The Florida agriculturist

Material Information

The Florida agriculturist
Uniform Title:
Florida agriculturist (De Land, Fla.)
Place of Publication:
DeLand Fla
Kilkoff & Dean
Publication Date:
Monthly[1908-June 1911]
Weekly[ FORMER 1878-1907]
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ;


Subjects / Keywords:
Agriculture -- Florida ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- De Land (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Volusia County (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Jacksonville (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Duval County (Fla.) ( lcsh )
newspaper ( marcgt )
newspaper ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Florida -- Volusia -- DeLand
29.02889 x -81.30055 ( Place of Publication )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1, no. 1 (May 15, 1878)-v. 38, no. 6 (June 1911).
Numbering Peculiarities:
Numbering is irregular.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Some issues for 1911 also called "New series."
General Note:
Publisher: E.O. Painter, <1887>.
General Note:
Editor: C. Codrington, 1878- .
General Note:
"A journal devoted to state interests."
General Note:
Published at Jacksonville and De Land, <1902>-1907; at Jacksonville, 1907- .
Funded by NEH in support of the National Digital Newspaper Project (NDNP), NEH Award Number: Project #00110855

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item.
Resource Identifier:
000941425 ( ALEPH )
01376795 ( OCLC )
AEQ2997 ( NOTIS )
sn 96027724 ( LCCN )

Related Items

Preceded by:
Volusia County herald (De Land, Fla.)

Full Text
The Only Paper East of the Rocky Mountains Making a Specialty of Tropical and Semi-Tropical Agriculture

| .r
v W**'
I ran :"41
;; j^3r^afiPi|
54- - - I, ,|| mmmmmmmmtmmmmmm mmmmm l mmmmmmmmmmimMimimmmmiMmmmmHmnm"""**"*"* twmmand
4* ?K : m >im 1 fijigwiiwiiniij.i 11 *>i, '* nuftl'F fIW'PMT* mil \ TMiBTIWMMMIBBBBBBBBBfr
m&sm <&B£R&?t:-- ask* -*:-' .w > r^&Jm; \M i* I *'BgsKtf. .<&& HH
- *IHP / y' | .>fMBBEfe: %ip pr"||B
w Bit W Bgiftlimiff^-fyj |Hfe ;^ :: 4BK;
' ?.?. '* w£
j ; >' s i '" vy '' y" <-^': 4 :^-?^- 'y*- ' :- v '* l


Real Estate Opportunities
Orange Groves-Vegetable Lands--Farms and Homes
The aim of the Florida Land Bureau is to establish a central point in the State
of Florida for the emanation of thoroughly reliable and authentic imformation
pertaining to properties listed and for sale in any part of the State, for the benefit
and protection of the prospective buyer, specializing upon the location, products
of the soil, prices of land, adaptability, transportation, markets, climate, etc.
The following is a partial list of our offerings:

100. On what is known as Morris Island,
we have 6,400 acres that we can sell for $8.50
an acre. This is in a territory where ten
years ago lands were considered worth a great
deal more than these prices. Close to this
acreage we have 2,400 acres, and near this
3,200 acres that we will sell you at the same
price, as a whole or any portion.
101. 143 acres good farming land, fenced,
in Leon county, with good painted five-room
dwelling, good cheap barn, two tenant houses,
at $3,000.
No. 102. 21 1-2 acres in St. Lucie county,
near Stuart; fronts on St. Lucie river. This
is unimproved pineapple and trucking land.
Price, $1,150 cash.
No 104. Five miles from Leesburg, on
lake, 10 acres of land, 8 acres orange and
grapefruit trees, in fine bearing. Four-room
cottage. Good well of water. Price, $3,500.
104-A. At Lady lake, 5-acre orange grove.
Price, $450.
104-B. 90 acres of hammock land and 40-
acres of pine land. Grove has 1,350 to 1,400
trees, mostly orange, early variety; some grape grapefruit.
fruit. grapefruit. Severity-five per cent trees bearing;
some of trees capable of bearing 8 to 10 boxes.
Five miles from Leesburg. Price, SB,OOO.
104-C. One mile from Leesburg. 13 acres
and house; about 200 orange trees. Price SBSO.
104-D. 25 acres, all cleared; 8-room house,
plastered. Few peach and pear trees and one
or two grapefruit trees. Two miles from Lees Leesburg.
burg. Leesburg. Price, $1,200.
No. 105. 40 acres, all under cultivation and
fenced; soil is rich and produces abundantly;
only 3 1-2 miles from Ocala, on a good, hard
road; large two-story, seven-room house, barns,
carriage sheds, etc.; peaches, pears, plums and
a great number of shade trees; good horse,
cow, wagon, buggy, harness, farming imple implements,
ments, implements, etc all in god shape. Reason for sell selling
ing selling is that owners wife is dissatisfied in the
country and wishes to move to town. Price,
$4,500 cash, which includes all farm imple implements,
ments, implements, as stated.
No. 106. 80 acres in Marion county, near
depot, store and potsoffice. This is hammock
land and raises corn without fertilizing. About
35 acres is now ready for cultivation, and is
well fenced. Two-story house, good well of
soft, cool water at corner of house. Large
barn, with shed, stables and granary; large
cistern at barn; blacksmiths shop, large shed
for wagons or tools, and old house and barn.
There are about 150 bearing pear trees, with
orange trees set between, only a few of them
in bearing; several young bearing peach trees,
and several varieties of plums, mulberries,
grapes, etc. 15 to 20 acres of pine timber
which has been turpentined not being worked
now. Price, $1,300; one-third cash, balance
two years at 8 per cent.

Correspondence on any subject pertaining to Florida cordially invited.
W. E. WILLIAMS, Manager
P O. Box 1048 906 Bisbee Building Jacksonville, Fla

No. 107. 70 acres in Marion county, all in
cultivation excepting about 10 acres; one-half
cleared hammock }' nd, remainder pine and
hickory hardwood land. All under good fence,
three-quarters of which is new woven wire, the
rest is good picket fence. Also some cross crossfencing.
fencing. crossfencing. Farm one-quarter mile from city
limits of Anthony, and one mile from school,
postoffice and church. Improvements consist of
four-room house, with large porch on two
sides; fine well of soft water on back porch.
Barn, 25x30 feet; 10x10 corn crib; large Dugg
shed and implement room; new chicken house
and run enclosed in poultry wire. Fine pond
in one corner of farm, fed by a never-failing
spring. Included with farm are: Fine large bay
horse, two fine milch cows, one thoroughbred
heifer, fresh soon; 18 head of hogs; about 35
thoroughbred R. I. Red chickens and 50 head ot
common stock; top buggy, almost new wagon,
mowing machine, hay rake, cultivator and all
kinds of plows and small farm tools; 3 sets of
harness; about 50 bushels of corn, 1,000 bun bundles
dles bundles oats and about three tons hay. Bermuda
onions to replant one acre; also fine cane
patch. Land lies high and dry and is in the
best farming section of Marion county. Im Immediate
mediate Immediate possession given Household good
for sale. All the land adjoining is in cultiva cultivation.
tion. cultivation. Will sell farm completely equipped as
stated above for $3,500; $1,500 down and $750
by the first of July; the balance in one and
two years at 8 per cent. First payment only
covers the stock, implements, fertilizer and
seed, and by the first of July one can reason reasonably
ably reasonably expect to clear at least SI,OOO on the
crop that is now in.
No. 108. 20,000 acres cut-over land, near
Tampa, saw timber reserved, but will deliver
all within three years free of timber. Rich
land immune from frosts. Orange "roves on
all sides and fine truck land. Price, $5.50 per
No. 108-A'. 80 acres of choice, selected land,
homesteaded forty years ago, and recognized
as one of the very best farms in Hillsboro
county, near Plant City, on hard road, in
thickly settled neighborhood; large school and
church in sight, on R F. D. mailroute; about
30 acres of cleared and stumped land, that has
grown 50 barrels of corn to the acre without
fertilizing; 250 bearing trees, some grapefruit,
figs, plums and lots of peach trees; a good
seven-room house, barn, smoke house, etc.;
some thick pine timber; several acres of muck
land and an old field that can be easily re reclaimed;
claimed; reclaimed; all the very best of farming, truck trucking
ing trucking and fruit-growing land. Will sell every everything
thing everything for $4,000 and give terms.

109. 300 acres in Bradford county, on G.
S. and F. railway; 50 acres improved; 200
acres under American wire fence; 300 yards
from depot; one mile from church and school;
land will grow all staple crops, and is good for
truck growing; some small buildings. Price,
s3>s> one-third cash, balance one and two

No. no. 3,054 acres in Bradford county,
between and on either side of the S. A. L rail railway
way railway and the G. S. and F. railway; in the
midst of early strawberry-raising district, es especially
pecially especially fine for pecans, corn, sugar cane, and
all general farm products. Best all-round farm farming
ing farming land in the state. About 50 miles from
Jacksonville. SIO.OO per acre cash, or $11.50
per acre on time, for the whole tract.
No. in. Seven acres in Orange county,
near Orlando, on county road to Oveido. Hog Hogproof
proof Hogproof fence on two sides. Land is cleared and
grubbed. i3x24-foot box-style house in good
condition; ioxi4-foot poultry house; stall for
horse; garden enclosed with poultry wire fence.
One acre of seedling trees, orange and grape grapefruit.
fruit. grapefruit. One and one-fifth acres of two year yearold
old yearold budded trees. All trees in healthy condi condition.
tion. condition. Good wagon, plows, farm tools; 25 hens
included. Location high and healthy. No
mosquitoes; no malaria. Price, S6OO cash.
No. 112. A Hotel, at Plymouth, Orange
county, two miles from Apopka; three-story,
35 rooms, all furnished and in good repair.
Nice grounds, fruits and flowers. Nice lake
front for boating and fishing. Good winter
resort. Price, $6,000.
No. 113. 25 acres pine land, Orange county.
500 young orange and grapefruit trees, 200 in
bearing; on hard surfaced road and near
transportation. Price, $1,200.
No. 114. 40 acres, two miles from Plant
City, cleared and fenced;'house and barn, good
truck land; 20 bearing orange trees, etc. A
desirable place; good water. Price, SI,BOO.
No 115. 40 acres, three miles from Plant
City; 25 acres cleared, nice house and barns;
a beautiful home and nicely located, good
land. Price, $1,700.
No. 116. 18 acres, one and one-half miles
from Plant City, cleared and fended, nice
plastered 8-room house, barn, etc. Fine home.
Price, SI,BOO.
No. 117. 20 acres, two miles from Plant
City, near big phosphate plant; house and
oam, 15 acres cleared, all fenced; a good
farm where everything raised on the farm
can be easily disposed of at the phosphate
plant. Price, $1,400.
No. 118. 80 acres, three miles from Plant
City, hard road part of way; small bearing
orange grove, good houses and barns; a very
desirable place to live. Half-mile from graded
school. Ten acres cleared outside of grove;
good lands. Price, $2,000.
No. 119. 40 acres, 3 miles from Plant City,
on hard road; part cleared and fenced; good
for trucking and gardening. Prics, $1,500.
No. 120. 40 acres adjoining above tract;
house and barns, 10 acres cleared; good for
all kinds of crops. Price, $1,200.

fflortfca Banculturtet

Old Series Vol. XXXVIII. No. 4
New Series Vol. I, No. I.

Author of Florida Fruits and Howto Raise Them, Home Life in Florida,
Southern Stories for Little Readers, Etc.

[This is a story with a motive to show what
can be and is beinsr done by industry and in intelligent
telligent intelligent effort in Florida. To term it fiction
would be a misnomer for it deals wiih the poet poetical
ical poetical side of the life of a family who made th'ir
home in this favored State, and tells how th' y
made their great success.]
And now we come to what may be
called the native way of milking. It
was a curus proceeding, as much so
as the critters' themselves, and a source
of wonder and amusement to all not to
the manner born. The milker stepped
into the inner or calves pen, dropped
the bars in the division fence, and al allowed
lowed allowed the nearest cow to come through,
to be met on the instant by her calf,
whose headlong approach gave it the
appearance of having been shot from a
cat'apault, aimed at its mothers side.
Then, quick as a flash if there was no
assistant, the milker slipped the bars in
place again and darted round to the
right side of the cow to seize upon
one, two, or three of her teats, accord according
ing according to the age of the calf. I gave our
calves the freedom of three until they
were four to six weeks old, milking
from the fourth teat, which yielded from
one pint to one quart, rarely the latter.
So it is evidept that even three-fourths
of the milk did not give the young calf
a very sumptuous feast. That was why
the unfortunate calves were kept shut
in the barren pen without a chance to
gather up any further food, could not
be raised. Moreover, it was very rarely
that they were given the milk from
more than one or two teats.
A calf at four or five months old has
graduated as a grazer, and has no fur further
ther further need of milk. Put all the same, as
the ordinary scrub cow would not stand
to be milked except when her calf was
assisting, the latter was often allowed ?
modicum of milk even when a year old.
That was one of the sequences of the
retrograde movement towards the wild
state! The cow was worried if the calf
was kept from her, and so the milk
would not secrete and come down,
and neither would she stand still while
the milker vainly sought to coax a
stream into his cup. It was more often
an indignant hoof, that landed there.
Consequently the calf had to be on hand
to take a pull, even if only for a few
moments. When the calf died it was the
rule that the mother would soon go dry,
and it was a rule to which there were
few exceptions.
Queen Mollie often accompanied me to
the pen, and was very helpful in slipping

Jacksonville, Fla., April, 1911

the bars and heading off too eager
calves. But as a faithful historian I
must record that her chief occupation
was in supperintending and laughing at
her husband. We had lots of fun down
there in the pen, first, last, and all the
time, Mollie, the calves, the cows, and
I, but especially the Queen. It was
a private circus to her. It was pretty
funny sometimes, that is the fact, and
the clown was there all right.
Let me tell you something about the
details, for it is one of the relics of the
past to be amusedly recorded. We dont
do things that way now; no, thank
you, not at all. .We have our Jersey
cows and our Holsteins and Devons, and
others of the cow nobility, and we sit
on stools to milk them, with a nice big
milk pail in our lap, and streams of
rich milk foaming down into it.
But in those pioneer timeswell, it
wasnt just that way, as already I have
more than intimated. I can look back
now and laugh, and I did then, some sometimes
times sometimes ; but sometimes I didnt. I am
really afraid that occasionally I made
some remarks that were not quite as
polite as they might have been, remarks
that would have hurt the cows feelings
if they had understood English. Mollie
says so, and she knows, for sure.
Now, this is how I got our milk
supply, and how sometimes I did not.
The average curus critter having de decided
cided decided that her calf was the one and only
nerson having a right to her milk, it
had to be there every time. The instant
said calf ranged alongside, which it al always
ways always did with a precipitancy that well
might upset its mother, I had to make
a rush for the reserved teats, and hold
fast to them until the milk came down.
It was usually rather slow in coming,
and consequently the poor cow got a
terrific bombardment from the head of
her offspring. I dont think this was
altogether to make the milk come; real really,
ly, really, I dont, for those calves took a dia diabolical
bolical diabolical delight in jerking the reserves
out of my hands, and making a snatch
for them before I could recoyer my
grasp. I am sure they winked at me
every time they cast me adrift. That
was one of the things that naughty Mol Mollie
lie Mollie laughed at, and so did I, sometimes,
not always though; occasionally I said
things instead.
When the bombarder was one of the
elderly calves, I, resting on one knee
during the waiting period, had either to
press my head against the cow as her
support or to make a brace of hand
and elbow against her side; otherwise

the bombardment would have upset both
her and me. It was amusing to note
how meekly and quite as a matter of
course these only half civilized critters
took their punishment, standing as still
as they were allowed and sleepily chew chewing
ing chewing their cud. It was only a way the
baby had, and so it was all right. But
if it had been me ahem!
The younger calves were allowed to
draw their share of the milk (always
on the left side) while I milked mine
from the right, but when it came to the
elderly babies who no longer needed
the milk, yet, as I have said, had to be
used to bring it down, it was different.
Holdings the teats until I felt them
swelling out, I was, as Molie laughingly
remarked on the occasion of her first
visit to the cowpen, seized with a sud sudden
den sudden fit of insanity. I leaped to the
bars, threw them down, darted at such
cows as might be too near on the other
side, rushed back to my cow, seized the
calf by the head or front or hind legs,
never by the ears, as I had indignantly
seen others do, for that was cruel, and
dragged it away from its mother, while
giving the latter a sharp order to go!
Insane? Yes, but there was method
in my madness, as was seen when I fol followed
lowed followed the cow into the outer pen and
captured. a 1 the milk that had come
down or could be coaxed to follow.
Both cow and calf soon learned the
meaning of this summary proceeding,
and yielded more or less prompt obedi obedience.
ence. obedience. But occasionally a calf rebelled
and made a dash after the mother to
finish its interrupted feast. Then we
had more fun, fast and furious, that
only ended when the little scamp was
chased back into its own pen. There
was a general mix-up .of cows and
calves and man about this time, if I
chanced to be alone, and a resultant
loss of milk. Asa rule, however, Mol Mollie
lie Mollie managed to find time to go to fire
pen with me, and guard *he bars, so
that wicked calves could not break
through and steal that which perhaps
rightfully belonged to them.
Having at last settled down to busi business
ness business in such peace' as was obtainable, I
proceeded to milk that cow. No gen generous
erous generous pail had I to receive a foaming
stream of milk, but only a modest two
quart cup with a handle to hold it by,
for only one hand could be used in
milking those curus critters. They
were erratic in their movements, even
the best gentled of their tribe had
their periods of eccentricity, sometimes
evidenced by a sort of St. Vitus dance

Established 1873


in the hind leg nearest the milker and a
desire to use it as a drum stick on the
said tin cup.
It was worse than useless to try to
milk with both hands and a pail held
between the knees, as I had been used
to do in the ould counthry. I tried it
once against the warnings of those who
knew better, but never any more never,
never! I had milked three critters in
the mode approved of Florida cows and
men, but the fourth was such a quiet
steady old thing that I discarded the
ridiculous cup and sitting down on a
box took up the pail into which I had
emptied the milk thus far obtained. For,
of course, a pail had to be carried along
to the pen, not only because the tin
cup would not hold all the milk from
the several cows, but because no milker
waited until the cup was full before giv giving
ing giving its contents into the safer custody
of the pail; for why, the legs of the
Florida cows were uncertain quantities
all the time, and milky shower baths net
at all uncommon. Well, I sat down
with the pail between my knees and
took both hands to the work of extract extracting
ing extracting the modicum of milk from our old
cow. She looked around at me in a
surprised sort of way, but didnt say
anything, and all went smoothly for a
while until a wicked fly sat down to
supper on her near hind legand then
Suffice it to say that I and the pail
took a back seat on the sand, (it had
been pretty well cowpenned too), and
that I rose up a sadder and a wetter
man, a wiser also. And that madcap
Mollie, who, of course, had to be there
just then, laughed and laughed until
she had to sit down in the grass (not
in the pen, be you sure), to have it out.
The twins, Joseph and Jean, they were
there, too, and helped their naughty
mother to laugh at their poor dad as he
wended his way to the house carrying
the nights milk in his clothes instead of
in the pail. Well, I had the satisfaction
of having it all to myself, and they did
not get a single drop. That sort of
evened things up a little, anyhow.
But to go back to the queerities of the
old-time milking process: If the cow
happened to be one of the steady sort,
like my old cow for instance, the milker
could sit on his heels or rest on one
knee, but otherwise, and it was usually
otherwise, the approved position was
standing and stooping, the cup in one
hand, the teats held back by the other,
and the milker on the alert to save the
milk from threatened danger, and to
move along whenever his peripatetic
milk factory took a notion to wander to
and fro.
The cow from which the elderly calf
had been ruthlessly sundered as afore aforesaid,
said, aforesaid, rarely gave down all her milk
at the first attempt, and often had to be
returned to the calf again. Finally,
when the milker was satisfied (or not),
she was left with her calf until all the
cows had been attended to in the same
arduous manner. This was necessary to
ensure that all the milk was drawn from
the udder, and the calves could be trust trusted
ed trusted to attend to that part of the business
thoroughly. They had a lovely time for
a while bombarding their mothers, and
die mothers had a fine time, too, licking
their youngsters with their long tongues,
and doing it so energetically sometimes
as almost to upset them. But when the


last cow had been attended to, the hap happy
py happy family gathering was broken up and
the cows turned back into their own
It was a comical performance from
beginning to finish, and' the first time I
was introduced to a Florida milking
scene I thought that the cows were not
the only curus critters. Later on I
improved somewhat on the primitive
method by putting a leather collar on
the neck of each calf with a short rope
attached. Then when it was to be sep separated
arated separated from its mother, either I or an
assistant, when I had any, pulled the
calf away and tied it to the fence until
ready to allow it to come to its mother
again. I found this simple innovation a
great saving of time and temper, and
the four-legged parties to the new meth method
od method soon got used to it, the cow standing
quietly as the calf was close by.
And now let us go back and take a
peep at the doings of those transplanted
bens. You will remember that we set
three at the same time, and had lots
of fun and exercise in persuading them
to do their duty.
They sot and they sot and they sot!
said little Jean, in spite of the prediction
of their former owner, who, by the way,
came one day to see the wonder of the
dratted fools settin jist whar they was
In three weeks time two of the hens
were proudly clucking to twenty funny
balls of down with a beak and two tiny
legs peeping out. All were dark in color
as behooved their ancestors, save the
few that came from the local nonde nondescript
script nondescript eggs. The Houdans were easily
distinguished by their fifth toe and the
swelled head that gave promise of the
proud crest to come a little later on.
The third hen had a similar happy ex experience
perience experience ten days later, adding ten more
chicks to our stock, nondescript but sus susceptible
ceptible susceptible of improvement in their off offspring,
spring, offspring, as we should retain only our
thoroughbred cocks, Langshans and
The reason that the third hen was
ten days behind the others was that she
then received a fresh setting of eggs.
Mollies testing having by that time re reduced
duced reduced the three original nests to two
full ones having all the fertile eggs
from the three.
All the most vigorous eggs showed
signs of vitality as early as the third
day, and the others came straggling
along up to the fifth day, when all that
were still clear were taken out to be
used in cooking. There were not many
clear ones, however, and the three set settings
tings settings were not reduced to two until, as
I have said, the tenth day. By that
time the weaklings had betrayed them themselves
selves themselves by ceasing to develop, and so
were taken out of the nests and thrown
in among the scraps to be fed to the
hens, for they were not spoiled, only
muddled and non-hatchable. There
were enough of them to leave only two
regulation settings, and it was then that
the third hen got a lot of nice fresh
eggs to tuck under her warm, fluffy
I must tell you about the tester that
Mollie used. I never saw its counter counterpart

part counterpart anywhere else, except in the hands
of those to whom we had introduced it,
and they were always delighted with its
effectiveness and simplicity. I have
never seen its equal, for it leaves all the
advertised testers far in the rear. It
requires no lamplight, not even strong
It is easily made. Take a piece of
dark colored stiff pasteboard and roll
it into a tube about six or eight inches
long, although the length can be suited
to ones eyesight, a near-sighted person
requiring a shorter tube than one of
ordinary sight. Its diameter should be
such that an egg held against it will
just close it in like a lid. It is best to
shape the tube slightly oval rather than
round, making it egg-shaped, in fact,
and tapering towards the end at which
the eye is to be applied.
Having the tester ready, all you have
to do is to go out doors with the eggs
to be tested and examine them one by
one, holding them by the side with the
thumb and finger, large end uppermost
and pressed close against the larger end
of the tube, with the smaller to your
Now hold the tube in such a position
that the light will strike through the
egg. Sometimes this is best attained by
turning it up toward the sun, and at
other times towards the ground, it de defends
fends defends on the amount of light "land
shadow. This simple tester works well
even in cloudy weather.
Those who try it once will never use
any other. Test a setting of eggs with
it from .he second or third day to the
finish, and you will see wonders that
you never saw before or dreamed of.
You can follow the marvelous growth
of the life of the chick from the first
appearance of the little red spider, as
Mollie calls it, to the fully matured
chick as it moves its head about inside
the air space while chipping the shell
and twisting itself around the circle.
That red spider is a very curious
thing. It is the heart forming, and from
it radiate in every direction thread-like
filaments, embryo veins. A day or two
later you can see it beginning to pulsate,
while the veins grow larger and more
decidedly red, the aorta showing very
distinctly. Soon the eyes can be seen,
and then the egg gradually becomes
cloudy as the yolk is absorbed into the
growing embryo, this being more marked
in the dark feathered breeds than in the
lighter, as the down gathers on the
tender skin. But the process can still
be followed until the fully developed
chick is seen with its head in the en enlarged
larged enlarged air cell, tapping, tapping at the
door until having completed the circuit,
the lid falls open, and the tiny prisoner
rolls out into the great wide world of
wonders, of which it is not the least.
Such a wet, sloppy little thing as it is
at first, and such a dear fluffy thing as
it is a few hours later when it has
rubbed itself dry against its proud moth mother's
er's mother's warm breast.
But it is not always that the chick
succeeds in making this triumphant,
exit. Often the weakly ones make a
fair beginning, and then grow weary of
well doing and fall by the wayside, as
it were. Those can easily be detected
by the tube tester, and should be at once
removed before they break and con contaminate
taminate contaminate the rest of the eggs. Some

drop out even at the eleventh hour,
chiefly the few who begin life upside
down, and hence can not obtain air at
the last stage of growth.
Having thus increased our poultry
stock by thirty head, it soon became
necessary to enlarge the little yard in
which they had emerged into the world.
This was quickly effected by the addi addition
tion addition of a few more panels of the mov movable
able movable fence. The next thing, of course,
was more durable coops; barrel coops
are very useful in sudden emergencies,
or in the absence of anything better, but
when I knew of that something, I was
bound to have it. I had made such
coops before, and past experience taught
me their value as the best, nor have I
ever had occasion to alter my mind.
After years of use I can still say that
this special coop answers every require requirement
ment requirement of mother and chicks, and cannot
be improved upon.
You will find it pictured herewith and
can see its merits at a glance. The lit littie
tie littie opening showing at the back has a
hinged door which is closed at night
with a catch such as is used on closet
doors. Do not trust to a hook or but button,
ton, button, or you may regret it as we did
before we learned by sad experience
that the rubbing of a possum or coon
or skunk against that tiny door would
result in opening it far enough to let
in a cruel claw, and let out some un unlucky
lucky unlucky chicks. The catch gets the better
of such wicked prowlers every time.
The hinged front, held up as you see,
by a strong cord tied to a nail at the
peak, can be lowered to form a sloped
roof at any desired angle, and thus
make a shelter from sharp winds, driv driving
ing driving rains or a too hot sunshine. At
night it should be always closed and
hooked so that no varmints can break
in and steal the little folks so snugly
cuddled within. The upper front slat is
made to slide to one side to permit the
hens exit and entrance when the chicks
are old enough for her to have her
This triangular coop rests on the
ground, but has a wooden floor within
fitting close to its edges, so that water
will run off on the ground, leaving the
floor dry even in the heaviest rains. The
floor is loose, so that it is easy to lift
the coop off and clean the bottom. You
will notice the wire net ventilator in the
front wall; there was one also at the
back and I will say just here that later
on when experience had taught me the
penetrating power of the driving rains
of the summer season, I nailed a slop sloping
ing sloping board above each venilator, the
back one serving for the little door also.
Everybody who has used the old style
straight wall coops knows by sad ex experience
perience experience how frequently the chicks are
stepped on and killed by the hen. Now,
in the triangular or roof coop they can


and do escape the clumsy feet of their
well-meaning mother; if hard pressed
by her erratic capers they retreat under
the sloping sides or run out by the front
or back door. The coop is easily made,
and if white pine from knock-down
packing boxes is used instead of the
heavy yellow pine, it will be light to
lift about.
So much for the first lodgings pre prepared
pared prepared for our embryo poultry ranch.
Of course, as the chickens grow larger
a different sort of shelter had to be
built, but its story will be for another
time. There was other work to do while
they were growing. At present I will
merely rise to remark that the experi experience
ence experience and study of over twenty years lias
satisfied me that there is no place like
Florida for profitable poultry raising.
She cant be beaten or even equalled
the world over, and her people are just
tardily awakening to that fact. Better
late than never.
Hybrid Citrus Fruits Developed by
the Bureau of Plant Industry.
Asa general thing citrus fruit cul culture
ture culture in Florida is as safe from disaster
as are the deciduous fruits of the North,
where late frosts in the early spring are
often the bane of the peach and apple
growers; yet there are seasons when our
special fruit industries in Florida suffer
from the effects of the blizzards that
arise in the land of the Dakotas, sweep
over the central and Gulf States and
pass over our peninsula like a besom
of destruction. During the century just
closed three such severe blows in 1835,
iBB6 and 1895 have been in evidence,
destroying all budded fruit throughout
the State and seedling trees through the
northern section. To the end that har hardier
dier hardier varieties capable of enduring lower
degrees of temperature may be develop developed,
ed, developed, the Bureau of Plant Industry has
been experimenting for several years
with some measure of success. For this
purpose a species of citrus known as
Trifoliata orange has been used as stock
to bud on, and varieties like the Tan Tangerine
gerine Tangerine have been crossed with it, pro producing
ducing producing hybrids more or less satisfactory,
two of which may be said to be valuable
initial varieties added to the hardy list.
These have been produced by crossing
the common sweet orange with that of
the trifoliata, but they are not equal in
sweetness to budded varieties. They are,
says H. J. Webber, in describing them,
neither sweet oranges, trifoliata oranges
nor lemons. One has been named the
Rusk, and was developed by G. 1 1. Nor Norton
ton Norton in his grove at Eustis, Fla. The
other, also originating in the Eustis
grove, has been named the Willit. Both
are somewhat sour and are more like
lemons than oranges. The fruit of the
Rusk is a beautiful little orange of ex excellent
cellent excellent texture and exceedingly juicy. *
The Willit citrange has a different flavor
and posesses a palatable acid taste.
Since the year 1900 this new class of
citrus fruits has been tested along the
northern border of the State and found
to be extremely hardy, withstanding a

temperature of 18 degrees above zero.
As material for a citrange drink, in
time they will replace the lemon, while
their abundant supply of juice will make
them useful for culinary purposes.
A third variety, known as the Morton,
was distributed in 1906 by the Bureau
of Plant Industry, which was already
produced what is held to be fine fruit, in
Baker, one of the border counties of the
State. But these new groups of citrus
fruits have little value for Florida ex except
cept except to its nurserymen, who will propa propagate
gate propagate them for planting in the lower
portions of the Gulf States as far as
300 to 400 miles north of the orange
growing line.
While the experiments which resulted
in producing the citrange were in pro progress,
gress, progress, similar work was going on in
efforts to create a fruit combining the
qualities of the tangerine orange and the
pomelo, resulting in the tangelo, which
possesses the rind of the first and a
sweeter flavor than the last, and two
named varieties are known now in the
citrus world as the Nocatee and the
Sampson. The last named is likely to
become of commercial value, especially
in South Florida, for its hardiness is no
greater than that of its parents. The bit bitterness
terness bitterness of the mother pomelo has almost
wholly disappeared in her promising off offspring,
spring, offspring, and Mr. F. G. Sampson, of
Boardman, Fla., in whose grove the
hybrid seedling from which this seedling
was developed was grown, has been de deservedly
servedly deservedly honored by having it carry his
name. Mr. Webber, in describing it,
says: The Sampson tangelo seems to
furnish a happy medium between the
tangerine and the pomelo which will
recommend it to many who find the
pomelo too harsh. It is believed that
the fruit will occupy a place not now
filled by any other citrus fruit, and that
it will become valuable for commercial
cultivation. Its superior quality and the
kid glove character of the rind mark
it as a distinct and most valuable crea creation.
tion. creation.
As such, in the near future, the tangelo
grove will become a prominent factor in
the counties comprising the southern dis district
trict district of Florida.
The owner of a badly brier-infested
or brush-covered farm has before him
an expensive and disagreeable task if he
intends to clear it by natural labor.
Many millions of dollars have been ex expended
pended expended in this country in that kind
of work, and many millions more will
be spent in the same direction. But the
Angora goat will do the work for noth nothing
ing nothing and will pay for the privilege. It
prefers briers and brushes to the best
clover and grass that was ever grown.
An Lowa landowner has cleared six hun hundred
dred hundred acres of brier and sand brushes
through this agency. He estimates that
the goat has increased the value of this
land at least ten dollars an acre, and
while the animal has been making the
owner money in that direction it has
been contributing to his bank account
with its hair, skin and flesh. Oregon



Planting Plans For the Home Orchard
and Grounds

Ypu have decided to build a house,
a home. Are you going to build at ran random,
dom, random, without any particular plans as
to the comfort conveniences and the cost
of the home? No. you will first size
up your faxnily, count the number of
rooms required for their comfort, next
you will get pencil and paper and ar arrange
range arrange the rooms in manner most con convenient.
venient. convenient. This done, you will consult
an architect or carpenter, who will draw
detail plans, arranging for the finish
of the outside in the most pleasing man manner,
ner, manner, for the chimneys, fireplaces, win
dows, doors, etc., in a way that will give
heat, ventilation and lights, and figure
the cost, which is to come within a stated
amount that you wish to spend.
How few there are who give a like
amount of care and thought to the trees
and plants that should surround the
house and really become a part of the
home. Many neglect the most important
feature, entirely failing to realize that
a few dollars, as compared with the
cost of the house, spent for properly
selected trees and plants, will enhance
the value of the home, either as a place
to live in permanently and rear a fami family
ly family or to sell to some homeseeker, many
fold more than the same amount expend expended
ed expended in any other line of improvements you
may make.
If you have a thousand dollars to
spend on your home lot dont put it
all into the house, put nine hundred dol dollars
lars dollars into the house and one hundred in into
to into fruit, ornamental trees and shrubbery
to surround it. The home that costs
a thousand dollars, will, if you have
planned well and executed judiciously,
be worth one thousand dollars when
completed, but in a years time it will
not be worth the same thousand dol dollars
lars dollars and never will be again. It, the
same as other like improvements, com commences
mences commences to deteriorate as soon as com completed.
pleted. completed. But while this is true of the
house that costs nine hundred dollars,
it is not so with the other one hundred
dollars invested in trees and plants to
surround the house and for the orchard.
These will commence to enhance in
value immediately upon planting, and in
a very short, time will be worth more
than the one thousand dollars invested
in both the house and the trees, based
on the earning value of the fruit and
nuts produced from them, to say nothing
of the enhanced value of the home or
property surrounded by such valuable
trees and the home comforts and plea pleasures
sures pleasures derived from same. The very
ones failing to realize the importance
of trees and plants around the home
are nearly always the ones to be the most
envious and admire most the beauty,
comfort and luxury of the well fruited
and well adorned premises of a neigh
hor, whose house itself may not be as
pretentious, yet the home be of far
greater value, more inviting and com comfortable.
fortable. comfortable. Even during these moments of
envy they fail to realize that their home


so desolate and bare, with children leav leaving
ing leaving at an early age, long before they
should think of going out into the world,
all because of the lack of interest and
love in the home, could have been equal equally
ly equally or more beautiful with the music of
merry voices from the young and happy
hearts of the children, now growing into
young man and womanhood, had they
had the foresight a few years earlier
to have invested a comparatively small
amount in trees and plants to surround
and beautify the home.
The accompanying planting plans, or
landscape plans, for an acre home lot,
ten rods wide by sixteen rods in length,
is suggestive of ideal home surroundings
for the greater portion of the lower
South. For extreme South Florida and
South Texas some more tropical and
semi-tropical trees and plants could be
substituted for some of those mentioned
in this list. In place of the Satsuma
Oranges and grapefruit, the standard
round oranges could be used, the num number
ber number of figs could be decreased and the thesame
same thesame augmented by a reasonable num number
ber number of mangoes, Avacado pears and
other tropical fruits. The number of
peach trees, plum trees, and possibly
pears and persimmons, could be reduc reduced,
ed, reduced, giving preference to more of the
tropical and semi-tropical fruits. There
is, however, no place in the lower South,
unless it be extreme South Florida,
where we would suggest leaving out
the pecan trees, as the standard perman permanent
ent permanent trees, and in which we would not
recommend some persimmons, figs,
grapes, peach and plum trees of the
varieties especially adapted for the ex extreme
treme extreme lower South.
While this is a practical and a good
plan, and if carried out will furnish an
abundance of fruit throughout the year
and give a most pleasing effect, as
shown in (Fig. 3), yet it is only intend intended
ed intended to be suggestive and show what can

; @@ r' T
I (CO))))l( j
ifIBfpiMHHIHB ; /N
K ;( ;
) (*)- W ,Oi
W W (
) 6 (TV (")
@ l
| ) i
i l L.....Q

A Desirable Planting Plan For Home Grounds

be accomplished in the home orchard
and grounds. Most people have their
own personal taste about the fruit and
trees to surround the home just as they
have about the arrangement of the house
In making up the fruit selection, you
should cover as near the entire year with
the various kinds and varieties as pos possible.
sible. possible. Some trees, such as peaches and
plums, will come into bearing in one
or two years from time of planting in
the orchard, but do not live and endure
as long as other kinds of slower develop development
ment development but which grow to gigantic size,
living almost indefinitely. A sufficient
number of the large, strong growing
trees should be planted at a suitable dis distance
tance distance apart to permit of full development developmentand
and developmentand eventually to occupy the principal
portion, if not all of the ground space.
The trees of next most permanent char character
acter character should be planted in the center of
the squares between these trees, with the
shorter lived and smaller growth trees
between these, as suggested by the dia diagram
gram diagram of the acre plot. Large trees, and
especially large evergreens, should not
be planted in close proximity to the
dwellingthey tend to shut out sun sunlight
light sunlight and breezes, and harbor mosquitoes
and insects.
Straight lines and square setting
should be avoided for the best orna
mental effects, but orchard trees ana
vineyards should be plaited in straight
rows and at uniform distances apart ior
convenience and economy in culture and
care. In the ornamental grounds nature
should be imitated as closely as possible,
grouping trees and plants for the most
pleasing effect so as to give shade and
protection from the glaring sun in sum summer
mer summer and to let in light and warmth in.
winter, always bearing in mind to keep
the larger growing trees a sufficient dis distance
tance distance apart that they will not crowd each
other out of shape.
The following key to the planting
plans will show what a fine collection of
diversified fruits, nuts, shrubs and plants
can be profitably and pleasingly set on
an acre of ground. The figures or let letters
ters letters in parentheses are the planting plan
key figures and letters':
(1) 22 Pecan trees
(2) 11 Satsuma orange trees '!
(3) 16 Japan persimmon trees

(4) 35 Fig trees
(5) 11 Peach trees
(6) 5 Plum trees
(6) 5 Pear trees
(8) 3 Apple trees
(9) 3 Mulberry trees
(10) 1 r Muscadine or Arbor Grape
(11) 40 Trellis or Early bunch Grapes
(A) 1 Loquat, (Japan Medlar plum
(B) 1 Japan walnut tree
(C) 1 Japan chestnut tree
(D) 1 Tea plant tree
(I) 1 Biota Rosedale
1 Biota Pyramidalis
1 Biota Elegantissima
(Z) 1 Biota Aurea Nana
1 Biota Semper Aurescens
(T) 1 Cedar Deodora or tree from
Biota Crentalis

(K) 3 Kumquat trees
(L) i Camphor tree
(P) 2 Pomegranate trees
(X) 2 Crepe Myrtle trees
Drive Border2 Oleander, 2 Hibis Hibiscus,
cus, Hibiscus, 2 Altheas.
Rose Bed2s Assorted bushes.
Climbing Vines 1 Japanese Golden
Honeysuckle, r Everblooming Honey Honeysuckle,
suckle, Honeysuckle, 1 Wisteria, 1 Star Jessamine.
Hedgelso Amoor River or Califor California
nia California Privet, Camphor or Chinese Arbor Arborvitae
vitae Arborvitae Hedge plants.
Cost of trees in the foregoing list will
vary according to the size and age of
trees and plants. For this information
see nursery catalogue. The most prac practical
tical practical size for general planting is that
listed as the standard size or grade,
though the actual measure and age vary
according to the several classes of trees
listed. Where especially quick results
are wanted, which is usually desirable
for small plantings, the larger size trees
will give it, while on the other hand if
you have patience to wait longer for
results and are willing to be a little
more careful, give the trees a little bet better
ter better care and protection, the medium,
light and even small grade will give
good final results.
In making your selection of varieties
if you do not feel sure, from the de descriptions
scriptions descriptions given in catalogue, of the best
varieties adapted for your particular lo locality,
cality, locality, it would be better that you leave
the actual selection of the varieties to
the nursery. It is important that you
get varieties adapted to your particular
locality, and the nurserymen, making a

Home Grounds Before Trees Were Planted


special study of this, are frequently bet better
ter better prepared to make a reliable selection
than you.
Figure 2 is typical of far too many
places called home, a very comfortable
house indeed and a fence around it, with
farm crops too often growing right
to the very door-step. Is there any won wonder
der wonder that the children just budding into
young men and women, the period in
their life when their ideals, habits and
affections are formed, find little of inter interest
est interest in such a place? Contrast it with
Figure 3, and see the transformation
which a small investment in trees and
three or four years time will make. Is
it not worth while? Is your property
not worth it? Are your family and
your children not worth it? From a
casual observation through the country
one would think that the home, the

family, the children were not worth this
effort. We think they are, however, and
believe that the readers of the Agricul Agriculturist
turist Agriculturist are of the same opinion. Greater
interest is being taken in the planting
of improved fruit, and especially orna ornamental
mental ornamental trees and shrubbery around the
Southern home, now than at any pre previous
vious previous period of Southern history. There
is no place in the world where greatex
or more pleasing effects can be realized
at small cost than the lower South. The
income from an acre of trees as sug suggested
gested suggested in these planting plans would, if
the fruit and nuts were carefully saved
and sold, bring in a revenue of three or
four hundred dollars per year. Figur Figuring
ing Figuring this on an investment proposition

Home Grounds After Trees Were Planted and "Well Established

would make the acre, from the tree
value alone worth from $2,500.00 to
$3,000.00. From a selfish commercial
standpoint you can not afford to be
without these trees and plants sur surrounding
rounding surrounding your homefrom the orna ornamental,
mental, ornamental, home-loving point of view, you
certainly can not.
In South Africa the success of
orchards there where oranges tangier tangierines,
ines, tangierines, apples, pears, peaches, etc., are
grown, has been seriously hampered by
the presence of the Fruit Fly, Ceratitis
capitata, which deposits its eggs on the
ripening fruit, producing maggots, which
utterly spoil the fruit for consumption.
Of late years experiments are being
tried to keep these pests in control, and
the most effective mixture for doing this
has been found to be by using poisoned
baits. The bait is composed of a mix mixture
ture mixture of sugar or treacle, arsenate of
lead, and water; this is sprayed onto the
trees with a fine spray, so that innumer innumerable
able innumerable small drops fall on the leaves. The
fruit fly is very fond of sugar and takes
this bait readily. It costs very little per
tree to do this, but spraying has to be
done several times in the season. Be Besides
sides Besides the fruit fly, a number of other
flies feed on this bait, including the
obnoxious house fly.
This poisoned bait is thus of great
importance, as the house fly is at times
a great nuisance in houses, shops in
both town and country and is always a
source of danger. House flies do not
breed in the house but in filth in the
stables, gutters, outhouses, etc. From

this situation they work their way into
the house, and attracted by all sweet
stuff, sugar, sweet cake, pudding, and
palatable liquids like milk, feed on these,
and thus spread disease. The house fly
is now known to be the special distribut distributing
ing distributing agent of enteric or typhoid fever.
Any form of arsenic mixed with sweet
water, will attract house flies and poison
them. Anyone setting down saucers or
plates of this poison for insects, should
take care to set them on a high table or
shelf where no domestic animals may
get to them.
Wipe off every tool after using it and
save elbow grease at the grind stone.



Fig Growing In the State of Florida

The tree is a native of Western Asia,
spreading from there to Europe and
the New World. The fruit is simply
the flower, encased in a fleshy recep receptacle,
tacle, receptacle, the inside containing the seed and
There are many varieties, and like
the apple, some are good and some not
so good. The fruit, as it is called, is
one of the most healthful known to
man, and can be eaten out of hand,
dried or preserved. Besides, our Moth Mother
er Mother Eve is credited with using the leaves
to make the first dress ever worn by
Be that as it may, it should be far
more generally cultivated in the South
than it is. Being much more hardy than
the orange, it can be grown over a
much wider range of latitude than any
of the citrus fruits.
The climate of Florida does not seem
adapted to drying the fruit for com commercial
mercial commercial purposes, as they do in Califor California,
nia, California, though I have dried the fruit quite
successfully for home use. But it can
be preserved and canned both for home
use and for market. I dont know of
any reason why the fig should not be
grown in Florida successfully and proi proiitably
itably proiitably for canning and preserving pur purposes.
poses. purposes.
It is a fruit that is too much neglect neglected
ed neglected even for home use. Not one home
in a dozen in Florida has any at all,
and not one in a hundred has enough
for home use. Oh, you of the Flowery
State, how much have you lost of the
enjoyment of life by not giving mon
heed to this health-giving fruit. You
who have never eaten the luscious
White Adriatic fig out of hand, fresh
from the tree, not to mention a liberal
dish of them with sugar and cream, are
falling far short of the great privilege
Florida holds out to all her people, be
they ever so humble.
So many have told me they cannot
get them to grow, and I have tried so
hard, too, and when I come to look at
them, I find probably, but one little tree
set out in some obscure corner, with
the soil tramped hard all around it. No
wonder it dont grow; nothing else
would thrive under the same treatment.
There are some kinds of figs that
seem to grow and yield fruit in time,
under almost any kind of treatment,
while other .kinds require some care.
Those that will thrive under almost any
kind of conditions are the Brown Tur Turkey,
key, Turkey, and Celestial, or Sugar Figs.. Botn
are small, but rich in sugar, easy to dry
or preserve, and fine to eat out of hand.
Also -'the White Marseilles fcnd the
Common Fig, found growing in the
flatwoods, for which I dont know any
special name somewhat like the old
womans dog, who, when asked of what
breed he was, replied, Not of any par particular
ticular particular breed, just a dog. And its the
same of this fig, it is of no particular
variety or breed, just a fig. It is good
to cook and can, but I never liked it to
eat raw. It and the Marseilles look
much alike, being of a greenish-yellow
color, both of near the same size, but


the Marseilles is far and away the best
fig. Now any of these four will give
you figs with all kinds of neglect, but
they will give you more and far bettc*
fruit with care.
If you are going to give the figs a
decent show, as you would your orange
tree, then pick out such varieties as
the White Adriatic, Brunswick, Black
Ischia, Blue Geneva, and last, but not
least, the White Marseilles. These are
all fine fruit and good bearers with
some care. But if you want a fig that
fills the bill for fancy, both in looks and
in quality, give me the White Adriatic,
a large, greenish fruit on outside, but
a most beautiful pink inside; and lusci luscious
ous luscious doesnt near express its quality. I
have known this fruit to cure on the
tree. It is as sweet as a preserve, but
a pleasant sweet, one that everybody
likes, and is firm for drying, canning or
preserving. But is is so good to eat out
of hand that it hardly ever gets to the
can or jar. Dont plant it, however, un unless
less unless you are going to give it care and
The fig is a gross feeder and loves a
rich, moist soil prefers the hammock,
but will grow on almost any good, well welldrained
drained welldrained soil, or will even do well on
high, sandy land, with plenty of watei
and fertilizer, but you must remember
that it is subject to root-knot, so dont
plant it where you have been growing
cowpeas or any of the bean family.
Some recommend mulching, but I am
not satisfied in my own mind as to that.
When the mulch is left on the yeai
around, I find the roots come to the
surface and these soon become full of
root-knot on high, sandy land, and then
in time of drouth, unless watered, these
small rootlets dry out and die, and the
tree is much the worse for it. Just a
loose sand mulch, on high, sandy land
seems to give me the best satisfaction
under shallow cultivation with a scuffle
The fig will grow readily from cut cuttings.
tings. cuttings. In fact, the cuttings will gener generally
ally generally outgrow the rooted plant. With
good care, one can get a fine lot of fruit
the next year from cuttings or rooted
trees. I have had them make a good goodsized
sized goodsized tree in one season. If you plant
cutings you must get them when the
leaves are off the tree, almost any time
from November till the first of Febru February.
ary. February. In setting either tree or cuttings
dont fail to dig a good, big hole and
fill in well with old bones, palmetto
roots, or oak grubs, and lastly mix in
two or three pounds bone meal, depend depending
ing depending on the size of the hole. It may look
useless to go to all this trouble to plant
a stick, but you must bear in mind that
this stick will make a tree. If a cutting,
plant at an angle, and just leave the
upper bud out of the ground. If yon
have plenty of cow manure, your suc success
cess success is assured in the poorest sandy
land, but if you do not have this, then
use a liberal quantity of some good
commercial fertilizer, containing plenty
of potash and nitrogen, and if water is
handy, dont forget that.

Much more might be said in favor of
this most wholesome and nourishing
fruit, or flower, as the case may be, but
I have probably written enough for this
time. J
Now, let each reader plant a fig, yes,
a dozen, and care for them, too, and
you will thank the writer of this article.
The very wholesome character and
peculiarly attractive flavor of the avoca avocado
do avocado pear have caused it to be regarded
with increasing favor in all countries
where it is grown and the cultivation
of this plant has now extended to prac practically
tically practically all the tropical and many sub subtropical
tropical subtropical parts of the world.
' The avocado is undoubtedly one of the
most delicate of sub-tropical fruits, and
it is necessary to use the greatest care in
gathering and handling it. The slightest
bruise is sufficient to cause the pear to
rot in a very short time; indeed, it is
often much bruised by its own seed if
carelessly shaken.
Notwithstanding this, however, it has
been amply demonstrated that it is pos possible
sible possible successfully to ship avocados for
very considerable distances, if due care
is exercised in gathering, packing, etc.
West Indian pears have been exported in
small quantity to New York and to Eng England,
land, England, and experimental shipments from
the Hawaiian Islands to the Pacific coast
of the United States gave very satisfac satisfactory
tory satisfactory results. Under the system of pack packing
ing packing which seemed most suitable, the
pears arrived at their destination (Port (Portland,
land, (Portland, Oregon) with a loss of only 2.9 per
cent. It is generally recommended that
the cases in which avocados are picked
for transport should be small in size ana
contain but few fruits. The crate found
most satisfactory in the Hawaiian ex experiments
periments experiments (with medium-sized fruits)
was of the following dimensions, in inside
side inside measurement: 13x14x3 3-4 inches.
This crate contained about one dozen
fruits, necessarily in single layer, the
fruits being merely wrapped in a single
paper cover.
There is a good market for avocados
in the United States, and the crop is
being increasingly cultivated in Florida,
where efforts are being made, by selec selection
tion selection and breeding, to produce improved
varieties. It is stated in the Yearbook
of the U. S. Department of Agriculture
that West Indian avocados were export exported
ed exported to New York so long ago as 1887,
when one firm handled from 300 to 500
fruits per week from these colonies dur during
ing during the months from June to November
It would seem that the West Indian
avocado trade did not survive competi competition
tion competition with the Florida product.
Avocado trees are usually producea
from seed, but as with most other fruits,
the vegetative method of propagation is
to be recommended in preference. Bud Budding
ding Budding has proved* very successful with
this tree, the simplest form of the opera operatio
tion operatio that known as shield buddingbe buddingbeing
ing buddingbeing the best to employ with the avocado.
Some never quite catch up with their
work because they dont start in time.
They take their plows to the shop when
they ought to b in the field with them.
They are having their disc sharpened
when it should be killing weeds and
making mulch.

The Cultivation of the Mango

The mango has been called the king
of fruits, with its unique forms, rich
coloring and luscious taste it certainly
deserves a high rank among fruits:
Its true merits, however, are known
to but few, since the better varieties are
rare. The commonest of the seedling
varieties grow almost wild in tropical
lands and produce an abundance of
fruit of very indifferent or disagreeable
flavor and texture, and which have
given rise to the damaging epithets that
have at times been applied to the mango.
It would be as fair to judge the appie
by half-wild seedlings as to form an esti estimate
mate estimate of mangos by these sorts which
abound in fiber and turpentine flavor.
It is true that some varieties which
have the turpentine flavor quite pro pronounced
nounced pronounced are highly esteemed by those
who are accustomed to them, but this
is an acquired taste, most of the fruit
kinds which are now propagated by in inarching
arching inarching appeal to the consumer at first
The mango is not exacting in its soil
requirements, demanding only that it
should be deep, fairly rich, and well
drained, conditions which are requireo
by most fruit trees.
Though it requires a liberal amount
of moisture it is not tolerant of wet,
unaerated soil, the tree thrives in eithei
light or heavy soil.
The mango is distinctly a tropical tree
and must be protected from chilling tem temperatures
peratures temperatures if it is expected to do its
The simplest method of propagation is
by seeds, but this has the disadvantage,
of being unreliable in reproducing the
exact variety. There is less variation
in mango seedlings than in the case of
avocados, but there is no certainty of
seed reproducing its variety. This is
partly because of the natural habit 01
variation and partly because the flowers
are crossed frequently with foreign pol pollen.
len. pollen.
Disappointment may be the lot of those
who plant the seeds of the fine inarched
varieties with the hope of securing the
same sorts.
Young inarched mangos, should not
be kept long in pots, after a good union
has been effected between stock ana
scion. The advantages of moving ear;>
are that the young mango trees are very
much more easily moved than old ones,
and that if left too long in the pots the
roots will become cramped.
The best season in which to move
Will depend upon whether irrigation
water is available, and upon the rainfall.
They must be moved at a time when they
are not making an active growth, since
the very young growth, before it has
ripened wilts easily. If water is avail available
able available in abundance, any time of the ye.
when they are not growing would be
Shading the young trees for two weeks
or more after transplanting, so as to pro protect
tect protect them from the direct rays of the
sun while at the same time allowing
for free circulation of air is to be com commended.
mended. commended.


To move a tree from a pot or other
receptacle to the field, it will be best
jo prepare much larger holes than might
t first seem necessary for so small a plani.
doles 2 1-2 feet in each dimension will
lot be too large. In making these,
hrow out the surface soil on one side,
'.nd the subsoil on another and return
he surface soil (if possible mixed with
ibout one-third of its amount, of Me Melium
lium Melium fresh cow manure finely pulvet*-
zed and thoroughly mixed) to the hole.
Iraw from around sufficient top soil
o fill in hole complete and scatter sub subsoil
soil subsoil over the surrounding top soil.
Yhere cow manure is not available it
vill be well to mix a small amount of
ome good commercial fertilizer with
he soil in the hole.
Plant the tree in the center of the
n the pot. An orchard should be plant planted
ed planted with regularity and system, for the
sake of appearance and convenience.
The distance apart at which it will i
be best to plant mangoes, will depend
upon the soil, climate, and varieties.
Inarched trees are usually smaller in
habit than seedlings, for such 25 feet is
none too much, and if the soil is excep exceptionally
tionally exceptionally rich 30 feet would be proper.
Thorough frequent tillage of the soil,
keeping it free from weeds and loose on ;
the surface, is as important for the man 1
go as for most other fruit trees.
Thorough deep preparations of the
soil should begin before the trees are
olanted, and from that time onward the
field should be kept clear of grass and
weeds and the surface soil should Pv.
loose. Porto Rico Horticultural News.
(A paper read before the Cuba Horti Hortimltural
mltural Hortimltural Society by Mr. G. W. Mace.)
Pineapple culture in Cuba during the
last has been done mostly on the heavy
*ed lands as the lighter sandy lands were
not considered profitable to plant 01.,
but in the past three years there has
been some very good fruit harvested
from the lighter lands and from present
indications there will be a large acreage
planted on the lighter lands.
The cost of tillage on this class of
land is much less than on the heavier
lands and it can be worked during the
-ainy season.
We have tried the pines in three dif different
ferent different methods of planting and in each
jase they have done well, which shows
that the pine thrives on this class of
soil. We first planted among orange
trees and then we put them in beds
of eight rows to the bed, but we found
that the center rows did not give as
good fruit as the outside rows. We then
planted some of them in single rows
and this also proved to do well. We
then took out the center rows of tTi*>
beds that had eight rows to the bed and
found that the fruit did better and gave
larger apples. a
We have about ninety acres planted
to pines among orange trees that will

be bearing this coming season and sixty sixtyfive
five sixtyfive acres that we have outside of trees.
The method that we used in the last
named plot is different from the first
plantings. We have the pines in beds
of four rows each. The plants are set
24 inches by 16 inches in the beds and
we leave an alley between each bed. One
alley is six feet wide and the other four
feet wide and each alternate alley six
feet and between will be the fourth al alley.
ley. alley. In this method we have room io
work the beds from both the fourth al alley
ley alley and the sixth alley with the scuffle
hoe and when picking time comes we
will be able to use the larger alley for
gathering of the pines with wheelbar wheelbarrows
rows wheelbarrows and the smaller will be used only
for the picking of the fruit. At it is,
larger space can be used both for the
gathering and picking of the apples.
We prefer to use the wheelbarrow as
by having the packinghouse in the field
and by padding the sides and bottom of
the barrow we avoid an extra handling
of the fruit and also the carting which
is quite an item. One man will wheel
one and a half cases at one load and
ften two cases which makes it very
cheap and the work not so hard as
when carried on the head.
An important point is being brought
out in connection with leguminous
crops grown between orange trees
that is that they help to keep off attacks
of scale. If the velvet bean and Bengal
bean are allowed to run upon orange
trees heavily, the scale will disappear,
but even if leguminous crops are only
grown between trees and the ground
heavily shaded by them there will be
little or no scale. To allow these climb climbing
ing climbing vines of the velvet bean and Bengal
Bean to run over the tree covered with
white scale means of course, that the
tree will not bear much for a season,
if anything, under the creeper, but then
it would not probably have borne well
while infested with white scale. After
a season, say three months, all that re requires
quires requires to be done is to cut the roots of
the vines and they will dry up on the
tree leaving it clean, when the tree
will instantly put forth an increased foli foliage
age foliage and later a good blossom.Journal
of Jamaica Agricultural Society.
Take the boy into your confidence,
if you are going to buy some seed corn
this spring or some harness or some
new implements, show them the cata catalogues
logues catalogues and ask for their opinion. Talk
the matter over with them. Compare
the good points. They will be more
interested in the outcome. They will
take pride in their judgment. It will
help to keep them on the farm.
Many a boy whose home is on the
farm gets the idea that the city offers
greater inducements to him, much great greater
er greater than the old homestead. This is
indeed a sad mistake in thousands of
cases. Many a boy has spent a number
of years of the best part of his life chas chasing
ing chasing rainbows before he awoke to the
realization of this fact.



The Citrus Growers Calendar

(The following is extracted from Bulletin
No. 69 of the Florida Agricultural Experi Experiment
ment Experiment Station, a short treatise on the Cultiva Cultivation
tion Cultivation of Citrus Groves, by Prof. Hume.)
It is not possible to place each of the
distinct sets of operations connected
with the growing of citrus fruits in a
separate and definite place in a calendar,
but the following may serve as a sort
of guide.
Propagation Work. November-Dec-
ember. November-December. Cut budwood for spring work.
March Insert first buds, unwrap and
examine ten days later and rebud those
which have not united. Three or fom
days later lop off those which have uni united.
ted. united. Stake and top when from fifteen to
eighteen inches high.
Cultivation January or February
Overhaul all cultivating implements,
make such repairs as are needed and
see that everything is in working order.
March In exposed sections remove
banks about the middle of this month
and either remove wood from groves
or pile it neatly so as to permit cul cultivation.
tivation. cultivation.
March, April, May and June Culti-
vate Cultivate groves (except those on moist soil)
once every week or ten days if the
weather be dry. If showers are scat scattered
tered scattered through this period, cultivate im immediately
mediately immediately after each one.
NovemberCultivate lightly once so
as to break down grass and weeds, in
exposed situations provide necessary
wood for firing and hank trees.
Spraying for Fungi. For scab on
Satsuma or lemons, spray just after the
blossoms fall and the fruit is about a
quarter of an inch in diameter. Give
two other applications at intervals of
two or three weeks. Use Bordeaux mix mixture
ture mixture or ammoniacal solution of copper
Spraying for Insects. February and
March Spray with potash whale-oil
soap for young scale, red spider, rust
mite, and thrips just before bloom
opens. If white fly is present, this will
he the third spraying for the winter
AprilDust with sulphur and lime,
using Jumbo Duster.
MaySpray with whale-oil soap-sul soap-sulphur
phur soap-sulphur solution as soon as white fly lar larvae
vae larvae are well hatched, killing scales, red
snider and rust mite at the same time.
Spray whether white fly is present or
Tune Dust with sulphur and lime.
Julylf white fly is present, spray
with whale-oil soap. If only scales and
rust mite are present. Hammonds Thrip
Juice, mixed with sulphur solution, can
he used at the rate of one part of Thrip
Juice to one thousand parts of soda sodasulohur
sulohur sodasulohur solution.
AugustDust with sulphur and lime.
SeptemberDust with sulphur and
October Dust with sulphur and lime.
November or December Spray with
resin wash or whale-oil soap for white
fly and scale. Never spray same tree
more than twice with resin wash in one
December Late in this month spray


a second time for white fly, using
resin wash or whale oil soap.
Handling Crop August and Septem Septembe
ber Septembe Take inventory and order necessary
box materials, hoops, wrappers, sten stencils
cils stencils and other supplies.
September Overhaul packing house
and see that everything is ready for
work. Repair and provide field boxes
and all necessary utensils. When sea season
son season is closed, place everything in order
for the summer months. If ripe rot fun fungus
gus fungus has been prevalent during the sea season,
son, season, fumigate the packing house
Fertilizing Order all fertilizers in
good season.
FebruaryMake first application of
fertilizer. In northern citrus belt, apply
in March.
June, JulyGive second application,
if only two are given.
Septemberlf three applications are
made, give the third one the latter part
of this month.
The orange is well known to all Flor Floridians,
idians, Floridians, but eucalyptus is a meaningless
term to many, and some cannot tell
whether the thing wears fins or feathers.
It is gratifying to read educational ar articles
ticles articles on this valuable tree in recent is issues
sues issues of the Florida Agriculturist. Tim Timber
ber Timber culture is considered too slow to ap appeal
peal appeal to the average planter, until he
learns that with the care given to the
young orange grove of 100 trees he can
grow 600 eucalyptus trees on the same
area, which in eight or ten years, will
have a greater cash value per tree for
timber, than the orange tree has foi
fruit. Our millions of orange trees are
producing so much fruit that it scarcely
pays expenses of marketing. Other mil millions
lions millions of young trees will join yearly to
further depreciate values.
The bulletins and reports of the
United States Forest Service indicate
that a timber famine is imminent in the
near future and prices of lumber are ad advancing.
vancing. advancing. Eucalypti grow ten
er than other hard wood trees, but will
not endure much lower temperature than
the orange. Their growth is restricted
to the orange belt, therefore there can be
no over-production. Chief Zon, Office
of Sylvies, United States Forest Service,
has recently travelled this State invest investigating
igating investigating eucalyptus, and there is likely to
be something doing in eucalypti and the
orange may be left behind in the race,
same as in California at present.
There is nothing dormant about the
eucalyptus melidora (honey odor) trees
planted here last summer. All winter
they have made rapid growth skyward.
A tree of the same variety planted eight
years has developed to over six feet in
circumference of trunk, three feet above
the ground, and to fifty or sixty feet in
height. A tree of E. viminalis is con considerably
siderably considerably higher and seven and one-half
feet in circumference* and is probably
a dozen years old from seed. These spec specimens
imens specimens have grown to their present

size without care or fertilizing, one oi
them in the street, thus showing their
entire adaptation to our soil and climate.
It argues well for the future of Avon
Park that the most valuable tree on the
face of the globe is at home here. Some
of our absentee owners who have faiKv.
with 500 citrus trees on ten acres may
make good with 5,000 eucalyptus on the
same ground, or leave a permanent in investment
vestment investment of constantly increasing value
to posterity.
Eucalyptus citra-odora (lemon scent scented)
ed) scented) and E. crebra are very interesting
trees, but the most beautiful of all this
class of evergreen trees is E. robusta
(swamp mahogany) with a perfectly
straight trunk, symmetrical top, reddish
leaf stems and feathery white blossoms,
it is attractive to all lovers of the beau beautiful
tiful beautiful in nature, and especially attractive
to honey bees. The wood of this species
is said to be very durable for under underground
ground underground uses as for fence posts, railroad
ties, etc.
I am not sure that this name bamboo
is rightly applied, for I mean the cane
of the Southern canebreakthat which
makes the fishing poles. lam not famil familiar
iar familiar with its scientific name. I wish to
recommend it as a gigantic ornamental,
and withal grand and beautiful. A
clump of them when full grown may be
seen a mile. It is an evergreen, a pleas pleasing
ing pleasing light green, and is fine used as a
single plant, or as a hedge for a wind
break. It needs room. At ten years old
it will cover a space of twenty to thirty
Of its adaptability and hardiness- and
power to grow and take care of itselt
against all opposition, it is remarkable.
I have noticed a plant here in very
light, poor, sandy soil where it was sur surrounded
rounded surrounded with five water oaks where any
other plant would have been smothered
and choked to death, to grow ana
flourish, producing a hundred canes suit suitable
able suitable for fishing poles, twelve or more
feet long. It grows to perfection here
in poor land, without care or feed, and
in dry soil.
But it is on the side of its utility
rather than as an ornamental I wish to
My attention was first called to it in
Leon county, Florida, as a winter feed
for cows, etc. There in the slopes and
ravines where there is moisture it grows
abundantly. The stock eat it off every
year, and thus keep it down, and under
these conditions it looks like tall rye
straw. Now it would pay to plant it out
extensively for green feed for the cows
in winter. In addition to this its adapt adaptability
ability adaptability to cabinet articles, such as chairs,
sofas, ornamental flower stands, etc.,
also for lattice work and possibly green greenhouses
houses greenhouses screens, and plant protection on a
large scale; fishing rods, walking canes,
and not least, stakes for nurserymen and
seed growers or anywhere that cheap
stakes are wanted.
I wish I had ten acres or more of it
planted out. I shall plant some during
the coming rainy season.
There is certainly a very large trade
in it as stakes and furniture and as
wood becomes scarcer the demand for
bamboo canes for these purposes will

Growing Truck Among the Fruit Trees

A far sighted grower invariably looks
forward far enough to see that the
most important adjunct to trucking is to
produce a crop of useful trees in con connection
nection connection with his vegetable industry. In
fact, all varieties of useful trees, particu particularly
larly particularly the citrus variety, thrive best on
a thoroughly cultivated and fertile soil,
which has been carefully drained and
For best results the land should be
plowed in widths corresponding to the
distance apart that the trees are to be
planted. I find in heavier soils that thirty
or thirty-five feet is none too far apart to
have rows of citrus trees; this pertains
particularly to grape fruit. I have
known grapefruit trees which produced
a diameter of top thirty feet across when
they were ten years old. It is preferable
to plow lands for trees twice in the same
direction, plowing the lands towards the
centers each time and planting the tree.-*
upon the apex, leaving the furrows to
connect with lateral and sublateral
ditches for drainage.
For the first two years the trucking truckingindustry
industry truckingindustry can be carried on among trees
indiscriminately planting such varieties of
vegetables upon which it is necessary to
use fertilizer of a highly nitrogenous
nature, as tomatoes, Irish potatoes, pep peppers
pers peppers or eggplant. It is best, however,
to be more careful in regard to heavy
applications of vegetable fertilizer after
the second year, as the disease known as
Die Back (due to overfertilization) is
apt to gain a foothold. I have found
that fine crops of beans can be grown
between the tree rows, without detri detriment
ment detriment to the trees, the third and fourth
year by applying only such fertilizers
as are locally known as fruit and vine
fertilizers, or in other words, containing
a low per cent, of ammonia, probably
2 1-2 per cent, or 3 per cent., and in increasing
creasing increasing the potash and phosphate pro
It is also advisable to keep away from
the trunks of the trees several feet
the third year with this fertilizer, and
increase the distance each year corres corresponding
ponding corresponding with development of the growth
of the trees. On the other hand, such
trees as pecans and tropical fruit trees
can be grown for as much as six or
seven years under heavy applications
of ordinary vegetable fertilizer without
detrimental results. Tn fact, my ex experience
perience experience has prompted me to believe that
these heavy applications are beneficial
to any of the above trees throughout the
first six or seven years of their growth.
Much has been written about the in influence
fluence influence of the stock upon the scion, bul
in no variety of fruits is it so marked as
in the citrus family. That the soil has
considerable to do with this can hardly
be questioned, as trees that produce
satisfactorilv upon certain stocks in one
section of Florida are an absolute fail failure
ure failure is other localities of the State. For
instance, most of the growers in Cen Central
tral Central Florida have used the trifoliata
stock with success, but it certainly has
proven an absolute failure in the south southern
ern southern part of the State. Because of the


failure of this stock to produce here,
it was at one time considered impossible
;o grow oranges and grapefruit in ex
treme Southern Florida, but just at this
critical time the sour or rough lemon
stock showed its adaptability here and
successful crops are now grown upon
One serious fault they have, however,
is that this fruit goes dry or pithy too
early in the Spring, and another is that a
sort of second growth is produced in
the fruit when the sap starts in February
which has a tendency to thicken the
skin, and for these reasons hurts its
marketing quality and even makes it
unsalable. To produce a fruit par ex excellence,
cellence, excellence, one having the finest quality
and flavor, and one that will retain its
weight throughout the summer, a sour
orange stock should be used to bud on.
As this stock will not thrive on ordinary
thin or poor pine land (sand), it can cannot
not cannot be recommended for this soil, but
it is pre-eminently adapted to the rich
soil of the Everglades where it will grow
and thrive as it does naturally along the
margins of the hammocks. Being im immune
mune immune to the disease known as foot-rot
further commends it for Everglade
Other varieties of trees should be
grown as wind-breaks around the edges
of each separate field. 1 find that bam bamboos,
boos, bamboos, cocoanut trees and eucalyptus re respond
spond respond very well in the Everglades prop proper.
er. proper. These should be planted rather
thickly in a belt encircling, it possible,
each ten acre plantation. Bamboos are
very valuable in this respect, as they not
only offer great resistance to the wind
but produce a great number of stakes
which can in future years be used as
braces to hold up the enormous crops
of grapefruit and oranges, etc. There
will also be a market for this useful
wood in time. At present a great quan quantity
tity quantity of it is imported annually from
foreign countries, particularly China; it
being in strong demand for baskets,
ornamental work, furniture, window
shades, porch screens, etc. Truck Farm Farming
ing Farming in the Everglades.
C. R. Mann, a specialist of the Unit United
ed United States Department of Agriculture,
has been assigned to Southern Cali California
fornia California by the department to study the
question of decay in oranges the re remainder
mainder remainder of this season.
The assignment has been made at
the request of the Citrus Protective
league, whose manager, G. Harold
Powell, has taken up the problem of
lessening the decay this year.
Mr. Mann will undertake to find out
the effect of various methods of hax.
dling and treating the fruit; that is.
the relation of washing, brushing and
other processes to the question of de decay.
cay. decay.
Growers generally believe that the
fruit is physically weak this season,
and, therefore, it is less able than us usual
ual usual to resist the ravages of blue mold

when it is bruised or the skin is bro broken.
ken. broken. In addition to this, the big crop
this season and the necessity for rapid
handling has resulted in less care than
usual in picking and packing the fruit.
Both causes together have brought
about a much larger percentage of de decay
cay decay than in recent years, since Mr.
Powell, as an investigator for the de department,
partment, department, showed the good results of
careful handling.
We have made a brief survey in
twenty-five or thirty packing houses,
said Mr. Powell, and we find much
letting down in care in handling. In
some instances we have found as high
as 85 per cent of the fruit injured from
clipper cuts.
Another source of injury has been
gravel punctures in the picking boxes.
From half to three-fourths of the or oranges
anges oranges on the bottom layer in the
boxes have been found to be punc punctured
tured punctured by gravel. Still another source
of injury is from dead branches scrap scraping
ing scraping the fruit as it is picked.
There is less damage from clip clippers
pers clippers than formerly, except in a few
Mr. Mann, who will take up the
study of these decay problems, is not
new to the citrus industry. Pie has
been in Southern California before, in investigating
vestigating investigating the lemon industry along
the same lines as Mr. Powell investi investigated
gated investigated oranges several years ago.Pacific
Fruit World.
Persons who are not familiar with
spraying matters sometimes become
confused by some of the terms used in
spraying literature. Lime-sulphur is
spoken of as having been made up ac according
cording according to the 18--1850 formula.
This means that 18 pounds ,of lime, 18
pounds of sulphur are combined and di diluted
luted diluted to 50 gallons. Commercial lime limesulphur
sulphur limesulphur is spoken of as being used av
the rate of 1 to 30. In this case 1
gallon of the commercial liquid is di diluted
luted diluted with water to 30 gallons.
Bordeaux mixture is frequently re referred
ferred referred to as having been made up ac according
cording according to the 4450 formula.
This means 4 pounds of copper sul sulphate
phate sulphate is combined with 4 pounds of
lime in 50 gallons of water. Likewise
the 46 50 formula calls for 4 pounds
copper sulphate, 6 pounds lime and 50
gallons of water.
Copper sulphate is known also as
blue vitriol and bluestone, and is the
essential fungicidal agent, and forms
the basis of what- are known as cop copper
per copper sprays.
Arsenical sprays or arsenates
are those compounds of arsenic which
are used as insecticides, or insect poi poisons.
sons. poisons.
The most common materials for these
arsenical sprays are Paris green, Lon London
don London purple and lead arsenate. Rural
A work-shop on the farm will pay for
itself ten times over every year. The
bovs like to putter around in it, and re repair
pair repair many things which otherwise would
require a trip to a blacksmith shop. Put
in a bench, with vise and necessary tools.
A small blacksmiths outfit may be
bought for a few dollars. Let the boys
practice. It gets them interested.



There is perhaps no other nut so
generally known and so universally usea
as is the peanut. To within the past
few years its principal sale was to ven venders
ders venders and in confectionery stores. Where Whereever
ever Whereever a few people were gathered to together
gether together some ambitious boy filled the
air with the cry Fresh roasted peanuts.
But now men have found other uses for
it, as an oil producer, for stock food,
and as a soil redeemer. About forty
per cent of the berry is oil; it will pro
dree more pork, acre for acre, when used
as pasture in connection with corn than
cowpeas, rape, sweetpotatoes, or sor sorghum
ghum sorghum and restores nitrogen to the soil
as do other leguminous crops.
Most seed companies list but two
varieties, the large white kind, Vir Virginia
ginia Virginia White, Virginia red, and Tennes Tennessee
see Tennessee white, Tennessee red which are used
largely for human food. The other
variety known as Spanish peanuts ait
used principally for stock feeding pur purposes.
poses. purposes. They are smaller than the white
species. The uses of these varieties
are not confined as stated above
but may be interchanged. Asa
rule the Spanish peanut is a surer anv anvheavier
heavier anvheavier fruiter than the others, and
is not as particular about the condition
of the soil. A bushel of Spanish pea peanuts
nuts peanuts weigh twenty pounds while the
white ones weigh twenty-two pounds.
The greatest degree of success in pea peanut
nut peanut growing is reached in a light sandy
soil, not overly high in vegetable mat matter,
ter, matter, not necessarily high in nitrogen
content, for the peanut gathers most of
its nitrogen from the air, well drained,
and containing a medium amount of
lime. The lime will make the ground
friable, supply the calcium, and give
the peanuts a light color, which for
a commercial product is a very import important
ant important consideration. If the soil is lack lacking
ing lacking in lime it may be supplied at the
rate of ioo pounds to the acre with re remarkable
markable remarkable results.
This crop requires about the same
preparation of soil as do corn, cotton and
cats. Plowed flat to a depth of five
to seven inches and thoroughly harrow
ed will put the seed bed in splendid
The fertilizer to be used depends on
the soil, but as the peanut is of the
legume family it does not require a
nitrogen fertilizer. In some cases, how however,
ever, however, a highly nitrogenous fertilizer
gives a slight increase in hay production
but not in pods. Where it is found nec necessary
essary necessary to fertilize, the best results have
been obtained by using a fertilizer dis distributer
tributer distributer just before planting the nuts.
The large nuts may be hulled and
dropped by a corn or cotton planter or
bv hand to suit the convenience of the
planter. At the McNeal Experiment
Station, Mississippi the Spanish nuts
were soaked from 36 to 48 hours
then dropped by hand in rows 2 1-2 to
3 feet apart, 10 to 12 inches in the row
and covered from one to two inches
deep. To prevent a crust forming be before
fore before the plant appears it is best to keep
soil stirred with a light smoothing or

How To Raise Peanuts


weeding harrow. The Osborne peg
tooth harrow gives splendid satisfaction
when used in this connection. The plant
when small is brittle so will not permit
The cultivation is practically the same
as for corn and cotton. The soil should
be stirred to prevent baking, but deep
cultivation near the plant is apt to prove
injurious except when it is very small.
Surface cultivation gives the best re re"i'lts
"i'lts re"i'lts if the soil has been well prepared.
The practice of covering the plant with
dirt during fruiting season is not only
expensive but has been found to be in injurious
jurious injurious to the plant.
The little Spanish nuts may be har harvested
vested harvested by pulling, but with the large
white varieties it is best to plow them out
then follow behind, shake off the dirt
and turn nuts to the sun. After drying
far five or six hours they should be piled
in small cocks with the vines on the
outside. After allowing to cure partly
in small piles they should be stacked.
A pole stack with some brush to keep
vines off the ground and with some
heavy grass to top it out has given good
satisfaction. Later they should be haul hauled
ed hauled to a shed where nuts may be pulled
or pounded off during bad weather, the
vines then stored for hay.
If planted early it is easy to produce
two crops a year. Peanuts make a very
good catch crop with corn and fit well
into the rotation with oats. Asa soil
builder peanuts come nearer equalling
cowpeas then any other crop we can
grow. From the standpoint of hay, pea peanut
nut peanut vines surpass timothy and equal
The yield of peanuts varies from 30 to
| 150 bushels per acre, and as a rule can be
; marketed for from $1.23 to $1.50 per
bushel. The Spanish variety is the best
land surest crop. An ordinary yield of
Spanish nuts at the McNeal Experiment
Station, Mississippi has been 1,640
Dounds peanuts and 2,452 pounds hay
oer acre. While with the white kind a
single result gave 1,792 pounds nuts
and 3,520 pounds of hay. The white
variety selects its soil with more care
than does the other, and often if condi conditions
tions conditions are not right fifty per cent, of the
oods will be empty.l. H. C. Service
The velvet bean appears to have been
brought into Florida from some other
part of the world more than 30 years
ago. It has not been discovered whence
it came. Several facts, such as the
close-fertilized flowers, and the pods
which do not spring open, mark it as
the product of long cultivation, perhaps
in southeastern Asia. (It has been de described
scribed described under anew Latin name.) It
was under trial by the Florida Experi Experiment
ment Experiment Station in 1896, has since been
largely grown in Florida, and has been
sent all over the world under the name
of the Florida velvet bean. The last

statistics show nearly thirty thousand
acres of this crop in Florida. Being kill killed
ed killed down by cold, and requiring a long
season to ripen its seeds, it can only be
profitably cultivated in the Southern por portion
tion portion of the Gulf States or still further
South in the tropics.
The velvet bean is one of the best
legumes for growing in the rotation, as
a soil renovator in sub-tropical countries,
such as Florida. It covers the ground
and chokes down weeds, is not. attacked
by root knot, and does not shed its leaves
when killed by frost. It J&ffords a
cheap protein feed, and gives good for forage
age forage for cattle in the late winter and
spring. Steers fed on velvet beans as
rre ingredient of a balanced ration were
found to put on flesh at a cost of about
7 1-2 cents a pound, which was cheaper
than three other rations not containing
velvet beans. For milk production, less
than three pounds of velvet beans in the
nod were equal to one pound of cotton cottonseed
seed cottonseed meal costing as much as 5 pounds
of velvet beans. When fed exclusively,
r nearly exclusively, to horses and cat catde,
de, catde, velvet beans, like other nitrogenous
foods, cause various troubles; which,
however, are avoided by feeding them in
a balanced ration. When given in large
quantities to pigs, the appearance of the
fat has been affected.
For planting, the velvet beans should
he hulled; and it will pay well to son
out the best seeds. The seed should be
planted at dates varying from the mid middle
dle middle of March for South Florida to the
middle of April for North Florida. If
wanted only for hay, planting may Ik
done until the beginning of July. A
quarter of a bushel of good seed will
be enough for planting an acre. The seed
should be drilled in rows three feet
apart and at distances of io to 15 inches
in the drill. The yield is increased by
planting corn or sorghum in alternate
rows, so that the velvet beans will climb
their stalks. A good seed-bed should be
prepared by plowing thoroughly and
harrowing at intervals of ten days. No
fertilizer is necessary on ordinary land,
cultivation between the rows should be
practiced until the vines have begun to
form. The vines should be cut for hay
as soon as the young pods are well form formed.
ed. formed. The seed may be harvested in Dec December,
ember, December, or the land may be pastured
. from December to March. Plowing un under
der under should be done as early as possible.
One ton to one and a half tons of beans
may be expected per acre. About one
to one and a half acres of velvet beans
will be enough to fatten one animal.
The caterpillars that attack velvet
beans in Florida may be readily destroy destroyed
ed destroyed by dusting on Paris green at a slight
cost per acre. The small amount of
Paris green is only enough to kill the
caterpillers, and will not produce any
poisonous effects on the cattle.
Farm products should never be rushed
upon the market when there is a surplus,
or when money for handling the crop
is scarce. One of the things that far farmers
mers farmers of the South must learn is when
and how to market their crops. This
can be learned, and we must learn it.
The speculator should not dictate prices,
but supply and demand should regu regulate
late regulate them.
The best preparation for good work
tomorrow is to do good work today.

New Discoveries In Breeding

In the ten years of this century which
have already passed there have been
some remarkable discoveries with rv.
spect to inheritance and breeding in
domestic animals and cultivated plants.
There is a probability of still more im important
portant important discoveries in the next few years.
The result in the future will probably be
of no small interest to all who grow
plants or raise animals.
It has been discovered that all our
common domestic animals and culti cultivated
vated cultivated plants are really double through throughout,
out, throughout, and in every minute part of their
structure. The minute cells of which
all our animals and plants are built up
(as seen under the microscope), just
as a house may be built of bricks, have
each an active center, one-half of which
is derived from one of their parents,
and the other half from the other par parent.
ent. parent. When we have bred a scrub cow
to a pure Jersey bull, we call the calves
half-blood Jerseys. But it is not only
the blood cells which have the double
structure, and we might as well call
the calves, half-bone Jerseys, half-meat
Jerseys or half-hide Jerseys. For
hoof, hide, horn, hair, color colorcells,
cells, colorcells, eyes, lungs, and every other part is
half from the dam and half from the
sire, even though it does not show it on
the outside. This applies even to the
udders of the heifer calves; for they will
be half Jersey in their minute structure,
though the Jersey sire did not possess
milk-glands. It is not like a house built
half of clay bricks and half of con concrete
crete concrete blocks; but as if each brick were
made from a mixture of half clay and
half concrete. This double structure is
not a guess, nor a theory; but a visible
fact which anyone can study for himself,
after he has gone through some months'
training in the use of the microscope and
the methods of studying the microscopic
The second discovery is that (except
in the most closely inbred strains), the
two halves which make up every cell of
the animal or plant are different in some
respects, though nearly alike in most
others. Some of the offspring may in inherit
herit inherit one-half, and some of them may in inherit
herit inherit the other half, from one of the
parents. So the calves of the same bull
and cow, or the seedlings from the same
fruit, are often different. Among ani animals,
mals, animals, only by the closest inbreeding can
such differences be avoided. The closer
the inbreeding of a pure strain, as the
Jersey, the more nearly alike are the
offspring. In most plants, the closest
imaginable inbreeding can be had by
allowing the flowers to be self-fertilized,
and then the strain will become uniform.
The two halves which make up tliv
structure of each of our domestic ani animals
mals animals or cultivated plants are derived
from its two parents So the offspring
sometimes seem to inherit more from
their grandparents than from their ac actual
tual actual sire and dam When we breed a lot
of calves from pure horned Hereford
cows by a pure polled Hereford bull,
every minute part (or cell) of the calves
will have both the inheritance of horns


from the dam, and the inheritance of
hornlessness from the sire. When these
animals are now bred together, their
inherited halves are given separately to
their calves, which may inherit either
horns from the dam and horns from
the sire, or hornlessness from the dam
and hornlessness from the sire, or horns
from the dam and hornlessness from the
sire, or lastly hornlessness from the dam
and horns from the sire. Many trials
have shown that one-quarter of them
are pure horned Herefords, another
quarter are pure polled, and the remain remaining
ing remaining two quarters will have both polled
and horned qualities together, which
usually result in scurs (or imperfect and
often very small horns).
the third discovery which has been
proved again and again by hundreds of
special experiments during the last ten
years, is that most of the single points
of difference between our breeds, varie varieties,
ties, varieties, races, and strains of plants or ani animals,
mals, animals, are separately inherited, one by
one, not combined in a clump. Also, in
die inheritance they seem to be often
shuffled, more or less at haphazard, like
a pack of cards. When a black sugar
corn which has eight rows, is crossed
with a white sixteen-rowed held corn,
it may be possible to separate out from
the offspring in the second and follow following
ing following years, a black sugar corn with b
rows, a white held corn with 16 rows,
a white field corn with 8 rows, a black
iield corn with 8 rows, a black field
corn with 16 rows, a white sugar corn
with 8 rows, a white sugar corn
with 16 rows and a black sugar corn
with 16 rows, the qualities are not in innerited
nerited innerited in a clump (as black,, sugar, and
8 rowed), but the black goes separately
to several of the offspring, the sugar
quality goes separately, and the 8-rowed
condition again separately. It is tht
same with many of the differences be between
tween between the strains and varieties of other
plants and animals.
A fourth discovery, which has also
jeen proved by hundreds of experiments,
,s that when a plant or animal inherits
mie quality from the dam, and an op opposite
posite opposite quality from the sire, one of
these two qualities sometimes hides the
other so that it cannot be seen. Thus
tomato plants which grew from seed of
a yellow-fruited tomato pollinated from
a red tomato, have all red fruit. But
the inheritance of yellow is still there
though it does not show, and from the
seeds of these red fruits both yellow yellowfruited
fruited yellowfruited and red-fruited plants are pro produced.
duced. produced.
A fifth discovery of recent years has
been proved for quite a number of ani animals
mals animals and some plants, though not yet
for many domestic races. It has been
shown by the microscope to a certainty,
and in some cases by crossing experi experiments,
ments, experiments, that the sex of these animals and
plants is fixed in the germ, once for all.
The arrangement is such that there are
usually about equal numbers of both sex sexes.
es. sexes. For the original germ-cells divide
each into two parts, one of which goes
to form a germ or egg which will grow

into a male, and the other to form a
germ or egg which will grow into a
female. When this has been shown
to be true of all domestic animals and
plants, which is highly probable, time and
money will be saved which are now spent
in vain attempts to change the propor proportions.
tions. proportions.
A sixth important discovery is that
nearly all new qualities in our culti cultivated
vated cultivated plants and in many animals arise
suddenly as small or large sports.
It has been shown that one of the best
ways to get new varieties of many crops,
especially cereal and forage crops, is to
search systematically for such slight in inherited
herited inherited changes, which are often hid hidden
den hidden somewhat by the natural crossing
of the plants. It has been shown in
several cases that with pure lines oi
plants, bred from a single seed by
self-fertilization, selection has no influ influence
ence influence whatever in changing the type,
though continued over several years.
Permanent changes in such cases only
come when a sport arises.
Lastly, the most important advance
in the study of breeding and inheritance
in recent years is the proper and full
application of mathematics to record the
variations and heredity of domestic ani animals
mals animals and cultivated plants. This prom promises
ises promises to give us nearly as exact a knowl knowledge
edge knowledge of breeding as we have of elec electrical
trical electrical processes, for instance. Luther
Burbank, by his personal genius and
skill, can breed many strikingly new
varieties, but his skill will die with him.
When, however, it is all down in figures,
breeding new varieties will be more
like setting up anew electrical-lighting
plant, where the results may be calcu calculated
lated calculated beforehand. There are, I think,
few departments of knowledge which,
on the whole, show a more rapid ad advance,
vance, advance, at present, than does the study
of inheritance and breeding; and few
which seem to promise more for the
near future, both in the knowledge which
is power, and in the dollars, which repre represent
sent represent power of another sort. The Agri.
Experiment Stations of New Jersey,
Maine, Nebraska, Virginia and Connec Connecticut
ticut Connecticut have published valuable bulletins
on this subject.
The relative advantages of disc and
mould-board ploughs is attracting the
attention of many farmers and planters.
The mould-board plough may be con considered
sidered considered most suitable on moist or irri irrigated
gated irrigated land, while the disc plough is to
be preferred when the soil is dry and
hard. Indeed, a special advantage con connected
nected connected with the disc implement, is that it
may frequently be used for ploughing
land that has become too dry and hard
for the mould-board. This is often of
much value, as it is not so necessary to
wait for rain, and the seed can be plant planted
ed planted at the proper time. On the other
hand, where the land is in a fit con condition
dition condition for ploughing, and is not too dry,
the mould-board plough pulverizes and
turns the soil more satisfactorily.
The disc plough is lighter in
draught, does not require sharpen sharpening
ing sharpening so often, cuts through trash
better, and does not clog so easily. A
24-inch disc is best for general purposes.



Good Soil the Basis of Wealth

Have you any love for the acres you
tend ? Do you not wish to see them
fairer and more prolific? Do you feel
no sense of regret or shame when you
see them bare and gullied, or weed weedgrown
grown weedgrown and water-logged? Have you
never dreamed of how beautiful and
productivei they could be made, if you
only practiced sensible methods? If not
you dare not call yourself a good fai faimer,
mer, faimer, which is the best title a human
being can possible have. If you are
not awake to the just possibilities lying lyingahead,
ahead, lyingahead, of the profitable production of
crops from soil that is kept up to the
top notch in fertility, then you have mis mistaken
taken mistaken your calling and had better be become
come become a hewer of wood or a drawer of
water to someone needing your sei
The system of shallow plowing so
much in evidence on the Florida farm
is responsible for a great deal of soil
waste. An agricultural writer has made
the assertion that our Southern farmer
digs each year a Panama canal with his
little scooter plow, and I am convincea
of the truth of the assertion from the
observation of the ordinary methods
that our farmer practices, when he be begins
gins begins his farming operations every
spring. Each year he scratches out the
very heart of his little 40, 80 or 100
acres of land and a block of dirt really
bigger than the Panama canal finds its
way eventually into the Gulf of Mexico.
In this way the riches of his farm take
wings. He did not see it go, but it
went all the same, and the pitiful thing
about it is that he will not believe you
if you tell him of the fact. And yet the
majority of our farmers are literally
scratching their land out of existence.
By the ordinary methods we have
been wasting our soil resources at an
accelerating rate each year. And that
is the worst phase of these resource
wastes, they increase with a terrible,
swiftness. In the West the buffalo went
at once, our pine forests are going
quickly, our birds are being destroyed
in yearly increasing numbers by so socalled
called socalled hunters, but who are really butch butchers;
ers; butchers; our fish and oysters are also going
fast, and unless there is a let-up and
that very soon, there will be none of
these natural resources left. In the
South we have been using the ax, the
saw, and the scooter plow as agents of
destruction, not as the creative in influence
fluence influence we might have made them, and
in thus doing we have not been using
good business sense. We first ripped
off the covering of the soil, and then
ripped up the soil itself and let it get
away from us.
The average American has let a few
men steal him blind on every hand, but
the average Southern farmer is stealing
himself blind in his farming methods.
He does not realize the fact that the soil
is the connecting link between organic
and inorganic life. It is the foundation
of organized society and in fact of all
civilization. It is the farmers bank ac account.
count. account. Nay, more, it is the original
source of all the bank accounts in the


country. The theoretical and ideal so solution
lution solution of this soil problem lies in deep
plowing and a well chosen rotation of
crops in which the soil surface will be
covered from the hot sun rays for at
least half the period of the rotation.
The majority of our fields that have
been for any length of time in cultiva cultivation
tion cultivation are so denuded of humus that it
will take some time to get them into
the desired condition, but a systematic
course of growing leguminous crops fol followed
lowed followed by deep plowing of the decayed
vegetable matter in the fall or early
winter, taking care that we plow a little
deeper every year than we did the last,
and in a very short time we will be able
to bring our soil up to the condition
that will make it a profitable proposition
for us to grow crops on. The ideal
course to pursue is to get our soil in the
condition that it would take care of
the heaviest rainfall that was ever likely
to occur, and this can be easily done by
deep plowing and subsoiling, and turn
ing under decayed vegetable matter of
the previous crop. The solution to the
present state of unprofitable farming as
generally found among us is to save
your land, nay to restore it. Plow deep,
then deeper, and yet deeper. Plan and
follow out a rotation system that is
going to build up your soil, then double
the amount of live stock on the farm,
and later on double them again. And
then you are in a fair way to become an
ornament to the farming profession.
For a profession it certainly is, requir requiring
ing requiring more shrewdness than law, more
technical training than medicine, more
uprightness than theology, more brains
and resourcefulness than pedagogy. It
is its own reward. God made farmers,
they are the worlds wealth. The pro professions
fessions professions are non-producers, and some of
them parasites.
Right here I may be allowed to dis discuss
cuss discuss some of the methods best calculat calculated
ed calculated to bring about ideal soil conditions to
which every farmer ought to strive to
get his soil and in addition to the neces necessity
sity necessity of deep plowing show that a crop
rotation suitable to soil and climate
conditions will work successfully to that
One effect of crop rotation on soils is
that on its mechanical condition, as a
soil deficient in mechanical conditions is
not advisable. But with different kinds
of crops the mechanical condition of the
soil is constantly undergoing a change.
Small grain crops rotated with hoeu
crops tend to make the soil open in text texture.
ure. texture. Grass crops again have the oppo opposite
site opposite effect. Corn rotated with sweet po potatoes
tatoes potatoes has a very good mechanical ef effect.
fect. effect. Truck crops, such as beans, let lettuce,
tuce, lettuce, cabbage, etc., being hoed crops and
short season crops as well, should be
rotated with long season crops like
sugar cane, and here also we should
study the effects of leguminous crops,
such as velvet beans and cowpeas on
the mechanical condition of the soil, and
always sow them in a corn or sorghum
crop so as to get the best posible re results.
sults. results. Every farmer should grow all

the legumes possible on his rotation, for
by so doing he can save the expense of
ammonia in his fertilizer bill. A
crop of velvet beans after being grazed
off by cattle and hogs, if what remains
on the ground is turned under before
the first of January, is almost equal to
an application of one thousand pounds
of cottonseed meal per acre, and in ad addition
dition addition to its fertilizing value, it is one
of the best humus producing crops we
Then again we have the question ol
crop residues in our rotation to take
into account. Weak feeders should be
rotated with strong feeders, and all
crops should be planted with a view to
the assimilative power of their roots, for
the root system of the crop is what
makes or mars the production thereoi.
We must remember that in the roots
of all the plants there are present var various
ious various organic acids and salts. Between
the rootlets and the soil there is a layer
of water. The plant sap and the soil
water are separated by plant tissue,
which serves as a membrane. The sap
from the roots finds its way into the soil
in exchange for some of the soil water,
so we see that the acids and the other
compounds secreted by the roots act
upon any mineral matter in the soil, thus
releasing a certain amount of plant plantfood
food plantfood all in proportion to the extent of
system in the soil, thus showing
that plant roots exert a solvent power in
obtaining food. Different plant roots
contain different solvents and different
amounts of same. They also present
different areas of roots, such as the close
feeders and wide spread feeders. With
the natural result that every crop has
its own particular power of assimilating
plant food. This action of living plant
roots upon the soil is a digestive pro process,
cess, process, which is very similar to the digest digesting
ing digesting of food by animals. Plant roots not
only possess the power of rendering
plant food soluble, but they are able to
select the food best suited to their re requirements
quirements requirements and reject whatever is un unnecessary.
necessary. unnecessary. Along this same line we could
show the ability of the different crops
to obtain the plant food from their shal shallow
low shallow or deep habits. Potatoes, for in instance,
stance, instance, are surface feeders and the root
system of the crop is more affected by
weather conditions, than rape, which is
one of the deepest rooted crops we have,
and weather conditions do not affect it
much. Rape has also a strong tap root
capable of going to extreme depths for
fertility and moisture, whereas the pota potatoes
toes potatoes have no tap roots. We should also
follow the same course in our small
grain crops. Barley, which is an ex excellent
cellent excellent winter crop in our section, dif differs
fers differs from oats and wheat in that it is
a stronger feeder and has a greater root
development and can utilize food in a
different form than the other two men mentioned.
tioned. mentioned. Oats again can obtain plant food
under more adverse conditions than
either barley or wheat, hence its preva prevalence
lence prevalence on the average Florida farm. It
will also adapt itself to either sandy or
clay soil.
Corn is generally recognized as a
gross feeder and a good forager. It
removes a large amount of gross fer fertility,
tility, fertility, but its root habits are such that
it generally leaves an average soil in
better condition for succeeding crops, and
(Continued on Page 19)

Cutworms and Other Garden Pests

Gardens cultivated each year, if kept
in good condition, free from weeds and
grass, are not attractive to the egg egglaying
laying egglaying moths, while on the other hand,
grassy, weedy fields and sod lands
are, and they usually abound in cut cutworms
worms cutworms during the fall months. It is
on such lands, hastily prepared and
planted during the spring rush of work,
where crops may be seriously damaged.
When land is properly and thoroughly
prepared for planting, vegetation is prac practically
tically practically all destroyed; hence, cutworms,
if present, deprived of their natural food
supply, may then be induced to feed on
poisoned baits. In small fields or gar gardens,
dens, gardens, poisoned baits are thoroughly prac practicable.
ticable. practicable. To be most effective, they
should be applied three or four days
after land has been well prepared,
thus allowing time for the cutworms
to become hungry. One bait that has
often proved a success is prepared a,
With about forty parts by weight
of corn meal, or an equal bulk of bran,
mix one part of Paris green or white
arsenic; moisten with water to make a
soft dough and then add molasses at
the rate of two quarts to forty pounds
of the mixture in order to sweeten it.
Another bait is prepared by cutting
some succulent clover and dipping it in
a half-barrel of water containing one
pound of Paris green.
The freshly prepared bait should be
distributed over the land about sundown,
in order that it may be fresh and at attractive
tractive attractive when the worms come out at
night to feed. It may be spread broad broadcast
cast broadcast or dropped in little heaps at regular
intervals. A second treatment two days
after the first is advisable and should
insure good results.
All poison baits should be used with
caution, or not at all if domestic fowls
are liable to get to it.
Circular bands of stiff carboard, tar tarred
red tarred paper, or tin cans with the top
and bottom removed, may be profitably
employed to protect a few choice plants.
These bands must be pressed into the
soil an inch and a half deep to prevent
cutworms burrowing under the edges,
and should extend about two inches
above the surface. Vertical holes with
smooth, hard sides, made with a round
iron bar or sharpened stick, near hills
of cucurbit plants, are said to make
good traps into which cutworms will
crawl and be unable to get out again.
The odor of kerosene is objectionable
to most insects. Sawdust saturated with
kerosene and then placed around plants
has been suggested to repel flea beetles
and other insects attacking low growing
plants, and its use may prove effective as
a repellent for cutworms.
Spraying infested plants with some
solution that kills by contact, such as
kerosene emulsion, soap solutions, or to tobacco
bacco tobacco decoctions, is one method of fight fighting
ing fighting melon lice. The spray, to be effec effective,
tive, effective, must hit and cover the lice on the
underside of the leaves. This necessitates
using a spray nozzle on the end
of a curved rod, or lifting and turning


the leaves and vines. Spray mixtures
must be applied with a pump capable
of furnishing strong pressure, so that
the liquid may be forced into the colo colonies
nies colonies to touch each individual. Sim Simply
ply Simply sprinkling the tops of infested plants
is worse that a waste of time.
Kerosene emulsion at a strength 01
10 per cent is the most effective spra>
in most cases. It is prepared by dissolv dissolving
ing dissolving one-half pound of potash soap in
one gallon of boiling hot water, then ad adding
ding adding two gallons of kerosene and churn churning
ing churning this mixture violently for ten to
fifteen minutes, or until a perfectly
smooth, creamy mass, without any free
oil on top, is obtained. Three gallons of
concentrated mixture thus prepared, di diluted
luted diluted with seventeen gallons of water,
make twenty gallons of io per cent,
kerosene emulsion. If used at a greater
concentration, or, if the emulsion is not
properly prepared, some injury to plants
may result. Anyone making kerosene
emulsion should realize that the mixture
of oil, soap and water must be churned
until the drops of oil become so com completely
pletely completely broken up and combined with the
soap that none will rise to the top.
It is often recommended to make anti
keep the concentrated mixture on hand,
to be diluted when used, but this prac practice
tice practice frequently results in the use of an
imperfect emulsion, which injures the
plants. When freshly prepared it sel seldom
dom seldom causes injury at the strength re recommended
commended recommended above.
Tobacco decoctions are nearly as ei eifective
fective eifective as kerosene emulsion, particular particularly
ly particularly if made from fresh, strong tobace-s
leaves or stems.
Tobacco leaves or stems, 2 pounds;
water, 4 gallons; boil for about twc
Decoction made by the above for formula
mula formula should be used without dilu dilution.
tion. dilution. By using tobacco of full strength
the docoction obtained will kill prac practically
tically practically every louse it touches, but failures
often result from using too weak solu solutions.
tions. solutions.
Extracts of tobacco sold under vari various
ous various trade names are on the market
and are widely advertised. The major majority
ity majority of them are valuable, and, as the
manufacturers claim, have the advantage
of being quickly prepared for use by
simply diluting with cold water, and
anyone can soon determine the strength
necessary to kill melon lice.
Soap solution consisting of one pound
of any strong potash washing soap in
four or five gallons of water, applied
slightly warm is quite effective. Pot Potash
ash Potash whale-oil soap is superior to com common
mon common soap, and will admit of greater di dilution
lution dilution and still be effective. A com combined
bined combined tobacco and whale-oil soap is pre prepared
pared prepared by some manufacturers.
Within recent years a method of
fumigating cantaloupe plants has been
quite well perfected. Sanborn made
valuable experiments with specially pre prepared
pared prepared tobacco or nicotine fumigating
papers, manufactured and sold under the
names nicofume tobacco paper, aphis
punk and to-bac-ine, and perfected a

system of fumigating by the use of
cloth-covered frames. The
description of a fumigating outfit is
based on his work:
For fumigating vines from two to
four feet long, construct a little wooden
frame, square or rectangular, of the
desired dimensions, and nail an eight eightinch
inch eightinch leg to each corner. This may be
covered with heavy muslin saturated
with linseed oil to render it air-tight.
Cut the muslin in pieces large enough
to cover the frame and extend one foot
over each side, and tack to the top, but
not to the legs of the wooden frame.
The loose edges of the muslin may be
covered with earth to prevent any es escape
cape escape of gas. A frame of this con construction
struction construction makes a perfect fumigating ar arrangement,
rangement, arrangement, as it can be placed over any
portion of a long vine if desired with without
out without damage and without disturbing the
The tobacco fumigating papers are so
prepared as to burn rapidly, producing
a dense smoke, and are used by light lighting
ing lighting the desired amount in a tin under
one corner of the frame. Old tin cans
with perforations near the bottom edge
answered the purpose very well. By
this method all the lice are killed in
from twenty to thirty minutes, without
injuring the plants.. The treatment is
comparatively cheap and effective
much more so, in fact, than the best
spraying that could be done. By having
several frames in operation, two men
may fumigate large areas in a day.
From Bulletin of N. C. Experiment
The first summer after the young tree
has been transplanted from the nursery
to its permanent place in the orchard
is a critical period in its existence, and
it is hardly too much to say that on
its growing during this period depends
in a great measure the future value of
the tree. If its growth is checked at
this time, its full development will prob probably
ably probably never be realized. Much of the
first seasons success or failure will, of
course, depend upon the care with which
the transplanting was done in the spring,
and yet attention in the summer is
necessary to bring the tree through; in
the best condition.
The great danger the tree will en encounter
counter encounter is the scalding effect of the
midsummer sun and weakening of its
vitality by the drying of the earth
about its roots. The injury thus oc occasioned
casioned occasioned may be very much lessened by
keeping the soil about the roots fine
and covered with a good thick mulch.
The mulching should extend as
far from the trunk as the roots
run, and will be all the more
beneficial if it extends beyond the ends
of the roots, as a greater amount of
the soil will be kept moist.
The young tree also needs to be kept
free from insects, as these pests are
more capable of injuring the tender trees
and the latter are less able to with withstand
stand withstand their attacks. Newly set trees as
well as those of medium size frequently
require light pruning during the sum summer
mer summer season to give them the proper
form. Of course care must be taken
not to remove enough to check the
(Continued on Page 19)



Florida Agriculturist
Published monthly by the
Walter Connelly, Manager.
Room 5, Board of Trade Building.
In the United States, Mexico, Porto Rico,
Philippine Islands, Hawaiian Islands and Cuba
(including postage), SI.OO per year.
To all Foreign Countries embraced in the
Universal Postal Union (including postage),
$1.50 per year.
Advertisements of meritorious articles are
solicited. Frauds and irresponsible firms are
not knowingly advertised, and we will con consider
sider consider it a favor if readers advise us promptly
should they have reason to question the relia reliability
bility reliability of any firm which patronizes our adver advertising
tising advertising columns. Advertising rates on applica application.
tion. application.
Communications are solicited from practical
farmers. Names and addresses must accom accompany
pany accompany all communications, although they need
not necessarily be published.
Photographs of farm scenes are gladly re received,
ceived, received, and will be reproduced if ol general
interest, and clear enough to make satistactory
Questions We are glad to have our sub subscribers
scribers subscribers ask questions about Florida or any
Piiase of agricultural work. They will be an answered
swered answered as promptly and carefully as possible,
either through the paper or by mail. We do
not answer questions for those who are not
subscribers. When writing for information,
always give name and postoffice address, and
enclose a two-cent stamp.
Always send money by draft, postoffice order
or registered letter. We will not be respon responsible
sible responsible for cash sent in letters, unless registered.
Address all communications to and make all
drafts, checks and postoffice and express orders
payable to
Florida Agriculturist,
Jacksonville, Fla.
APRIL, 1911.
The Agriculturist is in receipt al almost
most almost daily of letters' from prospective
settlers asking all sorts of questions and
seeking advice on various lines. We are
always glad to give such information
as we can, for it is our sincere de desire
sire desire that all who settle in this fair State
shall be successful and contented, but
occasionally we get batches of questions
that almost give us a headache to answer
Below we consider a few of the many
that have come to us recently and will
take up others from month to month.
What does it cost per acre to clear
land in Florida ?
That depends entirely on the character
of the growth. What is known as cut cutover
over cutover land which has never been heavily
timbered could probably be cleared for
sls to $25, while some of the heavy
hammock might cost as much as S2OO.
Does all land in Florida have to be
heavily fertilized before even a kitchen
garden can be planted?
There is very little land in Florida, or
anywhere else for that matter, on which
it would not pay to use some fertilizer
in order to get the best results from
even a kitchen garden. In our ex experience
perience experience the garden, with its wide range
of vegetables, is the most exacting
in its demands of any tract of equal
size on the farm.


Is it a fact that rheumatism and ma malaria
laria malaria lurk everywhere in Florida but is
at all times prevalent where the growth
of Spanish moss is heaviest?
While some of the earliest settlements
in this country were made in Florida it
has not for some unaccountable reason
been developed and improved as have
most of the other States, hence people
who live in some of the low undrained
lands are susceptible to the same ma malarial
larial malarial diseases that obtain under simi similar
lar similar conditions everywhere else. How However,
ever, However, statistics show that Florida's death
rate is among the lowest, and it is a
fact that people who take reasonable care
of themselves enjoy as good health here
as they probably would in any other
State. Speaking from personal exper experience
ience experience the writer can say that after a
residence of twenty-six years in Florida
he has never had an ague chill or simi similar
lar similar malarial trouble, whereas such things
were of common occurrence in the
Can a man of small means locate in
Florida and make a success?
Any industrious man who has had
experience in tilling the soil, or is will willing
ing willing to learn, and who has capital enough
to clear and fence his land, build a home
and carry himself through the first year,
ought to succeed and make money, pro provided
vided provided he diversifies his crops and does
not risk all on one thing. We do not
believe that any State in the Union
promises better returns than Florida for
an equal expenditure of industry and
What, in your opinion, is the best
section of the State?
Now, this is a poser. Florida is a
great big State, in fact few people act actually
ually actually realize its size. There is not a
square mile of land in it that is not
adapted to some crop that can be raised
with profit, but some people succeed
better in one place than they do in
another. We have known people who
made failures on the east coast or the
west coast to become prosperous citi citizens
zens citizens simply by moving across the State
where the conditions seemed better suit suited
ed suited to them. We have known men to
leave the northern portion of the State
and become rich further south, while
we have in mind one man in particular
who did not succeed as well as he de desired
sired desired in South Florida and by moving movingfound
found movingfound success and prosperity in Escam Escambia
bia Escambia county. So you see it is very hard
indeed to advise a man as to which is
the best part of the State. In our
opinion any pl&ce south of the northern
boundary of Florida can be made a most
excellent place to live in, and the sooner
one secures a location here the better,
for the tide of immigration has turned
his way and nothing will be able to
stop it until the true value of the land
's reached, when it will be beyond the
grasp of people of moderate means.
I am buying a tract from
Colonization Company, but have been
told that their land is not as represented.
Do you think these people are all right?
This inquiry comes to 11s oftener than
any other one, and indicates that a large
percentage of those who have bought
colony lands have done so without
making a personal investigation. We
believe that most of the companies that
are exploiting Florida lands are reliable,
but it is unfortunately true that oc occasionaily

casionaily occasionaily we find one that is not. There
is really no good reason why any of
them should misrepresent their land or
the conditions here, for an honest state statement
ment statement of the actual facts ought to be
sufficient to fill Florida with prosperous
and contented farmers. In fact we do
not know of a State in the Union that
holds out better inducements to the in industrious
dustrious industrious man who will come here and
engage in diversified farming. How However,
ever, However, we want to reiterate what we have
said so often, that no one should buy
land for a home, either in Florida or
elsewhere, without a personal investi investigation.
gation. investigation. Peoples tastes differ, and what
would suit one perfectly, another might
not be willing to accept as a gift. In re regard
gard regard to the various land companies op operating
erating operating in this State we try to give such
unbiased information as we have con concerning
cerning concerning them, by letter to those of our
subscribers who inclose postage for a
reply, but cannot undertake to answer
through these columns.
We have a large number of inquiries
still unanswered, which will have to go
over to another time, as we cannot give
more space in this issue.
Editor Florida Agriculturist :
No sir, this subject will not down.
But this cane will down crab grass, rag
weeds and even maiden cane has a poor
show where it is once planted. Land
that will not grow this stuff is truly poor,
yes, poor as Jobs turkey. I can
show patches of it here that has prac practically
tically practically grown wild for years, and is
fine superfine. What a shame that
thousand of so-called farmers in these
parts are buying western feed stuffs and
white bacon, while this cane would cut
the feed bill in half, and the bacon bill
entirely out. One-quarter acre in this
with, say, a quarter acre of sweet pota potatoes
toes potatoes or cassava will fatten a bunch of
hogs, and the land will be better for
having grown these crops. Just go in
the cane patch and cut a lot of it down
so the hogs can get at it and I guarantee
they will do the rest. The same quan quantity
tity quantity of land in the West will not grow
more hog feed, call it corn, or even
alfalfa, and I will still hold out against
you on this proposition. All that
chewed-up cane will fertilize the land.
The hogs will eat the potatoes, vines and
all. Starch and sugar make fat. I
know one man in this State who. is
fast making his way to easy street by
this means. I have a fine farm but I
am too deep in the orange business to
give my hogs any special attention. I
have a fine acorn range and flatwoods
tor my hogsthats my trouble.W. P.
The long dry spell which has prevailed
so generally in the State having been
broken by copious rains, April should
be a busy month for the farmer and
truck grower in Florida. The rank
growth which weeds are likely to make
now will require all the attention that
;an be devoted to them, and unless tak taken
en taken in time will make a great deal of
hand work necessary.
While most of the planting has been
done during the past two months'many

vegetables can still be planted as suc succession
cession succession crops and to supply failures of
seed of the earlier sowings. Among
these may be mentioned beans, cucum cucumbers,
bers, cucumbers, eggplant, okra, peppers, radishes,
squash, sugar corn and tomatoes.
The marketing of the crops from
the earlier plantings will also occupy
much attention now, so that altogether
the successful truck grower will find
himself a very busy man.
Plant plenty of sweet potatoes. Get
the draws or slips out now while the
ground is moist so that you will have
plenty of vines from which to make
cuttings later on. This is one of the
staple crops and one for which there
is a steady demand at the store, in the
home, in the cow stall and in the
hog pen; in fact every living thing on
the place will eat all it can get and
then call for more.
As to the best varieties of the different
vegetables: this is largely governed by
local conditions, and we suggest that
all newcomers be governed, at least the
first season, by the practice of those in
the neighborhood who have had exper experience.
ience. experience. Where trucking is done on a
commercial scale a uniformity of varie variety
ty variety will doubtless facilitate marketing.
Editor Florida Agriculturist :
For a number of years I have been
planting what is known as Mexican June
corn but it has been very unsatisfactory.
It may be because I have not got the
genuine June corn, for I know the pub public
lic public has been imposed upon more or
less. Last year I planted what is known
as Indian Squaw corn. This is claimed
to be the original Indian corn greatly im improved.
proved. improved. I planted this corn the 17th
day of June and the season was ex extremely
tremely extremely dry but the corn grew off from
the very start and never rolled up on
the very dryest and hottest days. This
is a prolific variety, making in a good
season from two to five ears to the
stalk, but it was so very dry on mine
that it only made one and two ears to
the stalk, though it more than doubled
any of the June corn that I have tried.
I am well pleased with it and will con continue
tinue continue to use it for my late plantings.
The ears grow from 10 to 12 inches long
and carry from 10 to 20 rows of plump
grains. The grains present a combina combination
tion combination of colors some blue, others yellow r
some red, and some white. It is really
a most attractive corn and you can al always
ways always tell this corn by the combination
of colors in the grains. It is the earliest
maturing corn that I know of. Mine
was ready for the crib in eight days
after I planted the seed.
Another most valuable crop is my
Texas Stock Melons, which have made
an abundant yield, I know of nothing
that furnishes such fine, succulent green
feed to go with the dry in winter, and
for table use I prize them very highly.
Besides they are a crop that never fail
and are nice and clean to harvest.
Will someone please tell me how to
prepare broom corn for market, best
way to remove the seed, and all about
the crop.
Wishing the good old Agriculturist
much success I will close.
Newton, Texas. G. D. PEREGO.


Editor Florida Agriculturist :
The general consensus of horticultural
opinion seems adverse to the practicabil practicability
ity practicability of raising apples as far south as cen central
tral central Florida, and yet in time a strain of
apples evolved ala Burbank from the
most southerly varieties, may prove this
opinion not altogether correct. On
Ormond Peninsula may be seen in some
seasons apple blossoms growing amidst
orange blooms. This little apple tree treevariety
variety treevariety Jennings Florida was planted
a dozen or more years ago, it is about
ten feet high and though but a puny
specimen will some years actually bear
two or three fruits, not quite up to the
Oregon standard perhaps, but still of
quite good flavor. As the tree grows
in the usual hot Florida sand and re receives
ceives receives no attention beyond what little
fertilizer it shares with the orange trees
it is hardly a fair test of the capabilities
of this variety and suggests that apples
at least for the home, may not be an
litter impossibility in Central Florida.
Indeed Mr. E. P. Powell, the well
known horticultural authority, antici anticipates
pates anticipates a measurable degree of success in
raising the fruit for home use. He
mulches his trees heavily and they have
a thrifty look.
A friend who has lived in Peru, South
America, informs me that bearing apple
trees are not infrequent in the gardens
about Quito. Perhaps, some of our
Central or possibly South Florida
friends will write of their experiences
in this line.G. A. P.
A misapprehension eveidently exists
regarding the danger of a shortage of
potash for the American farmer. This
has arisen through a misunderstanding
of the purpose of the new German pot potash
ash potash law. This law does not aim to re restrict
strict restrict the production of potash, but on
the contrary expressly seeks to increase
it. The commission that fixes the prob probable
able probable yearly demand of the world must
provide each year for an increase over
the consumption of the previous year.
The mines have spent millions of dol dollars
lars dollars in trying to increase sales and this
policy will continue.
The commission is required to annual annually
ly annually estimate the domestic (German) re requirement
quirement requirement and the amount needed for
export. Because it happens that the
present German requirement is equal
to the export needs, some have under understood
stood understood that the law forbids an export
quantity greater than the German con consumption.
sumption. consumption. This is by no means true.
The Germans are only too glad to have
the foreign demand increase.
The law in this respect is flexible;
thus, if the commission should find that
the German and export amounts for
1910 were practically equal, they would
fix the same proportions for 1911, in increasing
creasing increasing each in the same amount. How However,
ever, However, should it appear at any time, that
the foreign orders were likely to be in
excess of the amount estimated,
the commission has the power to at once
make the foreign allowance greater than
the domestic and would undoubtedly do
This is quite in line with the pur purpose
pose purpose of the mines in organizing their

own company in America, the object of
this American company (German Kali
Works) being to sell as much potash
as possible to everyone, farmer or deal dealer,
er, dealer, at reasonable prices and to aid all
willing manufacturers and dealers in
their efforts to supply the farmers
potash requirements. To this end they
carry extensive stocks of potash especial especially
ly especially in South Atlantic ports and take or orders
ders orders for direct importation in single car carload
load carload lots. Any farmer can import direct
through South Atlantic ports a car of
kainit and have it put on board the
cars, bagged, tagged, and all taxes paid
for $9 per ton cash. Prices to jobbers
and mixers are lower by the usual mar margin
gin margin fixed by the manufacturers in the
One of the most important factors in
the increasing prosperity of farmers
throughout the country is the growing growinguse
use growinguse of modern time and labor-saving
The many advantages of up-to-date
farm and garden implements is coming
to be recognized more and more, and
since the invention of Planet, Jr., imple implements
ments implements over a generation ago, a rapid
change for the better has taken place
in farming and gardening methods
S. L. Allen, the inventor of Planet, Jr.,
implements, is himself a practical far farmer
mer farmer and his intimate knowledge of the
needs of the farmer, together with his
ingenuity, has enabled him to design
these tools along thoroughly practical
lines so that they do the work quickly,
easily and efficiently.
Planet, Jr. implements are adapted for
every farming requirement and are so
constructed that they can be quickly ad adjusted
justed adjusted for different purposes. For in instance,
stance, instance, the Combined Hill and Drill
Seeder, Wheel Hoe, Cultivator and
Plow combines a great variety of tools
in a single implement.
It enables the farmer in one operation,
to sow in continuous rows and drop in
hills either four, six, eight, twelve or
twenty-four inches apart and at the
same time make the new row. The sow sowing
ing sowing device consists of an automatic feed
which is stopped by simply raising the
handles and started by lowering them
and starting the tool.
For cultivating, the drill parts can be
easily removed and it is quickly convert converted
ed converted into a single-wheel hoe with a fine
variety of tools and side extensions for
hoeing both sides of a row at one
This is only one of the many useful
and profitable time and labor-saving
Planet, Jr. tools which every farmer
and gardener should have.
The use of Planet, Jr. tools has ex extended
tended extended all over the world and they are
being shipped in constantly increasing
numbers to foreign countries as well as
to every part of the United States.
Every farmer should have a copy of
the handsome illustrated catalogue which
fully describes the various Planet, Jr.
implements. Anyone can secure a copy
by writing to S. L. Allen & Cos., Box
1108-H, Philadelphia, manufacturers of
Planet, Jr. tools.



Points On the Growing of Pecans

I presume each grower of pecans
has his own peculiar methods of opera operation,
tion, operation, and I am no exception to the
When I first engaged in the industry,
I tried various methods recommended
by apparently successful growers; I
discarded some that proved unsatisfac unsatisfactory,
tory, unsatisfactory, retained some and devised others.
In other words, I have been experiment experimenting
ing experimenting ever since and am still at it. Ex Experience
perience Experience is a good teacher, but it general generally
ly generally comes high, and did in my case.
We now have works on the pecan
industry, by noted authorities, and
journals devoted exclusively to nut
culture, which place the beginner at
great advantages. With the idea of
assisting in this work I give a few of
my methods.
In the first place, set your trees care carefully.
fully. carefully. We, of the Southland, are bles blessed
sed blessed with a long season in which to do
this work December to March so
that there is no excuse for slighting it.
Get them in as early as possible, and
do it right.
If the spring or summer following
is dry, as it frequently is, water your
trees carefully at least twice a week.
Make a basin by hoeing the soil from
around the tree, pour in a couple oi
pails of water, and when soaked away,
draw the soil back. I find a good plan
is to take two scantlings and make a
frame for a one-horse wagon that will
hold two barrels. A larger one, that
will hold three barrels, can be made
for a two-horse wagon. A great help
is to put a quart of nitrate of soda in
each barrel of water, or a teaspoonful
to each pail. I have also tried the an
dition of a small box of concentrated
lye or potash to the two barrels and
believe it pays well.
Do not expect much top growth the
first year, as during this period the
roots are developing more rapidly.
Keep up the watering until the drouth
is over. If you can keep your trees
heavily? mulched they will not need
watering so frequently; if not mulched,
keep the ground around them well
pulverized with hoe or cultivator.
If trees feather out from top to
bottom the first year, dont rub the
branches off, as they serve to keep the
sun from scalding the trunk. Begin
the top five or six feet from the
ground, but let branches below this
height grow each year until top is
large enough to shade the trunk, but
cut these branches back each winter
to a foot so that the main growth will
be in the top where wanted. There
will be plenty of growth in these cut
branches to shade the trunk.
Last spring I gave the trunks of my
pecan trees a good coating of white whitewash,
wash, whitewash, into each pail of which was dis dissolved
solved dissolved a small can of concentrated lye,
and I believe it was beneficial, espe especially
cially especially on any that were hide bound.
Of course it is necessary to start
right by getting trees true to name.
I know, by experience, how exasper exasperating
ating exasperating it is to wait five or six years and


then find you have been buncoed. I
have since worked these trees over
to other varieties, but its a job not
to be envied.
Do not plant seedlings with the ex expectation
pectation expectation of top-working them latei.
Better plant them in nursery rows, if
you raise your own trees, and work
them there, transplanting when grafts
are one or two years old. It saves so
much walking, as you have to go over
the ground for several years until all
the trees have taken.
Regarding distance to plant, dont
put them less than forty feet. I follow followed
ed followed the advice of a Texas authority
and planted twenty feet, but when they
were out five years, I found that the
branches would meet in another yeai,
and took out enough to leave the bal balance
ance balance forty feet apart. Land is too cheap
in the South to set out trees on it so
close that they will have to be taken up
after eight or ten years at most. The
same might be said of planting them
forty feet, but although they will doubt doubtless
less doubtless have to be cut out to eighty feet,
eventually, yet a large revenue can be
had from them for years before this is
The critical period in the life of a
plant is when it is transplanted from
the nursery to its permanent loca location.
tion. location. In moving trees from the nur nursery
sery nursery a portion of the root area is lost,
and the top should be reduced in pro proportion
portion proportion to the loss of root area, in order
that the newly transplanted and unes unestablished
tablished unestablished plant may be able to secure
sufficient moisture and food to supply
the demands of the top. The roots
should also be pruned, so as to protect
them against decay by cutting away all
broken and mutilated parts, leaving the
cut surfaces smooth and in such posi position
tion position that they will come in contact with
the fresh earth. After the plant be becomes
comes becomes established certain branches will
grow more rapidly than others and the
appearance of the plant will be spoiled
by this unequal growth. Pruning
should, therefore, be resorted to in order
to preserve a symmetrical development
of the plant without rendering it arti artificial
ficial artificial or formal in appearance. Care
should also be exercised during the ear early
ly early development of a plant to maintain
a uniform distribution of branches
around the central axis, if it be a tree,
so as to insure a symmetrical and pleas pleasing
ing pleasing form at maturity.
At planting time the excavation pic picpared
pared picpared for the reception of the tree should
be of sufficient depth to allow it to be
set as deep as it stood in the nursery
and large enough to accommodate the
roots without bending them, while the
earth in the bottom of the hole should
be loosened at least one spade length
below the general floor of the hole. In
replacing the soil over the roots of the
plant, a thin layer of earth should be
placed immediately in contact with the
roots and thoroughly pressed down by
tramping in order to bring the par partides

tides partides of soil in close contact with the
feeding roots of the plant. The hole
should then be filled and the surface left
slightly above the general surface of
the surrounding ground.California
A few suggestions may be helpful to
the beginner in bee keeping and en enable
able enable him to make his first years work
a marked success.
r. Shade your hives, if possible with
trees carrying heavy foliage. Swarms
should be shaded from nine a. m., to five
p. m., during the hottest season of the
2. Get a super of honey from the hive
wintered over by putting a super con containing
taining containing sections with full sheets of foun foundation
dation foundation or a super containing extracting
frames on the hive as soon as there is a
good working force.
3. When the swarm issues remove the
super from the old and place it upon
the new stand. Your new swarm will
not leave their hive and will be quite
likely to continue working in the super.
4. Arrange a wind-break to prevent
loaded bees from being dashed against
the hive fronts by the prevailing strong
5. Provide supports for the hives
which will lift them a foot or more
from the ground. Ants and insect insecteating
eating insecteating animals may give trouble if the
hives are on the ground.
6. Get your extra hives and supers
set up for use several weeks before
any swarms are expected or the honey
flow may be half over before you are
ready to take care of it.
7. Keep all comb honey in moth
proof cases and examine frequently.
8. Set the hive with the front of the
bottom board a half-inch lower than
the back, but it should be level sidewise
or combs will be built at an angle with
the frames or sections.
9. Do not attempt to handle bees on
cold, damp days, but while they are
working in the fields.
10. If bees are found hanging in chains
in a super do not smoke them down,
thinking they are idlers, for they are
probably secreting wax.
n. Prevent much swarming by remov removing
ing removing extra queen cells and by giving
plenty of space at the bottom. Strong
swarms produce surplus honey.
12. Grow with your business by read reading
ing reading a bee journal, a bee book, or both.
No man has any moral right to con control
trol control or work land that does not pro produce
duce produce a fair crop. To make each acre
produce a full crop is not only a duty
which each farmer owes to himself,
but he also owes it to society, to his
country, and to his neighbors, to make
each acre produce its full share of the
food and clothing for the race. The so socalled
called socalled owner of the land is only a
long-term tenant at the best, and no
tenant has a right to leave the land in
worse condition than he found it, nor
has he any right to encumber it with
shiftless methods of poor farming and
keep better farmers from making it
yield its most bountiful harvest. And
dont forget that to make good 1910
crops, preparatory work must begin at
once. Progressive Farmer.

This winter has been quite a hard
one on orange trees at Ferndale Farm.
Yet we are inclined to believe that the
frost we have experienced has not been
an unmixed evil. There comes a
time when insect pests do more evil than
The above paragraph formed part of
an article written a year ago. We in insert
sert insert it in our present article for tne
purpose of contrasting conditions of the
same season in different years. During
the months of last November, Decem December
ber December and January the weather was ex extremely
tremely extremely cold, also unusually dry. The
orange trees, at this time being dor dormant,
mant, dormant, did not suffer at all from frost.
About the last of February we had a
hard frost that extended as low down
the state as Manatee, but it did very
little, if any, damage to the trees. A
few of the young tip leaves, the trees
having commenced to grow, were kill killed
ed killed by it. At our present writing, our
trees are in full bloom and young fruit
forming. During many years of ex experimentation
perimentation experimentation as to the resistant powers
to the ravages of frost of different
varieties of orange tree, in Duval Coun County,
ty, County, we are convinced that the following
varieties will do well on an average:
First in the list is the Satsuma (just
here let me remark that the Satsuma
budded on Trifoliate stock does bet better
ter better on low land, while .budded on
rough lemon or sweet seedlings it does
best on high sandy land). Next in or order
der order we have Parson Brown, Boons
Early, tangerine and kumquat. There are
some seedlings native to Duval county
that are equally hardy with the fore foregoing.
going. foregoing. We think it is a mistake to
assume that Duval county is too far
north for oranges to be a success, and
we also think it a criminal blunder to
bank altogether on oranges.
Just at present down in our pan
of the country, on the St. Johns river,
chicken-farming seems to be most in.
favor. Considering the splendid market
we have in Jacksonville, and the steam steamship
ship steamship facilities to such markets as Balti Baltimore,
more, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York and Bos Boston,
ton, Boston, we can, with profit, produce a varie variety
ty variety of things that in the past we could
not find a ready market for.
At Ferndale our aim is, first, to pro produce
duce produce for home consumption and stock
feed, and sell what we cannot consume.
We keep chickens, because they and
their eggs are nice eating. We do not,
as the custom of many farmers is, sell
eggs and chickens and with the proceeds
buy inferior fat pork. We keep pigs,
which, next to chickens, are the most
profitable industry in our section. This
is owing to the fact that we can ob obtain
tain obtain the larger portion of their sup
port from the river St. Johns in the
form of fish.
We also keep bees, not so much for
their honey, but as obedient servants to
pollenize our trees. Another opportunity
we have in our section that helps the
larder very much is that we catch, salt
and smoke herrings as well as pork.
These are superior to any on the mar-

Ferndale Farm Notes


ket, and in our opinion equal to the
celebrated Yarmouth bloaters we used
to eat in London. We have given sam samples
ples samples to some of our prominent citizens
who say they are perfectly delicious!
We have planted a number of Pecan
trees, as we believe this willl be a pay paying
ing paying investment. Another industry we
think very promising, is the planting of
the so-called English walnut. Its origin,
however, is Persian. We have a num number
ber number of seedlings that are doing well.
They are a slow-growing tree for the
first few years, but come into bearing
much sooner than the pecan. Califor California
nia California has produced a very fine thin shell shelled
ed shelled variety that we think will do well in
Florida. We intend to purchase and
plant a number of trees. The pecan and
walnut industry is not subject to market
fluctuations in the price of its products.
An an investment in connection with the
purchase of Florida land, let me state
a proposition: A man purchases 5 acres
of Florida oak and hickory land suitable
for pecan and walnut culture, at say
S4O per acre. He plants 27 trees per
acre on this land, which at once becomes
of the value of S2OO per acre, and as
soon as the trees begin to bear the land
increases in value by leaps and bounds.
The farmer need not wait until he has
cleared up his land to plant his trees.
He need only to grub up portions 60
feet apart each way. The remaining
portion he can clear up as he finds time,
and plant crops on until the trees come
into bearing.
(Continued from Pape 15)
growth of the trees. A little attention
given at frequent intervals during the
summer will keep the young trees grow growing,
ing, growing, will prevent much of their nutriment
being expended in growing crooked or
straggling branches and tufted masses
of shoots, will check the depredations of
insects and in other ways assist in the
development of perfect trees.
That the cork oak may be added to
the already long list of varieties of
timber flourishing in Florida soil, is a
question to be taken up immediately
by the United States forestry officials
of Florida. A shipment of fifty pounds
of cork acorns has been received at the
forestry headquarters here, to be dis distributed
tributed distributed and planted in the Florida
national forests, under the supervision
of Forest Supervisor I. F. Eldridge.
The shipment is from Spain via
Washington. The acorns were sent here
upon the request of Supervisor El Eldridge
dridge Eldridge by Raphael Zons, chief of syl sylvics,
vics, sylvics, bureaus of forestry, who visited
the Florida forest some time ago. The
experiment is being awaited with much
interest, as the cork industry in the
countries producing it is very profitable.
Thus far Spain and the countries ad adjoining

joining adjoining and certain sections of South
America, produce the largest and almost
exclusively the worlds supply of this
On account of the striking similarity
of climate conditions and soil of these
cork producing sections with those of
Florida, it is believed at least certain
sections of Florida are adaptable to the
new industry.
The cork tree belongs to the oak fami family.
ly. family. Its acorn, which is its seed, is ob oblong
long oblong shape and in circumference mea measures
sures measures about the same as the ordinary
oak acorn of this countryPensacola
Fifty years experience has given me
a knowledge in gardening that could
not be had in any other way. I drill
in nearly everything that grows tops
not too tall. I always make my drills
running north and south. This gives
the sun a better chance to heat the
ground evenly nearly all day. I drill
all vegetables that grow tall tops by
themselves land mjake the space be between
tween between rows according to height of
To obtain the best results the ground
must be as rich as you can make it,
and thoroughly pulverized. I use a
hand cultivator always and never al allow
low allow a horse in my garden nor weeds
at any time. Frequent cultivation is
the secret of subduing weeds. It also
gives the ground a moisture in dry
weather that could not be obtained in
any other way.
The cultivator is one of the best fer fertilizers
tilizers fertilizers known, but the difference in
soil should be carefully observed. Clay
soil cannot be cultivated when wet. The
care of a garden has more to do with
its success than the weather. A sandy
loam is preferable to any other soil.
(W. H. Gillespie.)
Continued from Page 14)
so all the way through our varied, num numerous
erous numerous crops. So that in the Southland
we have every condition necessary to
increase the fertility and crop produc producing
ing producing capacity of our soils to the highest
possible notch, and making our farms
a suitable foundation of wealth produc production,
tion, production, but in the process we must use
considerable elbow grease and gray mat matter
ter matter to get the best results.
Practical experience in farming is of
great advantage, for nothing so im impresses
presses impresses the farmer with knowledge as
observation and experience on his farm;
but theory should not be ignored. The Theory
ory Theory leads to new discoveries; the test testing
ing testing of breeds, plants and flowers, and
increases the knowledge derived from
There is no vocation for great greater
er greater skill than that of farming. The real
farmer is not he who handles the plow
and implements, but the one who thor thoroughly
oughly thoroughly understands the characteristics of
stock, the nature of the plants best
adapted to his soil, and who is willing
to derive information at all times.



The Florida Farmers Most Certain
Hope for Permanent Prosperity.
Avery large percentage of the Agri Agricultural
cultural Agricultural population of Florida is engaged
in what is known as market gardening
or truck farming.
When carried on with a proper re regard
gard regard for the rules which govern suc success,
cess, success, it has proved profitable. Yet there
is a limit to the quantity which can
lind sale at a price which will afford
a profit to the grower.
that limit was passed one season a
few years ago in the production of
Irish potatoes. Following a very profi profitable
table profitable season, for potato growers,
next year hundreds of inexperienced
farmers planted large acreages of pota potatoes.
toes. potatoes.
there had been an unusually large
crop of potatoes at the North that sea season,
son, season, so that when the Florida crop was
ready to market the price was so low
that very few growers cleared anything
above expenses. Many of those who
shipped got almost nothing in return,
while hundreds of bushels were nevei
shipped at all. Of course, many of
these new growers did not plant the
second time, and the growing of Irish
potatoes has been fairly profitable every
year since.
There is, however, one branch of
farming in this State which is not like likely
ly likely to be overdone. That is stock rai
ingcattle, sheep and hogs. Those who
have to buy meat, of any kind, know
that the price is very high. Doubtless
many buyers blame speculators and the
trusts for the advance. Probably both
are somewhat to blame; prices may be
higher than they should be under the
natural law of supply and demand. Yet
it is also a fact that there is a real
deficiency both of beef cattle and hogs.
This shortage may be partially made
up within a year or two, owing to
increased production induced by the
stimulus of high prices. But I do not
believe that the time will ever come
when our meat supply cannot be more
cheaply grown in Florida than it can
be imported from the Northwest. It
cannot be done, however, by shipping
in all the feed from the Northern States
for fattening the animals.
Farmers who wish to make stock
growing profitable must make their cal calculations
culations calculations to grow their own feed. Grain
and forage fed out on the farm will
gradually bring the soil up to a much
higher state of fertility. The stable ma manure
nure manure will furnish all the nitrogen needed,
but the two necessary mineral elements,
phosphoric acid and potash must be sup supplied,
plied, supplied, especially the latter, which is most
always deficient in Florida soils. A
ton of manure balanced with 25 pounds
each of muriate of potash and acid phos phosphate
phate phosphate will be doubly effective.
Owing to our mild winters, cattle re require
quire require less shelter and\ less feed .is
needed to keep them warm, therefore



they can be grown to the required age
and fattened for market at less ex expense
pense expense than in any part of the North
or Northwest. Moreover, we can grow
a much larger variety of feed here. It
is true that we miss the valuable blue
grass as pasture feed, but in its place
we have the Bermuda and the St. Lucie
grasses, which are a good substitute,
while by sowing a field or two in the
fall with winter rye or Italian rye grass,
an abundant supply of fresh green pas pasture
ture pasture may be had every day in the year.
As for fattening feed, farmers in no
other part of the United States can grow
so large a variety. A partial list in includes
cludes includes cassava, velvet beans, sweet po potatoes,
tatoes, potatoes, etc., but the standby might well
be the same as in the Northern States Statesfield
field Statesfield corn. The average yield in this
state is probably under fifteen bushels.
Yet with the use of some commercial
fertilizer, phosphoric acid and potash in
about equal proportions, (no need to buy
nitrogen if you will grow plenty ot
legumes), wonderful crops may be
grown in Florida.
I have just been reading about some
large corn crops. A farmer in North
Carolina grew 226 bushels on one acre
and 213 on another. A farmer in Con Connecticut
necticut Connecticut grew 126 bushels of shelled corn
on one acre and averaged 118 bushels
from a field of twenty acres.
Over 12,500 boys in the Southern
States were engaged in a contest to see
who could grow the most corn on one
acre, doing the work according to speci specific
fic specific instructions from the United States
Department of Agriculture. The best
crop grown in South Carolina was
152 1-2 bushels on one acre; the best in
Mississippi was 147 bushels; North Car Carolina,
olina, Carolina, 137 bushels; Virginia, 122, while
the averager for the whole list was
60 bushels per acre, that is over 12,000
boys averaged more than four times as
much corn per acre as the average
Florida farmer. Of course these yields
were not the result of heavy fertiliza fertilization
tion fertilization solely; it required careful prepara preparation
tion preparation of the soil and thorough cultivation
all through the season. What man
has done, man can do. If you will fol follow
low follow the modern methods it is certain
that you will grow such a crop as will
astonish those who are satisfied with
\crops of ten to twenty bushels. A
good crop fed out to stock at home
means good profit on the crop and in increasing
creasing increasing fertility for the soil if the
legumes and manure are balanced with
potash and phosphate.
The paying production of milk is what
determines the value of the dairy cow
and in order to obtain good paying
results, proper care and attention must
be given the cow which supplies the
milk. Cleanliness is perhaps the first
important factor to be considered and
should be considered from all stand standpoints.
points. standpoints.
The stables wherein the animals are
housed should be well taken care of,
in fact so well taken care of that the

attendant who enters at the time of
milking shall lind no disagreeable oder,
no damp doors, no dusty feed, as all
teed having a tendency to give rise to
dust should be careiully sprinkled be before
fore before feeding the animal; allowing the
animal plenty of fresh air and sunlight
the cleanliness should not be limit limited
ed limited to any one source but should be an
important factor from all standpoints.
Ihe milker should use utmost care,
seeing that the garments as well as the
hands are in a nice, clean condition and
exercising judgment in the care of the
animal to be milked, seeing that all
milking utensils are well taken care of
and the milk placed where it will have
access to proper cooling conditions and
in this way add to the prodt of the
The dairy cow is either a money
maker or a money loser. If she is in
a good, healthy condition and her milk
supply profits counteract her actual ex expense
pense expense of keeping, she is worth the time
and trouble of keeping, but, on the other
hand should she consume more feed
than her prohts warrant, get rid of her
as there are too many proht producers to
be obtained to waste time experimenting,
nevertheless is should be remembered
that when an animal supplies products
beyond the necessary amount for sus sustaining
taining sustaining life, it should be fed according accordingly,
ly, accordingly, thus preparing the animal to create
vitality in order that it may give in
return prohts due vthe owner. Dr.
Cattle with an abnormal appetite have
a strong desire to lick the walls, dirt
and tilth that a healthy animal would
have no desire for. This would in indicate
dicate indicate a derangement of the digestive
organs. 4
if animals thus afflicted are neglected
they will soon run down in flesh, drop
off on their milk, and become a bill
of expense rather than a prohtable ani animal.
mal. animal.
1 o overcome this trouble the ani animal
mal animal should be given good, clear, nutri nutritious,
tious, nutritious, digestible feed and with same a
tonic to regulate the digestive organs.
Oftentimes an animal thus afflicted is
disposed of at an unreasonably small
amount and if by chance this ani animal
mal animal is purchased by one well versed in
the care and treatment of such animals,
is converted into a profitable animal
at a very little expense.
Few people realize how delicate the
construction of a cows digestive tract
really is. Some seem to think that she
can eat and digest almost any kind of
material, even to bones and rags, and
in the end be none the worse. The
truth of the matter is that the diges digestive
tive digestive organs of the cow are about as
delicate as our own. It frequently hap happens
pens happens that the cows appetite is poor, and
she does not appear to relish the food
A farmer may say he does not like
a certain breed of cattle. When asked
the reason, his reply is likely to be that
they are puny, have poor appetites, and
will not fatten or do well. But one
should consider whether the food given
agrees with the animal, or whether the

cow is given too much of a certain
food. Put a mans digestive tract out of
commission and see how quickly his ap appetite
petite appetite will leave him, and how soon He
becomes weak and unable to perform
his daily work. A cows alimentary
canal is not made of riveted boiler boilerplate,
plate, boilerplate, but of sensitive living tissue.
Cottonseed meal is an excellent feed
for cows, but too much at one feeding
will cause more trouble than can be
righted in half a dozen feeding times.
The same is true of velvet beans. Heavy
and continuous feeding with velvet
beans is likely to cause trouble, such
as indigestion, and scours, while cows
heavy in calf are likely to abort. These
troubles can be easily avoided by using
care and judgment in feeding. Remem Remember,
ber, Remember, that like yourself, the cow requires
an occasional change of diet.J. M.
A hog is half made when past the
weaning period without a stunt or
kink in its growth. Every check or
halt in prosperity through its first
two months is more expensive than
at any later period. Too much rich,
thumps or other ailment, may leave
harmful results, perhaps as much so
as scant feeding or other neglect of
the sow. More injury may be done
to a pigs growth in two or three
days than can be repaired in a month,
even if he is made the subject of fever feverish
ish feverish milk of the dam, causing special
care, which where manv are raised ib
not the rule nor easily practicable.
Good luck with pigs calls for atten attention,
tion, attention, and that not occasional, but fre frequent
quent frequent and regular.
. From the first week after farrowing
until weaning time the sow will tie
little else than a milk machine, and
to be a high-power machine in per perfect
fect perfect operation she must have proper
care. Nothing else is so well cal calculated
culated calculated to make pigs grow as a bounti bountiful
ful bountiful supply of wholesome sows milk,
and the pigs that have plenty of other
feed with the milk of a well-slopped
sow for eight weeks will ordinarily have
much the start of those weaned
at five or six weeks, no matter how
much food and attention the earlier
weaned pigs may have had.
At eight or nine weeks old most
pigs are, or rather should be, fit to
take away from the sow; some litters
are individually older at seven weeks
than others at ten, and better fitted
for weaning. Sometimes it is neces necessary
sary necessary to wean when the pigs are five
or six weeks old, and in other cases
it may be advisable to wait until the
pigs are ten weeks or even older. In
the corn belt the period will generally
average longer than in New England.
Breeders who wean at early ages gen generally
erally generally do so in order to more profita profitably
bly profitably raise two litters a year.
Provided with and taught to eat
suitable feed some weeks beforehand,
pigs are not noticeablv checked in
their growth by weaning, but those
that have been dependent mainly upon
the mrthers milk, when abruptly tak taken
en taken away from it, frequently seem to
have their growth partially suspended
for weeks. Many breeders success successfully
fully successfully let the sow wean her pigs, as


she will in time, and the change is
so gradual that no pause in growth
indicates when the milk diet ceased.
A modified application of this, in
which the pigs are separated from the
sow at an age suiting their feeding
and the convenience of the breeder,
will not infrequently be found advisa advisable,
ble, advisable, but by no means should the pigs
be allowed to remain with a sow un until
til until she is virtually devoured by them
as is sometimes done.
It is not a good plan to take all
the pigs from the sow, unless one or
two of them can be turned with her
some hours after, to draw the milk
she will have at that time, and again,
say after a lapse of twenty-four
hours. The preferred way is to leave
about two of the smallest with her for
several days, and after that leave
only one for two or three days more,
by which time the flow of milk will
have been so gradually diminished
that no injury to the sow will result
by keeping them entirely away from
her. This extra supply of milk helps
also to push the smaller pigs along
in growth and put them more near nearly
ly nearly on an equality in size with their
thriftier mates. From Coburnss Swine
in America.
The way in which a cow is milked
often has a great deal to do with keep keeping
ing keeping up the milk production for a defi definite
nite definite length of time. If by thorough and
proper milking a cow can be made to
give more milk during the period of lac lactation
tation lactation than if the work is done less care carefully
fully carefully it will certainly pay not to slight
this part of the work. The extra milk
secured will represent a clear profit
aside from the little extra work invol involved,
ved, involved, and a very small quantity of milk
left in the udder at each milking will
soon total up to a value of several
dollars. So the milking should have
the same important place as any other
farm work.
At first sight milking appears to be
a very simple matter, but the truth is
that milking is a fine art. Many seem
to think that almost anybody can milk,
which is far from true, or at least it is
not always advisable to have anybody
and everybory do the milking. There is
all the difference in the world in milkers.
One who understands the work and en enioys
ioys enioys it can, when in practice, milk a cow
in far less time and do more thorough
work than those who perform the work
mechanically and with no object beyond
getting it done. The difference in the
amount of milk obtained from the same
cow in the hands of different milkers has
been noted by many. A milker who fs
gentle in his movements is pretty certain
to get all the milk; while a milker whose
movements are rough is quite likely to
lessen materially the milk flow.
A frequent change of milkers is a mis mistake,
take, mistake, even in instances where two or
more members of a family do the milk milking
ing milking and each person understands the
work to about the same degree. A cow
gets used to a certain milker and if a
change is made she probably will not
give down her milk so well nor can the
new milker milk her so easily or thor thoroughly
oughly thoroughly as the milker to whom the cow
is accustomed.

A cow should always be milked in the
same manner, at the same speed and at
the same time of day. Changes in these
matters will tend to irritate and excite
her. When a cow becomes accustomed
to being milked at a certain time of
day, she knows when that time arrives
and expects and wants to be milked then.
If disappointed, she will probably give
less and poorer milk than if milked at
her regular milking period. Wm.
Did it ever occur to you when curry currying
ing currying your draft teams in the stabe that
half the danger from sore shoulders in
plowing time can be averted if we curry
the collars too?
We always examine our collars before
we place them upon the animals should shoulders
ers shoulders and remove all roughness from their
We nearly always after a hard day of
work in the field find secretions of sweat
and scurf upon the collars which if left
to dry onto their face will roughen the
shoulder and cause it to gall.
We think just as much of currying our
collars as we do our horse, and keep
their shoulders cleaned up by washing
and brushing.
Sore shoulders in plowing time is very
annoying to us and we are willing to
take almost any precaution to prevent
You should keep accurate account of
each cow and find out her value to you.
Good butter is always in demand,
either in the city or in the village.
Good rich feed makes good butter and
good manure, both dollars in your
Milk carefully, the last drop is the
best, it also prevents the cows from
going dry.
A good strong decoction of hemlock
bark is a good thing for sore and chafed
horses shoulders.
Groom your horses well and prevent
skin diseases.
Dont feed carrots too liberally, they
are a laxative. Cut in slices so they
can be easily chewed up.
When you purchase a horse better get
a mare, she will raise colts for you and
increase your profits.
Nothing like the mule for hard
knocks, he lives to a good, old age and
is easily taken care of.
Never kick or strike a cow, it retards
the secretion of the milk and if you
must kick something, kick the side of
the barn.
If you are not working your horses
be sure to turn them, as well as the
colts, out where they will get plenty
of exercise and good fresh air.
While it is an item to feed well, young
pigs may easily be stunted by overfeed overfeeding.
ing. overfeeding.
Good treatment is seen in hogs quick quicker
er quicker than in almost any other animal
when an increase in feed or care is
When pigs are allowed to sleep in
damp places the result will often be
rheumatism and diseases of the spine,
due to taking cold.




This is the month when the little
chicks business is intensely interesting
to all those people afflicted with Chick
enitis (an inflamed mentality due to an
unusual desire to raise and possess
chickens), and from day to day each
person having this malady, if so it can
be called, is most solicitous about the
welfare of the Old Hen, or some pet
incubator, and counting according to
rule, as well as by imagination, the many
little animated puff-balls long before
they appear as realities on the scene.
What shall I do for the little fellows,
and how shall I best do it? Are the
all absorbing questions for the chicken chickenraising
raising chickenraising fiend, and you must be a fiend
in the business if you expect success.
If the hatch is hen-wise, or natural,
just as soon as the hatch is completed,
mother and chicks should be trans transferred
ferred transferred to a dry, clean .coop, with plenty
of clean dry sand on the floor or ground,
accompanied with a little dry grass or
straw, cut in lengths of two or three
inches. Sometimes chaff seems to be
relished by the mother and brood, de developing
veloping developing early scratching and the nec necessary
essary necessary exercise. If the hatch is not a
large one, it is a fine plan, the night be before
fore before the Old Lady is to walk off with
the hatch, to repair to your incubator,
which should be hatching at the same time
the real hen is doing the like, and takt
a sufficient number of the brighest chicks,
make the old hen a present of them, so
she may come off with a brood of at least
twenty to twenty-three chicks the next
morning instead of only her ten or
twelve. Of course, give her the same
kind of chicks as she herself is hatch hatching.
ing. hatching. However, often the lady hen is
a motherly old soul and will take kind kindly
ly kindly to the extras no matter the color
or breed. Again some hens will not
have a thing to do with such business,
and it will be necessary to return them to
their orphan brothers and sisters, and
the care of the brooder. Confine the
hen and newly hatched chicks in a
rather small space for the first few
days, as the little downy balls require a
great deal of brooding, and the mother
is perhaps not as considerate of the
weakness of the legs of the little fel fellows
lows fellows if she is given too much room to
range. The coop should each day be
removed to anew piece of ground, or
be inclosed with a temporary poultry
wire fence, until the chicks are at least
a week old, when the yard should be en enlarged.
larged. enlarged.
If the hatch is by incubator, the chicks
should be left in the nursery of the
machine for at least thirty-six to forty fortyeight
eight fortyeight hours after exit from the shell,
so as to thoroughly dry out their down,
and sufficient strength in their legs is
gained. The temperature in the nursery
of standard machines will be about 85
degrees while it is about 104 in the
hatching layer. If the temperature in
the nursery is held above 85 degrees,
leg and bowel troubles are almost sure


to ensue later on. During the usual
March weather in Florida, no artificial
heat in a brooder is necessary after the
chick is four or five days old, the natur natural
al natural heat of their bodies being sufficient,
and far more healthy and toning to
their growth and vigorousness. Care is
only especially necessary during windy
and wet weather, when a shelter is an
absolute necessity, as well as a good
dry floor. Always keep a good thick thickness
ness thickness of sand on the floor, as a hard
floor will crook the toes and nails of
the early hatched chicks.
Baby chicks should not be fed until
they are at least forty-eight hours old.
The first two or three meals should be
dry bread, which is very much relished
by them if mixed with a little finely
chopped boiled egg. This should be
well scattered over the floor, and not
fed in lumpsin fact it should not be
pasty or sticky at all. Dry oat-meal or
oat-flakes are fine, sometimes mixed
with a little skim milk, but the drier the
better. Up to the age of three weeks
they should be fed about five times per
day. A little at a time, but often is
the safety value. Remember that there
is more in the feed than there is in the
The evening meal should be of the
commercial Chick Feed variety, finely
gritted corn, ground wheat, millet seed,
say in equal parts. Skim milk is a fine
feather maker, and they are not apt
to over-eat of it.
As to green food perhaps the best
thing to give is alfalfa meal, or exceed exceedingly
ingly exceedingly finely cut leaves and stems. This
mixed in bran, a small handful of the
alfalfa meal to about four quarts of
wheat bran gives fine results. I keep
this before the babies at all times, and
they help themselves. Finely chopped
onions act as a tonic and alterative,
fed once or twice in a week in the morn morning
ing morning meal. It also acts as an expellant
and poison to the gape-worn. Finely
cut clover leaves is a very good green
food, given several times a week during
this month.
Never feed food such as bone and
meat meal to chicks until at least ten
days to two weeks old. They then as assimilate
similate assimilate it well, and it takes the place of
little bugs and worms, which the chick
must have, or a substitute, from the age
of two weeks and on. Dry bone meal mix mixed
ed mixed with finely granulated charcoal has a
good effect, given preferably in thv
morning meal.
Fresh water is a great essential for
the little fellows, and if a constantly
dripping fountain is used, nothing can
excel it as a water supply. Keep the
drinking utensils scrupulously clean at
all times. Dont forget to keep plenty
of fine and coarse clean sand in the
pen or yard, if you havent it, get it, and
put is before your tribe of fluffy-duffys.
Give stale crusts of bread each day
to tussel over and get some healthy
exercise. They love to play tag with
it in their mouths, daring their brothers
and sisters to catch them.
Upon reaching the age of one month
or so, the babies are well able to care

for themselves, and the range and ex exercise
ercise exercise should be increasel. Stretch out
your retaining poultry wire fence, and
they will stretch out physically, and to
your great satisfaction. At five or
six weeks of age the feed will be little
different at least what they require requirethan
than requirethan what is fed the grown-ups, with
possibly the exception of one more meal
each day than the older flock.
As soon as the sex can be discerned
the cockerels should be separated from
the pullets, and the cockerels made ready
for market, such as are not intended to
be kept for breeding. Equal parts of
barley or oats, corn-meal and bran, with
enough skim milk to barely hold the
mass together only in crumbly form
is a fine combination for the morning
meal. At noon give alfalfa meal, or
some other good green food. Use very
little hard grains in fattening. In three
to four weeks they should be in condi condition
tion condition for sale. From thirteen to seven seventeen
teen seventeen weeks of age is the most profitable
time to sell cockerels for table use.
July or August hatches should be in
fine trim for such use during the
Thanksgiving and Holiday season.
If your flock is sufficiently large to
spare the broody hens during this month
for setting and hatching, or at any time
for that matter, and incubators are also
used, I find it a most excellent plan to
set the different hens as they desire,
and at the same, time divide up the eggs
in your incubator, setting at the same
time. This gives a supply' of little
chicks which you can bestow upon the
hens as they come off with their own
brood, and relieves from artificial care
and rearing just that many chicks. It
is always safe to count on a loss of
from three to five chicks, by the hen,
whether her brood is fifteen or twenty twentythree.
three. twentythree. I had a star mother last year
that nurtured twenty-seven, losing only
four up to the time of her dismissal of
the whole tribe. This year she deter determined
mined determined to beat me, so commenced set setting
ting setting before the incubators were started,
hatched out thirteen from fourteen fer fertile
tile fertile eggs, suffocated one, reclined upon
another, killing it, and is proudly rais raising
ing raising the other eleven, defying me to in increase
crease increase her family without notice.
I would advise every man who is
thinking of throwing up a paying job,
because he does not like it, and going
into the poultry business to get rich
to just hold his job a little longer. Hold
your job and work into the business
gradually. You can make money from
poultry when you learn how, but until
vou fully catch on it is best to operate
it as a side line. I have known a large
number of men to make a mighty good
thing out of it as a side line, as soon
as they learned how to manage.
* A man cannot tell what is inside a
house by looking at it from the street.
Neither can he learn to be a success successful
ful successful poultryman by reading a book and
looking at a flock of hens. He must
learn them. As he learns he begins to
make something, and as soon as he de decides
cides decides that he must give them more of
his time, because they are paying right
well, then is the time to throw up his
job behind the counter or on a stool

and get into the business in earnest.
He has learned about what he can
make a hen yield in the way of profit,
he knows what to do at all times and
he can go in and win.
I have not yet learned just what to
state as the largest profit I ever made,
though I have been in the bus business
iness business twenty-seven years. If I were to
state the largest profit I ever made from
a bunch of good, common market or
utility hens, many good poultrymen
would say I stretched the facts till they
cracked, and many people who know
little or nothing about poultry would
jump to the conclusion that they could
do as well. In writing about making
money from poultry I always leave out
the fancier who deals altogether in high highpriced
priced highpriced breeding stock, because he ob obtains
tains obtains prices that the ordinary poultry poultryman
man poultryman cannot expect to obtain. The or ordinary
dinary ordinary poultryman who is producing
market stock and eggs is the one I am
writing for and about. In considering
the poultry business, a man should not
take into consideration the fancy prices
obtained by fanciers. He should figure
his products at open market prices. I
thought I had reached the top notch
when I made a bunch of hens yield a
profit of $4.68 per head, but I have
learned that was not much over half halfway
way halfway to the top. Ido not care at present
to state just what profit I made twenty twentysix
six twentysix hens pay between December 1, 1909,
and the same date, 1910, but it was quite
a surprise to me when I balanced the
Any experienced poultryman can fig figure
ure figure out the possibilities of a hen, but
some skill is required to convert those
possibilities into realities, and such
skill is acquired only by well-directecl
practical effort. One of the hardest
working poultrymen I ever knew went
broke made a complete failure. Put Puttering
tering Puttering banrupted him. He attempted
to do about everything to and for his
poultry that cranks and faddists advised
in their books. Instead of working his
hens for profit, he worked them as ad advised
vised advised by numbskulls, who had bats in
their belfries. Naturally his expenses
exceeded his receipts and his finish came
quickly. Puttering is the bane of poul poultry
try poultry raising. People waste hours of valu valuable
able valuable time every day puttering with
things that amount to nothing. To make
the business profitable, one must cut out
the tinkering and do the work in a
workmanlike manner. He must do all
the feeding at once and all the watering
at once. He must have his chicks under
complete control or so yarded that there
is no danger of loss. Every chick and
every fowl lost cuts into profit. He
must have every bird where he can see
it at any time of the day he desires.
This does not mean that he must keep
them in coops or little pens, but they
must be confined to a limited area,
where they can get plenty of exercise,
but cannot wander far away. One suc successful
cessful successful poultry woman I know raises
over a thousand chicks a year in a cor corner
ner corner of an orchard. It is enclosed with
netting and the buildings in it cost about
S2O. Her breeding stock runs at large.
Several of the most successful poultry
raisers I know have the cheapest sort of
buildings and several of the most un unsuccessful
successful unsuccessful have elegant buildings, fitted
up inside with wonderful paraphernalia


and enough machinery to start a good
junk shop.
A beginner once wrote me to come
down and see his new plant. I went,
and he surely did have quite an out outfit.
fit. outfit. He had modeled them after de designs
signs designs obtained from a book written by
an enthusiastic theorist who never made
a hundred dollars from poultry in his
life. He asked me how I liked them,
and I told him they were nice things
to play with. As I started to leave I
told him he would have enough of it
in about two years. It did take jusi
two years to finish him. A poultry
buyer told me of a woman who sold
him more poultry and eggs than any
ten people in her locality. I went to see
her and she surely was doing a good
business. Like most really successful
poultry raisers, she was not inclined to
talk much, but after showing her how
to cut out about one-third of the work
she was doing, she gave me a lot of in information.
formation. information. She was doing well, but it
was costing her too much. She was
working too hard. She at once cut into
her bank account a little and made the
yards and fixtures I recommended and
last year she nearly doubled her business
and fully doubled her profits.
I was talking to the wife of a farmer
about her poultry, when her husband
remarked: She does make some money
from her chickens, but the way they
swallow my corn and stuff makes me
mad. I asked him what he would think
of me paying out $76.08 for feed for the
chickens twenty-four hens raised. He
said he thought I needed a guardiai..
In a few minutes it occurred to him to
ask me what profit I made on them, and
when I told him $190.28, all done m
twelve weeks, he gasped. Then he
asked, winking at his wife, Who
bought them from you. I told him a
man who dressed them for market. He
said he thought they might have been
fancy chickens. I informed him that
they were not mixed scrubs, but a
straight breed, bred up and kept up, the
same as he keep up his herd of hogs.
There never has been a time in the
'bistory of this country, when more
money could be made from poultry than
right now. The man or woman who
goes about it sensibly can make it. One
must not dabble in scrubs, but must
get good stock, push it to the limit and
make it yield the profit that it will yield
when well managed.
As requisites for the production of
good eggs and marketing them in
good condition the following may be
1. Hens that produce not only a
goodly number of eggs, but eggs of
moderately large size (weighing two
ounces each on an average. Ply Plymouth
mouth Plymouth Rocks, Wyandottes, Rhode Is Island
land Island Reds, Orpingtons and Leghorns
or Minorcas that are used on egg
farms are varieties that may be ex
pected to do this.
2. Good housing, regular feeding
and watering, and above all, clean,
dry nests.
3. Daily gathering of eggs, and,
when the temperature is above 80 de degrees,
grees, degrees, gathering twice a day.

4. The confining of all broody hens
as soon as discovered.
5. The rejection as doubtful of all
eggs found in a nest that was not
visited the previous day. Such eggs
should be used at home, where each
may be broken separately.
6. The placing of all summer eggs,
as soon as gathered, in the coolest place
7. The prevention at all times of
moisture in any form coming in con contact
tact contact with the eggshells.
8. The disposal of young cockerels
before they begin to annoy the hens.
Also the selling or confining of old
male birds from the time hatching is
over until cool weather in fall.
9. The using of cracked and dirty
as well as small eggs at home. Such
eggs, if consumed when fresh, are per perfectly
fectly perfectly wholesome, but when marketed
are discriminated against and are like likely
ly likely to become an entire loss.
10. The marketing of all eggs at
least once a week, and oftener when
convenience allows.
11. Keeping eggs as cool and dry as
possible while on the way to town and
while in country stores.
12. Keeping eggs away from musty
cellars or bad odors.
13. The use of strong, clean cases
and good fillers.
14. The shipping of eggs to the final
market at least once a week and as
much oftener as possible.
Asa rule chicken cholera is much
more prevalent during the spring and
summer than at this season, yet when
it does occur in cold weather it is more
fatal, as a rule. We have recently had
complaints about this dread disease. We
have never had it in our yards to last
any length of time or give us much
Some years ago this disease made its
appearance in our yards during a hot
spell in April. One large laying hen be became
came became sick, comb turned black, refused
food and water; she seemed very mucii
affected, but we omitted our usual cus custom
tom custom in such serious cases of applying the
hatchet, and Epsom salts was given
freely, followed by water, administered
with a tablespoon. The hen was put to
herself in a nice sunny run where she
recovered slowly. Another hen died in
a few days and then a breeding cockerel.
Every one who saw these chickens pro pronounced
nounced pronounced it cholera. Asa number of
fowls became sick showing various
symptoms of the disease, the Epsom
salts treatment was begun at once, and
the sick separated from the well ones.
The houses and yards were thoroughly
disinfected by using one pint of pure sul sulphuric
phuric sulphuric acid to seven gallons of water.
The drinking water was given a slight
dash of carbolic acid, about a full tea teaspoon
spoon teaspoon to a gallon of the water. A neigh neighbor
bor neighbor who had been through several stages
of this disease suggested that we try
asafetida in their food as he had been
very successful with it as a preventa preventative.
tive. preventative. This we did at the rate of one tea teaspoonful
spoonful teaspoonful to the feed for thirty hens.
The next morning four hens did not get
off the roost. These were treated with
the Epsom salts and put into the hos hospital
pital hospital yards, Before night all were able



to walk around and eat a little grass.
After four days of separation all those
treated were able to go back into the
pens apparently well. We lost in all frv*.
hens and a cock and a cockerel before
the disease could be checked. Much of
this was due to a lack of prompt enough
treatment with Epsom salts and asa asafetida
fetida asafetida at the start. We have since used
these remedies at the appearance of the
disease and seldom lost more than one
or two at most. No time should be lost,
however, in getting down to treatment
at the first appearance of trouble.F. J.
Marshall, in Southern Ruralist.
English societies hold that there is
no certain test of age in fowls. Bu
they admit that in general the spurs
both of hens and cocks will distin distinguish
guish distinguish a 2-year-old bird.
There are exceptions, however, in
which really young birds develop old oldlooking
looking oldlooking spurs, while really second-year
birds preserve the short, rounded spuit
of a cockerel.
The texture of the legs is a guide,
to some extent, and so are the delicacy
and freshness of the skin of the face
and comb, but still an occasional hen
will preserve her youthful appearance
to a startling degree.
The skin of the body is a better test,
as it becomes coarser and drier-look drier-looking
ing drier-looking with age.
Formerly the wing feathers were
considered an absolute test as between
a pullet and a hen, even after the
long practice of early breeding had
made the moulting of early pullets quite
An Australian authority says that a
pullet will show rose-colored veins on
the surface of the skin under the wings.
There will also be long, silky hairs
growing there. After a year old these
hairs disappear, as also do the veim,
and the skins grow white and vein veinless.
less. veinless.
It is more difficult to judge the age
of water fowls than of other poultry,
partly from the absence of spurs, partly
from greater longevity and partly be because
cause because the water keeps their legs soft
and fresh.
Ducks waddle more heavily as they
grow older, and after two or three
years they acquire a depression down
the breast. An abdominal pouch of
considerable size indicates great age
in geese.
Turkeys up to a year old are said
to have black feet, which grow pink
up to three years of age, when they
gradually turn gray and dull.
Age in pigeons is often told by the
color in the breast. In squabs the
flesh looks whitish as seen through the
skin becomes somber and more pur
plish as the bird grows older.
In the attempt to break her from her
natural desire to brood, the setting hen
has been the recipient of more senseless
cruelty than has ever been perpetrated
upon his enemy by the most vindictive
She has been starved for a week or
more at a time, stood in a few inches of


water for several days, frightened to
prostration by attaching a red flag to
her tail, drowned to unconsciousness by
ducking in cold water and beaten with without
out without mercy. That her sorrows have not
enlisted its sympathy is a standing re reproach
proach reproach to the Society for the Prevention
of Cruelty to Animals.
That is the wrong system. Less vio violent
lent violent methods get results, easily and mer mercifully.
cifully. mercifully. She should be placed in a pleas pleasant
ant pleasant yard with a gallant cockerel and
given pure water and an abundance of
rich food containing a laxative, as oats
or wheat bran. The tempting food will
induce her to break the constipating fast
into which her system has retired and
the attractions of her companion will
cause her to speedily abandon all pres present
ent present desire to brood. Her head orna ornaments
ments ornaments will resume their bright colors, a
song will burst from her throat and she
will recommence laying in a few days.-
W. Holton Pepper, in Farm and Fire Fireside.
side. Fireside.
There is money and scads of it to be
made here growing fruits and vegeta vegetables,
bles, vegetables, but if one should desire to rake in
real big money from a small investment,
just let him engage in poultry raising.
Chickens are now bringing from 65 cents
to $1 and eggs 40 cents a dozen. These
prices have been in effect for the past
three months, and will prevail until late
Here is what one Kissimmeeite has ac accomplished
complished accomplished in the chicken line: Mr. F. C.
Bryan, who lives in the heart of the city
began last January with thirty-six
Rhode Island Reds, and,up to this date
has sold over $125 worth of chickens
and eggs, besides furnishing the family
table, and still has over forty chickens
left. Mr. Bryan will in a short time add
Barred Rocks and several other fancy
breeds to his barnyard, to accommodate
which he has fenced a large lot and built
several houses. Mr. Bryans feed bill
has not exceeded $2 per month.
Chickens do not require any great
amount of attention, still certain common
sense rules as to feeding, clean premises
and fresh drinking water must be fol followed,
lowed, followed, if one should expect complete
success. Kissimmee Valley Gazette.
Are you thinking of increasing your
poultry business this year? Be moder moderate
ate moderate about it. It is easier to slip back
than it is to go ahead. Learn as you
go. Learn one thing new and then get
another hen. Keep on that way and in
time you will be wise enough to take
care of a good sized flock and make
money out of them. But there are a lot
of things to learn about hens.
Above all learn not to crowd your
Locate your yard where the ground
is always dry. Wet feet and sick hens
go together.
Move your yards once in a while. If
they have been a long time in the same
place, try anew one and see how much
more thrifty your birds will be.
The very earth sometimes gets inocu inoculated
lated inoculated with insect pests and disease. Rid
yourself of these enemies and deal only
with a healthy flock.

One of the greatest handicaps is lack
of experience. Some of us think wt
know a great deal about poultry, but
when we come to branch out and get
more birds on our hands we find out
that what we know is a sprinkle in a
dry time, compared to the forty-da>
flood of Noahs time.
Stoy playing with poultry. Make a
business of it.
Get the best hens you can find any anywhere.
where. anywhere. A few good ones will make you
more money than ten times as many
poor ones. E. L. Vincent, in Poultry
It is true that the largest egg records
are always made by pullets. But I am
of the opinion that it pays to keep a hen
two years instead of one. In the first
place, to get a pullet where she can lay
steadily, it is necessary to keep her from
six to eight months. But a yearling
hen will finish her moult and begin lay laying
ing laying again very soon. For example, sup suppose
pose suppose a pullet will produce 160 eggs in a
year, and a hen only 130, and allow they
are worth two cents apiece. It would
appear at first that the pullet is the most
profitable by sixty cents. But, to come
out of the proceeds of the pullet there
is the expense of keeping her six or
eight months, or until she lays, which
is no small item with the present high
priced poultry foods. While the hen
is idle only about two months, or dur during
ing during the moult, hence the largest profit
is on the hens side.Vincent M. Couch,
in Successful Farming.
If about to start in the poultry busi business,
ness, business, whatever else you do, get good
stock. Your future as a poultryman de depends
pends depends upon the foundation upon which
you build. Better start with a trio of
first class birds than a dozen of in inferior
ferior inferior or even mediocre quality. Buy
of a reliable breeder whose strain is
established and keep this strain pure.
Do not think you are economizing 01
buying cheap and inferior stock to
start with.Commercial poultry.
Dont forget that chickens all need
pure, fresh water where they can get it
all the time.
Share the skim milk with the hens.
They will make as good use of it as any
creature on the farm.
Count the chicks every night. Some Sometimes
times Sometimes they will wander a bit too far
away, and need to be hunted up.
Coarse food is out of place for the
little chicks. Make their ration all as
fine as you can. Their throats are
Do you keep an egg record? Begin
now, if you never have done so before.
Set down the number you get every day.
Dogs that chase hens ought to be shut
away from them. They will worry the
hens and keep them from laying when
otherwise would.
Unsanitary surroundings cause
disease. Do not place the early hatches
in coops or brooders in which diseased
chicks were kept last season without
first cleaning and disinfecting them.

The cost of living has reached such
proportions that the careful housewife
will keep constant oversight of her lard larder,
er, larder, and from the various left-overs
many warmed-over dishes can be made
which give pleasing variety and avoid
waste. Many things are easier prepared
if done before they are cold. My own
habit is to plan for the use and as nearly
as possible, prepare the left-overs after
each meal. Is is surprising how much
goes into the garbage pail unless one
has constant surveillance over all food
I think the wise custom of serving
some kind of cereal for breakfast is be becoming
coming becoming more and more general. Many
people who have never cared for cereals
become very fond of them when served
with apple sauce, baked apples, sliced
bananas, stewed prunes or canned
peaches. In berry season both straw strawberries
berries strawberries and blackberries are deliciouo
with the breakfast mush.
There is a little trick to play with
breakfast wheat preparations that is par particularly
ticularly particularly popular with the children. It is
simply this: Stir in a few dates, stone
and cut in pieces, about five or ten min minutes
utes minutes before taking from the double boil boiler.
er. boiler. It is a bit difficult always to judge
correctly of the exact amount of cereal
to be eaten for breakfast, as it seems to
be the meal of the day when appetites
are most capricious. Much left over
from breakfast should be packed solidly
in greased one-pound baking powder
boxes, and covered, which will prevent
a crust from forming. Remove from
box, cut in thin slices, dip in flour and
fry in butter.
Cold potatoes are often thrown away,
and it seems to me white potatoes are
never so good as w r hen made into Hash Hashed
ed Hashed Brown Potatoes or Lyonnaise Pota Potatoes.
toes. Potatoes.
For hashed brown potatoes, cut fat
salt pork in small cubes and fry out. Re Remove
move Remove scraps and measure the fat, of
which there should be two and one-half
tablespoonfuls. Add fat to one cupful
of cold boiled potatoes finely chopped, a
few grains of pepper and more salt if
needed. Turn into a small hot iron fry frying
ing frying pan and cook three minutes, stirring
constantly, then let stand until well
browned underneath. Fold same as an
omelet, turn onto a hot platter and gar garnish
nish garnish with a sprig of parsley.
For Lyonnaise potatoes, cut three cola
boiled potatoes in one-fourth-inch slices,
and sprinkle with salt and pepper. Cut
one small onion in thin slices, add three
tablespoonfuis of butter, and cook five
minutes, stirring constantly. Add po potatoes
tatoes potatoes and stir until potatoes are thor thoroughly
oughly thoroughly mixed with onion and butter;
then let stand until potatoes are well
browned underneath. Fold and turn
onto a hot platter. If any brown stock
is at hand, add two tablespoonfuls,
which makes the potatoes brown better.
Many sprinkle Lyonnaise potatoes with
finely chopped parsley, and consider it
a most desirable addition. I find some
difficulty in teaching my pupils how to



chop parsley properly; they seem loth
to give enough time to the process. Dry
parsley in a towel, and remove leaves.
Gather leaves between thumb and firsi
two fingers and press compactly. With
a sharp vegetable knife cut through and
through. Again gather between thumb
and fingers and recut, so continuing un until
til until all is finely cut.
To those who during their married
lives have been used to paying the
household accounts out of a fixed allow allowance
ance allowance no advice is necessary; but to those
who undertake the responsibility for
the first time, let me say that nothing
in all your married life will give you
greater satisfaction than keeping a
record of your expenditures. We all
know that money has a way of melting,
and after the lapse of a few days, try
as we may, we cannot remember how
it has gone; but if each payment is en entered
tered entered in a little book when made there
is always ready an answer not only to
your own questions, but also to those
of even the best of husbands, who some sometimes
times sometimes wants to know what you have
done with it.
And have in mind always that the
Dickensonian distinction between happi happiness
ness happiness and misery was one shilling. In Income,
come, Income, twenty shillings; expenses, nine nineteen
teen nineteen shillings and sixpenceresult hap happiness.
piness. happiness. Income, twenty shillings; ex expenses,
penses, expenses, twenty shillings and sixpence sixpenceresult
result sixpenceresult misery.
A paste of fresh butter and pulverized
rosin spread on bandages which are to
be applied to sprains will frequently ef effect
fect effect a cure.
The cheeks of the sensible woman are
reddened, not by cosmetics, but by cold
water, light massage and by attention to
the laws of health.
When the hands are burned with soap
or too strong alkalis, wash them in
strong cider vinegar. It is the best rem remedy
edy remedy known for the purpose.
Retiring at night with the face grimy
with soil that naturally accumulates on
it during the day induces a muddy com complexion
plexion complexion and the formation of black blackheads.
heads. blackheads.
The combination of scalp massage
with a good dandruff remedy and fre frequent
quent frequent shampooing is the best treatment
for dandruff and will invariably effect
a cure if persevered in.'
Combs should be cleaned with a small
dry brush kept for the .purpose, and not
washed in water. Water sometimes
causes the teeth to split, thus making
their use injurious to the hair.
To a considerable extent the complex complexion
ion complexion is made or marred by food ana
drink. Too much meat and rich dishes
with but little green vegetables will in inevitably
evitably inevitably affect the color of the skin, ren rendering
dering rendering it muddy and pasty or red.
On no account neglect to give atten attention
tion attention to the hair at night, brushing it
thoroughly and braiding it in a loose

plait before retiring. It is absolutely
necessary to keep the hair free from
tangles if its beauty is to be preserved.
For ringworns there is nothing bet better
ter better than goose oil combined with iodine
a half-drachm of the crystals of iodine
and an ounce of goose oil. It should be
thoroughly worked into the patches. A
small stiff paint brush will help to do
A cure for the redness of the hands is
a paste made by beating together an
ounce of clear honey, an ounce of
almond oil, the juice of a lemon ana
the yolk of a raw egg. Apply to the
hands at night and cover with old clean
gloves, slit up the palms.
A remedy for cold is made of two
handfuls of wild cherry bark steeped in
one quart of water, and then strained,
with one stick of licorice dissolved in it,
one pound of sugar added and then put
on to boil; allow it to cool and add one
ounce of paregoric, and bottle when cold.
A Dish-Carrier. Fully seven years
has my old wooden chopping-tray, su superseded
perseded superseded by the labor-saving grinder
and masher, been a member of the im impossible
possible impossible heap in our stable chamber.
Only the economic training of years had
prevented its journey to the dump, as its
size and weight made it too awkward
for any conceivable use. At length the
vision came: It shall be dish-carrier,
I said. A further search brought forth
the legs and frame that once support*/.
the top of an old table. The tray was
twenty-seven by thirteen inches in size,
and by cutting a groove crosswise on the
under side of each end, it was fitted on
the frame and securely fastened by
screws. Casters, which had been laid
aside from an old bedstead, completed
it. Now I have one of the handiest
pieces of furniture ever made. Rolling
it to the dining-table, I place all my
dishes in the carrier, push it to the
kitchen sink, and when washed and
dried they are replaced in the tray for
its one trip back to the table and china
closet. Thus time and strength are econ economized.F.
omized.F. economized.F. H. C.
A Soft-Pillow Hint. Have you
ever been thoroughly disgusted with a
sofa-pillow that persisted in looking
flat instead of trig and plump as you
wished? I plead guilty, and the friend
to whom I told my trouble, the owner
of the other kind, said it was because
the outer part was of the same size, or
larger, than the inner tick. The cover
should be an inch smaller each way
than the tick, then it will be held out
as plump, even at the corners, as if there
were no inner tick. A.
Some House Cleaning Hints. As
the spring housecleaning draws near,
most women heave a sigh at the thought
of carpets to be taken up, walls to be
papered or painted, and curtains to be
cleaned. Yet here is one housepeeper
who does not. Long ago I learned that
a little extra labor then would give me
comfort and absolute cleanliness later.
In the first place, up come the carpets.
They are cleaned, rolled and stored
away until the fall. Then my painted
floors of ordinary pine boards are gone
over witli crude oil, or possibly one coat
of paint, and home-made rugs are put



down. Next my walls are alabastined.
Lastly, I put up inexpensive dotted swiss
cutrains at all the windows, and my
house is clean, dainty and sanitary.C.
N. D.
Two Small Items In Sewing have
been helpful to me, so I pass them
along. In cutting any garment I in invariably
variably invariably press the pattern with a warm
flat-iron, then pin securely and cut. An Another
other Another help is, in putting hooks and eyes
upon waists, to baste tapeline firmly
down, first one side and then the other,
placing hooks and eyes a certain dis distance
tance distance apart. They are never askew this
way, but precise and true. Mrs. H. D.
If you are going away for the Sum Summer,
mer, Summer, expecting to have the house closed
for several months, it is a good plan to
sprinkle some drops of lavender oil on
the book-shelves, so as to prevent the
books from growing mouldy.
Have a small horseshoe magnet fast fastened
ened fastened to the end of a tape or ribbon of
sufficient length so that it can be dropped
to the floor to pick up scissors or need needles.
les. needles.
Hygienic Bread. Sift together one
cup white flour, two of whole wheat
flour and three rounding tea spoons of
best baking powder. In a cup put two
tablespoons of syrup and add a pinch
of soda and beat to effervescence: then
add two small teaspoons level of salt
and fill to half full of cream. Mix with
the flour it and about a cup of watei.
Put in deep pan buttered, cover with
another pan. Let in warm place about
ten minutes, then uncover and bake.
Any dyspeptic can eat this bread with without
out without suffering from indigestion.
Pineapple Pudding. Grate pineap pineapples
ples pineapples and add white bread; let soak to together
gether together until soft, then add sugar to taste
and about one beaten egg to a pineapple.
Put in pudding dish with toasted corn
flakes on top and bake until done.
Aunt Julia.
Maryland Chicken. Dress, clean
and cut up two chickens, sprinkle with
salt and pepper, dip in flour, egg ana
crumbs, place in a well-greased dripping
pan, and bake 30 minutes in a hot oven,
basting with 1-3 cup melted butter. Ar Arrange
range Arrange on platter and pour over 2 cups
of cream sauce.
French Fried Potatoes. Cut in any
shape preferred; they should be laid fn
cold water an hour or more, then dried
on a towel before cooking. Slice the
potatoes in eighths the length of the
vegetable and drop them into boiling
fat. The pieces will float when done,
yet should remain until they are a gold golden
en golden brown. Place in a dish and give
them a dash of salt and pepper.
Cream of Tomato Soup. One quart
stewed tomatoes, or one quart of canned
ones, one small onion, one bay leaf, one


stalk celery, one sprig of parsley, one
teaspoonful sugar, two level tablespoons
butter, four level tablespoons browned
flour, one-half cup of milk. Put the to tomatoes
matoes tomatoes in a saucepan with the onion,
bay leaf, parsley and celery; let it stew
about 10 minutes. Press through a sieve
fine enough to remove the seeds. Put
it into a clean saucepan, return to the
fire and bring to the boiling point. Rub
the butter and flour together until
smooth and stir into the boiling soup.
Stir constantly until smooth, then add
the milk, salt, pepper and sugar and
French Cabbage. Slice the quantity
of cabbage needed and steam in a
saucepan for a few moments with a little
water and two tablespoonfuls of but butter.
ter. butter. As soon as the cabbage can be
pierced with a steel fork, cover with a
dressing made from one egg, one-fourth
spoon salt, pepper and one-half cup of
cream and two tablespoons of vinegar.
Steam for a few seconds and serve.
Some add a little flour and quite often
olive oil is used in place of butter.
Steamed Chocolate Pudding. One
cup flour, one-half cup sugar, one egg,
one teaspoon butter, one-half cup milk,
one teaspoon baking powder, one square
chocolate. Mix sugar and beaten egg,
milk and flour in which powder and a
little salt have been sifted, and last the
chocolate and butter melted together.
Steam one hour.
Sauce Two eggs and one cup sugar
beaten well, then add one large table tablespoon
spoon tablespoon of hot milk and beat vigorously.
To Make Roasts Tender. Try this
once and you will always follow it.
When you put your roast in the oven,
put a small dish of vinegar in also. It
will not only keep your meat from burn burning,
ing, burning, but will make it more tender than it
would otherwise be, improving the flav flavor
or flavor as well. A teaspoonful of vinegar
put in a five-pound pot roast will make
the meat more tender and palatable.
Asparagus. Cut the asparagus early
in the morning and throw into cold
water until your are ready to prepare it.
Scrape the outside skin off the tougher
stalks and about 40 minutes before din dinner
ner dinner put it, tied up in bunches into a
kettle with enough boiling water to

m Wmm w& tra rlglstereo, \1
* B3 9 mIbB |p No other I
IV HI Hi as good. 8
Warranted for All Time I
Not sold The NEW HOME is the cheapest to buy, because of its Su Superior
perior Superior wearing qualities. All parts are interchangeable, can be flj
- anv T renewed at any time. Ball bearings of superior quality. m
** Before you purchase write us for information and Catalog No. 18 B
Other name. I THE NEW HOME SEWING MACHINE CO., Orange, Mass. |

cover. Let it cook until tender. Lay it
on slices of fresh toast in a dish, pour
melted buter over it and serve at once.
If you have any left it may be served
as salad with mayonnaise poured over
it for tea.
Chain Dishcloth. A minute steam steamer
er steamer can be made by using two tin pans,
whose rims are same size, by inverting
one over the other with about an inch
of water in lower, with the chain dish dishcloth
cloth dishcloth to keep bowl, cup, etc., in which
the food to be warmed up is placed. Use
judgment about water and time.
The papers between the layer ot
shredded wheat biscuit are handy to
make out want lists for the grocer, if
kept on nail or in drawer.
A wooden newspaper rack is a very
handy thing in the kitchen for tin lids
or granite pie plates, etc.
Toasted corn flakes makes a nice
brown top for macaroni, etc., in gaso gasoline
line gasoline or oil ovens.
Browning fish with new cottolene is
slow if not having a little sugar mixed
in the cornmeal, pepper and salt, in
which the pieces are rolled.
Browning pies, biscuits, etc., in gaso gasoline
line gasoline or oil oven can be done by rubbing
with canned cream before putting in
oven. Try it before cutting biscuits, etc.
Broken mantles that are taken off gas
or gasoline lamps are calcined silver.
The ash is fine for cleaning gold or
silver jewelry, etc., and worth about
as much as first cost for that purpose.
When alcohol, rum or whiskey is to be
used for friction it should be heated
by placing the vessel containing it in a
pan of cold water over the fire and let letting
ting letting it remain in the water until the
water boils.
Tea and coffee and some fruit stains
can be removed from linen by rubbing
them with butter. Rub thoroughly into
the linen, then soak, in hot water.
The nervous housewife who lives in
constant dread of fire, may, with very
little trouble, make an extinguisher that
will put out a blaze if used at once. All
she needs to do is to put three pounds
of salt in a gallon of water, and to this
add one and a half pounds of salmon salmoniac.
iac. salmoniac. This liquid should be bottled and
when the fire is discovered it should be
poured on it.

There are fashions in the floral world
as surely as in the realm of costume,
though fortunately the freaks and vaga vagaries
ries vagaries are less bewildering. Just now the
fancy is for massing, and certainly no
more pleasing form could be suggested.
The plan of planting a large plot to a
single kind of flowers is a more effective
bit of landscape work than is possible
with a medley of colors and species.
One of the most striking floral fea features
tures features near the entrance to Schenley
Park, Pittsburg, is the long bed of scar scarlet
let scarlet geraniums which line the walk
the length of the great Carnegie Insti Institute,
tute, Institute, the bright color amid the green
contrasting beautifully with the gray
sandstone building. A variety in color
might have been easily introduced, but it
would have been at the expense of
simplicity, unity.
The plan may be executed to even bet better
ter better advantage on small grounds, where
an attempt to grow many varieties is
most unwise. A plot of nasturtiums, in
yellow, orange and bronze, all these col colors
ors colors harmonizing so completely with the
blue green foliage and with each other,
is pleasing. Yet the same plot covered
with the yellow Calliopsis, the rich
brown centers of which form a pleasing
contrast to the dainty petals, is equally
A bed of scarlet salvia is a blaze of
beauty during summer, especially if
planted near a white house, the suns
rays being reflected from it and caus causing
ing causing the plants to grow more luxuriantly
as well as to show off to the best ad advantage.
vantage. advantage. But if you happen to have a
red brick house, avoid scarlet flowers
near it. White, cream, any other color
is preferable.
Select your favorite, and plant it in
abundance. Mass, and cut freely; pat pattern
tern pattern after natures arrangement of her
aster and goldenrod.Bessie L. Putnam.
Petunias are natives of Central South
America and have been in cultivation
since 1823 when they were first brought
to England. The have been improved
and are justly one of the favorites
among annuals, being so easily grown,
such profuse bloomers and so delightful delightfully
ly delightfully fragrant. While classed with annuals,
and usually grown as such, the petunia
is really a tender perennial like the
geranium. The plants are rank growers
and should be given plenty of room.
If possible, giving them a sandy soil,
with plenty of sunshine and water. The
shades of red in this flower are mostly
of a magenta or purple red and should
never be planted near a scarlet or
yellow flower. If such shades are sur surrounded
rounded surrounded by white flowers they will be
much more pleasing to the eye.
Each succeeding year has brought
out some new and satisfactory shade
of color, until now we have them for
any purpose or position imaginable.
The writer recently saw a delightful
collection, and noted among them the
following as peculiarly fetching in
color, form and size; Leopard, a pecu-



liar blotched combination of pink and
crimson; the pink forming the ground,
and the crimson being a large, irregu irregular
lar irregular blotch in the center; Baden Powell,
a clear lavender-pink with a crimson
center; Gertrude Pearson, a Lulu
one of the most striking of any class
of geraniums, she has a beautiful
rose-pink face with a pure white eye,
a great combination.
The larvae of the Rose bug are sel seldom
dom seldom seen because they feed on the roots
of the grasses and other plants and
never do serious damage in that stage.
They occur mostly in light, sandy soils,
and pupate in the spring, the adult bee beetles
tles beetles appearing in the month of June. The
beetles fly a great distance in search of
food and settle upon a garden or orchard
where they have been scarcely known
before and cause great damage. They
prefer to eat the petals, stamens and
small fruit in flower, but will also attack
foliage. The insect is difficult to com combat
bat combat because of the continuous appear appearance
ance appearance of new individuals for a period
of several weeks. The arsenical poi poisons
sons poisons are too slow in their action, and
contact poisons must be applied too
strong for the plants to kill the in insects.
sects. insects. The only treatment that can be
recommended is to cover small plants,
like choice rose bushes, with a mos mosquito-bar
quito-bar mosquito-bar cloth, leaving no place for
the insects to enter. In other cases
the beetles should be gathered daily
by hand, tossing them into pans or
buckets containing a little coal oil. Such
expensive treatment would not be profit profitable
able profitable with most crops and the insects
must be permitted to take all they want.
Flowers are always a proper, and
nearly always an acceptable present;
but not all flowers are desirable in a
sick room. The odor of some is of offensive
fensive offensive to the sick and some whose
perfume is grateful in some cases is
offensive in others. The sick person
should be the judge, but even that
very matter often places the sick one
in a delicate position. Suffering is
often endured rather than declare a
beautiful flower brought by a friend
offensive. Really the best place Jor
flowers is just outside the sick room
window, where they are never offen offensive,
sive, offensive, but always suggestive of the
bright outdoor.
The love of flowers cannot be too
early inculated in the child. Only by
beginning with the child of tender years
may we hope to get the proper taste
into the community. Every move for
civic betterment would be easier of so solution
lution solution had the whole body of children
been somewhat educated along these
lines early in life. The atmosphere of
the schoolroom should tend to educate
the little ones somewhat toward those

problems of beautifying their surround surroundings
ings surroundings which will confront them in their
maturer years. The study of plant life
is the first step in the love of the beau beautiful.
tiful. beautiful.
The following materials have proved
useful in prolonging the life of cut flow flowers
ers flowers ; Chloral, sugar, limewater, potash,
etherized water, nitrate of potash, kainit,
sulphate of potash, phosphate of am ammonia,
monia, ammonia, chloride of calcium glycerine
and alcohol. Mineral substances have
been favorable in very weak concentra concentrationsi
tionsi concentrationsi to 10,000 and organic mater
ials have given favorable results in con concentrations
centrations concentrations of i to io per cent. One of
the conditions which has influenced the
keeping quality of the flowers, has been
the distance of the surface of the liquid
from the base of the flower. Flowers
keep as well when cut as when left on
the plant, providing water is supplied
to the cut stems and putrid fermentation
is prevented.
Classified Advertising
Advertisements inserted in this column at
the rate of 2 cents per word each insertion.
No advertisement taken for less than 25 cents.
FOR SALE White Leghorn Eggs for hatch hatching,
ing, hatching, from fine pen of straight Wyckoff
Leghorns; $1.50 per 15. Fine cockerels for
sale. C. H. Jacques, Miami, Fla. R. F. D.
FIELD PEAS to exchange tor hens or eggs.
W. J. McCain, Fruitland, Ga.
WANTED An educated Northern young man
wishes position of trust on orange grove,
farm or other place where there is chance
for advancement. Responsible, earnest work worker;
er; worker; age 30; married. Excellent references as
to character. Address P. O. Box 163, Bil Billerica,
lerica, Billerica, Mass.
INDIAN RUNNER DUCK EGGS for hatch hatching,
ing, hatching, $2.50 per dozen. Descriptive leaflet free.
G. C. Vowell, Ellenton, Fla.
FOR SALE DeSoto county, Florida, land, in
160, 320 and 640-acre tracts. J. A. Harri Harrison,
son, Harrison, 500 Livingston Bldg., Bloomington, 111.
combination brooder, colony and laying
house; made of waterproof canvas. Formula,
blue-print and full instructions how to build
only sl. Send today. Address L. E. Am Amidon,
idon, Amidon, New Smyrna, Fla.
Well drained; no swamp; bracing breezes
from the ocean; near neighbors; Christian
church, school and good market. We want
more neighbors but make no extravagant
promises. If you have energy and a little
cash, we will welcome you. Address Wm.
F. Hawley, Gilmore, Fla.
FOR SALE 7,500 acres in Floridas greatest
agricultural district; fine cut-over pine land;
first-class location and well adapted to col colonization
onization colonization purposes. A proposition of real
merit. J. A. Harrison, 500 Livingston Bldg.,
Bloomington, 111.
FOR SALE Lawtey farms, 37 miles south southwest
west southwest of Floridas most famous strawberry
section; good land, good title, good water,
good town, good schools, good churches; a
good community. Soil is productive, the
climate ideal. Write for free booklet. Uncle
Sam Florida Land Cos., Main and Wash Washington
ington Washington Sts., Bloomington, 111.
We have a limited amount of genuine Rocky
Ford, Netted Gem, Cantaloupe Seed, which
was, personally, selected by the late George
W. Swink, from melons grown on new ground,
and is particularly choice.
Price of No. 1 seed SI.OO per pound
Price of No. 2 seed 75 per pound
Rocky Ford, Colorado.



With the good prices during the past
winter, celery has been the great money moneymaking
making moneymaking crop, and, inded, I might say
during the past two winters. The celery
industry has been crowding more and
more into this part of the State, for two
reasons first, the frosts that we have
are lighter because we are so far south,
and also because of our nearness to the
warm waters of the Gulf; secondly, be because
cause because of the wonderful flow of artesian
water in almost every part of Manatee
County. Now, when, I tell you what is
being done here do not imagine every
one can do it. Almost all the time I
get letters asking if the writer can come
here and make a living; and quite a few
ask if it is true that a man can get rich
on ten acres, etc. Any one of fair abili ability
ty ability should be able to make a living here;
and there are a few who really do get
to be fairly well off on ten acres or
less. My neighbor Rood is, or perhaps
was, an educated lawyer; but he likes
gardening and bees so well he has given
up his office in town and become a far farmer.
mer. farmer. Well, Mr. Rood seems to maxe
every thing pay that he touches. When
he got the celery fever a year ago I
cautioned him about dropping (or at
least partly) his strawberry and lettuce
that were paying so well, and venturing
on something he had never tried. But
this is what he did: He went all over
this region, used his eyes and ears, and
asked questions; read the books and
papers, and finally made a success the
very first time trying. He has promised
to give Gleanings some figures in re regard
gard regard to what he has done and what
it cost; but he is such an exceedingly
busy man I fear he wont get around to
it. On his best ground the crop sold
for something like at the rate of $1350
per acre.
A hive of bees on the scales gathered
last Sunday, March 20, 9 1-4 pounds of
orange blossom honey, and this one hive
stored already over 100 pounds of this
beautiful white honey, almost if not
quite equal in looks and taste to any
honey anywhere. Now, if I should give
the above, and nothing more, very likely
a great lot of you would swarm down
here with your bees. The truth is,
this is one of his best colonies, built up
three stories high. Another truth is,
this is almost the first good flow of
orange honey for about three years, and
the yield is probably confined mostly to
localities below the dangerous frost frostline.
line. frostline.
Even in this county you see deserted
orange groves, gardens, etc., where a lot
of money has at sometime been expend expended
ed expended and then given up. A few days ago
I said to Mr. Rood:
Why doesnt this man go around
among his neighbors and see hoiu they
do things instead of trying to farm and
grow the same crops he did up north?
He replied. Well, I declare, I dont
know. He just stays right here at home,
and doesn't go anywhere or see! anything.
His land is just about as good as mine,
but he hasnt yet even ditched it to get
the water off.

High Pressure Gardening


1 have spoken several times of out mul mulberries.
berries. mulberries. Two years ago they were little
trees perhaps a yard high. Now they
are great spreading trees as large as
apple-trees in the North, and are loaded
with great luscious fruit. After break breakfast
fast breakfast and after dinner I devour them by
the quart. They are so dead ripe that
when a little breeze comes, they drop
all over the ground; but there are more
of them than 25 hungry Leghorn hens
can take care of. They are so large
you would say a common hen could
never swallow one; but they manage to
make it, probably because they have
practiced on oat-stalks 15 inches long.
When a neighbor calls we invite him out
to see the mulberries; and its just fun
to see each one utter exclamations of
surprise at their size, abundance, and
beauty, and, still more, when they taste
one. We have now only six trees, but
we are planting them in each one of our
eight poultry-yards.
The first shipments of lettuce brought
as good or better prices than hereto heretofore
fore heretofore ; but toward spring there seemed to
be a universal complaint about heading
up property. On this account neighbor
Roods lettucefield has given my nearly
300 chickens (old and young) all the
lettuce they could consume for about two
months past. We wheel over to the
chickens all that isnt fit for market.
I have just been looking at some pota potatoes
toes potatoes on neighbor Roods land that sur surpass
pass surpass anything I ever saw in Ohio" or
Michigan either. When asked how
much fertilizer he applied per acre he
answered something like this: Mr.
Root, I did not put any fertilizers at all
on these potatoes; but I did give the
ground a very heavy application when
in celery, just before these potatoes. Let
me explain. As I considered this one of
the poorest spots on my place (and
new ground ), I gave it the heaviest ap application
plication application I have ever made on any piece
of ground. I suppose we put on some something
thing something like four tons to the acre (where
you see these best potatoes) of a fer fertilizer
tilizer fertilizer costing $40.00 per ton. The cel celery
ery celery crop alone sold for over SBOO per
These potatoes were larger foliage,
heavier stalks, and better color than
I think I ever saw before. Let me ex explain,
plain, explain, that down here there are no Colo
rado beetles, no flea beetles, and no in insects
sects insects of any kind to puncture and per perforate
forate perforate and disfigure the handsome pota
to plant, for it is handsome where per permitted
mitted permitted to grow free and natural. As
they were just coming into bloom, no
one can tell as yet what the crop will be;
but Mr. Rood dug into a hill and found

Home and Market Canning Outfits
For canning all kinds of Fruits and Vegetables, Meats. Fish, Oysters, etc. Portable
and burn ace. Stationary and Kitchen styles. All sizes and capacities. Operated both
business." Wrl C kerS A P eaSant and profitable

fairsized potatoes as clean and/ smooth
as newlaid eggs. Notwithstanding that
potatoes may be grown here almost all
the year round, nearly everybody uses
potatoes from the North. Other crops
pay so much better, we cant afford to
grow our own potatoes even if poor
ones shipped in do cost fifty cents a peck.
Our home-grown ones are equal in quali quality
ty quality to any I ever tasted in Ohio, Michi Michigan,
gan, Michigan, or Bermuda. Gleanings in Bee
Dont get in the habit of setting the
lantern on the barn floor. Hang it up.
Fix a special hook for it in a position
so that it will light as much of the
barn as possible.
For potato blight, spray with Boi Boideaux
deaux Boideaux mixture. Spray with Paris green
or arsenate of lead just as soon as the
first insects appear. With fertde _>oil
and good cultivation, so that the plants
grow thriftily, there is less danger of
insects injuring the plants.
I Fruit and Vegetables I
1 Our FREE BOOK telle how. 1
111 Write for prices on our
Medal Canning Outfits 1
Family to factory sizes, §§
$5.00 and up. Best that H
experience and skilled B
labor can produce.
Most complete ma machine
chine machine for the money. B
Send for price-list on B
cans, labels and sup- B
plies before piscine
your order.. Buy di-
Agents Wanted
Robinson Can Cos, I
Baltimore, Md. I
M Dont let your surplus fruits and 1
f vegetables go to waste. Can them, a
f the same as a large canning factory, a
f Theres always a market for canned 1
M goods, and for a small investment a
f you can buy a 1
m Cannil| B Outfitl
/ mMw & and build up a big, %
f pjy profitable business. 1
J Wf guaranteed. Write 1
/ F s STAHL HF6. CO., 1
f Wanted Box tlO-P, Qslsey, lU. \

r ree HOOKS FLORIDA products
How and When to Fertilize Citrus Trees. Questions on Spring Fertilizing More Fruit-
More Money. Fall Fertilizing for Vigor ana Vitality. Ideal Results from Ideal Fertilizers.
How to Begin an Orange Grove. Lime: Its Forms and Effects. Remedies for Insects
and Diseases. Florida Soils. Florida Vegetables. Florida Strawberries Irish Pota Potatoes.
toes. Potatoes. Pineapple Fertilizing.
The above book is a complete treatise on Citrus Culture for Profit from selection of land to shipping,
with tinted illustrations and charts for packing. The most up-to-date methods for combating the
various grove troubles are also included. The little volume is complete in every way, and while
written for citrus growers, has articles on general plant life, soil conditions, and action of the
different fertilizer materials that make it invaluable to any grower. Sent for the nominal price of
50 cents, cloth bound: 25 cents paper covers. : : :: : : : : : : :.
Wilson & Toomer Fertilizer Cos.

Mr. J. A. Hollomon, of the Jackson Jacksonville
ville Jacksonville Development Company in a recent
interview published in a Harrisburg,
Pa. paper said: a _.
In my opinion, he continued, Flor Florida
ida Florida offers more opportunities to the man
of moderate means who is willing to
work and goes into the state with suffi sufficient
cient sufficient means to establish himself, than
any other state in the Union. The cli climate
mate climate permits of work in the fields twelve
months in the year; three or four crops
can be grown in the same soil each
year; the products of the gardens or
groves can be placed in Harrisburg or
Philadelphia at a time when the market
prices mean large net profits to the
growth, but it must or rather should not
be understood that there is a gold, mine
beneath every acre of Florida soil, re regardless
gardless regardless of its location, and that any
shiftless, indifferent fellow can go down
there and get rich on a small patch of
vegetables. It takes some brains and
some money and considerable muscle to
succeed in Florida just as it would any anywhere
where anywhere else in the United States.
Whenever you water garden plants,
give them a heavy soaking with water,
and then rake over the surface to make
a soil mulch to retain the moisture. A
light sprinkling does more harm than
good. A noted gardener says: Water
the garden with the rake.
150 Feet Long lor 75c
Galvanized Poultry Netting
NETTING mesh DOW WIRE & IRON WORKS, Louisville,]^
They are in first place for soiling, hay and fertilizing
purposes, and are successful wherever corn is grown.
Cane seed, millet seed, sweet potatoes. Free catalog.
HICKORY SEED CO., .17 Trade St.? Hickory, N. C


;e Hoe and Cultivator is the biggest
otton field. It is as great an invention for
ton-gin is for separating it. Does more
l better than any other implement for the
isily adjusted for hoeing, plowing, cultiva cultivaing,
ing, cultivaing, dirting, scraping, and laying by. Not only
for cotton, but gives thorough cultivation for corn,
>, and similar crops.
* Planet Jr is the invention of a practical 1
i is backed by over 35 years experience,
made; strong and lasting; fully guaranteed.
* today for the 19 11 illustrated Planet
Jr catalogue whether you need new im implements
plements implements or not. This veritable cyclopedia of
farm and garden tools describes them all, includ including
ing including one-horse and two-horse cotton and corn
ultivators. Free and postpaid.
Cos Box Philadelphia, Pa

''Staunch and true
All the way through.
The best built.

Bakers Hog Cholera
Sold under positive guarantee.
It will protect you against hog
cholera. SI per bottle, dis discount
count discount in quantities. Ask your
druggists or send to the ::
Baker Chemical Cos.
Quincy, Florida



Conservation has become a watchword and is on every tongue. When its
novelty has passed and we come to consider its true meaning, we shall find that
conservation of the resources of the soil of our farm lands is the most important
element in the whole subject.
The American farmers have been a race of unconscious sod skinners.
Now, we want not only to conserve productivity, but to restore come of that re removed.
moved. removed. We must get down to facts.
One fact often lost sight of is that we can double the value of clover and farm
manure by supplementing them with
Potash and Phosphates
thus making a complete and balanced fertilizer. This is true soil building as well
as plant feeding. t wm p ay> for p olash p ay
We will sell you Potash through your dealer or direct, in lots from one bag
(200 lbs.) up. Write for prices.
GFRMAN KAI \ WORKS Continental Building, Baltimore, Md.
IVttLA IT UIUVJ, Monadnock Block, Chicago, 111. j

It is up to you, Mr. Man, to be
posted. Get busy with your gray matter
and think, think, think, for if you buy
a pig in a poke the joke is on you.
The prospective settler in our fair
land, is up against a complex problem.
His impressions may be formed through
the eyes of a friendpossibly an opti optimis
mist optimis who, being strong on theory and
short on experience, makes deductions
not warranted by facts, or he may be
attracted by some clever advertising
medium the strenuous methods and at attractive
tractive attractive pictures are both alluring and
Many of the land and development
companies of Florida have purchased
large tracts of land for a song, and they
warble sweet melodies in anticipation of
you dancing to their music. Incidentally
they are unloading.
Unfortunately there are get rich
quick concerns who are out after easy
money. A beautifully gotten up con contract
tract contract or agreement is furnished, but have
you carefully examined it to find the
little joker so skillfully hidden? Fre Frequently
quently Frequently one awakens with a rude shock
to the realization that the pretty con contract
tract contract is the extent of their purchase.
Such companies would be selling gold
bricks or running a bucket shop if it
were respectable and Uncle Sam had no
Some of our land and investment
companies are reputable business con concerns
cerns concerns with strong backing; they are
untiring in their effort to develop both
man and land and their reliability can
readily be ascertained.
There are good investments and there
are bad ones; there are real opportuni opportunities
ties opportunities and again there are snares for the

To Prospective Settlers


Loud and deep are the curses hurled
against the fairest State of our South Southland
land Southland by the man who realizes that his
ideals are not justified by circumstances.
The truth about Florida is good
enough. She has more to fear, how however,
ever, however, through the exaggerations of the
Ultra Enthusiast, than she has from
the misrepresentations of the Knocker.
It is a commendable proposition to
give Florida a square deal, but as a good
business policy, how about being fair
and honest with yourself!
(Continued on page 30.)

Cuts'up food in hens
gizzard so that it fits
it for eggs and gives
growth. Tis sharp sharpkeeps
keeps sharpkeeps its edges until
Order Maka-Shel
Hens prefer it to grav gravel,
el, gravel, glass or oyster shell
I /§ 1 TTw It contains Lime, Iron,'
Magnesium and other,
elements that arc suit-.
g ed to the digestive
M processes, and in increases
creases increases egg production
'V through active assimi-
TDAhC MADg lation. Ask your deal-
TRADE HARK er or send us *I.OO for
two 100-lb. bags, f. b. cars. Order to-day.
New booklet, Hen s Dyspepsia, ;and sam sample
ple sample free.
Edge Hill Silica Rock Go.
Box W. New Brunswick, New Jersey

No farm work is done until it is done

All the writing ALWA YSin sight
Easy Payments
H. M. Ashe Cos.
Jacksonville, Fla.
All Other Makes Rebuilt
and Second-Hand, Cheap

Whiskey -- Drinking
Can be cured in THREE DAYS. Wei
guarantee it. Harmless natural treat*
ment. No hypodermic injections. If you
have a friend who is addicted "to strong
drink, we wjll pay your railroad fare
both ways, from any point in Florida, if
you will bring him for our treatment.
We guarantee to cure him in THREE
DAYS. Write us.
The NeaL Sanitarium
1016 E. Duval Street

A Seed Drill and Wheel Hoe is in- I
dispensablenot only in a village \ umcn l
garden but on largest farms. MIKtU ]
Farmers should grow all manner HELPi
Of vegetables and live on the fat of A
the land. Should provide succu succulentrootsforCattle,Swine,Poultry,
lentrootsforCattle,Swine,Poultry, succulentrootsforCattle,Swine,Poultry,
and save high priced leed
stuff. Great labor-sav- jA Only One
Ing tools Of Special J of Many
value forthehome iron Age Toole
as well as the 1 \
market gar- J* 9
den. Send 4 mIAV The
for free 4,\ !Mi r Th
book. most

11 4.00 SET ARMY POLE HARNESS *01.85
, A
Largest stock Government Auction Bargains In the world. 15
acres required for Its storage. 3G4-pnge catalogue,
Illustrations of army and navy auction goods, Regular Military
Encyclopedia. Mailed for 15 cents (stamps).

No other crops so valuable
a for fertilizing, hay and soil*
ML ing. Millet, cotton and
mjk cane seed, and sweet pota pota
pota toes. Write ior illustrated
HICKORY SEED CO., 18 Trade f S*-. Hickorv, X i

Pull Your Stumps FREE
jg-ivu 1 i For 30 Days with this
ISSAjk: i Hercules A,, Stcel Puller
I Guaranteed For 3 Years I
JflH against breakageflaw or no flaw. Test largest hedge rows and green trees HH|
IIH it on your place for 30 days at our risk. Dont risk costly and dangerous dyna- HB|
Try it on stumps or green trees. mite. Dont risk a cast iron puller. HH|
Triple Power Write us at once on a postal for our By
s Triple power attachment means a Special Price Offer K
strain on team anil on cables. Three ma- We have a special price proposition to
: §Sk chines in one single, double and triple tj* e fi rs t I T la P, we se ,N * in new sections. ?.ij||||
"| power. Can be changed in a minute right We are glad to make you a special price |H|
in the field from one power to the other by n £e first Hercules sold in your commun- HI
one man. Nothing like it in the world. dy because that will sell many more and H
The Hercules is the only stump puller save advertising. Write us and we will also H§
guaranteed for three years. Only one with send you our special price3o DaysFree Hg
Double Safety Ratchets. Hitch on to any Trial and FREE BOOKS about tlie only All-Steel,
I Stump and it is bound to come. Also pulls Triple Power Stump Pullerthe Famous Hercules, Hi
I HERCULES MANUFACTURING CO6II 17th Street, Centerville, lowa p

Grading or Smoothing and Leveling Harrow
With this tool every field can be
Clarks. Send today for FREE
CUTAWAY HARROW CO., 398 Main St., Higganum, Conn.

Man a t ee County 20,000 acres
DeSoto County 3,500 acres
Polk County 6,200 acres
Pasco County 5,400 acres
Citrus County 11,000 acres
Sumter County 26,000 acres
Sumter County 10,000 acres
Lake County 21,400 acres
Orange County 4,700 acres
Hamilton County 49,000 acres
Columbia County 10,000 acres
Hamilton County 12,000 acres
Hamilton County 12,840 acres
Brevard County 14,000 acres
Brevard County 19,000 acres
St. Lucie County 36,000 acres
Our purchases were first, location and quality of lands are choice. Titles have
passed competent attorneys. Will furnish prices and terms upon application. No con connection
nection connection whatever with agents or brokers WRITE OR CALL ON
NAUMBURG, Owners Agent
507 Atlantic National Bank Building JACKSONVILLE, FLA.


(Continued from page 30)
You may be interested in making a
home in Florida, with hopes of a good
living and a few dollars laid aside for
a rainy day. There is no State in the
Union that can hold out more induce inducements
ments inducements or where the opportunities are
more alluring. Come down and look
the ground over carefullygo on a still
hunt. Get a line on the successful man,
for his methods are good enough and
safe to tie to until you can improve
First: Find out what you want to
Second: Get busydo it.
Should you need reliable information
along agricultural lines Uncle Sam will
furnish it. Write to your Congressman
and get in touch with the Department
of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
Write for a list of Farmers Bulletins
issued upon almost any subject and they
will be sent to you, gratis. The Super Superintendent
intendent Superintendent of Documents, Government
Printing Office, Washington, D. C., will
for the asking send you a list of sub subjects
jects subjects of the most valuable and reliable
information, which is published and sold
by Uncle Sam at cost. Write for the
list upon agricultural subjects.
The different states conduct experi experimental
mental experimental stations and the records are most
carefully kept and are published in the
form of Bulletins which are furnished
One other thought upon reliable in information.
formation. information. Of course you need the
best paper published to keep in touch
with what is being done; so just send a
dollar to The Florida Agriculturist and
you will realize that it was one of your
best investments.
So, Mr. Man, as a parting shot, get
posted, for the joke is on you if you are
handed one.
The following is credited to a bulletin
issued by the State Department of Agri Agriculture
culture Agriculture :
The success of vegetable growing in
Florida is too well known to justify go going
ing going into lengthy details as to methods
of cultivation or transportation. Among
the most profitable crops are tomatoes,
beans, Irish potatoes, celery, cabbage,
lettuce, peppers, eggplant. From '-Are '-Aregrowing
growing '-Aregrowing of each of these products thou thousands
sands thousands of people reap a rich reward
for their labor every year, and many of
them make confortable fortunes; most,
if not all of these vegetables, are grown
at seasons of the year which enable
them to command a monopoly of the
markets, as well as prices. Many of
these crops bring handsome returns.
Tomatoes, for instance, have yielded as
much as SI,OOO per acre, but the average
runs from S3OO to $500; Irish potatoes
will average near $100; lettuce from S3OO
to SBOO per acre, and celery as much as
$1,500 per acre.
Repairs in time save labor and ex expense
pense expense ; a gate hinge out of order, a board
off the barn, a fence broken down, a
lack of paint on buildings, indicate th§
farmer before every visitor.


You Don't Have to Wait
For a colony to develop when you buy your land from us in order to obtain the advan advantages
tages advantages ol markets, schools, churches, stores and the social privileges of an established com community.
munity. community. We already have these at Lawtey, 37 miles southwest of Jacksonville, the gate gateway
way gateway ol Florida, on the main line of the S. A. L. Ry. The climate is idealthe soil
productive. Good Land-Good Title-Good Water-Good-Transportation-Good Stores-Good
Churches-Good Schools=Good Community in which to make a home or an investment.
Lawtey Farms are situated in the heart of Floridas greatest strawberry section. Straw Strawberries
berries Strawberries are a sure crop and net the growers from S2OO to SSOO per acre in some in instances
stances instances more. We can show you from actual lesults that our land will grow success successfully
fully successfully and profitably all the field, truck, fruit and orchard crops that thrive in North-
Central Florida. :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: ::
WE WISH YOU TO CLEARLY UNDERSTAND that we court the closest investigation of our land, our company, our
business methods and manner of dealing with our patrons. The more you investigate the better we are pleased, for we
Uncle Sam-Florida Land Cos.
Main and Washington Streets fl I ft _f I I | | | XXX

Bz Famous Cecil Mango
The Mango That is as Easy to Eat as a Peach No Fibre, No Pitchy Taste
The trees which we offer are inarched from the original parent tree,
the fruit from which netted the owner over $250.00 last season.
Strong Inarched Trees $3.00 each, $25.00 per ten trees
We oifer strong budded and inarched trees propagated from the largest bearing grove in
the State. Price $1.75 each, $15.00 per ten trees
We still have a lew hundred Eucalyptus trees, Grape Fruit trees, Orange trees lor June
planting, - - - Write lor catalog and prices