth.
Then he gives the tail a few shakes,
and with another jerk swallows that.
He sometimes swallows very small
birds whole. The parts of the food
which will not digest, as hair, bones,
and feathers,are thrown up in the form
of a ball. You can hardly judge of his

_ ___



size by his appearance, for feathers
make a pretty large part of him. His
body, when you get to it, is only about
the size of a pigeon's. The young ones
look like little round puffs of white
down. The eggs, too, are round and
white. Three or four are the usual
number in one nest."
These Owls can be easily tamed,"
said Cousin Kate. "I remember read-
ing of one which became a great pet
in a family, and was as playful as a
kitten. If a stranger came near, it
would hiss and snap its bill. Some-
times it flew away, but it always came
back. This tame Owl and a tame
Lark became good friends, and the
Lark used to sit on the Owl's back,
though if they had been wild, the Owl
would probably have eaten the Lark."
Does the Screech Owl screech ?"
asked Nannie.
The noise, as I have heard it,"
said Uncle Willie, is not exactly a
screech; it is more like a loud, tremu-
lous whistle. It reminded me some-
what of the whinny of a colt."
"Owls seem a good deal like cats,"
said Fred. They see in the dark,
they go softly, and they catch mice."
And they like fish," said Cousin
Kate, and they are playful, like kit-
I think its face looks some like a
cat's face," said Nannie; see how its
ears stick up! "
Those are not ears," said Cousin
Kate, they are tufts of feathers."
Owls have been called 'feathered
cats,' said Uncle Willie, "and some
of the larger kinds are often called
'Cat Owls.'"
One of the Owls I read of," said

Cousin Kate, "would perch on its
master's wrist and touch his lips with
its beak. And I know another Owl
story. Once there was a young Owl
caught and placed in a hen-coop.
Next morning there was a dead par-
tridge lying before the coop. The
next morning there was another, and
so on for fourteen mornings. They
were brought by the baby Owl's father
and mother."
If they brought large game like
partridges, they were probably the
Great Horned Owl," said Uncle
Willie. There is one in the next

HE is the fellow that hoots. One
dark night while riding through a
swamp I was almost frightened out of
my wits by one of these Owls. It was
a silent, lonesome place. Suddenly,
and very near me, came a horrible
yell, loud and long. To lhtoo To
Whoo! ToWiWo-o-o-o!' Uncle Wil-
lie's hoot made Tiptoes jump and give
a short Oh "
Don't be afraid, Tiptoes," said
Cousin Kate. Even if the Owl him-
self were here he would not harm us,
if he could."
"This Owl," said Uncle Willie.
"lives away from houses, in deep.
dark swamps, where great timber trees
grow. He hunts larger game than
mice, hunts rabbits, for instance, and
partridges, and even turkeys."
0 yes "cried Fred. When we
were talking about the Scratchers you
told us how the Great Horned Owl
would pounce down in the night to

__ _




dine upon a Turkey, and how the Tur- in the daytime than most Owls. You

key slipped out of the way."
"'We know not always who are kings by day,
But the king of the night is the boldbrown Owl.'
So writes Barry Cornwall," said Cousin
'When the night falls, when roosts the fowl,
When the moon shines and dogs do howl,
Then is the reign of the Horned Owl.'
I must get the book and read you the
whole poem."
Sometimes these Owls make fright-
ful sounds, like the screams of a person
being choked to death," said Uncle
Willie. The Indians used to call
him Otowuck-oho.' "

O, WHAT a funny Owl that Snowy
Owl is! cried Nannie. He has n't
any ears What are you trying to do,
Tiptoes ? Tiptoes was picking at the
feathers just above the Owl's bill, and
looking on the back of the picture,
trying to find his other eye."
"He has two eyes," said Cousin
Kate, but in the picture one is hid-
den by the feathers. I have heard
that the eyes are so bright yellow that
they look like jewels, and shine in the
night like balls of fire. This Owl
must be young, for he is spotted.
The old ones are pure white."
"You ought to see a Snowy Owl
on a fishing excursion," said Uncle
Willie. He sails over the water, and
as a fish comes to the top, snatches
it with his claw; or sometimes he
lies flat on a rock and watches and
snatches. He is a mighty hunter,
too, destroying quantities of rabbits
and smaller game. He can see better

don't often find Snowy Owls in this
part of the country. They are Arctic
Owls, and live in the icy Northern
One curious thing about this Owl
is that his eyes are fixed in the sock-
ets, so that when he wants to see an
object that is not in front of him, he
has to turn his head; but his head
moves easily, and it can swing so far
round as to look as if it were set on
back side foremost, the eyes then
coming directly behind."
White Owls do sometimes fly down
to these parts," said Cousin Kate, "for
here is a little poem in which Celia
Thaxter describes one. I will only
read one verse.
'His wide, slow waving wings so white,
Heavy and soft did seem,
Yet rapid as a dream his flight,
And silent as a dream.'
"I found out the other day why
the Owl has been called the em-
blem of wisdom. You will observe
that his head is high and arched, thus
giving him the appearance of having
plenty of brains, and plenty of brains
implies wisdom. But this space is
not filled with brains. The fact is,
that as the Owl has wonderfully large
eyes and ears, his skull must be so
made as to give room for these won-
derfully large eyes and ears.
And now I am going to tell an
Owl story, which is my own Owl story.
I call it mine because I am in the story.
One night, at late twilight, I was sit-
ting with a few other people in the
kitchen of a small house in the coun-
try. Suddenly one of the company
pointed to the roof of a low shed, just

C __




outside, and whispered, There 's an that would be a very good story if
Owl!' It was an Owl, a small Barn the Owl had only come! "

Owl, perched on the edge of the low
roof. In a moment he flew away,
' silent as a dream.' Next night, at
about the same time, I caught a glimpse
of him, just flitting from a clothes-
post. After that, I sat by the window
every night and watched for my Owl,
but in vain. I scattered odds and
ends of food over the ground, hoping
these would entice him to devour them.
They did not so entice him. I threw
bits of fat meat upon the low roof by
day, but he came not at eve. Some
of these rolled down into the rain-
water barrel. After many days and
nights had passed and no Owl, I tried
a herring. It was a large, fat, juicy
herring; a magnificent, beautifully
roasted, enticing herring, skinned to
a charm I carried it gently out at
the witching hour of twilight, crept
gently in, and sat down to watch.
The people of the house had become
quite excited about my Owl. They
stepped softly, lest they should scare
my Owl. One or two of the neighbors
had dropped in to await the coming
of my Owl. We and they spoke in
whispers. It grew darker, and darker,
and darker. At last, when our excite-
ment was at its highest pitch, there
came a waggle-tailed dog, which
ate the herring! I never saw my
Owl again. But that night -it was
a calm, still, warm, drowsy, summer's
night I heard from the swamp near
by a curious noise, a noise such as I
had never heard before, and to this
day I have always believed that my
Owl made it."
"Oh!" sighed Nannie. "I think

That is just what I thought," said
Cousin Kate. I did not expect to
see him very plainly, but if I could
have seen the snug, pretty way in
which he holds on with his claws, it
would have been better than nothing."
"I should like to find an Owl's
nest," said Fred.
"They are usually rude affairs,"
said Uncle Willie; just a few sticks
put together, with sometimes a scanty
lining of feathers or leaves. The
Snowy Owl has its nest on the
ground. Owls commonly lay three
or four eggs, and the eggs are always
white and round."
I should think they would be
round," said Fred. The Owls them-
selves are almost round."
We have now looked at four kinds
of birds," said Cousin Kate; thir-
teen of each kind. There are differ-
ences in the habits of these birds, but
in many ways they are alike. Leaving
out the Penguin, all can rise from the
ground. If their bones were solid,
like our bones, or if they were covered
with hair instead of feathers, they
could not do this; but the quills of
their feathers, and usually their bones,
are filled with air. And birds are
alike in having a strong affection for
their young. They take the tenderest
care of them, caress them, instruct
them; and they will face any danger
rather than desert them. We have
seen, too, that birds understand each
other's language, and that they form
attachments to each other, and grieve
for the loss of their companions. We
have seen that they become attached to

I_ L __



rrt 2


t. ,: 7+ ", '.'',, '

"7 ^'. -

trd So'

^Rr !,

S .


human beings, and show this attach-
ment in various ways. We have seen
that in many respects these birds are
superior to ourselves. Even if we
could rise miles in the air, when up
there we could not see what passes
close to the ground. Just think of
"the wonderful eyes of the bird; eyes
by which it can perceive objects upon
the earth equally well whether it is
near them or soaringamong the clouds!
Think of its power of flight! Think
of rushing through the air at fifty, one
hundred, one hundred and fifty miles
an hour! Think of flying at this swift
rate, thousands of miles, high over sea
and land, with no pathways, no guide-
boards, and yet coming back every
year to the same spot!

A great many, even of the wild
birds, are found in our own country,
and some of these quite near us, but
to see them we should have to watch
long and patiently in the woods, the
swamps, and the marshes. By doing
this we may have the pleasure of see-
ing with our own eyes many curious
Mr. Audubon, when trying to learn
certain facts about a certain bird, car-
ried his bed to the foot of a tree, and
made that his lodging-place for six
After we have become well ac-
quainted with birds and their ways, 1
am sure it will not be possible for us
to look carelessly, or with contempt,
upon creatures so interesting."


- II --






By N. A. CALKINS, Superintendent rf Primary Schools, New York City, and
MRs. A. M. DIAZ, Autlor of the "Willianm Hfenry Letters," etc.

MESSRS. L. PRANG & Co. have the pleasure of announcing that they have
begun the publication of a series of works in Natural History, for schools and
families, under the general title of PRANG'S NATURAL HISTORY SERIES FOR
It is the aim of the publishers, in issuing these works in the present form, to
aid the efforts now so generally made to elevate the character of the juvenile
literature of the day, by placing within the reach of parents and teachers some
of the interesting facts in Natural History, which shall serve not only for the
amusement of children, but which shall tend at the same time to develop their
perceptive faculties and to enlarge the boundaries of their knowledge. To this
end, the publishers have availed themselves not only of their extensive faculties
for producing colored illustrations of a high order, but they have secured in
addition the assistance of the best literary, scientific, and educational talent
available for the preparation, arrangement, and description of the various subjects
illustrated, so that they can confidently put this enterprise forward as an entirely
exceptional one in American juvenile literature, and of great practical value
in education.
Six works are now issued, with the following titles:-
Swimmimg Birds, with thirteen colored illustrations of Ducks, Swan, Geese,
Gull, Albatross, Loon, Pelican, etc.
Wading Birds, with thirteen colored illustrations of Herons, Crane, Stork,
Ibis, Flamingo, Bittern, Woodcock, etc.
Scratching Birds, or Gallinaceous Birds, with thirteen colored illustrations
of Turkey, Fowl, Grouse, Quail, Pheasant, Pigeons, etc.
Birds of Prey, with thirteen colored illustrations of Eagles, Vultures, Owls,
Hawks, etc.
Cat Family, with thirteen colored illustrations of Cats, Lion, Tiger, Leopard,
Panther, Lynx, etc.
Cow Family, or Hollow-horned Ruminants, with thirteen colored illustrations
of Cow, Ox, Yak, Zebu, Bison, Goat, Sheep, Chamois, Gnu, etc.
Price of each work, fifty cents.

L. PRANG & CO., Publishers, Boston.

_ ,, ,

SCpl 1J 7



Superintendent of Primarr Schools in New Yorlk Cty,
The Author of The William Henry Letters," etc.

This Series of Juveniles consists of a number of volumes treating of the
habits and peculiar characteristics of Birds and Quadrupeds in a manner
interesting to children.
The works already published in this Series are as follows:-

Swimming Birds, Birds of Prey,
With Thirteen Colored Illustrations. With Thirteen Colored Illustrations.

Wading Birds, Cat Family,
With T'lirteen Colored Illustrations. With Thirteen Colored Illustrations.

Scratching Birds, Cow Family,
or G.O-iin'efoIs BIrds. I II.lloi-hiurrnd tuiininauts,
With Thirteen Colored Illustratious. With Thirteen Colored Illustrations.


L. PRANG & CO., Publishers, Boston.

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