The Florida agriculturist

Material Information

The Florida agriculturist
Uniform Title:
Florida agriculturist (De Land, Fla.)
Place of Publication:
DeLand Fla
Kilkoff & Dean
Publication Date:
Monthly[1908-June 1911]
Weekly[ FORMER 1878-1907]
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ;


Subjects / Keywords:
Agriculture -- Florida ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- De Land (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Volusia County (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Jacksonville (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Duval County (Fla.) ( lcsh )
newspaper ( marcgt )
newspaper ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Florida -- Volusia -- DeLand
29.02889 x -81.30055 ( Place of Publication )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1, no. 1 (May 15, 1878)-v. 38, no. 6 (June 1911).
Numbering Peculiarities:
Numbering is irregular.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Some issues for 1911 also called "New series."
General Note:
Publisher: E.O. Painter, <1887>.
General Note:
Editor: C. Codrington, 1878- .
General Note:
"A journal devoted to state interests."
General Note:
Published at Jacksonville and De Land, <1902>-1907; at Jacksonville, 1907- .
Funded by NEH in support of the National Digital Newspaper Project (NDNP), NEH Award Number: Project #00110855

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item.
Resource Identifier:
000941425 ( ALEPH )
01376795 ( OCLC )
AEQ2997 ( NOTIS )
sn 96027724 ( LCCN )

Related Items

Preceded by:
Volusia County herald (De Land, Fla.)

Full Text
The Only Paper East of the Rocky Mountains Making a Specialty of Tropical and Semi-Tropical Agriculture
£ JmK. vH|Hh|L 1 If

The aim of the FLORIDA LAND BUREAU is to establish a central point in the State of Florida for the emanation of thor thoroughly
oughly thoroughly reliable and authentic information pertaining to properties listed and for sale in any part of the State, for the benefit
and protection of the prospective buyer, specializing upon the location, products of the soil, prices of land, adaptability, trans transportation,
portation, transportation, markets, climate, etc. The following is a partial list of our offerings:

100. On what is known as Morris Island,
we have 6,400 acres that we can sell for $8.50
an acre. This is in a territory where ten
years ago lands were considered worth a great
deal more than these prices. Close to this
acreage we have 2,400 acres, and near this
3,200 acres that we will sell you at the same
price, as a whole or any portion.
101. 143 acres good farming land, fenced,
in Leon county, with good painted five-room
dwelling, good cheap barn, two tenant houses,
at $3,000.
No. 102. 21 1-2 acres in St. Lucie county,
near Stuart; fronts on St. Lucie river. This
is unimproved pineapple and trucking land.
Price, $1,150 cash.
No 104. Five miles from Leesburg, on
lake, 10 acres of land, 8 acres orange and
grapefruit trees, in fine bearing. Four-room
cottage. Good well of water. Price, $3,500.
104-A. At Lady lake, 5-acre orange grove.
Price, $450.
104-B. 90 acres of hammock land and 40
acres of pine land. Grove has 1,350 to 1,400
trees, mostly orange, early variety; some grape grapefruit.
fruit. grapefruit. Seventy-five per cent trees bearing;
some of trees capable of bearing 8 to 10 boxes.
Five miles from Leesburg. Price, SB,OOO.
104-C. One mile from Leesburg. 13 acres
and house; about 200 orange trees. Price SBSO.
104-D. 25 acres, all cleared; 8-room house,
plastered. Few peach and pear trees and one
or two grapefruit trees. Two miles from Lees Leesburg.
burg. Leesburg. Price, $1,200.
104-C. One mile from Leesburg. 22 acres
hammock land, some old trees; on the lake.
Price, $1,200.
104-E. House and lot, within 1 1-2 blocks
of postoffice. Lot is 157x105 ft. Price, 5700.
No. 105. 40 acres, all under cultivation and
fenced; soil is rich and produces abundantly;
only 3 1-2 miles from Ocala, on a good, hard
road; large two-story, seven-room house, barns,
carriage sheds, etc.; peaches, pears, plums and
a great number of shade trees; good horse,
cow, wagon, buggy, harness, farming imple implements,
ments, implements, etc., all in good shape. Price, $4,500
cash, includes all, as stated.
No. 106. 80 acres in Marion county, near
land and raises corn without fertilizing. About
35 acres is now ready for cultivation, and is
well fenced. Two-story house, good well of
soft, cool water at corner of house. Large
barn, with shed, stables and granary; large
cistern at barn; blacksmiths shop, large shed
for wagons or tools, and old house and barn.
There are about 150 bearing pear trees, with
orange trees set between, only a few of them
in bearing; several young bearing peach trees,
and several varieties of plums, mulberries,
grapes, etc. 15 to 20 acres of pine timber
which has been turpentinedmot being worked
now. Price, $1,300; one-third cash, balance
two years at 8 per cent.
No. 107. 70 acres in Marion county, all in
cultivation excepting about 10 acres; one-half
cleared hammock, remainder pine and hick hickory
ory hickory hardwood land.. All under good fence.
Farm one-quarter mile from city limits of
Anthony, and one mile from school, postoffice
and church. Improvements consist of 4-room
house, with large porch on two sides; fine
well. Barn, corn crib, large buggy shed and
implement room; new chicken house and run.
Fine pond. Bay horse, 2 milch cows, 1 thor thoroughbred
oughbred thoroughbred heifer, fresh soon; 18 head of hogs;
about 35 thoroughbred R. I. Red chickens and
50 head of common stock; top buggy, almost
new wagon, mowing machine, hay rake, culti cultivator
vator cultivator and all kinds of plows and small farm
tools; 3 sets of harness; also fine cane patch.
Land lies high and dry and is in the best
farming section of Marion county. Immediate
possession given. All the land adjoining is in
cultivation. Price, $3,500; $1,500 down and
$750 by the first of July; the balance in one
and two years at 8 per cent.
No. 108. 20,000 acres cut-over land, near
Tampa, saw timber reserved, but will deliver
all within three years free of timber. Rich
land immune from frosts. Orange "roves on
all sides and fine truck land. Price, $5.50 per
No. 108-A. 80 acres, Hillsboro county, near
Plant 'City, of choice, selected land on hard
road in thickly settled neighborhood; school and
church in sight, on R F. D. mailroute; about
30 acres of cleared and stumped land, that has
grown 50 barrels of corn to the acre without
fertilizing; 250 bearing trees, some grapefruit,

Correspondence on any subject pertaining to Florida cordially invited. W. E. WILLIAMS, Manager

figs, plums and lots of peach trees; a good
seven-room house, barn, smoke house, etc.;
some thick pine timber; several acres of muck
land and an old field that can be easily re reclaimed;
claimed; reclaimed; all the very best of farming, truck trucking
ing trucking and fruit-growing land. Will sell every everything
thing everything for $4,000 and give terms.
109. 300 acres in Bradford county, on G.
S. and F. railway; 50 acres improved; 200
acres under American wire fence; 300 yards
from depot; one mile from church and school;
land will grow all staple crops, and is good for
truck growing; some small buildings. Price,
$3,500; one-third cash, balance one and two
No. no. 3,054 acres in Bradford county,
between and on either side of the S. A. L rail railway
way railway and the G. S. and F. railway; in the
midst of early strawberry-raising district, es especially
pecially especially fine for pecans, corn, sugar cane, and
all general farm products. Best all-round farm farming
ing farming land in the state. About 50 miles from
Jacksonville. SIO.OO per acre cash, or $11.50
per acre on time, for the whole tract
No. in. Seven acres in Orange county,
near Orlando, on county road to Oveido. Hog Hogproof
proof Hogproof fence on two sides. Land is cleared and
grubbed. i3X24-foot box-style house in good
condition; ioxi4-foot poultry house; stall for
horse; garden enclosed with poultry wire fence.
One a*cre of seedling trees, orange and grape grapefruit.
fruit. grapefruit. One and one-fifth acres of two year yearold
old yearold budded trees. All trees in healthy condi condition.
tion. condition. Good wagon, plows, farm tools; 25 hens
included. Location high and healthy. No
mosquitoes; no malaria. Price, S6OO cash.
No. 112. A Hotel, at Plymouth, Orange
county, two miles from Apopka; three-story,
35 rooms, all furnished and in good repair.
Nice grounds, fruits and flowers. Nice lake
front for boating and fishing. Good winter
resort. Price, $6,000.
No. 113. 25 acres pine land, Orange county.
500 young orange and grapefruit trees, 200 in
bearing; on hard surfaced road and near
transportation. Price, $1,200.
No. 114. 40 acres, two miles from Plant
City, cleared and fenced; house and barn, good
truck land; 20 bearing orange trees, etc. A
desirable place; good water. Price, SI,BOO.
No 115. 40 acres, three miles from Plant
City; 25 acres cleared, nice house and barns;
a beautiful home and nicely located, good
land. Price, $1,700.
No. 116. 18 acres, one and one-half miles
from Plant City, cleared and fenced, nice
plastered 8-room house, barn, etc. Fine home.
Price, SI,BOO.
No. 117. 20 acres, two miles from Plant
City, near big phosphate plant; house and
barn, 15 acres cleared, all fenced; a good
farm where everything raised on the farm
can be easily disposed of at the phosphate
plant. Price, $1,400.
No. 118. 80 acres, three miles from Plant
City, hard road part of way; small bearing
orange grove, good houses and barns; a very
desirable place to live. Half-mile from graded
school. Ten acres cleared outside of grove;
good lands. Price, $2,000.
No. 119. 40 acres, 3 miles from Plant City,
on hard road; part cleared and fenced; good
for trucking and gardening. Price, $1,500.
No. 120. 40 acres adjoining above tract;
house and barns, 10 acres cleared; good for
all kinds of crops. Price, $1,200.
No. 121. 80 acres, Duval county, 4 1-2
miles from Jacksonville, near King road. This
is cut-over land, mostly high; good drainage;
occasional clump of cypress low land. The
Florida railroad, which is now building from
Fernandina via Jacksonville to White Springs
and Live Oak, has already completed the
grading of its road bed, which runs practi practically
cally practically between the two 40s. This road should
be operating suburban service within twelve
months, which should enhance this land very
materially. Price, S7O per acre for the 80
acres. If desired, 40 acres of this tract can
be secured at $75 per acre. Terms on whole
tract, SI,OOO cash, SI,OOO in six months, bal balance
ance balance 1, 2 and 3 years at 8 per cent. On the
40-acre tract, SSOO down, SSOO in six months,
balance in 1, 2 and 3 years at 8 per cent.
No. 122. 140 acres fine pine land farm,
natural drainage, 30 acres cleared and fenced;
3-room house, barn 1 *-2 stories, stable and
wagon room, all new; naif-mile from creek
landing, 3 miles from St. Johns river, and
35 miles from Jacksonville. 50 bearing trees,

70 pecan trees, nearly all bearing. This land
will grow all kinds of garden truck and sta staple
ple staple crops. Price, $3,000.
No. 123. 150 acres Willow Brook Farm,
10 miles from St. .Augustine, on Matanzas
river, about 1 1-2 miles of riparian rights; 30
acres under wire fence; 90 peach trees, barn
(house was burned), about 1,000 cords of oak
wood on the land. Price, $4,500. Terms.
No. 124. 23 acres, all under cultivation, on
Mill creek road, about 11 miles from St. Au Augustine;
gustine; Augustine; good stock range surrounding it; 3-
room house, sugar mill and evaporator. Price,
No. 125. 412 acres, mostly hammock land,
fronting on Matanzas river about 21 miles
south of St. Augustine, 20 acres fenced, 16
cleared, 4-room house, barn and some fruit
trees. Price, $2,500.
No. 126. 20 acres, 1 mile south of Moul Moultrie
trie Moultrie creek, about 7 miles Irom St. Augustine,
all under good fence. A small stream of wa water
ter water runs through land; 150 bearing Jap. per persimmons,
simmons, persimmons, 3-4 acre scuppernong grape arbor in
good condition, also a number of pear
and plum trees; a 6-room house. Terms, one onehalf
half onehalf cash, balance in 1, 2 and 3 years at t>
per cent. Price, $2,500.
No. 127. 7 acres, Pasco county orange
grove, 4 miles south of Dade City, on A. C.
L. railway. Wire fenced. Trees in bearing,
about 20 feet high. Price, SI,OOO, one-quarter
cash, balance in SIOO notes, due every three
months, 8 per cent.
No. 128. 7 acres, Pasco county, 4 miles
south of Dade City. The whole acreage is in
sweet oranges only. Trees in fine condition,
12 to 20 ft high, and about 6 inches through
at the stump. The land is fine and rich.
This grove is at Ellerslfe, on the A. C. L.
railway, within 200 yards of the depot. Price,
$l,lOO, one-third cash, balance easy payments.
SI,OOO all cash.
No. 129. 330 acres, Pasco county, 5 miles
west of Dade City, 1 1-2 miles south Blan Blanton.
ton. Blanton. A. C. L. railway runs through place.
75 acres good pine timber, 40 acres hard-wood
hammock, 60 acres open hammock (or cleared
land), 30 acres open prairie, 125 acres in mill
pond. This hammock land very fine; pine landl
above the average. The prairie land is ex exceptionally
ceptionally exceptionally good truck land, and land or basin
under the pond is as fine celery, strawberry,
onion or cabbage land as in Florida. Pond
will drain off by raising flood-gates at mill.
This pond been catching washings from ad adjacent
jacent adjacent hillsides for centuries; soil is black and
rich, belter than muck. This basin has 8 to
10 springs running into it, making irrigation
easy. Dwelling of two rooms, also barns,
stables, and fine grist mill run by water.
Price, sls per acre. Terms, one-half cash,
balance 12 months, 8 per cent.
No. 130. 120 acres, Pasco county, on Lake
Pasadena, with half-mile of lake front; 20
acre bearing orange grove. The past crop was
2,000 boxes, next crop estimated from 4,000
to 5.000 boxes: 5 acres grapefruit orchard,
one year old. 10-acre peach orchard; 40 acres
hardwood hammock. Two fine 2-story dwell dwellings;
ings; dwellings; 1 mile from Pasadena station, 3 miles
from Dade City. Price, $12,000; one-third
cash, balance on terms.
No. 131. 40 acres fine orange grove and
trucking land, about 18 miles from Fort Mey Meyers,
ers, Meyers, DeSoto county, in the town of Alva. Good
5-room dwelling. Four acres in seedling grape grapefruit
fruit grapefruit trees, 2 acres of which just coming into
bearing; 3 acres cleared for trucking, with
good fence enclosing fully 9 acres, including
the land cleared; balance of land is pine tim timber
ber timber land. Scuppernong grape, mulberry trees,
lemons, etc., about the house. A bargain at
$1,500. Terms.
No. 132. 40 acres on Sanibel Island, De-
Soto county. About two-thirds of the prop property
erty property is suitable for cultivation, and about four
acres are under cultivation. The island has
rural free delivery and excellent line of boats
between that point and Fort Myers. Price,
$l5O per acre.
No. 133. 28 acres, St. Johns county; 10-
room dwelling, barn, poultry house, etc; 10
acres cleared, 5 acres planted in orange, pe pecan,
can, pecan, Tap. persimmon and guava trees. Good
artesian well* 2 1-2 miles from Hastings, on
public road, half mile from St. Johns river.
Excellent for poultry, trucking, etc. Price,
$4,500. Terms, half cash, balance in 1 and
2 years. Immediate possession.

Iflortba Banculturist

Old Series Vol. XXXVIII, No. 5
New Series Vol. I, No. 2.

Author of Florida Fruits and Howto Raise Them/ Home Life in Florida,
Southern Stories for Little Readers, Etc.

[This is a story with a motive to show what
can be and is being done by industry and in intelligent
telligent intelligent effort in Florida. To term it fiction
would be a misnomer for it deals with the pract practical
ical practical side of the life of a family who made their
home in this favored State, and tells how they
made their great success.]
My First Venture.
At the time of which I write, in the
middle eighties, the city of Jackson Jacksonville
ville Jacksonville was but the ghost of what it is
today, in the early nineteen hundreds.
But still there were several thousand
people living there all the year round,
and in winter the population was
more than doubled, because, so far
as winter visitors was concerned, that
point was usually the *jumping-off
place for the season. Transporta Transportation
tion Transportation was not what it is now; there
were fewer lines, fewer and slower
trains, and still fewer good' hotels
such as would appeal to tourists of
wealth. But Jacksonville, even thus
far back, had its attractions, and
among them were several well kept
hotels. These were my attraction
too, though from a different point of
It was when I stood in the center
of my two acres of cleared hammock
land, that I saw those hotel tables
looming up before my minds eye. I
saw what should be served up on
them, and probably would not be, be because
cause because at that time the opinion was
prevalent among agricultural Flor Floridians,
idians, Floridians, that the vegetables we of the
North regarded as every-day affairs,
could not be raised on Floridas
sandy soil. Therefore the hotel pro proprietors
prietors proprietors were forced to depend largely
on such vegetables as would stand
stransportation from outside the
It was because of these conditions
that I ventured on an innovation
which called forth earnest remon remonstrances
strances remonstrances and warnings from my well wellmeaning
meaning wellmeaning but easy-going neighbors
who were content to tread in the
old-time grooves, depending on their
orange groves, and living by choice
on what was a necessity, perhaps, to
their earlier days, hog and hominy.
Building and clearing and the many
other necc"~ary expenditures had
made a big hole in my small capital,
and I knew it behooved me not to
let the grass grow under my feet in
the effort to recoup some of this out outlay.
lay. outlay. I wanted to feel some solid soil
beneath me. I had made some pre preliminary
liminary preliminary inquiries in passing through
Jacksonville on my way southward
when home-seeking, and the result

Jacksonville, Fla., May, 1911

of the information then gathered de determined
termined determined me to try to supply some of
its most pressing needs in the line of
fresh vegetables. I wont say
that my motive was entirely disin disinterested,
terested, disinterested, so dont ask me.
I had been assured again and again
that nothing would grow in Florida,
South Florida, at least, but oranges,
sweet potatoes, cowpeas. and razor razorbacks.
backs. razorbacks. That these four did grow and
flourish, especially the latter, I had
had plenty of ocular demonstration,
but I was unable to find a single man
in my neighborhood who had ever
tried to raise anything else, save only
cotton, and of that but a little. I
could see no reason why almost every
vegetable could not be grown on
Florida soil, if the proper methods
and the right season were factors.
And so I went ahead to my ever everlasting
lasting everlasting ruination, as one of my good
neighbors pityingly expressed it. Of
course, having no precedent in the
work, I was forced to regard it as
an experiment, but hoped I would not
buy my experience at too heavy a
Just as soon as my two acre plot
was cleared, I had it plowed as deep
as was possible with the shallow
plows that were then exclusively in
use in that section. Here again I
was warned. Deep plowing would
bring the poor sub-soil to the top, and
make all the land poor together.
Well, that was just what I planned
to do, bring the sub-soil to the top;
I was not so particular about making
all the land poor, and had no fear of
doing so I believed that the deeper
down the rich top soil could be turn turned,
ed, turned, the better for the roots that were
to seek their life blood in its midst,
while the poor soil brought to the
surface could be enriched by the ap application
plication application of fertilizers. That was the
way I looked at it, and I have never
had reason to change my point of
view. In a shallow soil no one should
expect satisfactory yields of either
vegetables or fruits; such expectation
will lead to disappointment.
I had ordered several barrels of
land plaster from Jacksonville, and
this I sprinkled over the soiil working it
in with a second plowing and harrow harrowing.
ing. harrowing. That helped the upturned sub subsoil.
soil. subsoil. There was a cotton gin in the
neighborhood, and the seeds, for
which no special use was then known,
were regarded as of no value, save
for a cheap fertilizer, and were glad gladly
ly gladly sold at a few cents a bushel. I
bought a quantity of the seeds as

soon as I had secured the homestead,
and mixed them up with a lot of
forest leaves, woods, mold and' muck,
with layers of land plaster, and kept
the pile moist and well spaded over.
Thus by this time I was ready to
plant my English peas, beans, toma tomatoes
toes tomatoes and cabbages, my home-made
fertilizer was ready for use. Loves
labor lost, thought my neighbors,
though they didnt phrase it quite in
those words.
I bought my seed's of a reliable
Georgia seedsman who had a repu reputation
tation reputation to lose if his seeds were not
fresh or true to name. I would have
preferred to buy of a Florida firm, but
at that time there were no such firms
in the State, though one was estab established
lished established a few years later, when it be become
come become a demonstrated fact that there
was actually need for vegetable seeds
in hitherto maligned Florida. And
just here I would sound a much
needed warning against the buying of
seeds from local stores. They are,
as a rule, poor places to get seeds
from. They are often hold-overs
from the previous season. Old seeds
are nearly always worthless, and in
this climate seeds lose their vitality
very quickly. Old stock may be de detected
tected detected by their lack of the gloss which
is the hallmark of fresh seeds. The
gloss is caused by the evaporation of
the live moisture in the seed, and
when absent, the seed is dead and
And here is another point worthy
of note- Seedsmen are often blamed
because their seeds do not sprout or
grow off vigorously, when the fault
is really in the sterile soil. A seed is
almost as responsive to fertility as
a growing plant; it must have mois moisture
ture moisture to swell and germinate, and if
this moisture is not laden with plant
food it tells on the seed from its
very sprouting. There is an old say saying
ing saying that The acme of poverty in a
soil is reached when it is too poor
to sprout white beans, and this is
literally true of other than white
My cleared hammock land was by
no means poor land; on the con contrary,
trary, contrary, it was rich and virgin soil, but
I made it richer by scattering in
the open rows the compost of cotton cottonseeds
seeds cottonseeds and trash, including such
portions of the brush heap made in
clearing as were well rotted. Rich
soil, as rich as it is possible to make
it, is an indispensable factor to suc success
cess success in raising vegetables. There is
one danger always to be guarded

Established 1873


against; it is a pitfall into which
many ambitious settlers stumble.
They plunge headforemost into anew
pursuit without having the requisite
industry, experience or means to
make it profitable. And then, (this
is just a remark in passing), they and
others cite their failures to prove the
uncertainties of the business, when
all the while it is themselves and their
own mistakes that make the trouble,
and not the soil or climate.
Men who are not accustomed to
vegetable growing are almost certain
to try to cultivate too much land, and
so overreach themselves. It is worse
than useless to attempt to raise truck
in quantities without an abundance of
work, fertilizers, and thorough, intel intelligent
ligent intelligent cultivation. One acre well fer fertilized,
tilized, fertilized, well worked, and well tilled,
will yield better results than ten acres
half fertilized, half worked and half
tilled. Put in a pin right here, and
dont pull it out, ever. Commercial
fertilizers alone will not give the best
results on thin, sandy lands, but give
them also some material containing
humus, and you will see vegetation
taking on a hump. However, as I
have proved, a man determined to
succeed can win out even if he has not
the means to buy the concentrated fer fertilizers
tilizers fertilizers of commerce. He can, if he
will take the trouble, find stores of
fertilizing matters as I did, around
old' stumps and log heaps, in fence
corners, in the hammocks, by the
roadside, on the prairies frequented
by cattle, in the cowpen, in the stable,
and in the wash-water and slops of
the household. More on this sub subject
ject subject later on.
In the early days of which I write,
this branch of agriculture even in the
older sections of Florida was still in
swaddling clothes, and the immense
proportions to which it has grown at
the present time was not even dream dreamed
ed dreamed of. The man, who, in the early
eighties, dared to prophesy that the
day would come when Florida would
supply the bleak North with fresh
vegetables from December to June;
with strawberries from January to
May; with peaches and pears in May
and June, and with oranges and
pomelos from September to April,*
would have been laughed at as a
visionary dreamer, but little short of
being a lunatic.
Well, I was that sort of a lunatc
myself, and I dont mind owning up
to it, now that time and further ex experience
perience experience have proven my position to
have been right on the firing line all
the while. Thats human nature, you
know. If I had been in the wrong
most likely I would be saying nothing
about it just now.
You may recall that one half acre
was set apart for the house enclosure.
One corner of this space I devoted to
home vegetable garden, while the one
and a half acres formed my experi experimental
mental experimental farm. I hired a man and
horse to open out the rows and scat scatter
ter scatter the compost in them. This was
late in ,September, and having gone
thus far I rested on my oars until
there came a good soaking rain. As
soon as I saw it coming, I put my
beans, and English peas in to soak,
knowing that such large seed's can
be forced several days ahead by
sprouting them in water before plant planting.
ing. planting. A word of caution just here.
Never soak seed and then sow it in


dry soil, for the earth will drink up
the moisture and the seed die of
If it is necessary to sow seeds in
dry weather, as is frequently the case
during the long droughts of spring
and autumn, when crops must be
hurried for the northern markets,
water the furrows and drop the seeds
in dry. Pack the seeds well into the
moist soil and cover them at once
with dry earth. This is an excellent
way to get seeds up quickly in dry
weather, and pays good interest for
the trouble. I dropped my seeds on
a Friday and by Tuesday so many
little green fellows were peeping up
that we could easily trace the rows
from end to end.
Still another way of sowing dry
seed in dry weather is to cover with
loose soil and then wet it above the
seed, running the water in a shallow
trench made by drawing a hoe above
the row, and then covering at once
with dry soil, well beaten down. We
must never lose sight of the fact that
while the sun is literally our warmest
friend, he will surely steal every drop
of moisture that is left exposed to
his view if he has the chance. He
is an inveterate water thief, and
when moisture is scarce, the trucker
has need to watch his approach con constantly.
stantly. constantly.
Another point to be remembered is
that if pine land is plowed under when
soaking wet, it will retain the mois moisture
ture moisture for a long time, and go far to towards
wards towards saving the plants in a drought
Tt is half the battle in getting seeds
to germinate quickly, to bring the
soil at the time of sowing in close
contact with the soil by pressing down
hard with a hoe or the foot. The
moisture is thus brought in close con
tact with the seeds, and when the rain
comes they get the full benefit of it
This is an important point at all
About Hotbeds and Cold Frames.
is often called sub-tropical,
and this is practically true nine-tenths
of the time of the most southern sec sections.
tions. sections. The State is one of the largest
in the Union, having a length from
north to south of three hundred and
seventv-five milos and 'an average
breadth of ninety miles, embracing
an area of nearly sixty thousand
square miles, or in acres, nearly
thirty-eight million. So you see
there is plenty of room for a divers 1
ty of cl'mate.
Tf it were not for the occasional
cold waves that sweep so fiercely
down from the northwest carrying de destruction
struction destruction to tender vegetation in its
midst, all of Florida might be counted
upon for the safe culture of semi semitropical
tropical semitropical fruits. But those cold waves
do come, and when they whistle in
the ears of a Floridian he knows that
it behooves him to get busy in pro protecting
tecting protecting his frailer plants as best he
may. Much has been learned in this
respect from past disastrous exper experiences,
iences, experiences, and today the damage done bv
cold weather is nothing as compared
to that in times gone by. T saw some
of those times, as you will learn bye
and bye.
Mv location was about the center
of Middle Florida, or, as some term
it, on the northern border of South

Florida, being a little below the
twenty-ninth parellel, and I knew that
it was subject to semi-occasional
raids by the cold-wave fiend. There Therefore
fore Therefore having resolved to do my best
to win success in raising vegetables
during the winter or hotel season.
I made a number of shallow boxes in
which to start tomatoes, eggplants
and lettuce. The boxes were small
enough to be moved about with ease,
and were kept on the porch at night
when there was the slightest threat
of any extra cool weather. The
seeds were sowed in rows about two
inches apart, and lightly covered with
soil well packed down, thoroughly
watered and then mulched with the
grey moss that draped the oak trees
all aroung us. As soon as the seeds
began to sprout the mulch was remov removed,
ed, removed, and every few days the boxes were
turned so that the plants should not
be drawn to one side by an uneven
diffusion of light.
My next step was to construct a
hotbed to force and protect the seed seedlings
lings seedlings as soon as they were large
enough to transplant from the seed
boxes. I selected a spot well drained
and with a southern exposure, and
with the further protection of the
house between it and the nprthwest
winds. The essentials for a hotbed
are bottom heat, protection on all
sides and a sliding sash cover. The
heat is usually supplied by the fer fermentation
mentation fermentation of horse manure which
should be taken fresh, with about
half as much of the bedding and lit litter
ter litter as there is of manure.
Before being used it should be piled
in a heap about four feet deep, and
narrow for convenience in handling,
with the top level, and if kept under
cover it will be much more effective.
If fermentation does not start readily,
wet the heap with hot water; that
will set it to doing its duty in short
order. Turn it all over several times
to insure uniform fermentation, at
the same time breaking up any lumps
and mixing all well together.
There was a small livery stable at attached
tached attached to the village hotel, and I was
fortunate enough to find there sever several
al several loads of just the sort of manure
that was needed for my hotbed. There
was no demand for it, and as the
owner had no use for manure, he
thanked me for (taking it out of his
way. I told him he was quite wel welcome,
come, welcome, and I would be pleased to do
him the like favor again at any and
all times, for which assurance he
expressed his gratitude. I did him
another favor right on the spot by
hiring his team to haul the precious
stuff away, for which he thanked me
again. He was a real good fellow,
that old-time hotel man, and so grate grateful
ful grateful for favors done him; I never met
another man who thanked me for
carrying off his fertilizing material.
He thought I was a real good fellow
too, so we parted that day mutually
pleased with each other.
I dug a pit two feet deep, twenty twentyfour
four twentyfour feet long and three and a half
feet wide, and spread a two-inch lay layer
er layer of clay over the bottom, well pack packed
ed packed down. Why? Well, you see this
was an innovation of my own, for I
never saw it recommended in books.
My idea was that the clay would help
to keep the moisture and manure from
seeping away into the sand below, and
so preserve it all for the use of the

Top of Hotbed, Showing Frame and Sliding Sash.

growing plants. And it did all I hop hoped
ed hoped for. In after times I made a hot hotbed
bed hotbed similar in all things to this first
one except that I omitted the bottom
layer of clay. The bed showed so
decided a difference in the growth of
the plants that I always afterwards
adhered to my first plan of a clay
The pit portion of the frame I
lined with two-inch heart pine boards,
and would have preferably used brick
could I have obtained them. The
above ground part was built of cheap
rough edge board's overlapping so as
to make tight joints. The frame fac faced
ed faced south and was two feet high at
the back, sloping to one foot in front.
Instead of the regulation glass sashes.
I made frames of narrow strips of
wood, and covered (them with un unbleached
bleached unbleached muslin painted with boiled
linseed oil. This made the cloth
translucent, and partly rain proof, and
answered every purpose of protection
from the light frosts of the usual
mild Florida winters, and from prowl prowling
ing prowling insects.
When the frame was completed, I
proceeded to 'throw inside the heap
of manure which was now in prime
condition, adding a good deal of fine
leaf mold to prevent it from packing,
as a hotbed should always be sog soggy,
gy, soggy, so that it feels springy when
stepped' upon. The tots, by the way,
thought it fine fun to help dad pack
the mass, and their little feet went
twinkling up and down and round
about until finally they actually made
a sort of spring board of the manure
bed. You should have heard them
laugh when I called it a bed, they
thought that the funniest thing ever,
and wondered who was going to sleep
there. When I told them that a
whole lot of plants were going to
wake up there, they opened their
brown eyes wider than ever, but they
were too polite to tell dad he was
telling mistakes.
In fact, those little folks passed
their days in a state of perpetual
wonder at all the strange things they
saw in their new home, and it was
a sheer delight to watch them. A
happier pair of twins never were seen,
and from being pale, delicate chil children,
dren, children, they soon became sturdy,
brown-cheeked roly-polys. They had
lots of fun trampling over the manure
bed. and when it came time to put
on the top soil, I was reluctantly ob obliged
liged obliged to dispense with their assis assistance,
tance, assistance, as it was necessary that the
surface should be level and smooth,
and not dented with the tiny foot footprints
prints footprints that were so dear to dad. This
top soil, four inches deep, was good goodhammock
hammock goodhammock loam, carefully freed from
twigs and other roughage. The
depth of the manure below was two
feet, just the depth of the pit. T sow sowed
ed sowed some tomato and eggplant seeds


in the hotbed when the thermometer
marked ninety degrees inside the clos closed
ed closed frame, that being the proper tem temperature
perature temperature for the germination of seeds
requiring a great deal of warmth. A
little later, when the height of fer fermentation
mentation fermentation of the manure had passed,
and. the temperature had' dropped to
eighty and seventy, other more hardy
seeds went in, such as lettuce and
A hotbed was not enough to sat satisfy
isfy satisfy me. I wanted a cold frame too,
in order to harden off the plants that
bye and bye would be taken from the
hotbed before setting them out in
the open air. The making of the cold
frame is the same as that of the
hotbed frame, save that no manure for
heating purposes is needed. A mod moderately
erately moderately rich soil, much the same as
that to be fed to the adult plants out outside,
side, outside, and a cotton cloth covering are
all that are required for the make-up
of a cold frame. And I will say right
here, after an experience of many
years, that for ordinary south Florida
winters, the cold frame alone will
be found sufficient protection
for starting early plants, or
for forcing lettuce, tomatoes and
other small fry to maturity. But al always
ways always there should be plenty of ex extra
tra extra covering at hand to meet sudden
cold waves.
Not all kinds of seeds, nor all of
one kind, should be sown at the same
tme. Thought should be taken as to
the proper date for transplanting to
the open, and also to a succession.
When the plants in the hotbed are
ready to be transferred to the cold
frame, it is a loss to leave them in
the former. At the same time, if it
is still too cold to take them from
the frame out into the open ground,
a loss will come in there also.
So you see that judgment and' cal calculation
culation calculation are required in this as in
other matters, if one would be suc successful.
cessful. successful. There are some points in the
treatment of hotbed and cold frame
plants that it may be well to mention
right here, some things that I paid
dearly for in the learning in those
early days of experiment and ignor ignorance.
ance. ignorance. During bright days the hotbed
will heat up very quickly, and so
the hinged lid must be raised early,
care being taken in ventilating to
protect the plants from a draft, of
cold air.
On warm days the sashes may be
entirely raised, but towards evening
should be closed in order that the
bed may become sufficiently warm be before
fore before the coolness of night sets in
Another thing to remember is this,
and here is the rock on which many
an amateur gardener has come to
grief. Hotbeds and cold frames
should be watered only on bright
days and always in the morning, be because

cause because watering in the evening or on
cloudy days will tend to chill the
beds and frost the plants. After
watering the beds they should be thor thoroughly
oughly thoroughly ventilated to dry the foliage
and the surface of the soil. Careless Carelessness
ness Carelessness in this respect will result in
heavy losses from dampening off
or mildew. Cold frames should have
the same treatment as the hotbeds.
And now a few words as to seed
beds, as distinct from the hotbed and
.cold frame. In one sense, it is true,
the whole garden is a seed bed for
those seeds that are sown where they
are to grow. But the seed bed proper
is a specially prepared spot for start starting
ing starting plants when there is no danger
of frosts catching them, and from
which they can be transplanted direct
to their final resting place. Its loca location
tion location should be such that it can be easi easily
ly easily reached for watering, and be pro protected
tected protected either naturally or artificially
from winds.
The best soil for the seed bed con consists
sists consists of one part well rotted manure,
two parts good garden loam or rot rotted
ted rotted sods, and one part fine sand.
Of course it may prove somewhat
troublesome to procure the latter in
Florida, but my experience proves
that it can be done, here and there.
I found enough, especially in my
shoes after outdoor work. Doubtless
others will be as successful in locat locating
ing locating a genteel sufficiency of Florida
While the manure for the seed bed
should be well rotted, it should not
have been exposed to the weather, as
that would leach its strength. The ad additon
diton additon of some leaf mold or muck
w'll make the soil still better for
seed growth. Mix all the ingredients
Cross Section of Hotbed.
together very thoroughly; then sift
the heap and spread the soil over
the bed, or put it in boxes if prefer preferred,
red, preferred, ready for the sowing of the seed.
If the presence of weed seeds or
the spores of fungii are suspected,
they may be killed by placing the soil
in pans and baking it in a hot oven for
an hour. Or, in larger quantities for
the main seed bed, the soil can be
heated in an iron pot over an out outdoors
doors outdoors fire. Sow the seeds always in
straight rows, and about four /or
five inches apart in the rows in the
seed bed, two inches apart in boxes.
J. H. Barns, buyer and shipper at
Plant City, reported in the Courier
of last Friday that the strawberry grow growers
ers growers of that district had received up to
that date a total of $62,249.60 for their
berries since the shipping season be began.
gan. began.



Packing Tender Fruits For Shipment

The following from the Hawaiian For Forester
ester Forester and Agriculturist deals with the
packing and shipping of five fruits
the avocado pear, the mango, the paw pawpaw,
paw, pawpaw, the banana and the pineapple.
The picking of the Avocado pear
should be done within as short a
time as possible previous to the sail sailing
ing sailing of the steamer, for thiis fruit
begins to soften quickly, and should
therefore be placed in cold storage
as soon as possible. Even if there
are facilities ror keeping this fruit
at a low temperature for a time until
the steamer arrives, the change of
temperature consequent on its remov removal
al removal is likely to do serious harm. In
picking, the stalk should be cut at
a distance of one-quarter or one oneeighth
eighth oneeighth inch from the fruit, and great
care should be exercised so that the
fruit may not be bruised. For pack packing,
ing, packing, crates large enough to hold one
dozen, or at the most two dozen fruits,
are most convenient, and each of these
crates should be only one tier deep.
All fruit should be wrapped in rather
thin, but strong paper; packing paper
between the fruits is inadvisable, as
it interferes with refrigeration and
ventilation. The time during which
this fruit will keep in good condition
in cold storage is at least three weeks,
and, probably, the best temperature
is between 45 and 50 degrees Centi Centigrade.
grade. Centigrade. The first signs of deteriora deterioration
tion deterioration under conditions of refrigeration
are the darkening of the flesh near
the seed and the presence of a rancid
The treatment of the mango is
much the same as that for the avocado
pear, with the following exceptions,
namely: though the crates should be
small, there is no need for them to
be as small as those for the avocado
pear, and they may be made with
two or three tiers; the mango can
be kept longer in cold storage, for
six weeks exposure to such conditions
will not harm the fruits.
The papaw should be picked as soon
as the faintest signs of yellow appear,
and as in the case of the avocado, just
before the time of despatch. About
one inch or one and a half inches of
the. stalk should' be left on the fruit,
which must be handled with great
care. The wrapping should be done
with rather heavy paper, preferably
glazed, in order to prevent the free
passage of moisture to the sound
fruits from any of those which may
have begun to decay or get soft.
While the fruit is in transit, ventila ventilation
tion ventilation alone is insufficient to keep it in
condition; it must travel at a reduced
Bananas for export should be cut
before they become too full, that
is, before the ridges on them disap disappear;
pear; disappear; naturally, the exact stage at
which to cut will depend on the time
which must elapse between their de despatch
spatch despatch and their arrival in the market.
Asa wrapper, grass has been used,
but this is liable to absorb and hold
moisture; banana leaves are much pre preferable,
ferable, preferable, as they will keep dry. In
some places, this fruit is being ex exported
ported exported in drums made of cardboard or.
thin wood, large enough to contain a


single bunch. The chief feature of the
drums is that the top hoop holds a
strong piece of paper in place, to
which the bunch is tied by its stalk, so
that the weight is supported by the
latter. The practicability of such a
method of shipping, in the case of any
particular place, would depend on lo local
cal local conditions. Bananas cannot be
carried at a very low temperature, as
they turn black without ripening; the
temperature may be lowered, but only
sufficiently to delay the ripening pro process
cess process a little. The Jamaica is superior
to the Chinese variety as it is not sub subject
ject subject to the disease known as ripe
rot, and because the individual fruits
do not show so great a tendency to
drop from the bunch.
As regards pineapples, those cut
with long stalks arrive at their desti destination
nation destination in much better condition than
those which have been cut off short-
The crates for packing should not be
too large, and are made preferably
with rounded corners in order to pre prevent
vent prevent damage by the splitting off of
staves. The packing material may be
grass or any other suitable vegetable
material, so long as it is quite dry. As
in the case of the papaw, the wrapping
should be of heavy paper and prefer preferably
ably preferably glazed; it should be large enough
to cover the whole fruit with the ex exception
ception exception of the crown. Finally, fruits
should be packed solid in order to
prevent damage from being shaken
against one another.
In a recent bulletin on fig culture,
F. C. Reimer, of the North Carolina
Station, calls- attention to the whole wholesale
sale wholesale premature dropping of the crop
which occurs annually with many fig
trees in that state and in other states
as well.
There are many fig trees in this
state which would produce several
bushels of fruit every season if it
could grow to maturity; but when
about two-thirds grown the fruit
turns yellowish, begins to shrivel, be becomes
comes becomes dry and tough, and then drops.
With the first crop it all drops within
a few days, while with the second the
dropping extends over a long period,
each fruit falling as soon as it reaches
a certain size or stage of maturity.
This trouble has been attributed' to
various causes, such as adverse
weather conditions, too rapid growth,
poor soil, and lack of proper fertiliza fertilization.
tion. fertilization. After examining specimens of
fruit received from various sections
of the state, however, together with
many others personally collected,
Professor Reimer finds that wherever
the dropping is at all serious the trou trouble
ble trouble is due to the kind of fig grown.
Fully 95 per cent of the figs examined
were true Smyrna seedlings and of
no value for culture in the South,
since the flowers of these seedlings
must be fertilized by the flowers of
the wild fig or caprifig; otherwise the
fruit will shrivel and drop off before
maturing. Thus far neither the cap caprifig
rifig caprifig nor the fig wasp Blastophaga
grossorum, which is reared in the
caprifig and carries the pollen to the

flowers of the Smyrna fig, has been
successfully domesticated in this
country, except in the warmer sections
of California, where the fig industry is
being developed to a considerable ex extent.
tent. extent. There exists, however, no doubt
that the caprifig and its attendant
wasp (Blastophaga grossorum) can
be successfully propagated in our
Southern states.
The caprifig rarely produces edible
fruit, hence whether the seedlings par partake
take partake of the nature of the Smyrna fig
or of the caprifig they are of no value
in the South, and, as Professor Rei Reimer
mer Reimer recommends, they should be de destroyed
stroyed destroyed and replaced with varieties of
known value, such as the Brown Tur Turkey
key Turkey or the Celestial, which varieties
have thus far proved' to be the best in
the latitude of North Carolina. Far Farther
ther Farther South many other excellent va varieties
rieties varieties can be grown.
In No. I of the new Philippine Ag Agricultural
ricultural Agricultural News, it is stated that the
trials of velvet beans there have not
been very satisfactory, but that the
Bureau of Agriculture has discovered
and brought into cultivation anew
velvet bean, Mucuna Lyone, which
grows wild and has hitherto been un undescribed.
described. undescribed. It has now been grown ex experimentally
perimentally experimentally to the third generation,
is losing the woodiness of the main
stem, and continues to be very prolific.
The seeds, too, are palatable, and with
further improvement by cultivation
will be improved. In general vigor
and productiveness as well as seed, it
far surpasses M. Utilis (Velvet Bean.)
This discovery of the economic value
of Mucuna Lyone is considered very
important. This bean is to be intro introduced
duced introduced into the Southern States.
In order to demonstrate the advis advisability
ability advisability of occasionally having recourse
to the tuber in the propagation of sweet
potatoes, and the bad economy of con continuing,
tinuing, continuing, year after year, to plant vine
cuttings from crops which have been
themselves grown from cuttings,
some trials were in 1905, and again in
1906 carried out at one of the Cuban
experiment stations.
In these tests, sweet potatoes of the
same variety were grown on adjacent
plots which received identical treatment
in all respects. In one case, however,
the crop was grown from vine cuttings
which had been raised in this way con continuously
tinuously continuously for many generations while
in the second case planting was made
with slips grown directly from potatoes
themselves. The plots planted with slips
returned a crop three and a half times
as great as the plots planted with cut cuttings.
tings. cuttings. It is evident that the gain of
350 per cent, fully repaid the extra ex expense
pense expense and trouble involved.
With spirits of turpentine selling at 92
cents per gallon and the probability of
soon reaching the dollar mark, the out outlook
look outlook for the producers looks g00d. ,,
As Florida is one of the largest produc producers
ers producers of turpentine and a relatively small
consumer, it ought to be good for the
state. also in a financial way.Bartow

Culture of the Delicious Paw Paw

The ripe fruit of this tree eaten for
dessert with cream and sugar is not
only a delicious dish but takes upon
itself the responsibility of the diges digestion
tion digestion of the preceding meal. It is
said that the papaya (paw paw) fruit
can be eaten every day for two years
without any ill effects. One or two
experiments in cooking the ripe or
unripe fruit with tough meat will
soon convince anyone that with the
aid of the paw paw the toughest meat
may be made as soft and tender as
you please.
The paw paw is really a large herb
and hence should be grown from seed
the same way as the tomato or melon.
Professor P. J. Wester, of the United
States Sub-Tropical Laboratory at
Miami, states that less than one
per cent of a batch of Florida seed seedlings
lings seedlings bear superior fruit and this ac accounts
counts accounts for the scarcity of the paw
paw on the market. There are great
numbers of this fruit growing wild
throughout the jSouth Florida jungles
and hammocks. They are cross fertil fertilized
ized fertilized by numerous insects and moths.
Such cross fertilization can be avoid avoided
ed avoided by obtaining good varieties of paw
paws from tropical localities where
they come true to seed, and pollinat pollinating
ing pollinating one or two flowers by hand,
carefully tying them up in paper bags
to keep insects from further pollinat pollinating
ing pollinating them. By this method there is
no doubt but what improved strains
can be grown. The paw paw, like
the wilow and the date palm, has two
kinds of trees the barren, which
bears the staminate flowers, and the
fruiting tree, which has the pistillate
flowers. Rather frequently the former
may bear bisexual flowers at the ends
of its long flower stalks, which flow flowers
ers flowers turn into rather small fruits.
More rarely the pistillate tree may
have some perfect flowers, provided
with stamens.
All parts of the paw paw tree, ex except
cept except the perfectly ripe fruits, contain
a milk, white latex, wh : ch exudes
from the' slightest wound, flowing rap rapidly
idly rapidly at first and then slackening, prob probably
ably probably because it coagulates in the latex
tubes. The latex soon clots and dries
on the plant and so tends to seal up
any wound'. It has a corrosive act action
ion action upon the skin, and if the raw latex
from green fruits, etc., is swallowed,
it may tend to cause intestinal in inflammation.
flammation. inflammation. The raw latex has an
extremely potent digestive action
upon proteids. Thus, if a slice of
tough meat as beef steak, which in the
tropics may be cooked and eaten an
hour or two after being killed, is well
rubbed with the juice of the paw
paw leaves or the green fruits, or even
the pulp of the ripe fruit, and cooked,
it becomes tender and is readily masti masticated.
cated. masticated. The ripe fruit, which does not
contain the visible milky latex, acts
in the same way on proteids.
When perfectly ripe the fruit of the
paw paw is quite soft, but has lost all
acridity and the milky juice has dis disappeared.
appeared. disappeared. There is no doubt what whatever
ever whatever that this dessert fruit eaten after


a good dinner greatly aids the digest digestive
ive digestive process. It also, like the fig, acts
as a gentle laxative.
The paw paw requires a well drain drained
ed drained soil and is readily killed by stag stagnant
nant stagnant water about the roots. Thus it
grows commonly in South Florida
wild, in high hammocks and shell
mounds. If grown on rather poor
sandy soil, it should be enriched with
plenty of humus. If only a few plants
are grown, as for home consumption,
the following method has been tried
n a light volcanic soil in the West
Indies, securing excellent results: Dig
holes about ten feet apart, in well
drained soil, two or three feet deep
and three or four feet square, fill
them with a compost of soil, farm farmyard
yard farmyard manure, rotting weeds or hu humus
mus humus of any kind, adding unleached
wood ashes. Plant several paw paws
in each of these holes and cover
with any good mulch. Of course the
young plants will need water. As
soon as the first blossoms appear, cut
out the staminite ones so as to leave
only fruiting trees. For this purpose
several plants should always be plant planted
ed planted in a hill. A few paw paws may
be planted near by on poor ground
and one or two staminate trees out
of those left to pollinate the others.
In very dry weather the plants should
be irrigated, for while they will grow
in well drained soil they, at all times
should be well supplied with water.
If they are well grown without a
check, producing large leaved healthy
plants, they will in this warm climate
fruit almost continuously. T have
known cases of paw paws reaching an
age of several years; the best fruits,
however, are produced on the young
trees, say one year old. Heavy crops
can be grown on well drained Ever Everglade
glade Everglade soil and no doubt this fruit on
account of its medicinal qualities will
steadily grow in demand. Should in insects
sects insects bother the immature fruits they
can be annihilated by applications of
tobacco dust.
Children reared in homes where the
parents are indifferent to the appear appearance
ance appearance of the home grounds are indeed
unfortunate, for they lose nearly all
chance of acquiring that love of the
beautiful which is so elevating, so
Those who early in life become im imbued
bued imbued with a love of nature through
home influences, carry it through life
and it is a constant source of pleas pleasure,
ure, pleasure, not only to themselves, but to all
who come in contact with them an
intense love of nature which marks
them above their fellows. History
proves that a taste for gardening has
kept pace with the progress of civil civilization,
ization, civilization, and that it has always ex exerted
erted exerted a powerful influence upon the
passions and feelings of mankind.
Turnips as a second crop more than
pay for the time and work put in on

By. P. H. Rolfs.
Usually the rust mite does not occur
in a grove later than the middle of
July. Some years, however, it con continues
tinues continues to work vigorously late in the
fall, and in some groves as late as
into January, causing bright fruit to
russet even after it had become ripe.
Last spring was exceptional in regard
to the activities of this little pest.
Ordinarily it need give us no con concern
cern concern before the middle of May. Many
of us, however, were unpleasantly sur surprised
prised surprised to find that the crop of fruit
had been greatly damaged by it before
the first of May.
The rust mite is the smallest ani animal
mal animal belonging to the sp ; der-mite fam family.
ily. family. A single individual cannot be
seen by the ordinary eye. Nearly
every one. however, can detect rust
mites by the unaided eye when they
occur in countless numbers on citrus
fruits, as they are likely to do some
time during May. They may be de detected
tected detected on the fruit by a very delicate
light coloring, as if the fruit had been
dusted from a roadside. When this
inconspicuous dusty appearance oc occurrs,
currs, occurrs, one should use the hand lens
to determine whether this condition
is due to dust which has arisen from
the soil, or whether it is due to myri myriads
ads myriads of rust mites on the frirt. If it
is found that the rust mite is present,
this is a signal for immediate action.
The rust mite, like other spider
mites, is extremely sensitive to sul sulphur
phur sulphur compounds; consequently we
have a cheap remedy in almost all
kind's of sulphur mixtures. The most
effective, and at the same time, one
of the cheapest, is the sulphur spray,
made of sulphur and caustic soda. The
lime and sulphur mixture is also very
effective. Only two quarts of these
sulphur solutions are usually needed
to forty or fifty gallons of water.
A less effective, though somewhat
cheaper method of treating rust mite
is by means of flowers of sulphur.
This is a fine powder of brimstone and
may be applied with a powder gun-
Before the invention of these powder
guns people treated citrus groves ef effectively
fectively effectively by throwing handfuls of
powdered sulphur into the trees. A
mixture of flowers of sulphur with
about three parts of air-slacked lime
is a little more easily applied, and
sticks to the leaves better than the sul sulphur
phur sulphur alone. By mixing the lime with
the sulphur the workmen are able to
.see what parts of the trees have been
treated, and so do the work more
The dry insecticides for rust mite
that they should only be applied when
the trees are moist with dew. In a
large grove this requires much night
work, to which most laborers object.
Other forms of contact insecticide
may be used' more or less effectively,
but should be avoided unless one has
in mind the double purpose of des destroying
troying destroying rust mite and scale insects at
the same time.
A grove that is kept thoroughly ir irrigated
rigated irrigated is not apt to be badly affected
by rust mite, since these mites do not
endure a moist atmosphere. It is
however, not safe to rely upon an
irrigating plant as a preventive of rus russeting
seting russeting of oranges.



Fertilizer Removed By Orange Crop

In order that we may fertilize intelli intelligently
gently intelligently we should know the amounts of
the fertilizing elements which are re removed
moved removed from ous soils in the fruit we
send away. A further knowledge of
the nature and behavior of our soils is
required to guide us in this respect.
Finally we should make due allowance
for the plant food that is lost through
We find that in an average crop of
300 boxes of 80 pounds each, per acre,
there are removed from the soil 34.4
pounds of ammonia (equal to 28.3
pounds of nitrogen), 12.7 pounds of
phosphoric acid, and 70.3 pounds of
This loss could just be supplied by
138 pounds of sulphate of ammonia (an (analyzing
alyzing (analyzing 25 per cent.), 79.5 pounds of
acid phosphate (analyzing 49 per cent.),
and 143.5 pounds of high-grade sul sulphate
phate sulphate of potash (analyzing 49 per cent.)
The fertilizing constituents removed
in the fruit do not represent the total
loss of plant food from the soil. We
must take into consideration two other
sources of loss: the material used in
the production of new wood, leaves and
roots; and that lost from the soil by
The following are the numbers of
pounds of ammonia, phosphoric acid,
and potash, in 1000 pounds of leaves and
1000 pounds of wood. In the leaves
are 8.5 pounds of ammonia, 1 pound of
phosphoric acid, and 4 pounds of potash;
in the wood there are 8.5 pounds of
ammonia, 5 pounds of phosphoric acid,
and 7 pounds of potash. As may be
seen, the tree draws most heavily upon
the ammonia and potash. However,
after the tree reaches maturity the loss
of plant food from the soil due to
formation of leaves and wood would
be relatively small.
The loss by leaching falls most heav heavily
ily heavily on the ammonia, and is greatest
when applications of nitrate of soda are
followed by heavy rains. In open sandy
soils the loss of phosphoric acid and
potash must also be considerable.
Should we have a continuous heavy
rainfallsay 4 to 6 inchessoon after
fertilizers have been applied, much
more of the plant food would be leached
out, and carried beyond the reach of
the roots, than if this same amount of
rain had been distributed over a period
of several weeks. On grove? where we
have a cover crop established during
the rainy season, the loss would not
be so great as it would where clean cul culture
ture culture is the rule; since the network of
roots would tend to check the down downward
ward downward movement of the water.
It is impossible to form an accurate
estimate of the loss from the last two
-causes; but that more or less is sus sustained
tained sustained is evident, and it must be taken
into consideration when we decide upon
the quantity of fertilizers to be applied.
No doubt in many cases this loss could
be reduced without harm to the crop
by a judicious use of more humus-form humus-forming
ing humus-forming materials, and thus the cost of
fertilizing would be lessened.
An average crop of cotton consisting
of 200 pounds of lint and 654 pounds of


seed per acre would remove from the
soil 25.3 pounds of ammonia, 6.8 pounds
of phosphoric acid, and 9.9 pounds of
potash. Nearly all this is in the cotton
seeds, there being only 3.3 pounds of
fertilizing ingredients in the 300 pounds
of lint. It is assumed that the body of
the plant is returned to the soil. It is
apparent that the orange crop draws
much more heavily upon the soil than
does the cotton crop.
Analyses of eleven varieties of Florida
oranges show that every ten boxes, of
80 pounds each, contain 1.2 pounds of
ammonia,(equal to .96 pounds of nitro nitrogen,)
gen,) nitrogen,) 4 pounds of phosphoric acid, and
2.32 pounds of potash. With these fig figures
ures figures at hand it is easy for us to calcu calculate
late calculate the amount of fertilizing constitu constituents
ents constituents removed per acre in a crop of
any size.
Anew mango to which our attention
has been called fruited for the first
time this year. It is known as Langra
Benarsi, and is an importation from
India. The fruits are entirely free from
fiber and are very large. Specimens
on a young tree just commenced bear bearing
ing bearing weighing three pounds and one
ounce, and measuring nearly eight
inches long. Promises to be very prolific
and is a strong grower. Flavor is rich
and spicy. Fruit is yellow or greenish
yellow and is oblong.Modello Tropical
When one portion of the garden has
matured a crop and the vegetables have
been gathered, plant another crop there.
If you do not cultivate the land, the
weeds will occupy it and produce seeds
to cause you trouble next year.
The Cashew-nut is the produce of a
small tree about 16 feet high, named
Anacardium occidentale, a native of the
East Indies, the West Indies, and South
America, but it is supposed that they
are distinct varieties. The fruit of
this tree is formed by the enlargement
of the footstalk of the flower, and is
about the size of a small orange, with
an agreeable sub-acid flavour and a
slight astringency. At the end, and on
the outside of this fruit grows a kidney T
shaped nut, an inch or more in length
and three-quarters of an inch broad,
consisting of two shells. The outer
skin is of an ash color and very smooth;
under this is another which covers the
kernel, and between them there is a
thick, black juice, which is very caustic,
but the kernel, when fresh, has a most
delicious taste and abounds with a
sweet, milky juice. They are eaten like
Chestnuts, either raw or roasted. These
are known as Cashew-nuts. The juice
| which they contain is extremely acid
and corrosive, producing when applied
| to the skin severe inflammation, follow followj
j followj ed by blisters, and it has often proved
| very troublesome to those who incau incautiously
tiously incautiously put the nuts into their mouths
to break the shell. The broken kernels

are sometimes imported for mixing with
old Madeira wine, the flavor of which
they improve.Journal of Horticulture.
An account of the treatment to which
citrus trees are subjected in Eastern
Spain, after they have become estab established,
lished, established, which appears in the Agricultural
Journal of Victoria should form an in interesting
teresting interesting addition to that information.
This treatment has for its object the
combating of the diseases known as
collar-rot and mal-di-gomma, which
have been prevalent in that part of
Spain in the past. It consists in digging
a hole underneath the tree, when it is
about three or four years old, and com completely
pletely completely sawing off the tap-root. The
hole left after the operation is about a
foot in width and depth; it is not filled
in, but rather kept purposely open. The
trees do not appear to suffer in any way
through the treatment; on the contrary,
they are reported fine and healthy, and
to bear fruit well.
The purposes of crop cultivation
should constantly be kept in mind. Not
only should the planter know the why
but also the how and the nature of the
corn plant, and other cultivated crops
as well. To kill weeds, to prevent the
excessive loss of moisture by evaporation
and to aerate the soil are the purposes.
Weeds hurt our cultivated crops by
taking moisture and plant food that they
should have, so should be killed before
they have made any growth if practi practicable.
cable. practicable. The dust mulch is effective in
saving moisture and should be main maintained
tained maintained as nearly all the time as practi practicable.
cable. practicable. The aeration or letting of air
into the soil is generally aciomplished
in killing weeds and in holding the
moisture, but a deep cultivation is often
given at the beginning of the season to
admit air and heat and to loosen the
soil for plant foods.
Every day or so a stranger strikes
the Herald office and gives a hard luck
story about how he was enticed from
a comfortable home in the Balmy North
to come to Florida and pick gold off of
the orange trees, and what an awful
shame it is that the people of Florida
have nothing to hand him when he gets
here, says the Sanford Herald. From
the story one can easily glean that two twothirds
thirds twothirds of the people who come to Flor Florida
ida Florida prospecting expect to find the State
an easy mark, and all the people easily
gulled into giving them a soft berth,
where they can swing in a hammock
all day and do nothing more than draw
their breath and a fat check. There is
no room for this class of people in
Florida, or any other state, and to one
and all of the people who contem contemplate
plate contemplate coming to Florida, our advice is
to have something in view, or a little
ready cash to tide them over while
they look around for work. There is
plenty to do in Florida, but gold is not
growing on the bushes and the new
comer will have to work for a living as
the rest of us do.Punta Gorda

Proper Pruning of the Orange Tree

Pruning is a phase of orange culture
which receives meager attention by the
grower, and yet is one of the important
details. It is usually discussed in a
very general way and with a sort of
tacit acceptance of the theory that ever evergreen
green evergreen trees do not need pruning except
to remove accumulations of dead wood.
The writers study of the subject has
been through direct experiment and in
closely observing /the experiments of
others, and the object of this study is
to find what methods of culture must
go hand in hand with the use of fertil fertilizers
izers fertilizers to obtain the most desired results
with reasonable certainty. The direct
issues in mind were quantity and qual quality
ity quality of fruit, and the striking fact that,
in the attempt to produce quantity by
direct fertilizing, an abundance of fruit
wood was evolved which went dead in instead
stead instead of producing fruit. This dead
wood being invariably found inside the
tree, the investigations naturally led to
the study of that part.
Presuming that in a suitable soil and
climate we have an orange orchard on
healthy root, and that the trees are
kept healthy by proper soil fertilization
(which simply means correct farming,)
and we are feeding the trees with use useful
ful useful fertilizers to insure steady and de desirable
sirable desirable fruiting, can we by pruning en enhance
hance enhance the value of our crops? I answer
that we can.
The inclination of the citrus trees after
a few years is to grow top, and the
top usually forms like a pyramid over
the center of the tree, shutting out
the light and air from the center or
inside of the tree. This deprives
the tree of considerable bearing
surface inside and the crop is borne
mostly on the outside. As this becomes
habitual, even though we fertilize ever
so cleverly to produce fruit wood, the
interior fruit wood dies from simple
inanition, and practically the bearing of
inside fruit stops. This cannot be cor corrected
rected corrected by simply cleaning out the in interior
terior interior of the tree nor by thinning out
fruit wood from the side. The let letting
ting letting in of light and air through the sides
of the tree is of no important value,
and indeed the denser the foliage of
the sides the better protection the out outside
side outside fruit will have from winds and
severe climatic changes.
Practically the pruning of the orange
tree consists in removing the branch
reaching up and enclosing the center-top
and the opening out of the center so that
the air and light can freely descend
upon and into the cup-top thus produced.
This permits the tree to prepare and
nourish an inside rim or surface of
fruiting wood, and to bear fruit on it.
Practically that provides two fruiting
surfaces, an outside and inside. The
taking out of the top allows more
strength to concentrate in the lower sides
and they become rich and strong to the
ground, so that they not only produce
more fruit, but afford their crop more
protection by dense foliage. Thus an
increase in both quantity and quality
is effected. But this is still further
augmented by the crop grown inside.


This inside crop is as well very superior
fruit for packing, as it is protected from
the wind, and as well there is always
a sufficient thin foliage swinging ovei
the inside rim of the cup to protect
from sunburn.
In such pruning only the saw is re required,
quired, required, and care must be exercised to
cut all limbs fully back to the eye, and
no limb should be nipped or cut on any
part of its length or between buds, as in
such case it will either die back or
sprout like a broom. This method of
pruning is not expensive, and can be
done very quickly by anyone who can
handle a saw properly. It cannot be
done periodically every few years, but
each year the trees should be gone over.
The first year it will be found that but
one, two or three limbs can be profit profitably
ably profitably and safely removed.
The next year another limb or two
can be removed, until the proper inside
shape and healthy fruiting wood is pro produced.
duced. produced. The increases both in quantity
and quality of the crop will more than
ffect the seeming loss of crop sug suggested
gested suggested by removing the central limbs
reaching up into the top.
By F. S. Sherwood.
There is no doubt as to the demmd
for all the sweet potatoes that can be
raised in Florida suitable tor northern
market. To this end Florida growers
should be prepared with the desirable
goods when the market is barethat
is during March, April, May, June and
July. This can be done by starting seed
beds or drills early in January, thus
securing draws or vines in March and
April, from which, with good culture,
a crop can be harvested in June or July
and shipped directly from the field.
From vines of this crop the second
crop can be started and harvested in
October or November ond held over
for March and April trade.
When I speak of sweet potatoes I
dont mean all the varieties of yams
that are commonly called sweet pota potatoes,
toes, potatoes, for.there is as great a difference
between the two as between a choice
melon and coarse squash. The north northern
ern northern retailer demands a fairly grained,
not too dry and not soft, and salvy
sweet potato with a fine tough skin. A
potato that will stand handling and
stand off well while on sale.
While the Virginia, Maryland and
Jersey crop are on sale it is no use
to ship from Florida, for the market
is then congested and with excessive
freight against us Florida sweets stand
no show. Northern grown sweets do
not keep well and are practically out ol
market from February to August and
here is where our chance comes in, for
we can plant earlier than growers far farther
ther farther north and with desirable goods
can secure fancy prices.
Florida and southeastern Georgia,
either from peculiar quality of soil or
climatic conditions, produce sweet
potatoes that keep better than any
where else that I know of.

During the past four years I have
experimented with every kind of sweet
potato and yam that I could hear of,
and tested theories without number,
most of which I have found either sheer
foolishness or misleading in their ten tendency.
dency. tendency. I find that the method of secur securing
ing securing a good crop is simple and inexpen inexpensive
sive inexpensive ; the main cost is in properly start starting
ing starting the crop. The first step is to secure
draws or vines for cuttings, either by
way of seed bed or drills. I favor cut cuttign
tign cuttign or breaking of the seed and plant planting
ing planting close together in drills and cultivat cultivating
ing cultivating precisely the same as for Irish po potatoes,
tatoes, potatoes, thus securing plenty of vines
and at the same time a crop of pota potatoes,
toes, potatoes, same as Irish potatoes grow. But
whether you bed or use drills fertilize
freely; there is no danger of making
the ground too rich. Use stable manure
if you can get it, otherwise use cotton
seed or cotton seed meal with available
potash and if you bed, place so as ta
have plenty of sunshine and keep the
bed moist. Let the draws grew to
more than a foot long before trans transplanting;
planting; transplanting; in this way make haste slowly
and gain time. Prepare the ground or
at least prepare the ridges for trans transplanting
planting transplanting as freshly ahead of setting as
possible; in freshly stirred dirt the
plants immediately take root and start
vigorous growth which they seldom do
in dirt that has laid some time undis undisturbed.
turbed. undisturbed. Keep the ground free from
weeds and frepuently stirred with the
tool most available. Dont ridge too
high; pretty near flat culture on dry
ground is the better way, and don t
mellow the soil too deep, thus avoiding
long, rooty potatoes.
Do not permit the weeds to get a
start in your garden. It is easier to
prevent their getting a start than to
eradicate them after they have made a
start. Frequent cultivation will keep
them down. This is true with field
crops as well as gardens.
Fruits and flowers have a refining
influence, and those who cultivate them
enjoy this feeling. The farm that has
no fruit and a poor garden, is apt to
have a poor manager.
. i
success. :
To succeed in fruit and truck cul culture
ture culture one must learn the art of select selecting,
ing, selecting, packing and shipping only the best.
Many shippers read the market reports
and "find that produce is scarce and
imagine anything will sell; this is a
mistake, no matter how high produce
may be quoted, or how scarce it may
be trash will not sell for enough to
pav charges; the consumer looks for
the worth of his money before he in invests
vests invests and you cant fool him either, by
putting the best on top of the package,
he is used to this and looks at the
bottom and middle and pays for what
he finds. The Southern shippers have
many examples before them; look at the
package of the old experienced shipper;
at the package the commercial orchard
fellow puts on the market; look at the
California packages; are they not the
nicest packed of any you have ever
seen ? The California grower could
never have crossed the continent of 300a
miles unless he shipped packages of only
the very best.



For a number of years the Florida
Experiment Station has been actively
engaged in determining what fertilizer
combinations will develop the best
yield, quality, and shipping properties
in pineapples. The experiments have
been carried on with pineapples grown
under sheds, which is the usual meth method
od method of culture in the older pineapple
sections. The initial work along this
line conducted during the winter of
1897-8 was reported by P. H. Rolfe
in 1899, and his results were later em embodied
bodied embodied in a Farmers Bulletin of the
United States Agricultural Depart Department.
ment. Department. A more extended series of ex experiments
periments experiments was started in 1901, in
which some ninety-six variations and
combinations of the fertilizers com commonly
monly commonly used for pineapples were tested,
the quantity applied per acre ranging
from 2,250 pounds to 4,500 pounds.
H. K. Miller and A. W. Blair, re reporting
porting reporting on the effects of these differ different
ent different fertilizers for the first three sea seasons,
sons, seasons, found that acid phosphate had
an injurious effect upon pineapples,
which could be corrected by the use
of lime. They attributed the injury
to the sulphate of iron and aluminum
which the acid phosphate contained,
since phosphoric acid derived from
boneblack did not have an injurious
effect on the plants. Growers were
recommended as a general rule to
rely on bone meal or slag as sources
of phosphoric acid.
If acid phosphate is used, lime
should be added every year or two,
at the rate of about 75 pounds to
the acre.
As sources of nitrogen, dried blood,
cotton-seed meal, and castor pomace
may be used. Nitrate of soda may be
used for the first six months and pos possibly,
sibly, possibly, to a limited extent, for the first
year, but after the first year it will
probably be safer to eliminate it en entirely.
tirely. entirely. Considerable caution is re required
quired required in its use, for nitrate of soda
when used in sufficient quantity to
furnish all the nitrogen proves inju injurious
rious injurious both to the plants and to the
shipping qualities of the fruit*
Of the potash salts used, high and
low grade sulphate have given the
best results, the latter seemingly
slightly the better. Muriate has given
fair results, though the sulphate un undoubtedly
doubtedly undoubtedly gives better results. Kainit
should not be used. High grade to tobacco
bacco tobacco stems, though not used in this
experiment, have been used by a num
ber of growers with good results.
On the whole the best results were
obtained by the use of about 3-750
pounds per acre of a fertilizer, analyz analyzing
ing analyzing 4 per cent available phosphoric
acid, 5 per cent nitrogen, and 10 per
cent potash. By increasing the fertil fertilizer
izer fertilizer from a little more than a ton to
nearly two tons per acre, the number
of larger sizes of pineapples was in increased
creased increased to a very profitable extent.
There appeared to be no advantage in
using more than two tons per acre.
The bulk of Florida pines are grown
along the east cost. Relative to the
use of fertilizers in this section the
above writers say:
For most of the east coast soils
five would' recommend 3,500 to 4,000

Fertilizer for Pineapples


pounds to the acre annually of a
fertilizer analyzing 4 per cent avail available
able available phosphoric acid, 5 per cent ni nitrogen,
trogen, nitrogen, and 10 per cent potash, to be
applied at the rate of four applica applications
tions applications a year for the first eighteen
months, and after this two applica applications
tions applications a yearone in February or
March, as the conditions may require,
and one soon after the removal of the
summer crop. However some suc successful
cessful successful growers recommend three ap applications
plications applications a year, as follows: About
1,400 pounds of a standard fertilizer in
February and again after the removal
of the summer crop, and 1,000 to 1,200
pounds of high-grade tobacco stems
in the fall or early winter. A regular
application of a growing fertilizer at
the beginning of the winter has been
found objectionable, in that plants, if
started to growing rapidly, are much
more susceptibile to injury by the cold
weather which may come in January
or February. This was clearly dem demonstrated
onstrated demonstrated by the freeze in 1905. Those
who fertilized heavily in the late fall
suffered more than those who did not
fertilize at this time or who used only
ground tobacco stems. The tobacco
does not cause much growth, but
makes the plants hardy, and thus
better able to stand the cold.
Within three weeks, or as soon as
possible after setting out, the plants
should have a light application of
cotton-seed meal in the bud, about a
tablespoonful to the plant. The first
regular application should be put on
broadcast about six weeks later, and
be thoroughly worked in with the
scuffle hoe. For this application
some growers have used castor pom pomace
ace pomace or cotton-seed meal, and high highgrade
grade highgrade tobacco stems, with good re results.
sults. results.
The Florida experiments were con continued
tinued continued for the purpose of finding out
whether the quality of pineapples is
effected by the kind or quality of
the fertilizer used, chemical analysis
being made of fruits from the various
plants during the four seasons.
This work as reported by A. W.
Blair and R. N. Wilson in a bulletin
of the Florida Station shows that the
eating quality of the fruit when gaug gauged
ed gauged by the sugar and acid content of
the juice does not appear to be in influenced
fluenced influenced by the kind of fertilizer used-
Increasing the amount of fertilizer
per acre slightly increased the sugar
content and very slightly decreased
the acid in the fruit. The work did
not show, however, to which par particular
ticular particular constituent these changes are
Although the average weight of the
fruit varies from season to season the
large fruits appear to contain a great greater
er greater percentage of sugar and a slightly
smaller percentage of acid than the
small ones.
The nitrogen content of the fruit
does not appear to increase with an
increase of fertilizer.
Averages based upon the analyses
reported in the bulletin show the ed edible
ible edible portion to be 61 per cent of the
whole fruit and the available juice to
be 92.84 per cent of the edible portion.
The juice contains 12.07 per cent total

sugars and the equivalent of 0.98 per
cent of citric acid.
The results of this work as a whole
would seem to indicate that liberal
fertilizing within certain limits mater materially
ially materially increases the size of the fruit and
also improves the quality to a certain
extent. Each grower must learn from
experience what methods of culture
and kind of fertilizer is best suited to
his local conditions. The use of
fertilizers which have been shown to
he harmful can be avoided, however,
and the formula as woked out by the
station should serve as a valuable
guide for the inexperienced grower.
The experiments reported on were
conducted with shed-grown pines,
which, it is generally conceded do not
require so much fertilizer as those
grown in the open; hence, it is sug suggested
gested suggested that the amount to be used in
the open might be profitably increased
beyond the amount specified for sheds.
The Department of Agriculture at
Washington is continually discovering
and testing new crops. When these give
promise of becoming valuable additions
to the crop resources of this country,
they are recommended for trial. Tfc*
department has just issued a bulletin
dealing with the Yantias, taros and
dasheens as promising root crops for
the South. These are tropical plants
which can easily be grown in many parts
of the South. They ought to prove val valuable
uable valuable in many sections because they can
be grown on lands too wet for other
root crops or any cereal crop excepi
These plants comprise salad plants,
tubers which are excellent for table use
and also for stock food, roots which are
valuable sources of starch and from
which alcohol can be made. They have
formed the staple food of the native
Hawaiians, and are important food crops
in Japan, China, the Malay Archipelago,
Porto Rico and many other hot coun countries.
tries. countries.
The work of the department witn
these plants has not yet progressed far
enough to permit any distribution of
The wheel hoe will save many a back backache
ache backache and do the work of three hand hoes.
Plant the rows all one waynorth and
southso the sun can strike both sides.
The only really successful garden is
the clean garden.
Do not plant short rows but let them
run the whole length of the garden if
need bewhy not ?
Wild strawberries have the most de delicious
licious delicious flavor. They are easily trans transplanted
planted transplanted to the garden.
Making a good garden is a mans job.
Do not leave the hard work to the
women folks.
Cauliflower can be grown more easily
than cabbage. It is always in demand
and at good prices.
A handful of grain dug into an ant
hill will bring the chickens to it, and
then good-bye to the insects.
A plant of Swiss chard sown adjoin adjoining
ing adjoining the poultry yard will supply greens
all summer provided the fowls are not
allowed to eat it more than an hour a

- 1 t§*lL- %

formation of Farmers Institutes. The
development of such is, in itself, an
evidence of the satisfying of a long
felt want. These bulletins should
form the working library of the prac practical
tical practical farmer. In carrying on the fol following
lowing following work, it is not the intention
of the writer to try to rival the most
excellent work of these institutions,
but rather, to aid and supplement
them by furnishing such information
as will enable the farmer to arrive at
a better understanding of their con contents.
tents. contents.
Agriculture is the true foundation
of the riches of the state, the foster fostering
ing fostering factor of trade and the mechanical
industries. But a rational systeni of
agriculture cannot be formed with without
out without the application of scientific prin principles.
ciples. principles. It is true the practical and
experienced farmer can raise good
crops without any knowledge of the
chemical principles involved in such
work, or the physiology of plant
growth. However, the greatest ad advances
vances advances in modern agriculture are
mainly the result of such knowledge.
This knowledge we must generally
seek through chemistry. All physio physiological
logical physiological processes are mainly chemi chemical
cal chemical combinations. It will be our aim
and purpose to make as plain as pos possible
sible possible the chemical principles involved
in plant life, growth, development and
decay. In conducting this work we
will assume that our readers have but
little, if any, knowledge of chemistry
or plant physiology.
Many of our best works on agricul agricultural
tural agricultural chemistry are too technical for
the ordinary reader, hence their value
to the average farmer is much dis discounted
counted discounted by his lack of technical train training.
ing. training.
To sum upOur object is not so
much to write a System of Agricul Agricultural
tural Agricultural ChenTstry, but to aid the aver average
age average farmer by teaching him a few
of the principles of Chemistry and
Physiology involved in plant growth
and the cultivation of the soil for
crop purposes.
Our first article, therefore, will be
a consideration of the very few sim simple
ple simple chemicals found in all organic
life, and more particular, those in involved
volved involved in vegetable processes.
Soil fertility will occupy a large
space in our work, together with the
means of maintaining the same. In
our studies we shall find that our
atmosphere is largely the source of
the fertility of the soil. We shall
also find how this forty miles deepth

Scientific Agriculture


One of the re remarkable
markable remarkable fea features
tures features marking the
progress of mod modern
ern modern agriculture, is
the formation of
Government Ex Exp
p Exp e r i m e n t >Sta >Stations,
tions, >Stations, their is issuance
suance issuance of bulle bulletins,
tins, bulletins, free to the
farmer and
others, and the


of atmospheric fertility can be tapped
for the benefit of the soil. This work
not being a systematic treatise on
agricultural chemistry, we will allow
ourselves considerable freedom of
expression. In other words, we will
strive to make this treatise a sort of
a heart to heart talk, with out fel fellow
low fellow practical farmers. The bright
day of co-operation is dawning. The
day of individualism, and its result resultant
ant resultant selfishness, is fast waning. We
will avoid, as much as possible, and
only then as a working basis for
practical knowledge. As we proceed
in our work we will find a beautiful
adaptation in organic life, of supply
to meet demand.
The carnivora feed on vegetable
feeding animals. These in their turn
feed on vegetables. Vegetables, more
abundant in nature than all other or organic
ganic organic substances, find their nutritive
material in organic substances. Hence
one great end of vegetable life is to
generate material adapted for the nu nutrition
trition nutrition of animals out of inorganic
substances which are not fitted for
this purpose. Hence the full import
of this work will be to elucidate the
different processes engaged in the
nutrition of vegetables
Life processes, animal or vegetable,
when reduced to a final analysis, are
simply chemical processes. All chem chemical
ical chemical processes are not vital ones.
Thomas Huxley in the opening re remark
mark remark of his Lay Sermon The Phy Physical
sical Physical Basis of Life, says: I suppose
that, to many, the idea that there is
such a tlrng as a physical basis, or
matter of life, may be novel so wide widely
ly widely spread is the conception of life
as a something that works through
matter but is independent of it; and
even those who are aware that mat matter
ter matter and life are inseparably connect connected.
ed. connected. (as they are in this earthly
life A. T. C.) may not be prepared
for the conclusion plainly suggested
by the phrase physical basis,
or matter of life. In the chem chemical
ical chemical history of the Universe, there
are much less than one hundred
simple elements involved, and the
tendency of modern science is to re reduced
duced reduced the number.
The characters involved in the his history
tory history of vegetable life are very few.
But the parts they take and the char characters
acters characters they assume are innumerable,
being governed in this respect by the
law of their being. These charac characters,
ters, characters, or primary elements, are four in
number, viz; oxygen, carbon, hydro hydrogen
gen hydrogen and nitrogen.
Associated with these, as allies and
aids, are certain mineral elements,
the principal in importance being
phosphorus, potash, soda, lime, iron
and magnesia.
Of these primary elements oxygen
if of the most importance for in a
last analysis, it will be found that
all processes of organic matter are
oxygenating processes, whether of
life or decay.

Hence a brief consideration of the
four principal elements composing
vegetables structure will not be amiss.
Oxygen is the most generally dif diffused
fused diffused element on the surface of the
earth; for, besides constituting the
principal part of the atmosphere
which surrounds it, it is a component
of almost all the earths and' minerals
found on its surface.
In an isolated state it is a gaseous
body possessed of neither task or
smell. It is slightly soluble in water,
and hence is usually found dissolved
in rainwater and snow, as well as in
the water of running streams.
Carbon is an elementary substance,
endowed with a considerable range
of affinit} It is the most abundant
of the four principal elements con constituting.
stituting. constituting. organic structures. With
oxygen it unites in two proportions,
forming the gaseous compounds
known under the names of carbon di dioxide
oxide dioxide (or carbonic acid) and carbon
oxide. The former is emitted in im immense
mense immense quant'ties from volcanoes and
mineral springs, and is also a pro product
duct product of the decay of vegetable and
animal substances.
It is subject to decomposition by
various agencies, and its elements
then arrange themselves in new com combinations.
binations. combinations. We will have much to
say on this subject further on.
Carbon is familiarly known as char charcoal,
coal, charcoal, but in this state it is mixed with
th e earthy ingredients of organic
structures. In a state of absolute
purity it constitutes the diamond.
Hydrogen is a very important con constituent
stituent constituent of vegetable tissues. It pos possesses
sesses possesses a special affinity for oxygen,
with which it unites and forms water.
The whole phenomena of vegetable
life and decay depend upon this affi affinity.
nity. affinity. and most of the processes in involved
volved involved in the nutrition of plants or originate
iginate originate in the attempt to gratify this
Hydrogen, when in the state of
a gas, is very combustible, which is
only another name for its process of
Nitrogen is quite opposed in its
chemical characters to the elements
aboved described. Its principal
characteristic is an indifference to all
other substances, and an apparent
reluctance to enter into combination
with them.
When forced by circumstances to
do so, it seems to remain in the com combination
bination combination by reluctance, or the power
of inertia, and only remains in com combination
bination combination by forces it cannot resist.
Yet nitrogen is a valuable constit constituent
uent constituent of both plant and animal life.
But when this mysterious principle
we call life has ceased its function,
nitrogen resumes its purly chemical
character, and materially assists in
promoting those chemical changes we
call decay, by escaping from the com compounds
pounds compounds of which it formed a con constituent
stituent constituent part.



One of the most promising indust industries
ries industries is the growing of pecans. The
climate and the land of Florida has
been proven by numerous tests to be
adapted to the growing of pecans.
The reason, or one of the reasons
why they are not more extensively
grown is that it requires from 8 to 9
years to produce fruit, or in other
words, the tree to come into bearing;
but what of that to the young or
middleaged man; the time is passing
any-way, and it is just as well to have
them coming on. The lands can be
utilized all this time growing other
crops, such as vegetables, any kind,
corn, peas, potatoes, hay, cotton, and
the tree is being benefited by the
fertilizing of the crop and plowing of
the land.
After 10 years you may gradually
plant each year further from the trees,
as the trees grow they will shade the
other crops, and sap the fertilizer to
such an extent that the annual crop
near or under the tree will not pay.
The tree will yield at 8 to 9 years old
an average of 11 pounds or one-quar one-quarter
ter one-quarter bushel. ,Say you have ten acres
in pecans forty feet apart every way
that is the proper distance you
would have twenty-five trees to one
acre, or 10 acres, 300 trees. Three
hundred times 11 pounds would
be 3,300 pouds of nuts, at 8c
per pound is $254, for the pick picking
ing picking up. They increase about double
the previous years crops for several
years, till they come to produce from
i to 3 bushels, or 44 to about 150
pounds to the tree; quite a good sum.
Anyone can make his estimate from
this what his grove would be worth
in twenty years.
A modest fortune for any man at
least to keep him from want. They
must be cultivated and fertilized
about as stated in the beginning of
this letter for say 10 years, after thac
a good plowing over every two years,
with some ashes, lime or bone broad broadcast
cast broadcast on the land, about 500 pounds
to the acre or as much more as you
see fit to apply. You have the world
for a market and they are not perish perishable
able perishable like other crops.
As to the best method of planting:
my experience is, lay off your land
on one side, then with a tape line
set one row, trees 40 feet apart, the
whole length of the grove you wish
to plant, then with a wire make a
loop, each of the two ends beng 40
feet long with crooks in the ends.
Place one hook around the first tree
planted and the other around the
second tree; stretch the wire and
plant in the loop, then move to the
next tree and so on until the second
row is planted. Repeat until the en entire
tire entire tract is planted and your orchard
will look like this:
o o o o o o
o o o o o o
o o o o o o
o o o o o o
o o o o o o
o o o o o o

Planting Pecans in Florida


Each o represents a tree, the trees
40 feet apart every way.
By this method you have a sym symmetrical
metrical symmetrical grove that the trees are in
line any direction you may look and
can be plowed any way you want, be being
ing being so arranged that each yearly
plowing can be in different directions
or across the previous plowing, which
is best. If you prefer to plant the
nut, the same plan can be followed
by using small stakes and with a
post hole digger make a hole 18 in inches
ches inches deep, fill with manure and top
soil or rich earth. Plant two nuts
one inch below top of ground and
cover. After one year, it two come,
take one out; if desired you may bud
or graft the other with a well known
variety, thereby improving the nuts.
This may bring you a lew' nuts in six
to seven years. There are other meth method
ods method if any choose to adopt them. If
trees are to be set trim the roots in
this manner. Cut the slope smooth
from the underside of roots, not the
top. then the young roots will put
out deeper in the ground.
The tap root should be about 7.8
inches long. Pack the dirt firmly
around the roots, keeping them as
near as possible to the same position
as they would or did grow; set one
or two inches deeper in the ground
than it originally grew; when the
hole is full hold top of tree in hand
and tramp the earth well around it.
It will need nothing else but trim trimming
ming trimming as it grows; best method of
trimming is to rub the sprout off
where small, retaining only or
three at top till it is as tall as you
w r ant the lower limbs to put out.
The Agriculturist desires to call
attention to three small books which
have recently been issued from the
press, all of them of inestimable value
to those who are engaged in fruit
and vegetable growing in Florida.
Citrus Culture for Profit is an at attractive
tractive attractive little book of 84 pages, filled
with just such practical facts as the
citrus grower needs. It deals with
the selection and preparation of the
land, description of the most popular
varietes, planting the trees, cultiva cultivation,
tion, cultivation, fertilization, picking, packing and
shipping, together with directions for
combating the disease and enemies
of the citrus tree. In fact it is a most
interesting and instructive handbook
that should be in the library of every
person in the state who owns even
but a few citrus trees. It is published
by the Wilson & Toomer Fertilizer
Cos., at the nominal price of 50 cents
for the cloth bound edition, or 25
cents in paper covers.
Facts and Figures, or the A B C of
| Florida Trucking is another valuable
litle volume of 137 pages, by C. H.
Kennerly. It contains thirty-one
chapters, and as its name indicates,
covers every phase of the trucking
industry in Florida, from the selec selection
tion selection and preparation of the soil to
the market'ng of the crops. In ad addition
dition addition to directions for growing all

the vegetables usually planted in the
commercial garden there is a chapter
devoted to the home garden, formulas,
for insecticides and a number of useful
tables. Altogether it is a useful little
book, not only for the newcomer in
Florida, but for all who grow veg vegetables
etables vegetables for market. We are not ad advised
vised advised as to the price, but presume
it is si.
Truck Farming in the Everglades,
by Walter Waldin, is still another
book that should be in the hands of
the truck grower, especially in South
Florida. While it deals most directly
with the methods practiced in the
Everglades, the cultural directions
will prove helpful to the truck farmer
anywhere in the state. In addition
to the vegetable crops several chap chapters
ters chapters are. devoted to the fruits that
are particularly adapted to the Ever Everglades
glades Everglades section. The book contains
139 pages and sells for sl.
The Agriculturist will be pleased to*
furnish any of the above upon receipt
of the price named
1 lie many patrons and friends of
the Grifiling Bros. Cos. will be glad to
learn of their deserved success and
that their rapidly growing business
makes it necessary to greatly enlarge
their plant. The following letter to
the National Nurseryman shows the
additions they have recently made
t ( their nursery facilities:
Editor National NurserymanWe
have increased our nursery business,
taking on nurseries at Port Arthur
and McAllen, Texas, also at Miami,
* a I* is our intention to grow one
of the most complete lines of stock
ever offered the South, covering the
entire ,South from extreme South
Florida to the Rio Grande River.
Our line of trees is peculiar to the
South, and such as many nurseries
doing some business in the South have
occasion, to need every season. We
have built a fine line of business in
the wholesale way. furnishing trees to
nurseries in the Central North and
North West, to meet the requirement
of their Southern orders.
_ The general sales office of the
Company will remain at Jacksonville.
Ja*, but branch sales offices will be
maintained at McAllen and Port Ar Arthur,
thur, Arthur, Texas, also Miami, Fla.
People in Florida may learn some val valuable
uable valuable lessons from the Japanese as to
what can be done with small lots of
ground if farmed for all that they can
be made to produce. Japan supports a
population of 48,642,726 on 21,321 square
miles of arable land. This is 2,277 peo people
ple people to the square mile. According to the
statistics there is an average of 142 peo people
ple people and seven horses and cattle to each
40 acres of cultivated ground. One old
Japanese farmer reports that he has
been cultivating all his life 15 mow of
land, which is two and one-half acres,
and that beside his team, a cow and a
small donkey, he fed two pigs. This is
at the rate of 192 people, 16 cows, 16
donkeys and 32 pigs on a 40-acre farm.
More than this is possible in Florida,,
where three crops can be raised in a
year.St. Cloud Tribune.

Prepare New Ground For Fall Crops

A prosperous farmer on being ask asked
ed asked the secret of his success with a
certain crop replied, I begin to culti cultivate
vate cultivate it the year before I plant the
seed, which, of course, was simply
advocating a thorough preparation of
the seed bed. In no other section
does systematic preliminary work
in field or garden pay better than in
Florida, and while little more planting
for market will be done in Florida
until late summer and early fall, we
feel that no apology is needed for
presenting this time some very val valuable
uable valuable advice given by Mr. C. tl. Ken Kennedy,
nedy, Kennedy, of Palatka, Fla., in his excel excellent
lent excellent little book, entitled Facts and
Figures, or A B C of Florida truck trucking.
ing. trucking. We wish to especially impress
these truths upon the thousands of
people who during the past few
months have purchased land in Flor Florida
ida Florida with the expectation of coming in
the fall and planting their first crop.
Our advice is most emphatically to
get the ground thoroughly prepared
as soon as possible and not wait until
you are ready to plant.
Regarding the opportunities for
truck growing in Floridi and the
selection and preparation of the land
Mr. Kennedy says:
The greatest opportunity in Flori Florida
da Florida is offered in the line of agriculture
or vegetable raising. You will find
other occupations filled to the limit.
There is hardly a day during the en entire
tire entire year that the Florida farmers
can not be growing or harvesting
some crop. As to the markets for
this produce, there are hundreds, yes,
thousands of cities throughout the
country that never see Florida pro produce
duce produce on the markets. The reason for
this is that the larger markets con consume
sume consume the entire output. The grow growers
ers growers will find that as the supplv of
Florida vegetables increase, new
markets will open up for them. The
newcomer into Florida must realize
that the methods of planting and cul cultivation
tivation cultivation differ in this State from any
other section of the country, and to
make a success of trucking in Florida
you will have to farm according to
the methods in vogue here.
To grow good vegetables, field
crops or fruit in Florida or anywhere
else, you must have good soil, but it is
not a hard matter to find this in all
parts of the state.
I am going to divide Florida land
suitable for successful truck growing
into three classes the pine land, the
prairie or muck land and the hammock
land. The principal thing to watch
in selecting your tract is to see that
it is underlaid with clay, marl or hard
pan; clay or marl is preferred, but if
the hard pan is down about fourteen
or eighteen inches, it will work to
perfection. The value of this bottom
to the land is to hold the mosture and
keep the fertilizer from washing down
too deep, out of reach of the plants
roots or feeders.
The prairie and hammock land are
Best, as they contain some fertilizing
elements, particularly nitrogen or
ammonia from decayed vegetable
matter. You will find some hammock


and much land containing all the
nitrogen your crops will require for
the first year or two, and if they do
ail you have to supply will be the
potash and phosphoric acid that the
crops will need. One thing I w r ant to
impress upon you is that no matter
how rich your land is, if you keep
planting it without putting back the
elements the plants are drawing out
you will soon exhaust it.
The pine land, you might say, is
too acid to produce well, but if you
will pick pine land with a good bot bottom
tom bottom as described above, remove this
acidity, as directed in the chapter on
preparation of land, irrigate, fertilize
and work it, you can raise excellent
crops. I am speaking from personal
experience, as my owm farm is all
pine land, underlaid with hard pan,
and not select pine land at that, and
I have raised as good vegetables as
were ever shipped from Florida. An Another
other Another matter that it might be well to
speak of here, is that in a lot of Flor Florda
da Florda pine land you find spots where the
hardpan is very close to the surface,
and on this class of land it will be
impossible to raise any crops until
you build up the top layer. This can
be done in different ways; You can
haul muck or hammock soil and put
on it, or you can cover it with stable
manure, putting it on from two to
four inches thick, and ploughing in,
but you will have to be careful not
to plow deep enough to turn up the
hardpan. Another good method to
follow is to plant the land in cowpeas
or velvet beans and turn them under.
After you get this class of land' built
up, the chances are it will be the
best piece you have.
Preparation of the Soil.
This, I consider, the most important
subject for the truck farmer, as every everything
thing everything depends on having the land in a
perfect condition. You can have it
irrigated, use all the high grade
fertilizer your crops can take up, have
fine healthy plants, but if the land is
not in proper shape your time,
labor, and fertilizer will be lost.
The first thing to do after you have
looked up the title to your land is to
put up a good hog and cattle-proof
fence; the American t Steel and wire
Cos., make an excellent one. If the
land has trees on it you will have to
cut these down, saving the best to
make posts for the fence. Next, re remove
move remove the stumps, either by pulling
them out with a stump puller, blowing
them out with dynamite, or burning
them out. After you have these re removed
moved removed take out all the roots, as it is
from them, particularly the palmetto
roots, that the land is kept acid. When
you have all the roots removed, it is
time to put in the tile for sub-irri sub-irrigation,
gation, sub-irrigation, that is if you wish to use this
system. Next, plow the land several
times, both ways as deeply as the soil
will allow without turning up the sub subsoil.
soil. subsoil. Now give the land an applica application
tion application of lime or Canadian hardwood
ashes, to remove the acidity. Either
one will answer, but I prefer the
ashes, as they seem to give better
results, making up for the difference
in price .in the quality and yield of

the crop raised If you use lime, get
the air-slacked, applying about 1,500
pounds to the acre, if you use ashes,
apply from a ton to a ton and a half
to the acre. Both are applied broad broadcast
cast broadcast and harrowed, not plowed in. Do
not use the lime or ashes on land
you wish to plant in Irish potatoes,
as the acidity in the soil seems to
keep the fungus in check that causes
potato scab. In a week or two after
you have applied either the lime or
ashes, you are ready to put on the
fertilizer, using the kind suited to the
particular crop you wish to plant,
either broadcasting or drilling it in
furrows, as advised in directions for
growing the crop you are planting.
Always harrow fertilizer in the
ground, when it is broadcasted, in instead
stead instead of plowing it in, it will be down
so deep the plants roots or feeders can cannot
not cannot find' it. If the land is well drain drained
ed drained and can be planted on the level, it
is a good idea to go over it with a
board drag to level and pack it be before
fore before planting. If you are planting on
beds or ridges do not use the drag,
unless they are three feet or more
wide, but level as best you can with
rakes, and use a roller on the seed
drill to pack the soil as the seed
are planted. These rollers come on
the Planet Jr. seed drills.
If you will prepare your land as
directed here, plowing it as much as
possibleit will be impossible to
plow and harrow new land too much
have it irrigated, give the plants
what work and careful treatment
they require, you will not have any
trouble in making excellent crops.
If the boy is to be kept on the farm
and become a trained farmer he must
be shown that there are just as great
opportunities financially, socially and
otherwise on the farm as elsewhere.
There should be an atmosphere in the
public school, in the high school, and in
the college that will attract the boys
to the farm and lead them to see that
individual success and the opportuni opportunities
ties opportunities for social service are unsurpassed
in a career on the farm.
A farmer in Georgia who has a pecan
grove of 100 acres, says: No invest investment
ment investment can be made that will prove more
profitable than a pecan grove that has
proper attention, and the attention re required
quired required is nothing more than that which
is required in other lines of horticul horticulture.
ture. horticulture. Any farmer of ordinary intelli intelligence
gence intelligence can, after a little reading, inquiry
and observation, make a good selection
of pecan trees and plant them in a
proper manner. A man who has sense
enough to look after a peach orchard
is fully capable of looking 'after; a
pecan grove. The only mystery connect connected
ed connected with the pecan growing business is
why more people do not get into it. I
would not advise every farmer in the
south to quit raising cotton and plant
all his land in pecan trees, but I do
confidently advise the planting of small
groves to be added to as the planter
acquires experience. The pecan suc succeeds
ceeds succeeds in the cotton belt and in consider considerable
able considerable adjacent territory, on almost any
kind of land that will produce other



Truck growing is quite a specializ specialized
ed specialized industry, requiring more skill, if
not more intelligence, on the part of
those engaged in it than any other
line of agriculture save, perhaps, the
dairy business and experience here
has been that the two may be operat operated
ed operated together most successfully, the
dairy cattle furnishing manure for
building up the soils most economi economically
cally economically and giving a market not only
for the surplus truck crops them themselves,
selves, themselves, but for restorative crops that
should follow them. Trucking is at
once capable of earning large profits
for the successful individual or of
causing equally as large losses to the
unsuccessful, and the best of its fol followers
lowers followers are not exempt from frequent
failures with a single crop- Except
in rare instances the truck grower
has to produce extremely perishable
crops for limited markets in competi competition
tion competition with a vast territory on all sides,
and unless conditions beyond his con control,
trol, control, such as are determined by the
soil, climate, and transportation facili facilities
ties facilities are suitable, he cannot hope to
succeed except at a great disadvan disadvantage.
tage. disadvantage. Under the most favorable cir circumstances
cumstances circumstances it will require a knowl knowledge
edge knowledge of soils and fertilizers, of con controlling
trolling controlling insect pests and fungous dis diseases,
eases, diseases, and of the intricate matter of
packing and distributing the pro products,
ducts, products, that the producer of staple
crops can only acquire by experience,
and the writer believes it best to be begin
gin begin such work gradually. In fact, a
practical understanding of all the
sciences underlying agriculture in its
broadest sense would hardly suffice to
make one proficient in this work with without
out without the knowledge that comes with
experience in growing and marketing
such crops.
The bush or snap bean is perhaps
the easiest of all truck crops to grow
and there is about as little experience
necessary on the part of the producer.
They do not require so rich a soil
as do the most of the other truck
crops, though they respond well to
good fertilization. Being easy to
plant, cultivate, and prepare for mar market,
ket, market, and requiring a minimum of ex expense
pense expense for seed and fertilizer, they are
an especially good crop for the be beginner,
ginner, beginner, and experience here has been
that they are about as reliable as any
for net returns.
For early markets this crop re requires
quires requires a well drained sandy-loam soil
which dries out and warms up early
in the spring and brings the beans to
the shipping stage in the shortest
possible time. Such a soil is prefer preferable
able preferable to stiffer lands that might make
much heavier yields but mature them
a few days later, since a weeks dif difference
ference difference in the time of marketing
such crops frequently makes the dif difference
ference difference between profit and loss. The
bean does not require an excessively
rich soil and has much to recommend
it in this respect.

Growing Snap Beans


The first essential in growing most
truck crops is to get a lot of humus,
or partially decayed organic matter,
into the soil and this can be best ac accomplished
complished accomplished by turning under legu leguminous
minous leguminous crops like the velvet bean or
better the manure from cattle that
have grazed these beans. Here it
is thought best to flat break the land
for beans first and then pulverize
same thoroughly with harrows, later
laying off the ground into rows from
two and one-half to three feet apart
and distributing the fert'lizer in the
drill. The beds are then completed
and later knocked off with drag or
harrow to where they are only slight slightly
ly slightly higher than the average surface
of the ground. This elevation is nec necessary
essary necessary because the beans are necessar necessarily
ily necessarily planted very early when, if drain drainage
age drainage is poor, excessive rains are apt
to rot them in the ground- The crop
can be planted in very narrow rows
but those three feet apart are to be
preferred for field culture on account
of being easier to work with ordinary
farm implements. With the ground
as above outlined the beans are plant planted
ed planted with an ordinary corn planter with
special bean plate or disc, or else the
rows are opened with bull tongue
and the beans dropped by hand three
inches apart and covered about two
inches deep. Ordinarily it requires
from 5-8 to one bushel of beans to
plant an acre, the quantity being de determined
termined determined both by the variety and by
the width of the row. It requires,
for instance, considerably more of
the wax beans than of the green pod podded
ded podded Valentine to plant a given area
on account of the relative sizes of the
beans in each.
The two varieties grown mostly
by truckers in this section have been
Wardells Kidney Wax and Improv Improved
ed Improved Valentine, the first having a yel yellow
low yellow pod and the last a green pod.
Of these two the wax is about a week
earlier, being ready for market in
about fifty days after planting. The
green bean has averaged yielding per perhaps
haps perhaps ten bushels more per acre and
when both have been grown to per perfection,
fection, perfection, the wax beans have sold for
better prices and have been a lot
easier to pick on account of the larger
After the beans are planted care
should be taken to prevent a hard
crust forming over them in case of
heavy rains before the young plants
show above the ground. When
such a thing happens it is necessary
that a light harrow or weeder be run
over the ground to break this crust.
After the beans are up the culti cultivation
vation cultivation should be level and shallow
and frequent enough to keep down
weeds and grass and maintain a
dust mulch. There is really slight
difference between the cultivation of
this crop and that of corn or cotton.

Care should be taken not to cultivate
beans while the vines are wet from
rain or dew, as this will cause dirt
to stick to the leaves and they will
have a tendency to develop disease-
The standard varieties of snap
beans are ready to pick in from fifty
to sixty days after planting. As stated
before the wax bean has larger pods
and is easier to pick than the round
green bean. When ready to gather a
lot of extra labor, consisting of men,
women and' children are usually put
in the field after the dew has dried
off? each with a picking basket holding
one-half bushel. As fast as these
baskets are filled the beans should
be poured into the hampers in which
they are shipped and removed to the
shade. A good hand should pick ten
bushels or more a day. Only the
well developed pods should be picked
and these should be tender enough to
snap easily. Asa rule it requires
three or more pickings to gather the
Beans are shipped in boxes or ham hampers
pers hampers holding about a bushel each.
For a long time the box was the
standard package, but in recent years
the hamper has almost entirely tak taken
en taken its place, the best markets fre frequently
quently frequently quoting beans in hampers at
twenty-five cents more per bushel
than in boxes. With beans, as with
all other truck crops, care should
be taken to ship only the best and
if the markets are such that we think
it advisable to ship poorer grades,
let them be separated from the best
and if possible under a different name.
The hampers are easily packed
about the only precaution necessary
being to see that they are well filled.
With the boxes it is necessary to use
much greater care /in placing 'the
top and bottom layers so as to have
them show up well on the market.
Beans are quite perishable and
must always be shipped by express
or refrigerated freight. The earliest
beans will always be shipped by ex express
press express and the prices will usually justi justify
fy justify the increased cost, but the bulk
of the crop is nearly always sold at
a price that will pay little more than
express charges. Ordnarily, about
six hundred hampers are put into a
car, and if the crop is reasonably
good they should yield' from fifteen to
forty hampers at each picking, so that
if as many as fortv acres are grown in
a community there should be no
trouble about shipping the bulk of the
crop by freight. In fact, beans, cab cabbage,
bage, cabbage, and Irish potatoes are usually
marketed about the same time and
mixed cars of the three crops might
easily be made up.
A northern subscriber asks where
and to what extent is rhubarb cultivated
in Florida? Where can I get fullest
data as to best location, best varieties
and best methods? I have seen no ref reference
erence reference to it as a winter crop.
We would appreciate an article cover covering
ing covering the above inquiries from someone
who has had experience with rhubarb in
this state.

The present spring has been re remarkably
markably remarkably dry and hot in middle east
Florida. Many of the farm and gar garden
den garden crops are very backward, in fact
some are all ready to plant corn
and peas, and waiting for rain.
At this date, April 16th, there has
not been a real good rain for several
months. Under the circumstances
the best we can do with the corn that
has come up, with the cane, cassava,
peas, etc., is to keep the harrow go going
ing going between the rows to conserve the
moisture, not allowing it to escape
The Acme harrow is as good a tool
as I have found for this purpose. The
ordinary one-horse harrow will go
nicely between the rows of farm
I would continue to plant corn up
to the middle of June, if I could not
get in all I wanted before.
Prepare the ground for some crops
to be planted, such as peanuts, rice,
sweet potatoes, cow peas, and more
forage crops for the cows, horses and
Be sure and plant some pearl millet,
teosinte and common corn for green
Make the rows rich and plant corn
thick, to be cut when two feet high.
If the chickens are in confinement,
they will want something daily, such
as mustard, cabbage, etc. Plant some
curled mustard especially for them.
Aim to raise a full crop of cowpeas;
these cowpeas can be made the main
feed for the stock and poultry. The
French varieties are the more produc productive
tive productive peas, besides more convenient to
cut and gather. The Whippoorwill,
a brown speckled pea is as good as
any. The early anfd late cowpeas
are good for poultry, also fine for
table use. By the way, there is a
variety of these peas especially for
table use, the Sweet Crowders and the
Lady Finger. Plant the peas between
the corn, at the last working, and
they will make a good crop.
See to it that the stock, especially
horses and cows, have shade and
access to pure water. If there is no
shade in the field, make brush houses,
or let them come to the regular
stable, when the sun grows hot.
It would seem best to let cows and
horses graze during the night, thus
avoiding the heat and flies.
In the Orchard and Grove.
The main work should be to en encourage
courage encourage moisture to help the trees to
hold their fruit. This can be done
either by heavy mulching about the
trees or keeping the Acme harrow go going
ing going to induce the moisture from
below to come near the feeding roots.
Dont be alarmed at the dropping of
the oranges, as too many generally
set to mature.
Before the June calendar, the early
peaches will be ready to ship. The
Jewel often ripens in early May.
This peach when properly handled
often brings a handsome price, be because
cause because it is the first in market. First
learn from somebody who has had

Calendar of Work for May


experience the proper degree of ripe ripeness
ness ripeness at which to pick them for ship shipment.
ment. shipment. They must be well colored
and just light patches on them, but
not approaching the ripe stage, for
generally by the fastest transporta transportation,
tion, transportation, it will take from four days to
a week to get them to market. The de degree
gree degree of ripeness, then, must be in
proportion to the distance to market.
Try to sell at home or at your
orchard to the representative of a
commission house. Avery moderate
price at home for cash in hand is a
sure thing, and much more satisfac satisfactory
tory satisfactory than the promise of a big price
m the cities of the East and North.
If you do pack your peaches, get some
one to show you the form and require requirements
ments requirements of the market you propose to
ship to. Grade closely into fancy and
first-class; keep the others at home.
Your local merchant can generally
put you onto the reliable fruit houses.
Garden Work for May.
In planting for this month the aim
will be for home use and nearby mar markets.
kets. markets.
The main crops would be sweet po potatoes,
tatoes, potatoes, okra, collards, beans and to tomatoes,
matoes, tomatoes, with some squashes, melons,
mustard and eggplant.
Plant an early crop of sweet pota potatoes
toes potatoes as soon as the first good rain
comes. Use stable manure if possible,
about as you would for Irish potatoes
as to quantity. This is one of the
crops that seems to do best when
planted as soon as the ridges are pre prepared.
pared. prepared. You will use draws for your
first planting. Put them in about six
inches deep and firm the soil around
the plant. Put them out toward even evening
ing evening so as to have the coolness and
moisture of the night on them. The
kind I like best is a deep yellow
potato, probably named the Yellow
Put out a good patch of okra. It
will sell in your local market, and is
fine for home use.
The eggplant will also be appreciat appreciated
ed appreciated both at home and in the local mar market.
ket. market.
For greens, curled mustard is fine
and will probably stand the summers
Plant also some collards. This is
a coarse sort of a run-out cabbage,
only the leaves of which are used
for greens, and they are very accept acceptable
able acceptable before the cabbages of the next
fall are ready for use.
For the home supply I would plant
quite a patch of tomatoes; I mean set
out the plants; they are always in
Also a little watermelon patch for
home use may be planted yet.
Put out some more sweet corn. It
may do better than the early-planted
this year. Country Gentleman is the
Beans, both pole and bush varie varieties,
ties, varieties, should be planted plentifully this
month. Jacksons Wonder and the
Little jSeva are the most reliable. Try
also Stringless Bush Snaps, and Ken Kentucky
tucky Kentucky Wonder.

Try some squashesBoston Mar Marrow,
row, Marrow, Summer Crookneck and Hub Hubbard,
bard, Hubbard, and dont forget the Florida
cushaws and' Florida pumpkins.
Now a word about marketing the
crop already grown, such as onions,
beans, cabbage, tomatoes and Irish
Classify and select carefully all your
produce you intend to send to East Eastern
ern Eastern markets. Only the best will pay
to ship so far at high rates of trans transportation.
portation. transportation.
Thoroughly dry onions and handle
them carefully. Remember all, or
nearly all, tender vegetables will
bruise and then rot. Therefore han handle
dle handle them somewhat as eggs are hand handled.
led. handled. If the Eastern market is not
good, hold onions. There is general generally
ly generally a market for them during the
Snap beans must be gathered dry,
and boxed dry. If they are stunted
and poorly grown better keep them at
home or send to nearby places.
Know the needs of the town as to
cabbages before shipping this product.
If they still have on hand cabbage of
last years crop, as many sections
have until later, find a place where
this product is wanted. Cabbage is
usually shipped in barrels or crates.
Be sure to ventilate all barreled stuff
with at least three openings; two by
six inches is about right. To keep
out rats or vermin while en route,
cover these places with wire tacked
on the outside.
Get the advice of those having ex experience
perience experience in packing and selecting to tomatoes
matoes tomatoes to insure success.
Irish potatoes should be ripe before
being dug. Be sure not to let the
sun shine on them after they are
out of the ground, not even for an
hour. The potatoes are tender and
the sunshine is too strong. Handle
careifuilly ias noted. Grade jqlosely
into first and second-class. Pack
tightly in new barrels, ventilated'..
Have a small hand press to pack
tightly and avoid skinning the tubers.
A useful preparation for cleaning
silver may be made of half a pound of
yellow soap, half a pound of wash washing
ing washing soda, and six and a half pounds
of whiting. These ingredients should
be boiled together in sufficient water
for half an hour, and stirred continu continuously
ously continuously until a thick paste has been
formed. This should be placed in
jars, and used instead of soap
when washing silver or plated arti articles,
cles, articles, a soft or clean leather being
afterwards used to give a polish.
Mrs. Corntossel (reading letter)
I declare, Jabez, I call this down downright
right downright cruel.
Farmer CorntossellWhats the
Mrs. Corntossel Why, heres a
letter from Amelia, tellin me she gets
help in raisin her children from a
Mothers Club. I do believe in a
slipper sometimes, an a good birchhT
dont do a child no harm, but I never
used no club on my children.



Florida Agriculturist
Published monthly by the
Walter Connelly, Manager.
Room 5, Board of Trade Building.
In the United States, Mexico, Porto Rico,
Philippine Islands, Hawaiian Islands and Cuba
(including postage), SI.OO per year.
To all Foreign Countries embraced in the
Universal Postal Union (including postage),
$1.50 per year.
Advertisements of meritorious articles are
solicited. Frauds and irresponsible firms are
not knowingly advertised, and we will con consider
sider consider it a favor if readers advise us promptly
should they have reason to question the relia reliability
bility reliability of any firm which patronizes our adver advertising
tising advertising columns. Advertising rates on applica application.
tion. application.
Communications are solicited from practical
farmers. Names and addresses must accom accompany
pany accompany all communications, although they need
not necessarily be published.
Photographs of farm scenes are gladly re received,
ceived, received, and will be reproduced if ot general
interest, and clear enough to make satisfactory
Questions We are glad to have our sub subscribers
scribers subscribers ask questions about Florida or any
phase of agricultural work. They will be an answered
swered answered as promptly and carefully as possible,
cither through the paper or by mail. We do
mot answer questions for those who are not
subscribers. When writing for information,
always give name and postoffice address, and
enclose a two-cent stamp.
Always send money by draft, postoffice order
or registered letter. We will not be respon responsible
sible responsible for cash sent in letters, unless registered.
Address all communications to and make all
drafts, checks and postoffice and express orders
payable to Florida Agriculturist,
Jacksonville, Fla.
MAY, 1911.
As promised last month we will ans answer
wer answer as best we can some of the many
questions that come to us from people
who seem anxious to learn more
about Florida and conditions here.
What kind of lands are best adapted
for vegetables and general farming
and what are best for fruit?
For vegetables we would suggest,
in the order named, muck, hammock,
flat woods or low pine land with clay
subsoil, or prairie. Any of these will
produce good vegetables with a reas reasonable
onable reasonable amount of fertilizers, provided
they can be thoroughly drained and
the hardpan is not too near the sur surface.
face. surface. These lands are also well suit suited
ed suited for growing most kinds of fruits
except oranges and grapefruit. The
citrus fruits do best on the high pine
land, as they have long tap roots
that require a greater depth of soil.
Is it true that the titles to most of
the land in Florida are defective?
Why is this so?
No. not most of it. However, it is
true of quite a good deal of it. Until the
last few years the flatwoods which
comprises a large percentage of the
lands in this state, were not consider considered
ed considered of much value except for timber
and for grazing purposes, hence the
same care was not exerc'sed to see
that descriptions were accurate, that
deeds were properly recorded, taxes


paid, etc., that there is now. Our
advice to every one is not to buy
land anywhere without an authentic
abstract of title showing just what the
grantor really owns.
How are the roads in Florida? As I
understand it the country is gener generally
ally generally Hat and level. Can one go most
anywhere in an automobile?
We are sorry to say that the state is
sadly deficient in good roads in most
sections. Some of the counties have
hard surfaced roads in various direc directions,
tions, directions, and there is a growing senti sentiment
ment sentiment throughout the state for better
roads, so that we are hoping for
better things in the near future.
Can a man with a family of three
children make a living on five acres
in Florida?
If he is industrious and experienced
in growing the higher priced vege vegetables,
tables, vegetables, or is willing to learn, he ought
to be able to live comfortably on five
acres, after the first year, and with
ordinarily favorable seasons. How However,
ever, However, we have more faith in diversi diversified
fied diversified farming on forty acres more than
we do in trucking on a small plat. On
the larger tract, where he can have a
few cows, pigs and chickens, with a
few acres each of corn, cotton and
sweet potatoes, a small patch of sugar
cane and a good garden, an industri industrious
ous industrious farmer ought to be independent
and we do not believe there is a state
in the Union where such a man can
live easier than in Florida.
1 have heard of a man who paid S9OO
for a small place in Florida, sold it
for SSO and considered he was do doing
ing doing an injustice to L he purchaser.
Why was this?
We do not know the why in this
particular case, but we could suggest
a number of possible reasons. In the
first place the man who would pay
S9OO for a place that was not worth
more than SSO, or who would sell a
place for SSO that was worth S9OO
lacks the business qualifications that
would enable him to succeed any anywhere.
where. anywhere. Then he might have been mis misled
led misled as to the crops that could be
grown on this piece of land, and be being
ing being disappointed in this respect was
not satisfied to remain and grow what
was suited to it. Florida is a large
state and has a wide range of climate
and products. Or, he may have been
raised in a Northern city, without any
experience whatever in farming or
gardeinig, and come here, as hundreds
have done, under the delusion that
just anybody could come to Florida
buy a few acres of raw land and get
rich in a year without much effort.
Again many people fail to realize
that Florida is not settled up and im improved
proved improved like the older sections of the
country, and this man, or his family,
may have lacked the pioneering ele elements
ments elements in their make-up that would
prompt them to make a home in a
new country. We might suggest
other reasons but these are probably
enough. We would like, however, to
emphasize one fact in this connect connection,
ion, connection, to-wit: Thousands of people are
not only making a good living but
are rapidly getting rich cultivating
Florida sand, which could not be

true if the fault was in the soil, the
climate, or the general conditions that
.prevail here. The fact that these peo people
ple people are succeeding would indicate that
the trouble in the case mentioned was
with the man. rather than with the
flow are the schools and churches in
t his state has a splendid school
system and our public schools are be being
ing being steadily improved. In addition
the state supports two good unwersi unwersities
ties unwersities and there are a number of fine
educational institutions under the con control
trol control of different religious bodies.
Churches of the various denomina denominations
tions denominations are located in nearly every
We want to repeat here what we have
said before regarding the land companies
that are exploiting the state. There are
some honest and some dishonest, some
that are offering good land and some
not so good, but we cannot undertake
to answer through these columns the
many inquiries concerning them. We
will, however, try to give such unbiased
information by letter as we are able to
obtain, to our subscribers only who en enclose
close enclose postage for a reply.
We are reserving a number of ques questions
tions questions for another time and request
those who have asked them to be
patient and we will reach them in the
near future.
Tn this issue of the Agriculturist we
present the first installment of a work
under the above title that will be of
great value to every cultivator of the
soil, and these articles will be continued
in each successive number for several
months. The work is copyrighted, but
other publications will be privileged to
copy, giving due credit for same. Dr.
Cuzner, the author, in his preface and
introduction explains the scope of his
work, and we believe he will, in this
effort fill a much-needed want. We be bespeak
speak bespeak for it a careful study by our read readers.
ers. readers.
Dr. Cuzner advises us that where
stamps are inclosed he will cheerfully
answer such questions as may be asked
in respect to the text in order to a
better understanding of the work, the
same also to be printed in the Agricul Agriculturist,
turist, Agriculturist, thus making this a Correspond Correspondence
ence Correspondence Course in Agriculture.
In the death of Dr. S. A. Knapp,
which occurred on the i entire country, and especially the South,
has lost a most valued friend. For
several years he has been in charge of
the demonstration work of the Agri Agricultural
cultural Agricultural Department at Washington, and
largely to his work may be credited the
great advance that the South has made
along agricultural lines. The burden of
his efforts was to extend diversified
farming and make the South self-sus self-sustaining
taining self-sustaining and independent of other sec sections.
tions. sections.
In organizing the boys of the South
and inspiring them with an ambition
to do better farming than their fathers,
Dr. Knapp has been especially success successful.
ful. successful. In fact, it is stated that the boys
of the South grew the largest prize corn
crops that were grown last year in the

-entire country, the average of the ten
highest prize winners being 133 bushels
per acre. His work in connection with
the Agricultural Department will beat
fruit for years to come, and farm life
will be brighter and agriculture will be
richer because of his life and character.
Within recent years anew method
of agricultural education has been de devised
vised devised in the form of hoys and' girls
clubs. Such clubs have various ob objects,
jects, objects, but usually they provide for
prize contests among the members.
Corn growing contests are probably
the most common among the boys,
although many other features have
been tried, while the girls compete
in bread making or sewing, or even
test their skill .against that of the
boys in gardening or poultry raising.
In many cases these clubs are organ organized
ized organized as a part of the school work,
under the auspices of the county
superintendent, or the teachers in the
rural schools arrange contests among
their own pupils, but often in Flori Florida
da Florida the lead is taken by enterprising
public-spirited men in the different
counties. All of these efforts have
the hearty co-operation of the state
agricultural authorities, and particu particularly
larly particularly of the efficient Experiment Sta Station
tion Station force under the direction of Prof.
The U. S. Department of Agricul Agriculture
ture Agriculture also gives assistance through
the office of Experiment Stations, by
furnishing advice and suggestions.
Through the farmers bulletins issued
by the Department the most practical
Instruction in the growing of corn
and other crops may be had by the
boys, while the girls mav obtain bul bulletins
letins bulletins on bread making or gardening.
A farmers bulletin on Boys and
Girls Agricultural Clubs tells how to
organize the clubs, how to conduct
the contests and what publications
will be useful to the boys and girls.
This bulletin may be obtained free
upon application to your member of
Congress or to the Secretary of Ag Agriculture,
riculture, Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
Such clubs are now actively at
work in many of the counties of Flor Florida,
ida, Florida, and quite a large club has been
recently organized in this city under
the direction of Prof. Baldw'n, of the
Y. M. C. A., and the boys are enter entering
ing entering into the work with much enthusi enthusiasm.
asm. enthusiasm.
A good brother had been brought
before the church on the charge of
lying, but those who sat in judgment,
after hearing the charges decided
that a lie was intended to deceive, but
the statement made by the brother
was entirely too extravagant to be
believed' by people of intelligence,
hence it was not a lie. We sometimes
hear victims of wildcat schemes de declare
clare declare that the promoters should be
prosecuted for obtaining money un under
der under false pretenses, when really their
statements are too extravagant to be
classed as lies. One of these victims
was bemoamng his fate to a hard
"headed business man who exclaimed
~You dont deserve any sympathy.
You would not buy au old rooster
from your next door neighbor with-


out first examining the bird, and here
you have bought a piece of land a
thousand miles away, without know knowing
ing knowing whether it is good for anything
or not, and come down here believing
that you can sit in the shade and
take your ease while the returns from
your land at the rate of a thousand
dollars an acre will make you rich.
My friend, there is no such spot in
the world. Of course energy and a
little cash go much farther in our
grand climate than most anywhere
else, but the man who believes some
of the ridiculous statements made by
literature sent out by some irrespon irresponsible
sible irresponsible land agents ought to have a
guardian. We dont go quite as far
as this, but people who send their
money so far away from home for
something they have never seen
assume a great risk and in many cases
are disappointed, for the candid opin opinion
ion opinion of an honest land agent (and there
are many such in business) might
not at all agree with the views of the
Come to Florida, which we bel eve
offers the most opportunities in the
United States, but bear in mind we
are still on this old world and as long
as time lasts the decree that a man
shall earn his bread by the sweat of
his brow will hang over our heads.
Florida needs no false boosting,
one half the facts regarding our State
will convince any thinking man that
he ought to become one of us.
The Florida State Horticultural So Society
ciety Society is scheduled to meet in the
Board of Trade Building Jacksonville,
begining the evening of May 2nd,
and continuing until the sth. A fine
program has been aranged, and it is
expected the attendance will be larg larger
er larger than usual. As the Agriculturist
office is on the same floor with the
meeting place we shall be glad to
have a visit from all the members of
the Society.
The Department of Agriculture has
just received an importation of lady
bug beetles from India with which it
is hoped that the white fly pest may
be controlled in the orange groves of
Florida. In its home on the upper
valley of the Ganges River the beetle
was found eating the white fly. Time
will have to be allowed for the beetle
to increase before its effectiveness can
be determined.
The Agricultural Department has
recently issued the following circular
over the signatures of H. W. Wiley,
F. L. Dunlap and Geo. P. McCabe,
Board of Food and' Drug Inspectors,
which will be of interest to the citrus
growers of the state:
The attention of the Board of
Food and Drug Inspection has been
directed to the shipment of interstate
rommerce of green, immature citrus
fruits, particularly oranges, which
have been artificially colored by hold holding
ing holding in a warm, moist atmosphere for
a short period after removal from the
tree. Evidence is adduced showing
that such oranges do not change in
sugar or acid' after removal from the

tree. Evidence further shows that
the same oranges remaining on the
tree increase markedly in sugar con content
tent content and decrease in acid content.
Further, there is evidence to show
that the consumption of such imma immature
ture immature oranges, especially by children,
is apt to be attended by serious dis disadulterated
adulterated disadulterated if mixed, colored, pow-
Under the Food and Drugs Act of
June 30, 1906, an article of food is
adultrated' if mixed, colored, pow powdered,
dered, powdered, coated, or stained in a manner
whereby damage or inferiority is con concealed.
cealed. concealed. It is the opinion of the Board
that oranges treated as mentioned
above are colored in a manner where whereby
by whereby inferiority is concealed and are,
therefore, adulterated.
The Board recognizes the fact that
certain varieties of /oranges attain
maturity as to size, sweetness, and
acidity before the color changes from
green to yellow, and this decision is
not intended to interfere with the
marketing of such oranges.
The bureau of chemistry is conduct conducting
ing conducting experiments in utilizing the waste
of oranges and lemons in California
and Florida as is done in Sicily, and
the bureau sent an agent to Sicily
to study their whole process of mak making
ing making essential oils and other by-pro by-products
ducts by-products from limes, lemons and oranges.
After his return he went to California
to work out a scheme by which all
of the fruit that falls and is unfit for
shipping may be turned into profit
for the farmer by the manufacture
of by-products.
All milk utensils should be washed
as soon as possible after using. They
should be rinsed with cold water first,
then thoroughly washed with a hot
solution of washing powder (soap
should never be used), using a stiff
brush for scrubbing. And it is well
to have two kinds of brushes, a dark
one for the exterior and a white one
for the interior of pail or can; scald
With twelve hundred miles of sea seacoast,
coast, seacoast, innumerable lakes and streams,
more than any other two states in the
Union, Florida should have more duck
farms than all the other states combined.
Ducks are healthy, easy to raise and are
largely self-supporters. Duck farms
should be in evidence everywhere in
Florida.Ocala Banner.
A large eggplant has been on display
this week in Broadwell & Moores drug drugstore.
store. drugstore. It weighs six and one-quarter
pounds and is the largest so far of which
there is any record. It is not of muck
land growth but was raised on sand land
in the outskirts of this city.Palm
Beach County.
While this is not a good time to ac actually
tually actually plant peanuts without irrigation,
it is a good time to think about and
get ready for it when the rains come.
The best time for the average farmer to
plant this valuable crop is when he
breaks out the middle of his corn in
laying it by.Tampa Times.



The humdrum woman who permits
every one. from the family cat to
the cook, to walk over her is too
much of the jellyfish type to excite
any ones admiration, man or woman.
But there is a tremendous differ difference
ence difference between the woman who thinks
for herself, and expresses her own
op ; nions and the woman who nags.
Nagging is unpardonable. Anything
in the order of personalities is not
in order in general conversation.
Women who bully their husbands,
gloat about the bullyragging and ad advertise
vertise advertise it to the neighbors, are ex extremely
tremely extremely tiresome.
The clever woman knows better
than to boast about her position as
dictator of the family. She agrees
with her husband, pets him and does
as she pleases.
He is familar with the whole pro process,
cess, process, understands it perfectly, ac acknowledges
knowledges acknowledges the fact he is managed
just right, and so is hap happy
py- happy
The putting away of furs at the
beginning of the warm days may be
made as attractive and pleasant a
task as any of the sweet cleanly
househould duties of the careful
Did you ever think when gazing at
the loveliness of the sweet-scented
geraniums growing in your window,
that they may be of use as well as
give color and fragrance in the light
of the sun? When you put away for
the summer your tippet, stole
or muff, or the becoming fur hat that
has been so useful through the win winter
ter winter months just gather a quantity of
leaves of the sweetscented rose-gera rose-geranium
nium rose-geranium and strew them under, over
and all around the fur, which is then
cosily laid away between sheets of
tissue-paper carefully lapped at the
edges to seal the smallest opening. It
may then be placed in a box. If you
have an old linen pillow-case, slide
the box into its capacious opening, lap
the edges securely and fasten with
large, neat stitches, label the contents
of the box and then stow away for
its summer rest.
When Washing Greens Many of
you know just how provoking it is to
gather or buy a lot of greens and
find insects all over them. Being so
hard to clean Ive often given up in
despair, and thrown them away, but
at last have discovered that to put a
handful of salt in the water and wash
in usual way the insects would all
come off. A.G.
Another Cleanser l have found
that starch holds a high place in the
list of cleansers. When I wash my
windows I dissolve a couple of lumps
of it in the rinsing water and let the
glass dry before polishing. It will then



polish beautifully with very little rub rubbing.
bing. rubbing. Lamp glasses, or in fact any
glassware may be treated the same
way. If a spot of grease gets on the
table-linen I cover the spot with pow powdered
dered powdered starch, let it lie for an hour or
so, then brush it off, when the grease
will be found to have vanished. If
persistently applied several times to
vaseline stains they may also be re removed
moved removed by it, especially if laid in bright
A Simple Remedy for Seasickness
Those who have suffered the tortures
of seasickness will welcome the fol following
lowing following simple remedy: Take with
you a small quantity of dried salt
herring, chew and swallow the juice.
This seems to be an infallible remedy,
for I have known a number to try it;
all of them pronounced it excellent.
M. H.
To Clean CarpetThe following is
an excellent recipe for clean'ng car carpets:
pets: carpets: Two bars of any good laundry
soap, four ounces of borax, eight oun ounces
ces ounces of sal soda. Dilute in two gallons
of water, apply with a brush, using a
small board about twelve inches long
to scrape up the suds immediately,
rubbing with a dry cloth. This is to
be used while the carpet is on the
floor, doing a small portion at a time.
If properly used this will clean a
carpet as well as can a professional
cleaner leaving the color clear and
bright.A. M. H.
A Sewing-Closet ln the room in
which you sew have a closet made
about the height of a table, with a
top about forty-eight inches in length
by twenty-four inches in width. Have
this closet divided into three drawers,
the first about five inches deep. Di Divide
vide Divide this drawer into two parts by
running a partition in the center. In
one of these divisions you may keep
patterns, tracing-wheel and tape-mea tape-measure,
sure, tape-measure, and in the other part have two
rows of nails driven in from the bot bottom,
tom, bottom, on which to place spools of
thread. In this drawer may also be
scissors, buttons, needles, paper of
pins, tooks, thimble, etc. In one of
the remaining drawers may be kept
the materials ready to be made up,
and in the other the unfinished gar garments
ments garments and materials that have been
left over from previous work. M. B.
For Renewing Leather When kid
shoes are looking shabby try renewing
them with the following: Mix to together
gether together half the white of an egg and
enough good black ink to color it
well. Apply with a soft cotton cloth
and when dry, polish by rubbing light lightly
ly lightly and briskly with a soft woolen
cloth. Your shoes will look like
new. This mixture is excellent for
handbags, purses, or any black leather
article that needs renewing.L. M.
A Picnic Menu With the approach
of summer comes the desire to leave
the dull cares and heat of the city be behind,
hind, behind, and', with baskets well filled, en enjoy
joy enjoy a day in the cool country woods.
The fresh air and the drive will create

an excellent appetite for the follow following:
ing: following: cheese sandwiches, stuffed eggs,
chicken salad, ham sandwiches, pota potato
to potato salad, olives, tomatoes, sweet
pickles, orange marmalade, wine jel jelly,
ly, jelly, ice cream, nut loaf, devils food,
lemonade. G. W.
No dish is more designed to tempt
the palate than a dainty salad care carefully
fully carefully prepared and temptingly served,
and no d'nner is complete without it.
The best method of serving is on
individual dishes and the salad should
be heaped on crisp lettuce leaves and
prettily garnished with fresh parsley
or celery tips.
The variety of salads is almost un unlimited,
limited, unlimited, and below are a few of them,
also a recipe for an excellent salad
dressing, which if set in a cool place
can be kept indefinitely, and the
amount doubled or tripled accordng
to quantity desired.
Salad Dressing.
Mix by sifting together one-half
tablespoonful of salt, one-half table tablespoonful
spoonful tablespoonful of mustard and three-quarter
tablespoonful of sugar. Add one egg,
and beat all together slightly, enough
to blend well, then add two and one onehalf
half onehalf tablespoonfuls of melted butter
and three-quarter cupful of cream.
Cook this mixture over boiling boilingwater
water boilingwater and when hot add slowly one onequarter
quarter onequarter cupful of hot vinegar.
If you do not have cream to use,
you may substitute milk and add one
tablespoonful of flour to the dry ingre ingredients,
dients, ingredients, though cream makes a richer
sauce. Strain through a medium
strainer and, should the dressing cur curdle,
dle, curdle, finish straining, then beat
Salmon Salad.
One can of salmon minced and
bones extracted, three large cucumber
pickles, two cold potatoes, one bunch
of celery, four square crackers rolled
fine. Dice the pickles, potatoes and
celery, then mix all with salad dress dressing
ing dressing and serve with sliced lemon.
Shrimp Salad.
One can of shrimps carefully pick picked
ed picked into bits, one bunch of celery, one onehalf
half onehalf cupful of broken nutmeats. Mix
with mayonnaise.
Chicken Salad.
Chop cooked chicken and mix with
chopped celery (about one-third cel celery
ery celery to two-thirds chicken) then add
broken nut-meats. Mayonnaise.
Sardine Salad.
One box of sardines and two me medium-sized
dium-sized medium-sized bunches of celery. Drain
the oil from the fish by laying each
one upon paper, turning the sardine
first on one side and then on the
other. Dice the celery and season
with salt, pepper and vinegar. Heap
this in the center of each dish and
lay sardines around it, then pour salad
dressing over all.
Egg Salad.
Cut hard-boiled eggs in halves and
lay upon lettuce leaves. Put a spoon spoonful
ful spoonful of salad dressing on each and!

The spring markets, with all their
fresh, inviting products of Mother
Earth, bring nothing else at once so
.delicately and delightfully flavored
and so medicinally valuable as aspara asparagus.
gus. asparagus.
Baked Asparagus.
Wash two small bundles of aspara asparagus
gus asparagus until perfectly free from sand, and
stand them upright in a kettle of water,
leaving the tended tips uncovered; in
this way the steam will cook the tips
while the boiling water is making the
stalks tender, and the former will not
be cooked to pieces, as is too frequent frequently
ly frequently the case. When done, drain and
cut into small pieces, removing only
the toughest portion of the ends. To
each two cupfuls of asparagus add an
equal amount of grated bread crumbs,
two tablespoonfuls of butter, pne cup cupful
ful cupful of milk, one-half teaspoonful of
salt and three or four dashes of pep pepper.
per. pepper. Dust a well-buttered mold light lightly
ly lightly with the crumbs, then arrange the
asparagus and crumbs in alternate
layers, dusting each with salt and
pepper, and dotting with little bits
of butter. Have the last layer of
crumbs, pour over the milk, and bake
in a moderate oven twenty minutes.
Serve hot.
Asparagus Mold.
Make a cream sauce with two table tablespoonfuls
spoonfuls tablespoonfuls each of flour and butter,
one half teaspoonful of salt, a dash
or two of pepper, and one cupful of
cream. When smooth and boiling add
one-half cupful of cold cooked aspara asparagus
gus asparagus tips and four well-beaten eggs.
Line a well-buttered mold with cook cooked
ed cooked asparagus tips, and turn in the
asparagus mixture. Set the mold in
a dish of hot water, and bake in a hot
oven until the center is firm. Then
let stand a few minutes, invert over a
shallow heated' dish, and gently lift
the mold. Serve at once and butter
Asparagus with Eggs.
Place cooked asparagus in a but buttered
tered buttered baking dish and season nicely.
Beat the yolks of four eggs until very
light, add two teaspoonfuls each of
butter and cream, season delicately,
and whip in the stiffly beaten whites
of the eggs. Pour it over the aspara asparagus
gus asparagus and bake in a quick oven until
the eggs are set.
Asparagus On Toast.
Wash the asparagus carefully, after
separating it, and tie each bunch in into
to into three bundles. Boil as for other
recipes until nearly done, then add
two level teaspooonfuls of salt, and
cook five minutes longer. Cook a
small onion, chopped fine, a bay leaf
and six peppercorns in two table tablespoonfuls
spoonfuls tablespoonfuls of butter until it bubbles,
but it must not be allowed to brown;
add gradually three level tablespoon tablespoonfuls
fuls tablespoonfuls of flour, and stir and cook until
smooth and thick, then add two cup cupfuls
fuls cupfuls of chicken or veal broth (milk
may be used instead), and' a pinch of
nutmeg, and cook five minutes. Strain
into a sauce pan, and add very gradu gradually
ally gradually the well-beaten yolks of two eggs
and one tablespoonful of lemon juice.
Add bit by bit, to prevent boiling, one
tablespoonful of butter, and stir until


very hot, but it must not boil after the
eggs are added. This quantity of
sauce will be sufficient for two bunch bunches
es bunches of asparagus. Place the hot aspar asparagus
agus asparagus on rounds of hot toast and' serve
the sauce in a boat.
Scalloped Asparagus.
Cook the asparagus in slightly salt salted
ed salted boiling water until tender, then
place a layer in a buttered baking dish
which has been lightly sprinkled with
bread crumbs. Dust the asparagus
with grated cheese, chopped hard hardboiled
boiled hardboiled eggs, salt and pepper, and ar arrange
range arrange layers in this way until the pan
is full, having the last layer of aspara asparagus.
gus. asparagus. Pour over one cupful of thin
cream sauce and allow it to soak
through the mixture. Mix a little
grated cheese with an equal quantity
of bread crumbs, place over the top,
dot generously with bits of butter,
and bake in a quick oven until light lightly
ly lightly browned.
Strawberry Shortcake
One large spoonful butter and lard
mixed, three gills flour, one-eight tea teaspoon
spoon teaspoon salt, one-half teaspoon baking
powder, one-half box strawberries,
one cup granulated sugar, one-half
cup powdered sugar, milk. Sift bak baking
ing baking powder and salt with flour; with
the hands work butter and lard into
flour and use milk enough, handling
as little as possible, to make a soft
dough; divide dough into two parts
and roll each into a thin cake; butter
the top of one cake and place the
other on it, then put in a quick oven
and bake ten minutes. Tear apart
and butter well the inside of each part.
Crush the berries during the bak : ng,
sweeten with granulated sugar, put
between the cakes and' sprinkle pow powdered
dered powdered sugar on top. It is fine.
Banana Fritters.
Two eggs, one tablespoonful of
melted butter, one cup of flour, one onehalf
half onehalf cup of cold water, one teaspoon teaspoonful
ful teaspoonful of sugar and a pinch of salt. This
batter should be just stiff enough to
hold' its shape. Sprinkle the peeled
fruit with lemon juice, cut into quart quarters
ers quarters lengthwise, dip in the batter and
fry at once in very hot fat. Any
fruit may be used.
Corn-Meal Muffins.
Cream one-fourth of a cupful of but-

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Other name. I THE NEW HOME SEWING MACHINE CO., Orange, Mass. I

ter; gradually beat in three fourth
of a cupful of sugar; then two eggs
beaten without separating, and alter alternately
nately alternately one cupful of milk and one cup cupful
ful cupful of granulated corn-meal, two cup cupfuls
fuls cupfuls of flour, one half teaspoonful of
salt and four level teaspoonfuls of
baking powder sifted together. Bake
in a hot, well-oiled muffinpan about
twenty-five minutes. This will make
twelve large muffins.
Cheese Balls.
Mix one and one-half cupfuls of
common factory cheese (grated) with
one-fourth of a teaspoonful each of
salt and paprika, then cut and fold
into the mixture the whites of three
eggs beaten stiff. Shape in small balls
a generous inch in diameter, roll these
in fine crackercrumbs, and fry in deep
fat to a pale straw color. Drain on
soft paper. Serve with a plain let lettuce
tuce lettuce salad.
,Smooth off the stem-end of the pep peppers
pers peppers so they will stand, extract the
membrane, and fill with boiled rice
and minced veal. Place in a baking bakingpan,
pan, bakingpan, and add stock to half their depth.
Bake one hour. Then add cream to
the gravy in which the peppers were
baked, thicken, and pour over them.
One cupful of sugar beaten with two
eggs; one cupful of flour; one tea teaspoonful
spoonful teaspoonful of baking-powder; one half
cupful of milk; one teaspoonful of
butter heated to the boiling-point.
One cupful of powdered sugar
creamed with one-half cupful of but butter;
ter; butter; two tablespoonfuls of coffee
(liquid); two tablespoonfuls of cocoa;
one tablespoonful of vanilla.
The cellar should be thoroughly
ventilated every day, even in the
coldest weather. Mustiness is more
likely to cause bad colds than cold
Peroxide of hydrogen will remove
ink stains from colored goods with without
out without fading the color. Soak the spots
and put the material in the sun for
half an hour.



The nature of a fern generally sug suggests
gests suggests whether it should be grown in
a pot, on a tree stem, or in a basket.
Those kinds with creeping rhizomes
do best in baskets, as a rule, whilst
those which form crowns and fibrous
roots are most suitable for pot culture.
One of the most effective ways of
growing many ferns is on the stems
of trees, palms, etc.
Although it frequently happens that
the conditions under which plants
grow spontaneously cannot be artific artificially
ially artificially produced, the knowledge of the
positions in which they grow natur naturally
ally naturally aids materially in their successful
cultivation. It may be safely stated
that the majority of ferns require
shade and moisture. Most gardens
possess one or more spots of this
nature, under trees generally, and in
those situations ferns luxuriate if
reasonable care be taken in their cul cultivation.
tivation. cultivation.
Ferns grown in pots require fresh
potting more or less frequently ac according
cording according to their rate of growth; but
it is advisable to avoid over potting.
Those plants generally grow best
whose roots are in contact with the
inside of the pots. Care must be
given to watering as ferns resent
over watering as quickly as any other
plant if the soil is in any way water waterlogged'
logged' waterlogged' or sour; on the other hand
care must be taken that the roots do
not become too dry. In the trop'cs.
ferns may be repotted almost at any
time without ill results. Pots should
be clean and dry when used, and new
pots should be- thoroughly soaked in
water and then dried before using.
The question of drainage is an im important
portant important one, especially where the
rainfall is so heavy. When potting
ferns, it should be borne in mind that
the majority of them grow naturally
in partly decayed vegetable matter,
usually of a soft nature; they should
therefore be made firm in their pots,
but on no account potted' hard. A
compost of an open sandy nature
through which the water will pass
readily should be used; a mixture of
two parts of sandy loam with one
part leaf mould, one part of fibrous
material and one part of coarse sand
will be found to suit most ferns.
Basket ferns shomd be planted in
fibrous material mixed with lumps of
peat and pieces of sandstone and char charcoal.
coal. charcoal. These composts may be given
as possessing all the qualities required
by the majority of ferns usually culti cultivated
vated cultivated in gardens. Many of the more
delicate ferns, such as some Adian Adiantums,
tums, Adiantums, resent too much water over
head. A position under a shady ver veranda
anda veranda suits these best. It is only by
experience and constant observation
that the best position can be found for
the more fastidious ferns. Very often
a move of only a few yards makes
all the difference between a good and
bad specimen. Windy positions
should be avoided and care taken that
no manure enters into the potting
compost. An occasional application
of liquid or artificial manure is bene-



ficial when growth and root action
are vigorous, but heavy manuring of
maidenhairs should be avoided.
Pans of broken brick and coral rock
are very suitable for raising fern
spores. The pans should be kept
damp, and if moss or the minute algae
which appear on damp spots are
growing on the rock, so much the
better. The fruiting fronds should
be taken before the sports are blown
away, about the time that the sori
become brown, and shaken or left
lying on the pan, which is then cov covered
ered covered with a glass plate.Rural Cali Californian.
fornian. Californian.
Salvia is one of the slowest of
plants for summer bedding. Its flow flowers
ers flowers are the most brilliant red and
its foliage of a light, green. There
are various named varieties to be pro procured.
cured. procured. The best grow to a height of
one and one half to two feet at the
time of blooming. They do not come
true to seed and plants should be
obtained from the florist.
Salvia may be planted in masses
and along borders where long solid
banks or lines of color are desired.
When planted in a border there
should be a dark green background
to bring out the contrast.
Seed may be sown in a warm place
the latter part of May, and should
produce good plants by the latter part
of June. ,Stock plants may be kept
over winter, but this is very trouble troublesome.
some. troublesome. If plants are obtained from the
florist, who takes the trouble to carry
stock plants in his greenhouse and
make cuttings in order to get plants
which are true to the variety, they
should not be set out in the open un until
til until the middle of May or later in
northerly latitudes.
The salvia requires much sun for its
best development, but will produce
bloom quite well in partial shade,
though plants and flowers will both
be smaller under such conditions.
The secret of success in floricul floricultur
ture floricultur if there is any secret about it
is to produce vigorous plants and per permit
mit permit but a few flowers to grow on
them. Rich, brilliant flowers require
much plant food, and the plant is
taxed to nourish them The florist
knows this and' supplies the readily
available plant food necessary, then
thins the flowers.
Roses, chrysanthemums, dahlias,
etc., always set more flowers than can
be properly developed. What nature
desires is an abundance of seed to
perpetuate the species. Man wants
excellent flowers and attractive
nlants. It is his privilege to thin the
flower buds and permit only a few
to grow. In this way large, rich flow flowers
ers flowers can be produced and the vigor
of the plant is not injured.
If you want large, attractive flowers
instead of numbers, thin your flower
buds and' leave a few of the most
promising. See that there is plenty

of plant food and moisture to proper properly
ly properly develop the flower buds left on the
Plant shrubs and vines in front of
unsightly objects and screen them
from view With pains and skill the
woodhouse, the chickenhouse and
other out -buildings can be hidden by
flowers, shrubs, vines and trees.
Beautify your country home with
Many gardeners make the mistake
of crowding garden vegetables too
close in the drill. Vegetables require
rapid growth and quick maturity to
give quality and flavor to the plants
when served. Unless the soil is ex exceptionally
ceptionally exceptionally rich and there is plenty
of soil moisture available during the
growing season, the plants are apt to
be dwarfed and the quality of the
vegetables impaired.
In producing vegetables for the
market, the grower will endeavor to
grow plants of high quality and' de desirable
sirable desirable flavor and he can not afford to
take any r sk. It is far better to pro produce
duce produce fewer products and gather vege vegetables
tables vegetables of better quality than to have
an abundance that do not command
fair prices.
The safest plan is to sow plenty of
seeds in order that a good stand may
be secured. If the plants are tender
and the spring is favorable for the in insects,
sects, insects, diseases, cold nights, etc., leave
about twice as many plants as you de desire
sire desire to grow. When the weather is
favorable for the growth of the
plants, thin promptly, leaving the re required
quired required number of plants. Be sure
that the plants have sufficient distance
to produce vegetables of extra quality.
Use half a pound of nitrate of soda
to the square rod repeating the dose
about every month or six weeks.
Pound the lumps of nitrate so that no
pieces larger than half an inch in di diameter
ameter diameter are used; this sow on the lawn
just as you would seed, distributing it
as evenly as possible, sprinkle it im immediately
mediately immediately which will dissolve the ni nitrate
trate nitrate in a very few minutes. This
watering should be thorough so as to
wash the fertilizer well into the soil
down to the roots of the grass. In
three days you will see a wonderful
difference. If you wish to make an
improvement in the appearance of
the lawn it will be necessary to mow
it frequently, for a while.
Fifty-eight persons competed to get
the prize offered at Frankfort, Ger Germany.
many. Germany. for the best method of destroy destroying
ing destroying plant lice. The winners prepar preparation
ation preparation is as follows: Quassia wood,
two and one-half pounds to be soaked
overnight in ten quarts of water and
well boiled, then strained through a
cloth and' placed, with ioo quarts of
water in a petroleum barrel with five
pounds of soft soap.
To make a delectable lemon pie, add
the pulp of a banana to the custard
before turning into the paste-lined
tin. Cover with a meringue when
it comes from the oven.


By Dr. E. McGowan.
As in all other undertakings, good
management is the true secret of suc success.
cess. success. There never will be any method
of raising chickens to beat the genuine
old hen with free range, but the trou trouble
ble trouble is that too many of the hens are
no earthly good and too many chicks
are killed from neglect and exposure,
so that I claim I can produce better
results with a good brooder than with
hens for early chicks.
With the latest improvements in ar artificial
tificial artificial brooding, and with proper feed,
nearly all chicks that are properly
hatched can be raised with good man management.
agement. management.
It pays to have everything as near
right in raising chicks as possible, as
the number saved will pay all extra
cost necessary to give them proper
Leave all chicks in incubator until
about forty-eight or sixty hours after
the first egg is pipped, and then re
move to brooder, which should have
been previously heated to about 90
degrees, being careful not to chill
them on the way in cold weather.
As you remove them from basket to
brooder dip the bill of each in the
drinking dish, which gives them their
introduction to this important part of
their diet.
The floor should have been sanded
and a little fine chick charcoal and
grit scattered around for them to pick
at for half a day; and just before go going
ing going to sleep for the night, give them
their first feed of a good grade of little
chick feed.
The next morning some hard boiled
eggs crumbled and mixed with wheat
bran make a very good feed along
with crumbled crackers. While fresh
milk is good, still I prefer the milk or
water boiled at the start as it is a
preventive of diarrhoea, and every
precaution you can take for the first
five days pays. Scatter the prepared
chick feed in litter (chaff or short cut
alfalfa is best), and let them scratch
for it, but be careful to see that the
grain is not sour and the litter is in
a sanitary condition. Steel cut oat
meal fed once a day makes a very val valuable
uable valuable feed, also oatflakes and broken
rice are valuable to build up their
frames and make strong, healthy
chicks. Keep them a little hungry and
scratching all the time.
Do not give chicks any more heat
than is strictly necessary, as it is a
very bad plan to get them tender and
weak. Just as soon as you can leave
out the lamp do so and' gradually
teach them to go to roost on some
wide boards so there is no danger of
crooked breast bones.
When about a week or ten days old
give them high grade meat meal in
hopper and keep it before them all the
time, as by doing that they do not eat
too much and it is a wonderful help to
quick and full development of the
prize winning and early maturing


Give all the green feed you can to
young chicks, in one form or another.
Cabbage, lettuce, beets, or any other
green feed, will help their growth, and
if hung just a little too high for them
to pick from the ground it will give
them the best of exercise in jumping
for it.
There is nothing like free range to
produce perfect, ideal specimens, and
the more we can provide for the grow growing
ing growing chicks in the line of shade and
foraging material by artificial meth methods,
ods, methods, the better chicks we will have.
Leg weakness is a common com complaint
plaint complaint with young chicks, and if al allowed
lowed allowed to continue will cause great on onslaught
slaught onslaught with the chicks.
This can be avoided and overcome
by simple methods.
One cause for leg weakness is the
brood ng of chicks in brooders which
are heated by bottom heat exclusively.
However, it is gratifying to know that
few brooders are thus constructed at
the present time.
Another cause is the feeding of a
too one-sided ration. That is, feeding
foods that make rapid growth of mus muscles,
cles, muscles, and the bones become weak. If
leg weakness is noticed, but the chicks
are growing rapidly, feed chick size
ground bone. Feed it in vessels where
they can get access to it at all times.
The ground bone will entirely elimi eliminate
nate eliminate leg weakness if it is caused by
other reasons than that of the brood brooder
er brooder afore spoken of.
I am breeding up a flock of White
Wyandottes for egg production. Ev Every
ery Every hen in my flock is out of an egg
whose mother has a record of 200 eggs
or over per year.
To get eggs, hens must possess ex extreme
treme extreme vitality, so let us start with the
chickof course, the chick must be
from an egg laid by a hen with a
strong constitution. The chick after
being hatched, must be pushed. It
must never be hungry a minute.
I already have out a few broods of
chicks with hens. Each hen is in a
coop with yard in front of the coop,
the yard being the same width as the
coop; that is, about 3 feet wide; the
yard is 6 feet long, covered with one oneinch
inch oneinch mesh wire to keep out cats,
hawks, etc. When first hatched. I feed
bread-crumbs softened in milk, and
when they can eat it I am giving them
wheat, kaffir corn and cracked corn.
I give it in the following proportions:
Two parts wheat. 3 parts kaffir corn
and 4 parts cracked corn. I am trying
this proportion on chicks for the first
time, as I have been using it in my
squab plant with great results, and Jt
seems to be working on the chicks
fine. Keep water always before the
chicks; also bread and charcoal.
Now as to vitalityfor a heavy egg
production you must have hens of ex extreme
treme extreme vitality, so weed out every pul pullet
let pullet that does not grow off strong and
feather out promptly. Also pick out

the most robust cockerels. If fed right
and pushed they should lay when from
five to six months old. This will give
you time to trap nest before the next
hatching season, as you can form some
idea of their laying qualities by the
time they are twelve months old. It
is a constant, persistent layer you
want. Always remember the hen that
lays is the hen that pays, and a hen
to lay must be bred to lay.
After you get your hens to the lay laying
ing laying age and they begin laying, you
still have a fight against vermin. After
years with poultry I am more con convinced
vinced convinced each year that vermin cause
more loss of chickens than all other
troubles combined. If allowed to re
main on your hens, your hens will be
so weakened that they cannot lay and
will fall an easy victim to disease.
Dont use hay for 'nesting, but use
tobacco stems, and put a moth-ball in
each nest, as this moth-ball seems to
keep the little mites that are so ag aggravating,
gravating, aggravating, off. Soak the roost poles
with kerosene oil, which has a few
drops of carbolic acid in it. Also put
acid in your whitewash and white whitewash
wash whitewash your houses and keep the houses
Remember, you may feed, keep
clean and do everything necessary,
and still get few eggs unless your hens
are bred to lay. While you are breed breeding
ing breeding for egg production, you must also
have an eye for standard require requirements.
ments. requirements. That your hens can be bred
to lay and bred according to stand standard
ard standard requirements, there is no doubt.
Johnson, in Progressive Far Farmer.
mer. Farmer.
It is a great surprise to me that so
few people in the cities, especially in
the suburbs, keep a flock of hens suf sufficient
ficient sufficient at least to supply their own
table with fresh eggs and poultry.
Many people have probably never
realized their opportunity in th : s di direction.
rection. direction. Others, perhaps, hesitate be because
cause because they know so little of poultry
raising. To the first class I will say
that there are innumerable opportu opportunities
nities opportunities for keeping a small flock of
hens. There are very many places
rented by the laboring class on which
there is a small barn. If not a barn,
there is room for a small henhouse.
There are numerous firms which build
houses that can be knocked' down and
moved, and are, therefore, just the
thing for the city lot.
The city poultryman need not keep
any males except when a few eggs are
wanted to hatch some chicks. At
other times they are useless, as the
hens will lay just as well without the
presence of males, and some feed is
saved thereby. So dispose of the males
as soon as the hatching season is over
and thereby keep the good will of
your neghbors, who perhaps do not
like to be awakened every morning at
daybreak by the crowing of one or
more lusty roosters.
A small run on the ground is best
for the flock, but not absolutely neces necessary.
sary. necessary. If arrangements are made so
that the fowls can get plenty of exer exercise
cise exercise and some green food, a small
flock can be kept housed continuously
and they will do well. In such flocks
do not keep any hens over two years.
W. F. Perdue.



The paying hen is usually hatched
from a paying strain. The paying hen
that comes out of a flock of good-for good-fornothing
nothing good-fornothing birds is seldom met and is not
worth hunting for. It takes time, it
takes money and it takes born hen
sense to produce a flock of paying
hens. It takes a very little neglect
to send this flock back to the class
of the non-paying birds.
Paying birds are a delight to the
eye. You show them to your friends,
and linger in your description of what
they are and what they have done for
you. This class of birds, because they
pay, receive thought and attention
from you. You gladly take care of
them; you are willing to properly
mate and feed them, and you look for
fresh blood to improve upon.
Paying birds never make up a large
part of your flock when you sell the
cream of the choice chicks every year.
Money-making flocks are made up of
the best you raise, always letting the
second quality go to market.
Paying birds live in houses free
from vermin and supplied with pure
air and water. They get food that is
needed to bring the profit to the
proper point. Cheap food, because it
is cheap, never helped to produce the
paying hen and keep her running to
the nest.
Hens that pay splendid profits are
what the world is asking for, is look looking
ing looking for and is demanding. Are you
going to be among the breeders who
will fill the orders for this kind of
For best results where hens are
used, set in good, roomy nests in a
shady place, having the nest right next
to earth or the box on ground. The
eggs will then have more moisture and
not dry out so much. I have often
wet ground near nests in dry weather
and made excellent hatches in hottest
days. It is a good plan to dust hens
and nest often at least four times. If
an egg gets broken the nest materials
should be renewed, as there is nothing
that will start mites so quickly as
broken eggs under hens.
There is a vast difference in setting
hens. Some will carry through the
hatch to perfection. Others will sit all
right, but get excited when chicks
commence to hatch and tread up and
down, killing a few. With such a hen
it would be well to remove all but one
chick. There are other hens that im imagine
agine imagine their work is done and proudly
leave the nest with the first few
chicks. In such case it is a good plan
to remove chicks when dry, leaving
one to satisfy her until hatch is over.
It is more satisfactory hatching with
hens in hot weather. There is no
danger of mites or lice if hens and
nests are kept clean and dusted well
After chicks are hatched, it is a
good plan to confine the brood in a
dry, sandy inclosure or pen, having
shade, for first two weeks. They will
all be contented in a small space that
long, after which they can stand a
good deal of trailing through the
grass and weeds after bugs.


Unless you have an ideal place for
the machines, it is not pleasant work
hatching with incubators during hot
weatherfor the machines will need
watching to keep heat down. During
our last hatches this season, latter
part of incubation was without lamps
in afternoons, and even then the ther thermometer
mometer thermometer would climb two degrees
from animal heat alone. The heat
should be kept down. Too much heat
weakens the chicks. For good strong
chicks there must be oxygen during
incubation. Some incubators seem to
lack this. As one Florida correspond correspondent
ent correspondent wrote: If your incubator hasnt
ventilation in the bottom, cut a hole
with the ax.
I am inclined to believe from my
own observation that the gentleman
was rightand to lack of oxygen dur during
ing during incubation, and too much heat,
may be attributed the larger half of
bowel trouble and white diarrhoea.
C. H- Lane.
By O. F. Taylor.
The owner of a mixed flock ought
to put as much care into the selection
of his breeding-pen as the raiser of
purebreds does. Many farmers and
farmers wives would like to better
their stock, both for profit and their
own satisfaction, but they do not want
to put money in fancy birds. They
can make an astonishing amount of
improvement by simply putting a little
time and care into the business of
To begin with, cull the flock care carefully
fully carefully Look at the rear first for signs
of straining about the vent and bagg bagging
ing bagging down, as with too much fat, and
reject all such birds, as also any that
have crooked breast-bones. Choose
birds with long breast-bones and deep
breasts, as along the keel is where the
best meat lies and in a general-pur general-purpose
pose general-purpose flock provision must be made
for this. Choose birds with bright,
round alert eyesthe quick-moving
ones, the birds that are always first
at the feed-bucket. Reject long-beak long-beaked
ed long-beaked ,snake-headed birds, the ones with
dull eyes and thoe that sit on the
roost through the day. When the
flock has been culled as suggested,
cull again, choosing six to eight of
the best birds of uniform type for a
breeding-pen. Take the best of the
old male birds of the same general
type to mate with these and sell all
the other males.
A breeding-pen necessitates a sep separate
arate separate house and run, but the house
may be a dry-goods box; and if a run
is out of the question for lack of
means to inclose it, give the breeders
and the laying hens range on alter alternate
nate alternate days, or for a time give the
breeders only free range. Many fine
birds have lost their usefulness as
breeders because of too close confine confinement.
ment. confinement.
If from all the hens there are but
one or two from which you care to
breed, furnish these with a house and
yard, and put the male with them for
a few hours only each day. If the
male is put with the hens early in the
morning the progeny will be mostly
males; if he is put in in the afternoon
or toward evening the progeny will

be mostly females. Also, the mating
of a cockerel with hens produces pul pullets
lets pullets and of pullets with cock birds
produces cockerels. Small breeding breedingpens
pens breedingpens give excellent opportunities for
experiment, and if a note-book is
kept, the record of such matings
makes most interesting and valuable
Whatever else is done, look for vig vigor
or vigor and constitution in birds. A hen
that does not have a good constitution
will never be a good egg-producer; a
male without a good constitution will
never breed egg-producers. Some
breeders of pure-breds sacrifice con constitution
stitution constitution to beauty of feather, fancy
lacingpure silvery white, rich deep
buff, etc. but in the long run they
lose by it.
In the case of a pullet, the surface
under the wings will always be found
interspersed with minute rose-colored
veins, which are totally absent in birds
that are more than twelve months
old. Again there will be found, with
pullets, a fair supply of long, silky
hairs, which disappear directly the
first moult is concluded. In the adult
hen, the skin will be found to be
perfectly white, and free from either
veins or hairs; hence it is easy, at a
single glance, to estimate correctly
whether a bird is under or over the
age that acts as a line of demarcation
between juvenile and adult stock. Ad Additional
ditional Additional evidence is forthcoming in the
formation of the pelvic bones which,
in a pullet, are much closer than in the
hen that has passed the pullet age.
At two years they are much wider
than at one year, so that birds at
this age can be readily distinguished
from those of say fifteen and eighteen
months. The third point of difference
is observable in the shanks and claws.
In the young bird the skin of the claw
is supple, and the scales are thin and
brilliant. The skin gets coarser and
harder, as the bird grows, and the
nail of the first toe, which does most
of the work, gets much worn. There
is also a difference in the eyelids.
These acquire wrinkles as the bird gets
older, and there is also a slightly
shr'velled look on the face. This with
age. becomes more and more pro pronounced.
nounced. pronounced. Lastly, there is the question
of wing feathers the most infallible
test of all. At the conclusion of the
first complete mioult, which takes
place when the fowl is exactly twelve
months old. the secondaries alter in
shape, and bear indisputable evidence
as to the dividing line having been
crossed. Although the surest test of
all, this latter can only be ascertained
by those well versed in handling
feathered stock. Farmer and Grazier.
George ,Sileas contributes a timely
article to Farm News on the Ranch
Hen, from which we take the follow following
ing following pertinent suggestions:
The easiest money picked up on the
farm is eggs, and of all farm products
they are the quickest turned iinto
money. On most farms they are very
carelessly handled, but to get the
most money out of them, they must

be handled with care. Note the range
in price of the Eastern city markets
and the difference in price is jus: rhc
difference in handling. To command
the highest price the eggs must be
spotlessly clean and newly laid. Po
get a uniform grade of eggs you
should' weed out of your stock of hens
all old and sickly, undersized and
scrubby stock and change your roos roosters
ters roosters each year. To harden the shell
so the eggs will ship well the fowls
should be fed oyster shells occasion occasionally,
ally, occasionally, or fed a bran mash two or three
times each week. It matters not how
good a range your flock has the3 r
should be fed grain at least once each
day to give the eggs a strong body.
The nests should be kept clean and
the eggs gathered each day. Do not
keep them in damp spring houses or
musty cellars or kitchens. Keep them
in a cool room and cover them so
that they will not get fly specked or
dust on them The soiled egg should
be cleaned with a dry cloth. Do not
wash them. A washed egg quickly
spoils and breaks in shipping. Do not
put pin holes in them or grease them
to keep from hatching. Do not carry
your eggs to market in bran, oats,
saw dust or fine hay or they will look
old. But get egg carriers from your
buyer or the mail order houses. At
the prevailing prices for fresh eggs it
is not profitable to fool with hold holding
ing holding them in pickle, salt or isinglass
or the like fakes. But market them at
least twice each week. If the egg
buyer in your sect : on is slow and out
of date, do not sacrifice your eggs bv
selling to him; but combine with
your neighbors and ship to dealers
familiar with the modern methods
used in handling eggs and will pay
for your eggs according to their qual quality.
ity. quality.
Egg laying is a natural function of
the hen, and environment and cond 1
tions being right, she will shell out
more or less. In spite of this fact,
however the experienced breeder
knows that environment and a con contented
tented contented condition have much to do
with Biddys proclivities in this di direction.
rection. direction. If barred from her usual
place of laying she will wait for hours
to gain access which is plainly de deterring
terring deterring her from doing business at the
old stand. To enlarge this idea,
suppose we take a flock of b.rds and
move them suddenly to new quarters;
they may lay for the next day or so
-expelling the fully-formed eggbut
after that it is liable to be several
days before they will again assume
their normal laying capacity. Es Especially
pecially Especially is this true of the more active
breeds like the Leghorns and Minor Minorcas.
cas. Minorcas. To secure maximum laying ca capacity
pacity capacity hens should be kept as quiet as
their natures will allow, and those
attending them should not only be
gentle and undemonstrative, but in
garb and general demeanor modest
and gentle. Nothing checks the repro reproductive
ductive reproductive functions more than fright;
nothing is so inimical to good egg
production as an agitation of the at atmosphere
mosphere atmosphere by loud talking and gestic gesticulations
ulations gesticulations while in the chicken yard.
Give your birds bodily comforts, keep


them busy in happy and contented
condition, and you will to just that ex extent
tent extent augment the output of hen fruit.
We have occasionally lost chickens
through rat depredations, and we
have to keep up a continuous war warfare
fare warfare on the rat tribe, and can manage
to keep this pest in check although
never to keep them exterminated,
since kind neighbors who breed rats
for free distribution are always ready
to furnish us anew supply when we
think ours has entirely run out.
Perhaps it is easier to guard our fowls
from being carried off by two-legged
marauders than to guard young chick chickens
ens chickens or more largely our poultry feeds,
etc., from rat depredations. Perhaps
a good watch dog or two will keep
human chicken thieves away just as
well as a really good cat will keep the
premises free from rats and mice, or
even better. But it costs to feed dogs,
and often they are a nuisance on the
premises and in the neighborhood. A
burglar alarm is cheap and usually
very effective, at least if properly con connected
nected connected by means of underground
wires with a bell in the bed room.
One of our neighbors recently caught
one of those professional uight oper operators
ators operators in his chicken house one dark
nght and landed him safely behind
the iron bars. This chicken thief was
not given another chance to be out
nights for the best part of a year, but
was given free board and lodging dur during
ing during that time. The burglar alarm is
a good thing. Thieves may poison or
otherwise silence a watch dog. If
the wires are properly placed, the un unwelcome
welcome unwelcome visitors cannot silence the
burglar alarm.
For mending broken crockery, a little
plaster of paris and gum arabic dis dissolved
solved dissolved in hot water, will be found an ex excellent
cellent excellent glue. It should be kept at
hand in case of accident. All fine china
should, however, be washed by the mis mistress
tress mistress of the household. She must not
expect such ware to be preserved if its
care is left in the hands of a maid.
To polish cut glass, wash it well with
soapsuds, rinse and then, after drying
it with a cloth, polish it with sawdust
and a washleather. The glass will be
brilliant after this treatment.
To restore faded upholstery, beat the
dust out good, then brush. Apply strong
lather of castile soap with hard brush,
wash off with clear water. Then wash
with alum water. When dry the colors
will look as well as ever. When colors
are faded beyond recovery they may
be touched up with a pencil dipped in
water colors of suitable shade mixed
with gum water.
Make bags of heavy canton flannel
with a drawstring at the top to place
over the broom and dust the walls with.
Have the fuzzy side out.
If silver which is not to be used often
is kept in dry flour it will not tarnish,
and will need only to be brushed off
when wanted for use at a moments no notice.
tice. notice.

In laundries starched clothes are dried
indoors to keep them stiff. If they need
to be bleached they are hung in the sun,
and afterwards starched and. dried in indoors.
doors. indoors.
Small tin cans can be used for gem
or patty cake pans by melting both ends
from them and standing them in a drip dripping
ping dripping pan. The cakes will easily slip out
of the bottomless rings.
Dont waste anything. Meat balls, cro croquettes,
quettes, croquettes, soup stocks, etc., can be made
from beef scraps; pork can be used to
season beans, bread scraps will make
toast, dressing and puddings.
Gasoline stoves that have to be flashed
are more cleanly by using wood alcohol
in starting. An old toothbrush is fine
to rub wicks on kerosene stoves.
During the ten weeks beginning Jan January
uary January 5, Palmetto shipped 782 cars of
vegetables. This will give an idea of the
immense quantities of early vegetables
leaving this state now for Northern
Perspiring Hands make it well nigh
impossible for many persons to work on
delicate fancy-work during hot weather.
If persons so afflicted will bathe the
hands in strong alum water before tak taking
ing taking up their work, they will have no fur further
ther further trouble. The same treatment be before
fore before putting on gloves will prevent their
being spoiled by perspiration.
The importance of a large humus
supply to any soil cannot be overesti overestimated,
mated, overestimated, since it is upon this more than
any other one factor that the produc productiveness
tiveness productiveness of soil depends.
Young man, do not be contented to
farm .as your father farmed. He did not
have your opportunities nor did he have
your markets or your resources. Live
up to } T our opportunities.
To get after the rats build your build buildings
ings buildings high enough so that the cat or dog
can get after the rats under the build buildings.
ings. buildings. Avoid piles of lumber, posts, rails,
etc., that make splendid homes for these
Clean mirrors, window panes, etc., by
washing with a cloth dipped in alcohol
and polishing with a chamois skin, or
crumpled tissue paper.
While it is less trouble to care for
an incubator than a lot of broody hens,
it requires an effort and watchfulness
to get good results from either.
One advantage with the incubator
is a large number of chicks can be had
at once. One hundred chicks of same
age are more satisfactory than the same
number of varying ages..
It is claimed that goose eggs will
(if properly cared for) keep in hatch hatchable
able hatchable condition for three or four weeks.
It is not best to hatch goslings too
early. For them to thrive the grass
should be growing well when they ar arrive.
rive. arrive.
You will want eggs next fall and
winter. Hatch the pullets now and push
them along to maturity with that ob object
ject object in view.



By J. M. Scott.
The breeder of live stock has more
to do than merely to effect the mating
of one animal with another. To right rightly
ly rightly fulfil his calling he must so mate
animals as to produce the best pos possible
sible possible results, generation by generation
in an ever ascending degree. To him
are entrusted living organisms from
which he is to produce, according to
the natural law of propagation, other
similar organisms, and of such a char character
acter character as shall conserve every good
quality and as far as possible replace
every bad quality with good, or at
least a better. These organisms are
therefore plastic. The secret of their
plasticity is not known to every one,
and to those whom it is known it is
still a mystery or at best a half-read
riddle. In just the ratio of the in insight
sight insight that this man or that has into
this secret of nature will he become
a successful breeder. This insight, in
fine, is knowledge, and like all other
knowledge it is power, and he that
would possess it must seek for it as
for hidden treasures.
It is possible that there was a time
when men were entirely ignorant of
the value of this branch of knbwledge,
but if so it was in the early dawn of
human history. Our earliest records
show that certain breeds of horses
were already especially esteemed, and
the dog had been greatly specialized
to meet the requirements of man in
the pursuit of game and his other
At the present time we see still
further progress. Take for instance
the work that has been done in pro
ducing the modern trott : ng and pacing
horses. One hundred years ago man
did not think it possible for a horse
to travel a mile in less than two min minutes.
utes. minutes. Another good example is the
specialized dairy cow. Our first dairy
cows produced but little more milk
than enough to feed their young. To Today
day Today w*e have cows that produce
enough nrlk to feed half a dozen
calves. Many of us can remember
when a cow that produced [SO pounds
of butter in a year was called a good
dairy cow. Today a cow that does not
produce twice that amount of butter is
not considered an economical pro producer.
ducer. producer. What has brought about these
changes? Mans knowledge, skill, and
ingenuity are responsible for this
great development. This development
however, was not spontaneous, but
has been the result of years of labor.
The advance at first was slow. The
'beginners had but little knowledge of
the work they were undertaking and
necessarily they made mistakes, for
they were compelled to blaze their
own way as they had no beaten trail
to follow.
Today breeding is a simple propo proposition
sition proposition compared with what it was for
beginners. When breeders make cer certain
tain certain crosses they know almost to a
certainty what to expect. For in-



stance when the breeder mates two
animals that have been bred for milk
production he is certain what
the milking qualities of the offspring
will be. The same is true of the
breeding of other classes of live
stock The general farmer, however,
cannot be classed as a breeder. The
results obtained by him are not con controlled
trolled controlled by any law or system of laws,
nor are they the result of any special
knowledge, but simply an unregulated
and unordered progression. Hap Haphazard
hazard Haphazard is the presiding ruler of their
breeding methods. This, however,
does not prove that there is no sci science
ence science of breeding. It merely shows
that the science of breeding should
be more widely taught.
He who molds the counterfeit of
life may, indeed, be the artist of no
mean art; but surely thrice greater
he who with no less skill manipulates
the complex nature of a living being,
producing a superior form and one in
conformity with the ideal in his mind.
Such a view is far from exaggerated.
The world is full of countless varie varieties
ties varieties of a single species of domesti domesticated
cated domesticated animals which are only modi modifications
fications modifications wrought out by mans in ingenuity.
genuity. ingenuity. The various breeds of cat cattle,
tle, cattle, horses, sheep, dogs, fowls, pig pigeons,
eons, pigeons, and many other animals, not to
speak of the infinite beauty and va variety
riety variety of the magic of mans skill, at attest
test attest the marvelous extent to which
man has molded and is still molding
the domesticated animals.
We give our chickens grit, and we
know why; for grit in the gizzard en enables
ables enables them to grind their feed. They
use grit instead of teath. But why is
it that hogs are always hankering af after
ter after grit? When a boy, we threw a
shovelful of slack coal into a hog pen
where there was plenty of corn, skim skimmilk
milk skimmilk and buttermilk three times a day
in the trough. To our surprise, the
hogs left the appetizing feed and com commenced
menced commenced to eat the slack coal, and
seemed never to get enough of it.
We have noticed that hogs, particu particularly
larly particularly in the spring of the year, will
root up a gravelly patch in the pas pasture
ture pasture and leave the rest untouched. We
have seen them follow a vein of whit whitish
ish whitish clay along a stream until they un undermined
dermined undermined the bank. We once had to
board up the foundation of a granary
which had a room for hogs under underneath
neath underneath to keep them from eating the
plaster and ruining the foundation.
Every animal is by nature some something
thing something of a doctor, not for the ills ol
other animals, but its own. There Therefore,
fore, Therefore, we assume that hogs have a pur purpose
pose purpose in eat : ng slack coal and old plas plaster,
ter, plaster, and in rooting for gravel and
grit in the fields. Just why they do it,
we dont know. We simply make a
guess that worms can not very well
five or feed very comfortably in the
small intestine through which grit is
passing. But really it does not mat matter

ter matter much whether we know or not.
If hogs hanker after that kind of
thing, let them have it. Much as we
may boast of our intelligence, the hog.
often knows better what it needs
than all the veterinarians can figure
out. Therefore, especially at this
season of the year, let the hogs have haveall
all haveall the grit they want.
Fortunes have been made and for fortunes
tunes fortunes have been lost in dairy farming.
To substantiate this, and to show the
tremendous waste of energy on dairs
farms, the following examples are
Two men of good habits started in
the dairy business twenty-five years
ago, the one with nothing, and the
other with a 320-acre farm, paid for.
At the present time, the former has a
large farm, well stocked with a dairy
herd, and good ;bu'ldings, besides a
bank account, all of which was made
from his dairy herd. The latter,,
through poor judgment, guess work,,
and non-application of the best meth methods,
ods, methods, lost the farm he already had. The
purchasing of large amounts of high highpriced
priced highpriced concentrates was one great
factor in his failure. It finally took
80 acres of land to pay the bill for
these purchased feeds, alone.
Another man, owning a farm of I2o
acres kept 20 cows and produced
from two to four cans of milk per
day, the proprietor and two hired
men doing the work. The profits
were so small that the farm was
finally lost. This farm was purchased
by a man who kept three hired men
and 63 cows on the same 120-acres of
land, producing thirty cans of milk per
day during the flush of the season.
His milk for one month, shortly after
he began, brought SB4O. This is an
example of brain fertility, and not soil
fertility for the soil was the same
Wilbur J. Fraser, Illinois Experiment
In the course of conversation a few
days ago, a well known swine breeder
said One of the things that strikes
me as being queer is that farmers are
paying such fabulously high prices
for grade stuff, when at only a little if
any higher prce they could be get getting
ting getting pure breds. I saw a grade sow'
with three pigs at side sell at $40.00
the other daynow I am selling some
of my best bred gilts and sows at $35,.
S4O and SSO. I dont see why it would
not be the most sensible sort of prop proposition
osition proposition for farmers to buy these pure
breds when to get grades they have to
pay so much. The time will be here
soon when grade hogs will be bring bringing
ing bringing only their normal value, and pure
breds will be bringing at least as
much as they do now, which is a much
higher price than grade stuff usually
commands. Why, I would think that
any man with foresight, would sell off
the grade stock now and exchange it
for the pure bred.
The writer is no stickler for nor
champon of pure breds. He does not
uphold the pure bred just because it
is a pure bred. Some grade stock he
would rather have than some pure

bred stock he has seen and if he had
really good grade stock he would not
be in any hurry to exchange it for
pure bred stock that he was not sure
was good also. And yet there is a
great deal of good sound sense in
what his breeder friend had to say.
There is no denying that grade stock
is today selling at abnormal prices pricesat
at pricesat prices ont of all proportion to its
real value, or to what it will be likely
to bring a few years hence. A man
is foolish to have let himself get short
of breeding stock at such a time; but
when he has done so he may better
spend' his money for pure breds than
grades. There is no question but that
their value is more standardized and
that they are universally regarded as
being worth more than grades.
For meat purposes pure bred stock
will not as a rule net the farmer any
more money than grades, but for
breeding purposes it will. The mere
name pure bred goes a long way to toward
ward toward assuring a ready and good sale
for a sow or boar. Men who would
grade their stock up (as fortunately is
the strong tendency today) must have
pure bred boars, at least, and for them

they are willing to pay high prices.
The farmer who can fill this demand
on the part of his neighbors is going
to make money. Pure breds breed
truer to type and are in every way a
very satisfying thing to possess. Cer Certainly
tainly Certainly when they can be had at no
greater cost to speak of, they are to be
preferred to grades. They cost no
more for maintenance, and will bring
in greater returns. Oklahoma Far Farmer.
mer. Farmer.
Proper grooming, feeding and driv driving
ing driving is all a horse needs to make him
the noblest animal on earth; there therefore,
fore, therefore, be generous in the use of the
comb and brush, especially the brush.
In using a currycomb, see that the
teeth are not bent. Such a comb is an
instrument of torture. Teach the boys
to use it gently, as many horses are
given ugly tempers by cruel and care careless
less careless currying. To hurt a horse will


cause him to hate the operation and
the operator. Horse World.
The state of Tennessee is the home
of the walking horse, if any state can
claim such honor. It is a class over overlooked
looked overlooked by horsemen. No effort has
ever been made that we know of to
perpetuate by breeding this useful
horse. Yet it is claimed to be the best
of all for business purposes. Because
of the low carriage of the walking
horse, he is not classed for style and,
in a class for style and finish gener generally
ally generally has little show. Take him, though,
out on the road, give him his head and
there is no more delightful feeling
than to be carried along, you scarce
know how, at a gait twice as rapid as
it seems.
Just why the walking horse is not
bred up and improved no one knows.
Of course, it would take time to fix
the tendency to walk fast and not go
into a mixed or a faster gait, but
breeding works wonders in the animal

A Bunch of Florida Cattle.

A horse can be bred to trot, run or
draw burdens, why not to walk fast
and carry his mount with ease?
Money invested in sheep will nearly
double itself in one year, since the
fleece will pay for the feed and care
of the sheep, and the lambs, often two
per ewe, are the profit.
It is estimated that ten sheep can be
kept where one cow can, and the risk
is much less. It may be said that the
sheep always carries her pocketbook
with her.
If she dies, her pelt or fleece pays
her funeral expenses. If she lives, her
wool in the spring and her lambs in
the fall pay double revenue. No other
stock pays as large a percentage of
clear profit on the money invested.
In years past complaint has been
made that the industry could not be
made profitable because of the losses

from dogs and coyotes, but statistics
show that losses from this source last
year were less than half of one per
Nothing will build up a run-down
farm as quickly as a flock of sheep.
While pasturing, the sheeps manure is
distributed about so evenly that no
manure spreader could equal the sheep
in its work.
The American people are consuming
more mutton every year, and a very
bright future is in store for the sheep
The incorrigible balky horses of the
rural districts find their way to whole wholesale
sale wholesale markets, where under the tests of
hauling a heavy truck wagon on a
paved street with the wheels blocked
the vice is immediately discovered.
If the animal has been sold as serv serviceably
iceably serviceably sound and guaranteed a will willing
ing willing worker and a cheerful puller the
buyer rejects his purchase and the
horse is resold without any guarantee
except clear title of ownership.

Balking, like windsucking, cribbing,
weaving and halter pulling, is a vice
developed by natural inheritance. In
breaking young horses to harness too
much caution cannot be observed in
asking the youngster to pull light loads
to begin with.
The balky horse cannot be con conquered
quered conquered by brutal treatment, but may
be induced to pull by many devices
intended to attract his attention from
his resolution not to pull. To lift the
forefoot and pound on the shoe, to put
a handful of grass or dirt in his mouth,
to give him a lump of sugar or an
apple to eat have all proved success successful
ful successful in some instances in inducing a
horse to pull.
To pass a cord around the pastern
and pull the forefoot forward until the
animal has to move is also a means of
starting a balky horse. An electric
battery manipulated by the driver gives
an animal a shock from a source that he
does not comprehend and is the latest
device in treating incorrigible horses.
Horse Shoers Journal.



Twenty years ago Polk county re reported
ported reported one-quarter of an acre in
strawberries, yielding 470 quarts
worth sll, or twenty-five cents
per quart. In 1910 the official
report credits the county with
322 acres, yielding 379,558 quarts val valued
ued valued at $102,955. The county is the
second as a strawberry section and
Lakeland growers received this year
SBB,OOO from a crop of 585,000 quarts.
This last item, printed a short time
ago led the writer to look over the
records for the last twenty years,
taking intervals of five or more years
for the study. The facts are inter interesting.
esting. interesting.
Bradford and Alachua counties
were the leading producers, furnishing
more than half of the combined
acreage of the state. Bradford stood
first with 251 acres, yielding 432,000
quarts; Alachua 133 acres yielding
358,330 quarts. The 602 acres dis distributed
tributed distributed over the state gave a crop
of 1,087,800 quarts, averaging 1800
quarts to the acre, bringing over 80
cents per quart to the fortunate rais raisers.
ers. raisers. Evidently strawberry culture
promised good returns in those early
Duval and Sumter were the only
counties reporting any considerable
acreage; the first had 72, the second
34 acres- Four other counties report reported
ed reported only one acre each and Polk, as
mentioned above, had one-quarter of
an acre.
In 1897 over four hundred acres
were added, the exact figures being
1,074, with a yield of 1,297,022 quarts
valued at $182,561.00. Yield per acre
and price per quart, it will be seen,
were very low and not as encouraging
as a few years previous. Fourteen
cents per quart as against forty-eight
and a little over 1,200 quarts per acre
as against 3,100 must have proved
discouraging to strawberry growers.
Putnam raised its 18 acres up to
232; Pascos 7 increased to 219; Brad Bradford
ford Bradford dropped' to 107, taking third
place, with Alachua about the same
acreage reported years before, 102.
Hillsboroughs 7 acres grew to 151,
while Duval had only 26 as against its
previous record of 72. Polk reported
78 acres, showing that berry culture
was on the increase. Five counties
heretofore reporting dropped from
the list.
In the year 1900 the official report
shows a decrease in acreage amount amounting
ing amounting to over 350 acres, the exact figures
being 709. yielding 554,608 quarts, val valued
ued valued at $64,066, a trifle over it cents
per quart. Bradford county dropped
out entirely, and Putnam took first
place with 251, and Polk second with
148 acres. Alachua had only 40 and
Hillsborough reduced its acreage over
one hundred. Pasco, from 219 drop dropped
ped dropped to 92, while St. Johns increased
its acreage from 25 to 52. Four coun counties,
ties, counties, Citrus, Columbia, Lake and Mar Marion,
ion, Marion, had each only one acre, Columbia



reporting its yield at 200 quarts, Cit Citrus
rus Citrus at 900, Lake at 820 and Marion
at 500.
In 1905 the acreage nearly doubled,
reporting 1,362 acres, with a yield
of 2,856,231 quarts, valued at $408,891.
Average price per quart, 14 cents.
Bradford, *'Polk, and Hillsborough
were the leading counties. Bradfords
report is a surprise. From nothing
five years previous, it boasted of
holding first place, with 643 acres,
yielding 1,623,800 quarts the first
to pass the million mark. That year,
it may be assumed, all the babies
born had a strawberry mark on their
left arm or elsewhere. Polk report reported
ed reported 289 acres, yielding 332,220 quarts
and Hillsborough 264 acres bearing
573,45 quarts. Alachua, DeSoto and
Washington reported each 3 acres;
Brevard, Citrus and St. Lucie each 1
acre. It will be noticed here that, for
the first time, the East Coast is repre represented
sented represented in Brevard and St. Lucie
counties. Duvals product dropped to
ii acres; Pasco reported 34 and Put Putnam
nam Putnam 15 acres; the one acre counties
were Baker, Brevard, Citrus, Dade, Jeff Jefferson,
erson, Jefferson, Orange, Osceola and Sumter.
The lowest yield was in Baker, 40
quarts; the highest in Brevard, 500
quarts. As with the maid and Dr. Fell
the reason why, I cannot tell.
Come we now to the year 1910, as
shown in the recent Eleventh Biennial
Report of Commissioner of Agriculture.
Hon. E. B. McLin. It shows a de decrease
crease decrease of about one hundred acres and
500,000 quarts and a proportionate de decrease
crease decrease in returns for cash. From 1,205
acres the yield was 2,333,437 quarts hav having
ing having a value of $319,209.
Bradford, Polk and Hillsborough keep
the lead, as follows: Bradford 729
acres, 1,522,155 quarts; Polk, 322 acres,
379,558 quarts; Hillsborough 124 acres,
278,050 quarts. Pasco and Putnam
send no report. Duval had 15 acres,
yield 35,500 quarts. It seems strange,
with the principal city of the state so
close for a market, that so few berries
should be raised. In Duval the varia variation
tion variation in price per quart received by the
growers in the three leading counties
is noticeable. Bradford county growers,
according to the Report, received only
9 cents per quart; Hillsboroughs crops
returned 17 cents and Polk 27 cents.
Of course, these prices are given as
the average; some grov/ers in Bradford
may have done better than others, but
the difference is one difficult to account
Pabor Lake Fruit Lands, Avon Park,
Capt. Thomas H. Johnson was con consoling
soling consoling some truckers and vegetable
growers Saturday. He said that on the
16th of April last year he had the mis misfortune,
fortune, misfortune, as he then thought, to lose his
melons by an untimely frost. He was
blue for several days, but he went hero heroically
ically heroically to work and replanted. What he
took for a calamity proved to be a

blessing in disguise. That he made
the biggest melon crop he ever made
in his whole life, grew the biggest mel melons
ons melons and got the biggest prices, and the
prices remained firm throughout the en entire
tire entire season. He got as much for his last
shipments as he did for his first, which
is unusual. The captain says that one
never can tell. He says that one with a
wagon and three hands can water ten
acres a day, and it will pay the truckers
to do this. pint of water to the hill
is sufficient until you are able to go over
the crop again in a few days. Mr. Wil William
liam William Lucius and others are doing this,
and in the end will reap a rich reward.
Ocala Banner.
Florida razor-backs are heard very
little about these days. The farmers
have imported the finest kind of hogs to
take the place of the razor-backs, and
some counties are making quite a repu reputation
tation reputation as meat-producing districts.
Pensacola Journal.
Home grown peaches now vie with
luscious watermelons for first place on
the family board. Figs will next step in.
Classified Advertising
Advertisements inserted in this column at
the rate of 2 cents per word each insertion.
No advertisement taken for less than 25 cents.
FOR SALE White Leghorn Eggs for hatch hatching,
ing, hatching, from fine pen of straight Wyckoff
Leghorns; $1.50 per 15. Fine cockerels for
sale. C. H. Jacques, Miami, Fla. R. F. D.
FIELD PEAS to exchange for hens or eggs.
W. J. McCain, Fruitland, Ga.
WANTED An educated Northern young man
wishes position of trust on orange grove,
farm or other place where there is chance
for advancement. Responsible, earnest work worker;
er; worker; age 30; married. Excellent references as
to character. Address P. O. Box 163, Bil Billerica,
lerica, Billerica, Mass.
INDIAN RUNNER DUCK EGGS for hatch hatching,
ing, hatching, $2.50 per dozen. Descriptive leaflet free.
G. C. Vowell, Ellenton, Fla.
FOR SALE DeSoto county, Florida, land, in
160, 320 and 640-acre tracts. J. A. Harri Harrison,
son, Harrison, 500 Livingston Bldg., Bloomington, 111.
combination brooder, colony and laying
house; made of waterproof canvas. Formula,
blue-print and full instructions how to build
only sl. Send today. Address L. E. Am Amidon,
idon, Amidon, New Smyrna, Fla.
Well drained; no swamp; bracing breezes
from the ocean; near neighbors; Christian
church, school and good market. We want
more neighbors but make no extravagant
promises. If you have energy and a little
cash, we will welcome you. Address Wm.
F. Hawley, Gilmore, Fla.
FOR SALE 7,500 acres in Floridas greatest
agricultural district; fine cut-over pine land;
first-class location and well adapted to col colonization
onization colonization purposes. A proposition of real
merit. J. A. Harrison, 500 Livingston Bldg.,
Bloomington, 111.
FOR SALE Lawtey farms, 37 miles south southwest
west southwest of Floridas most famous strawberry
section; good land, good title, good water,
good town, good schools,. good churches; a
good community. Soil is productive, the
climate ideal. Write for free booklet. Uncle
Sam Florida Land Cos., Main and Wash Washington
ington Washington Sts., Bloomington, 111.
We have a limited amount of genuine Rocky
Ford, Netted Gem, Cantaloupe Seed, which
was, personally, selected by the late George
W. Swink, from melons grown on new ground,_
and is particularly choice.
Price of No. 1 seed SI.OO per pound
Price of No. 2 seed 75 per pound
Rocky Ford, Colorado.

Some Methods of Irrigation In Use

No matter how rich our country may
be in an agricultural way, or how deep
and black the soil, it would soon cease
to produce if moisture were withheld, as
all plant growth absorbs food in liquid
form. In the first place the very mi microbes,
crobes, microbes, whose function it is to prepare
the meals underground, cease action and
become dormant when the soil becomes
dry, but are awakened to active life at
once upon coming into contact with
Unfortunately there is no known land
on this wide earth where it rains just
enough either to suit plant development
or to please everybody, hence if we wish
to be uniformly successful, we must sup supply
ply supply as well as remove water artificially.
In locations where the moisture supply
is under absolute control, the most in intensive
tensive intensive and successful farm operations
are carried on, and the greatest amount
of products grown per acre.
Successful planters, being ambitious,
are continually striving to do better,
hence better methods are adopted as
quickly as they are proven a success,
and for this reason many are preparing
to irrigate in all parts of South Florida,
especially since our crops here are grown
principally in or during the dry season
of the year.
There is considerable inquiry in regard
to the irrigation subject, and various
kinds of plants are being installed. The
styles of plants are governed by the
kind of soil and sub-soil, whether sand,
muck, clay or marl, the latter three pos possessing
sessing possessing the faculty of retaining moisture
to a much greater degree than the first
named. The water supply also governs
the kind of plant installed to a large
degree. On land with sand or rock sub subsoil,
soil, subsoil, irrigation is accomplished by what
is known as the overhead system. It is
a very successful method, as it not only
is economical of water, but it would be
impossible to hold water in sandy sub subsoil
soil subsoil on account of its leachy character.
This style is the most costly to install.
Besides the expense of mains, consisting
of two to four-inch pipe, laterals must
be laid 25 to 40 feet apart, with long or
short standpipes (usually about six feet
high) of three-quarter-inch iron pipe
placed in a corresponding distance apart.
These standpipes are crowned with
various kinds of spray nozzles, aiming
chiefly to get such a nozzle as will dis distribute
tribute distribute over as large an area as possible.
This system has its advantages as well as
its disadvantages. Among the former
may be counted the prevention of dam damaging
aging damaging frost; it also washes off red spider
and makes it unpleasant for leaf-eating
insects; on the other hand, it has a ten tendency
dency tendency to produce a class of fungi such as
flourish best where the foliage is damp.
This overhead system requires a pres pressure
sure pressure of about 25 pounds per square inch
to properly force the water and to gen generate
erate generate such a spray as will best imitate
a fine rain. Spraying is best applied
evenings or after night, but beneficial
applications can be made during cloudy
weather. In all attemps at irrigation,
you will make no mistake by using a
surplus of water and by keeping the soil
especially if of a sandy loam con-
stantly constantly in a moist condition; and unless
this is done religiously, absolute failure
is liable to result.


Probably the method that is most suc successful
cessful successful is the one of placing underground
tiles and forcing water through them.
This is the system so largely used at
Sanford, Florida. However, this system
is only feasible where there is a sub substratum
stratum substratum of soil which is more or less
impervious to water, such as clay, marl
or hard-pan subsoil.
When the Everglade drainage is com completed,
pleted, completed, it is proposed to install locks in
the canals and thereby control the water
level in the soil. This will at all times
provide moisture and will eventually as assure
sure assure very cheap irrigation for this en entire
tire entire area. But until this work is com completed,
pleted, completed, which will take some time tr
accomplish, smaller areas in this section
can be controlled easily by putting in
one of the shallow lift pumps of great
capacity, such as are used to pump out,
or flood rice fields.
With all crops, especially vegetables,
the increase in production is very
marked when water is applied scientifi scientifically,
cally, scientifically, the increase being often double;
in fact, in seasons of protracted drouths
little or nothing can be grown unless
under water control. Not only is this
increase in production to be noted, but
the quality is proportionately improved,
and such products always bring an in increased
creased increased price in the market, and are in
much greater demand. A great number
of our tropical plants require consider considerable
able considerable moisture and will not produce
properly unless an adequate water sup supply
ply supply is at hand. Florida Star.
We often hear it said that one of the
greatest needs of our section is a can canning
ning canning factory, and several times the mat matter
ter matter has been broached of establishing
one by the organization of a stock com company.
pany. company.
We got anew idea concerning this
last week while on the train coming
from Pensacola, and pass it along as
appearing to us well worth considering.
The gentleman who gave us the infor information
mation information was from the vegetable section
of Virginia, and there, he told us, that
growers made themselves independent of
a glutted market for any ordinary veg vegetables
etables vegetables by having small canneries on the
farm. All that can be profitably sold
in the market is so disposed of, but when
the price drops the home cannery is
started, and when the season is finished
the pack is sold in car lots through
brokers. Each man, whether he puts
up ten or a thousand cases, puts in his
stuff with that of his neighbors and sells
it in this way. Thoroughly practical
home canning outfits can be bought for
very little money, and by this means
can be made practical profit producers.
Of course it is too late to do anything
about this for this season, but it is
worth remembering and making use of
another year.DeFuniak Breeze.
Some horses have learned to balk
by being overloaded and abused. Their
courage has been overtaxed and they
rebel, disheartened at the task they are
asked to perform. Other horses
appear to balk from natural inclina inclination
tion inclination and appear foaled full of innate

Jacksonville, Fla.
Wild Lands,
Horses or
In Fact Anything
You Will Find the
It Costs One Cent a
Word Only



Planting Eucalyptus in Florida

Mr. Bristow Adams, an expert of the
United States Forestry Service, who has
been at Miami for some time, left that
city recently for Tampa, carrying with
him 2,000 young eucalyptus trees in
paper pots for planting on a five-acre
tract in Hillsborough county.
Accompanied by R. W. Lucas, of the
sub-tropical laboratory, Mr. Adams has
just returned from the Everglades,
where he planted 600 trees on the South
canal, ten miles west of Fort Lauderdale,
on the tract furnished by the state.
Eighteen species were used in thts
Glades in an effort to find which are
the most suitable. The planting is in
the way of an experiment, not a demon demonstration,
stration, demonstration, and although Mr. Adams thinks
that the outlook is hopeful for some spe species,
cies, species, he does not advise commercial
planting on a large scale until more
is known of the results.
Near Tampa, he will try fourteen
hardy kinds and a like number in an
area on the Ocala National Forest, re remaining
maining remaining in Florida probably until mid midsummer
summer midsummer before returning to Washing Washington.
ton. Washington.
The eucalyptus planting will be fin finished
ished finished in about a month and it is possi possible
ble possible that Mr. Adams will return to Dade
county at the end of that time to see
how the plantations at Fort Lauderdale
are faring and to look after the stock
at the sub-tropical gardens here.
Mr. Adams is very enthusiastic over
the prospects of successful eucalyptus
culture in Florida. A short while ago,
in Tampa, he gave an interview to the
Times, in which he said:
I can foresee the whole landscape of
southern Florida modified and beauti beautified
fied beautified by the planting of these trees, just
as the face of the country has been
changed by them in southern California
and in Brazil. Of course, land is so
valuable in this part of the state that it
will be put into truck farms and or orchards
chards orchards very rapidly, but even at that
there are certain tracts, which foresters
designate as absolute forest land, areas
better adapted to tree-growing than to
cultivation, rocky tracts, for example,
where farming means too much of a
struggle as compared to the work on
good, fertile, tillable soils. And even
with the remarkable influx of immigra immigration,
tion, immigration, and in spite of the great increase
in population in Florida, such as you
have just been celebrating in your Cen Census
sus Census Celebration, there will yet be some
time before all the land is taken up. In
the meantime it might just as well be
producing valuable timber instead of
scrub growth. Understand me, however,
as advocating going slowly as yet. The
governments plantings are simply ex experiments
periments experiments not demonstrations. We
know that some species do well as in individual
dividual individual trees where they get individual
care and attention, but whether they
will thrive under commercial conditions
is quite a different matter.
One thing is certain, he added,
they wont be worth trying at all un
less fire is kept out. The one great
drawback to forestry in Florida, as 1
see it, is the pernicious habit of burning
over the woods, which not only hinders
tree growth but robs the soil of thou thousands
sands thousands of tons of humus, or decayed veg vegetable
etable vegetable matter, which the sandy soils ol


Florida are most in need of.Miami
Catle and hogs can be raised here
better and more cheaply than anywhere
else in the Union, because the food can
be produced more easily and the climate
is more favorable, and there is more:
water, which is a necessary requisite.
No state in the Union can surpass
Florida in either corn or cotton, both
of the long and short variety. It is the
real home of the tobacco plant, and no nowhere
where nowhere in the south can syrup be made
with the excellent flavor of the Florida
Alfalfa, peas, clover, peanuts, chufas,
pumpkins and in fact every vegetable
and farm product that can be grown in
the temperate or semi-tropical regions
can be grown in Florida with the great greatest
est greatest ease and facility. Every fruit on
the continent, with the exception ot
apples, does well in this state, and does
better than in most other places.
While Florida boasts, and should
boast, of her wonderful climate and of
the fact that in the winter this is the
playground for all the rest of the coun country,
try, country, sight should never be lost of the
important fact that the great diversity of
her agricultural products is Floridas
best asset, and is the attraction that is
drawing thousands of sturdy farmers
from the great Northwest to make their
homes among us and add to the great greatness
ness greatness of this nature-favored state. St.
Lucie Tribune.
Talk about the money made from one
acre of Florida land, nothing can beat
the Irish potato, as two crops can be
grown a year, and hardly ever a failure,
and good prices are had. The crop from
the fall planting can remain in the
ground a month or two after the potato
is grown and ready for marketing; does
not hurt its selling qualities.Volusia
About three carloads of vegetables are
leaving here daily this week. Prices
are some lower now than they have
been, but beans are still selling for a
dollar or a dollar ten at the platform
and cukes at eighty cents. Prices have
held up remarkably well and last Sat Saturday
urday Saturday beans were selling in the mar markets
kets markets as high as $4.50. Florida Advocate.
From twelve to fifteen hundred crates
of vegetables have been leaving Wau Wauchula
chula Wauchula daily the past week and the mar market
ket market continues remarkably high. Yester Yesterday
day Yesterday beans were quoted from $3.50 to
$4.50, and cukes $2. Naturally inferior
stuff are not bringing these prices, but
no one can complain that they are not
receiving as much as their products are
worth. Many of the truckers will make
big money this season. Postmaster Ho Homer
mer Homer B. Rainey has already received
$1,600 in good money from four acres
of beans, and believes the four acres
will bring $2,400 by the time he is
through shipping. Mr. D. C. Sams has
realized $450 from an acre of beans, and
is not through yet. Wauchula Advocate.

Bakers Hog Cholera
Sold under positive guarantee.
It will protect you against hog
cholera. SI per bottle dis discount
count discount in quantities. Ask your
druggists or send to the ::
Baker Chemical Cos.
Quincy, Florida

1 m
ed upon.
turedby I
iy co. m
Atlanta U

All the writing ALWA YS in sight
Easy Payments
H. M. Ashe Cos.
Jacksonville, Fla.
All Other Makes Rebuilt
and Second-Hand, Cheap

Old Sicte-Ann Pistols. 50 np |
Largest stock Government Auction Bargains In the world. 15
acres required for its storage. 3(>4-pnge catalogue, over 4.000
Illustrations of army and navy auction goods, Regular Military
Encyclopedia. Mailed for 15 cents (stamps).
FRANCIS BANNERMAN, 501 Broadway, N. Y.
No other crops so valuable
/ifS- for fertilizing, hay and soil*
*_ a ing. Millet, cotton and
cane seed, and sweet pota-
J IfcYaia toes. Write lor illustrated
catalogue. It is free.
SEED go.. 18 Trade St.. Hickory. U 1
150 Feet Long for 75c
fcg§g|s| Galvanized Poultry Netting;

Free Books floridTProducts
How and When to Fertilize Citrus Trees. Questions on Spring Fertilizing More Fruit
More Money. Fall Fertilizing for Vigor ana Vitality. Ideal Results from Ideal Fertilizers.
How to Begin an Orange Grove. Lime: Its Forms and Effects. Remedies for Insects
and Diseases. Florida Soils. Florida Vegetables. Florida Strawberries. Irish Pota Potatoes.
toes. Potatoes. Pineapple Fertilizing.
The above book is a complete treatise on Citrus Culture for Profit from selection of land to shipping,
with tinted illustrations and charts for packing. The most up-to-date methods for combating the
various grove troubles are also included. The little volume is complete in every way, and while
written for citrus growers, has articles on general plant life, soil conditions, and action of the
different fertilizer materials that make it invaluable to any grower. Sent for the nominal price of
50 cents, cloth bound: 25 cents paper covers. : : :: : : : : : ; ;
Wilson & Toomer Fertilizer Cos.

The result of several years work
by the Department of Agriculture
has developed the impossibility of
outlining a method of culture that will
give the highest yield of corn per acre
during all seasons. During the dry
season of 1909, the average result in
a number of tests showed a gain of
4.'66 bushels per acre by planting corn
5 or 6 inches below the general level
of the ground. Of 48 tests of deep
planting and surface planting, 36 tests
produced best by deep planting
against 12 by level planting. For sec sections
tions sections subject to dry weather during
July and August deep planting is con considered'
sidered' considered' advisable. The furrows in
which the young plants are growing
should not be filled so as to leave the
ground until the root systems of the
plants is well established.
It is an interesting fact that the
great extension of fruit growing, in
all parts of the country has been at attended,
tended, attended, not by a decline in prices, but
by a very considerable advance. The
question whether or not the multipli multiplication
cation multiplication of orchards and berry patches
will have the effect of producing the
labor and expenditures of the fruit fruitgrower
grower fruitgrower is very likely to meet a neg negative
ative negative reply, according to Orchard and
In the first place the demand for
all the fruits of North America is
world-wide. The worlds appetite for
them is insatiable; and as the facili facilities
ties facilities for distributing tiiem are better
systematized througn intelligent co cooperate
operate cooperate arrangements between grow growers,
ers, growers, transportation and selling agen agencies
cies agencies in the cities, it seems as though
the problem is to be, how to get
enough of any kind of good fruit.
The improvement of canning pro processes
cesses processes and the cheapening of appara apparatus
tus apparatus has also its effect in insuring a


Home and Market Canning Outfits
For canning all kinds of Fruits and Vegetables. Meats. Fish. Oysters, etc. Portable
and Furnace, Stationary and Kitchen styles. All sizes and capacities. Operated both
open and under pressure. Evaporaters and Cookers. A pleasant and profitable
business. Write for free catalogue.

market for fruits. Fruit farmers are ?
not now dependent on canneries.
Recent inventions enable them to do
the canning themselves.
It would seem that the grower need
only see to it that his fruit is of good
quality, attractively put up and intel intelligently
ligently intelligently marketed to be certain of a
reasonable reward* But the day when
neglected orchards and bushes could
be depended on to produce saleable
crops has passed. The grower of to today
day today must be equipped by study for
battling with insect pests; must be
insistent in cultivatoin and in the use
of the sprayer; and must, in short,
give as close attention to his trees as
the stockman does to his cattle, the
doctor to his patients, or the mer merchant
chant merchant to keeping his stock of goods
fresh and in saleable condition.
S. L. Caldwell, who lives just inside
of the city, southeast of the court house,
killed a hog which weighed 700 pounds
gross, and dressed 549 pounds. The hog
was of the Poland China breed, three
years old, and raised by Mr. Caldwell on
his place. His hogship was sold to
Watts Bros. market and brought the
original owner $54.90, which we think
a pretty fair price for one hog.Bartow
Courier Informant.
The first potatoes from this section to
reach the Northern market sold at $5
to $7.50, with $5 for No. 2s and $6.50
for No. 1 stock being the average price.
The shipments were made from Federal
Point and were of good quality and
carefully graded and packed. The yield
is about 50 barrels per acre. Hastings

/ CAM \
I Fruit and Vegetables I
1 Our FREE BOOK tells how. 1
Write for prices on our
Medal Canning Outfits I
Family to factory sizes, fl
$5.00 and up. Best that
experience and skilled
labor can produce.
Most complete ma machine
chine machine for the money.
Send for price-list on I
cans, labels and sup supplies
plies supplies before placing
your order. Buy di direct
rect direct and save money.
Agents Ufanted
Robinson Can Cos., I
Baltimore, Md. I
§ Dont let your surplus fruits and 1
# vegetables go to waste. Can them, m
f the same as a large canning factory. 1
f Theres always a market for canned 1
f goods, and for a small investment 1
/ youcanbuya ___ 1
I ijm F. 8. BTAHL HFG. CO.. \
Wanted Box 810-D, Qnlney, 111. %



Conservation has become a watchword and is on every tongue. When its
novelty has passed and we come to consider its true meaning we shall find that
conservation of the resources of the soil of our farm lands is the most important
clement in the whole subject.
The American farmers have been a race of unconscious sod skinners.
Now, we want not only to conserve productivity, but to restore some of that re removed.
moved. removed. We must get down to facts.
One fact often lost sight of is that we can double the value of clover and farm
manure by supplementing them with
Potash and Phosphates
thus making a complete and balanced fertilizer. This is true soil building as well
as plant feeding. lt wm Pay> for Potash Pay
We will sell you Potash through your dealer or direct, in lots from one bag
(200 lbs.) up. Write for orices.
I Bigger cotton crops; less work. I
The Planet Jr Combined Horse-Hoe and Cotton Culti-_J|
I vator is the greatest implement ever invented for J
I working cotton, corn, potatoes, and similar crops. M c
llt is adjustable for hoeing, plowing, cultivating, fur- |k y MB
I rowing, listing, dirting, scraping, and laying by. /' jt' 1
Gives such thorough ground-preparation that you ij JLxsm
I get a better yield ; and it saves over half the labor J | I |j|i
I Made by a practical farmer and manufacturer.
Write today for our 1911 Illustrated catalogue free, which fully de- MBi
scribes 55 kinds of Planet Jr implements, including two-horse cotton

Cuts up food in hens
AML gizzard so that it fits
JKttm it for eggs and gives
growth. Tis sharp sharpkeeps
keeps sharpkeeps its edges until
itrt IMIW Order Maka-Shel
jpaLri 1 1 J HBF Hens prefer it to grav gravel,
el, gravel, glass or oyster shell
It contains Lime, Iron,
Ualllla Magnesium and other
elements that are suit-
W ed to the digestive
A processes, and in increases
creases increases egg production
through active assimi-
TpAhF MADK lation. Ask your deal deali
i deali HAUL n/\rf|\ er or send us SI.OO for
two 100-lb. bags, f. - b. cars. Order to-day.
New booklet, "Hens Dyspepsia, and sam sample
ple sample free.
Edge Hill Silica Rock Cos.
Box W. New Brunswick, New Jersey

Please mention The Agriculturist when answering advertisements.


A Seed Drill and Wheel Hoe is In- |
dispensablenot only in a village \ uinrnN
garden but on largest farms. rIIKLU 1
Farmers should grow all manner HELP!
of vegetables and live on the fat of /
the land. Should provide suecu sueculent
lent sueculent roots for Cattle, Swine, Poultry,
and save high priced feed
stuff. Great labor-sav- Only On*
ing tools of special V of Many
value for the home Iron Age Tool*
as well as the \
market gar- M h A*
den. Send 4 mlllr rh(l
for free f in
book. f most
jr complete
They are in first place for soiling, hay and fertilizi
purposes, and are successful wherever corn is grown.
Cane seed, millet seed, sweet potatoes. Free catalog.
HICKORY SEED CO., 17 Trade N. C.

By J. M. Scott.
It is important that all velvet bean
seed should be tested for germination
this year before planting. The early
frosts of last October and November
injured a large amount of the seed be before
fore before it was ripe. Asa result, there is
likely to be much shriveled and imma immature
ture immature seed put on the market this spring.
Under exceptionally favorable condi conditions
tions conditions some of this shriveled seed will
germinate. Under ordinary field con conditions
ditions conditions only a small percentage of it is
likely to grow. Those injured seeds
that do germinate and grow cannot pro produce
duce produce strong and healthy plants. They
yield small and sickly plants that are
unable to combat successfully with any
adverse conditions.
To Test Seed. Take any shallow box,
which need not be more than three
inches deep, two feet long, or one and
a half feet wide. This will be large
enough to hold about two inches of sand
in the box. Then count out 500 velvet
beans. Distribute them evenly over the
surface of the sand and cover the seeds
with sand to a depth of about an inch.
Moisten the sand thoroughly. Set the
box in a warm, sunny place.
It should be looked at every day to
see that the sand is kept moist, but not
soaked with water. Ten days after plac placing
ing placing the seed in the box count all that
have sprouted. Divide 100 times the
number of sprouted seed by the number
of seeds placed in the box, the quotient
will be the percentage of germination.
For instance, if 500 seeds are placed in
a box and 300 germinate, divide 30,000
by 500, the quotient is 60, or 60 per cent,
of the seed germinated.
When taking the sample of SOO seeds
to put in the tester, care should be
taken to get a uniform sample from the
bulk of seed to be tested. That is, do
not choose only large plump seeds, but
take them as they come, broken, shriv shriveled,
eled, shriveled, or immature.
The testing of the seed before plant planting
ing planting may mean the difference between
the failure and success of the crop. It
will save the extra labor of replanting.
Asa rule, replanting is not satisfactory
because, if the land is not plowed be before
fore before replanting, it gives the weeds the
start of the crop. If only the missing
places are filled in, the crop is uneven
in growth; while if the missing places
are not filled in, a full crop will not be
The results of testing 1,000 velvet-bean
seeds at the Experiment Station, taken
just as they came from the huller, gave
58.3 per cent, germination. The sample
included broken, shriveled, immature
and also good plump seeds. Of 1,000
seeds placed in the tester, 583 or 58.3 per
cent, germinated but soon died. Had
this seed been recleaned, and all broken
and shriveled seed thrown out, the per percentage
centage percentage of germination would have been
considerably greater.
Velvet-bean seed that shows less than
50 per cent, germination should not be
used. Seed that shows from 50 to 80
per cent, germination and gives that
amount of strong, healthy seedlings
should be cleaned, throwing out all
faulty seed. If that seems impractica impracticable,
ble, impracticable, 30 to 40 per cent, more seed to the
acre should be planted.

We look ahead to the time now close
by, when the seedling avacado, known
commonly as the alligator pear, will be
the most profitable crop grown in our
section. In the Modello section they
can be grown to perfection, and take
only four years to produce fine crops 01
fruit. We have never seen or known
avacadoes of good quality fail to bring
excellent prices.
Early last year, while we had been
buying for our own use nice small fruits
at sixty cents per dozen, and we were
revelling in the idea that we would cer certainly
tainly certainly have all that we cared for, in a
single day they jumped to $1.20 per
dozen, and remained there until they
jumped again. We will never live to see
well cared for avacadoes sell at a low
price, when right here where they grow
they are in such demand. It has only
been of late years, in fact only within a
or two, that our people have
thought it necessary to give the trees
any attention, but they have learned that
potash will more than double the crop,
and will increase the value by adding to
the delicious nutty flavor that belongs to
the avacado alone. We advise all new newcomers
comers newcomers to plant avacadoes, and we refer
to the seedlings. Avacadoes can be bud budded
ded budded as easily as the orange, and if there
is any need to try to improve a fruit
already perfect, it is easy to have the
budding done, even if one cannot do it
The orange is not indigenous to
the American continent.
Wild trees of two species, the Cit Citrus
rus Citrus aurantium and the C. vulgaris,
respectively the sweet and sour or orange,
ange, orange, have grown wild in Florida
ever since the first English-speaking
settlers became familiar with the
country. They were, however,
both introduced by early Spanish
explorers. Finding all their re requirements
quirements requirements supplied by nature,
they throve for several centuries as
wild occupants of the land.
The sour orange is so nearly worth worthless
less worthless as to remain commercially unim unimportant.
portant. unimportant. The sweet seedlings consti constituted
tuted constituted most of the early groves which
gave Florida fame as an orange pro probucer.
bucer. probucer. Most of the groves ot today
are the result of perpetuating a dis distinct
tinct distinct type or quality of seedling, by
budding it on a root or stock ot
different origin or unlike properties.
The seedling orange, like the peach
or other fruit does not perpetuate
its own qualities in the next gener generation.
ation. generation. The fruit of the tree need not
resemble the fruit producing the seed
from which the tree grows. The
planting of seed, therefore, merely
assures a tree, but offers no basis for
foretelling the character of its fruit.
A few seedling trees produce fruit
as good, or better, than that from
which the seed came. Desirable fruits
originating in this way are perpetu perpetuated
ated perpetuated by budding or grafting. That is,
by transferring growing buds of the
tree instead to the growing wood of
the tree whose product is thus to be


Pull Your Stumps FREE
gr.' r", pi For 30 Days with this
Hercules All Steel Puiier
I Guaranteed
against breakageflaw or no flaw. Test largest hedge rows and green trees
it on your place for 30 days at our risk. Dont risk costly and dangerous dyna- H|
Try it on stumps or green trees. mite. Dont risk a cast iron puller.
Triple Power Write us at once on a postal for our j.-.
Triple power attachment means a Special Price Offer E
Strain on team and on cables. Three ma- Wf have a special price proposition to
chines in onesingle, double and triple fi fs I ? a l we se F * ln new s e ctions.
f power. Can be changed in a minute right We are glad to make you a special price
|in the field from one power to the other by ?* he Hercules sold in your commun- H
one man. Nothing like it in the world. ity because that will sell many more and H
The Hercules is the only stump puller save advertising. Write us and we will also H
I guaranteed for three years. Only one with send you our special price 3o Days Free '+
Double Safety Ratchets. Hitch on to any Trial and FREE BOOKS about the only All-Steel,
stump and it is bound to come. Also pulls Triple Power Stump Pullerthe Famous Hercules. H|
I HERCULES MANUFACTURING CO., 611 17th Street, Centerville, lowa |

Grading or Smoothing and Leveling Harrow
With this tool every field can be
made as smooth as a floor and the
flower bed makes perfect melon and
onion beds. Will smooth an acre as
y\| tme as a mill pond in twenty min minfeet..
feet.. minfeet.. Made m other lengths, if de-
Dont be deceived by poor imitations
Clarks. Send today for FREE
CUTAWAY HARROW CO., 398 Main St., Higganum, Conn.

Manatee County 20,000 acres
DeSoto County 3,500 acres
Polk County 6,200 acres
Pasco County 5,400 acres
Citrus County 11,000 acres
Sumter County 26,000 acres
Sumter County 10,000 acres
Lake County 21,400 acres
Orange County 4,700 acres
Hamilton County 49,000 acres
Columbia County 10,000 acres
Hamilton County 12,000 acres
Hamilton County 12,840 acres
Brevard County 14,000 acres
Brevard County 19,000 acres
St. Lucie County 36,000 acres
Our purchases were first, location and quality of lands are choice. Titles have
passed competent attorneys. Will furnish prices and terms upon application. No con connection
nection connection whatever with agents or brokers W RITE OR CALL ON
NAUMBURG, Owners Agent
507 Atlantic National Bank Building JACKSONVILLE, FLA.


You Dont Have to Wait
For a colony to develop when you buy your land from us in order to obtain the advan advantages
tages advantages of markets, schools, churches, stores and the social privileges of an established com=
munity. We already have these at Lawtey, 37 miles southwest of Jacksonville, the gate gateway
way gateway of Florida, on the main line of the S. A. L. Ry. The climate is ideal--the soil
productive. Good Land-Good Title-Good Wa*er-Good-Transportation-Good Stores-Good
Churches-Good Schools=Good Community in which to make a home or an investment.
Lawtey Farms are situated in the heart of Florida s greatest strawberry section. Straw Strawberries
berries Strawberries are a sure crop and net the growers from S2OO to SSOO per acre in some in instances
stances instances more. We can show you from actual results 'hat our land will grow success successfully
fully successfully and profitably all the field, truik, fruit and orchard crops that thrive in Norlh-
Central Florida. :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: ::

WE WISH YOU TO CLEARLY UNDERSTAND that we court the closest investigation of our land, our company, our
business methods and manner of dealing with our patrons. The more you investigate the better we are pleased, for we
Uncle Sam-Florida Land Cos.
520 Bloomington, 111.

= Famous Cecil Mango
The Mango That is as Easy to Eat as a Peach No Fibre No Pitchy Taste
The trees which we offer are inarched from the original parent tree,
the fruit from which netted the owner over $250.00 last season.
Strong Inarched Trees $3.00 each $25.00 per ten trees
We oiler strong budded and inarcbed trees propagated Irom the largest bearing grove in
the State. Price $1.75 each, $15.00 per ten trees
We still have a few hundred Eucalyptus trees, Grape Fruit trees, Orange trees lor June
planting, - - - Write lor catalog and prices