Citation
The Florida agriculturist

Material Information

Title:
The Florida agriculturist
Uniform Title:
Florida agriculturist (De Land, Fla.)
Place of Publication:
DeLand Fla
Publisher:
Kilkoff & Dean
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Monthly[1908-June 1911]
Weekly[ FORMER 1878-1907]
monthly
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ;

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agriculture -- Florida ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- De Land (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Volusia County (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Jacksonville (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Duval County (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Genre:
newspaper ( marcgt )
newspaper ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Florida -- Volusia -- DeLand
Coordinates:
29.02889 x -81.30055 ( Place of Publication )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1, no. 1 (May 15, 1878)-v. 38, no. 6 (June 1911).
Numbering Peculiarities:
Numbering is irregular.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Some issues for 1911 also called "New series."
General Note:
Publisher: E.O. Painter, <1887>.
General Note:
Editor: C. Codrington, 1878- .
General Note:
"A journal devoted to state interests."
General Note:
Published at Jacksonville and De Land, <1902>-1907; at Jacksonville, 1907- .
Funding:
Funded by NEH in support of the National Digital Newspaper Project (NDNP), NEH Award Number: Project #00110855

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item.
Resource Identifier:
000941425 ( ALEPH )
01376795 ( OCLC )
AEQ2997 ( NOTIS )
sn 96027724 ( LCCN )

Related Items

Preceded by:
Volusia County herald (De Land, Fla.)

Full Text
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The Only Paper East of the Rocky Mountains Making a Specialty of Tropical and Semi-Tropical Agriculture

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SINGLE COPY 10 CENTS

SI.OO PER YEAR



A FEW FINE REAL ESTATE OPPORTUNITIES
ORANGE GROVES. VEGETABLE LANDS. FARMS AND HOMES
The aim of the FLORIDA LAND BUREAU is to establish a central point in the State of Florida for the emanation of thor thoroughly
oughly thoroughly reliable and authentic information pertaining to properties listed and for sale in any part of the State, for the benefit
and protection of the prospective buyer, specializing upon the location, products of the soil, pTices of land, adaptability, trans transportation,
portation, transportation, markets, climate, etc. The following is a partial list of our offerings:

100. On what is known as Morris Island,
we have 6,400 acres that we can sell for s.s#
an acre. This is in a territory where ten
years ago lands were considered worth a great
deal more than these prices. Close to this
acreage we have 2,400 acres, and near this
3,200 acres that we will sell you at the same
price, as a whole or any portion.
101. 143 acres good farming land, fenced,
in Leon county, with good painted five-room
dwelling, good cheap barn, two tenant houses,
at $3,000.
No. 102. 21 1-2 acres in St. Lucie county,
near Stuart; fronts on St. Lucie river. This
is unimproved pineapple and trucking land.
Price, $1,150 cash.
No 104. Five miles from Leesburg, on
lake, 10 acres of land, 8 acres orange and
grapefruit trees, in fine bearing. Four-room
cottage. Good well of water. Price, $3,500.
104-A. At Lady lake, 5-acre orange grove.
Price, $450.
104-B. 90 acres of hammock land and 40
acres of pine land. Grove has 1,350 to 1,400
trees, mostly orange, early variety; some grape grapefruit.
fruit. grapefruit. Seventy-five per cent trees bearing;
some of trees capable of bearing 8 to 10 b'oxes.
Five miles from Leesburg. Price, SB,OOO.
104-C One mile from Leesburg. 13 acres
and house; about 200 orange trees. Price SBSO.
104-D. 25 acres, all cleared; 8-room house,
plastered. Few peach and pear trees and one
or two grapefruit trees. Two miles from Lees Leesburg.
burg. Leesburg. Price, $1,200.
104-C. One mile from Leesburg. 22 acres
hammock land, some old trees; on the lake.
Price, $1,200.
104-E. House and lot, within 1 1-2 blocks
of postoffice. Lot is 157x105 ft. Price, S7OO.
No. 105. 40 acres, all under cultivation and
fenced; soil is rich and produces abundantly;
only 3 1-2 miles from Ocala, on a good, hard
road; large two-story, seven-room house, barns,
carriage sheds, etc.; peaches, pears, plums and
a great number of shade trees; good horse,
cow, wagon, buggy, harness, farming imple implements,
ments, implements, etc., all in good shape. Price, $4,500
cash, includes all, as stated.
No. 106. 80 acres in Marion county, near
depot, store and potsoffice. This is hammock
land and raises corn without fertilizing. About
35 acres is now ready for cultivation, and is
well fenced. Two-story house, good well of
soft, cool water at corner of house. Large
barn, with shed, stables and granary; large
cistern at barn; blacksmiths shop, large shed
for wagons or tools, and old house and barn.
There are about 150 bearing pear trees, with
orange trees set between, only a few of them
in bearing; several young bearing peach trees,
and several varieties of plums, mulberries,
grapes, etc. 15 to 20 acres of pine timber
which has been turpentinednot being worked
now. Price, $1,300; one-third cash, balance
two years at 8 per cent.
No. 107. 70 acres in Marion county, all in
cultivation excepting about 10 acres; one-half
cleared hammock, remainder pine and hick hickory
ory hickory hardwood land.. All under good fence.
Farm one-quarter mile from city limits of
Anthony, and one mile from school, postoffice
and church. Improvements consist of 4-rooro
house, with large porch on two sides; fine
well. Barn, corn crib, large buggy shed and
implement room; new chicken house and run.
Fine pond. Bay horse, 2 milch cows, 1 thor-'
oughbred heifer, fresh scron; 18 head of hogs;
about 35 thoroughbred R. I. Red chickens and
50 head of common stock; top buggy, almost
new wagon, mowing machine, hay rake, culti cultivator
vator cultivator and all kinds of plows and small farm
tools; 3 sets of harness; also fine cane patch.
Land lies high and dry and is in the best
farming section of Marion county. Immediate
possession given. All the land adioining is in
cultivation. Price, $3,500; $1,500 down and
$750 by the first of July; the balance in one
and two years at 8 per cent.
No. 108. 20,000 acres cut-over land, near
Tampa, saw timber reserved, but will deliver
all within three years free of timber. Rich
land immune from frosts. Orange "roves on
all sides and fine truck land. Price, $5.50 per
acre.
No. 108-A. 80 acres, Hillsboro county, near
Plant City, of choice, selected land on hard
road in thickly settled neighborhood; school and
church in sight, on R F. D. mailroute; about
30 acres of cleared and stumped land, that has
grown 50 barrels of corn to the acre without
fertilizing; 250 bearing trees, some grapefruit,

Correspondence on any subject pertaining to Florida cordially invited. W. E. WILLIAMS, Manager
906 Bi'sbee Building FLORIDA LAND BUREAU JA FLORIDA^ LE

figs, plums and lots of peach trees; a good
seven-room house, barn, smoke house, etc.;
some thick pine timber; several acres of muck
land and an old field that can be easily re reclaimed;
claimed; reclaimed; all the very best of farming, truck trucking
ing trucking and fruit-growing land. Will sell every everything
thing everything for $4,000 and give terms.
109. 300 acres in Bradford county, on G.
S. and F. railway; 50 acres improved; 200
acres under American wire fence; 300 yards
from depot; one mile from church and school;
land will grow all staple crops, and is good for
truck growing; some small buildings. Price,
$3,500; one-third cash, balance one and two
years.
No. no. 3,054 acres in Bradford county,
between and on either side of the S. A. L rail railway
way railway and the G. S. and F. railway; in the
midst of early strawberry-raising district, es especially
pecially especially fine for pecans, corn, sugar cane, and
all general farm products. Best all-round farm farming
ing farming land in the state. About 50 miles from
Jacksonville. SIO.OO per acre cash, or $11.50
per acre on tune, for the whole tract
No. in. Seven acres in Orange county,
near Orlando, on county road to Oveido. Hog Hogproof
proof Hogproof fence on two sides. Land is cleared and
grubbed. i3x24-foot box-style house in good
condition; ioxi4-foct poultry house; stall for
horse; garden enclosed with poultry wire fence.
One acre of seedling trees, orange and grape grapefruit.
fruit. grapefruit. One and one-fifth acres of two year yearold
old yearold budded trees. All trees in healthy condi condition.
tion. condition. Good wagon, plows, farm tools; 25 hens
included. Location high and healthy. No
mosquitoes; no malaria. Price, S6OO cash.
No. 112. A Hotel, at Plymouth, Orange
county, two miles from Apopka; three-story,
35 rooms, all furnished and in good repair.
Nice grounds, fruits and flowers Nice lake
front for boating and fishing. Good winter
resort. Price, $6,000.
No. 113. 25 acres pine land, Orange county.
sop young orange and grapefruit trees, 200 in
bearing; on hard surfaced road and near
transportation. Price, $1,200.
No. 114. 40 acres, two miles from Plant
City, cleared and fenced; house and barn, good
truck land: 20 bearing orange trees, etc. A
desirable place; good water. Price, SI,BOO.
No 115. 40 acres, three miles from Plant
City; 25 acres cleared, nice house and barns;
a beautiful home and nicely located, good
land. Price, $1,700.
No. 116. 18 acres, one and one-half miles
from Plant City, cleared and fenced, nice
plastered 8-room house, barn, etc. Fine home.
Price, SI,BOO.
No. 117. 20 acres, two miles from Plant
City, near big phosphate plant; house and
barn, 15 acres cleared, all fenced; a good
farm where everything raised on the farm
can be easily disposed of at the phosphate
plant. Price, $1,400.
No. 118. 80 acres, three miles from Plant
City, hard road part of way; small bearing
orange grove, good houses and barns; a very
desirable place to live. Half-mile from graded
school. Ten acres cleared outside of grove;
good lands. Price, $2,000.
No. 119. 40 acres, 3 miles from Plant City,
on hard road; part cleared and fenced; good
for trucking and gardening. Price, $1,500.
No. 120. 40 acres adjoining above tract;
house and barns, 10 acres cleared; good for
all kinds of crops. Price, $1,200.
No. 121. 80 acres, Duval county, 4 1-2
miles from Jacksonville, near King road. This
is cut-over land, mostly high; good drainage;
occasional clump of cypress low land. The
Florida railroad, which is now building from
Fernandina via Jacksonville to White Springs
and Live Oak, has already completed the
grading of its road bed, which runs practi practically
cally practically between the two 40s. This road should
be operating suburban service within twelve
months, which should enhance this land very
materially. Price, S7O per acre for the 80
acres. If desired, 40 acres of this tract can
be secured at $75 per acre. Terms on whole
tract, SI,OOO cash, SI,OOO in six months, bal balance
ance balance 1, 2 and 3 years at 8 per cent. On the
40-acre tract, SSOO down, SSOO in six months,
balance in 1, 2 and 3 years at 8 per cent.
No. 122. 140 acres fine pine land farm,
natural drainage, 30 acres cleared and fenced;
3-room house, barn 1 t-z stories, stable and
wagon room, all new; naif-mile from creek
landing, 3 miles from St. Johns river, and
35 miles from Jacksonville. 50 bearing trees,

70 pecan trees, nearly all Wearing. This land
will grow all kinds of garden truck and sta staple
ple staple crops. Price, $3,000.
No.. 123. 150 acres Willow Brook Farm,
ip miles from St. Augustine, on Matanzas
river, about 1 1-2 miles of riparian rights; 30
acres under wire fence: 90 peach trees, barn
(house was burned), about 1.000 cords of oak
wood on the land. Price, $4,500. Terms.
No. 124. 23 acres, all under cultivation, on
Mill, creek road, ab'out 11 miles from St. Au Augustine;
gustine; Augustine; good stock range surrounding it; 3-
room house, sugar mill and evaporator. Price.
$2,000.
No. 125. 4x2 acres, mostly hammock land,
fronting on Matanzas river about 21 miles
south of St. Augustine, 20 acres fenced, t6l
cleared, 4-room house, Barn and some fruifi
trees. Price, $2,500,
No. 126. 20 acres. 1 mile south of Moul-
trie creek, about 7 miles from St. Augustine,
all under good fence. A small stream of wa water
ter water runs through land: TSO bearing Jan. per
simmons. 3-4 acre scuppernong grape arbor in
good condition, also a nurrfner of neac*.i, pear
and plum trees; a 6-room house. Terms, one onehalf
half onehalf cash, balance in 1, 2 and 3 years at 6
per cent. Price, $2,500.
No. 127. 7 acres, Pasco county orange
prove, 4 miles south of "Dade City, on A. C.
L. railway. Wire fenced. Trees in bearing,
about 20 feet high. Price, SI,OOO, one-quarter
cash, balance in SIOO notes, due every three
months, 8 per cent.
No. T2B. 7 acres, Pasco county, 4 miles
south of Dade City. The whole acreage is in
sweet oranges, only. Trees in fine condition.
12 to 20 ft high, and about 6 inches through
at the stump. The land is fine and rich.
This grove is at Ellerslfe, on the A. C. L.
railway, within 200 yards of the depot. Price.
$l,lOO, one-third cash, balance easy payments.
SI,OOO all cash.
No. 120. 330 acres, Pasco county, 5 miles
west of Dade City. 1 1-2 miles south Blan Blanton.
ton. Blanton. A. C. L.. railway runs through place.
75 acres good pine timber, 40 acres hard-wood
hammock, 60 acres open hammock (or cleared
land), 30 acres open prairie. T 25 acres in mill
pond. This hammock land verv fine; pine land
above the average. The prairie land is ex exceptionally
ceptionally exceptionally good truck land, and land or basin
under the pond is as fine celery, strawberry,
onion or cabbage land as in Florida. Pond
will drain off by raising flood-gates at mill.
This pond been catching washings from ad adjacent
jacent adjacent hillsides for centuries: soil is black and
rich, better than muck. .This basin has 8 to
10 springs running into it. making irrigation
easv. Dwelling of two rooms, also barns,
stables, and fine grist mill run bv water.
Price, sls per acre. Terms, one-half cash,
balance 12 months, 8 per cent.
No. 130. 120 acres, Pasco county, on Lake
Pasadena, with half-mile of lake front; 20
acre bearing orange grove. The oast crop was
2.000 boxes, next crop estimated from 4,000
to 5.000 boxes: 5 acres grapefruit orchard,
one year old. 10-acre peach orchard; 40 acres
hardwood hammock. Two fine 2-story dwell dwellings;
ings; dwellings; t mile from Pasadena station, 3 miles
from Dade City. Price, $12,000: one-third
cash, balance on terms.
No. 131. 40 acres fine, orange grove and
trucking land, about 18 miles from Fort Mey Meyers,
ers, Meyers, DeSoto county, in the town of Alva. Good
s-room dwelling. Four acres in seedling grape grapefruit
fruit grapefruit trees, 2 acres of which just coming into
bearing; 3 acres cleared for trucking, with
good fence enclosing fully 9 acres, including
the land cleared; balance of land is pine tim timber
ber timber land. Scunpernong grape, mulberrv trees,
lemons, etc., about the house. A bargain at
$1,500. Terms.
No. 132. 40 acres on Sanibel Island, De-
Soto county. About two-thirds of the prop property
erty property is suitable for cultivation, and about four
acres are under cultivation. The. island has
rural free delivery and excellent line of boats
between that point and Fort Myers. Price.
sxso per acre.
No. 133. 28 acres, St. Johns county; 10-
room dwelling, barn, poultry house, etc: to
acres cleared, 5 acres planted in orange, pe pecan,
can, pecan, Tap. persimmon and guava trees.. Good
artesian well* 2 1-2 miles from Hastings, on
nublie road, half mile from St. Johns river.
Excellent for poultry, trucking, etc. Price.
$4,500. Terms, half cash, balance in x and
2 vears. Immediate possession.



Iflorlfca Bsr(cuituri6t

Old Series Vol. XXXVIII, No. 6
New Series Vol. I, No. 3.

FROM FROZEN NORTH TO SUNNY SOUTH
OR TWENTY YEARS IN FLORIDA
By HELEN HARCOURT
Author of Florida Fruits and Howto Raise Them, Home Life in Florida,
Southern Stories for Little Readers/ Etc.

[This is a story with a motive to show what
can be and is being done by industry and in intelligent
telligent intelligent effort in Florida. To term it fiction
would be a misnomer for it deals with the pract practical
ical practical side of the life of a family who made their
home in this favored State, and tells how they
made their great success.]
CHAPTER XI.
OUR FIRST HARVEST IN SIGHT.
l really think you had better go
up to Jacksonville and see those hotel
men and the storekeepers too, Harry.
Face to face talks are far better in
business arrangements than a multi multitude
tude multitude of letters sauntering to and fro,
mixing things up and causing all sorts
of delays.
Thus spoke the Queen at the break breakfast
fast breakfast table one morning early in Nov November.
ember. November.
Mollies right, said Jack, It will
be more satisfactory to come to a
full verbal understanding about ship shipping
ping shipping your crops and you had better
go now while I am here to look after
your frisky spouse and kids.
Mr. Bronson, said I solemnlyso
solemnly that Mollie opened wide her
astonished eyes, Look here; my
name is not Billy, my wifes name
is not Nanny, neither is our last
name Goat. Therefore our little ones
cannot be kids, and I do honestly
object to their being so called.
Hear, hear! cried my brother-in brother-inlaw,
law, brother-inlaw, clapping his hands and joining
in the laugh that went around the
table. But seriously, Hal, I agree
with you; I dont like the term my myeslf;
eslf; myeslf; it just popped out unbeknownst.
I acknowledge that it is by way of
a sort of mild vulgarity, more honor honored
ed honored in the breach than in the observ observance,
ance, observance, and better ignored by gentle gentlefolks.
folks. gentlefolks. But to return to our subject.
You object to the trip on the score of
expense, but I am sure that it will
more than repay you in actual cash-
They say, and truly, that the pen is
mightier than the sword, but it is
my opinion that the tongue is mighc mighcier
ier mighcier than the pen every time. Better
go and talk it all over with the merch merchants
ants merchants and hotel men, find out exactly
what they want and arrange with
them for next season as well as for
this. Ill be gone about my own busi business
ness business before long, and then you wont
want to leave your folks alone here,
and in fact you could not do it.

Jacksonville, Fla., June, 1911

Well, friends, the upshot of this
rather one-sided talk was of course
pre-determined. The Queen said that
I must go, and so I went. She was
sure that a personal interview would
secure better terms for my coming
shipments of early vegetables than I
could' obtain by mail. Of course
Jack and Mother Bronson agreed with
her, and last of all, Harry Crawford
agreed with her too, as he always did.
He often assured me in private confer conferences,
ences, conferences, that the Queen knew more
than I did, and had a wiser head on
her sweet shoulders.
But all the same, it was not only
because she thought I could make
better sales by seeing those Jackson Jacksonville
ville Jacksonville men in person, that she was de determined
termined determined to get me out of the way for
a while. Not only Mollie, but her
mother and brother too. They were
all conspirators, and I was the inno innocent
cent innocent victim of their awful duplicity.
They wanted to get rid of me, and
that was the secret of their insist insistance
ance insistance that I should go to Jacksonville.
I did not suspect them of their ulter ulterior
ior ulterior designs, and so I went seriously
on my way to the metropolis that was
then showing but little promise of its
marvellous growth of the present.
Bay street, for instance, now the
home of handsome brick business
blocks stretching for miles along the
bank of the majestic St. Johns river,
and traversed by an up-to-date trolley
line, Bay street was then lined with
nondescript buildings, some few
modern brick structures, many wood wooden
en wooden ones, many of them of but one
story in height, buildings such as
would now scarcely be tolerated even
upon the side streets.
But for all this, Jacksonville was
even then a pleasant little city of
homes, a few handsome residences,
but the majority humble cottages
standing back from the street in the
midst of beautiful flowers and shade
giving trees. Most of the streets,
save the few business thoroughfares,
were still clothed in their native sand sandrobes
robes sandrobes through which one plunged in
crossing them.
There was no great viaduct as now,
leading into the present beautiful sub suburb
urb suburb called Riverside; all traffic cross crossed
ed crossed the cluster of railroad tracks at
that time on the level grade, while
the passenger depot of the Florida
Railway and Navigation company,

was at the foot of Julia street, instead
of, as now, making one of the tenants
of the splendid Union Terminal Sta Station.
tion. Station.
The few street car lines were drawn
by mules, yes, even on Bay street.
In front of the Everett hotel, between
Bay street and the river, was a pretty
little park, whose very existence is no
doubt now forgotten by the majority
of Jacksonvilles people. That space
was long ago built up with handsome
brick business structures. Hogans
creek formed the northern and east eastern
ern eastern boundaries of the city, and Clay
street the western.
There was the same vast differ difference
ence difference between the then and the now
in the value of property in and around
the city. Riverside, for instance, then
a country suburb, was finding a slow
sale for five, ten, fifteen acre lots at
prices far lower than a single house
lot is bringing today, at quick sales,
with the demand greater than the
supply.
But there were people enough, and
hotels and boarding houses enough
to warrant the confidence I felt in
having got hold of a good thing if I
could work up a trade with them in
fruits and vegetables. The fruits, of
course, were for future consideration,
but the vegetables were actually in
hand, and as Mother Bronson said,
They were a sight for sore eyes,
though between you and me, I did
think to myself that the bright sun sunlight
light sunlight on them would have been rather
trying to sore eyes, for it was rather
dazzling to well ones. But my garden
and little field of early vegetables
were certainly sights for the incredu incredulous
lous incredulous eyes of the wondering neighbors
who had been so sure that 1 was
going to end in disaster because
sich could not be raised in South
Florida.
It was early in November and only
the few all-the-year-round hotels
were open, but there were quite as
many people in the city as would
suffice to create a demand for all and
more vegetables than I could at that
time supply to the merchants. My
first plantings of beans, cucumbers,
squashes and radishes were almost
ready to harvest, and the English
peas would be ready by Thanksgiv Thanksgiving,
ing, Thanksgiving, while later plantings would give
a succession of crops for at least two
months longer, unless, indeed, a kill killing
ing killing frost should cut them short. That

Established 1873



4

was a risk that had to be faced, of
course, but there are risks everywhere
and in all pursuits, and my many years
of experience since that first venture
has convinced me that as a matter of
fact there are actually fewer risks
and more profit in Florida fruit and
vegetable culture than in the same
field in any other part of the Union.
Late fall or early spring plantings
of such tender vegetables as will not
bear heavy frosts, are undertaken
with full appreciation of this fact.
But the grower hopes to market
enough of his crop to make a good
profit before disaster overtakes it.
And he usually succeeds in a greater
or less degree, while an utter loss is
a rare thing.
The then famous St. James hotel
was my first destination on arriving
in Jacksonville, a big wooden build building,
ing, building, one of the old-timers. I was
fortunate in finding its genial owner
and proprietor, Mr. Campbell. The
hotel was to open for the season on
Thanksgiving Day, and Mr. Campbell
expressed himself as being delighted
to have such a bonanza in the vege vegetable
table vegetable line to fall back upon, as his
chief worry had always been a lack
of fresh vegetables for his guests. It
was speedily arranged that I was to
ship to the |St. James during the sea season
son season an assortment of whatever vege
tables I could furnish, receiving there therefor
for therefor the top market prices.
From the St. James I went to see
several of the leading provision
merchants and larger boarding hous houses.
es. houses. One and all eagerly promised to
take at good prices all the vegetables
I could spare them, not only during
the winter season, but all the year
round, as there was always a short
supply of such stuff in their market.
So I completed my round of visits
thoroughly satisfied that the call for
my produce would be more than
ample for my present outlook, and
that a good trade was open before
me.
The question of how to pack the
goods for shipment came up next, and
I was directed to the one firm then
handling vegetable crates. The truck
growing industry was still in its ex experimental
perimental experimental stage even in the older
settled portions of the state, for the
prevailing opinion that all such at attempts
tempts attempts must end in failure naturally
deterred all but a few foolish fel fellows
lows fellows like Harry Crawford from mak making
ing making the venture in any commercial
quantities. Mine was the first order
from South Florida ever received by
the firm, as well as one of the largest
in quantity. The surprise of its head
at my temerity and its success up Jo
date, was by no means the first of its
kind that I had encountered in my
round of business interviews. It
seemed to be the universal impression
that nothing good (in that line) could
come out of the modern Nazareth,
i.e., South Florida.
I had reached Jacksonville on a
Monday afternoon, and it was late on
Wednesday when I completed my
business calls. I had still two im important
portant important visits to make outside of the
city. One of these was to the Arling Arlington
ton Arlington nurseries, and hither I hied me
on Thursday to select sundry fruit
trees for the new home. My wishes
outran my pocket, but the former had

FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST

perforce, to wait upon the latter.
Who has not turned the fascinating
pages of the florists catalog, and long longingly
ingly longingly marked many desired plants,
then counted up the cost, and then
with a sigh, gone over the list again
and again, until its dimensions and
those of the pocketbook harmonized?
It was that way with me as I walk walked
ed walked through the attractive rows of
trees, hundreds and thousands of
them in bewildering variety, and
listened to their proud proprietor, Mr.
Bidwell, as he told the story of his
tree pets and their doings. I wanted
them all, and wanted them badly,
but neither my purse nor cleared land
would consent, and so I compromised
on one hundred in all, oranges, peach peaches,
es, peaches, pears and several everbearing
mulberry trees, the latter for plant planting
ing planting in the chicken yard I had decided
to enclose at once. It was not the
season then for planting any of these,
and I ordered them, by Mr. Bidwells
advice, to be shipped in the latter
part of December when they would
be thoroughly dormant.
My next call, that same afternoon,
was across the river at St. Nicholas,
where lived the well known poultry
fancier, Albert Fries, from whom the
Queen had bought the eggs we have
seen set and hatched. I had heard
enough in the course of my talks with
the hotel men and merchants to be
assured that there was a big demand
for hen fruit as well as tree fruit
and vegetables. I had therefore de decided
cided decided to hurry on our embryo chick chicken
en chicken ranch by purchasing a few full
grown birds, a trio of Houdans and
another of Langshans. A cordial in invitation
vitation invitation and the fascinations of
chicken talk led to my taking an
early tea with Mr. Fries and his gen genial
ial genial wife, and then, with my feathered
treasures, I crossed the river again
in the ferry boat, to pass my last
night in Jacksonville for many a long
day.
CHAPTER XII.
AGAIN IN OUR HAPPY HOME.
It was late in the afternoon when I
stepped from the train in our now
familiar village, and the first person
I saw on the platform was my Queen,
smiling a welcome home. I clasped
her in my arms, regardless, as she
afterwards said, and at the same mo moment
ment moment received an awful scare; at least
it was intended for one, so I accepted
it as such and acted accordingly. The
twins had been hiding behind their
mothers skirts, and now jumped out
upon me with bloodcurdling whoops.
Was dad scared most to death? Of
course he was; how could he be
anything else at such a terrible at attack?
tack? attack? He at once sought to soothe
the savage breast by catching his
assailants up in his arms and kissing
their wrath away. They were quite
reconciled to his return by the time
he set them on their feet again.
Come, said Mollie, Jack is over
yonder with a wagon. Get your be belongings
longings belongings together, and well start for
home. Oh! what splendid chickens
those are on the platform. I do
wonder who they are for?
I took off my hat and made a low
bow,

For my Queen said I. And then
the said reigning sovereign put her
arms around me, regardless. I had
brought along a number of the
knocked down vegetable crates to
be sure of having them when needed,
and also a number of other things
that would tend to the comfort of our
little household. Last, not least, were
a couple of rolls of poultry netting
for the construction of a large and
permanent yard in which to confine
our feathered treasures at such times
as we did not care to have their
assistance in the garden and field.
These we left at the station for the
present, as there was no room to
spare for them in the wagon.
Hello, I exclaimed as Jack drove
up alongside the platform, it seems
to me our hotel man has been treat treating
ing treating himself to a brand new wagon
and horse!
Yes, its anew team, was Jacks
reply, Pretty good one too, consider considering.
ing. considering.
Well, we started for home, but did
not progress very rapidly in spite of
the stylish new horse. It was only a
short half mile, but what with Jacks
stopping to speak and joke with
everyone he met along the road, and
Mollies exploring the contents of
the two general merchandise stores
which were the boast of our primitive
neighbors, what with all these delays,
it was so dark when we finally ar arrived
rived arrived at our own door that a lantern
was needed in the unloading of our
cargo.
Its a pity we did not get home
before it got so dark, said I, I
never did see folks dwadle along the
way like you two lunatics did on that
exciting village street! Look out that
you dont crash into any stumps on the
way back to the hotel, Jack; its about
as dark as they make em.
Oh, Im all right, replied Jack,
I ought to know the road by this
time. Ill land this rig home all right
and be back in a jiffy.
Im so thankful you got home to tonight
night tonight instead of tomorrow night, Har Harry,
ry, Harry, dear, remarked the Queen, as
she and her mother, the twins and
their dad waited in the cosy dining
room for Jacks return before pro proceeding
ceeding proceeding to discuss the welcome sup supper
per supper that was being kept hot on the
kitchen stove.
How so? One day more wouldnt
have made much difference, would
it? I asked.
O you goose, you funny, oblivious
fellow, laughed the Queen, you have
actually forgotten that tomorrow will
bebut never mind', that will keep for
the present.
Tomorrow? I answered, thought thoughtfully,
fully, thoughtfully, why, it will be Saturday,
wont it?
iSo it will, sure was the demure
reply. I must have mislaid my al almanac.
manac. almanac.
Presently Jack came in and we sat
down to supper. Seems to me you
made pretty quick time, Jack, I re remarked.
marked. remarked.
Fair, was the answer, Its barely
half a mile to the hotel, you know,
and that horse knows how to travel.
I happened to look up as he spoke,
and saw him wink at the Queen. I
saw her wink at him; then Jack
winked at his mother, and she smiled



and winked' at him. Yes, she really
did, that gentle, proper, staid old lady
did actually wink. I saw her do it, I,
her loving son-in-law. Otherwise I
would uot have believed her capable
of such frivolous conduct.
I can do that thing myself, I re remarked,
marked, remarked, calmly.
What thing? asked the Queen.
This! said I. And then I winked
fast and furious ,at her, at her
mother, at Jack, at the twins, as these
latter sat gazing from one to the
other of their crazy elders, wondering
whether it was the proper thing for
them to laugh or cry. Their problem
was quickly solved. Everyone at
that table suddenly burst into such a
gale of laughter as threatened to shat shatter
ter shatter the window panes. We stopped
by and by, when too exhausted to do
so any more.
Now, said I if the winking epi epidemic
demic epidemic is over, and the company be become
come become sane again, suppose we resume
our supper. Im hungry.
It felt good to be at home again;
good to sit talking with the doors
and windows open and to realize that
according to the almanac it was actu actually
ally actually the middle of November. Out
yonder in the far away country of our
youth and late foolish sojourning,
close shut double doors and windows,
and big, roaring fires would have
been in evidence for us, and were so
at that very moment for the thousands
of shivering mortals who were not
wise enough to do as we had done.
It was hard, yet delightful to realize
the vast difference between the pres present
ent present and the last November.
There seemed to be a curious sort
of subdued excitement pervading our
little family circle on that night of my
return from Jacksonville. Even tiny
Jean and Joseph were unusually rest restless
less restless and talkative, and it occurred to
me several times that the other three
elder members of our party were cov covertly
ertly covertly watching and checking their too
exuberent spirits, ; \and voluble flow
of words, and finally they were
whisked off to bed in, I thought, an
untimely manner.
But it wasnt only the little folks
that seemed under some odd restraint.
The older ones evidently caught
themselves and each other on the
verge of saying something that they
did not wish to say, of betraying
something that they were anxious not
to betray. The very air seemed im impregnated
pregnated impregnated with mystery and winks
and frowns and shaking of heads. But
nobody seemed at all worried or un unhappy
happy unhappy over it, so I was not either. I
was quite willing to let them have
their little joke to themselves until it
should suit the Queen to take me
into her confidence.
After the tots had reluctantly drift drifted
ed drifted off into the land of Nod, I gave
their elders a full acount of my do doings
ings doings in Jacksonville.
The outlook for the sale of not
only vegetables, but of hens and hen
fruit, I concluded, is first rate. That
is why I invested in those trios and
in more poultry netting. We must
have a yard large enough to keep the
fowls within it, letting them out
about an hour before dark as a regular
thing, and all day when there are no
crops that they can cultivate for us
according to their own ideas. Ill

FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST

want your help next week, Jack, to
put up the fence and make two or
three portable houses. You will have
to put off your prospecting tour for
a week later, sure, old man.
All right, laughed Jack, I see Im
in for it all righty, righty.
And now, ladies and gentlemen,
said I, rising and making a low stage
bow, as I drew from my pocket a
folded paper, While in Jacksonville
the spirit moved me in a strange path
one evening, and the words writ upon
this bit of paper are the result of its
devious windings in and out of my
excited brains.
Didnt know you had any! mur murmured
mured murmured Jack, sotto voice.
I smiled and bowed in my best
manner, saying,
Yes, sir, for that occasion only. To
proceed. I beg you to listen, calmly,
while I read you this little poem, a
rival of Tennyson, Browning, Byron
and Shakespeare. Hearken unto the
words that poured forth from my poetic
soul as I sat by my lonesome far away.
You may remember, ladies and gentle gentlemen,
men, gentlemen, that our Queen has made many
trips to inspect the progress of the
plants in our little home garden plot,
and has not been surfeited with the
great variety of our menu, thus far.
These facts were this poets inspiration.
Once more, hearken unto my sweet
poem. It is entitled
The Sorrows of a Florida Pioneer in
1885.
There was a good lady
In Southlands did dwell;
Pier name? You may guess it,
1 never will tell.
Her virtues were many,
Her patience was great,
But oh, that dear lady
. Did care what she ate!
Potatoes and bacon
Were the chief of her diet,
And yet that queer lady,
She wouldnt keep quiet.
Potatoes and bacon both,
All the day long,
And yet, how she grumbled,
Now wasnt that wrong?
V.
For breakfast and dinner,
And oft supper too,
Why all this strange lady
Had for to do,
Was to swallow potatoes
So yellow and sweet,
And such nice, solid fat
As she had for her meat!
Thus she entreated
The loitering spinach,
Come up you green stuff,
Or this foot shall you finish!
She pulled up a radish
So tender, with care,
And gave it a snap with,
Go you down there!
t
/
She haunted the field where
The green peas did grow,
And groaned and lamented
Because they were slow.
The beans and tomatoes
She visited oft,
And scratched up the poor seeds
To see were they soft.
I
The hens, they all struck
Wanted wages more high,
And our lady looked on them

With many a sigh.
The cows, they cried, Dry up!
So what could she do?
For know, patient hearer,
This sad tale is true.
/
Now, you may not believe me, but I
actually had to spout fully one-half of
this touching little gem while running
around the room, trying to escape from
the wild clutches of my gentle Queen,
who had no trouble in guessing the
name I forebore to make public. But
I did manage to finish it to the very
last word, though I fled at its close into
the sanctuary of the kitchen, where the
Queen followed and had it out with the
poet, to the accompaniment of the ap applause
plause applause of her mother and brother, to
whom I remarked that I feared I would
have to comb my hair on the morrow,
provided that there were any left on my
head.
(To be continued.)
POINTS FOR BEE-KEEPERS.
While it is not absolutely necessary
to have the improved hives, their ad advantages
vantages advantages are so many over the old box
type that the item of cost should be
given little consideration. Standard hives
are of two sizes, eight and ten sections.
They cost a little over a dollar in the
flat. Nailing, fitting together and paint painting
ing painting will make them cost about $1.75
apiece. Then there should be what is
called a super, or second story, with
each hive and this will cost close to 50
cents. Then there will be sections to
buy in the flat out of which the square
frames to hold pound sections of honey
are made. What is called foundation
must also be procured. This is artificial
wax made ready for the bees to form
the honey cells out of. The big sections
that fill the lower hive and are for the
permanent combs should be filled with
large sheets of foundation. It takes
about a pound of this for every eight
sections and a pound costs about 55
cents. So much time is saved the bees
by this method as well as honey itself
(it is estimated that it takes ten pounds
of honey to make one pound of founda foundation)
tion) foundation) that practically all bee-keepers
employ it. Foundation must also be
used in the small ponnd sections with
which the super is filled. For making
the sections into squares and for fitting
in the foundation special implements
are used that cost about 25 cents apiece.
Full directions for doing all the neces necessary
sary necessary work is given in printed circulars
accompanying the material.
The usual price for a colony of bees
in an improved hive without super is
$5- It is better to get well-bred bees,
such as the Italians, for they are gent gentler
ler gentler and easier to handle than mongrel
bees or wild ones. The nearer the wild
strain they are, the more vicious they
become. The Italians are easily recog recognized
nized recognized by their rich golden color, while
the wild bee is nearly black. The Italians
are also better honey producers. Many
keepers use two supers. As soon as one
is nearly filled they place the empty one
between it and the lower hive and when
one is full it may be removed at leisure,
while with only one it should be emptied
and returned as soon as possible so the
bees will not be long interrupted in their
work.
In seeking a location for the stands or
(Continued on page 26.)

5



6

The Cultivation of Citrus Groves
BY H. HAROLD HUME.

Because of their loose, open nature,
it is not so difficult to keep our fruit
lands in good condition, as it is in some
parts of the country. Neither the same
amount of time, nor the same amount of
labor is necessary to keep our citrus
groves in good tilth as is required by
fruit plantations in most of the fruit fruitgrowing
growing fruitgrowing districts of America. Perhaps
herein lies the reason why some have
neglected cultivation altogether on lands
which would be benefited by it, while
others have, in many cases, carried the
practice too far. But if our soils are
in apparently good condition and roots
can easily penetrate them in all direc directions,
tions, directions, then in what way does cultivation
benefit the trees, and why is the oper operation
ation operation necessary?
Cultivation is beneficial in the follow following
ing following ways: It increases the water-holding
capacity of the soil and conserves moist moisture,
ure, moisture, both by allowing rain to sink more
freely into it and by checking evapora evaporation.
tion. evaporation. It pulverizes the soil and allows
the air to penetrate, thus supplying ox oxygen
ygen oxygen to the roots. In cultivated soils,
decomposition and nitrification go on
more readily and if the materials are
present from formed, its formation takes place more
rapidly than if the soil be left unculti
vated.
Most of the moisture in tillable soil
is held as a minute film surrounding the
soil particles. It necessarily follows
that the more numerous the soil par particles
ticles particles in a given space, i. e., the smaller
they are, the greater will be the water waterholding
holding waterholding capacity of the soil, because the
total surface area of all the particles in increases
creases increases as they are reduced in size. And
it is true, within certain limits, that the
water-holding capacity of the soil in increases
creases increases as the size of the particles dim diminishes.
inishes. diminishes. If, however, the particles be become
come become too small, they may become too
closely packed, and thus this object oi
cultivation will be defeated. This con condition
dition condition is not likely to occur in Florida
soils as a result of cultivation. The size
of the particles can be reduced by culti cultivation
vation cultivation by breaking up masses which may
have become more or less cemented to together,
gether, together, and the water-holding capacity
thereby increased.
The opening and loosening of the soil
permits the rain to penetrate. If the
surface of the ground becomes hard and
compact, the water will run over the sur surface
face surface to collect in puddes and disappear
by evaporation. In either case the loss
will be great. But if the soil is well
stirred and loose, the water will enter.
Once it is safely beneath the surface,
it is necessary to keep it there; it has
gained entrance by a passage through
which it should uot be allowed to escape.
The water will again make its way to
the surface by capillary attraction, pass passing
ing passing upward through the minute spaces
between the particles of soil. If these
minute tubes or passages, extend right
to the surface, the water rises to the
top, comes out, and is carried away by
evaporation. Frequent, shallow cultiva cultivation
tion cultivation will prevent this escape of water, by
breaking the capilary tubes. The top
inch or two of earth is stirred, it parts

FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST

with its moisture and becomes quite dry.
Then it acts as a dust blanket and the
great amount of moisture below is not
allowed to reach the surface to be car carred
red carred away by the moving air above. Thus
the moisture is conserved and held for
the use of the trees. During our rainy
season it is not necessary to conserve
the moisture, but often in April, May
and June, and sometimes even later,
week after week goes by without a
shower. This is the time when water
is needed, the time for which prepar preparation
ation preparation should be made before it comes.
The horse and cultivator are often a
most excellent substitute for an irri irrigation
gation irrigation plant.
We know that a hard, compact soil
into which air does not enter, is no fit
place for the roots of plants to grow
and live in The roots absorb water
and food in solution, only through their
newer parts, and new roots must be
formed constantly to carry on this work.
For the formation of roots, oxygen is
necessary, and if the air cannot enter,
oxygen cannot be supplied, and the roots
suffer in consequence. The soil should
be kept loose and friable during the
period of greatest growth that the roots
may be freely supplied with air.
If, in addition to this, the rootlets
can reach and penetrate every portion of
the soil, growing here and there at will,
they then have an opportunity to come
into contact with and absorb the plant
food in the soil. While it is true that
food materials in solution, may move
towards the roots, still in general, the
roots must search out and procure the
plant food. How can they do this im important
portant important work if the soil is hard, com compact
pact compact and impenetrable?
The food materials in any soil are
found either in chemical substances, pres present
ent present in the soil, or in organic combina combinations.
tions. combinations. If the fertilizers are applied or
added to the soil, they too fall into,
either one or the other classes. Most
of these materials do not immediately
yield up the plant food which they con contain,
tain, contain, but they must be acted upon by
certain agents before their store of food
becomes available, i. e., so that the roots
can absorb and the plants use it. A large
part, or practically all, of the plant food
in organic substances is liberated through
the agency of microscopic plants called
bacteria. That these may thrive and
multiply, plenty of air should be ad admitted
mitted admitted to the soil, and the soil should at
the same time be warm and moist. Cul Cultivation
tivation Cultivation goes a long way toward making
the conditions ideal for the growth and
development of soil bacteria. The other
class of agents is those which act chem chemically
ically chemically To this group belong the acids
and other substances which are capa capable
ble capable of breaking up the food-containing
materials in the soil. Some of these
disintegrators are present in the air, and
are carried to the soil in the rain. Here
again cultivation helps by admitting the
air to the soil and allowing the rain to
penetrate.
Depth of Cultivation.
It is always preferable to prepare the
ground well before the trees are plant planted.
ed. planted. The earth should be well stirred

and free from roots and stumps. During
the first years of the life of the young
grove the ground may be plowed, if
deemed advisable, provided always that
the plow is not run deep, close to the
trees. The tree rows should be culti cultivated
vated cultivated comparatively shallow. This treat treatment
ment treatment will have a tendency to send the
roots deeper into the soil as they spread
out from the trees. If plowing is re resorted
sorted resorted to, the depth should be varied
from year to year, so that the soil may
not become hard and compact, at a cer certain
tain certain fixed depth, as is likely to be the
case if the plow is always run at the
same distance from the surface.
When the trees have atttained con considerable
siderable considerable size and the roots have occu occupied
pied occupied the whole space between the tree
rows the plowing should be very shal shallow
low shallow or should be abandoned entirely,
the plow giving place to the cultivator.
The plow as an implement for con continuous
tinuous continuous cultivation should not be used. If
used at all, plowing should be done only
during the dormant period, early in the
spring or late in the autumn. Its use
after this time should not be resorted to.
Large numbers of roots are broken or
torn by the plow l as a result of which
new ones are formed rapidly, food is
absorbed in great quantities and a die dieback
back dieback condition only too frequently re remits.
mits. remits.
In most cases the fibrous feeding roots
in old groves form a solid mass and
these extend quite close to the surface.
In such cases cultivation should be shal shallow,
low, shallow, but if a proper system of culti cultivation
vation cultivation has been carried on from the
first, the roots will not be too close to
the surface. This mat of roots is usually
disturbed to some extent, but considering
the fact that commercial fertilizers are
used extensively, it is not a good policy
to cultivate deeply and break them up
too much. Shallow cultivation should
be the rule, a rule to which there may,
of course, be some exceptions.
Spring Cultivation.
If the grove was cultivated in the
fall and put in good shape, but little
requires to be done in commencing op operations
erations operations in the spring. If the soil is
inclined to become packed, it would
probably be preferable to give the first
cultivation with a cut-away harrow, fol following
lowing following this up with an Acme or Planet
Jr. cultivator. On lighter soils or on
those which are in good tilth, the cut cutaway
away cutaway harrow may be omitted. During
the Spring the grove should be culti cultivated
vated cultivated frequently. The dryest weather of
the year in Florida monies during the
months of March, April and May, and
during this time the soil should be cul cultivated
tivated cultivated at intervals of not more than
ten days. If showers fall, it is by all
means advisable to cultivate after each
one, as soon as the ground can be
worked.
Summer Cultivation.
At the beginning of the rain}' reason
in most parts of Florida it is advisable
that cultivation be discontinued, and in
no case should it be prolonged past the
first or middle of August. H beggar beggarweed
weed beggarweed has been planted as a cover crop
and cultivation has been discontinued
after the first of July, it will add greatly
to the convenience of fall cultivation to
have the beggarweed cut once or twice
during the summer. If allowed to grow
without interruption the whole season
(Continued on Page 15)



The Eucalyptus Worthy of a Trial
BY MRS. MAX GORDON.

The possibility of a shortage of hard hardwood
wood hardwood timber for mechanical purposes in
the not distant future has aroused an
almost enthusiastic interest in eucalyp eucalyptus
tus eucalyptus culture.
Will the tree live in our climate Pis
the question of the hour.
The proof of the pudding is in the
eating, and nothing equals a personal
practical demonstration made by plant planting
ing planting the trees on ones own plantation
or village lot. Twenty-four trees at the
rear of ones town lot or in an unused
corner, 12x12, near the house or barn,
would soon determine the question be beyond
yond beyond controversy.
These trees set 4x4 would in three or
four years attain a size suitable for fuel
or posts or poles. Cut out one-third
of the trees and have fuel for a year
or two. In two years again cut one third
and thereafter cut annually all the fuel
one could use, the trees growing from
the stumps so rapidly they perpetually
replace themselves.
The blossoms would furnish honey
for many families. Thus, with a small
investment and a very little work at odd
moments a man can provide an abund abundance
ance abundance of the finest fuel and choicest
sweets for the future of his loved ones.
Buying life insurance for ones family
is a common practice, but the plant planting
ing planting of trees for the benefit of unborn
generations takes rank with the noblest
of human achievements.
Everyone admits it is useless to plant
tropical or sub-tropical plants in the
frigid zone, but other things being equal
plants that grow in 40 degrees latitude
in the eastern hemisphere can be repro reproduced
duced reproduced in the western. Those that grow
in 30 degrees south latitude will also
thrive in 30 degrees north latitude. If
found thriving in swamps of one section
it is safe to suppose that they will do
equally well in swamps of another simi similar
lar similar location.
It has been proved that eucalyptus
planting in malarial swamps in the south
of Europe has rendered them dry, health healthful
ful healthful and habitable. Why not try the ex experiment
periment experiment in some of the fertile swamp
lands of Louisiana or Florida that are
being reclaimed by the use of expensive
dredges ?
These trees are natives of Australia
and Tasmania. By referring to the map
we find Tasmania lies between 40 and 45
degrees south latitude and is surrounded
by the waters of the Pacific and Indian
oceans. We therefore conclude these
trees will grow as far north as 45 de degrees
grees degrees north latitude and will thrive best
near the gulf or ocean.
Australia lies between 38 and 12 de degrees
grees degrees south latitude and is as broad as
it is long, large portions of the conti
nent being many miles inland from the
ocean. We therefore conclude the trees
that flourish there will thrive with us
from 12 to 38 degrees north of the equa
tor, and on the plains as well as near
the ocean.
Not all of us have the opportunity
of traveling and seeing with our own
eyes, therefore we must take the ex experience
perience experience of others as we get it from

FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST

the printed page. In this way we know
this tree grows successfully in Califor California
nia California from 33 to 39 degrees north latitude.
In Central America the seeds that fall
from the trees sprout and grow under
the parent tree. In Egypt, in Africa,
these trees add humidity to the atmos atmosphere
phere atmosphere and soil, growing luxuriantly at a
latitude of 30 degrees. In the south of
Europe they flourish. On the dry plains
of Arizona and New Mexico they suc succeed.
ceed. succeed.
Then why not in our own matchless
state, where the soil has great depth,
with abundance of water in the subsoil
and the humidity of the gulf breezes
in the atmosphere? Also in most parts
of Texas and the rest of the Gulf states,
especially Florida, where conditions for
its growth seem ideal?
We plant potatoes, notwithstanding
our knowledge of the battle before us
with Spanish flies and the Colorado
beetle. We persist in raising cotton
and fight the boll weevil. We plant
orange and lemon trees and take oui
chances with King Frost, well knowing
that we must wage war with the San
Jose scale, the whitefly and other in insect
sect insect enemies, but do not dare risk a
few dollars in experiments with the eu eucalyptus
calyptus eucalyptus tree, although the experience of
thousands testifies to its health-giving
properties and the factories of California
have proved that limbs one and two
years old (called sap wood) make tool
handles rivaling those made of the best
hickory, and the seasoned lumber from
mature trees is as valuable as mahog mahogany.
any. mahogany.
The abundance of blossoms would
yield a richer harvest in honey than can
be secured from the sale of orange trees
of the same age, and it has but one
enemysevere freezing.
As they are evergreen and ever-grow ever-growing
ing ever-growing trees they are susceptible to cold,
but not as much so as the orange or the
fig. Mr. Gordon has seen the trees in
California when the leaves were white
from freezing, but the tree was un uninjured.
injured. uninjured. Growth was suspended for a
short time when the leaves came out
and vigorous growth followed.
Midland, La.
THE WHY OF PRUNING.
The chief objects in pruning fruit trees
can be summed up as follows:
First, remove all superfluous wood.
All dead branches or branches rubbing
against each other, etc., should be got
rid of.
Second, to give proper shape to the
tree. Pruning is necessary to correct
the natural habits of the tree. The
branches should be arranged when the
tree is small, so that when it grows old
it will be easy to pick from, be open to
sunlight, and be less liable to injury
from winds.
Third, to control diseases, such as
pear blight, peach and plum rot, etc. In
cases of pear blight the diseased fruit fruiting
ing fruiting spurs situated upon the body and
larger branches of the tree should be
1 eliminated by careful pruning. This will

protect the body and main branches from
infestation.
Fourth, to accelerate the growth in
small trees. To increase wood growth
the tree should be pruned while dor dormant.
mant. dormant.
Fifth, to retard the growth in large
trees. Summer pruning is best to in induce
duce induce fruitfulness, because it checks the
growth of the wood and throws the
strength of the tree into the business of
producing fruit.
Sixth, to rejuvenate the growth in old
trees. The best time to cut off large
branches is in the spring, when the an annual
nual annual growth begins or while blooming,
in order that the healing process may be begin
gin begin at once and continue during the sea season
son. season Rural Californian*.
HOW WATER RISES IN SOIL.
Water rises in the soil just as the oil
in a lamp rises through the wick. The
wick is full of little tubes called capil capillaries,
laries, capillaries, and so is the soil, and the water
rises through these.
If a little kerosene or gasoline is
put into a bottle and the bottle filled
with soil, the oil will rise, and if lighted
will burn on the surface. When the
water rises to the surface of the soil
it evaporates.
Evaporation from the soil is going on
all the time when it is not raining. The
soil soon dries out if something is not
done to prevent it. Covering the soil
with a light mulch prevents evaporation.
Cultivating or loosening the surface of
the soil soon after a rain serves the
same purpose. Cultivating breaks the
small tubes, so that they are unable to
bring the water to the surafce.
A soil that contains much humus
(that is, vegetable matter) catches and
holds more water than one that contains
but little humus. Such soil also holds
moisture longer in dry weather. Plenty
of barnyard manure applied to the soil
helps to retain moisture, although valu valuable
able valuable as feeders for plants.
BEE CULTURE EASY.
It requires no more intelligence and
skill to raise bees than to keep poul poultry.
try. poultry. It requires a certain amount of
work and at the right time, yet this in
no sense equals the attention given
poultry. But for some reason few farm farmers
ers farmers have bees. If it is lack of knowl knowledge
edge knowledge that keeps them from it, then the
excuse is easily overcome, for there are
many bee journals and books that would
give the desired information. If it be
fear of bee stings, these may be pre prevented
vented prevented by certain appliances. Surely no
one should be kept from the enjoyment
of honey because of cost. The bees
and the necessary equipment need not
cost much. Perhaps some have been led
to believe through foolish newspaper
reportsthat bees are injurious to fruit.
This is not so. Bees cannot break the
skin of any fruit. Because they are
seen sucking the juice of punctured
grapes they have been falsely accused of
doing the puncturing.
When buying fowls for fricassee,
never allow the butcher to splinter
the bones by chopping with a cleaver.
Ask him to remove the sinews from
the legs and cut through the joints.

7



8

Summer Farming in South Florida
BY WALTER WALDIN.

There seems to be a general opinion
among most persons that there is no nothing
thing nothing doing in Florida in the summer
time. This illusion is probably brought
about by tourists, for when the first
few warm days begin to make life irk irksome
some irksome under our Southern sun, in the
sporting line, they invariably leave for
cooler and pleasanter climes. We all
have feelings akin to each other, and
thus some of our home people are also
infected, and if they are not in financial
position to migrate with the fortunate
ones, the best they can do is to simply
move around to the shady side of the
house, and not unlike the Northern
ground hog, indulge in our long siesta.
But how about the financial end of
this proposition? Can not we farmers
rind something that will not only be
profitable to us, but will have a more
beneficial influence on our minds and
bodies, than to simply sit and think, or
like our Southern cracker/ sit and
sleep.
Our greatest profit in all branches of
agriculture, is more frequently derived
from the one source, namely, getting
ready; for the man who has his pre preliminary
liminary preliminary work well in hand in any
branch of business has his job half done
before his competitor gets started. I
know it is dead easy to sit down, put
your hands in your lap, and gape and
sigh, or like the Florida cracker chew
tobacco and spit at the bumble bees in
the near blossoms. This may be entic enticing
ing enticing to some, but if we want to cultivate
success, we must get busy and stay so.
We have our fields here before us
that have grown abundant crops dur during
ing during the busy season; now shall we let
them grow to a wilderness of weeds
during the summer, or shall we care carefully
fully carefully till the field and by putting in a
summer, or cover crop, carefully pre preserve
serve preserve the fertility of the soil, and also
benefit the soil by the moist, cool
shade of growing vegetation? We use
great quantities of fertilizer in this
state to force our winter crops, the
residue of which is bound to remain
in the soil, often to be wasted by be being
ing being taken up by the weeds, which are
later on frequently destroyed by be being
ing being burnt up. The question naturally
arises, shall we not utilize this fertility
by either growing a good pasture crop,
or by growing one of our useful legumes,
such as velvet beans, beggar weed, or
cow peas? Before we plant one of the
above named, we should carefully con consider
sider consider what our following winter crops
upon this piece of land shall be; for in instance,
stance, instance, if we should plant beggar weed,
it would require considerable more time
to make a crop upon the same land in
the fall. In planting either one of these
leguminous crops, I would advise al always,
ways, always, extra seeding, particularly so,
should we desire to follow with an early
fall crop; the heavy seeding in this case
helping to cover the ground much earlier
in the summer, and therefore, hastening
the ripening and harvesting of the crop
proportionately.
We should diversify in our summer
crops just as we do in our winter crop,
a part of our fields should always be

FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST

planted in sugar cane, another in sweet
potatoes, and a generous field of melons
should not be omitted.
Sugar cane can be made a very profit profitable
able profitable crop in this state. As much as 500
gallons of syrup can be manufactured
from a single acre under good culture,
and as Florida cane syrup seldom sells
for less than 75 cents per gallon, it
should be a very remunerative crop in indeed.
deed. indeed. By thorough culture and light
applications of fertilizer, sugar cane can
be made to bear many years in success succession.
ion. succession. It is also considered a very useful
forage crop.
Sweet potatoes, if carefully grown,
will yield 200 bushels or more per acre,
and in this southern climate they need
not be dug until wanted. If left in the
ground until late in spring, they gener generally
ally generally sell at very remunerative prices.
I found the market comparatively bare
of this vegetable in the spring months;
at that time, they are apt to sell for $1.25
or more per bushel.
If we are in possession of a grove of
either citrus or tropical fruits, we will
have our hands full during the summer
time, if we wish to practice clean cul culture.
ture. culture. The ground must be stirred after
every rain, or the weeds and grass will
soon gain a strong foothold. In case we
simply mow our grove, it must be done
once every fortnight for the best effect.
The margins of the grove should at all
times be kept clean, so as not to let
the strong growing tropical vines and
underbrush encroach from the adjoining
fields.
Much road building can be done in
the summer time, repairs to machinery,
as well as painting can be attended to.
All tools, of course, should be carefully
stored at the end of the working sea season,
son, season, first giving all bright tools a careful
coat of axle grease to prevent them from
getting rusty. Summer is preeminently
adapted for the installation of irrigating
plants, as we have plenty of time, and
this season of the year, the work can
all be carefully done and tested.
In the southern portions of our state
where the mango, avocado and other
tropical fruits flourish, we have much
to keep us busy, for it is during the
summer months that these attain their
greatest growth. It is during this time
that in-arching and budding of the same
takes place. The demand is steadily
growing for many of these new fruits
throughout the North, especially in the
larger cities. In fact, anyone who has
once acquired the taste for the mango
or avocado, will ever thereafter, become
a customer for the same. Many of
these tropical fruits will, therefore, soon
become staple in our markets.
The man who has taken time by the
forelock, carefully prepared his land, and
grown a heavy cover crop during the
sumer time will reap a great advantage
in the fall by having much less work to
do in the preparation of his land, as
these crops can be mowed, raked and
removed from the soil at much less ex expense
pense expense than a weed crop of any kind. In
addition to this, the succeeding winter
crop will be much healthier and heavier.
I have frequently taken an immense

crop of velvet beans off a large area at
the close of the rainy season, by simply
hitching a team to one of the heaviest
sulky rakes, such as are used to rake
alfalfa with in the West, and by raking
the vines up in windrows, I have im immediately
mediately immediately planted the land to snap beans,
without another bit of preparation, as
the heavy roots of the velvet beans have
during their long summer growth pump pumped
ed pumped up a supply of fertilizing ingredients.
It is unnecessary under such conditions,
to fertilize the beans until they have put
out the first signs of their character
leaves. We, thus, not only save the
price of one application of fertilizer,
but also the labor required to apply the
same. Some of the heaviest and most
profitable crops of beans I have ever
grown were made in this way, the ex expense
pense expense of growing by this method being
less than half of what it would have
been had I been obliged to clear this
same land of the ordinary weed and
stubble, which would naturally infest
land of this character, had the same
been left to grow unmolested.
The man who stays in Florida, there therefore
fore therefore throughout the summer has even
more advantages over the nonresidents
here than he would elsewhere. I do
not mean by this that the farmer should
not have his little recreation in the way
of a vacation, but rather that he should
see that he does not lose great advan advantages
tages advantages by neglecting such opportunities
as above suggested.
I think, indeed, it is a very good idea
for the Florida farmer to take a trip
through the North and notice how his
Northern farmer friends carefully econ economize,
omize, economize, and incidentally, how very hard
they work. It will always be a pleas pleasant
ant pleasant feeling with him to be aware of the
fact that he has so many advantages
over his Northern competitor.Ever competitor.Everglade
glade competitor.Everglade Magazine.
THE BEST FARMER.
Who is the best farmer? was a
question asked of that wise old farmer,
Hiram Smith, several years ago.
His answer was something like this:
Some would say the best farmer is
the man who raises the biggest crops
and produces the best animals. That is
true if these results are caused by his
previous wise care of both soil and ani animals.
mals. animals. But I tell you that the best
farmer is the man who bestows the most
thought and care on his soil, keeping it
up to the highest state of fertility. Also,
if he is an animal farmer, he must do
the same by his animals. Such a farm
and farmer will invariably make the
most money if that is what you are after,
for he has something to make money
with.
There is euongh in the above utter utterance
ance utterance to claim the thought and study of
every one of our readers for days and
weeks. Southern Planter, Richmond,
Va.
FEED FOR PROFITS.
When a man has money invested in
land, in feed, in cows, in dairy machinery
and all of the other things necessary
for the operation of the dairy farm, it
is poor economy not to feed that extra
amount from which the profits come.
For success in fruitraising it is ab absolutely
solutely absolutely necessary to keep the trees free
from all injurious insects and diseases.



Cropping Between Young Trees
BY C. A. COLE.

This question is often asked: Is it
advisable to grow crops in a young or orchard?
chard? orchard? This is a question that is of
vital importance to many a small or orchardist.
chardist. orchardist. Also it is a question that
many booster clubs and real estate
men make much of in advertising their
sections or towns. Many a tract of land
is sold on the strength of the ad that
a good living can be made between the
rows while the orchard is reaching a
bearing stage. This question is of im importance
portance importance to the small orchardist for the
very reason that, in most cases, he has
used up all his sparfc cash in buying his
land and setting it to trees, and as a
result will have to make a living while
his trees are reaching a profitable bear bearing
ing bearing age, which in most cases, means
for the first six or seven years. In an answer
swer answer to the above question, I will say
that crops can be grown, but the grower
will have to use a great deal of dis discretion
cretion discretion in selecting and planting the
crops or he will permanently injure his
trees.
One of the first things, then to do is
to determine just what crops should not
be grown. This is of far greater im importance
portance importance to the welfare of the orchard
than to know of a few that may be
grown. Never sow such crops as oats,
wheat or any crop that is to be used for
hay. You had just as well pull up your
trees if you are going to grow these
crops. They not only remove a large
amount of plant food from the soil, but
take out large quantities of moisture.
As there is no chance to stir the soil
while these crops are on the ground the
moisture that is not used up escapes
through the hard compact surface. By
the time the crops are harvested, and
just when the trees are most in need of
moisture, the ground is perfectly dry.
Then, in conclusion to the above, we
may say: Never grow any crop in an
orchard that does not permit of thor thorough
ough thorough cultivation.
There are some crops that may be
grown without seriously injuring the
trees. These are crops that can be cul cultivated.
tivated. cultivated. However, there are some ex exceptions
ceptions exceptions to this rule. One of the most
important of these is: Never grow nur nursery
sery nursery stock in an orchard. The very fact
that nurserymen do not follow a nursery
crop with a similar one should be suf sufficient
ficient sufficient warning. Crops of this kind de demand
mand demand the same kinds of planf foods that
are being used by your permanent trees,
also this crop is dug at a time of year
when the ground is not in the best of
condition for working, and the soil is
left in very poor state. Among the cul cultivated
tivated cultivated crops that may be grown are
truck garden crops, corn, potatoes and
small fruits.
Corn is a crop that can be grown
successfully, only in a very limited re region.
gion. region. It has some very serious ob objections
jections objections as an orchard crop, among
which is the fact that it. is a ravenous
feeder and tends to deprive the tree of
its plant food and moisture. Many
growers in the southern part of the state
plant corn very extensively and claim
that good results are obtained as the
young trees are shaded by the corn just

FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST

at the time the summer heat is most
intense, also in case of a grasshopper
pest the insects feed on the corn and do
not bother the trees. However, I have
seen young orchards seriously stunted
by corn being planted close to the trees.
Truck crops are without doubt the best
crops to grow among young trees. In
order to get results from the vegetables
the ground is highly cultivated and in
many instances is left in a much better
state after the crop is removed than it
was before. Crops of the melon type
are very good as the big spread of
vines with their large leaves cover and
shade the ground, acting somewhat in
the capacity of a mulch.
In some of our famous fruit growing
sections, strawberries have proven to be
the salvation of the man who had to
make his living among the trees while
they were coming to a bearing age. This
fruit requires an abundance of plant food
and moisture. If your orchard is locat located
ed located in a section where irrigation is not
possible and there is a deficiency of rain rainfall
fall rainfall you had better let strawberries alone.
Without a good supply of moisture they
will be an expense instead of a profit.
The fertilizer can be applied in a highly
concentrated form, such as nitrate of
soda, etc., during the growing period,
and the trees will also be benefited as
well as the berries.
It will be impossible to say just who
will be able and who will not to grow
crops in the orchards. That will have
to be left to the judgment of the grower.
If you do have to inter-crop always
keep this in mind, that your ultimate
aim is to produce fruit. If you attempt
to produce as large a crop among your
trees as your neighbor does, on clear
ground you are running a big risk of
ruining your orchard.
Dont plant crops up nearer than five
feet on either side of your young trees.
Increase this space each year. I once
visited a two-year-old apple orchard in
which the owner was growing straw strawberries.
berries. strawberries. In about an acre of this or orchard
chard orchard the berry plants had been set
right up to the trees; in fact, the trees
were growing right in the rows of berry
plants. These trees were just about one onehalf
half onehalf the size of the remainder of the
orchard. The difference was so striking
that at a distance we jugded them to
be one year old, as they were no larger
than those of an adjoining tract set out
last spring. It was a very concrete ex example
ample example and the owner said that he ex expected
pected expected to profit thereby.
By the time the trees are four years
old they should be given clean cultiva cultivation.
tion. cultivation. No crops should be grown except
a cover crop of rye and vetch. If the
trees are making a vigorous growth just
sow rye, as the vetch adds nitrogen,
which promotes wood growth. Plow
this crop under in early spring. The old
idea that the roots of trees do not go
beyond the spread of the branches is not
true. I have seen roots from fruit trees
extending out over thirty feet from the
tree. By the time a tree is four years
old the inter-spaces between the rows are
taken up with roots, and nothing should
be grown during the summer, as at this

age they .demand all the moisture and
plant food that the average soil can fur furnish.
nish. furnish.
DISEASE IN PLANTS.
It is highly important that farmers
and horticulturists should be able to
recognize plant diseases. Many fail to
do this because they do not know the
general symptoms that indicate the at attacks
tacks attacks of insect or fungus enemies.
Plant diseases may be divided into
three groups: (i) Nutrition disturb disturbances
ances disturbances due to unfavorable conditions in
the environment of the plant or
inherent in the plant itself; (2)
troubles due to parasitic plants, usually
either bacteria or fungi, but sometimes
to flowering plants, which deform, stunt,
or kill the plant; and (3) insect pests,
which are in many cases very evident
but often not easily detected.
The first step of importance to the
farmer is to be able to determine the
presence of disease and to endeavor to
find out its cause, nature, and probable
outcome, and the treatment which should
be employed. The principal symptoms
of disease in plants are the following:
(1) Discoloration, or change of color
from (a) normal green to a yellow or
white pallor; (b) colored spots or areas,
as white or gray on leaves or stems,
such as mildews or white rusts, many
leaf spots of yellow, red, orange, brown,
black or variegated colors, red or orange
rusts, black rusts, tar spots, and the like;
(2) shot-hole perforation of leaves; (3)
wilting, such as damping off or wilt; (4)
necrosis, such as death of parts of
plants, leaves, twigs, stems, or flowers;
(5) reduction in size, such as dwarfing
or atrophy; (6) increase in size, such
as hypertrophy; (7) replacement of or organs
gans organs by new; structures; (8) mummi mummification;
fication; mummification; (9) change of position; (10)
destruction of organs; (11) excrescen excrescences
ces excrescences and malformations, such as pustules,
tumors, corky outgrowths or crown galls,
cankers from malformations in the bark
generally resulting in an open wound,
punks, or conches and other fruits of
fleshy fungi, witches brooms, rosettes,
and hairy root; (12) exudations, such
as slime flux, gummosis (especially for
stone fruits), and resinous (especially
for coniferous trees) ; and (13) rotting,
such as dry and soft rots, root rots of
alfalfa, cotton, beets, or cherries (gen (generally
erally (generally of fleshy or woody roots), stem or
trunk rot, such as dry rot of trees and
of modified stems like rhizomes, bulbs,
or tubers, and bud and fruit rot of var various
ious various fleshy fruits.
Soils decidedly alkaline, lacking in
proper drainage, or deficient in iron may
produce a yellowing of the foliage, while
discoloration of restricted areas on the
leaves is usually due to the attacks of
some insect or plant parasite, presum presumably
ably presumably the latter.
In general, any marked variation in
color or shape from the normal type is
a sure indication of disease which in
many cases may be controlled and the
crop saved if taken in hand promptly.
Every garden should have a few of
the aromatic herbs for seasoning and
other kitchen use.
Hen manure, if applied to jtfie surface,
should be disked in well; or it may be
applied to the surface and plowed under.

9



10

Bees and Honey in South Florida
BY C. H. CLUTE.

Why is Florida superior to the other
states in cash profits to apiculturists ?
The answer is short and sweet.
First, there are more varieties of nec nectar
tar nectar bearing plants and trees and a longer
duration of honey flow.
Second, the finest honey that sets a
Northern man wild with astonishment
as he samples the different brands of
Florida honey. Although up to the pres present
ent present time Florida honey has had the back
seat in the Northern markets, it is rapid rapidly
ly rapidly getting to the front because of the
flavors, also color, or clearness, with
good body.
In the North, also in the West, a
great many boast of their fine honey
that is strong, like the basswood or
linn honey, while other brands seem to
be lacking in the rich mild flavor that
Florida honey seems to possess.
Third, Florida has (not the winter
problem, that means the big loss in bees
and pocket.
Also of the hard labor of carrying
bees in and out of bee caves or cellars
for the cold long winters. Bee keepers
are just beginning to wake up, as in the
past attention has been too much given
to improvement in other directions, to
the neglect of the best paying thing for
money invested, with labor on the farm
or in the city, and that is bees, or the
apiary.
Dont think that because Jones has 50
or 75 colonies of bees and no pasture
left, or because he has bees and made no
profit that it is a discredit to Florida
or to your own neighborhood, as an ex experienced
perienced experienced apiarist could come and take
the same bees and make big profits, and
insted of 50 or 75 colonies he would in increase
crease increase them to 300 in the same apiary,
all with big profits, also add many such
apiaries every two or three miles and
from one days work of a single colony
in the height of honey flow will get more
than a great many take from their bees
in the year. Eight to ten pounds per
day is no great gain for one single good
strong hive of bees, when the honey flow
is on. There has been thirty-three and
one-third pounds made in one days time,
or 100 pounds in three days, while for a
weeks average I have had 14 pounds
per day, and on my best days twenty twentytwo
two twentytwo and a half pounds to one colony.
Now, here is the object lesson: No
handful of bees can carry any such
amount, in the short duration of the
different blooms. Strong colonies and
plenty of room are necessary.
Swarming is a sure sign of want of
room, and yet lots of room. But the
queen must have room to breed so as
to hold the colony strong. The work workers
ers workers may be crowding the brood nest
with honey, while above there may be
any amount of vacancy, but not accept acceptable.
able. acceptable.
Dont count too much on bee books,
although you need them. Watch around,
consult the different apairies that have
bees and get large returns. Experiment,
use judgment. Let your gains be the
loss of others, such as new inventions,
etc. Dont'increase the number of hives
too fast, but figure some. Increase means
loss in the workers force, loss in honey

FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST

harvest, and the big apiaryyes, you
can get that quicker by keeping your
force for honey, and let the other fel fellow
low fellow increase. As I said before, you
loose field bees. If a colony has 60,000
bees 10,000 stay at home as nurse, etc.,
while if they swarm, or you swarm them
you then have 30,000 in each hive, or a
loss of 10,000 field bees, and both colo colonies
nies colonies too light for heat in best comb
drawing, also a more easy prey to rob robbers,
bers, robbers, ants, etc. Then add to the cost
of your new colony in the fall the price
of the hive, also the honey they require
for winter etc.
Have everything handy, use good
movable frame hives, all of one style
frame. Dont think success is all in
blooded stock or long tongued bees, and
dont think you have got to have all
the drone traps, swarmers, etc., adver advertised.
tised. advertised. The less traps around you the
better.
Black bees will make as good honey
as any, and for comb honey are pre preferred
ferred preferred by some. But of either black bees
or Italians you will find poor stocks
in each that you must discard and breed
from the best honey gatherers whether
black or not.
By all means use a good smoker, and
one little puff at the beginning is bet better
ter better than lots of smoke too late.
Experience is the best teacher, and
later you can help to save the car loads
of nectar that is now going to waste.
You hear of bees going five to seven
and even nine miles for honey, but keep
your bees within two miles or less, and
if beyond two miles then place bees
there in reach. One colony if they make
a ton of honey, will not support you,
but lots of bees with good attention will
do so.
Palmetto, Fla.
A VALUABLE LATE ORANGE.
John Craig, secretary of the Ameri American
can American Pomological Society reports that
the Ad Interim Committee on Wilder
Medals of the American Pomological
Society has awarded a silver medal to
anew variety of orange, known as the
Lue Gim Gong, which variety has the
following history:
Origin.ln 1888 Mr. Lue Gim Gong,
DeLand. Fla., pollinated Harts Late
with pollen from what was believed to
be a Mediterranean Sweet tree. From
these seeds about twelve trees were
raised, no two of which proved alike.
The variety, now called Lue Gim
Gong, when it came to fruit seemed to
be such an improvement on Harts Late
that Mr. Lue budded fifteen trees with
this variety in one side and Harts Late
(Tardiff) on the other. About thirty
other trees were budded with this va variety
riety variety on one side and other varieties on
the other. Five trees are now solid.
Comparisons.At this time, Harts
Lnte is the standard late orange of Flor Florida
ida Florida and it may therefore be well to
make comparison between this new va varietv
rietv varietv and the standard sort. On July
6, Mr. Lue took fifteen boxes of Harts
Late (from one side of above trees) to

the packing house and after testing for
specific gravity by placing in water,
packed five boxes out of the fifteen.
These were considered to have enough
weight for shipment. These five boxes
were shipped to North Adams, Mass.
Upon arrival they had to be repacked at
a cost of 35 cents per box and then only
three boxes remained. The three boxes
repacked sold for $2.50 per box.
At the same time five boxes were
picked of the Lue Gim Gong orange
from the other side of the same trees.
The fruit was not tested for specific
gravity and all the fruit was shipped.
On arrival at North Adams, they did
not require repacking and the whole five
boxes brought $4.50 per box.
The Lue Gim Gong orange is a hardy,
thrifty growing variety. It can be mar marketed
keted marketed to advantage # in August and Sept September
ember September when other varieties are out of
season, and when the only fruit on the
markets is Valencia Late from Cali California.
fornia. California.
The fruit hangs on the trees with very
little dropping through the rainy season
which in Florida usually begins in June
and lasts several weeks. The fruit has
been known to hang on the trees, two,
three and even four years in an edible
state. There is no question but that
this variety marks the beginning of a
new era in late orange culture.
The report of the committee is as fol follows
lows follows :
General Appearance.Good on fruit
of this season. Two year olds a little
coarser in peel, but still good. Three
year old fruit thicker peel and darker
in color.
Size. 3 1-4 inches from calyx to
blossom end and 3 1-8 in diameter.
Form.Good; somewhat cylindrical
with well rounded ends.
Color. A little light in midseason,
darkening to a rich deep reddish-yellow
later in spring and summer.
Market value. Very promising.
Shipping quality.Most excellent.
Keeping quality.Of the best. Its
most marked quality.
Dessert value. Good.
Texture. Firm with strong tissues.
Flavor. Sprightly, a rich blend of
sweetness and sub-acid.
Quality.Good.
Special Merit Noticed.Holding its
juices while on the tree for thirty
months, and its remarkable resistance to
cold.
Defects Noticed. Membranes strong,
as in all late oranges.
Productiveness. Prolific even when
loaded with previous seasons crop.
Hardiness. Very hardy.
Resistance to disease. Good.
Recommendation. Worthy of wide
trial for planting on a large scale for a
year around orange.
A full description and history of this
variety appears in the Report of the
American Pomological Society covering
the proceedings of the Florida meeting.
This variety is unique in its keeping
qualities. The writer within a few
weeks has examined specimens of the
fruitage of 1908 and found them in edible
condition. These had clung to the tree
since that time. They had become some somewhat
what somewhat overgrown and slightly rough, and
had lost a good deal of the juice, but
were not vastly inferior to many of the
store oranges for which we are accus accustomed
tomed accustomed to pay 30 or 40 cents a dozen.



SCIENTIFIC AGRICULTURE
NO. 2
By A. T. CUZNER, M. D.

COMPOSITION OF PLANTS.

jfc

gum, for example, are such compounds of
oxygen and water, with the additional
element, carbon.
In another class of substances contain containing
ing containing carbon as an element, oxygen and
hydrogen are again present; but the
proportion of oxygen is greater than
would be required for producing water
by its union with hydrogen. The num numerous
erous numerous organic acids met with in plants
belong, with few exceptions, to this class.
A third class of vegetable compounds
contains carbon and hydrogen, but no
oxygen, or less of that element than
would be required to convert all the
hydrogen into water by oxidation.
These may be regarded as compounds
of carbon with the elements of water and
an excess of hydrogen. They are there therefore
fore therefore called hydrocarbons, and are rep represented
resented represented by the oils and fats.
Carbohydrates are those combinations
of the elements carbon and hydrogen in
which carbon predominates, and are rep represented
resented represented by the sugar, starches, gums
and woody fibre.
Nitrogen is also an element entering
into the composition of plants, and a
very important one, although it is con contained
tained contained in a much smaller proportion
than these previously mentioned.
The foregoing elements of plant struc structure
ture structure may all be obtained exclusively
from the atmosphere, of which there is
an inexhaustible supply. Some plants
obtain them thus exclusively.
Mineral Elements.
These last, while found in much smal smaller
ler smaller amounts and proportions than the
so-called organic elements mentioned
above, are nevertheless of great import importance
ance importance to plant life. Where found in or organic
ganic organic structure they should properly be
classed likewise as organic elements.
The classifications of scientists, how however,
ever, however, call for a distinction, for the fol following
lowing following reasons, namely:
First, they are found throughout our
universe as primary elements unorgan unorganized
ized unorganized as well as in organized nature. Both
revelation and geology teach us that the
mineral conditions preceded the vege vegetable,
table, vegetable, as the vegetable preceded the ani animal
mal animal life of this earth.
Second. They are not necessary to all
forms of plant life, while the elements
described above are.
In their ordinary growth plants obtain
their nourishment from both the at atmosphere
mosphere atmosphere and the earth.
Those plants requiring no minerals (or
very little) in their composition live

The substances
which constitute
the bulk of all veg vegetable
etable vegetable tissues are
compounds of oxy oxygen,
gen, oxygen, hydrogen and
carbon.
Oxygen and hy hydrogen
drogen hydrogen in the prop prope
e prope r proportions
form water.
Woody fibre,
starch, sugar, and

FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST

principally upon the air, and as para parasites
sites parasites of other plants.
The great bulk of vegetable tissues
are derived from the atmosphere. These
again, in their turn, nourish and sustain
animal tissue.
We will therefore devote some space
to a study of the composition of the
atmosphere, after which we will con consider
sider consider the nature of the soil, its structure,
its physical properties, and its chemical
elementsboth mineral and organic.
We may state as a fundamental prin principle,
ciple, principle, that air, water and solar forces
are absolutely necessary to plant life.
For the perfect fulfillment of plant life
earth is also required.
Atmosphere.
The composition of the atmosphere
has been examined by many chemists
with great care, and the result of their
researches has shown, its principal ele elements
ments elements are always present in the same
proportion. These are the two gasses,
oxygen and nitrogen.
One hundred parts by weight, of at atmospheric
mospheric atmospheric air contain 23.1 parts of oxy oxygen,
gen, oxygen, and 76.9 parts of nitrogen ; or 100
volumes of air measure nearly 21 vol volumes
umes volumes of oxygen gas. From the exten extensive
sive extensive range of affinity which this gas pos possesses,
sesses, possesses, it is obvious, that were it alone
to constitute our atmosphere, and left
unchecked to exert its powerful effects
in combinations, this earth of ours would
be a fiery mass circulating through space.
Doubtless this was its former condi conditioncombining
tioncombining conditioncombining with the inflammable
gas hydrogen to form the present water
of this earth, and the oxide metals found
on its surface and in its interior.
While oxygen and nitrogen are the
principal elements of the atmosphere,
still there are other elements found in it.
Among these carbon takes the first rank,
and this in the form of carbonic acid,
or as modern chemists name.it, carbon
dioxide.
Water vapor, either in the form of
rain or snow, is found in it likewise,
and falls upon the earth bringing with
it any material it may capture in its de descent.
scent. descent.
Carbonic acid gas is discharged in
immense quantities from the active vol volcanoes
canoes volcanoes of the world, and from many
mineral springs. It is also formed dur during
ing during the decay of organic matter. It has
been found in the air on the top of high
mountains.
Carbonic acid gas performs a most
important part in the nutrition of plant
life, which we will consider in detail
further on in this work.
Carbonic acid, water and ammonia
(a combination of hydrogen and nitro nitrogen)
gen) nitrogen) are the final products of the decay
of organic material.
Ammonia, however, has not usually
been considered as forming part of the
atmosphere, but in rain and snow, there
is always to be found an appreciable
amount.
But rain and snow fall through a
large extent of atmosphere, and carry
down in solution all that remains in sus suspension
pension suspension therein.
We have collected fresh fallen snow,

and allowing it to melt, have obtained
a dark sediment of an organic nature.
This sediment is found of great value to
the agriculturist. It is found that when
a mantle of snow covers the earth dur during
ing during the winter, and slowly dissolves in
the spring, good crops are likely to fol follow.
low. follow.
Soil
Soil, in its primary condition, consists
of disintegrated rock in the form of
sand, fine or coarse.
Since the advent of vegetable and ani animal
mal animal life on this earth, what we now call
soil has become a mixture of mineral,
vegetable and animal material.
Below is seen an illustration of or ordinary
dinary ordinary soil as viewed under the micro microscope.
scope. microscope.

'ySN Jv \/4y 3 | Jff3^yV/

These grains of sand are an inexhaust inexhaustible
ible inexhaustible source of nutrition for plants in
conjunction with air and water.
The conceit of the old philosophers
was a correct one, that all life was a
compound of earth, air and water.
They believed that fire was the medi medium
um medium by which these materials could be
made to unite so as to produce life. In
this they were also correct, but it re required
quired required the work of the Creator and not
the chemist to bring it about. Now we
know that fire is simply an oxidating
process, but destructive to organic ma material.
terial. material.
All processes of life are also oxidat oxidating
ing oxidating processes.
Certain solids can be completely
washed of all organic material and yet
afford nutrition for plant life and
growth. Sand from broken down or
crushed granite is found to form a very
fertile soil.
Soils are like banks only solvent in
proportion to their assets. We cannot
draw on them for what they do not
possess.
Origin of Soils.
Rain and snow falling on the rocks
composing our mountains and hills sink
into* every crack and crevice, carrying
with them surface material previously
obtained by the eroding action of the
weather and the ammonia, of which
there is a constant supply in the atmos atmosphere
phere atmosphere and discharged in the rain and
snow.
The materials brought down by the
rain and snow are lodged in the soil
and crevices and afford sufficient matrix
to start the growth of vegetation and
maintain the same to fruition. The
(Continued on page 26.) 1

11



12

Growing Bermuda Onions In Florida

In Florida where winter gardens are
practicable the onion is grown with great
success and profit. Indeed the Florida
grower has several decided advantages
over those further north. The crop is
almost free from insect enemies and
from diseases. It comes into market
when the old crop is used up, and there therefore
fore therefore prices are pretty sure to be good.
Among Northern growers there is
quite a range of varieties to select from.
This is not true at the South. The Ber Bermuda
muda Bermuda onion is the only one that we know
of that it at all worth while cultivating.
The onion prefers a rich, moist loam.
It can be grown, however, on the high
pine lands of Florida with fair success,
and better still on the richer ham hammocks
mocks hammocks and sometimes on the muck
lands. The so-called flat woods also
give fair crops after the land is well
drained. No man should undertake
onion culture in Florida or anywhere
else unless he is prepared to invest lib liberally
erally liberally in fertilizers. If he will not do
this he had by all means better stop
before he begins. Barnyard manure, un unless
less unless so thoroughly composted as to kill
the seeds of grasses and weeds, is not
advisable in onion culture. The manure
is all right but the weeds are not, and
any man who tries it once and has to
do his own hoeing wil become a convert
to commercial fertilizers for this crop
for the rest of his natural life.
Choose land that has been in clean
culture for a year or two and is conse consequently
quently consequently pretty free from weed or grass'
seeds; if these are thick in your onion
patch you will have endless trouble in
keeping them subdued. Plow your land
ten inches deep as early as September,
harrow very mellow and apply your fer fertilizer
tilizer fertilizer at the rate of a ton per acre. By
this early preparation of the land the
weed and grass seed are induced to
sprout and the weeds may be destroyed
by two or three cultivations so that they
will molest you very little during the
growth of the onion. If all the trash
seed within an inch or two of the sur surface
face surface is caused to germinate there will
be no more to trouble you until anew
supply can be grown the next summer or
until a fresh lot is turned up by the
plow.
The two great secrets of onion culture
are, to avoid the necessity of hand weed weeding,
ing, weeding, and to make the bulbs grow large.
The above paragraph tells you how to
escape the weeds. The secret of large
bulbs is transplanting. This was the
burden of the New Onion Culture,
by Mr. T. Greiner, which made consid considerable
erable considerable stir among the Northern garden gardeners
ers gardeners a few years since. If the grower
does not expect to plant over a quarter
or half an acre (and a novice had better
not over-reach himself the first year),
he had better transplant his whole crop,
sowing his seed in a specially prepared
seed bed.
The seed should be sown in October
in order to have the onions ready the
next spring when the demand is good.
By sowing in a seed bed and transplant transplanting
ing transplanting one and one-half pounds of seed will
suffice for an acre, if sown in the field
five or six pounds will be required and
the difference in the cost of the seed
will help pay for the extra trotible of
transplanting.

FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST

The seed bed, like the rest of the
field, needs thorough preparation of the
soil, and shows its gratitude for a lib liberal
eral liberal supply of fertilizer. Hand or garden
rakes are used to pulverize thoroughly
and level the beds. All trash should be
raked to the edge and then the back
of the rake used to smooth the bed.
A hand planter is used to plant the
seed, and should be set to plant at the
rate of fifteen to twenty pounds per
acre. The rows should be ten or twelve
inches apart. Care should be taken not
to plant the seed too deep, one-fourth
inch is deep enough. Just as soon as the
beds are planted they should be well
watered. Great care is necessary at this
time if the weather is dry.
Plant about October first. In seven
or eight days the onions will begin to
show above the ground and the beds
should be watched closely and kept
moist. The onion is of the lily family
and must have plenty of water in its
early life. When the plants attain a
height of two and one-half to three
inches cultivation should begin and every
weed taken out.
When the onions have reached about
the size of a pencil, or about sixty days
after planting, and before the onions be begin
gin begin to form bulbs, the work of trans transplanting
planting transplanting should begin and the plants
pulled and clipped. This is done by cut cutting
ting cutting back the roots and tops. The roots
should be clipped back to one-half inch
or closer, leaving the plants about five
inches long. The plants are then carried
to the field and scattered liberally along
the rows where they are to be grown.
They are picked up with the left hand
while the planter makes a hole about two
and one-half inches deep with a stick,
and as he withdraws the stick the plant
is pushed into the hole. Care must be
observed at this point else the plants
will not be placed deep enough in the
ground. An ordinary hand can set out
about 13,000 plants a day, and about 80,-
000 plants are required to set an acre
where the rows are placed sixteen inches
apart and the plants three and one-half
inches in the row.
The ground should be kept well
worked and free from weeds. A small
patch can be handled very nicely with
a wheel hoe, while for the larger areas
the horse does the work much quick quicker
er quicker and consequently it is likely to be
repeated oftener. This is one part of the
business in which the farmer must not
let the grass grow under his feet.
GRAFTING THE PECAN.
A Reporter-Star representative called
at the home of Mr. H. T. Butler, 12
Gore avenue, yesterday, and was shown
a wonderful rapid growth in pecan
grafts. There are many grafts during
the present time but this pecan graft
is the greatest graft we have, seen graft grafted
ed grafted for some time. Three hickory trees
measuring from eisrht inches to one foot
in diameter had been topped and grafted
to pecans. The first of these was graft grafted
ed grafted one year ago and during that time
the center graft, or the one placed in
the top of the body of the tree, has
grown to the remarkable length of
eight feet and has several branches over
two feet long. It is about two inches in

diameter near the tree. Others placed
in the branches of the hickory have
grown to lengths from two to four feet
long.
The other two hickory trees were
grafted the first of this year and have
put out a phenomenal growth, for in
less than three months some of the
branches have grown three feet long
and many of them are from one to two
feet in length. o
If pecan grafts will develop sqqh
rapid growth in such a short time from
a hickory tree, grafting would be bet better
ter better than setting out the pecan trees
for you would not have to wait several
years for the young trees to develop.
This solves the problem of what to do
with the hickory trees in Florida as
the nuts they produce are bitter and
not good to eat so graft into them the
pecan and in a few years you have
bearing pecan trees.
Someone may think these grafted
trees will not produce good pecan
nuts but if they will call at the place
owned by Mr. E. M. Gross, 203 Gore
avenue, they will see several large
trees grafted into the hickory about
twenty years ago and we are informed
yield a large crop of pecans of good
quality. The pecan wood grows so
much faster than the hickory that in
these large trees you will find the pecan
wood bulges out several inches beyond
the trunk of the hickory where the grafts
were made.
If you want to be a grafter look
these trees over and then graft your
old hipkory trees into something that
will give you pecans to eat or sell.
A BANKER POULTRYMAN.
Mr. Theo Ivins, of Pine Knot Grove,
came into Miami this morning with six
chickens, weighing twenty-four pounds,
which he sold at 30 cents a pound, bring bringing
ing bringing him. $7.20. Mr. Ivens is a retired
banker and is able to see that a deal
like this, is really high finance. The
chickens were four months old and des descendants
cendants descendants of eight fowls, which started
his poultry business. From this begin beginning-,
ning-, beginning-, he now has 100 fine chickens.
Mr. Ivens came to this section from
lowa, last summer, and is imbued with
a liking for everything here and a faith
in the future of the new land that m ikes
him worth talking to. At Pine Knot
Grove, he has erected a comfortable cot cottage
tage cottage and is making a beautiful country
home place.Miami Metropolis.
The Satsuma Companys camphor
farm at Satsuma is one of the big prop propositions
ositions propositions in this part of Florida that but
few people even in our own county rea realize
lize realize the magnitude of. They have al already
ready already cleared, stumps pulled and under
cultivation some i,ioo acres. Thousands
and thousands of little camphor trees in
their nurseries ready for transplanting
as the rainy season comes on. From
the pine stumps they have taken from
the land they have extracted the tur turpentine,
pentine, turpentine, and with the chips they have
built miles and miles of road about thei*
properties, and from Satsuma to Wel Welaka
aka. Welaka San Mateo Item.
There was shipped from Lawtev. this
year, 26,600 bushels of strawberries in
round numbers, at an average net price
of $5 per bushel, netting $133,000, besides
beans and other vegetables.



Culture of Rhubarb for Market
BY C. E. GODDEN.

(We recently published an inquiry in
regard to rhubarb culture in Florida,
and in response have the following in instructive
structive instructive article from Mr. Godden. We
regret, however, that he did not give
his experience in preventing the plant
from running to seed prematurely; the
desirability of growing rhubarb under
partial shade in this state, and a com comparison
parison comparison of the crimson with the varie varieties
ties varieties he mentions. We trust he, or some
one else, will cover these points in a
future article.)
Rhubarb, like asparagus, is a very
hardy perennial, and has not been plant planted
ed planted largely in the Gulf region. There
seems to be no natural obstacle to its
being produced here, and it is doubtless
due to the fact that vegetable growing
for distant markets is anew industry.
A dark, sandy loam is a favorable soil;
it may even tend to be gravelly, but
must not be dry. A well drained clay
soil is also good, and preferred by some
rhubarb growers. A light soil is liable
to allow the plant to produce large roots
at the expense of the stalks, but when
the gardener is aware of this, it can be
overcome by proper cultivation, or the
plants may be taken up and the roots
divided.
Whatever kind of land is used, plenty
of fertilizer will be required; often fifty
to a hundred loads per acre are used on
rich vegetable land. Well-rotted muck
that has been worked into the soil deep deeply
ly deeply will be found a fair substitute for
manure, but we must not forget to sup supply
ply supply the needed potash and phosphoric
acid.
Seed may be obtained from seedsmen
and the plants grown in this way will
require about three years to obtain a
crop. It should be remembered, how however,
ever, however, that a field will bear for some
fifteen years or longer under proper
treatment. Sow the seed in drills eight eighteen
een eighteen inches or two feet apart; thin the
plants to six inches in the row. The
seed may; be sown any time in the
spring after danger of frost is past. As
it is slow to germinate, watering may
be found necessary. It should be sown
as early as convenient, so as to have as
large a leaf system as possible for the
summer heat. As the plants are ex expensive,
pensive, expensive, it will be well to grow them
as soon as one is assured that the proper
land and facilities are at hand.
To get a quick start, plants should be
obtained from seedsmen. Work the
manure in as deeply as possible with a
team, and be sure that the fertilizer has
been worked in well. Lay the land off
in rows from four to six feet apart, and
set the plants from three to four feet
apart in the row, according to the va variety
riety variety of plants and strength of soil.
It will be some two years from time
of setting out the plants to the time
that a crop may be expected; during
this time the field may be planted to
other vegetables, but an additional
amount of fertilizer should be supplied.
After the by-crop has been removed the
plants should be mulched to keep the
soil from drying out. It is not a good
plan to collect any stalks that may be
marketable before the second year.
There are several varieties offered on
the markets, but it is safe to plant Lin-

FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST

naens or Victoria. These two varieties
can be depended upon, the Linnaens be being
ing being the earlier kind.
Asa fertilizer formula the following
will be found about right:
Nitrogen 3 per cent.
Potash 7 per cent.
Phosphoric acid 8 per cent.
Use 1,500 to 2,000 pounds of the above
fertilizer per acre. Humus is a much
needed ingredient in the rhubarb soil,
and where this cannot be supplied in the
form of manure, we should get leaf
mold or muck.
Rhubarb above all other plants, can
stand deep cultivation and very thor thorough.
ough. thorough. In the fall, after the plants have
ceased to grow, the ground may be
thown up onto the row by stirring plow,
and this raked or harrowed down again.
Usually it is a good thing to cut the
roots and check the early feeding. After
the field has come into bearing, no other
crops should be planted in the field, and
the cultivation be simply for the rhubarb.
The ground must be cultivated in the
spring, but after the pulling season is
over, the field will usually take care of
itself. The large green leaves shade
the ground and prevent other plants
from growing, though here and there
weeds may spring up; these may be
pulled or cut.
When the field begins to bear, which
was stated above to be when the plants
are three years old, the earliest leaves
are pulled when the stalks are about
eight inches long. At this size they are
quite tender, and care must be exercised
not to injure them in pulling. Later in
the season the stalks are allowed to grow
longer before pulling, but the earlier
ones are the higher priced.
The pullers gather the leaves until they
have an. armful, when it is laid down
beside the road. After a portion of the
field has been pulled, a wagon is driven
along, and the armfuls are placed on
this and hauled to the bunching shed.
The blades are then cut off and the
stalks tied into bunches. Some of the
varieties are so brittle that it is nec necessary
essary necessary to let them wilt a short time be before
fore before tying. The size of the bunch must
be such as will suit the market, and
this can be learned only by experience.
This vegetable is shipped in ventilated
crates or barrels, and as the produce is
removed from the package before the
consumer buys it, there is very little
choice in the kind of package. Forced
rhubarb is usually tied up in bunches
containing six large stalks, which
sell for a dollar a bunch; as soon as
the outdoor article comes into market
the price declines rapidly. Besides being
used as a vegetable, it is employed in
making wine; for this purpose it has
sold for $15.00 a ton.
The lucrative price paid for fresh rhu rhubarb
barb rhubarb in the winter has induced many
nurserymen to force this vegetable. In
the fall, after the frost has fallen, the
roots are taken up with as little muti mutilation
lation mutilation as possible and transferred to a
hot bed or greenhouse. If the sale is
to be made in early winter the heat is

applied at once, but if for later winter
market the roots are kept in dormant
condition until the proper time has ar arrived.
rived. arrived.
The Gulf region will not have to use
heat to have early rhubarb. If it is
profitable and desirable to force it, the
product will stand the cost of transpor transportation.
tation. transportation.
St. Cloud, Fla.
EGG PLANT CULTURE.
The eggplant requires an extremely
fertile soil to reach its highest devel development.
opment. development. If the soil is not naturally
fertile it must be made so by the ap application
plication application of well rotted stable manure
or mineral fertilizers. I have grown
this crop commercially on ordinary soil
and on very fertile soil, and I have
always found that it pays to apply fer fertilizers.
tilizers. fertilizers. I regard well rotted barnyard
manure the best fertilizer. It is impos impossible
sible impossible to make the soil too rich for this
vegetable. It grows well in loose, loamy
soil, well drained.
The plants are tender when young,
but are hardy when mature. I have
kept them through the winter, pruned
and refertilized, and secured a second
crop early in the spring. The seeds
should be planted in a well protected
location and the soil kept moist. They
require a temperature from 56 to 70 for
perfect germination. The plants start
off very slowly unless well protected
from cold. They require the suns warm
rays to make rapid growth. When once
thoroughly established they are great
drouth resisters and will mature their
fruit under degrees of heat, cold and
dryness that would be fatal to other
crops.
The plants should be taken from the
hotbed early in the morning and set in
hills three by four feet. I always dip
the roots in mud, and, if the soil is not
extremely moist, pour a quart of water
in the hill, thoroughly settling the soil
around the roots to prevent drying out.
The cultivation is about the same as
for other hill crops. The earth should
be slightly drawn to the stem of the
plants while hoeing, but not sufficient
to come in contact with the lower limbs
of the plants.
The fruits should be. cut from the
plants with a sharp knife and taken
immediately to the packing shed and
prepared for market. The fruits should
be well grown before gathered, but not
too old and tough. They should weigh
from two to three pounds. Too small
fruits are not salable and are liable to
shrivel. They are generally marketed
in crates, hampers or baskets, holding
about three dozen fruits. They should
be very carefully handled to prevent
bruising. Shorten the stems to prevent
the one punching the other. Sam H.
Dixon.
More care and patience is required in
the early stages of turkey raising than
in any other branch of the poultry in industry.
dustry. industry. For the first six weeks they
need constant watching especially against
the early morning dews. However, after
they have passed that early period about
the only way you can kill them is with
the ax. The financial returns for those
early days of watching and care are
abundant. Every farmer should raise
some turkeys. The supply is a thousand
miles short of the demand.

13



14

The Management of New Ground

Clearing of new land is an impor important
tant important factor in the agricultural econom economics
ics economics of many farms, yet probably no
feature of farm life is so little under understood
stood understood and so blindly pursued. There
is a large proportion of uncleared land,
especially in the South, where large
areas once devoted to the cultivation
of cotton and tobacco have through
changed conditions invariably gone to
bush and small timber. It is here that
large farms with many wooded acres
and only small parcels of cultivated land
are seen. Throughout the South the
proportion of brush and sciub timber
land is astonishingly and deplorably
large.
If he is a benefactor of mankind who
succeeds in making two blades of grass
grow where only one grew before, how
much more beneficent is the mission
of making grass grow where only bushes
were wont to thrive.
The problem is not only how to clear
overgrown land, but whether it will be
profitable to do so. Manifestly much
wooded land had better be left for tim timber
ber timber and fuel purposes. To cut away
young growth, which would within reas reasonable
onable reasonable time possess timber value is
usually a mistake. To leave bush land
idle when it will require a hundred years
for it to develop into profitable timber,
is folly.
The timber consideration is now the
ony one that enters into the advisability
of clearing land. The location of the
tract, together with the density and size
of the wooded covering, must be con considered.
sidered. considered. The purpose for which the
land is adapted and the probable income
to be derived from it when cleared gen generally
erally generally govern the advisability of clear clearing
ing clearing it. It is obvious that it may be
found profitable to clear land for truck trucking
ing trucking or orcharding when it would not be
profitable to do so for farm crops. In
the former case a return of SIOO or more
per acre may reasonably be expected,
while the gross income from an acre of
grass or grain will seldom exceed sls
or S2O.
Generally the expense of clearing will
exceed the original cost of the land.
The cost per acre will vary from $5 or
$lO per acre to S3O or S4O, conditional
upon kind, density, and size of wooded
covering. In many localities there is a
fair demand for wood, the proceeds of
which will help to defray the cost of
clearing. A farmer may improve his
farm gradually as time and means per permit
mit permit and there is a certain sentimental
satisfaction in working out the salva salvation
tion salvation of ones own place. The love of
ones native place is happily a virtue
that most men possess.
In adopting a method of clearing one
must be governed by various circumstan circumstances.
ces. circumstances. When circumstances permit, pas pasturing
turing pasturing is undoubtedly the most economi economical
cal economical way of clearing land. In fact, if
the growth is large and the ciearing is
to be a profitable investment, pasturing
is probably the best method that can be
pursued; the purpose of this method
being to change the field from pasture
to cultivated ground. The stock will
keep down new growth while stumps
and roots decay. Sheep and goats are
preferable, but any kind of stock is suit suitable
able suitable for this kind of pasturing. Horses

FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST

and cattle, and even hogs, will answer
well for this purpose, but in any case
they should be allowed the run of only
so large a tract as they can keep pretty
well subdued.
Recently the Angora goat has at attracted
tracted attracted considerable attention as a land
clearer. While other animals upon new
land will usually confine their browsing
to buds and tender shoots, largely for
want of something better, the Angora
prefers brush to grass. Tt will not
only eat leaves and tender sprouts, but
it will bark bushes and saplings whose
tops it cannot reach. This girdling is
very destructive to vegetable life.
It is wiser, however, in most instances,
to use what stock and means we have at
hand, as the value of land in most regions
is not sufficient to justify unusual ex expense
pense expense in this improvement.
However, in clearing most pine land,
the cutting method is the most expedient.
The pine genus, excepting two or three
species is happily peculiar. Contrary to
the rule in forestry, when the pine is cut
off just above the ground it does not
throw up shoots. Consequently it soon
dies, and if the stump be small it rapid rapidly
ly rapidly decays.
Many pine lands throughout the South
may be cut off and safely left idle for
several years with assurance that roots
and stumps will rot. Pine soil is not so
impregnated with objectionable growth
in an embryo state, waiting fox an op opportunity
portunity opportunity to develop into bushes, as is
hardwood land. New pine land is much
more amenable to cultivation than lands
from which other kinds of timber have
been moved. This is owing to the semi semitap-root
tap-root semitap-root system of the pine and the brit brittle
tle brittle nature of its roots.
Alder is usually found in dwarf bush
size and in clusters. Its habitat is low lowlands
lands lowlands and swampy bottoms. It is master
of the land upon which it thrives, and
its masses of interlocked roots present
an impregnable obstacle to cultivation;
yet if its vulnerable points are under understood
stood understood it may be quickly and easily dis disposed
posed disposed of. In August cut the alders off
at or below the crown, leaving the brush
where it falls. The following spring,
after vegetation has started and the
ground is thoroughly dry, burn the area
over. If the cutting and burning have
been thorough, the alders will never re return
turn return to plague you. The next year the
ground may be cultivated with compara comparative
tive comparative ease.
Stump pulling machinery manufactur manufactured
ed manufactured in several towns may be used, but
the expense of handling, adjustment and
repairs is so heavy that this system
would only pay on valuable land which
it is intended to devote to some specially
profitable crop.
It is not generally advisable to cut
off timber with a view to grub out the
stumps afterwards. It is much easier
to grub the standing timber than the
stumps after the trunk and tops have
been severed, for it is the tap roots
that are most inaccessible and difficult
to reach and cut, and the tops, by serv serving
ing serving as a lever, greatly assist in loosening
these. In the removal of trees of con considerable
siderable considerable size much labor may be saved
by digging a trench immediately around
the base of the tree, cutting all the lat laterals,
erals, laterals, and leaving the tap-roots for the

action of rain and wind. Water will
collect in the trench and soften the
subsoil and the wind with its swaying
force will soon throw the tree. Indeed
when the side roots and earth have been
removed from around a tree, the pry prying
ing prying force, which the top will exercise
upon the remaining roots, will be irres irresistible.
istible. irresistible. Each drop of rain and each puff
of wind will contribute toward loosening
and breaking these tap-roots, which on
account of their position almost defy
the mattock. The assistance which na nature
ture nature is capable of affording in clearing
away trees is wonderful. The spring
season, when the ground is loose, the
rains heavy, and the winds strong, is
the most opportune time to pursue the
above method.
Do not attempt too much continuous
grubbing. It is very laborious work,
and men will soon tire of it and become
discouraged. A fatigued, disheartened
laborer is never a success.St. Cloud
T ribune.
CROSSING COTTON.
A communication to the Agricultural
News from Dr. C. E. Gooding, of
Stirling, Barbados, describes experi experiments
ments experiments which have been undertaken by
him in the direction of procuring h>
brids between Sea Island cotton and
the ordinary native cotton of the peren perennial
nial perennial type. In these, in July 1908, a seed
from a large hardy native cotton tree
was planted, and the following Jan January,
uary, January, when the plant was well grown,
some of its flowers were pollinated with
pollen from a good strain of Sea Island
cotton, the procedure being to emas emasculate
culate emasculate and bag the flowers of the native
cotton on the evening preceding their
opening: then to pollinate them from
Sea Island flowers, and finally to bag
them for twenty-four hours. All the
flowers thus treated produced healthy
bolls, which duly came to maturity.
When ripe, the seeds from these bolls
were divided into two lots, one of which
was planted by itself in April 1909,
and the other, with other cotton seed,
under ordinary field conditions, in the
following July. The plants, especially
those sown in April, attained a large size,
but this extra growth had been anti anticipated,
cipated, anticipated, and allowed for, by setting them
much farther apart than Sea Island
cotton is usually planted.
As is pointed out in the account of
the experiment, the results show that,
under exactly similar conditions, the
yield of hybrid cotton was much higher
than that from the ordinary Sea Island.
In terms of weight per acre, it was more
than twice as great, for, working out
the results in this way, Dr. Gooding
shows that the number of plants per acre
and the yield of seed-cotton per acre were
as follows: Early planted hybrids,
648. and 2,549 pounds, late planted hy hybrids,
brids, hybrids, T,2io, and 1,694 pounds'. Sea Is Island,
land, Island, 3,630, and 795 pounds.
In order to gain information as to
the quality of the lint, a special re report
port report was obtained on the cotton. This
showed that those of the hybrid and
Sea Island types were both practically
the same, as the lint was of excellent
length, strength and fineness, and the
same price was obtained for both kinds.
Further experiments are required to
show if heavy bearing is a definite
property of the strain obtained, or
whether it is due to the stimulus of
crossing, and a greater immunity from
disease, of the hybrids.



Work That Should Be Done In June
BY W. H. HASKELL.

Since the rains of the past three weeks
the grass grows fast, and we will have
to bestir ourselves to keep the crops
from being stunted by the growth of
grass, etc., and to keep such growth from
using our precious fertilizers. So keep
the Acme harrow going while the soil
is dry.
For shallow culture, and that is the
culture that is required, the Acme har harrow
row harrow is the best tool I have ever used.
It does not tear up what you have
buried or plowed under, neither does it
drag the trash on the surface into heaps,
as does the ordinary cultivator, but if
the ground is very foul and the grass,
etc., has gotten a start of you, then the
Planet Junior cultivator, or something
equally effective will have to be used.
But dont do as some unthinking ones
usually do, in treating a crop, say of
cane or corn. This is how they do it:
On one of these bright, sunshiny days,
they take a one-horse plow, and going
close up, say as close as four to six
inches, they proceed to plow a furrow
six inches deep away from the cane;
this often when the ground is full of the
cane roots. This might not be so bad
if they would immediately turn this
furrow back again, but they usually
leave the crop in this mutilated condition
for a week or two. In my opinion it
would be much better to leave the crop
without any plowing than to cut the
feeding roots from their foundation and
supply. Therefore, in your horse cul culture
ture culture of any crop, see that you do not
go too close and too deep.
Be sure to thin the corn, even now, if
it is too thick. One stalk in a place will
produce one or two good ears, where
more stalks often would only yield
small nubbins.
This is the month to put in the main
forage crops, such as cow peas, soy
beans, millet, sorghum, rice, peanuts, etc.
If you contemplate growing a crop of
velvet beans dont delay putting them
in, the sooner the better. All land that
has grown an early crop should be pre prepared
pared prepared and planted to some forage crop.
Make it level so the machine can be
used in harvesting the crop of hay or
peas or whatever it may be.
All the corn ground should be plant planted
ed planted to cow peas. Put in a row between
the rows of corn. This plan enriches
the corn ground, besides producing a
moderate crop of cow peas.
On extra good ground it would pay
to grow a crop of California black eye
cow peas. As they are not productive on
poor ground it would only pay on extra
good ground. This variety sells well
in the local markets for dry peas, as it
is used as a substitute for the navy bean.
But for a good crop on ordinary
ground the whippoorwill, conch, and red
ripper, with the black stock pea are the
most productive.
There is a variety of corn called June
corn, and if you are going to be short
of corn try some of this variety this
month.
In the orchard the best we can do
now will be to keep the harrow running
to keep down the crab grass. This till
the rainy season sets in in earnest, as

FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST

after that it is best to cease culture and
let the fruit grow naturally and more
slowly, to avoid splitting and dropping.
Under no circumstances would I use
the plow in the orchard or orange grove,
if my aim was a crop of fruit. Tearing
up the surface roots cuts off the supply
from the crop. If you have planned to
fertilize your orchard or grove twice
this year, and it is usually best to do so,
use a grade of fertilizers high in potash,
for a fruit crop, say ten or fifteen per
cent of sulphate of potash, to make
bright, sweet fruit, with good keeping
and shipping qualities.
Potash and phosphate are the main
ingredients for growing trees from this
on through the remainder of the season,
to make solid, well ripened wood.
The early part of this month is the
time for the first early peaches from
this latitude northward. The Jewel
peach during this month, should bring
a good price in the Eastern markets, if
you can be fairly treated by your com commission
mission commission house. Be sure they are well
known and honest. Select solid fruit
that will stand up well during the time
required to get to market, only the best.
Pack tightly and in attractive packages.
Try the East Coast of Florida, south
of you before shipping North 1 for a
market. There are lots of people there,
and they grow but few peaches, etc. If
you can get SI.OO per bushel in the or orchard
chard orchard after the shipping peaches are
gathered it would be well to so dispose
of all you can.
If you conclude you have to spray
your orange grove, as good a remedy
as anything for all leaf-eating insects, to
smother them, is soapsuds. Bordeaux
mixture for fungus diseases is the thing,
but the vigorous growth of the trees,
where well cared for and suitably fed,
generally obviates the need of spraying
at this season of rapid growth.
This is the month for rebudding grove
trees, as new buds will be formed now.
In the garden about all the crops,
such as onions, potatoes, cabbage, etc.,
will have been shipped and disposed of
by the middle of June.
It may pay to continue to ship to tomatoes
matoes tomatoes this month, or the early part of
it. What was said of peaches applies
equally well to tomatoes, as to selection,
packing, etc. Tomatoes must be fine and
first class to pay to ship from Florida
this month. Find your market at home,
or can them, and you will have a good
home market for all you can put up.
Of course this is the month to send
your watermelon ana canteloupe crops
to Northern markets. Ship only in car
load lots, and to responsible houses, or
better still, if you have the opportunity,
sell your crops of melons, etc., to buyers
in your fields or aboard cars at your
railroad stations. It may pay to ship
sweet corn to cities not requiring too
long time in transportation.
In planting for June for your own
use and local markets, try tomatoes.
They will be in demand if you succeed
in making a good crop. Also a late
crop of watermelons, sweet corn, cucum cucumbers,
bers, cucumbers, pole beans and bush beans. The

beans may need shading to protect them
while coming up.
Tomatoes may be planted; that is, the
seed may be planted, where you wish
them to grow their crop. Make the
hills rich and plant, say four feet apart,
thinning to one plant to a hill.
Stir the ground in the garden often,
especially after every heavy, beating
rain.
This is the month for the main sweet
potato crop. Choose new ground if
possible for this crop. Use stable or lot
manure if you can get it. Plant the first
and second cutting of the runners for
plantsthat is the tips are better than
the older parts of the vines. It seems
to me that-ridges a foot or more high
produce beter than low ridges.
Plant on freshly prepared ground if
possible; that is, prepare today what
you wish to plant today, etc. These
cuttings, or plants are laid across the
prepared ridges about fifteen inches
apart, and pushed into the soft soil with
a stick. This is the more rapid way and
is easier on the back than putting in
each plant with the hand, as is usually
practiced farther to the North. The
plants or vines should be pushed into the
ridges about six to nine inches. Keep
clean with horse and hoe until vines
cover the ground.
THE CULTIVATION OF
THE CITRUS GROVES
(Continued from page six)
the crop becomes so large and strong
that it is very difficult to incorporate
it with the soil in autumn. Two cuttings
can be made, one about the middle of
July, the other about the first of Sep September,
tember, September, after which time the plants
will sprout and in most cases sufficient
seed will be matured to re-seed the
ground. The cuttings can be removed
for hay if so desired, but if the soil is
rather poor or lacking in humus, this
should not be done, but the crop should
be allowed to remain and dry on the
surface.
Winter Cultivation.
Before the frost period the grove
should be cleaned up. The presence of
grass or weeds in the grove increases
the danger from frost injury very ma materially
terially materially and for this reason the cover
crop should be incorporated with the
surface soil not later than the middle of
November in the Northern districts,
while in the Southern, where damage
from frosts does not occur, it may be
allowed to remain on the surface of the
ground until later. If this is followed by
a cutaway harrow, or in some cases a
very shallow plowing may be given, it
will put the grove in condition for the
winter months. During the winter no
cultivation should be given but the grove
should be allowed to remain untouched
until the opening of spring.
The chicks in good substantial coops
are safe at night and can be controlled
as desired during the day. It is indeed
discouraging to try to raise chickens
as many do in cold, damp, ill-constructed
places. Where rats are bad, board
floors are desirable, as rodents will dig
under coops on the ground. And the
board floors also help to keep the chicks
warm and dry in early spring.

15



16

Florida Agriculturist
Published monthly by the
AGRICULTURIST PUBLISHING CO.
Walter Connelly, Manager.
office:
Room 5, Board of Trade Building.
SUBSCRIPTION RATES.
In the United States, Mexico, Porto Rico,
Philippine Islands, Hawaiian Islands and Cuba
(including postage), SI.OO per year.
To all Foreign Countries embraced in the
Universal Postal Union (including postage),
$1.50 per year.
Advertisements of meritorious articles are
solicited. Frauds and irresponsible firms are
not knowingly advertised, and we will con consider
sider consider it a favor if readers advise us promptly
should they have reason to question the relia reliability
bility reliability of any firm which patronizes our adver advertising
tising advertising columns. Advertising rates on applica application.
tion. application.
Communications are solicited from practical
farmers. Names and addresses must accom accompany
pany accompany all communications, although they need
not necessarily be published.
Photographs of farm scenes are gladly re received,
ceived, received, and will be reproduced if or genera!
interest, and clear enough to make satisfactory
plates.
Questions We are glad to have our sub subscribers
scribers subscribers ask questions about Florida or any
phase of agricultural work. They will be an answered
swered answered as promptly and carefully as possible,
either through the paper or by mail. We do
not answer questions for those who are not
subscribers. When writing for information,
always give name and postoffice address, and
enclose a two-cent stamp.
Always send money by draft, postoffice order
or registered letter. We will not be respon responsible
sible responsible for cash sent in letters, unless registered.
Address all communications to and make all
drafts, checks and postoffice and express orders
payable to the Florida Agriculturist, Jackson Jacksonville.
ville. Jacksonville. Florida.
Entered as second-class matter, April 5, 1911.
at the postoffice at Jacksonville, Fla., under the
act of March 3,1879.
JUNE, 191 x.
SOME QUESTIONS ANSWERED.
Czm the rubber tree be grown in Flor Florida?
ida? Florida? If so what kind of soil is best
suited to its culture? What part of
the state is best for it?
It is likely that the rubber tree may
grow to fair size in favored locations
in the extreme southern part of Florida,
but as a commercial proposition it is
not to be recommended.
What is the best time of year for a
Northern man to prospect for a home
in Florida?
If at all convenient to do so we would
advise that he come down during or
toward the end of what is known here
as the rainy season, say in July, Aug August
ust August or September. A large percentage
of the land in Florida, and of what we
believe is destined to be the best for gen general
eral general farming purposes, is flatwoods,
and as its name would indicate much
of it lacks sufficient slope to permit of
its being thoroughly drained except by
means of large, and sometimes, expen expensive
sive expensive ditches. During the months men mentioned
tioned mentioned we usually have our heaviest rain rainfall,
fall, rainfall, and by coming at that time the in intending
tending intending purchaser can see for himself
whether the land he is considering has
sufficient natural drainage to carry off
the excess of water rapidly enough to
prevent damage to crops. Or if not, to
determine approximately how much

FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST

ditching will be required. We believe
that the man who is seeking a location
for a home in anew country ought to
try and see it under the worst as well
as t(he most favorably conditions, in
order to prevent as far as possible fu future
ture future disappointments.
Is it possible for Northern people to stay
through the summer in Florida until
they become somewhat acclimated?
The heat is so intense at times here
in the North that one can scarcely
live, and it must be almost unbearable
in Florida. How do you manage to
exist there?
Because Florida winters are much
warmer than those of more Northern
states the idea seems to prevail that our
summers are also proportionately warm warmer,
er, warmer, when the fact is that our summers
are as a rule more pleasant than our
winters. We know that going to the
mountains and other resorts in summer
is quite a fad, and many people have ed educated
ucated educated themselves into the belief that
they must go to some of those places
every summer, still those who stay in
Florida the year round are usually more
comfortable than those who go away.
While on this subject we probably
could not do better than give up the
space necessary to print the following
quotation from the Manufacturers Rec Record,
ord, Record, which is being widely circulated by
the secretary of the Tampa Board of
Trade. Editor Edmonds, of the Rec Record,
ord, Record, says:
The writer has spent several seasons
both summer and winter in various cities
of the Southern States on the Atlantic
and the Gulf coasts, and has never ex experienced
perienced experienced any such temperatures there
as are at this moment being experienced
in these more Northern cities. Cooling
breezes sweep over the land from the
Gulf or ocean, and in the case of Flor Florida,
ida, Florida, from both. Moreover, cool nights
can nearly always be depended on. But
the 96 degree and the 101 degree tem temperatures
peratures temperatures are only read about in the
news dispatches from the more north northern
ern northern cities. The fact that it is cooler in
the summer and warmer in the winter
in the Southern than in the Northern
and Western section of the country may
well be taken into consideration by
homeseekers and prospective settlers in
that favored land. As shown by these
figures, while Tampa had a maximum
temperature on May 18th of 82 degrees,
Philadelphia show r ed 90 degrees, Albany,
N. W., 86 degrees and Chicago, 92 deg degrees.
rees. degrees. On May 22nd, while the North
and West were sweltering in the intense intenseheat
heat intenseheat which carried the mercury from 88
at Cleveland, 92 at Boston and 96 at
Albany, up to 101 at Lewiston, Maine,
Tampa was enjoying the delightful tem temperature
perature temperature of 82 as the maximum for the
day. No phase of Southern life has
been more thoroughly misunderstood by
the people of the North and West than
that of climate. It is very rare indeed
to find in the South the excessively high
temperature which so often prevails in
the North and West. Moreover, in the
South there is nearly always some breeze
to temper the heat and a cooling breeze
at night; while in some Northern and
Western sections the unfortunate dwel dwellers
lers dwellers under the burning sun of the day
swelter through the night with a degree
of heat never known in the South. If
you want to find the best climate in
America, winter and summer, go South.

STATE FAIR PREMIUMS.
Asa result of an act of the last Leg Legislature
islature Legislature those who won prizes at the
two state fairs conducted at Tampa dur during
ing during the years 1908 and 1909 and hold
certificates to that effect can now re receive
ceive receive their money.
Either endorse your certificate and
send it to Hon. A. C. Croom, State
Comptroller, Tallahassee, Fla., or place
the certificate with your nearest bank
for collection, properly endorsing same.
$30,000 has been set aside by the leg legislature
islature legislature for the payment of the premium
awards.
Do not send your certificates to Mr.
W. G. Brorein, trustee Florida Mid-
Winter Fair Association, as that gentle gentleman
man gentleman has arranged for payment as above
stated.
ECONOMY ON THE FARM.
A Yankee farmer would get rich
on what a Southern farmer wastes/
The writer once resented the above
statement, but after considerable travel
and observation he is compelled to ad admit
mit admit that the item of economy is not giv given
en given proper consideration by the tiller of
the soil in the South. Why this should
be the case is a mystery. Possibly the
necessity of hard work and close econ economy
omy economy to produce in the few growing
months sufficent to carry him through
the winter has caused this trait to be become
come become a part of the Northern farmers
nature, while in the South the ability to
raise crops when needed, the vast
amount of virgin soil heretofore ac
cessible and the mild winters has indeed
created a condition which might be
termed at least improvident.
In the North we see the farmer gath gathering
ering gathering up the leaves in the fall and winter,
using them for bedding and eventually
putting them on the fields in the shape of
fertilizer either through the manure pile
or the compost heap. In the South, as
a rule, we see the forest fire every spring
eat up thousands of dollars worth of
leaves, and not only this we see the
farmer burn off his fields, thus destroy destroying
ing destroying all the humus that nature is trying to
restore to the soil, and eventually we see
the land which ought to improve each
year under careful cultivation die out.
A few years ago the writer helped dig
potatoes in a field that had been in cul cultivation
tivation cultivation forOver a century, and the land
was far from dead, but that was New
York State.
In the North the most prosperous
farmers are those who look after the
little leaks and wastes. If an animal
dies it is used for fertilizer and in
many cases its hide taken off and either
sold or used for a thousand and one
things that show up on a farm, while
near my home last year a man had a
dead calf skinned and the hide hung up
to dry and this caused considerable com comment
ment comment among his neighbors, who consider considered
ed considered it stingy.
Let us bear in mind that a penny
saved is two pence earned and apply
to our farm operations the same thrift
that has built up the fortunes of the
great meat packers and others who uti utilize
lize utilize everything It is said that the only
thing that Armour does not use of a
butchered hog is its dying squeal, and
they are now figuring on compressing
that and using it for automobile signals.
Some have claimed that the packers



could give away the carcass of the ani animal
mal animal and still make enough profit out of
the waste products to run their business.
If it is honorable for these men to save
everything it is certainly no disgrace for
the farmer to do the same, and the
sooner we quit our foolishness about
appearing stingy the better it will be
for ourselves, our families and our state.
THE 1910 YEAR BOOK.
The seventeenth volume of the Year Yearbook
book Yearbook (1910) has just been issued by
the U. S. Department of Agriculture.
In appearance and make-up it differs
but little from its predecessors; it con contains
tains contains 28 articles; 49 full page illustra illustrations,
tions, illustrations, of which 8 are colored; and 31
text figures.
The Fourteenth Annual Report of the
Secretary, for the fiscal year ended June
30th, 1910, occupies the first 156 pages
and gives the general report of the
operations of the Department, which,
under the law, must form a part of the
volume. This report, supplemented by
the statistical matter found in the ap appendix,
pendix, appendix, gives a more complete and com comprehensive
prehensive comprehensive summary of agricultural con conditions
ditions conditions in the United States than can be
found in any single
The next' 320 pages, divided between
28 articles contributed by many mem members
bers members of the scientific force of the Depart Department
ment Department contain data upon many of the im important
portant important questions now prominent in the
public eye, and equally vital to the agri agricultural
cultural agricultural and urban population both as
producers and consumers of the food
stuff of the nation.
The importance of the forests to the
residents of the country and the prom prominence
inence prominence of that subject in Department
work is reflected in four papers, while
everyone will be interested in the two
articles, one on the Progress and Pres Present
ent Present Status of the Good Roads Movement
in the United States, and the other, des describing
cribing describing the Use of Bituminous Dust
Preventives and Road Binders.
Those engaged in Animal Husbandry
will find the discussion of Some of the
More Important Ticks of the United
States most timely, and the paper on the
Eradication of Cattle Tuberculosis in
the District of Columbia will not only
engage the attention of those directly
benefited by that accomplishment, but
will encourage other communities to re renewed
newed renewed efforts for greater success in the
same line. Grading of Cream, and the
Effect of the Present Method of Hand Handling
ling Handling Eggs on the Industry and Product,
are two more papers which to dairymen
and poultry raisers will be valuable.
That the general farmer, the fruit
grower, the trucker, and the grower ot
special crops hold a deservedly large
space in the thought and activities of the
Department is demonstrated by the nine
papers on Supply and Wages of Farm
Labor; Nitrogen-gathering Plants; In Insect
sect Insect Enemies of Tobacco in the United
States; Increased Yields of Corn from
Hybrid Seed; The Utilization of Crop
Plants in Paper Making; Cooperation
in the Handling and Marketing of Fruit;
Precooling of Fruit; Camphor Cultiva Cultivation
tion Cultivation in the United States, and the illus illustrated
trated illustrated article on Promising New Fruits
of the Year 1910.
The Department does not leave the
farm product as soon as produced, but
as its destiny is consumption, articles
dealing with the proper, best, and most

FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST

economical use of farm products as food
for man, are furnished on Cheese and
Other Substitutes for Meat in the Diet;
The Respiration Calorimeter and the Re Results
sults Results of Experiments with it; and the
Game Market of To-day.
As showing what the Department is
doing to further progressiveness in the
farming communities, and to encourage
rural education and the instruction of
agricultural courses in country schools,
the article entitled Community Work
in the Rural High School will be of
interest and value.
The Migratory Movement of Birds in
Relation to the Weather, Review of
Weather Conditions of the Year 1910,
and Seedtime and Harvest; statistics
as to the organization and work of the
U. S. Department of Agriculture, the
State Departments, and the Agricultur Agricultural
al Agricultural Experiment Stations in the States,
complete the new Yearbook.
The volume is distributed principally
by Senators, Representatives, and Dele Delegates
gates Delegates in Congress, the Departments quo quota
ta quota being reserved for its volunteer cor correspondents.
respondents. correspondents.
ANOTHER EVERGLADES BOOK.
As draining the Everglades progress progresses
es progresses the interest in that section grows,
not only among the residents of Florida,
but throughout the country, and re reliable
liable reliable information is being sought by
people everywhere. To meet this de demand,
mand, demand, Prof. John Gifford has compiled
from some of the leading magazines and
other sources a book of 132 pages, under
the title The Everglades and Other
Essays Relating to Southern Florida.
The book is well illustrated and can be
procured through the book stores gener generally
ally generally at SIOO.
REPORT OF FLORIDA
MEETING OF AMERICAN
POMOLOGICAL SOCIETY.
Fruit growers throughout the country,
but more especially the citrus growers
and the producers of subtropical fruits,
will be interested in knowing that the
volume containing the proceedings of
the American Pomological Society meet meeting
ing meeting held at Tampa, Florida, last Feb February
ruary February has just come from the press.
Secretary John Craig of Ithaca, New
York, writes that it forms an'indexed
book of over 300 pages. He further
states that the information contained
within its covers is contributed by ex experts
perts experts and specialists in their particu particular
lar particular fields.
This volume is valuable on a three threefold
fold threefold account. It contains the fullest
presentations of methods of handling,
transporting, and marketing citrus fruits
to be found anywhere; it contains an
important symposium on the status of
pecan culture in the Gulf region; or orchard
chard orchard heating is also one of the topics
which is a live issue today, and this is
discussed in the light of the most rec recent
ent recent advances. In addition to these sub subjects,
jects, subjects, orchard management forms an
important chapter. The history, classi classification
fication classification and propagation of the mango,
by Professor Rolrs, of the Florida Ex Experiment
periment Experiment Station is the most valuable
contribution on mango culture thus far
published. The Japanese persimmon,
its propagation, culture, and a method
of processing the fruit so that the
astringency is removed, forms an inter interesting

esting interesting chapter by Prof. H. Harold Hume,
of Glenn Saint Mary, Florida. Persons
interested in these topics and desiring
the publication should write to the Sec Secretary
retary Secretary of this national society.
NURSERY INSPECTION.
One of the most important laws en enacted
acted enacted by the Florida Legislature at its
last session was that providing for the
inspection of all nursery stock grown or
sold in this state. While not so drastic
as the laws of some of the states on
this subject, it seems to afford full pro protection
tection protection to the planter and has the merit
of being easily enforced. Omitting the
title, the following is the measure in
full;
Be it enacted by the Legislature of the
State of Florida:
Section i. That the Governor shall
appoint some person qualified by train training
ing training and experience as Inspector of Nur Nursery
sery Nursery Stock to carry into effect the pur purpose
pose purpose of this act. He shall hold office
for a term of four years and until his
successor is appointed and qualified and
shall receive a salary of two thousand
dollars per annum. He shall employ,
subject to the approval of the Board of
Control, such deputies and assistants
as he may deem necessary. His office
shall be in the State Experiment Sta Station
tion Station Building at Gainesville, Florida.
Section 2. That it shall be the duty
of the Board of Control to make such
just and reasonable rules and regula regulations
tions regulations for the government of the in inspection,
spection, inspection, certification, sale, exchange,
transportation, and introduction of nur nursery
sery nursery stock, trees, shrubs, plants, vines,
cuttings, scions, grafts, buds, seeds, pits,
bulbs, roots, or parts thereof, infested,
or infected, or suspected of being infest infested
ed infested or infected, with injurious insects
or other plant pests, or injurious fun fungus,
gus, fungus, bacterial, or other plant diseases,
as they may deem necessary to prevent
the introduction, increase or disemina disemination
tion disemination of said insects, pests and diseases.
Section 3. That said rules and regu regulations
lations regulations shall prescribe just and reason reasonable
able reasonable costs and charges to be borne by
the owners of the properties inspected
or certified under the provisions of this
act and the rules and regulations thereof.
Section 4. That it shall be unlawful
for any person, firm or corporation to
knowingly sell, exchange, give away,
or transport, or offer or attempt there thereto,
to, thereto, within the State of Florida, any nur nursery
sery nursery stock, trees, shrubs, plants, vines,
cuttings, scions, grafts, buds, seeds,
pits, bulbs, roots, or parts thereof, in infested
fested infested or infected with injurious insects
or other plant pests, or injurious fungus,
bacterial or other plant disease.
Section 5. That any person, firm or
corporation, who shall violate any pro provision
vision provision of this act, or any rule or regu regulation
lation regulation made in pursuance thereof, or who
shall interfere with said inspection of
nursery stock, his deputies or assist assistants,
ants, assistants, in the execution thereof, shall be
guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon con conviction
viction conviction thereof, shall be punished by a
fine not exceeding five hundred dollars,
of by imprisonment not exceeding six
months, or both in the discretion of the
court.
Section 6. That in order to carry out
the purposes of this act, the sum of
(Continued on page 26.)

17



18

VALUE OF REST.
The inability to rest, either at night
or by means of short respites from ac activity
tivity activity during the day, is the beginning
with many women, of a nervous break breakdown,
down, breakdown, and should be heeded as natures
warning that all is not well, and that
the routine of life, whether of work or
pleasure, must be closely scanned and
so changed as to lessen the strain.
Hurry and excitement, with constant
overstrain, which is working on the
nerves, are subtle nerve-wasters, for they
consume double the energy required for
the mere performance of the given act if
it were done reposefully. Moods are
to blame for much of this mischief in injected
jected injected into lives; but we should master
our moods, not be mastered by them.
The amount of regular sleep required
varies with the constitution, age and hab habits
its habits of life, the brain worker, whose
drafts on vitality are the largest, need needing
ing needing the most. At least seven to nine
hours of sleep are needed by all who lead
active lives and would keep themselves
physically and mentally at the summit of
their powers. Physicians agree that wo woman
man woman commonly requires at least an
hours more sleep than man; but also
that she bears deprivation of rest better.
This is due, however, to the fact that
in crisis which demands wakefulness her
sympathies and emotions are commonly
involved, and the intensity of her inter interest
est interest keep her alert. Not till the excite excitemen
ment excitemen which in her is an exaltation of
spirit holding her to duty, is passed will
she feel the loss of rest, but then she
should shield herself to an increased
amount of sleep, as should the brain
worker after every unusual and pro prolonged
longed prolonged effort.
FOLDING DRESS SKIRTS.
To fold a dress skirt properly for
packing and so avoid the crease down
the middle of the front breadth, fasten
the skirtband and pin the back to the
middle of tfie band in front. Lay the
skirt on a table or other flat surface,
right side out, with the front breadth
down. Smooth out all creases and lay
folds flat. Then begin at the outer
edges and roll each toward the centre
back until the two rolls meet. In this
way the hang of the skirt is not injured,
there are no wrinkles and the front
breadth is smooth and flat. If the skirt
is too long for the trunk, fold it over
near the top and place a roll of tissue
paper under the fold.
CLEAN SPOONS.
Careful women have in some cases
had their silver egg spoons dipped in
gold so that the stains from eggs will
not have to be fought againlt.
' They do not realize that a single ap application
plication application of fine table salt on a wet cloth
will take off any stain and leave the sil silver
ver silver entirely bright. After this it should
be washed in warm water and pure soap.
Many women leave silver spoons in
preserves from one meal to another, re remarking
marking remarking that the articles are silver and

HOUSEHOLD

FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST

the fruit acid will not ruin them. But
do they stop to think what the silver
will do to the fruit. It poisons it, even
though the spoon is silver. There is a
chemical process between the fruit acid
and metal which makes the fruit unfit
for use. This is even more so where
genuine silver is not used. Lard will
turn a spoon green in a few days in hot
weather, yet often a silver spoon will
be left in the lard can.
USERS OF EGGS.
The uses to which eggs may be put are
many, aside from their employment in
cooking.
A mustard plaster made with the
white of an egg will not leave a blister.
The white skin that lines the shell of
an egg is a useful application for a
boil.
White of an egg beaten with loaf su sugar
gar sugar and lemon relieves hoarseness a
teaspoonful taken every hour.
An egg added to the morning cup of
coffee makes a good tonic.
A raw egg taken with the yolk un unbroken,
broken, unbroken, taken in a glass of wine, is
beneficial for convalescents.
It is said that a raw egg swallowed at
once when a fishbone is caught in the
throat beyond the reach of the fingers
will dislodge the bone and carry it down.
The white of a raw egg turned over a
burn or scald is most soothing and cool cooling.
ing. cooling. It can be applied quickly and will
prevent inflammation, besides relieving
the stinging pain.
One of the best remedies in the case of
bowel trouble is a partly beaten egg taken
at one swallow. It is healing to the in inflamed
flamed inflamed stomach and intestines, and will
relieve the feeling of distress. Four
eggs taken in this manner in twenty-four
hours will form the best kind of nour nourishment,
ishment, nourishment, as well as medicine for the
patient.
A raw egg is one of the most nu nutritious
tritious nutritious of foods and may be taken very
easily if the yolk is not broken. A little
nutmeg grated upon the egg, a few drops
of lemon juice added, some chopped
parsley sprinkled over it, or some salt
and a dash of cayenne pepper, vary the
flavor and tend to make it more pal palatable
atable palatable when taken as medicine.
The white of a raw egg is the most
satisfactory of pastes and is better than
any prepared mucilage or paste one can
buy. Papers intended to put over tumb tumblers
lers tumblers of jelly or jam will hold very se securely
curely securely and air-tight if dipped in the
white of an egg.
Ones education is a matter of a life lifetime.
time. lifetime. None can afford to stand still.
The bigot is riveted; therefore never hes hesitate
itate hesitate to change your opinions. Because
you think one thing today is no earthly
reason why you should think the same
thing tomorrow.
A good way to bleach linen or lace
is to put in a bowl of soapy water and
set it out in strong sunlight. If it
will be exposed thus to dust and dirt,
place a piece of glass over it.

CORRESPONDENCE.
Match marks may be removed from
white paint by rubbing with a cut lemon.
Then, to forstall further marring, I
smear the spot lightly with vaseline.
After a few vain attempts to scratch a
match on the greasy surface the most
inveterate offender at length desists G.
M. A.
At the shirt counter of the mens de department
partment department in the big department stores
one can get bands for the husbands shirt.
On discovering this I bought half a
dozen neck bands, the size for the collar
I wear, and now the greatest worry of
shirtwaist making is eliminated. H. R.
When you go on your summer trip,
have four or five pieces of mat or straw strawboard
board strawboard cut the size of the inside of your
trunk, so they will slip in easily. Wrap
dresses in tissue paper, and tie to the
boards with tape. You can pack or un unpack,
pack, unpack, and nothing need be disturbed till
it is ready for use. I lived in a trunk
one summer, and wash dresses that were
not worn were as fresh as when first
packed.C. S. R.
I find a nurses method of fastening an
apron a good one to use in the home.
The band overlaps enough in the back to
allow short-necked collar buttons to slip
through the set of buttonholes in each
side. Two are needed to give a neat ap appearance
pearance. appearance 111.
Before I go shopping I make my mem memoranda
oranda memoranda on an envelope, as I find it very
convenient to put inside samples of any anything
thing anything I wish to match. This saves rum rummaging
maging rummaging through the hand bag for the
small pieces and buttons that have an
exasperating way of disappearing from
view just as they are needed. I. M. B.
The cork crumbs in which white grapes
have been packed make an excellent fill filling
ing filling for boat cushions. If they get wet
they dry out readily and in case of acci accident,
dent, accident, may prove life preservers. Since
the cork has a tendency to bunch it is
well to box the cushions and button at
intervals of a few inches. Made of tan
colored duck they look very well. The
cork is very cheap. Almost any fruit
man will give it away. E. D. G.
If one hasnt a monkey-wrench or a
pair of plyers handy, a straight-edge nut nutcracker
cracker nutcracker is just as good, and in most
cases better, because it is easily adjust adjusted
ed adjusted and the notches keep it from slipping.
R. D.
To launder embroidered linen make a
suds with a fine soap and warm water.
Do not soak, rub or wring the piece,
but squeeze the suds through it until it
is clean. Rinse in clear water and dry
between towels. It is well not to expose
embroidery to the air while it is wet, and
it should never be dried in the sun; nor
should it be folded or rolled while it
is damp. Before it is entirely dry iron
it on a thick piece of flannel on the soft
padded board. Lay the embroideried
side down, cover it with a dry cloth,
over that place a wet cloth, and press
with a moderately hot iron. Instead
of folding it, roll it on a large round
wooden stick.Mrs. J. M.



TRIED RECIPES.
Fried Tomatoes. Cut the tomatoes in
slices; flour them and put in the hot
frying pan, which has part butter and
lard in it. Let them brown, when turn
on the other side to brown. Lift them
out on a hot platter and set in the oven,
while you add some seasoning to the
gravy in the pan. When this is quite
thick and boiling hot, pour it over the
tomatoes. Serve very hot.
Squash.Young, tender, summer
squash is delicious fried. Cut into
small pieces, roll it in flour that has
been seasoned with salt and pepper and
fry slowly in drippings of butter.
Stuffed Egg Plant. Cut two small egg
plants in two, lengthwise. With a sharp
knife cut out the pulp, leaving about
one-quarter of an inch on the peel. Cut
the pulp into small dice and put them
on the fire in a cupful of boiling milk;
season with salt and pepper and a little
minced parsley. When soft, add a cup cupful
ful cupful of fine white breadcrumbs; mix and
cook a little, and then divide it equally
in the eggplant shells. Range them on
a baking tin and bake twenty minutes
in a moderate oven.
Asparagus With Cheese.Wash the
asparagus thoroughly and cook it until
tender in slightly salted boiling water.
When done, drain off the water and save
it. Arrange nicely toasted rounds of
bread on a heated dish, moisten them
slightly with the asparagus water, untie
the asparagus bundles and place the
stalks neatly over the slices of toast;
dust with seasoning, sprinkle rather
thickly with grated cheese, and break a
fresh egg carefully on each round of the
toast. Set in a hot oven until the whites
of the eggs are cooked, then serve at
once.
Salad Dressing.One cupful of but butter,
ter, butter, one-half teaspoonful flour; cream to together
gether together perfectly, then stir in two-thirds
cup of vinegar, which has been heated
to a boiling point. When this has
thickened pour it slowly into the well
beaten yolks of six eggs, stirring con constantly.
stantly. constantly. Cook again very slowly, taking
care that it does not adhere to the ves vessel
sel vessel or become lumpy. When about as
thick as very thick custard pour up im immediately.
mediately. immediately. Then add one teaspoonful
sugar, one teaspoonful mustard, dissolv dissolved
ed dissolved in a little water and a dash of white
pepper. This is much improved by whip whipping
ping whipping sweet cream into it when ready to
use.
Summer Mince Pie.lnto your mix mixing
ing mixing dish put one cupful of rolled crack crackers,
ers, crackers, one cupful of sugar, one cupful of
molases, one cupful of water and one
cupful of vinegar (if very sour put less).
Mix these very thoroughly, then add
three tablespoonfuls of butter, one tea teaspoonful
spoonful teaspoonful of cinnamon, the same amount
of nutmeg and salt each, and one cupful
of seeded and chopped raisins. Two
well-beaten eggs mixed through it all.
This will make three pies. Bake in two
crusts.
Banana Pie. Free enough bananas
from skin and coarse threads to fill a cup
when the pulp is pressed through a sieve
or ricer. To the pulp add a beaten egg,
one-half cupful of sugar, one cracker
powdered fine, one-half teaspoonful of

FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST

salt, one-third of a teaspoonful of cinna cinnamon,
mon, cinnamon, two tablespoonfuls of molasses, one onethird
third onethird of a cupful of cream and one-half
cupful of milk; mix thoroughly, and
bake until firm in a pie-pan lined with
pastry as for squash pie.
Cream Pie.Beat together one egg
and two-thirds of a cupful of sugar. Add
one and one-half cupfuls of cream and
one tablespoonful of corn-starch. Line
the pie tin with puff paste, fill, and grate
nutmeg on top. Bake in a slow oven.
Peach Shortcake.lnto two cupfuls of
flour sift four level teaspoonfuls of bak baking-powder
ing-powder baking-powder and one salt-spoonful of salt.
Mix into it two tablespoonfuls of butter
and one of sugar. Add sufficient sweet
milk to make into a smooth dough, roll
out in two layers, butter, and bake in one
pan. When done, remove, and butter
well the under crust. Spread with
peaches that have been pared and cut
into small pieces. Sprinkle generously
with sugar and place on the upper crust
Cover it with peaches, and cover the
whole top with whipped cream sweet sweetened
ened sweetened and flavored with orange.
Never-Fail Sponge Cake.Separate
the whites and yolks of four eggs; place
one of the whites in the mixing bowl and
beat this until stiff, then add the four
yolks. Beat until foamy and light, and
gradually add one and three-quarter cup cupfuls
fuls cupfuls of sugar, stirring until light. Next
add one cupful of boiling water and
continue beating until smooth. Add two
and a half cupfuls of flour, to which
has been added four teaspoonfuls of
baking-powder carefully mixed; one tea teaspoonful
spoonful teaspoonful of vanilla, ajid lastly gently
fold in the three beaten whites of the
eggs. Bake in a very slow oven from
forty-five minutes to one hour.
Cocoa Cake.Beat two cupfuls of
granulated sugar and half a cupful of
butter till they become a cream, then
add two well-beaten eggs and one cup cupful
ful cupful of milk. Mix two heaping teaspoon teaspoonfuls
fuls teaspoonfuls of cocoa powder with two heaping
cupfuls of flour, together with two tea teaspoonfuls
spoonfuls teaspoonfuls of baking-powder. Sift these
well together, then mix into a paste with
the other ingredients. Beat all thorough thoroughly
ly thoroughly with a fork and bake fifteen minutes
in a moderate oven.
Boiled Custard. One quart of fresh
milk, yelks of four eggs, five table tablespoons
spoons tablespoons white sugar, a pinch of salt, two

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I other name. I the new home sewing machine co., Oruge, Mas*. m

teaspoons corn starch; let the milk with
salt, come to a boil, reserving a little to
stir into the starch; beat eggs and sugar
very light, mix with starch, pour boil boiling
ing boiling milk slowly over the whole; boil up
for two or three minutes stirring con constantly,
stantly, constantly, when nearly cold, flavor.
HOUSEHOLD NOTES.
A little soap applied with the point of
a lead pencil, will remedy a squeaking
hinge.
A clothspin will save time and the fin fingers
gers fingers if used to screw a small hook into
hard wood.
Before cleaning a mans clothes with
gasoline, see that there are no matches
in the pockets.
All stains should be removed from
clothing and household linen before put putting
ting putting in the wash.
All linen articles, such as bed linen,
table linen and towels, as well as linen
worn on the body, should be boiled.
If the bottom of a bureau be covered
with a sheet of tin or zinc it will be pro protected
tected protected from the intrusion of mice.
Faded silk can be restored to its natu natural
ral natural color by immersing it in soapsuds to
which a little pearl ash has been added.
Always leave a small opening in the
center of the upper crust on a fruit pie
to allow the steam to escape while bak baking.
ing. baking.
Lamp chimneys can be quickly cleaned
by holding for a minute in the steam
from a boiling kettle and then wiped dry
and polished.
Butter will remove almost any kind of
stain if rubbed well into it and then
washed out immediately with hot water
and pure soap.
A tablespoonful of soda added to a
quart of water and boiled in the coffee
pot for an hour will thoroughly cleanse
the pot. Rinse well.
Dont save old trash, thinking that it
may be used some day. The time and
patience consumed in handling it can
not be compensated for by it.
Olive oil is injured by being kept in
the light. When used at the table it
should be put in a dark colored bottle
and removed to a cool dark place im immediately
mediately immediately after the meal.
One of the principal causes of butter
becoming rancid is the buttermilk con contained
tained contained in it. If butter be churned until
compact, no amount of washing will rid
it of all the buttermilk.

19



20

DAIRYING IN FLORIDA
AND THE SOUTH.
Previous to 1905 cows kept for milk
were not included in the statistics pub published
lished published by the Florida Department of Ag Agriculture.
riculture. Agriculture. In that year there appeared
a table under date of July Ist, showing
that in all but nine counties the number
was 35,380, valued at $606,912; average
value, sl7. One county, however, Tay Taylor,
lor, Taylor, having only 8 milch cows, returned
their value at SSBO, or $72.50 each. Two
counties reported over 1,000, as follows:
Columbia, 1,702; Gadsden, 1,263; Ham Hamilton,
ilton, Hamilton, 1,723; Hillsborough, 1,263; Jeff Jefferson,
erson, Jefferson, 1,904; Leon, 3,606; Levy, 2,629;
Marion, 3,892; Suwannee, 2,051, and Vo Volusia,
lusia, Volusia, 4447. The counties not reporting
were Bradford, Brevard, Citrus, Jack Jackson,
son, Jackson, Lee, Manatee and Monroe.
By 1910 the number had increased to
44,140, having a value of $1,066,308, or
a little over S2O per head. Nine coun counties
ties counties made no report. These were Cit Citrus,
rus, Citrus, Gadsden, Lee, Manatee, Monroe,
Nassau, Osceola, Pasco and Putnam.
Suwannee headed the list with 4,190
head, valued at $69,006. Those having
over 1,000 on July Ist were as follows:
Alachua, 1,352; Bradford, 2,729; Duval,
1,667; Escambia, 1,326; Hamilton, 3,442;
Hillsborough, 3,459; Holmes, 3,210;
Jackson, 3,734; Jefferson, 1,428; Leon,
3,585; Levy, 1,606; Madison, 1,727; Or Orange,
ange, Orange, 1,385; St. Johns, 1410, and Wash Washington,
ington, Washington, 1401. The lowest on the list
was Wakulla, with 20 valued at $471;
Liberty 24, worth $954; Calhoun 26 of
a value of $505. Palm Beach cows rang ranged
ed ranged highest as to value, SBS being the
average. Suwannees cows ranged low lowest,
est, lowest, $16.45.
The live stock returns for this year
were more thorough than ever before, as
cows were divided into stock cattle and
thoroughbreds, including three-quarter
grades and up, all ages. We give the
totals for 1910 as in the state, July Ist,
as follows:
Kind Number. Value.
Native Breeds, stock
cattle 630,992 $5,793,859
Herefords and grades. 534 13,938
Short Horns and grades 798 34,262
Devons and grades 138 5,258
Aberdenes and grades. 75 2,439
Polled and grades
Jersey and grades 11,586 378,263
Average value of Jerseys, $32.65 per
head. The number proving beyond ques question
tion question that this valuable milch cow will
thrive in Florida, notwithstanding all
reports to the contrary.
The table giving the milk statistics is
interesting. It shows that cow juice
given up by the cows, sold and used,
amounted to 6,988,359 gallons, valued at
$2,474,440. Eleven counties made no re report.
port. report. .Holmes reported the highest num number,
ber, number, 131,605, value, $241,979, or about 22
cents per gallon. The next highest was
Duval, with 1,092,536, valued at $441,-
845, about 45 cents per gallon. The
average price for the state at large was
35 cents per gallon.
While other breeeds may be well
adapted to certain sections of the state,

TIMELY TOPICS

BY W. E. PABOR

FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST

the Jersey seems to be at home in
every part of it. The Jersey has come
to stay.
To the value of the milk sold and used
in 1910 is to be added that obtained for
butter, of which 903,872 pounds were
made, valued at $216,950, or about 24
cents per pound. All but ten counties
made a report. Marion stood first, with
196,490 pounds; Leon second, 120,086.
Those making over 10,000 pounds were,
Citrus, 16,430; Columbia, 22,895; Es Escambia,
cambia, Escambia, 35,350; Gadsden, 20,010; Ham Hamilton,
ilton, Hamilton, 32,329; Hernando, 14,610; Hills Hillsborough,
borough, Hillsborough, 16,660; Jefferson, 84,029; Lake,
37>754 ; Orange, 29,360; Osceola, 11,630;
Pasco, 22,311; Santa Rosa, 17,680; Sum Sumter,
ter, Sumter, 18,655; Suwanee, 30,540, and Wal Walton,
ton, Walton, 28,230 pounds. The county send sending
ing sending in the smallest amount was Calhoun,
52 pounds worth sl3. The counties
making no report were, Brevard, Brad Bradford,
ford, Bradford, Dade, Jackson, Lee, Manatee, Mon Monroe,
roe, Monroe, Putnam. St. Lucie, and Volusia.
Jefferson county reported 800 pounds
cheese, selling for $l6O.
DAIRYING IN THE SOUTH.
Farmers Bulletin No. 349, a pamph pamphlet
let pamphlet of 36 pages, is devoted to the Dairy
Industry of the South, and describes the
systematic field work in the Southern
States, for the development of this in industry.
dustry. industry. This has been done in co-oper co-operation
ation co-operation with the State Experiment Sta Stations,
tions, Stations, Agricultural Colleges and Depart Departments
ments Departments of Agriculture, largely through
personal efforts among the dairy men,
with a view to teaching them better
methods.
It is said that 23,425,000 pounds of
creamery butter annually is brought into
the South from Northern and Western
states. Of this vast amount Florida
handled in the fiscal year of 1905-6, at
points named, the following:
Jacksonville, 1,500,000 pounds of
creamery and 200,000 of renovated but butter;
ter; butter; Pensacola, 440,300 pounds creamery
and 28,541 of renovated; Tampa, 742,070
creamery and 91,000 of renovated but butter.
ter. butter. Of oleomargarine, at these three
points, about 200,000 pounds were dis distributed
tributed distributed through the state.
In the line of cheese, Jacksonville dis distributed
tributed distributed during the same year, 1,675,680
pounds, Pensacola 297,120,; Tallahassee,
41,760; Tampa, 400,830 pounds.
The immense number of cans of con condensed
densed condensed milk is surprising. Jacksonville
alone distributed 2,803,200 pounds (or
large cans) ; Tampa, 2,683,680; Pensa Pensacola,
cola, Pensacola, 610,860.
The latest statistics in the bulletin
credit the state with 1,386,445 pounds of
butter made on farms and none what whatever
ever whatever in creameries. We stand at the
bottom of the list of Southern states,
some of which have made from twenty
to fifty million pounds of farm and
creamery butter.
In the South the consumption of fresh
cream is small, due rather to its scarcity
than lack of demand. All the large cit cities
ies cities of Florida, say the bulletin, with the
exception of Tallahassee, get the larger
part of their cream from Georgia and

Tennessee. Unsweetened condensed milk
is largely used in Jacksonville and St
Augustine.
That dairying is not more extensively
engaged in, is because it is unprofitable.
At least, so states the bulletin, and it
states it as follows:
Dairying is undeveloped in the South Southern
ern Southern states largely because the farmers
of that section do not understand how
to make it profitable. They realize the
necessity of more fertilizer for their
farms, and they are buying large quan quantities
tities quantities of it at high prices. They realize
too, that barnyard manure is superior
to commercial fertilizer, but they do not
understand how to keep the cattle to
make the manure without sustaining a
loss on the cattle.
This is principally due to three things:
(i) The cattle now kept are, as a rule,
inferior and could not be kept profitably
und£r atny circumstances; (2) many
dairymen buy practically all their feed
instead of growing it, especially those
who live near the city and can get a
good price for their products; and (3)
the dairyman who lives some distance
from the city and sells butter as a rule
makes an inferior product. Avery large
per cent of the dairies in the Southern
states are suffering from at least two
of these difficulties and in many cases
from all three.
A good cow should yield 6,000 pounds
of milk, producing about 300 pounds of
butter; but the average cow, according
to the last census, produces annually
only 3,036 pounds of milk or about 170
of butter.
If any of our readers are curious to
know about renovated butter, it is
country butter produced on small farms
where only two or three cows are kept;
this is sold to the country merchant who
sends the surplus (unsold) stock packed
in barrels to the nearest renovating fac factory,
tory, factory, at a figure barely paying the mer merchant
chant merchant even the low price he offers (in
trade always) to the producer. This
is generally one-half less than good
creamery butter is retailed at.
The final summing up of results of in investigations
vestigations investigations made is given below as be being
ing being sufficiently interesting to be quoted
in full:
Summary.
Some of the improvements which the
situation demands have been suggested
in the foregoing pages, and these are
briefly reviewed in the following sum summary:
mary: summary:
1. There is no branch of agriculture
that is more needed in the South than
dairying. It is not only a profitable in industry
dustry industry in itself, but it may be made the
means of increasing the productiveness
of the soil and promoting a better type
of agriculture.
2. It is found that southern dairymen,
as a rule, are not using the most eco economic
nomic economic methods in the following par particulars:
ticulars: particulars: (a) The production of the av average
erage average cow is only about half what it
should be. (b) Too many of the dairies
are in the cities, when they should be
on the farms; hence too high-priced feed
and bad methods of feeding, (c) Milk
and butter of poor quality are produced
which do not bring the highest prices.
3. It is strikingly true that in most
cases where an inferior dairy herd has
(Continued on page 26.)



POULTRY DEPARTMENT

SUMMER CARE OF CHICKENS.
BY C. FRED WARD.
The hot weather has come and the
poultry man who has finished all his
hatching is fortunate, for the winter and
early spring chickens grow faster and
do much better in every way than those
hatched after the hot days have begun.
However, we have had a cold winter
and so many poultry raisers will be late
with their hatches, for unless especial
care has been taken, the hens havent
laid as well through the cold days or
the brooder chicks have not all survived,
for sudden changes in temperature make
amateur work with the brooders very
difficult.
If more chickens must be hatched,
great care will be necessary in manag managing
ing managing the incubator. Do not let the heat
run up. It will be necessary during
many days to put the lamps out entirely
through the noon hours. If the eggs be become
come become overheated the chicks will be weak
and grow slowly and not be very profit profitable.
able. profitable.
Have the brooder placed so that part
of the runway is in the shade, so the
little chickens can find a cool scratch scratching
ing scratching place. But we like the brooder
placed where the sun will strike it for a
few hours at least, during the day. The
sunshine is the best disinfectant, and the
brooder opened up, cleaned and well
sunned daily, makes a sweet, clean
healthful home for the baby chicks, but
a damp, dirty, foul-smelling brooder is
indeed a death trap.
Both brooders and incubators need to
have their lamps kept perfectly clean,
filled and well-trimmed, this seems a
little matter and one that anyone would
be particular about, but we have seen
such gross carelessness in the care of
lamps by persons who in other particu particulars
lars particulars do their work well, that we think
attention should be called to this, as an
important particular. Keep all soot from
the chimneys and the little holes in the
burners of the lamps cleaned and open.
Boiling the burners in water, with a
little vinegar added once in a while, will
help keep them bright and clean.
While the little chicks must be kept
warm enough during the cool nights
and rainy days, they will need but little
heat most of the time, as it is more a
question of keeping them cool than
warm just now.
If they are in the hot sun much, or
become overheated they will be very
slow in growing and many will be
"runts.
Corn is a heat-producing food, so it
should be fed to all the stock sparingly
in the summer.
The young stock will need plenty of
feed these days to keep them growing
and it will seem perhaps as if it could
not be profitable to feed them so much.
But just stop a minute and figure it out:
First, the cost of the eggs and incubat incubators,
ors, incubators, plus feed until grown, and then the
price you will receive for the full grown
chickens, or her value as a layer,. and
you wil find, if you are feeding wisely,
and if you have a good market, that

FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST

there is a good margin of profit on each
fowl.
But it is wise to cull closely, unless
your market is good only for grown
chickens, for as a rule young chickens
bring the best price per pound, when
from six to eight weeks old, and at this
age all off colored or poorly shaped
birds can be disposed of as broilers.
Keep the nest boxes out of the sun.
For the comfort of the layers and for
the keeping qualities of the eggs, this
is essential in hot weather.
We have known setting hens of the
heavy breeds to die of sunstroke when
allowed to remain on a nest in the hot
sun several hours The Mediterranean
and American breeds stand the heat bet better
ter better and we have never known birds of
these breeds to die from the heat,
though we had a Rhode Island Red
rooster become seriously affected by the
heat. He was crated for shipment and
the express agent placed him on the sta station
tion station platform in the sun all the after afternoon.
noon. afternoon. On reaching his destination he
acted in a very queer manner, throwing
his head about. He finally recovered,
however.
If the older stock, as well as the chick chickens
ens chickens are to come through the summer in
a vigorous, healthy condition, they must
have shade and cool drinking water, and
be kept free from vermin of any kind.
They must have clean, well-ventilated
houses, and not be crowded on the
roosts.
Do not let the chickens have water watermelon
melon watermelon rinds, or other sticky food that
will soil their combs and make good
lodging places for germs.
Watch carefully for any signs of sore sorehead
head sorehead in the flock; remove any suspicious
bird at once; have a detention yard at
a distance from the other yards, and
place infected birds in it and put some
good disinfectant on the comb and wat wattles,
tles, wattles, (various things are recommended),
and repeat in a day or two If taken
in time the bird will almost always re recover
cover recover in a short time. To make assur assurance
ance assurance doubly sure that the rest of the
flock will not develop the frouble, they
can have their heads washed or rubbed
with disinfectant and they will net be
likely to have it.
We have had birds shipped to us,
develop the trouble in a week after
shipment, and have had complaints, oc occasionally
casionally occasionally of birds we have shipped, the
trouble showing itself in several days
after arrival. We had no sore head
in our yards and those shipping to us
wrote that they had had none, so the
birds must have contracted the trouble
en route. It would seem wise, then,
to put some disinfectant salve on the
chickens head just before shipment,
in hot weather.
It is very difficult to detect sorehead
in very small chickens, but it is very
fatal with them. So if a brood of baby
chicks act dumpish and die off from
no apparent cause, isolate them and dis disinfect
infect disinfect the quarters in which they have
been kept and the ground on which they
have been running, choose anew place
for the next brood of chickens, at a dis distance
tance distance from where the others were kept,
and do not let any of the others come

near them. If the first brood is suffer suffering
ing suffering from sorehead it is not likely that
any of them will escape.
This is the only disease that seems to
go through the flock here in Florida,
and it is not usually very fatal. In our
first years in the state, before we knew
how to guard against and prevent it, we
had several hundred grown chickens all
afflicted with it about the same time,
but out of that number not over ten
or a dozen died. But how nuch work
it made. And for a couple of months
completely put a stop to all business. So
we learned to watch closely and act*
promptly, if there was the least sus suspicion
picion suspicion of sorehead abou% and never
again suffer from an epidemic of the
trouble.
The chigger we spoke of last month
is a pest to be guarded against in dry,
warm weather.
Keep watch, too, of the barrels in
which the droppings from the houses are
stored. Mites and jiggers are apt to
breed about these barrels if they are
given a chance to do so. It is safest to
mix this fertilizer at once with land
plaster, etc., and spread on the ground,
but if it must be kept for later use, do
not let the barrels stand on the land
in a dry, warm place.
While we do not have the intense
heat here that is felt in many Northern
towns in summer, still our long-contin long-continued
ued long-continued warm weather will prove enervating
if we are not careful of the little things
that make for comfort and keep our
chickens in good health and in well
shaded, cool quarters and at all times
supplied with plenty of cool water.
BUY STANDARD BRED STOCK.
The high price of eggs and poultry
during the past winter will undoubted-*
ly be the cause of many embarking in
the poultry business, and a few sug suggestions
gestions suggestions along these lines may be of
some help to our readers. Do not buy
scrub chickens, or let any one try to
convince you that they are as good as
thoroughbred stock, for they are not.
Choose the. breed that is best suited
to the conditions under which you are
going to keep themthat is, dont
choose Leghorns if the conditions are
more favorable to the heavier breeds,
or vice versa, If you expect to obtain
the best results. Having decided on
your breed, choose the variety whose
color pleases you the most, and write
to a fancier who advertises that va variety.
riety. variety. Give him an idea of what you
want. Dont expect a 200-egg female
or a show bird for a dollar, for they
cant be had. However, it is not
necessary to pay fancy prices for just
good breeders or layers.
So far as egg production is concerned;
there is less difference in the several
breeds than there is in the different
strains of one breed or varietythat is,
a good laying strain of Brahmas or
Cochins will come nearer to equaling a
good laying strain of Leghorns or Rocks
than a poor laying strain of those breeds.
In other words, there are good laying
strains of all breeds.
Poor care will make indifferent lay layers
ers layers of the best strains, and the best of
care will not produce eggs in any quan quantity
tity quantity from poor layers. Give a good lay laying
ing laying strain proper care and there is
no reason why they should not produce
eggs nearly every day in the year, aside

21



22

from the moulting season.. Probably the
most common cause for poor egg yields
are: Stock not bred right, weak and
sickly, poorly housed, over crowding,
lack of feed to produce eggs, lack of
exercise, water, and management in see seeing
ing seeing things. Chicks from bred-to-lay
stock quickly grown and properly housed,
fed a variety of good grains, including
green feed, grit and shells, charcoal, and
perhaps occasionally a mash, kept busy
all day scratching, with plenty of fresh
water always at hand, comfortable quar quarters
ters quarters to sleep in at night, with a full crop,
will pay a profit of from $i to $5 a
year.
It is just as necessary to have some
knowledge of the business as it is to
run a dairy or store. Good poultry
literature will help a great deal. It is
not necessary to have the Philo system
or any other system to make poultry lay.
Just a little common sense, the habit of
observing things (for instance, an empty
water dish), close attention to details,
and poultry will pay a larger profit for
the amount invested than any other line
of business. Pensacola Journal.
CHICKENS, LICE AND EGGS.
The season of little chicks is here and
the hen with a brood will be found at
more Southern homes than will any oth other
er other kind of productive livestock. Ene Enemies
mies Enemies of the air, of the forest, of the
ground, some even of the water, will
be found endeavoring to rob her of her
family, but it is probable that the un unseen
seen unseen germ and the neglected louse and
mite will kill far more chicks than will
succumb to the ravages of all their more
spectacular enemies.
Practically all chicks raised by hens
have lice, and there is no denying that
they often get along very well with no
help whatever from their owners, but
it is those who give little or no care,
and who simply say that they did not
have good luck this year, or that the
chicks just didnt seem to do well. I
believe that chicks which Are worth
raising at all are worthy of some help
in the struggle against lice. The dust
bath is the hens natural weapon, and
if she is provided with a dust bath,
which is really made of dust, and not
simply the sawdust and chips of the
wood pile, she will seldom need person personal
al personal attention during warm weather, but
her house may at the same time become
so infested with red mites that she will
be reduced to a skeleton by their nightly
attacks. No amount of dusting will
prove effectual against red mites. They
must be combatted by the intelligence of
man. Combinations of coal oil and car carbolic
bolic carbolic acid are among the most effectual
for this purpose, although turpentine is
good as are also creosote and various
sheep dip solutions.
For lice on little chicks lard is the
standard old fashioned remedy, and
there is no doubt that the louse which
is thoroughly greased is likely to im immediately
mediately immediately cease from troubling, but the
chick which is profusely smeared with
lard is left with troubles almost as bad
as those from which the grease has re relieved
lieved relieved him. A coat of down or short
feathers plastered with grease is a cold
covering for a little chick even on a
summer morning, and if nature prompts
him to go to the dust bath while in this
condition he will be coated with oint ointwent
went ointwent which is removed with great dif-

FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST

ficulty. If I must use grease I very
much prefer the oil or grease which is
secured in cooking a big, fat, Barred
Plymouth Rock hen. This is a very
soft and penetrating oil which does not
remain so long upon the feathers to ac accumulate
cumulate accumulate dirt.
Good persian insect powder is very
effectual, but must be rather frequently
aplied and much that is sold is not of
good quality. To do good work it is
necessary to blow the dust thoroughly
through the feathers and leave it there.
I think it does comparatively little good
to dust the chicks just before they start
out for a days run with the hen.
A cheap lice powder which is being
recommended by various experiment sta stations
tions stations is made as follows: Mix three
parts of gasoline with one part of crude
carbolic acid (90 or 95 per cent strength)
and adding gradually, while stirring,
enough plaster of Paris to make a dry,
pinkish-brown powder having a fairly
strong carbolic odor when the liquid is
entirely taken up and thoroughly dis distributed
tributed distributed through the mass. Asa gen general
eral general rule, it is found to take about four
quarts of the plaster of Paris to one
quart of the liquid. This is cheap enough
so that no one need hesitate to use all
that is needed to thoroughly work it
through the feathers of the fluff and
body and well down into the skin.
There must be a lot of chicks already
out, if I may judge by the usual demand
for eggs for hatching. Never have so
many people wanted such large numbers
of our Barred Plymouth Rock eggs so
early in the season, while on the other
hand, the demand for cockerels dropped
off early in March, almost a month
earlier than last year. As usual we will
try to hatch most of our chicks in May,
with a few preliminary broods in April
and a goodly number in June, when we
find that they take care of themselves
with less help than any other month.
We have had May cockerels weigh ten
pounds at or before ten months old, and
June birds to weigh eight pounds when
only a few days over six months. It
is largely a question of being free from
the trampling and interferance of older
chicks and having a supply of tender
green food through the heat of summer.
W. A. Sherman, in Southern Planter.
IMPROVE QUALITY OF EGGS.
Improvement in the quality of eggs
will benefit the producer more than any
other one thing. The poor quality of
eggs now on the market discourages
their use as food. Because of the readi readiness
ness readiness with which eggs spoil, the term
fresh has become synonymous with the
idea of desirability in eggs. However,
the age of the egg is only one of the
factors which affect the quality An egg
forty-eight hours old that had lain in
a hay stack all night when the weather
was warm and rainy would probably be
swarming with bacteria while another
egg kept for eight months in first class
cold storage would be perfectly whole wholesome.
some. wholesome. From external appearances eggs
can be selected for size, color, cleanli cleanliness
ness cleanliness and freedrom from cracks. This
is the common method of grading in the
spring when eggs are of uniformly good
quality. Later in the season the tester
is used.
Hold the egg to the light, large end up
and give it a quick turn in order to
view all sides at once and to cause the

contents to whirl within the shell. Ex Except
cept Except for variation in size all fresh eggs
are practically equal. When hens eat
an unusual quantity of green food the
yolks show a deep yellow and in extreme
cases a greenish brown and appear dark
to the light. Such eggs are called grass
eggs and are perfectly wholesome. An
opinion exists among egg men that the
white of the spring egg is of better
quality and will stand up better than that
of the summer egg. This is true of com commercial
mercial commercial eggs but the difference is chief chiefly
ly chiefly due to external factors that act on
the egg after it is laid. The flavor or
odor of the egg may be notably influenc influenced
ed influenced by feeding hens heavily on garlic or
onion tops. The shell of the egg varies
in shape, color, and firmness. The vari variations
ations variations are more a matter of breed and
individuality of the hen than a matter
of feed. For weak-shelled eggs nothing
can be advised more than to feed a
balanced ration and see that the hen
is supplied with plenty of egg making
material. Boston and surrounding
towns want brown eggs while New York
and San Francisco demand white eggs.
These trade fancies result from the fact
that there are large henneries in these
localities producing the favored color.
Only the select trade in the cities men mentioned
tioned mentioned considers the color in buying. The
size of eggs is chiefly controlled by the
breed or selection of layers of large eggs,
In a number of tests made at experiment
stations slight differences in the size of
eggs have been noted with varying ra rations
tions rations and environment, but this cannot
be attributed to anything more specific
than the general development and vigor
of the fowls. Pullets at the beginning
of the laying period lay an egg decided decidedly
ly decidedly smaller than those produced later in
life. It is commonly said that eggs laid
by hens without males will not spoil.
D. D. Slade.
THE PRACTICAL SIDE OF IT.
If an egg is worth a cent and a half
or two cents to the producer, and a
young chicken for market is worth twen twenty-five
ty-five twenty-five to thirty-five cents, and it may be
grown to a marketable age for fifteen
cents, then is it worth while to consider
the conversion of eggs into market
chickens. Aside from food and care, just
three things are essential to this purpose:
The eggs, an incubator and a brooder.
Now, we re-affirm that the incubator
and the brooder are necessary in order
to make a logical situation, for without
them there could be no surety, no con concerted
certed concerted or definite action, and no approx approximate
imate approximate estimate of the extent of the busi business
ness business or the income from it. In fact, for
a good sized business one should have
two or three incubators, and twice as
many brooders. The latter should be of
the fireless variety, the kind it costs no nothing
thing nothing to run, and which carries no dan danger
ger danger or possibility of fire with it. Most
any make of incubator will give a satis satisfactory
factory satisfactory degree of success if properly
managed. And, the fireless brooder is a
dead sure thingthe way to success in
raising little chickens when properly
managed.
Its nothing much in the way of scien scientific
tific scientific principles. Simply that it affords the
means for young chickens to keep warm,
especially at night, by the natural heat
of their bodies when they are gathered
in a bunch. Its just a box-like concern,
with cut straw or grass in the bottom,



and a wooden top padded underneath
so as to form a sort of a soft cushion
for the chicks to snuggle under; and
there they are boxed in all around
with soft warm stuff beneath them, solid
walls about them, and a cushion over
them, so that they can just stretch out
in comfort in the warmth they generate
themeslves. This for the night, and they
soon learn to run back into the little
warm hover during the day when it gets
too cold for them out in the open part
of the brooder. They do well in such a
situation too, and soon get large enough
to eat. Then they may be marketed, and
a second, a third and a fourth hatching
from the incubators may follow after
them in the same brooders.
This is the practical and the most bus business-like
iness-like business-like system by which to make
money in growing chickens for the early
spring marketSouthern Cultivator.
A soap box or a nail keg may make a
comfortable nest for a hen, but such
equipment is unsightly and the assurance
that such nests are free from vermin is
uncertain. Have the nests all one size
and in sections of four or five and not
fastened so as to be difficult to dump
and thoroughly clean. As soon as the
old straw is thrown out of the nests it
should be burned.
LEG WEAKNESS.
Growing chicks sometimes show un unsteady
steady unsteady gait and may become so lame
or weak in the legs as to fail to walk
or support the body. Injuries to the
limbs or rheumatism may account for
the difficulty in some cases. Brooder
chicks may show this sometimes be because
cause because of the warm wooden floors, or
unbalanced rations containing excess
of carbonaceous (starchy) nutrients
causing overgrowth of the body, or
lack of mineral matter, retarding the
development of the bones or lack of
protein nutrients limiting the growth
of the muscles of locomotion. Excess Excessive
ive Excessive dryness of the brooder floor and
litter especially if combined with too
much heat appears in some cases to
cause the legs and feet to become
shrunken and crippled. Careful atten attention
tion attention to the instructions in January and
February issues of Southern Farmer
will prevent these conditions and conse consequences.
quences. consequences. If rheumatism is present there
is usually a jerky motion in walking,
evidence of pain and later refusal to
stand or move about. The joints may
show soft swellings which gradually
harden and may ulcerate. Rheumatism
is more common in old fowls than in
young fowls. It is due usually to ex exposure
posure exposure to chilly, damp surroundings es especially
pecially especially if the blood is weak because of
an unvarying and unbalanced ration or
the lack of green food. If not too ser seriously
iously seriously affected give a dose of Epsom
salts twenty grains in a tablespoonful of
water and the next day add bicarbonate
of soda to the drinking water thirty
grains to the quart. Give twice daily
two grains of salicylic acid. Rub the
swollen joints frequently and fully with
carboated vaseline or camphorated sweet
oil.
SOILED EGGS.
Do not send to market a single egg
that is the least soiled. Customers abhor

FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST

eggs that have dirt and manure on them,
and the farmer who carries such eggs
to the stores should be made to take
them home again. He deserves to lose
his customers. It cannot always be
avoided that is the farmer or egg-raiser
cannot be sure that the hens will not
soil the eggs, but usually it comes from
dirty nests. A hen will not get the egg
dirty if she can help it, but to be com compelled
pelled compelled to deposit it in a filthy nest is not
her fault. On the other hand, if eggs
do become soiled through no fault of the
farmer, or through neglect of the nests
even (although this in inexcusable),
there is nothing to hinder them from
being cleaned off before they are carried
to market. Soiled eggs, even by acci accident,
dent, accident, are not to be overlooked or ex excused,
cused, excused, for water is plentiful and but a
moment or two will clean off a dozen
or more. A clean appearance in eggs
is as essential as with any other pro product
duct product of the poultry business. If a farm farmer
er farmer takes soiled eggs to the stores, it is
a sure indication that he is lacking in
some line of his work, and such care carelessness
lessness carelessness denotes that he will in time
come to grief in his poultry experience.
DUSTING.
To dust a fowl thoroughly hold it by
the legs, head downward in an empty
flour barrel or narrow box. This causes
the feathers to separate and open out so
as to receive the lice powder, which may
be dusted in among them from a
dredging box or tin can having one end
perforated with small holes. A home
made dredger is readily made by taking
a tin can and punching the top or bottom
full of nail holes. The dust should be
sifted in or worked in clear to the skin,
especially on the rear parts where the
fowl is covered with fluffy feathers, and
also the neck and head. Stroking the
feathers will help to get the dust all
through them down to the skin. Let no
guity louse escape.
WATCH FOR INSECTS.
Now is the time when the hens nests
need watching. It is a good plan to have
die nests in a small box and of uniform
size. At this time of the year nests soon
become filled with mites, and the nests
should be frequently taken out and
the old straw dumped and burn
ed. The nest should now be sprayed
and clean straw put in. Speaking of the
spray; a cheap and effective spray can
be made by boiling two gallons of water
and adding two bars of soap. Boil until
dissolved and add two gallons of coal
oil, one quart of crude carbolic acid,
mixing all thoroughly together and ad adding
ding adding 40 gallons of water.
WEED OUT WEAKLINGS.
Get rid of any delicate chicks of all
those under three weeks old. Those
which are decidedly smaller than the rest
of the brood and are not able to hold
their own in the hustle for food. They
are better out of the way, for they will
eventually get sick and then others are
likely to suffer from being with them.
Everything should be done to keep all
members of the flock in the same healthy
condition so that it is better *o sacrifice
those at once that you are almost sure
will not have vitaity enough to pull

through to full grown chickenhood.*
Southern Ruralist.
POULTRY NOTES.
No fowl is so hard to doctor as the
turkey.
Do not crowd your poultry quarters.
It does not pay.
Egg production can be increased by
breeding and selection.
The chance for profit in the produc production
tion production of turkeys is gradually improving
as the result of a more general use of
flesh.
The demand for fresh eggs is one that
is seldom met at any season of the year
and in any section of the country.
In hatching vigorous chickens one of
the first essentials is thorough ventila ventilation.
tion. ventilation. The little unhatched chick breath breathes
es breathes through the shell.
Remember that for the first two days
of the little chicks life it will need no
food. Feeding at this time often results
in digestive disorders.
You should always keep the feet of the
little chicks dry. Let them run around
on the ground when it is nice and dry,
but never when wet.
Stunted chicks, like stunted calves are
worth very little. It is difficult to make
up in the growth of a chick what may
have been lost in early life.
Be sure to. furnish the hens oyster
shells at all times. It is important that
this element be supplied. It will im improve
prove improve the egg yield and the health of
the flock.
One of the most difficult and trying
problems which the poultry keeper has
to meet is that of keeping his poultry
houses and stock reasonably free from
lice, mites, and other external parasites.
Clean, dry quarters, kept free from
lice and mites by spraying, and plenty of
pure water to drink at all times, are
prime requisites in rearing a brood of
chicks.
There is no other kind of live stock
that will return so large a profit to the
successful producer as will poultry, and
no kind of poultry is more profitable
than turkeys when properly handled.
Of the various shell making mater materials
ials materials which those who live inland can
easily procure, one of the best is old
mortar or plaster, but any of these things
should not, on any account, be mixed
with the food.
Lameness (bumble-foot) among
fowls is often caused by the roosts be being
ing being too high or the floor too hard, and
heavy fowls jumping thereon sustain
bruises which later become more seri serious.
ous. serious.
We are all familiar with the old say saying
ing saying that blood counts. This is as true
in chickendom as in the human family.
Its quality that counts. Keep pure purebred,
bred, purebred, vigorous, well developed hens;
feed them well, giving them the best
care you possibly can, and you will have
no kick coming as to the results.
Make yourself thoroughly familiar
with the instructions sent you by the
manufacturers of that incubator. Do
not try to run your incubator accord according
ing according to the insructions given you by the
makers fc>f another kind of machine
Especially should you remember to air
and cool vour incubator eggs every day.
There is less danger in letting them get
air and cool a little too long than not
long enough.

23



24

DIP OR SPRAY FOR CATTLE.
BY JOHN M. SCOTT.
Perhaps in no section of Florida are
the cattle free from animal parasites.
Every farmer, whether he owns one ani animal
mal animal or one hundred, ought to be inter interested
ested interested enough to protect his animals from
the injurious effects of these parasites.
We have been using at the Experiment
Station for the past year a dip which has
proved quite satisfactory. The formula
was prescribed by Dr. Nelson S. Mayo,
and is as follows:
White arsenic, two-fiths pound.
Sodium carbonate (crystals), one and
one-eighth pound.
Yellow soap, one and one-eighth pound.
Pine tar, one-half pint.
Dissolve the arsenic by boiling it for
half an hour in one gallon of water. Add
the dissolved arsenic to five gallons of
water. Shave the soap, mix it with the
soda, and dissolve the mixture in one
gallon of water. When dissolved pour
in the tar, pouring in slowly in a fine
stream, and stirring meanwhile so as
to get it in solution. Then mix it with
the arsenic solution, and add water to
make twenty-five gallons in all.
This is to be used as a dip, spray or
wash. It loses but little by age. The
solution not oly kills the ticks, but also
kills all other animal parasites with
which it comes in contact. It may be ap applied
plied applied eitheer with a brush or a sprayer,
or it may be put in a. dipping-tank
through which the animal is passed.
Injury by Ticks.
One of the worst parasites with which
we have to deal is the cattle tick, which
causes Texas, or splenic fever. The loss
among native stock from this disease
is quite heavy; but perhaps most of
the loss is caused not by the fever, but by
the heavy drain upon the animals system
from the large quantity of blood taken
by the ticks. One tick consumes only
a small quantity; but the continued feed feeding
ing feeding of several thousand ticks upon one
animal soon exhausts its constitution and
vitality. This is especially true of young
animals, such as calves from six weeks
to one year olda period when they
ought to be making their best develop development
ment development and growth. If at this time they
are feeding several thousand ticks, in instead
stead instead of growing and developing as
they should they will actually become
smaller. The young animal once stunt stunted
ed stunted in growth will never develop as it
would have done, if it had received
proper care and treatment from the first.
Besides suffering this loss of blood,
tick-infested, cattle suffer continuously
from irritation and injury of the skin.
The tick when attaching itself to the
animals body punctures the skin. The
puncture is soon surrounded by an
area of intense inflammation, which re results
sults results in the formation of readily visible
scabs.
Loss of Milk.
The injury to the live-stock owner by
the ticks is not confined to the loss of
blood, and the irritation of the skin
caused to his cattle. It has been esti estimated
mated estimated that the loss to the dairyman
caused by the cows being heavily in-

LIVE STOCK

FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST

fested with ticks is equal to one quart
of milk a day for each cow. This loss
amounts in a year to no less than 275
3OO quarts (70 to 75 gallons) of milk
for each cow. This means a yearly loss
of $20 $25.
Much the same is true of cows on
the range when nursing calves. The cow
has to feed the ticks. Hence, if the ticks
abstract the equivalent of one quart of
milk a day from dairy cattle, doubtless
they reduce in some similar proportion
the milk yield of the range cow, whose
calf must lose that amount, and the calf
likewise suffers a corresponding drain
from its own ticks. How then can we
expect our cattle in tick-infested sections
to develop as they ought to develop?
Eradication of Ticks.
Of course the best solution of the
problem is the eradication of the ticks,
and this could be accomplished if every
live-stock owner would co-operate with
other live-stock men. It would of course
follow that cattle from other tick-infest tick-infested
ed tick-infested states would not be allowed to be
shipped into Florida. It seems, how however,
ever, however, at present that Florida may be
the last state in the Union to thorough thoroughly
ly thoroughly eradicate this pest.
Spraying and Dipping.
Perhaps the next best method will be
for each farmer to keep the ticks under
control by constant spraying and dip dipping.
ping. dipping. There are a number of proprietary
dips upon the market which are very
good when properly applied; but the
greatest drawback to the proprietary
dips is their expense. Most of these
preparations cost from slsl.so a gal gallon,
lon, gallon, and one gallon makes about twenty
gallons of dip; so that the dip costs from
five to eight cents a gallon. This is con considerable
siderable considerable expense. There are, however,
several good dips (one of which is
given above), which the farmer himself
can prepare at a much less cost.
BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS.
Bovine tuberculosis is costing the
United States millions of dollars yearly,
not through the actual death of tuber tubercular
cular tubercular animals but by the tubercular ani animals
mals animals infecting the healthy ones, thereby
reducing their actual value.
If all the tubercular cattie in the
United States were slaughtered at once,
the balance of the cattle would be worth
more than the tubercular and healthy ani animals
mals animals together.
It is every mans duty in justice to
himself, to determine positively that
his herd is free from tuberculosis. Wip Wiping
ing Wiping tuberculosis out of the cattle of this
country is too large a problem for a
handful of people to undertake and for
this reason I contend that we will never
wipe tuberculosis out of the cattle of our
country until the live stock owners are
given the proper information, both con concerning
cerning concerning the nature of bovine tuberculosis
and the tuberculin test. When this in information
formation information reaches the live stock owner,
I am sure that he will be more anxious
to wipe tuberculosis out of his herd than
any one else, owing to the fact that he
is financially interested and he and his
family first of all are consumers of the
products of his cattle.

Supposing those who do not believe
that there is such a thing as bovine tu tuberculosis
berculosis tuberculosis or a reliable tuberculin test
apply this simple, harmless test to their
herd and if they find that there are
animals in their herd that have reacted
to the test, have such animals placed in
one stable and those that passed the test,
indicating that they are free from tu tuberculosis
berculosis tuberculosis placed in another stable, keep keeping
ing keeping for their own use the product of the
ones that have reacted and pronounced
tubercular, and putting upon the market
the products of those that have according
to this test passed and found free from
tuberculosis.
Live stock breeders, think this over
carefully and be fair with yourself.
Dr. David Roberts.
SALT YOUR STOCK.
Many farmers who seldom think to
give their stock salt, will raise a big
howl if that necessary article is not
on their own table, but how about their
stock, especially milch cows, who can cannot
not cannot voice their complaints, but must
suffer in silence? It is a matter of
history that buffaloes and other wild
stock would travel miles to reach a
salt lick or some other place where
salt might be found.
A bulletin has recently been issued by
the Wisconsin Experiment Station re reporting
porting reporting the result of their tests in re regard
gard regard to the necessity of salt for cows
giving milk. They proved conclusively
that cows must be given salt regularly
or they will lose both flesh and milk.
We quote from the bulletin:
In every case there was finally reach reached
ed reached a condition of low vitality in which
a sudden and complete breakdown oc occurred
curred occurred from which recovery was rapid
if salt was supplied. This stage was
marked by loss of appetite, a generally
haggard appearance, lusterless eyes, a
rough coat, and a very rapid decline in
both live weight and yield of milk.
The breakdown was most likely to
occur at calving or immediately after,
when the system was weakened and the
flow of milk large. In general, the cows
giving the largest amount of milk were
the first to show signs of distress. They
all suffered less in the pasture than when
confined to the stable.
It is recommended that at least one
ounce of salt be given daily to milch
cows, and a slight excess of that amount
will not be harmful. Exceptionally
heavy milkers require even more than
this. Of course with heifers and year yearlings,
lings, yearlings, a smaller amount is sufficient, and
they will not show any noticeable effect
even if deprived of it for a considerable
length of time. However, it is a good
plan to have salt at all times for your
stock -and you may be sure they will not
gorge themselves or suffer any bad
effects from over-eating.
IMPORTANCE OF THE HOG.
Mr. H. C. Dawson, in recently dis discussing
cussing discussing the problems of pork production,
showed very conclusively the great im importance
portance importance of the pig in agriculture. JHe
stated that every business, profession,
or vocation in our country is in some
manner or other dependent upon the
hog, and that is one good, strong reason
why the business of raising hogs should
be enlarged. The hog enters more into
supporting our power than any other



product of agriculture. The hog has
been hailed for the past few years as
the mortgage lifter, but his activity
and success in that great role soon lost
him employment of that nature. That
job soon ceased to exist. As we journey
across our broad land to our vision come
many storied buildings, great manufac manufacturing
turing manufacturing plants, modern homes, big red
barns, costly edifices of worship, great
seats of learning, fertile acres mapped
out like gardens. Man is in full en enjoyment
joyment enjoyment of these things. Then there
are pleasure trips, summer vacations,
financial, political, social and literary
endeavors, satisfaction and comfort in
life. It extends even to the preachers
salary. But a large proportion of this
prosperity is supported by high-class
hogs, rooting and eating back deep in
fields of alfalfa and clover.
The hog has not only helped bring
about the present era of prosperity, with
freedom from debt, but he is mostly re responsible
sponsible responsible for the recent greatly increas increased
ed increased value of tillable lands and he will
continue to be a factor in supporting
their values. Corn was, for a long time,
proclaimed as king, and alfalfa as queen
in their worlds, but after all measures
have been taken of their relative im importance
portance importance and dependence on others, they
become but servants to his majesty, the
hog.
Wherever mans footsteps may have
led him and whatever his occupation,
somewhere in his needs and uses is
some product of the hog. The con conquering
quering conquering armies of the past and present
nations of commerce and diplomacy are
ever strongly developed and fortified by
the products of agriculture. These give
the height and power to the minds and
arms that conquer all obstacles. To the
hog, through his many products, we
must give much credit for all that which
we have been, have done and are doing,
and we must concede, that he will be a
leading factor in our future progress.
THOUGHTS FOR BEGINNERS.
I am writing this article because I
have come across many so-called breed breeders
ers breeders of pure-bred stock who have no well
defined idea as to what constitutes a
first-class animal, and how are such men
to make any progress when they have no
mark to which they are aiming? Besides,
such breeders can not do justice to
their customers who order stock by mail,
as when a top animal is ordered they
do not know whether they are shipping
such an animal or not. The study of
blood lines, mating and caring for ani animals
mals animals is a life-time business and, I be believe,
lieve, believe, should not be undertaken by those
who are not willing to put time and
thought into their work. Haphazard
work along this line means retrogression
of breed, financial loss and disappoint disappointment
ment disappointment to the breeder and dissatisfaction
of customers.
To the young farmer who would de devote
vote devote his life to this fascinating line of
work I would say: Study the breed you
consider best fitted to your taste; go
to the leading stock shows of the country
and study animal form there; go to
some breeder who has been a student of
pedigree for years and give heed to what
he has to say concerning blood lines;
look carefully to the matter of feeding
and care; then put the money you ex expect
pect expect to spend on three or four animals
into one animal that some good breeder

FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST

recommends as the prospect for a great
breeding animal; build up your herd or
flock from this foundation, and if you
continue to study, all your life, culling
out the misfits as they appearas they
always do, you will be quite likely to
leave to your boys a business that will
afford them both profit and satisfaction.
Pure bred animal breeding is no gold
mine if you are going into it for dollars
alone. A. L. French in Progressive
Farmer.
LIVE STOCK AND
SOIL FERTILITY.
Almost without exception we find the
highest type of agriculture in localities
where live stock husbandry is being prac
ticed; however, it is not correct to say
that fertility cannot be maintained with without
out without live stock.
It is not fertility alone that live stock
feeding brings to the farm, but organic
matter which their presence brings to
the soil. In addition to the humus and
plant food, contained in stable manure
there are present certain bacteria that
assist in the work of making the plant
food contained in the manure avail?.ole
to the plants. After completing the work
of making the plant food in the manure
available to the plants they sieze upon
the organic nitrogen of the soil and con continue
tinue continue their work of nitrification as long
as the conditions are favorable.
This explains why a small application
of manure to certain soils will produce
results far beyond the actual fertilizing
value of the manure that is used. An Another
other Another point in favor of live stock grow growing
ing growing and feeding is the fact that all ra rational
tional rational plans for maintaining the fertility
of the soil depend upon growing crops
in the rotation that are adapted for ani
mal feeding.
There are many live stock growers and
feeders who are not keeping up the pro productive
ductive productive qualities of their soils even with
all of the manure they are making. By
proper cultivation and care a small
amount of manure goes a long ways to toward
ward toward maintaining soil fertility.
TONIC FOR SHEEP.
A mixture of copperas, sulphur and
salt makes a good tonic for sheep, one
which many no doubt will need at this
season of the year. It tends to purify
the blood and to help the animal in its
fight against worms and other trouble troublesome
some troublesome parasites. About six parts of salt
to one each of copperas or sulphur
makes the right proportion. If this is
kept constantly before the sheep, inside
the barn, where moisture cannot reach
it, they will eat freely of it, and will
undoubtedly be greatly benefited by it.
It seems to tone tup their condition
generally.
WHERE THE PROFIT IS.
Most of the profit in hogs, excepting
from breeding sows is made by fatten fattening
ing fattening them when they are six or seven
months old. If kept growing without
check until this time they ought to weigh
225 pounds or more. It pays better than
to feed an extra year, even though the
weight is doubled in that time. The
pork pig sells quickest and highest.
Breeding sows may be kept so long as
they produce two good litters a year,

one dropped early in the spring and the
second in August or September.
CATTLE PAY IN FLORIDA.
Ira J. Sanborn, of the extensive naval
stores firm of Sanborn Brothers, in com commenting
menting commenting on the organization of the Wil Williams
liams Williams Livestock Company, said that he
did not know of any business that prom promised
ised promised greater money making possibilities
than cattle raising.
and his is not the opinion of an inexper inexperienced
ienced inexperienced enthusiast, but the real truth
from a man who is extensively in the
business and who depends upon it as
one of his biggest sources of revenue.
How many cattle do you keep? we
asked.
Ordinarily about one thousand head,
which are looked after by my brother,
who is the cattle man of the firm. It
is an interesting sight to see him with
them in the broad expanse of woods.
He studies his cattle as I do turpentine,
and it frequently takes some close fig figuring
uring figuring to determine which is the most
profitable department of our business.
Do you keep blooded cattle or na native
tive native stock?
We have never experimented with
imported breeds, but find it best to in introduce
troduce introduce new males of standard strains
every two or three years.
Do you believe that the beef breeds
of the west could be grown profitably?
I can see no reason why. We have
never had the slightest trouble with our
imported bulls and I cannot see why
cows would not stand our climate equal equally
ly equally as well. Where could you find more
perfect Jerseys than here, and they were
brought here originally from the west.
Is the business expensive?
With us it is comparatively inex inexpensive.
pensive. inexpensive. Having our own lands, the
spring, summer and fall grazing costs
us nothing. During about three months
of winter we turn them into a thousand
acre field of velvet beans, and they are
thus brought to a fine condition for beef
or for a greater increase next season.
Do you have any trouble in the dis disposition
position disposition of your cattle?
None whatever. There is a local de demand
mand demand for all we have been able to grow
and prices remain such as to give good
profit. During the panic of 1907, when
there was a big slump in nearly all the
commodities our cattle business brought
us in big returns. People must eat you
know.True Democrat.
For many years hogs were regarded
as a by-product of the farm, but today
they are one of the main income pro producers
ducers producers in many sections. Yet too often
they are cared for as though they were
still a by-product of little account.
STOCK NOTES.
Do not crowd your young stock un unnaturally.
naturally. unnaturally.
Put the broody sows in a pen by them themselves.
selves. themselves.
It is best to test the milk for butter
fat once in each month.
Dont mix the morning and night milk
unless both are quite cool.
There is no liquid that will absorb
odors more quickly than warm milk.
The animal that pays the best is bound
to be in evidence as dairymen become
better informed.

25



26

NURSERY INSPECTION.
(Continued from page 17.)
three thousand dollars per annum, or as
much thereof as is actually necessary,
is hereby appropriated out of any funds
in the Treasury not otherwise appropri appropriated,
ated, appropriated, which sum shall be placed to the
credit of the State Board of Education
in the hands of the State Treasurer,
to be expended by the Board of con control;
trol; control; Provided, That, all costs and charg charges
es charges collected by said Inspector of Nursery
Stock, and all fines from prosecution
under this act shall be paid to the State
Treasurer and by him placed to the
credit of said sum.
Section 7. That all laws or parts of
laws inconsistent herewith are hereby
repealed.
Section 8. That this act shall go into
effect immediately upon its becoming a
law.
Approved May 23, 1911.
HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.
The 1911 meeting of the Florida State
Horticultural Society was held in Jack Jacksonville
sonville Jacksonville May 2-5, and was both profit profitable
able profitable and enjoyable to those who were
fortunate enough to be in attendance.
The officers who served the society so
acceptably last year were re-elected, and
Miami was selected as the meeting place
for next year. The printed proceedings
will be forwarded to the members in
the near future, and will, as heretofore,
contain the papers and discussions in
full.
DAIRYING IN THE SOUTH.
(Continued from page 20.)
been in existence for gome years it will
be found that expensive methods are
being practiced and an inferior grade of
output is being produced.
4. Southern dairying needs improve improvement
ment improvement all along the line. The cost of
production is unreasonably high, the
sanitary conditions are often bad, and
the price of first-class products is in
some cases too low.
5. The three main points that every
southern dairyman should bear in mind
and which can not be too strongly em emphasized,
phasized, emphasized, are
Better cows. More home-grown feed.
A better product.
Copies of this bulletin can be had by
addressing the Secretary of Agriculture,
Washington, D. C.
SCIENTIFIC AGRICULTURE.
(Continued from page 11.)
fibres and roots of these plants, bushes
and trees, thus brought into life, grow growing
ing growing and expanding, act as wedges to
split up the surface of the rock and thus
commence the process of wearing away.
From the destructive quality these
plants derive their name of saxifrages,
(or dissolvers of rock) ; their roots
largely contribute to this work by pen penetrating
etrating penetrating into fissures in search of water,
thus assisting in the process of disinte disintegration.
gration. disintegration.
At the North in the winter the water
collected in the hollows and crevices be becomes
comes becomes frozen, and expanding as it be-

FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST

comes ice, acts like charges of blasting
powder in breaking up the rock into
large and small pieces. Then again,
by the action of frost, and by attract attraction,
ion, attraction, become finally the sand constitut constituting
ing constituting the base of our different soils.
Being carried down to the rivers by
the mountain streams, they acquire dur during
ing during their descent, clay-like particles and
salts which become mingled with the
water carrying them and held in suspen suspension
sion suspension or solution. The Nile valley owes
its fertility to such deposits brought
down annually from the Abyssinian
mountains.
While the disintegrating process is go going
ing going on inland, the sea is doing a like
process on the rocks of the coast by its
power in dashing against them and at attacking
tacking attacking them, not only by the impact of
water, but also with and by the frag fragments
ments fragments broken off.
(To be continued.)
POINTS FOR BEEKEEPERS.
(Continued from page 5.)
hives it is best to select a shady situa situation
tion situation where the hive will be protected
from the direct rays of the sun and yet
be opened to the breeze. A tree makes
a good protection, but if such be lacking,
a square of light half-inch boards about
three feet by three, laid on top of the
hive and weighted down, answers very
well. Vines can soon be grown for
shade, if desired, either annuals, such
as morning glories, or the more perma permanent
nent permanent grape vine. The mouth of the
hives should not be set on the ground
but on a bench or on a special founda foundation
tion foundation formfour stakes standing up about
a foot high, with cross pieces for the
hive to rest on. These cross-pieces
should have the level placed on them to
insure the perfect steadiness of the hive.
Hives should be put four or five feet
apart, side from side, though I have seen
them placed as near as three feet. The
bees may be relied on to find their wa>
unerringly to their own home. When
changing the location of a hive, lean a
broad board against the front of the
hive so that when the bees emerge they
will find their way obstructed. This will
cause them to investigate their sur surroundings
roundings surroundings and they will discover they
have been moved. They will then pro proceed
ceed proceed to take new bearings by circling
around their new home until they arw
able to recognize the landmarks and re return
turn return from the fields as unhesitatingly as
before.
There are almost no excuses for bar barren
ren barren walls. We do not need to import
vines from England, shrubs from Japan,
nor flowers from Mexico. Our own
native wild plants and vines are at
our doors, ready to weave their enchant enchanting
ing enchanting veil of beauty over our blunders, our
mistakes, our poverty of resource. Go
to the meadows, the swamps, the road roadside,
side, roadside, and invite them in to help you make
life better worth living. Study their
needs, their habits, and apply their cour courage
age courage and their grace to your walls, your
porticoes, your decayed and dilapidated
outhouses, and your porches will become
bowers of fragrance and shade, your
lawns a delight. And you will further furthermore
more furthermore preserve to your children a few
of the exquisite wild flowers now swift swiftly
ly swiftly bowing to the sickle and the plow.

JEFFERSONS TEN RULES.
Never put off until tomorrow what
you can do today.
Never trouble another for what you
can do yourself.
Never spend your money before you
have made it.
Never buy what you dont want be because
cause because it is cheap.
Pride costs more than hunger, thirst
and cold.
We seldom repent of having eaten too
little.
Nothing is troublesome that we do wil willingly.
lingly. willingly.
How much pain the evils that have
never happened have cost us.
Take things always by the smooth han handle.
dle. handle.
When you are angry count ten before
you speak; when very angry count a hun hundred.
dred. hundred.
The vivacious, bright woman is the
strong, well one. Certainly no woman
with fretting nerves, a fagged brain and
weary muscles can put up much of a
show as a mental charmer. Mental
beauty is secured by giving vent to every
pleasant impulse and unselfish thought,
by reading good books, exercising pa patience,
tience, patience, and .making oneself generally
lovely.
A flour or sugar barrel filled about
half-full of fresh charcoal, with wooden
slats nailed across the top of the barrel
in which several meat hooks are driven,
is most useful in keeping meat fresh in
summer. It should be covered with a
piece of wire netting fastened to a wood wooden
en wooden hoop just-fitting the top of the
barrel.
Pay for everything in dollars and
cents. The jingle of the departing hard hardearned
earned hardearned cash makes one pause and con*
sider, but a store account is often taken
up in a careless manner.
Always moisten line that is to be
drawn with a damp cloth or sponge
The threads will pull more easily
if they are rubbed with soap after
they are moistened.
To keep the coffee pot free from
strong odor, put a pinch of bicarbo bicarbonate
nate bicarbonate of soda in it once a week, fill
with water and allow to boil slowly
or simmer for a quarter of an hour.
Dont throw away broom handles*
Covered with cretonne or crape paper
and with a long cord or ribbon loop
tied in the center, twelve-inch lengths
are fine for coat and skirt hangers.
Never allow the knobs of any of
the stove or draft doors to become
loose. They are all fastened with nuts
inside, which often drop off and are
lost.
In cultivating onions, care should be
taken to work the soil gradually around
the bulblets of the plants. This will pro protect
tect protect them from the burning rays of the
sun.
Frequent cultivation of the garden re reduces
duces reduces the damage done by cutworms.
Cultivation exposes the worms to the
sun, which is often fatal to them.



THE PINELLAS PENINSULA
Mr. D. B. Worthington, of Beloit,
Wis., recently visited Florida, and upon
his return North wrote a letter for his
home paper, in which he says:
Florida has a great future. I visited
that portion lying between Tampa and
the gulf coast the Pinellas peninsula,
which defies the frosts, lying between
two great bodies of water. It is pro proclaimed
claimed proclaimed as the greatest grapefruit sec section
tion section of the state. The hundreds of or orchards
chards orchards were a sight to behold. It is
rather difficult to grasp the fact that or orange
ange orange trees not only contained blossoms,
but oranges that ripened late in Decem December,
ber, December, some that are ripening now. Limes
blossom six times a year. Fruit can be
picked every month in the year. The
gardens are now yielding their products
for the table. The Northern farmer, in
love with the black soil, finds in Florida
pine trees and sand for the most part
and finds it difficult to enthuse; but the
sand not only contains the basic elements
that make the acres worth SI,OOO each eachor
or eachor more but the country, with the va various
rious various soils, will grow anything in the
fruit line, every kind of vegetable, sugar
cane, pecans, alfalfa and a score of other
things that Ive forgotten. I had little
chance for personal investigation during
the few days I could be absent. I dis discovered
covered discovered this, however. Florida natives
are shiftless. If a Northern man will
work half as hard down here as he
does here he cannot help getting rich.
Near Tarpon Springs an orchard con containing
taining containing eight and one-third acres is
said' to have yielded $14,000 of fruit
this season. This is a banner yield,
of course, and represents the limit of
intelligent cultivation and care. Prac Practically
tically Practically the entire Pinellas peninsula is
high grade land and at present prices
is a good investment. Prices are ad advancing
vancing advancing rapidly.
Tarpon Springs is the worlds great greatest
est greatest sponge fishery. The town has I,ooc
Greeks, 900 whites, 600 negroes. The
divers are from the Mediterranean. They
go out fifty miles in their sail boats and
dive to a depth of from no to 140 feet
to the coral beds.

Special Offer for Immediate Acceptance
75 Cents Per Month
i
Will assure you a Five Acre Farm in the Best
Agricultural Section of Florida, within 50 miles
of Jacksonville. Send at once for Free Booklet
and our terms.
Florida Farm and Home Company
Masonic Temple Jacksonville, Fla.

FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST

Our party visited in automobiles all
the pretty towns on the gulf coast. They
are mighty close together and the shore
side is lined with costly houses. At
Belleair there is a $3,000,000 hotel and
rooms are engaged a year in advance by
Northerners. The grounds make a ver veritable
itable veritable paradise. From Sutherland, on
the coast, to Tampa, has been construct constructed
ed constructed a road of crushed rock, marl and sea
shells, a beautiful white, smooth surface
twenty-five miles in length.
We made the trip back to Tampa at
nightswiftly and enjovably. A com companion
panion companion said to me: A year from now
remember that you were riding in an
open automobile without an overcoat
and your hat off, and that the date was
February 28. I replied that I was
thinking of something that seemed even
more wonderful; that we were riding on
one of the finest pieces of road in Amer America,
ica, America, representing a very high type of
civilization, but that in the entire dist distance
ance distance of twenty-five miles there was but
one house; that we were traveling in a
wilderness that would in a few years
present a vista of blossoms and ripen ripening
ing ripening fruit and pretty Southern homes.
I am saying but little about Florida
in this interview little concerning those
things that people might want to know
who have an idea of moving there, but
I sold my ten acres at a fine profit and
bought another at a little higher price,
so I may be over-enthusiastic and Id
suggest that the other fellow act on his
own initiative and then he'll have no
quarrel with me if things dont pan out
as he had hoped. But if pressed I would
say that if I were a young man I would
not be afraid to tackle Florida; and if
I were an old man with a little money
and wanted a change, Id either buy or
set out ten acres more or less and get
in on a little of Uncle Sams most fa famous
mous famous climate for a portion of the year.
Floridians insist that summers and win winters
ters winters there are equally agreeable.
PROFITS IN CANNING.
Frequently information is wanted
upon canning tomatoes and peaches.
The most interesting statement that we

have seen comes from experiments made
by the Louisiana Experiment Station, as
follows: In the canning experiments
two $lO outfits were used, each having
a capacity of 300 two-pound cans
and 200 three-pound cans per day.
With these two outfits the cost
of canning these 600 two-pound cans of
tomatoes was placed at $21.40. The net
price for the canned product was 70
cents per dozen, or $35, leaving a bal balance
ance balance of $13.60 per day. The cost of
400 three-pound cans of peaches was
$20.40. These sold for $1.75 per dozen,
or a total of $58.33, leaving a net bal balance
ance balance of $37.93 per day. As the Keiffer
pears grow in great abundance in any
of the Southern states, the canning of
this fruit is as profitable as peaches.
There are many ways of making money
by putting up fruits in a preserved state.
There are few cows which will not
stand more quietly during the milking
process if they have nothing else to at attract
tract attract their attention.
Classified Advertising
Advertisements inserted in this column at
the rate of 2 cents per word each insertion.
No advertisement taken for less than 25 cents.
FOR SALE White Leghorn Eggs for hatch hatching,
ing, hatching, from fine pen of straight Wyckoff
Leghorns; $1.50 per 15. Fine cockerels for
sale. C. H. Jacques, Miami, Fla. R. F. D.
FIELD PEAS to exchange for hens or eggs.
W. J. McCain, Fruitland, Ga.
INDIAN RUNNER DUCK EGGS for hatch hatching,
ing, hatching, $2.50 per dozen. Descriptive leaflet free.
G. C. Vo well, Ellenton, Fla.
FOR SALE DeSoto county, Florida, land, in
160, 320 and 640-acre tracts. J. A. Harri Harrison,
son, Harrison, 500 Livingston Bldg., Bloomington, 111.
SOMETHING NEWThe Dixie Land
combination brooder, colony and laying
house; made of waterproof canvas. Formula,
blue-print and full instructions how to build
only sl. Send today. Address L. E. Am Amidon,
idon, Amidon, New Smyrna, Fla.
SMALL FARMS NEAR JACKSONVILLE
Well drained; no swamp; bracing breezes
from the ocean; near neighbors; Christian
church, school and good market. We want
more neighbors but make no extravagant
promises. If you have energy and a little
cash, we will welcome you. Address Wm.
F. Hawley, Gilmore, Fla.
FOR SALE 7,500 acres in Floridas greatest
agricultural district; fine cut-over pine land;
first-class location and well adapted to col colonization
onization colonization purposes. A proposition of real
merit. J. A. Harrison, 500 Livingston Bldg.,
Bloomington, 111.
FOR SALE Lawtey farms, 37 miles south southwest
west southwest of Floridas most famous strawberry
section; good land, good title, good water,
good town, good schools, good churches; a
good community. Soil is productive, the
climate ideal. Write for free booklet. Uncle
Sam Florida Land Cos., Main and Wash Washington
ington Washington Sts., Bloomington, 111.
IF INTERESTED IN SOUTH FLORIDA
write W. B. Powell, secretary Board of Trade,
Tampa, Fla. Your name will be bulletined
among fifty real estate agents, newspapers, rail railroads,
roads, railroads, and youll receive much interesting lit literature.
erature. literature. Tampa 143.2 per cent City.
FOR SALE: Three young Short Horn males.
Apply College of Agriculture, University of
Florida, Gainesville.
FOR SALE: My late residence, Leesburg
Lake County, Florida. Eight roomed, vine vinedraped
draped vinedraped bungalow, in lot 393 feet front, 270 deep,
oranges, grape fruit, peaches, pears, guavas and
grapes. Grass, flowers and shrubbery. A bar bargain
gain bargain at $1250.00. Half may remain on mortgage
at 6 per cent. Address Helen Harcourt, Mer Merritt,
ritt, Merritt, Brevard County, Florida.

27



28

CAN THE SURPLUS.
1
The canning season is again ready
for consideration. All farmers strive
hard to harvest their grain crops as
they ripen. Were they not to do so,
they would be considered poor farmers,
indeed. A man would be acting very
strangely to raise a crop of cotton, corn,
wheat, or hay, and then let it decay in
the field, though he is acting just as
strangely to have on his farm an abund abundance
ance abundance of fine fruits and vegetables and let
half or more decay in his orchards and
gardens. I know a great many will say,
Well, I just havent the time to take
care of my peaches and tomatoes, and
they are just rotting and falling off.
If this class of farmers will spend ten
or twelve dollars this spring he may
save every bushel of such fruit, and he
need not neglect his farm work at all.
If he has a wife and daughters, I
shall venture to say they will be glad
to help with the work if you allow them
a share of the profits.
Get you a canning outfit and erect a
shed, over a furnace, built to suit the
size of your boiler. Have your furnace
near the place where you prepare your
fruit, fill and solder cans, etc., in order
to save as many unnecessary steps as pos possible.
sible. possible. Then when it rains and takes
you out of your field of cotton or corn
you can find employment at your can canning
ning canning business.
As for myself, I never ask for any
help with my canning unless it rains
and the men cannot work on the farm.
Then I always have an extra large
amount of canning to do that day, so
I just have to have some help with it
and each one decides he had as well
help with the canning, as he cant do
much else, so here he goes for a big
days work as the children say.
One should plant vegetables with a
view to utilizing spare hours, for instance,
tender beans, also a few rows of extra
early tomatoes, then in ten or twelve
days plant a second early variety, and
keep on planting this way until the mid middle
dle middle of July, so just as you are through
with one variety another comes in. By
planting this way one would be surprised
to see how much could be gained in one
short season.
Cabbage is another vegetable that
should be planted in the same way I
have described for the beans and to tomatoes.
matoes. tomatoes. There is a great demand for
canned kraut: it is made just as for
table use, and when it becomes ready
for table use (that is, when it becomes
good sauer kraut) take out of brine,
wash, pack cans full, and proceed to
can by instructions which you get with
canner. It will give you employment
for your spare time and you will find
much profit in canned goods of every
kind.
The blackberry crop would be worth
many dollars to many of our farmers
if canned and put on the market. I am
aware that the blackberry crop comes
on at a busy time with the farmers, but
I am also aware of the fact that it is
a crop that should be taken care of, even
if hired help has to be employed. The
gathering of the berry crop is the great greatest
est greatest item in saving them. If they are
picked with care it does not require a
great deal of work to prepare them for
the cans, and canning blackberries is
speedy work, as they require a short
period for cooking.

FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST

I make from SSO to SIOO every year by
operating one small ten dollar canner,
and make it from that which would nat naturally
urally naturally go to waste on the farm if I were
not to save it by canning and putting on
the market what is not needed for our
own table.
The class of farmers who do not find
time to save their fruit and vegetables
by canning seldom find time to market
them in the fresh state at the proper
time.
I am not giving you facts obtained
by reading so much that is being writ written
ten written on canning, I am giving you facts
obtained by personal experience in op operating
erating operating a home canning outfit for the
past twelve years, and expect to have
one in my home as long as I live. Mrs.
H. C. Walker, in Southern Ruralist.
HUMUS IN THE SOIL.
Professor Whitney, of the Bureau of
Soils, says that humus acts as a sponge
in the soil and absorbs toxic poisons
which are given off by the plant roots.
However this may be, the farmer must
add humus to his soils to make them
produce good crops. There are several
ways in which humus is increased in the
soil. To make the matter clear to those
who do not understand what humus is
it might be well to state that humus is
the dark-colored mold left after organic
or vegetable matter has decayed. Then
in the light of this explanation farmers
will understand that any organic matter
turned under and allowed to decay wil
form humus. Barnyard manure, straw,
stalks, etc., the ploughing under of green
growing crops, such as clover, cowpeas,
rye or any other crop used generally
for green manuring, will add humus to
the soil.

Home and Market Canning Outfits
For canning all kinds of Fruits and Vegetables, Meats, Fish, Oysters, etc. Portable
and Furnace, Stationary and Kitchen styles. All sizes and capacities. Operated both
open and under pressure. Evaporaters and Cookers. A pleasant and profitable
business. Write for free catalogue.
THE HOME CANNER CO., Hickory, N. C.

made eas3r^^l
I The Planet Jr Horse Hoe and Cultivator is the biggest I
I labor-saver ever used in the cotton field. It is as great an invention for I
I cultivating cotton as the cotton-gin is for separating it. Does more
I work and does it quicker and better than any other implement for the
I purpose. The Planet Jr is easily adjusted for hoeing, plowing, cultiva-
JKN ting, furrowing, dirting, scraping, and laying by. Not only
l va^ua^^e f r cotton, but gives thorough cultivation for corn,
w The Planet Jr is the invention of a practical 1
r. farmer, and is backed by over 35 years experience.
jMtaS K Substantially made; strong and lasting; fully guaranteed.
I X Write today for the 1911 illustrated Planet
1 J r ca talogue whether you need new im immMi
mMi immMi \ plements or not. This veritable cyclopedia of
m Ufi farm and garden tools describes them all, includ includg
g includg g/fnj '~ *. n one 'i lorse an( i two-horse cotton and corn

f Dont let your surplus fruits and 1
F vegetables go to waste. Can them,
F the same as a large canning factory. 1
F Theres always a market tor canned m
F goods, and for a small investment 1
F you can buy a 1
/ STAHLI
Canning Outfit!
i ~~ tj p \
/ F. S. STAHL HFG. CO., \
f Wanted Box 310-D, Qnincy, 111.
/ CAN it
your 1
I Fruit and Vegetables I
I MAKE BIG MONEY I
|| Our FREE BOOK tells how, fi
|jj| Write for prices on our ||
JGold Medal Canning Outfits I
Family to factory sizes, IS
$5.00 and up. Best that 11
experience and skilled
labor can produce.
Most complete ma machine
chine machine for the money. §g
Send for price-list on
cans, labels and sup- 1
plies before placing gg
your order. Buy di- m
rect and save money.
Agents Wanted I
Robinson Can Cos., I
Dept. 40,
Baltimore, Md.



Free Books florTda prOducts
How and When to Fertilize Citrus Trees. Questions on Spring Fertilizing More Fruit
More Money. Fall Fertilizing for Vigor ana Vitality. Ideal Results from Ideal Fertilizers.
How to Begin an Orange Grove. Lime: Its Forms and Effects. Remedies for Insects
and Diseases. Florida Soils. Florida Vegetables. Florida Strawberries. Irish Pota Potatoes.
toes. Potatoes. Pineapple Fertilizing.
oooooooooot CITRUS CULTURE FOR PROFIT ccccsscxsxxs:
The above book is a complete treatise on Citrus Culture for Profit from selection of land to shipping,
with tinted illustrations and charts for packing. The most up-to-date methods for combating the
various grove troubles are also included. The little volume is complete in every way, and while
written for citrus growers, has articles on general plant life, soil conditions, and action of the
different fertilizer materials that make it invaluable to any grower. Sent for the nominal price of
50 cents, cloth bound: 25 cents paper covers. : : :: : : ; : ; ; :
Wilson & Toomer Fertilizer Cos.
JACKSONVILLE. FLORIDA

A FLORIDA BOOSTER.
Mr. T. H. Harris, who for many years
has been prominently connected with
the Ocala Banner, the oldest paper in
Florida, passed through Chicago recent recently,
ly, recently, and in an interview with the editor
of the New Florida said:
I have lived in Fiorida all my life,
and I believe I have had the opportu
nity of seeing conditions change, not
only in my own locality, but in the en entire
tire entire state of Florida, as well as anyone.
I want to say that Florida is developing
wonderfullyher wealth is increasing by
leaps and bounds.
The immigration of the thousands of
new settlers in this state, the improve improvements
ments improvements that are being made on every
side, all constitute a definite and sub substantial
stantial substantial basis on which to build a per permanent
manent permanent business future. Not only are
the citzens of Florjida awakening to
the possibilities of their own state, but
capital from the North and East is com coming
ing coming here seeking the rich fields for in investment
vestment investment that are to be found every everywhere.
where. everywhere. Until recent years Florida seems
almost to have been in a rut. There was
very little effort being made along man manufacturing
ufacturing manufacturing lines. Local capital seemed
to be content to stick to timber, turpen turpentine
tine turpentine and phosphate, and outside these
Florida did not seem to grow.
But we are glad to see the north northern
ern northern people coming into our state we
are glad to give them our hand of co cooperation
operation cooperation and assistance. There is no
getting away from the fact but what
we need more people to develop our
opportunities, and while, of course, there
may be here and there small pieces of
land which are not up to the standard,
at the same time there is a wealth of
fertile soil that is waiting only for the
hand of the practical man or the farmer.
Floridas population is increasing with
the right kind of people and all this
rich fertile land will, in a very short
space of time be under cultivation.
Florida differs from many states in
her method of farming, yet I have seeni
men and women corpe down from thej
north, with comparatively little knowl-i

FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST

edge of farming and trucking, and make
good. You people of the North realize
more than we do the full meaning of the
high cost of living, for we raise prac practically
tically practically everything right at our own door,
we might say, and here in Florida we can
live for less than you can. For one
thing we have no big coal bills to pay payno
no payno high rents.
There is a good demand for labor,
and I do not believe that anyone need
hesitate in coming to our state. Of
course, like any place else, they should
have some capital, enough to carry
them over until they get well started.
But this is true in any country. I do
not, however, know of any state where
a man can make a living so easy as in
Florida, if he tries. Of course, we have
among us some people who are disgrunt disgruntled,
led, disgruntled, but these are very, very few. In Invariably,
variably, Invariably, they are a class of people who
would be disgruntled everywhere.
I have been asked many times by
people how much they ought to realize
lay down in exact dollars and cents,
because it depends somewhat upon the
man, as weel as the character of the soil.
It also depends upon what is raised the
number of crops each year, etc. It is a
matter of common knowledge that Flor Florida
ida Florida truckers and fruit growers have be become
come become independently wealthy in the past
few years and there is no reason why
fruit and trucking cannot be developed
to a higher degree by more people. Come
to Florida prepared to make goodto
stick, and I see no reason why you can cannot
not cannot succeed like others. I have seen
men take from one field SIO,OOO worth
of cantaloupesl have seen truckers sell
lettuce, celery, potatoes, etc., at top prices
and take one or two other crops from
the same piece of ground the same year,
with very little extra effort.
In time to come not far distant, we
will see a network of interurban rail railways
ways railways plying between the cities and new
towns that are springing up almost
everywhere in the state. Navigation com companies
panies companies will be formed on all Florida
waterways to handle the ever-increasing
demand of the times. These are bound

to come. Already these things are
strongly discussed by Floridas best citi citizens.
zens. citizens. Capitalists are looking over the
field with a keen eyeready to act when
necessary.
In time to come we will see Florida
not only supplying the tables of our
Northern states, but you will see Flor Florida
ida Florida products put up to supply the de demand
mand demand out of season.
With velvet beans, peanuts and the
hundred and one other things our Jack Jackson
son Jackson county lands will produce in great
abundance and with only a little effort
our people ought to supply not only our
own home markets but should be able
to ship many thousands of dollars worth
of beef, pork, and mutton each year to
other markets. Its dead easy and ere
long our farmers will be fully awakened
to these possibilities and take advantage
of such opportunities as now await the
action and acception. Marianna
Times.
The strawberry season is just about
gone now. The dry weather played hav havoc
oc havoc with them, cutting the crop short.
However the people here enjoyed a
splendid price for those sold, realizing
probably S4OO on each acre planted, or
an average of that amount. Lake Butler
Star.

For the Best Bargains
Save in your money for
Magazines and Papers.
Write for catalog and prices.
Submit your list to
Wm. Herrons
SUBSCRIPTION AGENCY
Box 24 J, Jacksonville, Fla,

29



30

TRUCKING IN DeSOTO.
The trucking season in the Wonder Wonderland
land Wonderland of the Peace River Country is
drawing to a close. Quite a little stuff
is still going out, but the rush is over
and the truckers are counting up their
profits, and there are few, indeed, who
cannot count a good profit. The Jan January
uary January freeze and the dry weather cut
down the yield until there were only
about forty thousand crates of vegeta vegetables
bles vegetables shipped from this station but every everything
thing everything shipped except Irish potatoes
brought fancy prices and the spring crop
doubtless brought $75,000 into Wauchula.
Messrs. E. E. Bradford and J. L. Ed Edwards
wards Edwards doubtless had the champion acre
of cukes, it yielding 650 crates of cukes.
They averaged about $1.50 per crate.
This was on our ordinary pine land and
with no irrigation.
M. J. L. Edwards cleaned up about
SSOO from a half acre of beans and a
half acre of cukes. He received over
SBO from five rows of beans an acre and
a half long.
Mr. D. C. Sams received $5lO from
one and three-quarters acres of beans.
Mr. J. T. Burnett had in an acre and
a half of English peas from which he
realized S6OO.
An acre of strawberries brought Mr.
J. B. Rogers S3OO.
Mr. L. J. Hanchey had in two and a
half acres of beans and three and a half
acres of cukes from which he cleaned up
$1,238.
Mr. W. S. Shelton cleared SB2O from
an acre of celery, $1,200 from three acres
of cukes and $lB5 from three-quarters
of an acre of beans.
Messrs. H. B. Rainey and J. H. Pearce
are among the top notchers when it

Headquarters for Tropical and Semi-Tropical Trees and Plants of every descrip description
tion description in IMMENSE VARIETY. Now the Summer rains have begun, planters should
make instant preparation to set plants and trees so to get full advantage of the rains
and heat for best and greatest growth. If you have our catalog read over the remarks
at head of every department and thereby learn WHEN and WHAT may be set at this
time of year; the majority of our stock may be successfully set in summer. If you do
not have our 1911 catalog of 17 departments, then send for a copy immediately.
Everything here for Lawn, Garden or Orchard.
REASONER BROS. Oneco, Florida

on the Cultivation of Cotton, Cost of Available Nitrogen, J
and Home Mixing of Fertilizers. Send your address on a §1
post card. These books show why
I Nitrate of Soda 1
I is the cheapest and most available source of the all-important Nitrogen.
Read them and learn why you should use on your Cotton a Top Dressing of at
least 100 lbs. of Nitrate of Soda to the acre. Address
&r.Wm^S.

FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST

comes to large returns from a small
acreage of easily cultivated crops. They
had in two acres of cukes and two acres
of beans, from which they received
$1,771.86.
Mr. W. K. Southerland had in six
acres of beans and notwithstanding that
he had but two-thirds of a stand, he rea realized
lized realized $1,337 from his crop.
M. L. N. Townsend received $676.98
from an acre and a half of beans and
two and a half acres of cukes.
Mr. G. W. Drawdy has not figured up
all his returns, but he has not done bad.
From a quarter of an acre of squashes
he shipped fifty-five crates and they net netted
ted netted between $1.25 and $1.50 per crate.
Two and a half acres of beans yielded
150 crates.
The above crops were all made in
three months and now the land is in corn
or other crops and will make a summer
crop that is equal in value to the aver average
age average crop raised in the North. Wau-
chula Wauchula Advocate.

L. C. SMITH & BROS.
TYPEWRITER
All the writing ALWA YS in sight
Easy Payments
H. M. Ashe Cos.
Jacksonville, Fla.
All Other Makes Rebuilt
and Second-Hand, Cheap

poultry ONE PULL BALE
Galvanized Poultry Netting
writs for circulars.
NETTING Mesh DOW WIRE&IRON WORKS, Louisville,^
COW PEAS 1:
They are in first place for soiling, hay and fertilizL.
purposes, and are successful wherever corn is grown.
Cane seed, millet seed, sweet potatoes. Free catalog.
HICKORY SEED CO., 17 Trad* St./Hickory, N. C.
{njjjjft'S ARMY AUCTION BARGAINS
5e454£$ 11 yl .00 SET ARMY POLE HARNESS $91.85
1 Set ArjwleadleMiHaneilMS* 1
SEND POSTAL TO DAY
FOR FREE CIRCULARTH/T Jlf
Largest stock PoTernment Auction Rarcafns in the world. 15
acres required for its storage. 304-page catalogue, over 4.000
Illustrations of army and nary auction goods, l.cgnlnr Military
Encyclopedia. Mailed for 16 cents (stamps).
CANNONS, FLAGS, PISTOLS, RIFLES, SIEARS, BRUMS, Etc.
FRANCIS BANNERMAN, 501 Broadway. N. Y.

t
J I are many ve-
I are not half so
COW beans
* No other crops so valuable
for fertilizing, hay and soil*
ing. Millet, cotton and
U cane seed, and sweet pota*
I toes. Write for illustrated
PiitiilniTiip It ict Ftp#*
HICKORY SEED CO., 18 Trade St., Hickory, N, %
The GRIT
THATS SHARP
Cuts up food in hens
gizzard so that it fits
it for eggs and gives
growth. Tis sharp sharpkeeps
keeps sharpkeeps its edges until
I
Order Maka-Shel
Hens prefer it to grav gravMttfV
MttfV gravMttfV el, glass or oyster shell
It contains Lime, Iron,
AjaAAap Magnesium and other
elements that arc suit-
W ed to the digestive
M processes, and in-
creases egg production
W through active assimi-
TRAHF MARK lation. Ask your deal deal-8
-8 deal-8 HAUL riAHiX. er Qr send ug $1 00 for
two 100-lb. bags, f. - b. cars. Order to-day.
New booklet, Hens Dyspepsia, and sam sample
ple sample free.
Edge Hill Silica Rock Cos.
Box W. New Brunswick, New Jersey



ASHES FOR FRUIT TREES.
Save all the wood ashes and use
around fruit trees as a fertilizer. Wood
ashes are especially good for peach trees,
and they will benefit all fruit trees and
vines. In using them as a fertilizer do
not place any against the trunk of the
tree, since the strong alkali will spoil
the bark. Scatter them thinly on the
soil over a circle as big as the top of
tree. The feeding roots run further
than the longest branches of the tree.
WHITEWASH FORMULA.
We have a request for a good white
wash formula. There is nothing better
than the following. Take a half a bushel
of unslaked lime, slake it with boiling
water, cover during the process to
keep in steam, strain the liquid through
a fine sieve or strainer, and add to it
a peck of salt, previously dissolved in
warm water, three pounds of ground
rice boiled to a thin paste and stirred
in while hot, half a pound of Spanish
whiting, and one pound of clean glue,
previously dissolved by soaking in cold
water and then hanging over a slow
fire in a small pot hung in a larger one
filled with water. Add five gallons of
hot water to the mixture, stir well, and
let it stand for a few days covered from
dirt. It should be applied hot, for
which purpose it can be kept in a ket kettle
tle kettle or portable furnace. The east end
of the presidents house at Washington
is embellished by this brilliant white whitewash.
wash. whitewash. It is used by the government to
whitewash lighthouses.
COMFORT TO THE TRAVELER.
A good country road is always to be
desired, and is a source of comfort and
convenience to every traveler. Good
roads attract population, as well as good
schools and churches. Good roads im improve
prove improve the value of the property so that
it is said a farm lying five miles from
market, connected by a bad road, is of
less value than an equally good farm
lying ten miles away from market con connected
nected connected by a good road. A larger load
can be drawn by one horse over a
good road than by two over a bad one.
Good roads encourage the greater ex exchange
change exchange of products and commodities be between
tween between one section and another.
Mr. S. B. Aultman has about twenty
acres planted in corn and it. is looking
exceptionally fine, it being estimated that
the yield will not be far from one hun hundred
dred hundred bushels to the acre. Mr. Aultman
also reports having gathered S2OO worth
of cucumbers from half an acre, from
which he had previously gathered a good
crop of tomatoes which are just now
bringing a good price.Osceola Journal.
Volusia county has grown a fine crop
of spring Irish potatoes, and the truck truckers
ers truckers have netted from $3.50 to $5 per bar barrel.
rel. barrel. The crop has brought quite a sum
of money to the growers, and the Rec Record
ord Record congratulates every one of these for fortunate
tunate fortunate potato growers. Another will be
grown in the fall, planting about Sep September
tember September 1, the crop coming in the middle
of November, before any possible frost
to injure the maturing plants.Volusia
County Record.

FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST

Pull Your Slumps FREE
It.;;u.; 4 mFor 30 Days with this
es PuPer
I Guaranteed For IttearsTw
against breakageflaw or no flaw. Test largest hedge rows and green trees lll
it on your place for 30 days at our risk. Dont risk costly and dangerous dyna- H|||
Try it on stumps or green trees. mite. Dont risk a cast iron puller.
' Triple POWfQr Write us at once on a postal for our Mj|
J Triple power attachment means a Special Price Offer
I strain on team and on cables. Three ma- 'Wf have a special price proposition to
Chines in onesingle, double and triple the first man we sell to in new sections.
,I power. Can be changed in a minute right We are glad to make you a special price
fB in the field from one power to the other by on the first Hercules sold m your commun- H
I one man. Nothing like it in the world. lty because that will sell many more and f
B The Hercules is the only stump puller save advertising. Write us and we will also §
guaranteed for three years. Only one with send you our special price 3o Days Free §
Double Safety Ratchets. Hitch on to any Trial and FREE BOOKS about the only All-Steel, B|
stump and it is bound to come. Also pulls Triple Power Stump Pullerthe Famous Hercules. H|
f HERCULES MANUFACTURING CO., 011 17th Street, Centerville loya|

CLARKS CUTAWAY
Grading or Smoothing and Leveling Harrow
With this tool every field can. be
onion beds. Will smooth an acre as
booklet.
CUTAWAY HARROW CO., 398 Main St., Higganum, Conn.

FOR SALE
Manatee County 20,000 acres
DeSoto County 3,500 acres
Polk County 6,200 acres
Pasco County 5,400 acres
Citrus County ..11,000 acres
Sumter County 26,000 acres
Sumter County 10,000 acres
Lake County 21,400 acres
Orange County 4>700 acres
Hamilton County 49,000 acres
Columbia County 10,000 acres
Hamilton County 12,000 acres
Hamilton County 12,840 acres
Brevard County 14,000 acres
Brevard County 19,000 acres
St. Lucie County 36,000 acres
Our purchases were first, location and quality of lands are choice. Titles have
passed competent attorneys. Will furnish prices and terms upon application. No con connection
nection connection whatever with agents or brokers WRITE OR CALL ON
NAUMBURG, Owners Agent
507 Atlantic National Bank Building JACKSONVILLE, FLA.

31



32

FARMING IN FLORIDA
HAS MANY DECIDED ADVANTAGES
That Can Only be Comprehended, after a Personal Investigation
t-T r\ + lyyo S. W. of Jacksonville on the main
icy r dXlllo lineof the S. A. L. Ry. at Lawtey, are in the
heart of Floridas greatest strawberry section.
THE CLIMATE IS IDEAL and free from extremes of heat and cold. An Annual
nual Annual average temperature 70 degrees.
Good LandGood Title Good WaterGood TransportationGood
Stores Good ChurchesGood SchoolsGood Community in which to
locate or make an investment.
We can show you from actual results already attained that our land will pro produce
duce produce successfully and profitably all the farm truck, fruit and Orchard crops that
thrive in North Central Florida.
COME AND SEE FOR YOURSELF The more you investigate the better we are pleased, for
we know what the result wVI be, :: :: Write for free booklet and other literature.
Uncle Sam-Flo rida Land Company
MAIN AND; WASHINGTON STREETS Bloomington, 111.

= Famous Cecil Mango
The Mango That is as Easy to Eat as a Peach No Fibre, No Pitchy Taste
Tlie trees which we offer are inarched from the original parent tree,
the fruit from which netted the owner over $250.00 last season.
Strong Inarched Trees $3.00 each, $25.00 per ten trees
BUDDED TRAPP AVOCADO PEAR TREES
THE AVOCADO THAT RIPENS AFTER ALL OTHERS ARE GONE AND ALWAYS BRINGS HIGH PRICES
We offer strong budded and inarched trees propagated from the largest bearing grove in
the State. Price $1.75 each. $15.00 per ten trees
We still have a few hundred Eucalyptus trees, Grape Fruit trees, Orange trees for June
planting, Write for catalog and prices
THE GRIFFING BROS. COMPANY
NURSERYMEN
LITTLE RIVER, FLA. JACKSONVILLE, FLA.

FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST