Citation
The Florida agriculturist

Material Information

Title:
The Florida agriculturist
Uniform Title:
Florida agriculturist (De Land, Fla.)
Place of Publication:
DeLand Fla
Publisher:
Kilkoff & Dean
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Monthly[1908-June 1911]
Weekly[ FORMER 1878-1907]
monthly
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ;

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agriculture -- Florida ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- De Land (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Volusia County (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Jacksonville (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Duval County (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Genre:
newspaper ( marcgt )
newspaper ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Florida -- Volusia -- DeLand
Coordinates:
29.02889 x -81.30055 ( Place of Publication )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1, no. 1 (May 15, 1878)-v. 38, no. 6 (June 1911).
Numbering Peculiarities:
Numbering is irregular.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Some issues for 1911 also called "New series."
General Note:
Publisher: E.O. Painter, <1887>.
General Note:
Editor: C. Codrington, 1878- .
General Note:
"A journal devoted to state interests."
General Note:
Published at Jacksonville and De Land, <1902>-1907; at Jacksonville, 1907- .
Funding:
Funded by NEH in support of the National Digital Newspaper Project (NDNP), NEH Award Number: Project #00110855

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item.
Resource Identifier:
000941425 ( ALEPH )
01376795 ( OCLC )
AEQ2997 ( NOTIS )
sn 96027724 ( LCCN )

Related Items

Preceded by:
Volusia County herald (De Land, Fla.)

Full Text
ONLY ik'pE EAST OF ROCKY MOUNTAINS KI N G A SPECI
\op TROPICAL AND SEMI-TROPICAL AGRICULTUR y r c

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100 lbs. of an ordinary Fertilizer Pr.nr.rlc r.f Well-balanced Fertilizer
(testing 2*B*3?) iICCUS OULICCU -l UUIIUS U 1 (testing 1-1-10)
Muriate or Sulphate of
- ] DAT A CTT Mwa==l
X. Vy X JLjLk_7X X
, p-, PHOSPHATE
to make it a Iw 56 lbs
t ACID
i PHOSPHATE j
56 LBS M
It I
If you prefer ready-mixed fertilizers, insist j
I j on having enough Potash in them to raise the i
I j crop as well as to raise the price. 20 LBS
lc~ MUl^£g or qp' rASH Crops contain more than three times as L
I much Potash as phosphoric acid.
It was found years ago that the composition of If you do not find the brand you want, make one
I the crop is not a sure guide to the most profitable by adding enough Potash to make it right.
fertilizer, but it does not take a very smart man to To increase the Potash 5 per cent., add 10
figure out that a balanced fertilizer should contain at pounds of Muriate or Sulphate of Potash to each
I least as much Potash as phosphoric acid. 100 pounds of mixed fertilizer; to increase it 10
Insist on having it so. per cent., add 20 pounds.
Talk to your dealer and ask him to carry Potash in
stock or order it for you. It will pay you both, for JL jL X
For particulars and prices write to
I GERMAN KALI WORKS, Continental Building, Baltimore

CUBAN LANDS
gff Farm lands in ten, twenty and forty acre tracts at the
American colony of Herradura, Pinar del Rio Prov Province,
ince, Province, the most famous tobacco district of the world.
1 V
ft T Citrus fruit lands in tracts from ten acres up in Las
\l\ Tunas plantation, Isle of Pines. The coming citrus
ni fruit country.
fir Building lots on very easy terms in Havana's most fash fash\i\
\i\ fash\i\ ionable suburb, San Martin. Connected with Havana
" by both electric and steam roads and also finest auto automobile
mobile automobile road in world.
TRANK K. HARVEY
Zulu eta INo. 9 P. O. Box 1135
HAVANA, CUBA
Cable Address: YEVRAH, HAVANA



A FEW FINE
pL ESTATE OPPORTUNITIES
>i*arige Groves, Vegetable Lands, Farms and Homes
Suggested by the many inquiries received daily regarding Florida and its opportunities for homes and
yestments, The Agriculturist some time ago published the following:
If you have more land than you really need, sell some of it at a reasonable price and surround your yourelf
elf yourelf with good neighbors, and thus let us fill up the State with industrious people who will make homes here
nd add to the general prosperity. The Agriculturist receives letters almost every day asking about
lomes in Florida, mostly small places worth SI,OOO to SIO,OOO, already planted, or suitable for planting,
o oranges, pineapples, peaches or pecans, and on which they can grow truck or raise poultry profitably
until their trees come into bearing. If any of our readers have such property that they will sell cheap, and
will furnish us a full description and location of same, with price and terms, we may be able to put them in
communication with a purchaser.
In response to this we have received descriptions of a number of properties, of which the following is
a partial list:

No. 58. 5-acre farm at Sisco, Putnam coun county,
ty, county, about 14 miles from the county seat, on
A. C. L. railway, one mile from depot; wire
fence all around; 5-room house and small barn;
good for peach orchard and poultry farm, or
camphor grove; healthy and good water; en entirely
tirely entirely clear and free from stumps. Price $500;
terms.
No. 59. Fine Garden. Ten acres, near Or Orlando;
lando; Orlando; first class land, in high state of cultiva cultivation,
tion, cultivation, thoroughly equipped; half under irriga irrigation
tion irrigation (Skinner svstem); gasoline engine and
pump, tank holding 10,060 to 15,000 gallons,
on large inclosed tower; fine crop of lettuce,
cauliflower and cabbage now growing. Price,
including crop, $7,000 cash.
No. 60. 50 acres splendid muck land front fronting
ing fronting on Lake Apopka; will grow all kinds of
crops without fertilizer; will sell any quantity
desired at $35 per acre.
No. 61. 8 acres on lake front in Polk coun county,
ty, county, 5 acres in grove. Price $1,400.
No. 62. 55 acres, near Bartow; 350 orange
trees, one-half now bearing, balance just com coming
ing coming in. Price $3,500.
No. 65. 50 acres, ten miles from Arcadia;
10 acres good hammock; 4 acres cleared; fine
for truck; ten bearing grapefruit, twenty bear bearing
ing bearing wild oranges. Price SSOO.
No. 66. 40 acres, ten miles southeast of
Tampa, well located for home; unimproved.
Price S2OO.
No. 68. 60 acres, two miles south of Bar Bartow;
tow; Bartow; 10 acres under cultivation; 15 acres
fenced; good 5-room house and barn. Price
$l,lOO.
No. 69.House and ten acres in cultivation,
in Polk county; house could not be built for
the price asked $1,700.
No. 71. 200 acres, five miles from Lakeland,
three-fourths mile lake frontage; two comfort comfortable
able comfortable but plain houses; 100 acres pine timber,
40 acres hammock, 40 acres prairie muck land,
balance cleared; has 100 old bearing orange
and grapefruit. Price $3,000, one-third cash,
balance one and two years.
No. 72. 80 acres, in Orange county, one
mile from railroad station; 60 acres first class
pine and hammock; 2}4 acres in cultivation;
75 bearing orange trees. Price $750.
No. 74. 5 acres, one mile from Lakeland
depot; on good road; 4 acres old bearing or orange
ange orange trees and some young trees; lake front,
with good dock. Price $3,000 with present
cron, $2,700 without; SI,OOO mortgage, balance
cash.
No. 75. 5 acres fine hammock, 1% miles
from Plymouth; 240 bearing orange trees. Price
$650.

While we are not in the real estate business, if you are interested and do not find anything to suit
you in the above list write us your wants, inclosing stamp for reply, and we may be able to locate it for you.
i
Address all communications on this subject to
Real Estate Department Florida Agriculturist
Board of Trade Building, Jacksonville, Fla

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

No. 83. 25 acres, near Plymouth; 400 or orange
ange orange trees, 234 bearing, balance set two years;
grove slopes to a lake, affording fine chance
for irrigation. Price sl,ouo.
No. 84. 100 acres, twelve miles southeast
of Tampa; 45 acres in cultivation; 150 bearing
orange trees, 100 pecan trees five years old;
underlaid with phosphate. Price $4,500.
No. 86. 120 acres, four miles west of Talla Tallahassee,
hassee, Tallahassee, near school and church; fine melon
land, also cane, peanuts and all kinds vegeta vegetables;
bles; vegetables; 7-room house and outbuildings. Price
$l,lOO, half cash, balance one year.
No. 87. 10-acre orange grove, old seedling
trees; will bear 3,000 to 5,000 boxes fruit; also
30 acres good fruit land in timber, well suited
to peaches, pears, grapes, cassava, sweet po potatoes,
tatoes, potatoes, melons, etc.; ten miles east of Tampa.
Price SIO,OOO.
No. 90. 160 acres, six miles from Talla Tallahassee;
hassee; Tallahassee; 30 acres in cultivation; 130 acres fine
timber, will cut 400,000 lumber; one 3-room
house; one 2-room house, barn, etc.; good
spring on place; 75 bearing apple trees; 50
peach trees and other fruits. Price SBOO.
No. 91. 40 acres, IJ4 miles from Bartow,
all hammock; will produce anything; 3 acres
under cultivation, 8 acres fenced; good well
and flowing spring on premises. Price $2,200;
terms.
No. 94. 9 acres, one mile from Tallahassee;
small house, good land. Price $350.
No. 95. 3O acres, one mile from Tallahas Tallahassee;
see; Tallahassee; 6-room house, good well; 30 pecan trees,
pear orchard; good land. Price $1,700.
No. 96. 80 acres, bordering on lake, 3 miles
from Bartow; 300 bearing orange and grape grapefruit
fruit grapefruit trees (6 acres), crop this year 500 boxes;
balance of land good for farming and trucking.
Price $4,000.
No. 98. Five acres, improved, on Merritts
Island, fine frontage on both Indian and Ba Banana
nana Banana rivers; frost protection; splendid location
for winter home; excellent ushing and shoot shooting:
ing: shooting: a bargain at $600; quick sale.
No. 101. 5 acres, three miles from Sorrento.
Has 7-room house, good well, etc. Price S2OO.
No. 103. 10 acres, two miles from Lakeland,
all cultivated; small cottage, peach, orange and
grapefruit trees; an ideal little farm. Price
SBOO.
No. 104. 100 acres within two miles of
Ocala, nearly all in cultivation; large two-story
house with modern conveniences, large barn,
stables, etc., pump, gasoline engine, and all ap appurtenances
purtenances appurtenances for a first class farm: rich lime limestone
stone limestone land. For immediate sale $6,500; terms.
No. 105. 100 acres, four miles from railroad
station; good location for store; good 6-room

house; also store building; land fenced, and has
300 bearing orange trees. Price $3,000; terms.
No. 107. 300 acres in Marion county; near nearly
ly nearly all in cultivation; 5-room cottage, two ten tenant
ant tenant houses, barn, packing house; good well and
gasoline engine. Fine farming land, with sev several
eral several acres muck; splendid for celery, lettuce
and cucumbers. Price S3O per acre.
No. 108. Orange and grapefruit grove, one
mile south of Cocoanut Grove, in Dade county,
about five acres; inclosed with stone wall; on
fine elevation overlooking Biscayne bay; ele elegant
gant elegant site for winter home; convenient to
church, school, library, etc. Price $2,750.
No. 109. Three desirable lots in West Palm
Beach. Price for all S9OO.
No. 110. 7-room dwelling and store room
combined; 4 outbuildings; fine water and 19
acres best pecan and truck land in West Flor Florida;
ida; Florida; ideal for poultry; 5 acres sugar cane; at
depot, 16 miles from Pensacola. Price $2,500
about cost of improvements; terms.
No. 111. 18 acres, near Okahumpka, 1 in
grove of 500 bearing orange and grapefruit, 59
bearing peach, pear and other fruit; 7-room
house, packing house and other outbuildings.
Price $2,000.
No. 112. 9 lots 45x145, six blocks from de depot,
pot, depot, in Lakeland; new 7-room house; 20 young
orange trees; poultry yard; ground thoroughly
irrigated and in high state of cultivation; gas
engine, pump, pipes, farming tools and grow growing
ing growing crops. Price $2,800.
No. 114. 222 acres, two miles from Wau Waukeenah,
keenah, Waukeenah, all fenced; 20 acres in timber; 15 in
beautiful lake, 60 in pasture; 3-room house,
good well; pears, peaches, pecans, etc. Price
$3,000.
No. 115. 74 acres, near Waukeenah; fenced
and half cleared; 4 acres in fruit and pecans.
Price $1,200.
No. 116. 2 acres, one-eighth mile from No.
115; a 5-room house, well, etc.; land planted
in figs, peaches, pears and pecans. Price SBOO.
No. 118. 5 acres at Floral Bluff, opposite
Jacksonville: improved land; 10-room house
(cost to build $3,000); situated on a bb l fif over overlooking
looking overlooking St. Johns river for a long distance.
Price $3,200.
No. 119. 45 acres most excellent farming
land, onlv a few miles from Jacksonville, on
opnosite side of river. Price S3OO.
No. 120. House of 7 rooms, barn and two
acres improved Wand, on St. Johns river. Price
$S00; terms.
No. 121. 10 acres about one mile from Mt.
Dora; 300 very large, fine, budded orange trees
in full bearing; an especially fine grove, well
situated. Price $2,500.

1



2

Fruit T rees and Ornamentals for
Florida and the Tropics
A specialty of Tropical Fruit Trees, especially East Indian Man-
goes, etc. Also Citrus stock. Then Palms, Bamboos, Flowering
Plants and Shrubs, etc.in fact the greatest variety in the South.
Send for catalog. Establish everything for a complete Florida home
place at reasonable prices.
*
Reasoner Bros., Oneco, Florida

Turkey Creek Nurseries
We are the place to get high grade
Budded and Grafted Pecans
We also offer a fine lot of
Orange and Grapefruit Trees,
Grapes, Figs, Peaches, Plums, Pears, Japan
Persimmons, Mulberries and a general
Line of Fruit and
Ornamental Shade Trees
Ornamental Shrubbery and Field Grown Roses
Write for Descriptive Catalogue
Turkey Creek Nurseries
BOX 19 McCLENNY, FLORIDA

PABOR LAKE COLONY LANDS
Orange a.nd Pomelo Groves a.nd Winter Homes
in Lake R-egion of South Florida.
Orange, Grapefruit Groves and Pineapple Plantations
Set Out and Cared For in the Interest of Non-
Residents or Winter Tourist Owners.
FULL PARTICULARS GIVEN ON APPLICATION.
Address W. E. PABOR & SONS,
PABOR*LAKE, AV N PAR.K, FLORIDA.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

Hamilton Reservoir Orchard Heater
The only heater known that combines simply
and perfectly the three vital features that make
for the most successful and economical out outdoor
door outdoor heating.
NOTICE THIS: A simple and positive reg regulation
ulation regulation of the fire by simply drawing the cover.
This gives a flow of heat just according to the
temperature requirements of the night and the
consumption of oil just in proportion to the
amount of fire used. This is the only sensible
and economical principle and makes it a small
consumer of oil. It couldnt be otherwise.
Secondly. A reservoir of oil not under fire
which admits of an all night burn with posi positively
tively positively no attention required after lighting. This
feature makes a uniform fire throughout the
period of burning and saves labor as no others
can.
Thirdly. It gives just the proper combustion
for most successful out-door heating. Rochester
lamps and oil stoves are intended for indoor
heating and orchard heaters have to work un under
der under very different conditions. Look into this
thoroughly and dont be deceived.
It is the simplest in construction, the easiest
to operate and positively the most effective
heater known and these features have all been
nroven and tried thoroughly in this valley last
Spring, when more fruit was saved from the
frost per heater than any other devices used.
We can show you.
Draw the cover and the fire does the rest.
Write us for information.
Hamilton Reservoir Orchard Heater Cos.
Grand Junction, Colorado

I The King Spreader
Will BROADCAST or DRILL any quan quantity
tity quantity to acre. 4=FORCE FEED
Distributes damp clod cloddydy
dydy cloddydy stu^ cant clog, from
to 1000 lbs. to acre.
A P
SAM RLE MACHINE
Durable, simple, always ready. Will distrib distribute
ute distribute nitrate or fertilizers between rows of growing
plants, broadcast or in two rows.
Take Jlgency and KING WEEDER CO. |
get free sample RICHMOND, VA.
Ask for sample of our Truckers Hoe.
The FARMERS' GARDEN
A Seed Drill and Wheel Hoe is in- I
dispensablenot only in a village \ uiDen %
garden but on largest farms. nir*e.u 1
Farmers should grow all manner HELP!
of vegetables and live on the lat of V
the land. Should provide succu- jA*
lentroots for Cattle, Swine, Poultry,
and save high priced leed
stuff. Great labor-sav- Only One
ing tools of special Sf of Many
value l or the home r Iron Age Toole
as well as the \
markotear- U V*
den. Send m m|iV JT~~Z {f The
b o oot' CO -A most
VF f complete
tool
BATEMAN MFG. CO., Cox 28- Q GRENLOCH, N. J.
Poultry^ONE FULL BALE
150 Feet Long for 75c
Galvanized Poultry Netting
WRITE FOR CIRCULARS.
NETTING mesh DOW WIRE & IRON WORKS, Louisvill6,^jfc



JH.ori6a

Old Series Vo!. XXXVIII. No. 3
New Series Vol. 1, No. 6

FROM FROZEN NORTH TO SUNNY SOUTH
Or Twenty Years in Florida
By HELEN HARCOURT
Author of Florida Fruits and How to Raise Them, Home Life in Florida,
Southern Stories for Little Readers, Etc.

[This is a storv with a motive to show what
can be and is being done by industry and in intelligent
telligent intelligent effort in Florida. To term it fiction
would be a misnomer for it deals with the
practical side of the life of a family who made
their home in this favored State, and tells how
they made their great success.]
Chapter Six.
That Curus Critter, the Native
Scrub Cow.
When I was a youngster and studied
the glorious history of the fight of our
forefathers for freedom, the story of
the famous Battle of the Cowpens al always
ways always had a special fascination for me.
It was not only because the defeat of
the infamous Colonel Tarlton by the in intrepid
trepid intrepid General Morgan snapped the first
link in the chain which the British had
wrapped around the two Carolinas, but
because to me there was an element
of mystery in the very name of the
battle.
What were the cowpens ? was the
question that always came up in my
mind; nor did inquiries among my west western
ern western friends solve it, for they knew no
more than I. And so the question was
never answered until I set foot in fair
Florida. Then I not only knew and
saw the cowpens of the primitive
South, but actually built one for my
own use, chuckling the while. Odd how
things come about in this strange world,
isnt it?
It is among the many things that are
going out the cowpen of the Southern
States; that, and also the native cows
for whose use it was built from the days
of the earliest settlements. But it was
still very much in evidence at the time
I speak of, and indeed is so still in those
sections of the South that are remote
from the more progressive centers where
modern methods and modern cattle have
gained a foothold and driven out the
old regime.
Cows is curus kind of critters, said
the neighbor of whom I bought several
a few days after the arrival of my dear
ones.
Several? Yes; and presently you will
see why it was not only one, as the
Northern or Western farmer would
naturally expect under the circum circumstances.
stances. circumstances.
We have made prodigious strides on onward
ward onward in Florida since those early days,
afid the curus critters that then were
our only sources of milk supply are
few and far between save on the far-
South ranges where they still rove in
their semi-wild state. Therefore, as
these too must soon be counted among
the things that were, but are not, I will

Jacksonville, Fla., March, 1910

pause just here and look back upon them
as they were at our home-coming. Mol Mollie
lie Mollie and I often laughingly wished in
those days that some of the up-to-date
farmers whom we had left behind us,
accustomed only to the finest breeds oi
cattle, could be dropped down into our
pen amidst the primitive milking pro process,
cess, process, said process being in its way as
curus as the critters themselves.
The native Florida cows which alone
could be found in our part of the State
in those days of the early eighties, pos possessed
sessed possessed horns, four legs, a head, a tail
sometimes docked by an alligatorand
an apology for an udder, but there the
resemblance to the Northern cow ceased.
It was not the cows fault, and it
would not be just to compare her with
her aristocratic sister of the cold North
and West, where the climate compels
her owner to give food, care and shelter.
As well blame the street gamin for not
making as good a record as the son of
the millionaire. Trace back those high highbred
bred highbred milkers and you will find that they
have become such only through gen generations
erations generations of the most intelligent and per persistent
sistent persistent breeding. Turn the best of them
loose for two hundred years to find
food and shelter as they can, and their
magnificent udders will eventually de depart
part depart to hunt up those lost by the native
scrub cow of Florida. For she too is
descended from high bred families, and
was once as they are now.
For know that this much maligned
critter is identified with the tragic ro romance
mance romance of the State. Three-fourths of
the old-time native Florida cattle owe
their origin to those brought from
France by the Huguenots, whose peace peaceful
ful peaceful settlement on the St. Johns was de destroyed
stroyed destroyed by the Spanish bloodhound,
Menendez. During the massacre many
of the cattle belonging to the victims
escaped to the dense forests, and later,
returning to find their late homes de deserted,
serted, deserted, became perforce, self-support self-supporting
ing self-supporting wanderers. From this small nucleus
sprang the immense herds that eventual eventually
ly eventually spread over the State.
It was the call of the wild once more,
a reversion to the original condition
from which centuries of careful inter interbreeding
breeding interbreeding had evolved the splendid race
of cattle imported into Florida by those
unfortunate settlers. Dame Nature is
not prodigal of her resources. She pos possesses
sesses possesses more good, solid sense in her lit little
tle little finger, as it were, than we self-grat self-gratulating
ulating self-gratulating mortals have in our whole body.
If we have plenty we are prone to waste.
But that is something that she never
does. She is just, she is generous, but
she is never prodigal. She believes in

the economy of her forces, work, not
waste.
This is why the scrub cow, the cow
that has had the freedom of the range
for generations, is provided with only
enough milk for the needs of her calf.
That is not so very much to begin with,
and as the said calf does not require
the milk for any long period, Dame Na Nature
ture Nature has further decreed that the irreg irregular
ular irregular milking, early and late, and in be between
tween between drinks, shall eventually tend to
dry up the flow of milk so that the sup supply
ply supply shall gradually cease, and the mother
be relieved of an unnecessary strain. In
other words, she goes dry as soon as
her offsprings need for milk diet has
passed.
Such is the status of the undomesticat undomesticated
ed undomesticated cow. The Florida scrub cow, how however,
ever, however, has never quite retrograded to this
extreme point, but truth compels the ad admission
mission admission that she has dropped about two twothirds
thirds twothirds of the way towards it. She is
semi-wild, as she roves the broad prai prairies
ries prairies at her own sweet will, and for the
records of her proud ancient ancestors
she cares not at all. Their size and
milking capacity is nothing to her; suf sufficient
ficient sufficient unto the day is the yield thereof.
Such were the only cows to be ob obtained
tained obtained at that time in our section of the
State, although in the north and west
sections, where the settlements were
much older, there were even then as
fine cattle as could be found anywhere.
Never mind, said Mollie, well have
some real aristocratic cows when brother
gets settled on his stock farm near Tal Tallahassee.
lahassee. Tallahassee. We can wait for the good
time coming. That was Mollie all over,
always making the best of things as they
were, and cheerfully waiting and work working,
ing, working, too, for something better.
But it wasnt so bad after all, although
each family that desired plenty of milk
had to milk three or four cows to ob obtain
tain obtain as many quarts at a milking. This
was not altogether because each cow
gave so little, but because her calf had
to have a share proportioned to its age.
For know that these still half wild cows
had never been trained to be milked
without the calf assisting at the same
time with the human milker.
Eliminate the calf and the milk would
not down. Not that the cow wilfully
held it up. No cow has the power to
do that, though many so believe. This
curus critter is a sensitive one, and
the coming down of her milk depends
largely on her nervous condition. If
frightened or worried by quick move movements
ments movements or shouts or blows, as is too often
the case, the milk will not make, and
consequently does not come down, and

Established 1873



4

so the poor cow gets the credit for
wrong doing that rightfully belongs to
those who have ill-treated her in some
way. Given a hapoy, contented cow,
and the milk will flow freely. The cows
we bought were of this sort, and that
was why we found that our neighbors
were right when they said that we could
get no milk unless we allowed the calf
to pull while we were milking the
mother. It was anew experience to
us, and not altogether enjoyable, but
we got used to it in time. Thus for
what might be called the debit side.
There was another, and now we come to
it and will see that it was of no slight
importance to the settler in this new
country.
These scrub cows could be bought at
figures that astonished us new comers
as much as dd their performances. Ten
to fifteen dollars, according to quality;
for there was a difference, some beine
much better than others, bought a milch
cow and calf in those early pioneer davs.
so that one could purchase four or five
with the same money that one grade
cow would have cost in more settled
sections.
And these four or five were needed,
too, badly needed, even though they had
never given any milk at all. Thev cost
nothing to keep, said our neighbors,
and that was true enough, so far as the
cattle owned by them was concerned, for
they were never fed. Coming home at
night to their calves, the cows were
turned out in the morning to pick up
their own living in the wire grass of
the pine woods and the luxurious vege vegetation
tation vegetation of the hammocks, including the
long grey moss drapery of the oak trees.
Their coming home at night was deemed
of far more importance than the milk
they yielded. And so it was to the ma majority
jority majority of settlers, so important, indeed,
that all who were able purchased or
raised large herds for no other purpose
than this nightly cowpenning. Wherever
the soil needed fertilizing, as in the
ordinary pinev woods, the results ob obtained
tained obtained by this primitive method were
really wonderful.
The first step towards the making of
a cowpen was to clear and plow the
space to be inclosed, a space usually
twice as long as wide, its size depending
on the number of cattle to be penned.
After the plowing, the plot was inclosed
by a Virginia or worm fence, built up
of rails split from the pine trees. One
side of the pen always faced the open
country, having a drop bar entrance,
which was left open in the daytime so
that the returning cows could step in inside,
side, inside, but closed at night upon as many
animals as could be gathered together.
Dry cows and young cattle were often
hunted up towards evening and driven
into the pen; the greater the number th<*
richer the ground became. This was all
that the average Floridan cared for in
those days. Milk and butter were less
than secondary obiects. Many did not
even trouble to milk their cows at all,
allowing the calves to take it all.
Across the pen ran a division fence
with also a drop bar panel, while still
another bar gave entrance from an in inner
ner inner pasture lot where the better cared caredfor
for caredfor calves ranged during the day. Of Often,
ten, Often, however, no such inclosure was pro provided.
vided. provided. and the poor little creatures were
kept in the inner pen all day, frequently
without food, water or shelter of any
kind from the hot sun or pelting rains.
And then their owners often expressed
wonder that they never could raise a
calf over four or six months.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

I could and did tell them, and oc occasionally
casionally occasionally with good effect, that the
cause was in full sight, and that it was
not only the bad treatment the calf it itself
self itself received, but the lack of care and
feed given its dam before its birth. How
could any animal be born with a strong
constitution when its mother was get getting
ting getting barely food enough to keep her herself
self herself alive? For as these cows were
never fed by their owners, all their sus sustenance
tenance sustenance was picked up abroad in the
woods and hammocks, and while they
thus helped themselves to a living, there
was but little milk or flesh making sur surplus.
plus. surplus. The native grasses of Florida are
many and nutritious, a general belief to
the contrary notwithstanding, but they
can not take the place of grain food,
where such is needed for best results.
Towards nightfall, as regularly as
though they carried watches, the milch
cows were wont to make their way
home to their anxiously waiting off offspring.
spring. offspring. But sometimes an unnatural
mother would be found among them,
just as they are occasionally among the
humans, who had to be hunted up and
driven home. Their babies, by the way,
seemed also to carry watches concealed
about their persons, for they were al always
ways always found waiting in or by the inner
pen, often affectionately rubbing noses
with their mothers through the division
bars. We always knew they were there
bv the wailing refrain that came float floating
ing floating to our ears of Thou art so near
and yet so far. One of our calves was
soon smart enough to leave the others
and wait at the yard gate for my ap appearance
pearance appearance with the milk pail, when it
would leap and frisk around me all the
way to the pen, more like a playful
puppy than a calf, sometimes sampling
my coat tails.
The plot of ground to be cowpenned,
and thus enriched for use, usually as a
vegetable garden, should have been, but
rarely was, entirely cleared of standing
trees, stumps and roots, and then plowed
deep four times, twice at right angles
and twice diagonally, and then the har harrow
row harrow run over it to break up all remain remaining
ing remaining lumps of sod, and drag out every
bit of loose trash. Lastly, several wagon
loads of muck and leaf mold should be
spread over the ground.
It was in this thorough way that I
prepared for our first cowpen, and was
laughed at by my neighbors for my
o' 1 ins. Rt later on they ceased to laugh,
and still later the more progressive fol followed
lowed followed my lead when they saw how much
more luxurious was the growth of my
vegetables than theirs in their but once
plowed and stumped and trash strewn
pens. It was not only that these ob obstructions
structions obstructions seriously interfered with the
after plowing and cultivation of the gar garden,
den, garden, but the stumps, besides being a per perpetual
petual perpetual eyesore, (but that didnt count,
you know), became a depository for
weeds and ants which flourished wher wherever
ever wherever the plow could not reach them.
Commercial fertilizers, now so uni universally
versally universally in use, were almost unknown
in our then remote section. None were
manufactured in the State, and uncertain
transportation and heavy freight rates
put them beyond the reach of settlers of
limited means. For this reason the en enrichment
richment enrichment of the pine lands by cowpen cowpenning
ning cowpenning was in vogue all over the country.
This, you see, was the credit side of the
native Florida cow, and it represented
a pretty high figure, too, and brought
much land into profit, for every few
months anew pen was made, and the
old planted to crops or orange trees.

The garden spots thus obtained yielded
splendid returns, and so continued to do
for several years. When run out the
same plot could be cowpenned again
and again.
This was the almost universal prac practice
tice practice among my neighbors, and over the
South generally, but it soon became one
of Crawfords queer notions to make
an innovation on this custom. It seemed
to me that conditions in the cowpen
could be improved upon, and when our
first pen was ready to be converted into
a rich garden spot, I set about carrying
out my own ideas.
Selecting a suitable spot not far from
the house and on the boundary line of
the homestead, I cleared it of all stumps
and trash, but I did not plow it, my
intent being to make, not a temporary
pen, but a small permanent cowvard,
twice as long as it was wjde, and in inclosed
closed inclosed by a post and board fence.
Against the division fence, as a part of
it, I built a roomy shed in the calves
section, the drop bars giving entrance
into it from the cows division, while
the calves entered from the other side.
The shed gave protection to the milkers,
and this alone was an important con consideration,
sideration, consideration, for heavy showers are fre frequent
quent frequent during the rainy season, from
June to September inclusive, and many
were the duckings I got before that shed
went up. It was divided so that the
milking was always done in one section,
and the cow and her calf finally turned
out together into the calves pen to
finish up. In this way the milking stall
was kept clean, no small consideration
to one who was compelled by the neces necessities
sities necessities of the case (said case being the
curus critters), to kneel or sit on his
heels while milking, or else break his
back stooping over. The other and
larger portion of the shed was inclosed,
and here the calves were shut in at
night in stormy or wet weather, being
left free in warm and clear nights to go
and come as they listed, their bars being
down into the pasture lot. The north
and west sides of the shed were closely
boarded up to give protection from the
cold winter winds that always came
from those two points of the compass,
while on the eas"- and south sides were
wide-spaced narrow strips. As I used
rough edged boards from the mill, and
did the work myself, the expense was
very little, and the increase of comfort
great.
But the main point of my innovation
was a vast gain in quantity and quality
of fertilizing material that could be dis distributed
tributed distributed wherever needed, instead of be beins-,
ins-, beins-, perforce, confined to the one spot
cowpenned. This improvement I accom accomplished
plished accomplished by hauling into the outer, or
cows division, load after load of muck,
leaf mold, grass, sods, and everything
I could find that was rottable, including
pine needles and the decaying bark of
dead trees. Each layer was sprinkled
with land olaster, muck, and plenty of
it, being the first and last layer of a
ground covering having a depth of two
or three feet.
The deeper this artificial soil the bet better
ter better it absorbed and retained the liquid
manure, while the solid was trampled
down into the yielding mass, broken up
and pulverized, and all its fertilizing
properties retained intact instead of the
liquids being evaporated and the solids
dried and sunbaked, as in the usual
method of cowpenning. Every few
weeks I spaded the surface under, and
added fresh material on top, and three
times a year every four months I



cleared out the whole yard and hauled
in anew lot of trash, as my wonder wondering
ing wondering neighbors called it.
The work was done at odd times after
I owned a horse and wagon, and it
amply repaid me for the trouble ex expended.
pended. expended. The result was a fertilizer
adapted alike to the growth of citrus
and other fruit trees, and to all kinds of
garden truck. It was rich enough to
produce a luxurious growth, yet not so
heating as to injure seeds or roots. When
our neighbors saw the splendid yield of
fruits and vegetables from my home homemade
made homemade fertilizer, and realized that from
the same or a less number of cattle, I
made five times the quantity of a far
richer manure than they obtained by the
old method of cowpenning, they began
to sit up and take notice, and soon some
of the more wide awake followed in
the same new path.
In a corner of the cows division I
built another roomy shed inclosed on
the north and west like the other, but
otherwise open so that the cows were
free to choose between lying down out outside
side outside on the wet ground, or inside on the
dry. They were not long in choosing
the latter, and night after night I found
them lying down in comfort during the
rainy season, when all was wet and
soggy in the open. Soon, instead of
their staying out in the shelter of the
dense hammocks in the rainy nights, I
noticed that they came home of prefer preference.
ence. preference. and sought the comfort of their
dry shed. Perhaps, too, the boxes of
salt that I placed there had something
to do with their reformation, as also
the handful of hay or sugar cane that I
fed to them at night as soon as I had
had time to raise these persuaders, as
Mollie dubbed them. In some of the
boxes I put equal quantities of salt and
oak wood ashes mixed with water and
dried in lumps, and it was soon notice noticeable
able noticeable that the cows preferred this to the
unadulterated salt, as I knew was the
case with our ranch mttle. It certainly
proved a drawing card, and what with
the bit of feed and the salt and dry
shed, our few cows soon began to come
home quite regularly and to become
more civilized and gentle. They ap appreciated
preciated appreciated never being struck or shouted
at, and to kind treatment.
(To be continued.)
Fruit Conditions in Cuba.
By S. S. Harvey.
The first week in February, the Cuban
National Horticultural Societv held an
exhibition in Havana, Cuba, that, while
small, was the most satisfactory to the
fruit and vegetable growers of the Is Island
land Island of any of the several heretofore
held.
There were all of the well-known
varieties of oranges and several new
ones, native here. Of grapefruit, there
were all varieties known to Florida
growers and several new ones taken
from the old seedlings of Cuba and the
Isle of Pines.
Some of the new varieties of grape grapefruit
fruit grapefruit are, in several particulars, super superior
ior superior to anv of the old well-known
varieties. We have grapefruit here that
are a flat sweet, so sweet that it is
doubtful if the consumers in the States
would care for them.
Through the kindness and courtesy of
Some of our Florida friends, we received
a box each of very fine grapefruit and
oranges. It enables the Cuban growers
to compare with good Florida fruits.
Two of the most extensive exhibitors

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

were old Florida crackers, long settled
in Cuba. One of them was Thomas R.
Towns, of Holguin, and the other L. L.
Newson, of LaGloria. Both have been
very successful in Cuba, producing extra
fine fruit, and between them usually
carry off a majority of the premiums at
our annual exhibit. It was amusing to
see those old crackers, who love Flor Florida
ida Florida as they do their mothers, puffing and
saying, Oh, we got those fellows over
at home skinned a smile, and then they
would say But are not those oranges of
Harts fine?
It looks sure that in grapefruit Cuba
will lead any country yet producing for
market.
There was a fine display of vegetables
at the exhibit, including celery and
many not heretofore attempted in Cuba.
The ladies of Herradura, an exten extensive
sive extensive American colony on the Western
railroad, had a most remarkable display
of preserves, jellies, jams, pickles, chow chowchow,
chow, chowchow, etc. They had put up many
varieties of tropical fruits in many ways.
The display was in uniform square jars
hundreds of them. The exhibit would
have attracted attention, and been an
ornament to any exhibition in the world.
Another thing, many of your readers
would not expect, there was a fine dis display
play display of strawberries.
The American settlers on coming in into
to into Cuba have the same great fault that
many of the earlier settlers had in Flor Florida,
ida, Florida, that is, to put everything into citrus
groves. It is the hardest and most im impossible
possible impossible thing to get them to raise
something to eat. Some few are diver diversifing
sifing diversifing by tropical fruits not raised at all
iin Florida, and others like the avocado
and mango, only in the extreme south southern
ern southern portion. Everything that man,
animals and fowls need to eat grows
with vigor. If the growers would only
plant two acres of trees where they
desire to plant ten acres, and then use
the eight acres to feed their families
and stock, they would be successful. It
would seem that every man who at attempts
tempts attempts a citrus grove at once becomes
a mulberry seller, There is millions in
it. From golden hope to dark des despair
pair despair is the fate of many.
It is clear to any of those who have
had experience, that irrigation is ab absolutely
solutely absolutely necessary to success in raising
vegetables.
It is equally clear that irrigation is of
very great importance to the successful
growing of citrus fruits. In Cuba, we
have what is called the dry season in
winter. Trees are very apt to remain
dormant over the proper blooming sea season.
son. season. It results in late bloom, or as
often, none at all.
Cultivation at the right time will cor correct
rect correct the evil to some extent, but those
best able to judge have decided that
irrigation for a short period in winter
is necessary to full success in citrus
fruit raising in Cuba.
i i. i
The Smuts of Sorghum.
Smuts are very serious enemies to
cultivated crops, hence, they have re received
ceived received a great deal of attention from
the National Department of Agricul Agriculture.
ture. Agriculture. Recently the department has is issued
sued issued a circular on sorghum smuts. The
objects of this circular are (1) to call
attention to these dangerous pests; (2)
to warn farmers of the dangers of in introducing
troducing introducing them into new localities; and
(3) to suggest simple methods of get getting
ting getting rid of these smuts.
The term sorghum as here used in ineludes

eludes ineludes not only the sweet sorghums,
but kaffir corn, milo, and dura (known
in some sections as Egyptian corn). As
the growth' of different varieties of
sorghum as grain and forage crops is
rapidly extending, it is very important
that farmers should prevent the spread
of smuts by using seed that is free from
the disease or by treating the seed.
The kind of smut most commonly
found on sorghums in this country is
that which affects the individual grains
in the seed head. If seed is taken from
a field affected by this smut, it can be
freed from contamination by soaking
for an hour in a solution of 1 pound of
formalin in 30 gallons of water. Water
heated to about 135 degrees F., is also
effective in destroying the spores. Full
directions for treatment are given in the
circular mentioned which is for free
distribution.
1,000 Acres in Vegetables.
The bright, warm sunshine the past
week has caused the mocking birds to
warble their sweetest songs, and if the
Wauchula truckers are not joining in
the singing it is not because their hearts
are not as light as the feathered song songsters.
sters. songsters.
A week of ideal growing weather,
coming after ample rains, has completely
changed the somewhat gloomy prospects
to a rosy hue, and never in the history
of the Wauchula trucking section were
there better prospects for a banner crop.
Estimates from those best posted
place the acreage of truck at one thou thousand
sand thousand acres in this section, divided
among the following crops:
Beans 400 acres
Tomatoes 250 acres
Irish potatoes 125 acres
Cucumbers 75 crates
Watermelons, Cantaloupes,
Squash, etc 150 acres
With fair weather beans will begin to
go forward in about four weeks. Pos Possibly
sibly Possibly there may be a few scattering ship shipments
ments shipments a week earlier.
Never was there a more favorable
spring for a good orange crop in this
section. Good soaking rains came after
the groves were fertilized, and there is
every prospect for a heavy bloom, and
conditions are such that the bloom
should make fruit. Three orange pack packing
ing packing houses are still running in Wau Wauchula,
chula, Wauchula, and shipments of lettuce and
cauliflower are being made, and thus it
is in this section the shipping of one
crop interlaps into another, and our
truckers and fruit growers are busy
shipping crops from September to July.
Preparation should be made to bed
sweet potatoes. Earlier slips will be
had if they are forced.
Do not plant garden seed too deep.
They are small and should be covered
lightly.
An examination should be made of,
the crowns and roots of neach trees
for borers. A mass of gum is a sure
indication of this insect. If found, they
should be dug out with a sharp knife
and destroyed.
Bees should have a place on every
farm. In addition to the honey they
store, they render much valuable service
to the orchard; while they are sipping
the nectar of the flowers of the fruit
trees, they are scattering pollen on the
stigmas, thus causing thorough pollina pollination
tion pollination of the blossoms.

5



6

THE PAPAYA, OR MELON PAWPAW
By JOHN DELLING

Natives of cool countries who have
had to live for many years in the con continuous
tinuous continuous damp heat of the eternal summer
between the tropics, are likely to suffer
sometimes from digestive derangements.
Nature has planted the remedy at hand
in the shape of the papaya. The ripe
fruit of this tree, eaten for dessert with
sugar and cream, is not only a delicious
dish, but takes upon itself the responsi responsibility
bility responsibility of the digestion of the preceding
meal. The papaya fruit can be eaten
every day or two for years without any
ill effects. One or two experiments in
cooking the ripe or unripe fruit with
tough meat will soon convince anyone
that, with the aid of the papaya, the
toughest meat may be made as soft and
tender as you please.
The papaya seems to have been one
of those plants which were cultivated by
the natives of the American tropics be before
fore before the arrival of Europeans in the
New World. Its seed has since been
carried to Asia, Africa and the Pacific
Islands.
There are local varieties of this fruit,
especially in its native home, tropical
America. Thus in the Antilles there is
the long-fruited variety (known as Bar Barbados
bados Barbados pawpaw), with fruit which may be
a foot or more long, by five inches or so
in diameter. This is also grown in Cey Ceylon
lon Ceylon and Hawaii. A large cantaloupe cantaloupeshaped
shaped cantaloupeshaped juicy variety (the Guinea pawpaw)
is met with in the Leeward Islands and,
as Dr. lorns informed me, also in Porto
Rico'. The common papaya of the An Antilles,
tilles, Antilles, with oval fruit five or six inches
long, is only found in cultivation. Two
forms are noted as native, or escaped
from cultivation, in South Florida. One
of them has a slender green stem, and
a bitterish fruit smaller than an egg;
while the other has a purplish stem and
a fruit four or five inches across.
The papaya, like the willow and date datepalm,
palm, datepalm, has two kinds of trees the bar barren,
ren, barren, which bears the staminate flowers,
and the fruiting tree, which has the pis pistillate
tillate pistillate flowers. Rather frequently the
former may bear bisexual flowers at
the ends of its long flower stalks, which
flowers turn into rather small fruits.
More rarely the pistillate tree may have
some perfect flowers, provided with sta stamens.
mens. stamens.
If as is the case in many of the small
islands of the West Indies, there are no
wild papayas, and most of the trees in
the island are of the same variety, the
plant is found to come fairly true from
seed. But if several varieties are grown
and especially if (as in South Florida)
there are wild papayas with valueless
fruits, it is likely that the flowers will
be crossed by moths or other insects.
In the latter case the seeds will be im immensely
mensely immensely deteriorated. But this can read readily
ily readily be avoided by carefully fertilizing one
pistillate flower (of a pure strain) with
the pollen from a staminate flower of
the same variety; tying it up in a
paper bag for a day or two before and
after, to orevent access of insects. As
this one fruit will contain several hun hundred
dred hundred seeds, it will provide sufficient for
a large plantation of papayas.
The seeds germinate readily if fresh;
but if old, should be soaked in warm

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

water before sowing. They should be
sown a few inches apart to prevent
damping off of the seedlings. When the
latter have three or four leaves they can
be shifted into larger beds or into pots.
The, young papayas should be planted
out in their permanent positions when
they are six inches or so high; since the
larger they are the more difficult it often
is to transplant them.
The papaya requires a well-drained
soil, and is readily killed by stagnant
water about the roots. Thus it grows
commonly in South Florida, when wild,
on the high shell mounds or shell ham hammocks.
mocks. hammocks. If grown in a rather poor sandy
soil, this should be enriched with plenty
of humus. If only a few plants are
grown (as for home consumption), the
following method (which has been tried
in a light volcanic soil in the West
Indies) secures excellent results. Dig
holes, about 10 feet apart, in a sandy,
well-drained soil, three or four feet
square and three feet or more deep.
Fill them with a compost of soil, farm farmyard
yard farmyard manure, rotting weeds, peat, or
humus of any kind, adding unleached
wood ashes, and perhaps, a few ounces
of fertilizer. Plant a papaya in each.
Cover the ground with a good mulch of
pine needles, etc. The young plants will
need watering. As soon as the first
flowers appear, cut out the staminate
plants, so as to leave only fruiting trees.
(A few papayas may be planted near by
on poorer ground and one or two stam staminate
inate staminate trees out of these left, the others
being cut down.) In very dry weather
the plants should be watered, or they
will stop growing and fruiting. If they
are grown on without a check these suc succulent-stemmed,
culent-stemmed, succulent-stemmed, unbranched, large largeleaved
leaved largeleaved plants will make a most rank
growth, and in a warm climate, fruit
almost continuously.
If the napayas are started from seed
early one year, and protected the fol following
lowing following winter, while they are yet small,
by barrels or otherwise, they will fruit
next autumn in Central Florida. Pa Papayas
payas Papayas have been known to reach the age
of ten years, as far north as Tampa Bay.
They may lose their leaves in a slight
frost. During the freeze of 1886 all un unprotected
protected unprotected papayas were killed in most
places as far south as the Caloosahat Caloosahatchee.
chee. Caloosahatchee. In South Florida the papaya
grows well in the open, and, as already
noted, is met with in the wild state.
Within the tropics a well-cared-for
fruiting papaya may begin to flower
within eight months from seed; when
it may be as tall as a man and abput six
inches thick at the base. One such tree
would probably produce more than a
hundred weight of fruit in a whole
year. There are usually three flowers
in the axil of each leaf, but often only
one of them produces a large fruit.
When the tree is ripening a heavy crop
of fruit, the flowers in the axils of the
upper leaves may fail to set and fall off;
and this may continue until the growing
fruits on the stem below have attained
their full size. In Florida papaya plants
have perfected from twenty to thirty
fruits during one autumn and winter,
when two years old from seed.

The Latex.
All parts of the papaya tree (except
the perfectly rioe fruits) contain a
milky-white latex which exudes from
the slightest wound, flowing rapidly at
first, and then slackening, probably be because
cause because it coagulates in the latex tubes.
The latex soon clots and dries on the
plant, and so tends to seal up any wound.
It has a corrosive action on the skin,
and if the raw latex (from green fruits,
etc.) is swallowed, it may tend to cause
intestinal inflammation. The latex is
slightly heavier than water and tastes
somewhat astringent, bitter and acid.
More than three-quarters of its weight
consists of water. It may contain about
four and a half per cent of substances
resembling rubber, nearly three per cent
of resin, about two and a half per cent
of wax, more than five per cent of pro proteid
teid proteid ferment (papain), about seven per
cent of pectins and ash, and over one
per cent of unpleasant tasting extrac extractives.
tives. extractives. When the coagulated juice is
dried in the sun it still retains some
water, perhaps 6 per cent, and contains
about twenty per cent of the ferment.
It has been estimated that a well grown
pawpaw tree contains several hundred
ounces of liquid latex, and it has been
claimed that in favorable cases one
pound of dried latex has been extracted
from one tree in a year. The latex is
obtained by gashing the green fruits,
and is dried in the sun, after spreading
on plates of glass. One hundred grams
of juice have been extracted from one
green fruit.
The raw latex has an extremely po potent
tent potent digestive action on proteids. Thus
if a slice of tough meat, as a beefsteak,
which within the tropics may be cooked
and eaten an hour or two after being
killed, is well rubbed with the juice of
pawpaw leaves or of the green fruits, or
the pulp of the ripe fruit, and cooked, it
becomes tender and is readily mastica masticated.
ted. masticated. If it is left for half an hour before
being cooked, it may become a jelly, or
even a kind of thick peptonized broth.
(The ripe fruit, which does not contain
visible milky latex, acts in the same
way on proteids.) The latex coagulates
the casein of milk like rennin; it acts
somewhat on starches, turning them into
glucose; and it apparently has a slight
action on fats. Taking the latex in one
papaya tree at the rather low figure of
100 ounces, this would (according to
certain experiments), be sufficient to di digest
gest digest the insoluble proteid in about ten
tons of average fresh beef.
Papain. Kilmer isolated the papain
by drying the latex without heat, and
exhausting the dry residue successively
with (1) ether, (2) chloroform, (3)
benzine, and (4) alcohol. These dis dissolve
solve dissolve out the wax, rubber and resins,
leaving only the proteid and the ash.
The product is a greenish-white powder
almost completely soluble in water, and
is said to be more active than any pa papain
pain papain prepared by methods of precipita precipitation.
tion. precipitation.
Papain- is soluble in water, glycerine,
or five per cent algohol, and may be pre precipitated
cipitated precipitated from these solutions by excess
of strong alcohol, or bv saturation with
salts of the alkalies. Kilmer noted that
several preparations on the market were
merely dried and powdered latex, still
containing the wax, rubber and acrid
resins. Other preparations were found
to be nearly pure ferment, isolated by
precipitation. To estimate the value of
market preparations, he recommended
that they should be extracted with water
several times, the liquid saturated with



equal quantities of magnesium and so sodium
dium sodium sulphates, and the excess of salts
removed from the precipitate in a di dialyzer.
alyzer. dialyzer. The ferment can then be dried
and weighed.
Papain differs from pepsin in that it
can act in acid, neutral or alkaline solu solutions.
tions. solutions. It differs from trypsin in that it
does not produce appreciable quantities
of leucin or tyrosin. Hence papain is
superior to pepsin in that it exerts its
digestive action not only in the stomach
but throughout the alimentary canal.
Cooked beef rapidlv disintegrates in
acid or alkaline solutions of papain, and
it acts as energetically at 70 degrees F.
as at 110 degrees F.' Its action begins
at 50 degrees or 60 degrees F., and
reaches its maximum at 155 degrees to
160 degrees F. It continues its activity
almost to the boiling point of water.
Pepsin and trypsin, on the other hand,
act very slowly at 70 degrees F., are at
their best at about 100 degrees F., are
slow at 140 degrees and are destroyed
at about 160 degrees F.
The Fruit, When perfectly ripe, the
fruit of the papaya is quite soft, but has
lost all acridity, and the milky juice has
disappeared. The softening of the fruit
comes on rapidly, and is considered to
be the effect of the digesting of the pro proteids
teids proteids and starch in the unripe fruit by
the ferment in the juice. The ripe fruit
may consist of about 92 y 2 per cent of
water, 3 per cent of fibre (cellulose),
3J4 per cent of sugar, y 2 per cent of
proteid and 1-10 per cent of fat. Though
the fruits are better if they are allowed
to ripen perfectly on the tree, yet they
may be picked when the first yellow ap appears
pears appears on the skin, while still hard, and
will ripen well in a few days in warm
weather. The ripe fruits, when perfect perfectly
ly perfectly soft, may be cut across, the seeds re removed,
moved, removed, and the pulp spooned out and
mixed with sugar and cream or con condensed
densed condensed milk. This forms a dessert con considered
sidered considered by some Europeans who have
lived in the tropics as superior to straw strawberries
berries strawberries and cream. There is no doubt
whatever, that this dessert fruit eaten
after a good dinner greatly aids the di digestive
gestive digestive process. It also like the fig,
acts as a gentle laxative.
The young unripe fruits are used
throughout the Antilles in the place of
squashes; the soaking and boiling quite
destroying the acridity, and doubtless the
digestive ferment as well. But if some
of these young fruits are sliced and
cooked with meat, during the prelimin preliminary
ary preliminary warming up, before the boiling point
is reached, the peptonizing action goes
on and the boiled meat is rendered ten tender.
der. tender.
Jared G. Smith said that as a break breakfast
fast breakfast fruit the papaya has few equals.
B. O. Clark, writing of Hawaiian fruits,
said that the papaya is the most unique
fruit of the tropical garden. Taken at
meals, when ripe, with a little salt, it is
not only refreshing, but a great stimu stimulant
lant stimulant and aid to digestion. The ripe
fruit makes a good papaya pie if pre prepared
pared prepared like the pumpkin. Most persons
become extremely fond of the fruit. L.
C. Washburn, M. D., said that the melon
pawpaw was giving the greatest satisfac satisfaction
tion satisfaction at Fort Myers, and that perhaps
nothing else was so valuable for dys dyspeptics
peptics dyspeptics and other invalids.
When cooked with sugar the ripe or
nearly ripe fruit yields a good preserve
or marmalade, which is often made in
West Indian households. Nearly ripe
papayas make excellent candied fruits.
The latex from gashes cut in the
young fruits is collected in calabashes

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

or porcelain cups, spread in the sun in
shallow glass or porcelain dishes, or on
sheets of glass, till dry, and powdered.
This process is carried out in Mexico,
one or two of the West Indian islands,
and Ceylon. The dried latex thus pro produced
duced produced has sold in the English market
for $2.50 to $3 or so a pound, and in
the United States for $4 to $6. An
average tree in Mexico is said to yield
one quarter pound of dried juice. Dur During
ing During the year 1903, powdered latex to the
value of SIO,OOO was exported from one
little island of the British Antilles.
Jared G. Smith, writing from Hawaii,
stated that papayas ship well, and make
a return for the money invested in
growing them, earlier than is the case
with most other tropical products. The
papaya is already known to a certain
extent in the New York fruit markets.
Since the papaya can be picked several
days before it is quite ripe, it can be
shipped a considerable distance without
ice, and nearly ripe papayas can be safe safely
ly safely shipped in cold storage. There should
be a good market for this fruit in the
North when its advantages for dyspep dyspeptics,
tics, dyspeptics, or for those with a tendency to
dyspepsia, are better understood.
The papaya is really a large herb, and
hence should be grown from seed in the
same way as the tomato or melon. P. J.
Wester stated that less than one per
cent of a batch of Florida seedlings
bear superior fruit, and this accounts
for the scarcity of the papaya on the
market. This is very likely due to
cross-fertilization with inferior or wild
varieties by moths or other flying in insects.
sects. insects. Such cross-fertilization can be
avoided by obtaining good varieties of
papaya from tropical localities where
they come true from seed, and pollina pollinating
ting pollinating one or two flowers bv hand, as be before
fore before mentioned. In this way, if the best
plants are picked out each time, there
seems no doubt that improved strains
of papayas might be raised, just as with
tomatoes or melons.
Summary. (l) The best kinds of pa papayas,
payas, papayas, such as the long-fruited, solid solidmeated
meated solidmeated kind, and the cantaloupe-shaped
iuicy variety, will yield an excellent
fruit in the winter months in South
Florida. ( 2) The oapaya begins to fruit
in the second year, or earlier. If a
plantation of papayas is destroyed by
wind or cold, it can be quickly and
inexpensively renewed by sowing seed.
(3) In its digestive properties the pa papaya
paya papaya is almost unique among fruits. (4)
It has been successfully shipped in cold
storage from Hawaii to California. (5)
Seeds of good varieties can be obtained
from the West Indies.
Rooting Roses.
After many failures I have at last
succeeded in rooting rose cuttings. The
secret of success seemed to be first in
the selection of cuttings, which should
be young, tender shoots of new wood,
just beginning to form leaf buds. Cut
away the top of the slip three-quarters
of an inch above the eye, leaving on the
leaf growing under the eye. This
should bring the base of the cutting
about half an inch below the second or
third eye. Remove all lower leaves, and
put the cuttings in moist sand up to
the leaf on the top bud, setting the cut cuttings
tings cuttings three inches apart. Have bed
prepared of clean, sharp sand, not less
than four inches deep. Protect by a
pane of glass, or window-sash, opening
through the middle on hot days for
ventilation. Keep the, sand constantly
wet, a on this depends results. D. J. O.

FOR CLEARING LAND.
A Useful Device That Can Be Easily
Made and Quickly Adjusted.
I have had considerable experience
clearing land, and for small saplings and
bushes I have found the implement
which I shall try to describe the most
useful of anything I have ever tried.
Get a round, smooth stick of hard,
tough wood about five feet long and two
or three inches in diameter for a handle.
Then get a chain (an ordinary trace
chain will answer), and have a ring
made large enough to slip on the handle
and fasten it with a staple about eight
or ten inches from the larger end of the
handle. Attach a single tree to the
other end of the chain and the device
is complete.
In pulling saplings or bushes pass the
chain around the bush on the side op opposite
posite opposite from you, the long end of the
handle being held by -you and the short
end passed over the chain as shown in
the sketch. This is easily made and
saves a great deal of time in fastening
the chain around the sapling and then
unfastening same. With a good stout
horse or mule, one can grub quite a
large area of ground in a day. By hitch hitching
ing hitching it pretty high from the ground and
having an assistant with an ax to cut
the larger roots, quite good sized
saplings can be pulled up with this con contrivance.C.
trivance.C. contrivance.C. W.
Cocoanut Planting In Hawaii.
It is evident from the following notes,
extracted from the fourth Annual Re Report
port Report of the Commissioners of Agricul Agriculture
ture Agriculture and Forestry of the Hawaiian Is Islands,
lands, Islands, that efforts are being made to
exploit the possibilities of cocoanut
planting in that territory:
The manufacture and shipment of a
considerable quantity of copra from the
island of Kauai, the organization of a
company to start a cocoanut plantation
on the windward side of Oahu, and the
planting of numerous small groves on
the other islands, all point to the de development
velopment development of a cocoanut industry.
The Hawaiian Islands lie just at the
northern edge of the zone in which the
cocoanut will thrive, but the demand for
cocoanut products cocoanut oil, copra
and coiris so great that the outlook is
full of promise. In Hawaii it takes from
seven to ten years for a cocoanut grove
to come into bearing, but as this group
of islands is free from the severe storms
that at intervals do so much damage in
the South seas, Hawaii is able to com compete
pete compete successfully with regions more
favorably located for cocoanut growing.
Garden seeds germinate quicker and
better when soaked in warm water be before
fore before planting. This is especially notice noticeable
able noticeable with seeds having thick and heavy
seed-coats.

7



8

PROPAGATING THE MANGO
By JOHN B. BEACH

[We have been furnished with a copy of The
Agriculturist for October 10, 1906, and are
thus enabled to republish a description of the
various methods of propagating the mango by
Mr. John B. Beach. On account of the length
of the article, we give only a portion of it this
month, to be followed by the remainder in the
April number.]
From Seed.
The mango grows readily from seed,
and this is the only method of propaga propagation
tion propagation practiced in Porto Rico. For
transporting the seed long distances it
is, of course, necessary to remove the
pulp, and the best results have been
obtained with cleaned seeds, dried on
the outside and packed so as to conserve
the moisture without molding. Packed
in this way, several successful importa importations
tions importations of seed have been made from the
East Indies to Florida.
The ease and rapidity with which
mangoes can be propagated by means of
seed are decided advantages, but the
results are very uncertain, and very few
of the desirable varieties can be main maintained
tained maintained by this method. There are a few
good varieties in different parts of the
world the seedlings of which appear to
iproduce fruit identical with the parent.
Much could doubtless be done to im improve
prove improve the mango in Porto Rico by the
-growth of seedlings from selected fruit,
and really good varieties might be ori originated.
ginated. originated. Cross fertilization of the
iflowers might produce new varieties
and increase the chances of producing
.good forms. On the other hand, if the
ttnango follows the analogy of other
fruits, it might be worth while to try
the experiment of self-pollinating some
of the best varieties, with the idea that
the reproductive fertility would be thus
impaired and the size of the seed re reduced.
duced. reduced.
A more expeditious method of reduc reducing
ing reducing the size of the seed might be to
cross-fertilize with the pollen of some
variety or perhaps species so distantly
related that partially or completely
sterile hybrids would be secured. Breed Breeding
ing Breeding experiments of all kinds require,
Eowever,' so much time that for prac practical
tical practical purposes the introduction of supe superior
rior superior varieties existing in other countries
is certainly the first step to be taken.
Inarching.
This, and methods to be described
later, provide means of propagating
good varieties, so that the fruit of the
new plant will be identical, or nearly so,
with that of the parent. No greater va variation
riation variation need be expected than that oc occurring
curring occurring on a single tree.
In India and wherever the cultivation
of the mango is carried on to any great
extent, inarching is by far the most
common method of propagating. An
article in the Sugar Journal and Tropi Tropical
cal Tropical Cultivator describes the process as
follows:
The best method of propagating good
varieties of mangoes is by means of in inarching,
arching, inarching, which is a very simple process.
It is performed usually between a large
tree of superior variety growing in the
ground and a seedling growing in a pot
small, cheap flower-pots about eight
or nine inches deep and six inches in
diameter do well for the purpose. The
soil should be good potting soil, with a

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

fair proportion of manure. A single
large mango stone should be planted in
each pot. The seedlings are ready for
inarching, if well grown, in ten months
or so; if not well grown, they should be
older. Two-year-old seedlings are very
successfully inarched. The stem of the
seedling should in each be fairly thick,
with the wood fairly developed near
the root the stem will be somewhat
thicker than an ordinary workingmans
smallest finger. Any number of seed seedlings
lings seedlings in pots can be inarched in one tree
by erecting a stage (for their support)
under the lower branches. The stem
of the branch to be inarched should be
about the same thickness as the stem of
the seedling, and like the seedling,
should be fairly developed wood. The
juncture where the inarching is per performed
formed performed should be about six or eight
inches from the root of the seedling and
about a foot or so from the growing
point of the branch, unless the branch is
making new vigorous growth, in which
case the distance will be more. A
straight, well-shaped branch should be
selected, so that the future grafted tree
will be well proportioned. A slice of
wood and bark should be cut from the
seedlings and from the branch, so that
the inner bark of both can be made to
touch accurately; the two wounded sur surfaces
faces- surfaces are bound securely with tape or
bast fiber, and grafting clay applied to
keep out air. The juncture of branch
and seedling should extend for a length
of about three inches, but at no point
should the wound in either be deep; the
slices should in fact be of almost uni uniform
form uniform thickness throughout and not thick.
Tenaceous clay should not be used to
cover the inarch; it soon cracks and ad admits
mits admits air. One part of fresh cattle dung,
mixed with two parts of good soil,
kneaded together with a little water,
serves the purpose excellently. Inarch Inarching
ing Inarching can be done in India at any season,
but it is most successful when the trees
are in active growth. It takes some time
(several months) before the inarched
juncture is perfectly jointed by the new
wood and bark cells. Meantime the
seedling in the pots must be carefully
and regularly watered. When the junc juncture
ture juncture is complete the leading: shoot of the
cdiino- should removed immediately
above the inarch juncture and some days
aiterwards the branch of the tree may
be severed immediately below the junc juncture.
ture. juncture.
Trees for inarching should be in a
sheltered situation, because if swaved
much by the wind the pots or the plat platform
form platform are disturbed from their position.
In planting out young grafts the pots
should be broken if the young plant
cannot be removed without disturbing
the earth on the roots. If the earth on
the roots is much disturbed the plant
will almost certainly die. They should
be planted with plenty of manure in pits
three feet deep and wide.
Mr. Lewis A. Bernay, in Cultural
Industries for Queensland, recommends
that the seedlings be inarched when only
three weeks old and six or eight inches
high. They can then be taken from the
pots, the roots wrapped in grass, and the
whole tied to the branch which is to be

grafted. He recommends that the graft grafting
ing grafting be done early in the rainy season,
and states that the grafts may be sev severed
ered severed from the parent within a month or
as soon as thirteen days. Inarched
mangoes should come into bearing in
from three to five years after planting.
Inarched stock in Wardian cases can
be shipped long distances, and importa importations
tions importations into Florida have shown that if
properly handled a fair percentage of
the plants may be expected to live.
Other forms of grafting are also used
to some extent to propagate mangoes.
Grafting is, however, difficult in the
case of the mango, and can only be prac practiced
ticed practiced by experienced hands.
(Continued in April number.)
The Pipe Calabash.
Pipes made from the South African
calabash or gourd, have created consid considerable
erable considerable interest in the growth of the
vine. It is a native of South Africa.
The use of the calabash as a pipe bowl
was discovered by the Boers and after
the Boer war they were introduced in
England and from there were brought
to this country. The Boers attempted
to monopolize the product and to pre prevent
vent prevent the exportation of seed, but failed,
and there is now a supply of the seed
in this country. The vine grows luxuri luxuriantly
antly luxuriantly and produces a large crop of
gourds, but many of them have to be
rejected for pipe making, either on ac account
count account of defective growth or of insect
bites which mar the surface. The pipes
are graceful and distinctive in shape, no
two being exactly alike. They color like
meerschaum, and are delightful smok smokers.
ers. smokers. The imported pipes sell for from
$8 to sl2 each. One of the reasons for
their high price is the necessity for hand
work in their manufacture, as, on ac--
count of their varying shapes and sizes,
machine work is not practicable. The
growing, drying and shaping of these
gourds should be interesting and they
can be easilv made into pipes by buying
inside bowls and mouthpieces.
The United States Department of
Agriculture has issued a circular (No.
41 Bureau of Plant Industry) on the
subject, giving information in regard to
the securing of seed, growing the plant,
and making the pipes, which will be
sent free to all who apply for it.
No Cause of Complaint.
The present crusade against the high
prices of grub is not likely to enlist
the active sympathy of the class of
farmers who are producing a surplus of
food crops. The crusaders are making
a valiant effort to convince the farmer
that he is not being benefited and that
the trusts are gobbling up the country,
but the wise farmer simply winks the
other eye and lets the torchlight pro procession
cession procession pass on, minus his torch. One
of these surplus-producing farmers told
the writer a few days ago that he had
advised a neighbor, who was disposed to
complain, that he had better change his
vocation if he was not satisfied with con conditions
ditions conditions on the farm when an ordinary
steer would bring sls to S2O. a small
shoat $5 to $6 corn $1 a bushel, pota potatoes
toes potatoes 50 cents a bushel, syrup 50 cents a
gallon, chickens from 40 to 75 cents each
and eggs 25 to 30 cents a dozen.
There is little need of a meat boy boycott
cott boycott if your farm furnishes plenty of
fresh fruits and vegetables. Incidentally
a few pigs might be raised to furnish
you meat.



Melanose.
Melanose is a disease of the fruit,
leaves and young branches of citrus
trees. No organism has been proved to
be the cause of this disease. Under the
microscope, it nearly always shows the
development of a corky layer of cells
just beneath the epidermis, which indi indicates
cates indicates some outside influence as causing
the trouble. The disease is associated
with a weakened condition of the tree,
and has been found to reach its greatest
development on neglected trees, or on
those otherwise diseased.
Remedy.
In 1894, Swingle and Webber found
that melanose could be controlled by the
use of Bordeaux mixture or ammoniacal
solution of copper carbonate. They ad advised
vised advised two sprayings, the first about two
weeks after the flowers have fallen, and
the second about a month later. A
Vermorel nozzle, and a pump giving a
good spray, should be used. The spray
must be applied to the fruits in the form
of a fine mist covering them thinly and
evenly. Since these sprays are fungi fungicides,
cides, fungicides, they will kill off the natural fun fungus
gus fungus enemies of the purple scale and
allow this scale to develop. Hence these
sprayings should be followed at intervals
with some good insecticide until the
friendly fungi have returned.
Symptoms.
Melanose is found on nearly all varie varieties
ties varieties of citrus. Its effects extend to only
a small distance beneath the skin. Ii
harms the fruit by the markings, which
cause such oranges or grapefruit to be
graded as second class. The disease
shows light brown to black, more or less
rounded or conical elevations from the
epidermis. These elevations vary in size
from mere points to one-sixteenth of an
inch in diameter. In gross appearance
they are much like specks of burned
sugar. They sometimes run together,
forming irregular raised areas. Fre Frequently
quently Frequently there is an arrangement of the
elevations in curves that may meet form forming
ing forming rings.
The markings on the fruit are not so
much raised as those on the stems and
leaves. The margins of many will be
seen under a hand lens to have broken
away from the surrounding healthy tis tissue,
sue, tissue, and the wax-like mass to have
shrunk towards the center, forming a
scale-like body. This appearance has
caused the disease to be sometimes mis mistaken
taken mistaken for San Tose scale. In other cases
the cracks occur in lines like the crack cracking
ing cracking of dry mud. In many cases no
cracking at all occurs.
The markings on the leaves and young
branches are more raised, and usually do
not have the scaly appearance often seen
on the fruit. Thev frequently run to together,
gether, together, the stems being more or less
completely covered. The elevations ap appear
pear appear on one or both surfaces of the
leaves, but reach their greatest develop development
ment development on the midribs. In severe cases,
the leaves may be deformed and par partially
tially partially lose their green color. Large,
leafy, quick-growing branches on the
lower half of the tree are likely to be
most commonly and severely affected.
Some of the symptoms of dieback

THE CITRUS GROVE
By B. F. FLOYD

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

(such as markings on stained terminal
branches, on ammoniated fruits, or in
connection with bark excretions) some sometimes
times sometimes resemble the markings caused by
melanose. However, the markings on
the stained terminal branches are usual usually
ly usually not raised and are not made up of
collections of small spots. The same is
true of the markings on ammoniated
fruit; while gum masses also occur in
the angles of the segments of ammoniat ammoniated
ed ammoniated fruits, but not in melanosed fruits.
The bark excretions of die-back are
usually masses of a gum-like substance
which does not appear in melanose.
Melanose starts its development only
on young tissue, and first appears as
somewhat sunken points that can barely
be seen with the unaided eye. Under a
hand lens each of these sunken points
is seen to consist of a brownish, wax waxlike
like waxlike mass. As the markings develop
they become raised areas. A yellowing
of the tissue surrounding these spots
sometimes appears.
Distribution.
Melanose occurs in all parts of the
State, even in the most isolated locali localities.
ties. localities. It has been found prevalent upon
sour orange trees at Gulf Hammock,
Fla., where there were no other groves
within a radius of fifteen miles. During
the present season melanose has in increased
creased increased in prevalence and severity. Its
presence on the fruit has caused a money
loss that will be large in the total for
the year. Like many other diseases its
prevalence varies from year to year,
probably from climatic conditions. Dur During
ing During the past two years it has been in increasing
creasing increasing in severity. Melanose is also
prevalent in the West Indian Islands;
and in Australia the citrus trees have
been reported as suffering so much from
this disease that the crop was diminish diminishing.
ing. diminishing.
GROVE NOTES.
Vigorous, well-cultivated, well-nour well-nourished
ished well-nourished trees make up the ideal grove.
Withertip, melanose, yellow spotting and
scaly bark are diseases of weakened
trees. This is the time of year to rem remedy
edy remedy bad conditions in your grove.
* *
The best and fullest effects can not
be secured from applications of fertil fertilizers
izers fertilizers to citrus trees unless the soil be
plentifully supplied with humus.
* *
In order to conserve the humus in
soils that are being burned out, the
soil must be treated so as to reduce the
amount of air which enters. If this is
due to constant cultivation, such as is
sometimes practiced in orange groves,
the practice must be changed, or humus
should be supplied to the soil to make
up the deficit.
* *
Stable manure, guano, cottonseed
meal, dried blood, and bone meal, are
stimulating fertilizers for citrus trees
and can usually be applied in small
quantities, or at infrequent intervals,
with deddedlv beneficial results for mak making
ing making wood and leaf growth; but in large
quantities, and by continued use, they
are almost certain to bring on die-back.
When used on fruiting trees, rough,

coarse fruit is apt to be produced, as
well as splitting and premature dropping.
* *
Gummosis is a dangerous disease. It
spreads slowly. It is rather harmless in.
appearance at first; but if unmolested
it will eventually girdle the branches
and kill the tree. It will pay to care carefully
fully carefully examine the trunks and larger
branches of your trees for the scaly ap appearance
pearance appearance in patches on the bark. These
patches may or may not show an exuda exudation
tion exudation of gum. If you find such, scrape
off the outer diseased bark and paint the
places with Avenarius carbolineum.
* *
If your fruit has shown the presence
of the stem end rot fungus, all dropped
fruits should be picked up and destroyed
or they will be a source of infection for
the coming crop of fruit.
* *
Some of the causes of citrus bloom
dropping are an early spring drought
following a moist winter, too low a
temperature during the blooming period
or the occurrence of heavy rain storms
and winds. But the most serious shed shedding
ding shedding of bloom occurs as the result of
an attack of the withertip fungus.
* *
The chinaberry and umbrella trees
have been proven to be a menace to
citrus culture. Have you cut your trees
down yet?
* *
Are you going to introduce the fungus
into your fly infested grove? Arrange Arrangements
ments Arrangements in regard to supplies of fungus
should be made early. For since much
of the previous summers crop of fungus
either became badly weathered or peels
off during the winter, and very little or
no new fungus develops during that
time, it may be difficult to get large
quantities readily. The fungus may be
introduced in April if the weather is
favorable.
* *
There is a time in April or May when
the whiteflv larvae are young and easily
destroyed by whale-oil soap (1 pound
to 6 gallons of water) or by any other
good insecticide sufficiently diluted so
as not to injure the leaves or young
fruit. This period comes about two
weeks after the spring brood of adults
has disappeared from the wing.
The Farmer Independent.
The farm ought to be, first of all,
self sustaining. The ideal farm home
is one which is absolutely independent,
as far as subsistence is concerned, of
all the outside world. It is the great
beauty of farm lifewhere farming is
followed as it ought to bethat the
farmer is the arbiter of his own for fortune;
tune; fortune; that his farm is a nation in minia miniature;
ture; miniature; one independent entirely, in which
each member of the family has properly
appointed functions to nerform and
wherein every dollars worth of produce
sold is that much balance of trade in
favor of the farm. The proper func function
tion function of the farm is to produce its own
revenue of subsistence, and afterward to
supply for a valuable consideration,
the needs of non-producers; and all pur purchases
chases purchases should be such as add to the
material and mental resources of the
farm home.
Plants should be sown with reference
to their size and habits of growth;
some requite distance, and others thrive
better when planted close together. The
gardener must know his plants as the
farmer does his field crops.

9



10

SUB-TROPICAL LABORATORY AND GARDEN
By P. J. WESTER

With the ever increasing acreage of
citrus trees planted in Middle Florida
after 1880, and in the greater amount
of capital invested in the industry there
soon arose a demand for better informa information
tion information as to the cultivation of the fruit and
more knowledge in regard to the treat treatment
ment treatment of diseases apd combating of in insect
sect insect enemies injurious to tree and fruit.
In response to this demand a patholog pathological
ical pathological laboratory was established in Eustis,
with Dr. H. J. Webber and Mr. W. T.
Swingle jointly in charge. Investiga Investigations
tions Investigations principally related to the citrus
fruits were for several years conducted
in the State with this point as headquar headquarters,
ters, headquarters, and much valuable information was
disseminated as a result of the work
through bulletins issued by the Depart Department
ment Department of Agriculture and local publica publications.
tions. publications.
The freeze in 1895 showed that many
experiments could not safely be con conducted
ducted conducted in the latitude of Eustis and the
operations at this point were in conse consequence
quence consequence suspended and arrangements
made to relocate the Laboratory farther
south. The present site of the Labora Laboratory,
tory, Laboratory, about one mile south of the court
house in Miami on Biscayne Bay, was
decided upon after a trip had been made
to South Florida by Dr. H. J. Webber
and Messrs. Wm. A. Taylor and D. G.
Fairchild of the Bureau of Plant In Industry,
dustry, Industry, U. S. Department of Agricul Agriculture,
ture, Agriculture, with a view of finding a suitable
location. A laboratory and superintend superintendent's
ent's superintendent's house were erected in 1898 by Mr.
H. M. Flagler for the use of the depart department.
ment. department.
Mr. Frank Dean was first appointed
in charge of the Garden, but very little
money was expended during the first
years by the Department for improve improvement,
ment, improvement, and Mr. Dean resigned in 1900 to
be superseded by Mr. H. C. Hendrick Hendricksen.
sen. Hendricksen. In 1901 Prof. P. H. Rolfs was ap appointed
pointed appointed pathologist in charge of the Lab Laboratory
oratory Laboratory and Garden. Mr. Hendricksen
supervising the garden feature of the
work. This consisted mainly of clearing
the land and erecting a large plant shed
for the pineapple hybrids produced by
Dr. H. J. Webber and W. T. Swingle.
With the exception of those and the
citrus hybrids effected by the same men
comparatively few plants had been sent
to the Garden prior to the erection of
an irrigation plant in 1904. Mr. Hen Hendricksen
dricksen Hendricksen resigned from his position in
February, 1904, to become horticulturist
of the newly established experiment sta station
tion station in Porto Rico, and the writer was
appointed his successor. Prof. Rolfs re resigned
signed resigned February, 1906, to accept the
directorship of the Florida State Ex Experiment
periment Experiment Station in Gainesville, and was
succeeded by Dr. E. A. Bussey, who
made a special study of the rootknot
nematode. Dr. Bussey severed his con connection
nection connection with the Laboratory October,
1908, to accept the professorship of bot botany
any botany in the State University of Louisi Louisiana.
ana. Louisiana. At this juncture the pathological
work was discontinued, and the Garden
wholly devoted to acclimatization and
plant breeding work, and to the propa propagation
gation propagation and distribution of plants under

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

the direction of the writer. In August
this year the larger part of the appro appropriation
priation appropriation for the operation of the Garden
was withdrawn by the Department, the
office staff transferred to Washington
and the Garden operated jointly with
the recently formed Subtropical Labora Laboratory
tory Laboratory Association, Mr. E Simmonds re remaining
maining remaining in charge. It is expected that
the State will eventually assume control
of the institution and convert it to a
substation of the experiment station in
Gainesville.
Of the work accomplished since the
establishment of the Laboratory in Mi Miami,
ami, Miami, may be mentioned the isolation and
determination of the fungus causing the
withertip disease of the citrus trees and
the working out of a practical remedy
for the control of this disease by Prof.
Rolfs, summarized in a bulletin pub published
lished published by the Department of Agricul Agriculture.
ture. Agriculture. Publications on the Avacado,
Pineapple, and the cultivation of the
citrus fruits in the Gulf States, were
also prepared by Prof. Rolfs, who also
made the diseases of vegetables and
tropical fruits a subject for study. A
trip was made in 1903 by Prof. Rolfs to
Jamaica to collect cassava varieties of
high starch content, and thirty-one va varieties
rieties varieties were introduced, of which twelve
were found valuable. In 1905 he was
sent by the Department to Mexico in
an endeavor to introduce the culture of
the vanilla to Florida and several species
were then and subsequently introduced
to the Garden. Extended experiment
with this plant indicates that while
South Florida could no doubt produce
vanilla with protection against the cold
during the winter, it would not be ad advisable
visable advisable to invest capital in this industry
here in face of the more favorable cli climatic
matic climatic conditions in other parts of the
world.
Asa result of several years of breed breeding
ing breeding and selection a large fruited variety
of roselle has been originated and a bul bulletin
letin bulletin on the subject prepared by the
writer. Experimental work with bud budding
ding budding the avocado has been pursued until
by following the methods worked out at
the Garden budded trees may be ob obtained
tained obtained ready for planting out in the
field one year from planting the seed.
A good stock for the recently intro introduced
duced introduced cherimoya, soursop and custard
apple has been found in the pond apple
native of the south of the State. It has
also been demonstrated that the cheri cherimoya
moya cherimoya may be grown on the custard and
sugar apple so well and successfully in introduced
troduced introduced in the southern portion of the
State, and the details of the grafting
and budding of anonaceous trees have
been worked out. The first cherimoyas
to fruit in Florida were ripened last
year on a tree in the Garden. The very
distinct flavors and other characteristics
possessed by the different species of An Anonas
onas Anonas promise the production of new
fruits of superior merits through hy hybridization
bridization hybridization if the right combinations are
effected, and it may be of interest to
know that successful crosses were made
between several species last year and
that the hybrids produced are vigorous

and strong growers; what the fruit will
be like s, of course, problematical.
The citrus and pineapple hybrids pro produced
duced produced by Dr. H. J. Webber and Mr. W.
T. Swingle have been grown at the Gar Garden
den Garden and a grove budded from the for former
mer former has been set out for testing pur purposes
poses purposes at Little River. Twelve of the
pineapple hybrids originated were
named and distributed to the pineapple
growers on account of their superior
qualities.
In co-operation with the office of plant
introduction and distribution a large
number of new plants have been intro introduced
duced introduced and tested. Among successful in introductions
troductions introductions may be mentioned the Pith Pithecolobium
ecolobium Pithecolobium dulce from Mexico, a shade
tree of exceedingly rapid growth, that
possibly may be found to be a valuable
timber tree also. The Eucalyptus ro robusta
busta robusta has also been found to do well
here, more so than perhaps any other
species of the genius. The leaves and
twigs of this species, popularly called
swamp mahogany, have been analyzed
by Dr. W. W. Stockberger of the Bu Bureau
reau Bureau of Plant Industry and show a tan tannic
nic tannic acid content of 17 per cent. It is
well adapted for growth on low and
marshy lands, and makes a desirable
shade and avenue tree on account of its
quick growth and attractive habit. The
Cecropia palmata, a quick growing shade
tree producing curious well flavored
fruits that may be eaten raw or pre preserved,
served, preserved, the turpentine tree, Syncarpia
laurifolia, from Australia, a valuable
timber tree for ship building, all kinds
of building material and cabinet work*
and eminently suited for a shade tree,
and a very handsome and rapid grow growing
ing growing species of Ficus from South Africa
have all been found to succeed very
well.
Vegetable Fiber a Possible Rival to
Jute.
Unless there are some serious draw drawbacks
backs drawbacks to its cultivation, a South Amer American
ican American fiber plant should prove of inter interest
est interest to owners of jute mills and to paper
manufacturers, in the opinion of Vice-
Consul-General Charles B. Perry, who,
in writing on this subject from Cal Calcutta,
cutta, Calcutta, says:
A South American fiber variously
called aramina, guaxima and uaxvma,
is yielded by the Urena lobata, a plant
which, according to an agricultural
ledger just issued by the economic de department
partment department of the Indian government, is
likewise widely distributed in India, and
is practically a jungle weed in Assam,
Burma, and Chittagong. Chemical
analyses of the plant show it to be not
very different from jute, though some somewhat
what somewhat harsher, with a staple from 4 to
6 feet in length; and these analyses
seem also to indicate that it would be
an excellent fiber for paper making.
There are, without doubt, considerable
areas in the Southern States where this
fiber can be grown.
Wood ashes, when properly kept, make
good fertilizer. Hardwood ashes con contain
tain contain from one to 10 per cent potash.
Ashes will be especially beneficial to
garden peas, Irish potatoes, turnips, rad radishes
ishes radishes and onions.
Sweet corn should not be planted too
early. It requires a warm soil; it sel seldom
dom seldom germinates well when planted too
early. Plant about the time field corn
is planted.



(This schedule of work is prepared
more especially for the benefit of the in inexperienced
experienced inexperienced and those who have recently
come to the State, and is intended to
apply in a general way to the latitude
of 27 to 28 degrees, but is adapted in
some measure to like crops in the entire
State of Florida.)
In the farm work bear in mind that
early crops of forage are cured better
than mid-summer crops, on account of
the rainy season. Plan for feed for the
cow, the horse and the poultry. A good
corn crop is the main standby for 'all
stock. Therefore plan well for a good
crop of corn. March is the month for
planting the main crop. Plant mostly
Florida corn, as it has been proven, and
avoid the too common error of planting
too thickly or rows too close together.
Single stalks two or three feet apart will
usually be found to be about right, as
the feeding roots are better distributed,
thus affording a greater allowance to
each plant.
In this as well as other farm crops do
not practice exclusively Northern or
Western methods, but combine your own
experience with what you can learn from
your present neighbors.
Cassava will also be found desirable
if you have stock. Plant this about
three and a half by three feet, and do
not put the canes too deep. Four or six
inches is about right. Use some fertil fertilizer
izer fertilizer after planting.
Cowpeas is another excellent plant for
stock feed, especially if the season should
be dry. Aside from its general value
for renovating and enriching the soil it
produces a class of fodder which is of
great service at a time when succulent
feed is sometimes scarce. We know its
power to thrive on poor soils under the
most adverse circumstances, and it is one
of those crops which takes the place of
a fallow, with a distinct gain to the soil,
between two main crops.
Plant cat-tail millet, Kaffir corn and
sorghum, and try pop-corn for the poul poultry.
try. poultry. Also sow some beggarweed seed
for summer and fall feed.
Plant Japanese cane, and if you have
not already done so plant the ordinary
sugar cane for making the most delicious
syrup you ever ate.
In the Grove and Orchard.
The latter part of March and the early
part of April, when growth on the or orange
ange orange has fully begun, is the best time to
do what pruning is necessarythat is to
cut out dead wood and remove water
sprouts.
The principle in pruning, as I see it,
is this: Remove live branches only near
the time for the sap to flow, so as to be
healed over in the quickest time, as
otherwise a dry stub remains, and may
never be covered with new growth.
This principle applies to dry branches
also, as they should be cut off in the
green wood.
Now, as to the application of this to
the orange. If these trees were pruned
in January a wound was made that can
not heal over till growth in the spring.
If done in the fall, a tender spot is
made which is almost sure to be injured
by cold and to cause die-back spots.

MARCH IN FLORIDA
By W. H. HASKELL

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

Therefore the best time is after growth
starts.
Dont trim up any fruit tree for tht
purpose of working under it with the
horse, rather let the branches grow low
enough to shade the body of the tree,
especially on the south and west sides.
If this is not done, and the tree is
trimmed up, it is liable to become sun sunscalded
scalded sunscalded and stunted. Young trees re require
quire require a little pruning, but old bearing
trees need but little attention in this
line.
The amount of fertilizer that should
be applied to a tree depends on the kind
of fruit, size of the tree and whether a
crop of fruit is expected. If for a
young, growing tree, a less quantity and
of different ingredients is needed than
for a fruit.crop. Much more ammonia,
and a fertilizer of a lower grade is re required
quired required for a tree to make wood growth
only. Consult the State chemists
monthly report, and the fertilizer manu manufacturers
facturers manufacturers catalogues for information
along these lines.
A fruiting pear or persimmon tree re requires
quires requires less fertilizer than a larger fruit fruiting
ing fruiting orange tree. From twenty to
twenty-five pounds or more during the
season can be used to advantage for
such orange trees. One-third that
amount would do for the other trees.
Fertilize the pecan trees about as you
would the orange.
Harrow in the fertilizer with a spad spading
ing spading harrow, or a Cutaway, or if the
ground is clean with an Acme, but do
not under any circumstances plow it in.
No large fruiting tree should have its
roots disturbed, much less torn to pieces
and out of the ground by the plow, or
any other tool. It causes blight in the
pear, too much and too tender growth
and coarse fruit on the orange. Work
the fertilizer in with the prong hoe
where the harrow can not go. Spread
the fertilizer over all the pround be between
tween between the rows and among large orange
trees.
Look over the peach orchard and re remove
move remove dead wood and look for borers in
the stem and roots. Dig them out with
an old knife and a wire.
This is the month to top graft am
tree you may wish to change to other
varieties. It is well to have some late
pears, and graft all wild persimmon
trees to the best kinds. Especially, graft
all hickorv and undesirable pecan trees
to choice kinds.
Cleft graft all large stocks. If more
than two or three inches in diameter
treat the stock, after sawing off, as
though you were going to square it, that
is make small clefts around the sides of
the stock, and not through the center.
Well-matured scions about as thick as
your little finger are about the size to
use. See that the bark of stock and
scion unite and cover with wax and
shade with a newspaper till they start
to grow.
In the Garden.
Continue to plant radishes, lettuce,
turnips and beets for a succession, and
add to your plantings of February the
more tender vegetables, such as snap
beans, sweet corn, cucumbers, squash,
okra, eggplant, etc.

The main crop of watermelons and
muskmelons or cantaloupes, is planted
this month. These crops are mostly for
home use and nearby markets. Use
mostly commercial fertilizer for the
melon crop. Plant only Southern
melons; the Northern varieties are not
as good.
Plant out a bed of sweet potatoes for
draws and plants. Do not fail to make
a crop of sweet potatoes. They always
sell well, and no other crop comes any anywhere
where anywhere near it in value for home sup supplies.
plies. supplies. Plant a variety that is known to
do well in your particular locality.
Horse manure is very good for a sweet
potato crop.
If not already planted put in Irish
potatoes the first of this month. A
moist, rich spot is best for this crop.
Plant the rows about three feet apart,
and twenty inches in the row. A good
compost of cow and horse manure is
good, but a regular potato fertilizer of
the commercial article is hard to beat,
especially for quality of tubers. As to
kinds that are best, make inquiry in
your neighborhood. The Early Ohio
and Beauty of Hebron are good kinds.
Dont plant the late kinds, as they will
come in during the hot, dry weather of
June. Cut the seed to about two eyes
to a piece. Plant in furrows about ten
inches deep and cover six inches. Try
to keep the rows a little below level,
so that the rains will run to the plants,
rather than from them.
Continue to thin the onions, turnips,
beets, etc. The onion and beet plants
can be transplanted. Fertilize the onion
crop again, and keep them growing.
Set out tomato plants after the mid middle
dle middle of this month. Prepare the ground
about as for Irish potatoes, only plant
wider both as to rows and also in the
rows, say about three by four feet for
the larger-growing kinds. The Dwarf
Champion may stand closer in the row.
Sweet corn requires richer ground, or
more fertilizer, than common field corn.
The best sweet corn for the pine woods
land is the Country Gentleman. The
small extra early varieties do not
amount to much here.
The Horses Plea.
m attractive placard, headed with a
picture of four horses and the words:
Pleass be kind to us we work hard
for you, is being circulated in Cincin Cincinnati
nati Cincinnati by the Ohio Humane Society. It
reads as follows:
Please give us water often.
Please give us a moments rest on the
way up the hill.
Please do not overload us. We are
doing our best.
Please dont use the whip. It is sel seldom
dom seldom necessary.
Please remember that we will respond
to a word as quickly as to a blow.
Please look out for our health and
dont work us when we are sick.
Please see that we are properly shod.
Please be sure that we' have enough
to eat and that we are fed regularly..
Please keep us in such good condition
that youll be proud to drive us.
Please see that the harness fits and
does not chafe sore and tender spots.
Please remember that two weeks va vacation
cation vacation each year will make us more ser serviceable
viceable serviceable and valuable.
Remember we work hard for you and
get no pay.
Stock is the surest foundation upon
which to build success in farming.

11



12

As the pineapple fields on the East
Coast become old and give way to new
plantings, the grower is confronted with
the problem of disposing of the old
plants. In the past they have usually
been disposed of in the way that seemed
easiest, without much thought of their
value. Some have hauled them out to
the river bank or other out-of-the-way
place; some have burned them; a few
have dug trenches and buried them at a
depth of 12 inches or more; while others
have put them in piles to decay, and then
spread the residue over their fields.
To know the value of the old plants
we must know the amount of material
per acre and its plant-food content. The
average green weight of several whole
plants from a four-year-old field, was
found to be 12pounds. There would
be about 14,000 such plants to the acre,
since this is the average number that is
usually set. This will give 87 y 2 tons of
green plants. Since about 15 y 2 per cent
of this is dry matter, there would be ap approximately
proximately approximately tons of water-free ma material
terial material to the acre. From the average of
many analyses we find that this water waterfree
free waterfree material contains the following
amounts of fertilizing constituents:
nitrogen 0.74 per cent, (equivalent to
0.9 per cent, ammonia,) phosphoric acid
0.83 per cent., and potash 2.4 per cent.
From these figures we find that
tons of dry material will contain 200
pounds of nitrogen (243 pounds of am ammonia)
monia) ammonia) equivalent to 1,428 pounds high highgrade
grade highgrade dried blood, 224 pounds of phos phosphoric
phoric phosphoric acid equivalent to 1,224 pounds of
slag phosphate, and 648 pounds of
potash equivalent to 1,296 pounds of
high-grade sulphate of potash. At the
present price of fertilizers, these mater materials
ials materials would be worth $81.59 cents
per ton for the green material, $6.04 per
ton for the dry material). If the plants
from an acre of ground are thrown on
the river bank or in some other waste
place, all of this is lost. If they are
burned, the nitrogen (ammonia) is lost,
the value of which would be $40.70. In
either case the land is deprived of its
rightful heritage, the humus.
How to Utilize the Material.
It would certainly be better to bury
the plants than to throw them away or
burn them; but to bury them completely
requires, the digging of trenches at least
twelve inches deep, and in doing this
much of the surface soil, which is the
richest (analyses have shown that there
is much more nitrogen just at the sur surface
face surface in the pineapple fields than there is
at a depth of 12 inches or more) is
placed entirely out of the reach of the
roots of the young plants that are to fol follow.
low. follow. In coarse sandy soils like the pine pineapple
apple pineapple soils, the plant-food tends to leach
away, especially when it is once beyond
the network of roots, and on this ac account
count account it does not seem wise to cover up
the rich surface soil deeply.
The method of piling the plants into
heaps like compost heaps has been suc successful,
cessful, successful, and would seem to be the least
wasteful of anv. The grower who dis disposes
poses disposes of his old plants in this way cuts
off the tops and grubs them into the soil
to the depth of four to six inches, and
also digs up the stubs with the. lower

OLD PINEAPPLE PLANTS
*
By A. W. BLAIR

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

leaves and puts them in large piles to
rot. In about two years they are in the
condition of well-rotted stable manure,
and when spread over the ground are
grubbed in to the depth of two or three
inches. If this should seem an expen expensive
sive expensive method, we need only remind our ourselves
selves ourselves that fhe old plants must be dis disposed
posed disposed of in some way, and in throwing
them away or burning them we lose
much plant-food, and in addition, have
to bear the expense of moving them.
In addition to furnishing nitrogen,
phosphoric acid, and potash, the de decayed
cayed decayed plants furnish the humus which is
greatly needed. This is especially the
case on the East Coast where the
climatic conditions favor the dis disappearance
appearance disappearance of humus. The humus
furnishes food for the bacteria which
are at work converting inert nitrogen
into available nitrogen, it acts as a
sponge to hold moisture and plant-food,
and it causes better circulation of the
air through the soil.
This decaying organic matter will
gradually bring about an acid condition
of the soil, which can readily be cor corrected
rected corrected by the use of slag phosphate,
finely ground limestone, or ashes. Only
when the plants are diseased should
they be burnt, and this should be done
in such a way that the ashes can be re returned
turned returned to the soil.
Pecan; The Gold Mine of The South.
The pecan is a variety of hickory
(Hicoria Pecan or Carya Olivaeformis).
The tree grows to a height of from 60 to
100 feet and the trunk to 4 feet in di diameter.
ameter. diameter. A tree in full bearing will pro produce
duce produce as much as 600 pounds to the tree.
The age of it is variously stated; some
With the exception of a few favorable
spots in Mexico, the United States is
the only country in which the pecan
grows naturally. It is a native of no
other country on the face of the globe.
Very little attention was paid to it as a
source of wealth, until quite recently, in
spite of which it is already becoming
a staple on every market.
Twenty years ago no such thing as
a budded or grafted pecan tree in bear bearing
ing bearing was known, and now there are thou thousands
sands thousands of budded and grafted trees being
planted every year.
The effect of budding or grafting the
pecan tree is truly remarkable. From
a tree that takes twelve or fifteen years
to come into bearing it changes it to
one that will bear in from 3 to 5 years.
Its geographical distribution in this
country is large, extending from lowa
to the Gulf of Mexico, and from the
Atlantic to the Pacific coast; but the
nuts reach their greatest perfection south
of latitude 34.
The nuts are worth on our markets
from 5 to 25 cents per pound, according
to size and quality. These are seedlings,
no budded or grafted sorts have yet
been sold except for the purpose of
planting, and bring from 50c to $3 per.
pound.
Quite an interest has already been
shown in nut culture in the South, and
there is no doubt but that the South is
destined to be a large producer, enjoy enjoying

ing enjoying as it does many climatic advantages
over the North.
That the planting of nut trees is a
lucrative and profitable business, as well
as a safe investment there can be no
question.
On account of an erroneous belief
that it takes a lifetime for a nut tree
to bear, people have been afraid to take
hold of the business. When it becomes
generally known that a grafted or bud budded
ded budded pecan will come into bearing as
soon as an apple, and that a full sized
tree will bear from 500 to 700 pounds
to the tree, the people of the South will
awake to the fact that they have had a
gold mine at their very doors without
knowing it. The land can be cultivated
until they come into bearing, then seed
down in bermuda or alfalfa. Again,
why not plant pecans for shade trees in
all new streets and parks. You can
plant no longer lived tree, and none
more useful as well as ornamental.
Alabama Times.
A Big Cucumber.
The largest cucumber ever grown in
this region was brought into town from
Solana last Saturday by Mr. H. K. Far Farrell,
rell, Farrell, who is one of our most successful
truckers. Weighing two pounds and
seven ounces, it would have taken a
prize for superb cucumbers. It was per perfect
fect perfect in shape and had a form similar to
a watermelon of the long variety.
Mr. Farrell has just finished market marketing
ing marketing his cucumbers. He planted only
about a quarter of an acre, more for
experiment than anything else, and he
has shipped 145 hampers, on which he
is receiving good returns.
The method of planting which Mr.
Farrell has adopted, would probably
prove profitable if adopted by other
truckers. When putting in cucumbers,
he sets tomato plants amongst them,
and by the time he finishes marketing
his cucumbers the tomatoes are begin beginning
ning beginning to bear. Thus he makes two crops
on a certain piece of ground at the same
time. He has orange trees growing on
his place, and amongst these, in winter,
he plants his vegetables in such a way
that the trees protect them from the
cold.
This is only one illustration of what
energy and ingenuity can accomplish in
Florida. People of the necessary energy,
determination and hustle can make big
money cultivating Florida land.Punta
Gorda Herald.
There should be a good reason for
doing everything. It is well to ask
yourself for a reason when you do work
in the garden. Much of the supersti superstition,
tion, superstition, such as planting when the moon is
in a certain position, or on certain days,
would vanish if people would be guided
by reason. There should be a good
reason for everything done in the gar garden.
den. garden.
It is estimated that there are 1,000
acres planted to vegetables in the Ar Arcadia
cadia Arcadia section. The beans are in bloom
and melon vines are looking thrifty.
About 50 cars a week represent to tomato
mato tomato shipments now rolling from Dade
county, the greatest activity being shown
at Little River.
The acreage at Dania is 500 in toma tomatoes,
toes, tomatoes, 50 in Irish potatoes, 50 in peppers
and eggplants and some Mall plantings
of cukes and squash.



SORGHUM CULTURE.
Preparation of Soil and Directions for
Growing This Forage Crop.
By C. K. McQuarrie.
All through the Southern States the
sorghum crop is a very satisfactory one
and is in great demand where the rais raising
ing raising of live stock is part of the farmers
operations.
There are several varieties of sor sorghum,
ghum, sorghum, and some of these are better
adapted to certain localities and cer certain
tain certain soils than others. The saccharin
sorghums, in which are the varieties
best known, generally give best satis satisfaction
faction satisfaction when used either as silage, cut cutting
ting cutting and curing for hay, or when grazed
by live stock. These varieties are dis distinguished
tinguished distinguished by their tall stalks and pro profuse
fuse profuse foliage and their general sweetness.
The names of those most in use are the
Orange and the Early Amber,
either of which does well on the sandy
soils of the South.
In preparing for a sorghum crop, the
land must be thoroughly plowed to a
depth of ten or twelve inches and the
soil made mellow and thoroughly pul pulverized
verized pulverized so as to maintain the necessary
soil moisture and take care of the fer fertilizer
tilizer fertilizer applied before planting the seed.
In the general rotation, sorghum
should follow velvet beans or cow peas,
because being a gross feeder and re requiring
quiring requiring an excess of moisture in the
soil to do well, these crops being le legumes,
gumes, legumes, add both humus and fertility in
the, shape of nitrogen, so that the soil,
which had legumes growing on it for
a previous crop, is best adapted to a
sorghum crop.
If the land has been broken in early
winter by deep plowing and all decayed
vegetation turned under, it will be ready
for planting the seed early in March.
A heavy application of a high grade
fertilizer, say 800 pounds per acre,
should be applied broadcast a week or
50 before planting. Before applying this
fertilizer, however, the soil should be
worked over with a fine-tooth culti cultivator,
vator, cultivator, then the fertilizer applied and a
harrow or weeder run cross-wise of
this cultivation so as to mix the fertil fertilizer
izer fertilizer thoroughly with the soil, then the
seed planted not later than a week af afterwards.
terwards. afterwards.
The duality of the fertilizer cuts quite
a figure in the productiveness and qual quality
ity quality of the crop. Every crop on the
farm should have the perfectly bal balanced
anced balanced plant ration that it calls for. A
fifteen-ton crop of sorghum will remove
from the soil seventy-two pounds of
ammonia, one hundred and forty-one of
potash, and fifty-eight pounds of phos phosphoric
phoric phosphoric acid, and it is along these lines
of the crops demands for plant food
that we must be guided when getting
the necessary fertilizer.
A fertilizer suitable for sorghum
should, therefore, have an analysis of
not less than four per cent, of am ammonia,
monia, ammonia, five per rent, phosphoric acid
and eight to ten per cent, potash.
If legumes have been the previous
crop, considerable ammonia will be
available in the soil, to make up for
this we would better have a little ex excess
cess excess of potash in our fertilizer so as to
even up the analysis and give a chance
of an extra good yield.
In planting the seed, if the crop is

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

for grain production, it should be plant planted
ed planted in drills three and a half feet apart.
If for hay and forage, it should be sown
broadcast. The amount of seed neces necessary
sary necessary for drilling is about twenty pounds.
For broadcasting, not less than thirty thirtyfive
five thirtyfive pounds per acre should be used.
In any case, either for drilling or broad broadcasting,
casting, broadcasting, the seed bed must be of the
very best; the soil well broken and
thoroughly pulverized, and extreme care
exercised that the fertilizer is thor thoroughly
oughly thoroughly incorporated with the soil. Fu Future
ture Future cultivation, where drilled, must be
constant and thorough and very shal shallow,
low, shallow, for the small roots feed somewhat
near the surface, and if deep working
is practiced a number of these shallow
feeders will be destroyed.
Seed planted in early March will give
a crop ready for harvesting in mid-
June and two other cuttings can be
nad alter that. If the seed has been
broadcast, the hay will be ready to cut
two weeks before that time.
One of the best uses to which sor sorghum
ghum sorghum can be put, when sown broadcast,
is hog feeding. Hogs will thrive on
young sorghum as on nothing else, more
especially the young pigs. Hog raisers
should always have a sorghum patch
into which they can turn their young
pigs. For poultry, nothing equals sor sorghum
ghum sorghum seed, and if the seed is allowed
to mature before cutting the crop, it is
good for all kinds of live stock. But
as a general proposition, it is not ad advisable
visable advisable to delay cutting the cropuntil
the seed is nearly ripe. The best time
is when the seed in the head is full
grown, before it turns brown.
Sorghum has also proved very satis satisfactory
factory satisfactory for silage purposes, quite a num number
ber number of silos being filled with it entirely
and some silos with corn and sorghum
mixeda half of each. In Florida par particularly,
ticularly, particularly, this mixture has been satis satisfactory
factory satisfactory to a degree.
Cantaloupe Culture.
The following written by Mr. Fuller
Briers, of Fruitdale, Ala., contains some
very good advice with reference to the
cantaloupe. Unfortunately, many of our
Florida readers do not fully realize the
importance of taking care of and using
stable manure in growing such crops as
these, and thereby constantly improve
the soil. Of course, fine crops are pro produced
duced produced by the use of commercial fertil
izers alone, but when these are supple supplemented
mented supplemented by the liberal use of stable ma manure
nure manure the land is constantly becoming en enriched
riched enriched and there is no danger of it be becoming
coming becoming worn out. Mr. Briers writes
In preparing the ground for these
melons, after ploying deeply and thor thoroughly
oughly thoroughly the fall previous, after harrowing
I take a double team and two-horse
plow and mark the field deeply in
straight rows five feet apart each wa>
so that at the crossing of the furrowt
there will be deep checks with a loa(
of manure driven astride one row, put
two shovelfuls in each check where a
hill is to be made, doing three rows at
a time.
If you have a large field, skip one
row after manuring ten rows, then ma manure
nure manure twenty rows and skip one row.
and thus across the field. The object
of this is, it saves manure and the
vacant rows can be used to drive your
wagon along in distributing empty pick picking
ing picking baskets to the hands and for receiv receiving
ing receiving full baskets from the pickers. By

this way a picker has only to cross a
afty-foot space to deliver his lull basket
to the wagon and receive an empty
basket.
When your field is all manured, take
a two-horse plow and cover the. manure
checks with two furrows each way,
forming square hills, then plow between
the hills with a one-horse cultivator. I
always prefer to do this work the fall
before. I have more time then to do
the work carefully and properly, and
should the spring prove a wet one, or
dry, the hills already prepared the fall
before, will be in a good condition for
planting.
When I am ready to plant, I take a
louble team and five-tooth cultivator
aid drive astride the rows of hills. I
veight the cultivator so that it will go
leep and tear down the hills. When
/eady to plant in the hills I take the cul culivator
ivator culivator and drive the other way on as
nany rows as I intend to plant that day.
Watch closely for the little striped
beetles as soon as your plants are well
ip, and when you first see them at once
lust the plants with wood ashes or air air.laked
.laked air.laked lime thoroughly. The danger
rom insects is practically over when
he plants have formed two leaves in
fize about that of a half-dollar coin.
After the plants are up do not on
my account disturb or injure the roots
n any way, nor allow any grass or
-veeds to grow in the hills. When the
fines begin running, carefully turn them
iside, drawing §ne dirt up around the
fill to smother any young grass that
nay be starting. It is my custom to
ceep the cultivators and float drag go gong
ng gong over the field twice a week until the
fines are running too much to make
uch work safe. I have never found that
1 have worked a melon field too much.
A melon is exactly in the proper con conlition
lition conlition for shipment when the stem
dightly parts from the melon, leaving
10 traces of stem tissue thereon, nor
my portion of the melon left on the
item, this will always happen when the
nelon is pulled too green. At the proper
picking stage, too, a peculiar gray ap appearance
pearance appearance is on both skin and netting.
This feature is readily recognized when
ane becomes accustomed to picking for
narket. In dry, hot weather it is al always
ways always best to make two pickings, one
?arly in the morning and again late in
the afternoon. The shipping season usu usuilly
illy usuilly lasts about forty days, and the aver averige
ige averige yield is about 400 bushels per acre
with 1,742 hills to the acre when planted
five feet aoart. Some growers prefer
die one-half bushel climax basket, and
in many of the melon growing sections
this is the package in common use, but
l prefer the one-third bushel handle Cli Climax
max Climax with slat cover. I intend, however,
o make up a melon crate of my own in invention
vention invention to use in future, having tried
his on a small scale and found it car carded
ded carded the melons better, made a much
nore attractive display in market,
packed in the car more satisfactorily
md cost less than the baskets, for I
nake them up myself during rainy win winter
ter winter davs instead of cussinp- and discuss discussing
ing discussing the political situation at Uncle
Lishas shop. The melons should be
very carefully assorted before packing,
having all the melons of the same ripe ripeness
ness ripeness as near as possible, discarding all
cracked, over-ripe or ill-shaped melons.
When the cows teats become chapned
and sore use a little vaseline after milk milking
ing milking and the trouble will soon disap disappear.
pear. disappear.

13



14

CASSAVA AND JAPANESE CANE.
Two of Floridas Greatest and Best
Crops.
For the last several years I have be become
come become enthused over these two crops
Cassava and Japanese sugar cane. How
strange that our people have not real realized
ized realized the importance of these crops? Of
course we all know of them, but still
they are not appreciated. As food for
man or feed for beast there are no
other crop that will compare.
Cassava will grow where sweet po potatoes
tatoes potatoes will, and yield three to four times
as much. It is easily worked and may
be allowed to stand for two years. Frost
will kill the top, but it will sprout and
grow again the second year, and corn the
third if not used. I once fed into the
third year off of one patch. The roots
are all starch. For cows, hogs, horses,
chickens, and for people, if made into
pudding, there is nothing so fine. Grated
and mixed with flour for bread it is
great. The tapioca of commerce is made
from cassava. Everybody may not know
this. We are planting more of it this
year than ever before.
I am also planting sugar caneJapa caneJapanese
nese caneJapanese and Louisiana greenfor my cat cattle,
tle, cattle, hogs and horses. Now not one far farmer
mer farmer in a hundred, that I know of,
grows sugar cane for stock. They about
all grow it, but it is made into syrup.
What in the world is better feed for any
and all stock than sugar cane? Cut it
into two or three inch pieces for horses,
and just throw it over the fence to the
cows and hogs at night i'and I guaran guarantee
tee guarantee the next morning there will be noth nothing
ing nothing left except the litter if fed to hogs.
It should be fed with cassava, then you
get sugar and starch which make fat.
Talk about fat hogs? I should smile.
We also like fat horses and cows milch
cows to be sure, as well as beef cat cattle.
tle. cattle.
Bulletin No. 49, Florida Experiment
Station was great. It is out of print. I
would like to suggest to the Station
to get up another one and let it deal
with sugar cane and cassava, instead of
cassava and velvet beans, for the reason
that one acre of cane will make more
feed than five or ten of beans. No one
will deny or doubt this.
Mr. N. H. Fogg, of Altamonte
Springs, the great old champion of Ja Japanese
panese Japanese sugar cane, deserves, and may
have* a statue and monument erected to
his memory some day, after he has gone,
for the good things he has said of Ja Japanese
panese Japanese sugar cane. It will grow where
maiden cane will, and will crush, smoth smother
er smother and kill it out. It will make ten tons
to the acre where one ton of rag weeds,
dog fennel, or sage grass will grow.
Prepare the land well and give it a
little fertilizer the first year, and after
that hit it a lick and make it a prom promise,
ise, promise, and for five or six years you have
more feed to the acre than the best
alfalfa land in the West will make. Of
course this Japanese cane must be bank banked
ed banked before it is frozen. Some day it will
be shredded as they do corn stalks in
the North.
Now, the idea of corn stalks for feed!
Did you ever? And where we can grow
forty to one of these full-of-sugar Ja Japanese
panese Japanese sugar canes! I am almost ex exasperated
asperated exasperated that the fool killer does not
get busy with people who do not grow
sugar cane and cassava in Florida
Sugar cane, cassava and hogs. See?
Well just watch me!
WM. P. NEELD.
River View, Fla.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

Citrus Scales and Whitefly.
By E. W. Berger
When there is a great increase of
scales, whether or not whitefly is also
present, it is evident that the fungus
diseases of these insects are absent or
are not thriving. In this case spraying
with some good contract insecticide, or
fumigation, should be employed to give
immediate relief.
In the sprino-. summer and fall it is
not possible to use strong spraying mix mixtures,
tures, mixtures, and it may be advisable to spray
the infested trees several times at in intervals
tervals intervals of some weeks. It will not al always
ways always be necessary to spray the whole
grove, but only the most infested trees.
When whitefly is present, the spray
should of course be applied to its larvae
as well as to the scales.
The following precautions should be
kept in mind when spraying for scales
in spring, summer or fall.
1. Spray when many young scales can
be seen with a lens to be crawling about,
or to have attached themselves. These
young scales appear either as oval mov moving
ing moving specks or as round whitish dots.
Thev are easily destroyed by a weak
spraying solution which will not injure
the fruit or foliage in any stage of
growth.
2. Any contact insecticide may be em employed,
ployed, employed, such as soap solutions, emulsions
of oils, or good proprietary insecticides.
Soap solutions of 1 pound of soap to
G-9 gallons of water will destroy the
crawling scales and those just set, to together
gether- together with the young whitefly larvae,
without injuring the trees.
3. Avoid insecticides which are recom recommended
mended recommended as useful for fungus diseases of
citrus, because thev also destroy the
fungus diseases of the scales and white whiteflv.
flv. whiteflv. Whale-oil soap causes little or no
injury to these fungi, and the same is
true of some of the best proprietary in insecticides.
secticides. insecticides.
4. During the period of summer rains
the fungus diseases of the scales and
whitefly should be distributed to those
trees in which they do not occur in suf sufficient
ficient sufficient quantity.
5. The e-gs of the scale insects, being
sheltered beneath the old scales, are not
easily destroyed by sprays. The old
scales are protected by their waxy cover covering,
ing, covering, and are not destroyed in great num numbers
bers numbers by spraying solutions unless of
extra strength. Hence spraying in warm
weather, when the young are hatching,
may be made more effective than winter
spraying.
Whitefly and Increase of Scales.
During the past two or three years
scale insects have in some instances in increased
creased increased abnormally in citrus trees that
were infested with whitefly. It was
thought that this increase of scales had
been somehow brought about by the lat latter
ter latter insect. That the whitefly can not be
the cause is indicated by the facts that
increase of scales has not always been
preceded by. whiteflv, and that whitefly
infestation is not always accompanied
by increased numbers of scales. The
worst cases of infestation by scales,
causing partial or complete defoliation
and much loss of small twigs, are in lo localities
calities localities suffering from lack of moisture.
It appears that this lack of moisture is
the primary factor, and that the white whiteflv
flv whiteflv made a bad condition worse by fur further
ther further exhausting the sap of the trees.
The lack of sufficient moisture weakened
the trees. It also checked the develop development
ment development of the fungus diseases which nor normally
mally normally keep the scales under control. Had

the trees been supplied with sufficient
moisture they would have been able to
put on a fairly good growth. The new
leaves would have supplied more food
to the trees. (Leaves are not only the
lungs of the tree, but also the organs in
which food is elaborated.) This food
would have gone partly to feed the scales
and whitefly, and partly to maintain the
vigor of the trees. These leaves would
also have supplied more moisture to the
air. Their shade would have kept the
interior of the trees moister. This
would have resulted in a thrifty growth
of the almost universally present fungus
diseases of the scales and whitefly. It
has been noticed that scale fungi and
whitefly fungi often thrive remarkably
well, even in dry localities, in vigorously
growing trees with abundant foliage.
The better the condition in which a
grove is kept, the less likely is it to tosuffer
suffer tosuffer from the depredations of insects..
Florida Experiment Station.
Sweet Potato Culture.
The general planting season is now
close at hand. Only good ground will
pay for the trouble of preparing and
planting to sweet potatoes without fer fertilizing.
tilizing. fertilizing. An old, thoroughly rotted com compost,
post, compost, cottonseed meal or complete vege vegetable
table vegetable fertilizer will make them. In using
cottonseed meal it should be nut in the
ground two or three weeks before plant planting
ing planting to avoid the effects of fermentation.
I have never succeeded with flat cul culture.
ture. culture. I think because of the time of
year and the wet season prevailing that
medium ridges are best. Hoe or plow
together all the old grass, weeds, etc.,
you can. Upon that put a light dressing
of fertilizer. Then throw two light fur furrows
rows furrows on it and so let it lay till ready to
plant, or till the heat of the fertilizers
has passed away. Then when all is
soaking wet throw two more good fur furrows
rows furrows to this ridge.
Cut vines are better than draws.
Jdake them, if plentiful, two feet long;
if scarce, one foot. With long vines
have a broom handle with a smooth
notch in the lower end. Place the vines
across the ridges about fifteen inches
apart. Put the notch on the vine in the
middle and sink it in the ridge four to
six inches. With the short vines put
your planting stick on one end of the
vine.
It is supposed that a hard bottom to
the ridge is best, as if loose and soft or
mellow the potatoes will grow too long,
mere string. I am not sure of this, but
would advise to throw your first fur furrow
row furrow on hard, undisturbed ground. I
think that stringy potatoes are caused"
bv using plants and vines gathered from
old potato fields, these plants having havinggrown
grown havinggrown from such useless roots left om
or in the field.
Choose vines from best selected seed.
The Earlv Golden is as good as the best
here. I like a few of the red or pump pumpkin
kin pumpkin vam. The Northern varieties plant planted
ed planted from slips early on the very best'
land, may do, but are not generally
productive.W. H. Haskell.
The garden should be planned with a
view of using tillage implements. Hand
tools are slow and irksome, and should
be dispensed with whenever possible. A
trained horse and good one-horse culti cultivator
vator cultivator will do more and better work in
one hour than can be done with a hoe
in a day.
Have all your plans fully matured:
before you begin to plant the garden.



In most sections of the South the loss
to growers on account of improper pack packing
ing packing of produce for shipment is some something
thing something enormous. In Florida, however,
where the trucking is of comparatively
recent origin, the growers have as a
rule adopted modern methods, use
standard packages and the goods gen generally
erally generally reach their destination in a good
marketable condition.
In order to economize in weight and
save express charges many who grow
lettuce lose money on account of the
frail packages in which they ship. They
argue that if the baskets or crates are
handled carefully they will not break;
but fail to realize that in order to get
the stuff to market in the quickest time
the transportation companies can not
handle them carefully.
During the shipping season a train
starting from the southern terminus of
any of our roads would be delayed
many hours in reaching Jacksonville
were it not for the fact that the crews
get the packages on the cars as rapidly
as. possible, and in the rush it is ab absolutely
solutely absolutely impossible to handle a basket
of lettuce with what would seem to an
outsider even a small degree of care.
Then take the stuff after it reaches
Jacksonville. The average grower can
not comprehend the immense volume of
packages poured into the transfer sheds
here to be senarated and sent on to the
different destinations. A whole car carload
load carload has to be transferred in a very
short time or else it will be delayed
possibly ten or twelve hours, thereby
causing damage to the entire shipment.
This means a rush, and more or less is
bound to be bruised or broken.
But damage of this kind is not al always
ways always the cause of produce bringing low
prices in the markets. Too often the
grower does not exercise sufficient care
in the selection and packing of his truck,
and in this connection we copy from an
article in the Southern Fruit Grower,
by W. J. Grounds:
My experience in this line has been
largely in the capacity of receiver. Con Consequently,
sequently, Consequently, I should rather suggest than
dictate.
In my long experience as receiver, I
note very little change in methods of
packing. No package is properly put
up for shipment that contains an article
in several stages of growth or maturity.
Take tomatoes, for instance. The
common practice is to put half-grown
and ripe in the same package. The
consequence is, the half grown never
ripen and the ripe ones rot. Of course
tomatoes that are out up for shipment
to distant markets should not be per perfectly
fectly perfectly ripe, but should be at least fully
grown.
All spotted and deformed stock
should be rejected. The six-basket car carriers
riers carriers or the flats make satisfactory pack packages.
ages. packages.
Lettuce should receive especial care.
It shpuld not be allowed to wither, but
packed as cut. All decayed leaves
should be picked off and in packing use
both hands to tuck the outer leaves
around the head to preserve it. Pack
in lavers with a side pressure. Thus
packed it will carry long distances, and
keen fresh and crisp.
Beets should be packed with the beets
in center of barrel instead of outside,
which is the common practice.

PACKING VEGETABLES

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

Radishes should be put up same as
beets, as nearly as possible. About 100
bunches to the hamper.
The great error in packing lies in
the fact that the grower will not re resist
sist resist the temptation to put a few in inferior
ferior inferior or worthless specimens in his
package. I can not conceive why they
persist in doing it when it should be
as much to the grower as it is to the
receiver, that a few inferior specimens
will often make a two dollar package
sell for one-fifty. I have paid $1 per
hamper on a shipment of radishes that
could not be sold for 25c.
Of course, not all growers are so
careless, but enough are to bring dis distrust
trust distrust on the whole business.
The time is at hand when the South Southern
ern Southern grower to be successful must iden identify
tify identify himself with his products. His
name and .address on his packages
should be a guarantee that they are
properly graded and packed. If the
Southern grower could visit our re receiving
ceiving receiving centers and see how certain
marks and packs were sought after he
would be surprised. It is not a surplus
of desirable stock that gluts our mar markets
kets markets at times, but an accumulation of
unmarketable trash which is a loss to
the shipper and a hardship to the re receiver.
ceiver. receiver.
Cucumber Growing.
Located anywhere within four miles
of shipping station, one man should ship
an average of sls worth every day, and
the shipping season is thirty days; this
would amount to $450, and this amount
of fruit can be grown on one and one onefourth
fourth onefourth acres any average year. I have
before me last years account of cucum cucumber
ber cucumber crop, which shows that from a little
less than two-thirds of an acre, the net
returns were a little over S2OO. (This
land has been measured with tape line,
so that statement is correct. I did all
the work myself. None of the cucum cucumbers
bers cucumbers were shipped extra early, therefore
no extra price was received on that ac accoun
count accoun just common, everyday business.
I grow cukes different from anyone
else. I grow them in a high bed instead
of on the level. I plowed and dragged
the land, getting it in the best possible
condition. Then I marked off rows
seven feet apart, back-furrowed as high
as I could between rows, then knocked
out center with sweep, going twice in
each and using largest sweep shovel last
time, so as to get it as wide and deep as
possible. I then put one wagon load of
barnyard manure in each 250 feet of
rows. I threw on this, in the row, 1,500
pounds of commercial fertilizer per acre,
made of 600 pounds of cottonseed meal,
500 pounds kainit and 400 pounds phos phosphate.
phate. phosphate. I then bed on this as high as I
can with one-horse plow, and drag it
down by going lengthwise with rows.
(Before I drag I knock out center be between
tween between rows with sweep.)
I now walk along each row, stepping
about eighteen inches, and drop seed in
each heel-mark. I place a 4 x 4 in front
of two last teeth on 13-tooth drag, and
go over the rows. This 4x4 picks up
about a bushel of dust as soon as start started,
ed, started, and the weight of dirt and drag
flattens down the rows and covers the
seed nicely. It is now nearly on a level.
I rake around each with hand rake,

then start using nitrate of soda, which
I use in three applications, 200 pounds
per acre, as follows: When plants are
about two inches high, I put on about
45 pounds per acre, placing same on the
same side of all the hills and within
three inches of plants, just drop soda
and cover with hoe about one inch. In
ten days, the second part, 60 to 65
pounds, is put on the opposite side of
hill, and just before the plants lap over
to run the last lot of soda is put near
the center between the hills; and all
this time I am working the ground up
to the plants.
I now go through between rows with
sweep again, and start moving the run running
ning running vines to the middle of row.
Bv the time picking really begins, the
vines are interlocked and run over each
other, till they form a mass that it takes
a pretty hot sun to wilt enough to shine
on either fruit cm* ground, and this mass
really holds all the moisture right at
the roots of plants, where it is needed.
c. w. s.
A Novel Suggestion.
Avery interesting account is given in
the Agricultural News of lime trees be being
ing being ridded of scale by allowing a vine
known as the bengal bean of the same
family as the velvet bean, to entirely
cover the trees for some time. When
thev were cut down the trees, previously
badly infected with scale, were found
to be relatively free of the plague. Af After
ter After the vines were cut the trees made
rapid growth, but bore a short crop of
fruit. It is said that this treatment
shows a favorable effect for years after.
The article in question states that the
vine has been used in this way many
times and the results have always been
good. It is not indicated that the ex experiment
periment experiment has been made on trees other
than limes, but it might be well worth
trying on some grove which has been
neglected and which is scale infested.
The reasons for the good accomplished
are not exactly known, but are sup supposed
posed supposed to result from the growth of
scale killing fungi in the shade and
dampness caused by the envelopment of
the tree by the vines. The article is
accompanied by a cut showing an or orchard
chard orchard completely buried in vines, and
states that the more completely the
tree is covered the better the results.
Must Get Out of the Ruts.
Hogs at $8 per hundred pounds gross
pay better than cotton at present prices.
Of course, it is not advisable for
farmers to quit growing cotton in order
to raise hogs, yet it is advisable for
every farmer to raise hogs for home
consumption with a few for market.
Almost anything to eat can be grown
in the South, and it is suicidal for
Southern farmers to neglect everything
for cotton.
A Southern planter last year made
$1,200 on sixteen acres of peanuts. Even
with cotton selling at 15 cents this man
could not have made so much on fifty
acres in cotton.
We have seen farmers in Georgia
hauling baled hay from the store to feed
to their work stock on the farm, yet
sorghum, peanuts and erass grow almost
spontaneously around them.
Men in no other line of work are
guilty of such folly. Our cotton farmers
must get out of the old ruts. They
should begin with this crop to raise
meat, foodstuffs, forage, etc., for home
usewhy delay?Chipley Banner.

15



16

Florida Agriculturist.
Published monthly by the
AGRICULTURIST PUBLISHING CO.
Walter Connellv, Manager.
office:
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Board of Trade Building,
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Entered as second class mail matter October
sth, 1909, at the Postoffice at Jacksonville, Fla.,
tinder the Act of March 3, 1879.
MARCH, 1910.
The Fence Question.
!
Those who have lived in Florida for
the past twenty years can not fail to
note the great changes which have taken
iplace during that period. Some time
since it was no uncommon thing to see
a farmer come to town with a little cart
load of stuff he had to sell. The roads
were beds of deep, loose sand, and the
tough little pony which drew the load
seemed unable to obtain secure foot foothold
hold foothold without the added weight of the
driver who usually sat astride the an animals
imals animals back. Now, however, with good
Toads extending in all directions, the
little cart has given way to the large
farm wagon and the wire-grass pony
has turned the job over to the large
horse.
Then, too, the fireplace and skillet
have given way to stoves and modern
cooking utensils, and the houses are
better.
In those days the festive razor-back
hog reigned supreme, spending his days
making a critical examination of every
picket or rail in a fence around a gar garden
den garden patch, and at night taking advan advantage
tage advantage of the knowledge he gained during
the day.. He knew to the fraction of
an inch how large an opening could be
made and whether he had better try to
go through forward, backward or jump
through sidewise. If he could find a
long crack a few inches wide near the
ground he would lie down and using
his back as an entering wedge, would
wiggle through that way. While today
he is doing the same thing in some lo localities.
calities. localities.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

Seriously, this has gotten to be a
very important question. Men whose
word is as good as a bond and who
would not wrong their fellow beings
a pennys worth, do not seem to realize
the injustice they are doing the com community
munity community by allowing hogs to run at
large. To be sure, they have law on
their side; a law which when it was
enacted was all right, for at that time
the State was sparsely settled and was
largely owned by the State and the
United States, and by allowing the hogs
liberty it was a case of the greatest
good to the greatest number. In those
days, with no markets for garden truck
and no incentive to grow much produce,
plenty of heart pine rails could be had
with very little effort to fence in the
home place, and everything was satis satisfactory.
factory. satisfactory. Now, however, the State is be being
ing being rapidly settled up; there are very
few tracts of public lands, fencing is
quite an expensive proposition, and the
same principle which favored the pas passage
sage passage of the hog law now demands its
repeal.
As we stated above, we do not be believe
lieve believe the owners of these predatory hogs
would willingly do wrong. They are
looking at the question through the eyes
of their fathers who lived years ago in
an entirely different age, and need edu education
cation education as to the laws of justice until they
can see that while they have a seeming
legal right to do so, they morally have
no more right to turn their hogs loose
to damage their neighbors than they
have to go into the fields belonging to
others and taking potatoes or anything
else. Every farmer should raise hogs,
good hogs, and keep them confined on
his own propertv. It is a very easy
matter to raise stuff to feed them, and
it will not be long before the farm
would be more fertile, the houses im improved
proved improved and the owner be much more
prosperous.
Back to the Farm.
Farm life and the ownership of land
are becoming popular among people in
every walk of life. Many who once
looked upon the farmer with contempt
are now anxious to engage in his vo vocation,
cation, vocation, and the great rush from the
country to the cities has almost ceased
and the tide has turned the other way.
Wherever men congregate or come
togetheron the street, in offices, on
trains or at their clubsthe conversa conversation
tion conversation oftener than otherwise turns to
real estate investments, farm crops, live
stock, poultry, etc. It is becoming the
ambition of almost every man (and
many women) to own a piece of ground
and to cultivate it.
Thousands of business men are put putting
ting putting their money into lands, not so much
for speculation as for the security that

land ownership affords and with the
purpose of making future homes. This
is partly due, no doubt, to the general
prosperity of the agricultural classes,
the advantages of good roads, tele telephones,
phones, telephones, rural mail delivery, etc., that
were not known a few years ago.
It is a hopeful sign for the country,
and while Florida does not yet possess
these conveniences to the extent that
they are enjoyed in some sections, she
offers climatic and other advantages that
can not be found anywhere else, and is
attracting a class of investors and set settlers
tlers settlers who will soon make of this the
banner State in the Union.
The Agriculturalist is pleased to con contribute
tribute contribute its share toward hastening this
desirable condition, and is gratified to
know that its efforts are appreciated by
the thousands coming to the State who
feel the need of the information which
is contained in its columns.
Substitute for Wheat.
It is now conceded that Floridans can
raise nearly everything they want at
home, not excepting the tea and sugar,
but it is the general impression that we
will have to depend upon the wheat
fields of the Northwest for our daily
bread. We also labored under this de delusion
lusion delusion until a day or two since Mr. A.
F. Spawn brought us in some cakes to
be tested. They were fine, and not only
that, but they were grown and made in
Florida. We could not have guessed
their composition had Mr. Spawn not
informed us that they were made from
sweet potatoes and cassava flour, and
during the conversation he presented
figures to show that the amount of flour
that can be produced per acre is more
than three times that from wheat, in
weight, while in nutritive value it far
excels the latter.
If he who makes two blades of grass
grow where only one grew before is a
benefactor to the human race, then cer certainly
tainly certainly a man who discovers and gives to
the State the means of curtailing the
expense of living without sacrificing
health should come under the same
head.
We shall welcome the day when Flor Floridians
idians Floridians can take a load of sweet pota potatoes
toes potatoes and cassava to the mill and re receive
ceive receive in return their equivalent in a
flour, which while not taking the place
of the wheat entirely will at least dis displace
place displace it to a great extent and thus make
us more independent.
Mr. Spawn is making this flour o'n a
small scale at Fernandina, but we un understand
derstand understand has formed a company to man manufacture
ufacture manufacture it at Jacksonville and oossibly
at other points in the State.
When Writing to Advertisers Please
Mention the Florida Agriculturist



Importing Stock and Other Matters.
[The following correspondence between an
lowa subscriber and Professor Scott is of such
general interest, especially to those seeking
homes in Florida, that we give it in full. Prof.
Scott is animal industrialist at the Florida Ex Experiment
periment Experiment Station, also editor of the Agricul Agriculturist
turist Agriculturist L,ive Stock Department, and is an au authority
thority authority on these matters.]
Centerville, la., Feb. 9, 1910.
Mr. John M. Scott, Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station.
Dear Sir I have noted with much in interest
terest interest your article in December Florida
Agriculturist on the Japanese sugar
cane. I raise Jersey cattle and registered
Duroc Jersey hogs. I have bought 140
acres sixteen miles south-east of Braden Bradentown,
town, Bradentown, on the Manatee river, twenty acres
of which is black land, balance pine. I
expect to reach there about November
Ist with two unrelated families of hogs,
and expect to raise them for my principal
business. While I have always been a
trucker (am now 61) I find I can make
money easier with hogs than truck here,
and build up my land all the time. Looks
to me as though Florida truckers will
get to the end of their string after a
while the way they are working with
fertilizer, using up their humus and re returning
turning returning none.
I raise alfalfa, rape and cowpeas here
and take nothing off the land except the
hogs which I more than repay with the
corn I furnish them with. I think three threefourths
fourths threefourths the hogs and all the fertility
added are profit. I expect to have some
of the black land cleared this summer
and as soon as I get on the ground sow
rape and other things as fast as I learn
how. lam told alfalfa wont do in Flor Florida,
ida, Florida, which no doubt is true, but I shall
have to try a little. I should like to take
a Jersey cow. Is there any way I could
keep one alive? Judge Iris Bailey, of
Riley, Fla., would plant a start of the
Japanese cane for me on his place. Will
you kindly tell me where I can get it and
the cost? Have you experimented with
the Burbank Spineless Cactus if it will
do as well in Florida as the wild? It
looks like it would be worth a trial. Do
you know of any for sale in Florida? Mr.
Burbank wrote me he would have some
for sale next summer. Any bulletins
you might be able to spare me on any
subject would be gratefully received. I
was a florist twelve years. Have been
a gardener and fruit grower all my life.
Respectfully yours,
J. C. HAWKINS.
Gainesville, Fla., Feb. 25, 1910.
Mr. J. C- Hawkins, Centerville, la.
Dear Sir Your letter of recent date
to hand and contents noted. I believe
you will make no mistake if you take up
hog raising in Florida. You will find
that pork can be produced cheaper in
Florida than in any of the Northern
States. You can grow a greater varietv
of meat producing feeds as cheap as in
any State. All of the feeds grown are
of such a character as can be harvested
by the hogs themselves. This item alone
makes a big difference in the cost of pro production.
duction. production.
You should have no trouble in shipping
in breeding hogs from the North. The
onlv pni'nt to keep in mmd is to pro provide
vide provide them with comfortable quarters.
Our long warm season is very trving on
hops, unless supplied with good shade
and pure water.
Tle onV advice I can give you re regarding
garding regarding the selection of the breed i<= to
select any breer] other than whffe
in enlor. The white hog scalds
sunburns very badly in our warm cli-

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

mate and for that reason I would dis discourage
courage discourage the raising of white hogs in
Florida.
In regard to shipping cattle into Flor Florida
ida Florida from the North will say that you
will be running a risk as your stock
is very likely to die from the climate,
or in other words Texas fever. This
Texas fever is caused by a tick known
as the Texas fever tick. However, if
you decide to run this risk of bringing
in cows, the only precaution necessary
for you to take will be to see that no
ticks get on your cows. However, you
may ship in young stock from one to
five or six months old and the loss will
be very small. The older the animal
the greater the loss. Animals over one
year old the loss may perhaps be as high
as 80 or 90 per cent., while those under
six months old the loss may not be over
25 per cent. If you ship in a few cows
you may be able to carry them through
a period of five or six months without
loss. If in the meantime your cows
bring a calf there will be little danger
of loss of the calfs life as the young
calf becomes immune to the tick fever
when quite small and as a rule causes
no serious trouble.
I would advise that you grow such
crops as corn and peanuts; the peanuts
may be planted between the rows of
corn at the last cultivation, which will
likely be the latter part of June. Other
crops are Japanese cane, sweet potatoes,
velvet beans, chufas and cassava. I
would not advise you trying the Bur Burbank
bank Burbank spineless cactus in Florida. There
are so many other feeds that I have
mentioned above that will give you
much larger yields of as good or better
feeding material than will the spineless
"actus. I also doubt verv much whether
the cactus will be suitable for our Flor Florida
ida Florida conditions. The cactus is better
-uited to arid or semi-arid conditions
and not so well suited to humid condi conditions.
tions. conditions.
If you try alfalfa, I would suggest
that you try it on a small scale until
vou are satisfied that it # is a failure. I
believe, however, that there are sections
of Florida in which alfalfa may be
made a success, after we get our soil
thoroughly filled with humus and suf sufficient
ficient sufficient lime and can take care of the sur surplus
plus surplus moisture, which may necessitate
tile draining.
For good green winter pasture for
vour hogs there is nothing better I
believe than dwarf Essex rape. This
may be planted any time from the mid middle
dle middle of September until Christmas, and
with proper fertilization and cultivation
should give good pasture in from eight
to ten weeks from date of planting.
If you have any good brood mares I
would advise that you bring them with
vou. Florida is very short on good
mares. In fact, practically all of our
horses and mules are shipped in from
the States north of us. There is a
strong demand for good mules of al almost
most almost any class, and I believe that the
farmers who will take up this line of
work will find it verv profitable.
I believe the remainder of your aues auesfions
fions auesfions have been answered in The Flor Florida
ida Florida Agriculturist.
Yours verv truly,
JOHN M. SCOTT,
Animal Industrialist.
' (
When laying off the garden, do not
f orget to arrange space for flowers.
Much of the charm of country life would
be lost without flowers. Plant the va varieties
rieties varieties with which you are familiar.

To Potato Growers.
M. W. Crocker, writing to Wauchula
Advocate, says:
To grade your potatoes properly use
for No. 1 potatoes size of large hen eggs
up, free of scab, dirt and blister. No. 1
will be rejected if size falls below above
description. No. 2 is the general run
of field, small as guinea eggs, near as
possible; free of scab, dirt and blister.
If few run small, all right, but not
many.
Dont let the range of the cotton mar market
ket market this season delude vou into increas increasing
ing increasing the acreage you have in cotton.
There is more money and less expense
in a small crop bringing high prices
than in a large crop bringing small
prices.
Classified Advertising
Advertisements inserted in this column at
the rate of 2 cents per word each insertion.
No advertisement taken for less than 25 cents.
BEGGARWEED SEED. Fancy recleaned
seed of high germination, 25 cents pound f.
o. b. Eloyd, Fla. Wholesale price and
sample on application. Also Florida Favor Favorite
ite Favorite and Tom Watson watermelon seed. Mills
& Coxetter, Eloyd, Fla.
WANTED. Stump puller. Give description
and price. Southern Investment Cos., Jack Jacksonville.
sonville. Jacksonville.
WHEN YOU BUY HENS.Pick out best lay layers
ers layers only; how to choose; never fails; write to
day. Model Experiment Farm, Waycross,
Ga.
BEACK MINORCAS. Eggs for hatching,
S2.(JO per setting of thirteen. Eargest eggs
of any bird; eight eggs weigh one pound.
Cockerels and pullets and baby chicks for
sale. Mrs. Koerber, 1532 Walnut street,
Jacksonville, Fla.
FOR SAEE. Two lots on Eong Island, N. Y.,
located at a famous summer resort. Will sell
cheap. For particulars write Ira Moore, 250
Arlington Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y.
MANNS SAET SICK CURE. Salt sick
cured for $1 or money refunded. Edward E.
Mann, Mannville, Putnam County, Fla.
PROPERTY WANTED. I have been very
successful in selling Florida property; pos possibly
sibly possibly can sell yours; it wont cost you any anything
thing anything if I dont. Send full description of any
property you want to sell and give lowest
cash price you are willing to sell for. C. H.
Stokes, Mohawk, Fla.
FOR SAEE. Pure bred Carnean Pigeons;
mated and banded; young birds, about one
year old; the best and most prolific breeders
in existence. Price low. Will sell three or
six pairs at a time. Address C. B. Saunders,
308 Robinson Ave., Orlando, Fla.
FARMERS. Make your own Shingles. Farm
machine for sale cheap. For price and full
particulars write at once to D. E. Hills,
Miami, Fla.
FOR SAEE. Japanese Seed Cane, $5 per
1,000. Perry M. Colson, Gainesville, Fla.
WANTED. A good patent; state particulars.
T. W. Wright, 105 Reade street, New York
City.
CALIFORNIA PROCESS for preserving fruit
and vegetables for two years as frtsh as
when gathered. Put up raw; no heat or seal sealing;
ing; sealing; costs but a trifle; positively no humbug.
Formula and full instructions mailed for only
25c. Send now. Mack & Cos., Warren, Pa.
FOR SALE OR EXCHANGE.For improved
Florida farm 83-acre improved Tennessee
farm. Good buildings and fences. Address
Box 741, Summertown, Tenn.
WANTED. Responsible position with fruit
grower or nurseryman in Southern Florida.
In present position as working manager of
general farm for four years. Temperate and
reliable. Virginian/' care Florida Agri Agriculturist.
culturist. Agriculturist.
EUCALYPTUS SEEDS, 25c. packet; trees,
25c.," five for SI.OO, mailed. Roselle seds,
15c. packet. E. Thompson, Avon Park, Fla.

17



18

An edible bean a yard or more long
is being introduced in the East, from
Southern California. In Connecticut
the pods, however, do not reach more
than eighteen inches in length, while in
Southern California, according to an
illustration in Garden Magazine, the
vines reach a height of ten or more feet
and produce a four-foot pod. It is
called the asparagus bean. Perhaps
some Florida reader of this paragraph
may have such a novelty growing in
the garden. If so, would be glad to
know it.
.* *
To save a tree from being destroyed,
a New York woman, who bought the
land on which it stood, whereon to erect
a library, gave orders to tear down a
house and move it in pieces, rather than
cut down the tree. A noble deed, by a
noble woman who believed with Pope,
the English poet, that a tree was a
nobler object than any prince in corona coronation
tion coronation robes or any building constructed
by human hands; for do not its roots
touch earths center and its head the
skies?
* *
Bamboo culture seems to be under
special attention by the Bureau of Plant
Industry at Washington. Recently a
shipment of one hundred and forty tons
of all kinds of bamboo were received
at the Cluco (California) Plant Intro Introduction
duction Introduction Gardens, brought directly from
Japan for propagation and, later on, test testing
ing testing in various parts of the country.
Well! its to be said that the bamboo
finds a convenient home in Florida soil,
even its most sandy, as the writer
knows from experience. The bamboo
furniture exhibited at the State Fair
this year, made in Punta Gorda, must
have been a surprise to all who saw it.
* *
The California Cultivator, answering
a correspondent who inquired as to the
value of the so-called Burbank Spine Spineless
less Spineless Cactus, declares that it is wrongly
named in that it believes none of it is
strictly spineless. It would be more
correctly called thornless cactus. The
spines are so reduced in the leaf, how however,
ever, however, that stock find it excellent feed.
The fruit is very spiny and the best
method of preparing so that it may be
handled is to pour water over it, place
in a colander and shake it about, when
its spines are removed so that it may
be handled very comfortably. On
waste land where it is impossible to
grow other crops it is very probable the
cactus will prove a profitable crop. It
will not for a moment take the place of
pumpkins and we have not heard of its
being tried as a hog fattener and do
not think it would be satisfactory for
that purpose, although it might be a
good food for the growing pigs.
* *
Steer Feeding in Florida.
Bulletin No. 96 of the Florida Agri Agricultural
cultural Agricultural Experiment Station is on the
subject of sheep feeding, by John M.
Scott of the Station staff. It is a
pamphlet of twelve pages with six il illustrations
lustrations illustrations of steers tested at the sta station.
tion. station. Mr. Scott deduces the following
facts as the result of his work:

TIMELY TOPICS
By W. E. PABOR

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

Florida farmers can produce good
beef with Florida-grown feeds.
Beef can be produced practically as
cheaply in Florida as elsewhere.
The feeding period required to fat fatten
ten fatten cattle in Florida is shorter than in
the Northern States.
The average daily gain that may be
obtained in Florida by proper methods
of feeding is larger than the Northern
feeder can expect.
A combination of corn, velvet beans
in the pod, and some roughage (such as
cottonseed hulls, crab-grass hay, or
sorghum hay), with a nutritive ratio
of 1:6 or 1:7 will give best results.
(By nutritive ratio is meant the ratio
between digestible protein and carbo carbohydrates
hydrates carbohydrates ; thus, a feed containing one
pound of digestible protein to six
pounds of digestible carbohydrates
would have a nutritive ratio of 1:6.)
To make cattle-feeding profitable we
must use well-bred bulls of the best
breeds.
* *
A Man Eating Plant.
One of the most curious as well as
fascinating nature stories the writer has
ever read in the course of a long life lifetime,
time, lifetime, is the one appearing in the March
issue of Everybodys entitled Octopo Octopodousa
dousa Octopodousa Ferox. After describing the de destruction
struction destruction of garden crops by bugs and
locusts, it describes the methods by
which a gentleman farmer, who was al also
so also a scientist, sought preventive methods
and discovered them in the shape of
plants that eat insects. But he went
farther than this and, by methods known
only to himself, created the plant named
by him, Octopodousa Ferox, having a
peculiar throat where the central stem
of a plant should be, and possessing long
arms many feet in length. In a few
words, it was a plant that lived, breathed
and was capable of seizing even human
beings and, landing them in its horrible
maw, gradually swallowed them. The
climax of the story is reached when the
writer describes the sudden disappear disappearance
ance disappearance of the creator of this monstrous
eater of animate nature. Only the Oc Octopodousa
topodousa Octopodousa were awake, tossing and
breathing with excitement and appetite,
their glaucus arms glistening gray and
snaky in the moonlight. That, adds
the narrator, I am sure, as I stood be beside
side beside the living grave of my friend who
had suffered the bitterest of all fates,
to be eaten by a plant he had himself
created, was the most gruesome moment
in my life.
Of course it is just a story, but one
of a kind that seldom sees the light in a
magazine. But in these days of won wonderful
derful wonderful insight into the silent chamber
where Nature hides her secrets, we need
hardly be surprised, let alone startled,
by weird suggestions of possibilities that
may yet become actualities in this won wonderful,
derful, wonderful, mysterious realm we call the
earth. No student of nature should fail
to read the story of Octopodousa Ferox,
is told in the March number of Every Everybodys.
bodys. Everybodys.
What the past has failed to bring us,
the future is always promising. So let
us look to the future.

Wood Ashes for Fruit Trees.
By D. I. Duncan.
It is only right that the farmer should,
when possible, utilize every waste pro product
duct product on the farm. There accumulates
around the house during the winter sea season
son season a quantity of wood ashes, which are
of some fertilizing value, their principal
constituent of plant food being potash.
If these ashes have not been exposed
to the rains (which will cause the very
soluble potash to leach out) they may
be used in the orchard to a good ad advantage.
vantage. advantage. While ashes may be applied
closer to the body of the tree than
manures, they should not be banked too
closely. One peck of strong unleached
ashes spread about a newly-set tree is
enough, while from one to three bushels
should be used for a tree five years old
and upwards. Ashes may be applied al almost
most almost any time, and a good way is to
carry the ashes to the orchard as they
are removed from the stove.
Since potash is the valued element in
wood ashes, and since it is also the one
so much needed in the orchard (insur (insuring
ing (insuring early ripening, rich color and solid
fruit) the farmer should see that it is
only unleached ashes he applies. While
it will be all right to use the amount
made on his own farm, it is not good
practice to buy elsewhere. It means
paying too much for the percentage of
potash they contain, not to mention the
expense of hauling. It is better and
cheaper to supplement the home supply
bv using kainit or high-grade muriate of
potash. When these can not be readily
obtained, a fertilizer containing 2 per
cent, nitrogen, 6 per cent phosphoric
acid and 8 per cent potash may be ap applied.
plied. applied. While such a mixture may be
put under and around a newly set tree,
it need not be put nearer than four
feet of the body of a bearing tree. It
should be applied to the surface and
then turned under, so as to be placed
down near to the feeding roots.
Coal ashes are of very little value
except on wet lands, and that is the
kind of land on which fruit trees should
never be planted.
The growth of flowers and house
plants can be greatly accelerated by
watering them occasionally with liquid
manure. Soak manure in water and
sprinkle over the soil.
Whether or not vou plant a variety
in the garden, you should strive to have
the best. Growing fine fruits and vege vegetables
tables vegetables is a fine art.

The Jewell Fruit and Poultry Farm Fur
Sale at a Bargain
About 15C acres at sls per acre, includ including
ing including a beautiful building site, on Lake
Worth. Many orange and other valuable
tropical fruit trees in bearing. Also six sixroom
room sixroom plain farm house, five poultry houses
with five chicken parks. Railway and
county rock road run half mile each
through this land. Oysters in the lake.
Six miles south of West Palm Beach, but
within two miles of a store and station.
Also 100 acres with small house and
some fruit trees; high and dry land; good
for pineapples, oranges, grapefruit, etc.
Railway and rock road run through it. No
lake front, though it overlooks the lake. It
is a little south of this tract in Sections 27
and 34, Township 44, Range 43. Price at
present $ll.OO per acre if all is taken.
Also 56 acres good fruit land four miles
south of the city on the rock road. Price
sls per acre.
Address Mrs. F. A. James, Care Florida
Agriculturist, Jacksonv.lle, Fla.



Here at Ferndale we are very busy,
much more so this year than is usual,
due to the persistent cold weather.
We have just planted one acre in
Irish potatoes and realizing that this
crop needs good, strong land that is
naturally fertile or has been built up
by growing cowpeas, or from heavy ap applications
plications applications of stable manure, we had
grubbed up last year a piece of black
gall-berry and scrub-palmetto land,
burning the trash and roots and apply applying
ing applying the ashes obtained therefrom to
the land. As the land was very sour,
and thinking it not safe to rely too
much on the ashes to neutralize this
acidity, we applied 600 pounds of land
plaster (gypsum or sulphate of lime).
We then plowed and harrowed the land.
We afterwards added fifteen cart-loads
of mixed cow and horse manure, plow plowing
ing plowing this under and afterwards harrow harrowing
ing harrowing both ways.
Having killed several pigs and a steer
this winter, we saved their blood by
catching it in tubs, in which was a
weighed portion of land plaster. After
adding to this mixture sulphate of pot potash
ash potash we sifted it through a home-made
sieve (such as builders use to sift their
sand for mortar), and think we had an
excellent fertilizer to plant in the drills
with the potatoes. Just here let me
pause to give an approximate estimate
of the composition of blood that the
reader may see for himself the loss of
valuable material that usually goes to
waste even on the farm:
Blood Composition (1,000 parts)
Water 946
Nitrogenous 46
Mineral 8
1,000
Thus we find in one thousand pounds
of blood we have 46 pounds of nitroge nitrogenous
nous nitrogenous material and 8 pounds of minerals.
Comparing this with urine, we have the
following:
Composition of urine (1,000 parts)
Water 938
Nitrogenous 34.05
Mineral 27.95
1,000
If we compare these two analyses we
find that while the blood has a slightly
larger content of nitrogen than the
urine, yet the urine contains a larger
per cent of necessary mineral elements
of fertility. I would give preference to
the latter as an all-round fertilizer, yet
it is the substance most wasted.
We have another piece of ground ad adjoining
joining adjoining that mentioned above which we
propose to plant in early corn. Now
corn is a gross feeder and will accept
gross feed such as stable manure, but
as we have exhausted our supply for
the present we will either have to wait
until our stock, consisting of horse, cow
and calf, can furnish us a supply or re resort
sort resort to an improvised fertilizer. This
summer we expect by means of foul
fish, muck (of which we have an un unlimited
limited unlimited supply), and potash in the form
of ashes, to obtain a large supply for
future use.
The great difficulty with farmers in
general in the South is the lack of
knowledge of soil fertility and plant
growth. Every intelligent cultivator of

FERNDALE FARM NOTES
By A. T. GUZNER, M. D.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

plants knows that as each crop is taken
from the land its fertility is lessened,
owing, in part at least, to the loss of
organic matter and partly to its loss oi
mineral elements of plant growth. The
first, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and
carbon can be obtained from the atmos atmosphere
phere atmosphere in unlimited quantities, with no
fear of the supply ever being exhausted.
Now, while it is generally held that the
great bulk of organic matter is com composed
posed composed of the element carbon, there are
some who contend that this element of
plant growth is wholly obtained from
the air by means of the leaves of the
plant. The almost universal observa observation
tion observation of practical, as well as scientific
cultivators of plants, testify that a soil,
containing organic matter (animal or
vegetable) is far more productive than
that from which it is absent, hence
known for untold ages, is the value of
stable manure as a renovator and sus sustainer
tainer sustainer of the fertility of the soil. From
our studies in agricultural chemistry it
is our opinion that growth and develop development
ment development is mainly an oxidating process.
The same holds good with regard to all
living organisms. Animals obtain their
oxygen from the air (fishes by means of
their gills, from its solution in water),
while vegetables obtain their oxygen
both from the air, and the air and water
in the soil. If the above is correct the
advantages of thorough cultivation will
readily be seen, giving thereby an
abundant supply of oxygen available for
plant growth.
Referring to the persistent cold
weather, which, by the way, we con consider
sider consider a blessing in disguise, to us in par particular
ticular particular and to agriculturists in Florida in
general, we quote from Dr. Knapp as
reported in The Agriculturist for
February: Your climate enjoys one
very great advantage, and that is you
are liable to have frosts. This is con considered
sidered considered a great disadvantage, but I
prefer occasionally to have some frost
than to have such an abundance of in insect
sect insect life as they have in the tropics.
Another advantage to us has been the
information as to the relative hardi hardiness
ness hardiness of citrus varieties in Duval countv.
We find the Satsuma and the Carnegie
on a par as to resistance to frost.
Boones Early, tangerine, Parson Brown
and the Government hybrid come next,
and the kumquat last of all. The kum kumquat
quat kumquat is the only tree I have actually lost
out of these named varieties, and that
may sprout from above the budded por portion.
tion. portion. All these trees shed their leaves
but are now putting on new growth with
but little loss of twigs.
Among other things that have kept us
busy during the past month has been
the providing of ammunition to fight the
food trusts in the only way in which
it can be successfully done, namely, by
producing and preserving provisions for
the family. To boycott the meat trust
is only to make one suffer and will not
lower the price of food stuffs. Popula Population
tion Population is increasing faster in proportion
than the food supplv. Besides this, the
corporations have the means of preserv preserving:
ing: preserving: in cold storage for an indefinite time
food products. By refusing to purchase,
except at their own price, they can com compel

pel compel the producer to sell low, while they
at the same time can raise the price and
bide their time until the consumer by
his necessary wants is compelled to un unload
load unload their holdings. The only practical
remedy in the hands of consumers is co cooperation.
operation. cooperation. By co-operation of individual
stockholders the trusts are enabled to
dictate prices. By co-operation the con consumers
sumers consumers can obtain reasonable terms on
their purchases. Before the days of com commercialism
mercialism commercialism a farmer would kill an ani animal
mal animal and his neighbor farmers would
share in turn in the product. By co-op co-operation
eration co-operation farmers could and they do obtain
better prices, while the consumer would
pay less price for those things necessary
to their welfare.
Good garden implements are essential
for successful gardening. Much of the
benefit and pleasure derived from work
in the garden is missed by having poor
tools. The best are the cheapest.

A Magnificent Place
The Celebrated Dudley Adams
Grove for Sale
The entire tract embraces 140
acres on east side of Lake Dora, be between
tween between the lake and county hard sur surfaced
faced surfaced road, V/2 miles from Tangerine
and about same distance from Mt.
Dora, where there is a Citrus Ex Exchange,
change, Exchange, packing house and transpor transportation.
tation. transportation.
There are in the grove 1,600 large
budded or grafted trees of choicest
varieties. Trees stand 35 feet apart
and are uniform in size, very large
and spreading, and this years crop is
estimated at 9,000 boxes.
This is one of the best protected
groves in the State, and all conditions
are right. Is protected by the chain
of large lakes on the west; the land
is elevated and is surrounded by
heavy pine timberthe turpentine
n.en have not been admitted to this
section.
There is on the place a fine modern
residence, beautiful grounds and good
outbuildings, etc.
The late Dudley Adams was the
first president of the Florida Horti Horticultural
cultural Horticultural Society and a recognized au authority
thority authority on citrus culture, and this was
his home place.
It is being offered just now for
$25,000 on favorable terms.
For further particulars address
Frank H. Davis, Apopka, Fla.

f Dont let your surplus fruits and %
f vegetables go to waste. Can them, 1
f the same as a large canning factory.
i Theres always a market for canned m
M goods, and for a small investment 1

19



20

HOUSEHOLD DEPARTMENT
By MRS. E. J. RUSSELL

FROM OUR CONTRIBUTORS.
Remodeled Clocks.
I had two old Seth Thomas weight
clocks, which had become quite a nui nuisance
sance nuisance about the house, and wishing to
convert them into something useful,
concluded to try my hand. I first took
the works all out, then by means of a
knife, soap and water cleaned all the
defaced pictures from the glass door,
varnished them on the outside. I then
put three shelves in each one, the first
shelf covering the deep part, which is so
hard to keep clean, tacked pasteboard
pictures in each light, so as to hide the
contents of the inside. One was used
for a medicine closet and the other was
placed on a shelf over my kitchen
cabinet to hold spices and extracts.
MRS. C. A. T.
* *
Worth Knowing.
In cleaning clothes with gasoline I
have found that, when it leaves a ring
around the part cleaned, the ring can
be removed by steaming it over the tea teakettle.
kettle. teakettle. T. F. D.
* *
Saving a Best Hat.
My pet economy is saving my hats.
After being caught out in several heavy
rain storms when I had on a real good
hat, I figured out a way in which I could
wear my best hat even when the sky
looked threatening, and also save it
from damage. I buy a yard and a half
of old-fashioned thick beige veiling. This
I fold up into a small square and place in
the crown of my hat. I never go out
without its being there. Then if it be begins
gins begins to sprinkle or rain I run under
cover, take off my hat, take out my veil
and carefully cover my hat with it, and
it is protected from any kind of damage
by rain or snow. K. L,.
* *
Cure for Warts.
This is a sure cure, and so simple
that anyone can use it without injury.
Two applications cured a large seed
wart of a number of years standing.
Here it is: Simply shave off the wart
down to the quick with a clean sharp
knife before retiring and apply a little
poultice of fine salt thoroughly wet in
strong lemon juice. Wrap up in a bit of
clean white rag and in the morning the
wart will feel pretty sore, but treat it
with another application of salt and
lemon juice that night, or at least in two
or three days, and the wart will disap disappear.
pear. disappear. O. M. P.
* *
Economical Hand Lotion.
Boil five cents worth of Irish moss
in 1 quart of rainwater until it begins
to thicken. Then strain and add five
cents worth of glycerin; five cents
worth of bay rum; five cents worth of
alcohol; five cents worth of rosewater;
five cents worth of perfume. This is
excellent for keeping the hands soft;
can be applied at any time after bathing
them, for it dries in a few seconds
rubbing the hands together.
MRS. H. C. H.
.
A quart of sifted flour is a pound.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

Sunshine in My Soul.
Women are so prone to contract the
worry habit and there is so much
good sound philosophy in the following
by Elizabeth Sears that I pass it on,
hoping that it may prove helpful to
many of our readers:
The mistress of the house was wor worried
ried worried that morning. She had been wor worried
ried worried for many mornings, although she
knew in her inmost soul that worrying
did no good. Somehow she had fallen
into the habit of it.
To make matters worse, the day was
cloudy and gloomy. When the harassed
mistress went about her necessary
household tasks she felt as if the limit
of human endurance had almost been
reached for her.
Down in the laundry the washer washerwoman
woman washerwoman was sorting out the clothes. The
steam from the boiler filled the base basement,
ment, basement, and a heavy odor of soap and
suds filled the air.
A sudden compunction struck the
mistress as she watched the laundress
go about her work. She wondered how
it must be to work daily over the wash washtub
tub washtub for daily bread. She wondered if
.vomen like the washerwoman had trou troubles
bles troubles to tag them day after day.
Yasm, said the washerwoman, as
she dipped the hot soapsuds out of the
boiler into the tubs, hits a purty dark darkome
ome darkome day this mawnin, Missus. A bodys
shore got to have a heap o sunshine in
ler soul a day lak dis. And she broke
nto the chorus of the old song, There
is Sunshine in My Soul Today.
Even after the mistress of the house
had gone upstairs again and taken up
her burden for the day, the echo of the
words still rang in her ears.
A bodys got to have a heap of sun sunshine
shine sunshine in their soul a day like this, she
repeated.
Sunshine? I guess I need it, if any anyone
one anyone does.
The washing was finished by noon,
and the laundress came upstairs for her
money.
De wash looks mighty nice, honey,
said, comfortably, as she wrapped
her old shawl about her head. You
takes sunshine in de soul, n plenty of
elber grease, and hits boun, to make
vo wuk come right. Yas, indeed,
honey.
The mistress went on with her prep preparations
arations preparations for lunch in silence. Somehow
the words of the cheery washerwoman
stuck in her memory.
She almost laughed to think of how
trivial her own troubles were in com comoarison
oarison comoarison to the poor black woman who
thought herself lucky when she could
get washings for every day in the week.
And she found herself humming the old
sonar over and over.
When dinner time came, there was
extra good dinner in that house for
Tohn and the boys ; They were tired,
cold, hungry and irritable. But there
were flowers on the table and the pret prettiest
tiest prettiest china, and a glowing log in the
grate.
Best of all, there was a smiling wo woman
man woman at the table, clad in a dainty and
homey gown. Father and the boys

glanced at her approvingly, and made
short work of the appetizing dinner.
I tell you, mother, said John, later
on in the evening, when he lay com comfortably
fortably comfortably on the big couch in the library,
you are one of the mighty few women
who realize what it means to a tired
man to come home to a cheerful wife
and a good dinner and a cozy home and
a wife who thinks her family worth
dressing up for.
And the mistress in her pretty gown
smiled contentedly.
For the Procrastinator.
If you belong to the class referred
to in the following article give the plan
a trial and see how it works:
If you have put off doing little tasks
around the house till they have piled up
mountain high here is a little plan that
has been found to work wonders. Write
out a list of all the things that you want
to do and never get to, such as writing
a note of thanks; returning a borrowed
sheet of music; writing off that recipe
ff>r some friend; mending the hole in
the curtains; putting the patch on that
torn place in the wall paper; cleaning
out the desk drawer, or of hanging out
the woolen outer garments to air. Write
these down and all the other things
that you ought to do and that take only
a few minutes each. Then take one day
out of the week and do at least ten of
them. As soon as you have finished
one, cross it out with a pencil and note
how pleasant it is to see the list de decreasing.
creasing. decreasing. Probably you will get through
the list so fast and will be so enthusi enthusiastic
astic enthusiastic at the end that you will be look looking
ing looking around for other things to do, for
it gives such a satisfaction to see some
long dreaded task completed. If vou
can find the time to do ten in one day,
make a list of those that need attention
first and do those in one week. Those
who the fine habit of doing every
little thing as it comes up and of keep keeping
ing keeping their clothes, work and other af affairs
fairs affairs in good order all the time, will
laugh at this method. They say,
Simply get in the habit of doing each
thing just the instant it needs it. If a
button comes off vonr glove, sew it on
then and there and dont put them away
without repairing rips or cleaning them
when they need it. Mend your stock stockings
ings stockings as soon as they come from the
wash, and never let a p ; le of clothes ac accumulate
cumulate accumulate to mend. This sounds fine,
but we procrastinators need some little
ways to fool ourselves with, anvway
inst at first till we have acquired the
system.
Milk will extinguish the flames of
burning oil, which water will only
spread.
Music Taught by Mail
Piano, Violin, Organ, Guitar,
Banjo, Cornet, Mandolin, Cello,
Sight Singing.
Eight Lessons Per Two Dollars
State the instrument, you want to learn
and experience on same. Teachers
Conservatory graduates, Beginners a
specialty. Address
Correspondence Department
NEW YORK SCHOOL OF MUSIC
Board of Trade Bldg., JACKSONVILLE, FI A.



FRIED RECIPES.
Fried Sweet Peppers.-Pour boiling
water over the peppers and remove the
skins. Cut into slices and saute slowly
in olive oil. Sprinkle with salt, remove
the peppers, add chopped chives to
taste to the oil used for frying and
serve with the peppers. A.
Stuffed Tomatoes.Mix thoroughly
in the chopping bowl, one cup of cooked
rice, one cup of minced mutton, one
onion, one tablespoon of salt, one onequarter
quarter onequarter saltspocn of red pepper and one
teaspoon of sugar. Cut the tops from
a dozen tomatoes, remove the centers
and add them to the mixture in the
bowl. Fill the tomatoes with the mix mixture,
ture, mixture, place a bit of butter, on each and
cover with the tops. Bake until, tenden,
remove the cover and browfi fiisfc'bi
fore serving. Serve hot in the baking
dish. A. M. J.
Beans, Corn and Pork.Cook one
pint of dried lima beans until they are
tender, drain off the water and put a
layer of beans, one of canned corn, and
one of fine bread crumbs, in a large
baking dish, seasoning with salt and
pepper. Add the layers of beans, corn
and crumbs until all have been used.
Pour on enough milk to show around
the edge, but not enough to wet the
crumbs on top. Cut fat salt pork in
strips the length and thickness of your
little finger. Arrange these around the
edge of the dish, an inch apart, so they
radiate towards the center. Plac.e a
small square piece of pork in the center.
Bake in a fairly hot oven about two
hours, browning the pork well. L. A.
Broiled Potatoes. Boil the potatoes
in their jackets for fifteen minutes or
longer if very large. Cool them quickly
and set in the icebox until thoroughly
chilled. Peel, cut across in one-half
inch slices, and brush them with melted
butter. Lay them on a fine wire broiler
and broil until slightly brown on both
sides. Spread them with butter well
creamed with finely minced parsley.
Serve very hot. LINDA.
Salmon loaf forms the body of a good
luncheon. Remove the bones and break
into flakes with a silver fork. Add four
tablespoonfuls of melted butter, one cup cupful
ful cupful of breadcrumbs, one-half teaspoon teaspoonful
ful teaspoonful of salt and four well-beaten eggs.
Put in a well-greased pudding dish and
steam for one hour. This may be served
on a platter with riced potatoes and a
cream gravy or sliced cold with a
garnishing of lettuce or parsley and
lemon.
Deviled Young Onions. Peel and
trim young onions and cut them in one oneinch
inch oneinch lengths; cook in seasoned veal or
chicken stock or in salted water until
tender. Cut three-inch cubes of stale
bread, remove the centres, leaving thin thinwalled
walled thinwalled cases, brush them with melted
butter and place in the oven to crisp.
Make white sauce in the proportion of
one cupful of milk, one tablespoonful
of butter and half a tablespoonful of
flour ( two chopped gherkins, one tea teaspoonful
spoonful teaspoonful of mixed mustard and two
beaten egg yolksthese added after the
sauce is well cooked. Place a layer of
the sauce in each bread case, add a layer
of drained onions, another layer of
sauce, cover with buttered crumbs and
brown in the oven.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

Velvet Sponge Cake. Two cups of
sugar, two cups of flour, four eggs, one
teaspoon of baking powder and three threequarters
quarters threequarters of a cup of hot water. Stir the
sugar and egg yolks together till creamy
and add the flour, with which the baking
powder must previously have been well
mixed. Then add the hot water and
stir well till smooth and free from
lumps. Add the whites of the eggs,
beaten till they are stiff enough to al allow
low allow you to invert the bowl without their
running out. This batter may appear too
thin, but will be found to be just right
when done. Do not stir more than can
be helped after the whites are on.
Welsh Steak.
Broil a tender sirloin steak over a
quick fire; take it up on a platter and
butter it well. Slice onions and cut them
up finely on the meat so that the juice
may be absorbed by it, thus flavoring it.
Remove the onion, which may be used
in a stew or soup, and serve the steak
garnished with parsley.
Making Others Happy.
Everyone is happier for making those
around them happy and being kind to
poor dumb animals. One reason that
life on the farm should be the most
enjoyable life possible is that we are
surrounded by helpless creatures that
only wait a chance to show their appre appreciation
ciation appreciation of our kindness.
A good way to wash clotheslines is to
wind them about a long board and scrub
with a scrubbing brush.
If a soft piece of home-made bread is
rubbed on a scorch of woolen goods, the
spot will be removed.
When tan-colored material is faded, it
may often be restored by clipping into
water containing saleratus.
To frost a window, dissolve epsom
salts in water, very hot, or in stale beer,
and apply with a hot brush.
To keep windows free from frost, ap apply
ply apply a little glycerine on a dry duster. A
brilliant polish will result.
Grated Parmesan cheese sprinkled on
scrambled eggs just before they are
brought to the table will greatly improve
the dish.
Vegetables will take longer to cook,
but will be much nicer and of better
appearance if allowed to boil uncovered.

THE CHEAPEST BECAUSE OF KNOWN VALUE.
' Cheapness In price Is evidence of INFERIOR quality and poor sen ire. The NEW
\ \ HOME is built upon honor, in a manner to insure PERFECT SERVICE for a
\\ bfe-time. Have you seen our latest achievem* nt in COMBINATION WOODWORK?
r $ NO OTHER LIKE IT. NO OTHER AS GOOD.
Buy the machine manufactured for l-*ng service. Those who used the
f/M in# I NEW HOME forty years ago are now doing so. All part* are inter*
changeable, can be renewed any tb.ie. Ball Bearings of quality.
NOT SOLD UNDER ANY OTHER NAME. WARRAMED F0 ALL TIME
NEEDLES, Superior quality, our own make, for any machine. If there
is no NEW HOME dealer near you write direct to
THE NEW HOME SEWING MACHINE GO., Orange, Mass., for Catalog No. 18

Remove all gold and silver from a
room in which sulphur is to be burned.
In cleaning a house just vacated for
your use, use plenty of carbolic acid.
A few drops of lemon juice will im improve
prove improve a mayonnaise for the taste of
many.
Clean rust off with fine emery paper
'after applying rancid oil to cut the
grease.
Stains can sometimes be removed
from wall paper by the application of
starch.
Dingy overshoes can be made to shine
and the rubber improved by wiping off
with ammonia.
If bread or pastry is mixed with wa water
ter water instead of milk it requires a hotter
fire to bake properly.
Rub a little cold cream on the cork of
a glue or mucilage bottle, and it will be
less apt to stick.
Herrons Subscription Agency
Is helping thousands to save on their magazine
money; why not you? Write a postal card for
catalogue giving the prices on 3,000 magazines
and much more that will interest you.
Address HERRONS SUBSCRIPTION
AGENCY, Box 241, Jacksonville, Fla.

A CYPRESS CONTAINER FOR SYRUP
5 Gallons and 10 Gallons
Made entirely of clear cypress strongly
hooped with steel. Will preserve the flavor
of good syrup. Convenient and salable
sizes. Write tor description and prices.
Pierpont Mfg. Cos.
SAVANNAH, - GEORGIA

21



22

Much has been said, and much prob probably
ably probably remains still unsaid, as to the
relative value of the architectural and
natural styles of landscape gardening.
For myself, I can see beauty in both
in their highest development, and, while
preferring the natural style in general,
believe that there are cases where only
the architectural style will serve the
best artistic and utilitarian ends. For a
general rule, however, the following is
fairly safe: The architectural, or formal
style, is the best and easiest way of
handling small, circumscribed areas,
whereas the natural style usually re requires
quires requires a considerable area where it is
best seen and most effective. Above all,
remember that because a thing is for formal
mal formal it is not necessarily bad.
To consider the architectural style
first, note that carpet gardening is
not a part of it or any other style of
landscape art; that is patchwork ef effects.
fects. effects. Geometrical lines are essential,
but they should convey the idea of sim simplicity,
plicity, simplicity, not of confusion. Indeed, sim simplicity
plicity simplicity is one of the first considerations,
conveying the idea of boldness, that is
to say dignity, without obtrusiveness.
The end of all is to have the lines and
spaces so planned that thev will blend
into one harmonious picture. The plant planting
ing planting of trees in rows is undoubtedly a
feature of this style, but only when used
in limited numbers. In quantity they
should be used to block in some geo geometrical
metrical geometrical lines, usually corners. When
planted in lines they should be set at
uniform distances and should be of
uniform species. And it is just here
that we in Florida have a distinct ad advantage
vantage advantage over Northern gardenersthat
is, the use of palms. Consider lines of
such palms as the Royal palm, Cocos
plumosa, or its types C. coronata, etc.,
Phoenix sylvestris, or even the common
palmettothese, with their trunks rising
like marble columns, and surmounted bv
their great crowns of royal foliage!
And they are adaptable to so many pur purposes.
poses. purposes. If the plantings are suitable,
they may be used to excellent advantage
in pairs. For grounds of somewhat
limited extent they are beautiful when
planted at an opening in a semi-circu semi-circular
lar semi-circular hedge of evergreens, is Thuya ori orientalis.
entalis. orientalis. Other hederings would answer
the purpose admirably. If far enough
south, Acrocomia totai would be mag magnificent
nificent magnificent to use in this scheme, as its
heavier trunk would give more dignity,
and its wonderful plumv top more grace.
To complete this a grove of tall orange
trees would make an ideal background,
especially when laden with their golden
fruits.
In dealing with a geometrical land landscape
scape landscape avoid if possible the clipping of
trees. It usually gives a bad effect
and is not really necessary. Hedges,
on the contrary, need to be sheared,
and also shrubbery, if not carried to the
extreme of fantastic shapes and figures.
Considering the matter of hedges, the
Thuyas are especially suitable, growing
on any fairly well-drained soil. Pittos Pittosporum
porum Pittosporum Tobira is also fine, both for
hedges and for clipped specimens. The
variegated form of this plant is also
most excellent, being a beautiful com combination
bination combination of paler green than the type,

ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE
CONDUCTED BY WM. A. COOK
Of Royal Palm Nurseries, Oneco, Florida

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

and white. It must be used with dis discretion,
cretion, discretion, however, as it so markedly
tends to depart from that unity of color
which is so desirable in the architec architectural
tural architectural style. Deep monotones, especially
of green, are usually to be preferred.
A mixture of colors usually lacks dig dignity.
nity. dignity. Especially would this be the case
in the use of more brightly colored
hedge plants as Breynia nivosus (Phyl (Phyllanthus),
lanthus), (Phyllanthus), and others, which are, how however,
ever, however, indispensable in their correct set setting.
ting. setting. A few plants that are good for
hedging are Euonymus japonicus, Cali California
fornia California and Amoor river privets, Cattley,
Guavas, Prunus Caroliniana, etc. The last
is especially desirable, and deserves more
attention than it has so far received.
It is a handsome, broad-leaved, ever evergreen
green evergreen shrub, and when in bloom in
February, is covered with masses of
small, fragrant flowers, and a multitude
of attractive, shiny-black fruits. For
this reason, perhaps, and as it is some somewhat
what somewhat impatient of the pruning shears,
it is better adapted to the natural style
of landscape gardening.
One of the most effective features of
the geometrical landscape is the terrace.
It tends to bring out all the dignity of
the buildings, enhancing the geometri geometrical
cal geometrical effect. Its lines should be absolutely
parallel. While essentially useful in
serving their purpose, they are expen expensive
sive expensive to construct and maintain.
The question of garden furniture is a
large one, but in general this much may
be said: The use of fountains, statu statuary,
ary, statuary, stone benches, sundials, etc., is
very appropriate if the plantings and
positions are ideal, otherwise avoid
them. Great caution and discrimina discrimination
tion discrimination must be exercised in their use, in
any event.
Frost Notes.
Speaking of the hardiness of plants,
we had a splendid opportunity this win winter
ter winter for observing it in regard to many
plants whose resistance has not alto altogether
gether altogether been proven. The general
weather conditions at that time are
familiar to all, the temperature here
at its lowest was 24 degrees, while for
a period of five hours the thermometer
registered 25 degrees. Bauhinias were
defoliated and the bloom for the season
destroyed, except a few flowers of B.
purpurea, which opened before the cold
snap. Jacaranda acutifolia (J. mimo mimosaefolia)
saefolia) mimosaefolia) was almost completely defoli defoliated,
ated, defoliated, except for the few topmost
bunches of leaves, which were merely
a little discolored. It is, however, leaf leafing
ing leafing out again strongly. Bischofia tri trifoliata
foliata trifoliata was also defoliated and the end endgrowth
growth endgrowth on the branches killed back a
little. It was quite well protected, how however,
ever, however, by other trees and by its proximity
to the greenhouses; otherwise it would
have been hurt somewhat more than it
was. It is coming out again in full
leaf, apparently little the worse for the
freeze. Where it can be grown at all
it is one of the best of shade trees, with
its luxuriant, dark-green foliage. Na Native
tive Native to the East Indies, it does excellent excellently
ly excellently well, growing thriftily in our sandy
soil. Small oleanders were nipped this
year, almost all the commoner varieties
showing more or less badly the effects

of the freeze, losing the leaves on small
specimens. Sayort stood the test very
well, scarcely being touched. Of course
the conditions were unusually favorable,
except that the sun rose clear and
bright the following morning. Even
then the test was a severe one, and the
results extremely pleasing in the ab absence
sence absence of greater damage.Royal Palm
Nurseries.
Variety is the spice of life. By hav having
ing having a variety of vegetables you give
health, wealth and enjoyment to the
family. By diversifying your crop you
enlarge your chances of success. Di Divide
vide Divide up your acreage so that you will
have sufficient ground to plant in sweet
potatoes to more than meet the demands
of everything on the placeof mail and
beast alike. In like manner arrange for
a patch of cassava-chufas, Spanish pea peanuts,
nuts, peanuts, peas and pumpkins. Ground that
is now put in Irish potatoes will be
ready for peas in May or June.
Popcorn should not be planted near
field corn or sweet corn. If the stigmas
of the popcorn are receptive when the
pollen of the Indian corn is ripe, it will
mix. Popcorn usually matures earlier
than Indian corn and may be planted
later.

Finest Home
i r
IN
JACKSONVILLE
AT THE
PRICE
Eight rooms, reception halls and
third-story attic full size of house;
two baths and lavatory, tiled, with
finest fixtures obtainable; halls, clos closets,
ets, closets, etc.; furnace, steam heat, electric
lights and gas; plate glass windows,
inside blinds and screens; conve conveniently
niently conveniently arranged and elegantly fin finished
ished finished throughout. Was not built to
sell, but for a permanent home. Lot
52J4x105 feet. Within eight blocks
of postoffice. Address
OWNER
BOX 73, CITY

R K Mere you are
IJk MR. FARMER
when you buy a machine for
TOMATO, CABBAGE, TOBACCO,
JE ft Sweet Potato, Onion Slips, Etc.
i iji H|F you ought to get the best there is.
m Masters
B! iff Plant setter
!&,' Js the one that puts the plant down
Siffi Sir to its proper depth and gives it half
, fif If a tea cup of water orliquid fertilizer
yHHI If right at the root and then scuops
ti e dirt up around the piart, all
BPM|l| done at the one operation, witnout
Hifl any stooping whatever. Wr te to today
day today for price and full particulai s.
im Count j Agency to First Purchaser
W MASTERS PLANTER CO.
W So. Water St., Chicago, 111.



Native Ferns.
It ,may not be generally known that
our native ferns may be successfully
transplanted and grown in the shaded
places where' we are sometimes at a loss
to know what to plant.
Our home is on the south side of the
street, and along the north front I have
a border of ferns next the house. Some
of them have been growing there for
seven years, and come up as regularly
every Spring as they did in their native
haunts in the woods. They are not
protected in Winter, except that a few
leaves which drift about them in Au Autumn
tumn Autumn are allowed to remain. I have
eight varieties, all obtained within a few
miles of home. Doubtless a further ex exploration
ploration exploration of the -woods would result in
finding still others.
These native ferns may be transplant transplanted
ed transplanted at any season from the time they
make their appearance in spring until
late in the autumn.
The more of the woods earth one can
bring home to plant them in the better,
but given the required shade, they will
grow in any soil that is reasonably loose.
When digging the ferns one often un unknowingly
knowingly unknowingly gets other wildwood beauties
as well.
In addition to the pleasure they give
when growing, they are very useful for
cutting, especially to use with large
flowers like the Iris, or with the spikes
of Gladioli. One precaution should be
taken when they are thus used, and that
is, to cut them in the evening, and not
in the heat of midday. Sometimes even
then they will droop in a little while,
but one soon learns which varieties can
be depended on to retain their freshness.
S. J. c.
Wimins Fixins.
The question is often asked, What is
the best paying piece of ground on the
farm? Some answer one thing, some
another, generally based on the cash
value of the product of the plot in ques question.
tion. question. Brother farmer, did it ever occur
to you that the little flower garden
which is so much beneath your dignity
is probably the most valuable piece of
ground on your entire farm. The Crea Creator
tor Creator placed in the make-up of every wo woman
man woman the love of the beautiful, and piti pitiable,
able, pitiable, indeed, is the position of the hard
working wife on the farm, whose life is
so circumscribed on account of the
drudgery which has befallen her as a
heritage of the farming of past ages, if
she is denied the privilege of enjoying
the beauties of the flowers around the
house. The good woman, on account of
family cares, can not pick up and go to
town every Saturday and meet new
faces or chat with old friends and there thereby
by thereby get a little change from the mono monotony
tony monotony of household drudgery like you do.
Dont you notice that she is getting
careworn and looks older than she
should? Just take a good look at her
as soon as you read this and then tell
her that tomorrow you will spend half
an hour or so with her in making a
flower garden and see the effect. Then
as the flowers begin to bloom, keep your
eyes open and see the result, and you

FLORAL DEPARTMENT
By H. L. SAWYER

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

will agree with me that the flower
garden is one of the best paying pieces
of ground on the farm.
UNCLE BILL.
In the Flower Garden.
This is the season of the year when
the wife hurriedly washes the breakfast
dishes and armed with a garden trowel
starts out to fix up the flower garden.
She will probably make the husband
wheel in some well-rotted stable manure
to dig in around the rose bushes after
which she will send him off to look up
some empty boxes in which to start the
finer seeds in order to have plants to
set out later. Of course, she will want
a variety and the usual array of caliop caliopsis,
sis, caliopsis, poppies, cosmos and portulaca will
receive due attention. It might be well
to try some of the Shasta daisies.
Poppies make a showy bed and over
against the fence dig a trench, put in
plenty of rich dirt mixed with rotted
manure and plant some cannas. They
make a better showing if you have a
mass of them. Many people do not
succeed with carnations but under fav favorable
orable favorable circumstances some are growing
them in Florida. If you have not already
done so you had better trim up the rose
bushes and set out the trimmings to
make new bushes with which to en enlarge
large enlarge the garden. Many of the new
settlers will miss some of their old
standbys, but with a little patience will
soon find many flowers that will do well.
W. F. H.
Saving the Peach Crop.
For years the peach brown rot has
been recognized as a most destructive
disease of stone fruits. This is a fung fungous
ous fungous disease, and it. is widespread, and
very destructive to the peach crop. The
loss which it inflicts on peach growers
will easily average $5,000,000 yearly.
The loss to the peach crop of Georgia
alone is estimated at $1,000,000 a year.
Much work has been done with a
view to discovering a satisfactory
remedy for this trouble. Spraying with
diluted Bordeaux mixture has been
most commonly recommended, but its
injury to the foliage has made it un unsatisfactory,
satisfactory, unsatisfactory, since the remedy must be
applied during the growing season.
The peach scab (often called black
spot) is another disease which serious seriously
ly seriously affects the peach crop in all sections
east of the Rocky Mountains, although
not causing such serious losses as brown
rot.
As the result of experimental work
by the United States Department of
Agriculture, a cheap and simple remedy
for this disease has been found in the
self-boiled lime-sulphur wash. This can
be applied during the growing season
with very little danger of injuring the
fruit or foliage, and it is very effective.
Furthermore, by mixing arsenate of
lead with the fungicide, the curculic can
be destroyed at the same time.
The department has just issued a
bulletin describing the preparation and
use of the remedy. This publication
will be of great interest to peach grow growers
ers growers in all sections.

Pansies.
Pansies will do best in a very rich,
moist soil and cool, moist atmosphere.
The beds should be sheltered from high
winds and exposed to the early morn morning
ing morning sun. It will be found advantageous
to sprinkle them often. Several new
varieties, of varied colors and with
larger blossoms than have heretofore
been produced, have been imported by
seedsmen recently.

7 S. OCEAN ST.
WALTiN SEED CO.
We make a Specialty of
Burpees Seeds. Also sell
Poultry Supplies, Insect Insecticides,
icides, Insecticides, Etc.
7 SOUTH OCEAN STREET
JACKSONVILLE FLA.

SEEDS SEEDS
FOR
Summer Planting
ALL KINDS
L. CAMERON
THE SEEDSMAN
JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA

Plant Bed Qloth
For Florists, Gardeners,
Truck Farmers, Tobacco
Growers, Etc.
Protects from Frost, Safer than
Glass. Waterproof Sheeting for
Chicken Runs. Hay Caps, Stack
Covers and Canvas Goods.
Circulars, Samples
HENRY DERBY
123 D Chamber* Street. New York

Grafted Pecan Trees
Of Selected Paper Shell Varieties
For Descriptive List Write
BA YVIEW NURSERY
C. FORKERT, Proprietor. Ocean Springs, Miss.
Bit %NCHS HENI'INE HATTLKSNAKE
WATERMELON SEED
ONLY PURE STRAIN Carefully selected. Kept
IN UNITED STATES pure forty years. No
other variety grown on
plantations of 1500 acres. Pure seed imtossible
where different kinds are growr. 1 oz. lsc-2
oz. 25c 4 oz. 4<>c % lb. oucl lb. l.O0 5 lbs. 34.50
lO lbs. 38.50 delivered.
Remit registered letter or money order. Send
for Seed Annual. Manual on melon culture with
all orders. M. I. BRANCH, Brrzelia,
Columbia County, Georgia

23



24

Hog Raising in Florida.
Perhaps few other lines of live stock
work here received as much attention
from farmers in the past ten years as
has the hog.
On January 1, 1899, authentic reports
gave the number of hogs on farms in
Florida as 429,128 with a total value of
$877,138, or an average of $2.04 per head.
On the same date the average price per
head for the entire United States was
$4.40. In other words the average price
for Florida hogs was $2.36 less than.the
average for the entire United States.
These were certainly discouraging fig figures,
ures, figures, nevertheless they were true.
On January 1, 1909, the number of
hogs on Florida farms was 447,000, an
increase in ten years of 17,872, with a
value of $1,788,000, or an average of
$4.00 per head. An increase in value
per head of $1.96. On the same date
the price per head for hogs in the en entire
tire entire United btates was $6.55.
There is still no other State in the
Union with such a low average price
per head for hogs as Florida. For com comparison
parison comparison we give a few of the States
showing the number of hogs and the
average price per head:
Number, average price, and farm
value of swine on farms, January 1,
1909:
Average
price per Farm
head value
January January
State. Number. 1, 1909. 1, 1909.
Nebraska 3,904,000 $7.25 $28,304,000
Texas 3,304,000 5.60 18,502,000
Missouri 3,270,000 5.25 17,168,000
Mississippi .... 1,290,000 4.60 5,934,000
Louisiana 689,000 4.75 3,273,000
Alabama 1,238,000 5.20 6,438.000
Florida 447,000 4.00 1,788,000
Why is it that Florida is at the lower
end of the list? It is because the farm farmers
ers farmers have not been giving the hog indus industry
try industry its share of attention. If the hog
business had received one-half the atten attention
tion attention and thought that has been given to
other industries of the State, there
would be today over one million head of
hogs in the State with a valuation of at
least $6.00 or SB.OO per head. These
may seem like large figures, but there is
no reason why Florida farmers can not
produce hogs of as good a grade as any
other State in the Union.
Why is the present average for Flor Florida
ida Florida hogs so low? Because the farmers
have not been using the right kind of
sires, and have not been feeding as they
should have. Too many farmers are
satisfied with any kind of a sire, so long
as he would get pigs. With this kind
of breeding, improvement is impossible.
It is doubtful if the farmers of any
other State can produce such a large
variety of valuable feeds for pork pro production
duction production as cheaply as can the farmer of
this State. Such crops as velvet beans,
peanuts, chufas, sweet potatoes, corn,
Japanese cane, dwarf Essex rape, and
sorghum are all valuable. They are all
crops that are easy to grow and that
hogs can harvest for themselves.
J. M. S.
Do not breed the gilt too young.
Stronger and more vigorous pigs will
be secured if they are not bred until one
year old.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

LIVE STOCK
By PROF. JOHN M. SCOTT

The Serum Treatment for Hog
Cholera.
Abstracted from United States Department
of Agriculture Farmers Bulletin 379 by Prof.
John Belling, of the State Experiment Station.
Hog cholera may be recognized in a
herd by its contagiousness; the symp symptoms
toms symptoms of severe illness, such as fever,
weakness, loss of appetite, and diarrhea;
and by hemorrhagic spots in the internal
organs or button-like ulcers in the in intestines.
testines. intestines. Among the few diseases that
may be taken for hog cholera are diges digest
t digest ve troubles (due to improper feeding),
tuberculosis, anthrax, and inflammation
caused by lung-worms. Swine plague
may, for the present, be ignored as a
separate disease, especially as the gen general
eral general measures for controlling it are the
same as those required in case of hog
cholera.
Hog cholera is caused by an ultra ultramicroscopic
microscopic ultramicroscopic germ. All that is necessary
to prevent hog cholera is to keep the
germ of the disease away from the herd.
In the majority of cases this germ is
transported in the bodies of sick hogs
and on the feet of men or animals, in including
cluding including birds. The chances of an out outbreak
break outbreak of hog cholera will be greatly
lessened, if not completely avoided, if a
herd is protected from these carriers of
the infection. The herd should be placed
on a part of the farm that will be. the
least accessible to men or animals from
other farms. Hog lots should never be
located near public roads if this can be
avoided. All newly purchased stock
should be kept separate from the main
herd for at least thirty days. The sleep sleeping
ing sleeping places, lots, and feeding troughs
should be kept clean. After an out outbreak
break outbreak of cholera the yards and pens
should be thoroughly cleaned, all dead
hogs should be burned or buried deep
with quicklime, the litter should be col collected
lected collected and burned, and lime scattered
freely over the ground. The sheds and
hog houses, and metal troughs should
be washed thoroughly with compound
solution of cresol (U. S. P.), one part
to thirty parts of water. Wooden
troughs should be burned.
The Bureau of Animal Industry has
discovered that when hogs which have
recovered from hog cholera, and are
thenceforward immune to the disease,
are injected with blood from a sick hog
they are not made sick, but as a result
of this injection their blood acquires the
power to protect other hogs from hog
cholera. The serum from the blood of
immune hogs so treated is mixed with
a weak solution of carbolic acid and put
into sterilized bottles. This serum is
used in either one of two ways, namely
(1) the serum inoculation, and (2) the
simultaneous inoculation.
Serum Inoculation. The hogs which
are to be protected are injected on the
inside of the hind leg with a suitable
dose of the serum alone. This injec injection
tion injection will serve to protect hogs from hog
cholera for several weeks, and, in some
cases, for a longer time. Injection of
the serum alone is especially to be re recommended
commended recommended in cases where there is im immediate
mediate immediate danger of exposure; especially
where valuable hogs are carried to fairs,
and in herds where the disease has al already

ready already broken out but has not progressed
very far. The serum is entirely harm harmless,
less, harmless, and does not interfere with the
growth of the treated hog.
Simultaneous Inoculation. ln this
form of vaccination the same serum is
used, but in addition there is injected on
the opposite side of the body, in the
same manner, a very small amount of
blood taken from a hog sick of hog
cholera. This simultaneous injection of
serum and virulent blood confers upon
the injected pig a permanent and lasting
immunity, and is therefore to be re recommended
commended recommended in cases of well herds which
may not be exposed for some months
after the treatment. In either process
of vaccination it is considered highly
desirable fbr the treatment to be ap applied
plied applied by competent veterinarians who
have had special training in this class
of work, and only such skilled men
should apply the simultaneous process.
The Bureau of Animal Industry has
treated approximately 2,000 hogs, locat located
ed located on 47 separate farms. The results
were that more than 85 per cent of the
treated hogs had been saved in herds
that were sick at the time of treatment,
while of the hogs left untreated in the
same herds only 25 per cent survived;
more than 95 per cent of the treated
animals were saved in the herds that
had been exposed at the time of treat treatment,
ment, treatment, while of the untreated hogs in the
same herds only il per cent survived;
of the treated hogs in the herds that did
not become exposed until after the
treatment none were lost, whereas 65
per cent of the untreated hogs in the
same herds died of hog cholera.
South Coming Forward.
Swine breeding is one of the big
growing industries of the South says the
Swine Magazine. Yve have been notic noticing
ing noticing the foundation of numerous herds
of pure bred swine in the South the
past few years and note that today there
are more advertisers of good hogs in
this section than ever before.
Ten years ago it was very uncommon
to hear of good hogs bred from pedi pedigreed
greed pedigreed stock. Today there are good farms
devoted to the breeding of pure bred
hogs and their proper care and manage management
ment management in every section of the South. The
majority of the breeding hogs in the
South, those that have gone toward the
foundations of the good herds now
found there came from Ohio, Kentucky,
Texas, Tennessee, Missouri and other
border States. Texas has always been
a land where swine did well. Tennessee
and Kentucky have been long the home
of pure bred stock, hogs as well as
horses and cattle.
The past seasons State and county
fairs all through the South have shown
there is more interest than ever in pure
bred swine. The pure breeds have been
shown by farmers and planters in great
numbers. You will find up-to-the up-to-theminute
minute up-to-theminute breeding in the majority of the
herds of the South. These signs all
point to greater interest than ever
among hogs of the right type during the
next ten to twenty years as breeders
will have the best and someone will
have to produce the tops of the various
breeds. To the victors belong the re rewards.
wards. rewards. Fall in line and strive to breed
them so good that the other fellow
must come to your herd for something
choice.



SWINE NOTES.
In growing and developing pigs, the
most important point is that they shall
be well suckled and have an abundance
of exercise, sunlight and fresh air.
Lack of exercise is the chief cause of
thumps in little pigs.
Keep the sleeping quarters dry and
clean.
By the time the pigs are three or four
weeks old they should be given oppor opportunity
tunity opportunity to have a little side dish of their
own, so that they may learn to eat some
grain.
Cottonseed meal, although one of our
richest feeds, is never safe for hogs, as
far as we know at present.
'Let the hog do his own harvesting
and in this way reduce the cost of pro production.
duction. production.
The hog is the savings bank of the
farm; he gleans up in the fields and
groves the wastage in harvesting, and
no other animal can fill his place in
services of this character.
Economy in pork production hinges
largely on the use made of forage crops.
The hog is a natural grazer at all times
of life to a greater or less extent. Such
crops as sweet potatoes, chufas, cassava,
dwarf Essex rape, sorghum, and Jap Japanese
anese Japanese cane will be found to be excellent
forage crops for hogs.
It is just as important for the man
who raises hogs to have a well-bred
sire of his particular breed as it is for
the man who is raising cattle or sheep.
If we can not get the best brood sow
and boar, lets get the best we can as
quick as we can.
There is much satisfaction in knowing
that you can get at least 25 per cent
more gain out of a bushel of corn or a
hundred pounds of velvet beans and
sweet potatoes when fed to hogs than
to cattle and sheep, and these are the
three great meat-producing animals on
the farm. This is why the hog is en entitled
titled entitled to the name mortgage lifter.
Their value to the farm, as well as to
the farmer, can not easily be overes overestimated.
timated. overestimated.
It is an accepted fact that corn alone
will not produce the most rapid nor,
under the present market conditions, the
most economical gains with growing and
fattening swine. Hence an intelligent
selection of feeds is necessary, even with
the present high price of pork, if the
fattening of swine is to return the maxi maximum
mum maximum profit. Instead of feeding corn
alone, give a combination of corn vel velvet
vet velvet beans and sweet potatoes, or corn,
peanuts and sweet potatoes or Japanese
cane.' During the fall and winter sec
that the hogs have some green succulent
feed such as Dwarf Essex Rape.
See that the hogs have plenty of shade
and pure water during the warm
weather.
We are often asked which is ttte best
breed of swine to keep. This is a hard
question to answer for the reason that
there is little difference between any of
the good breeds. The man who is go going
ing going into the hog business must choose
his own breed. The best advice we can
give is if a man thinks he likes the
Duroc Jerseys best that is the breed for
him to select. If it is the Berkshires,
then select them. Asa rule when a
man selects what he likes best he will
take better care of it and as a result
will have better success.
Almost every newspaper has some something
thing something to say regarding the high cost of
living. We also hear various solutions
of the problem. It seems that the only

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

real solution of the question would be
for the farmers to grow more cattle,
hogs and sheep, and in this way reap
the benefit of the present high prices of
meats. The farmer who has meat to
sell is not complaining about high prices.
Feed for Swine.
____________
The constituents most desirable in feed
for swine depend greatly upon the use
to which the animal is to put them. A
newly born bigs body is largely water
and to grow he must have food that will
produce tissue. That is why the milk,
primarily designed to furnish proper
nourishment for growing animals, needs
to be, as it is, so rich in nitrogenous
substance. Later, when the time comes
that he is intended for quick fattening,
he should naturally be supplied with
feed containing much fat-making ma material,
terial, material, and it is that quality which has
given corn its high place in finishing
hogs for slaughter. It is readily seen,
therefore, that different kinds of feed
will be needed to furnish the most bene beneficial
ficial beneficial results, according to the stage of
growth of the animal, the energy re required
quired required for its maintenance, and the end
to which the animal is destined; yet it
does not necessarily follow that a ration
should be one-sided or be dominated by
one element to the exclusion of a vari variety.
ety. variety. Losing sight of this is a mistake
that has been made more frequently in
the use of corn than any other feed;
not so much, perhaps, because it is
rich in carbonaceous matter, as by rea reason
son reason of its convenience and cheapness in
the regions where it flourishes. Co Coburns
burns Coburns Swine in America.
The Small Hog Most in Demand.
The lean pig and the young one, and
plenty of his kind, are what the Ameri American
can American public wants. Juicy loins and fresh
hams, chops that are not too fat, and
frying pieces with little to suggest greas greasiness,
iness, greasiness, are demanded; and it is identically
what the producer can produce at most
profit and in the least time.
There are too many people raising
pigs for market today who forget that
the most profitable porker is the one
raised in four to five months and sold
without fattening, at a weight of 100 to
150 pounds.Farm Journal.
Ever notice that some hogs squeal and
worry much more than others? Quiet,
contented breeds like the Berkshires and
Duroc Jerseys are much the most profit profitable
able profitable to raise.
Stock Raising Pays.
The cattle business is a paying in industry
dustry industry in Volusia county. In the flat flatwoods
woods flatwoods between this high pine ridge and
the coast is found as high cattle range
as in the State of Florida, and upon it
are seen thousands of fat cattle, all
owned by Volusia people. The cattle,
too, are in remarkably good condition.
The raising of sheep, too, is a paying
business, and many flocks are seen on
the range.
The day is not far distant, with the
rapid increase in population in Amer America,
ica, America, when dairy farming will be con conducted
ducted conducted on a scientific basis and where
the profit per acre and the profit per
cow will be as astonishing as anything
which science has done for mankind.

A PROFITABLE HOG.
One Sow Brings $250 to Her Owner in
Two Years.
Mr. Jacob Britt killed a Leon county
raised pig a few days ago which netted
408 pounds of meat.
But this is not the most interesting
part of the story. The sow, a red Jer Jersey,
sey, Jersey, from which the pig came, was pur purchased
chased purchased by him less than two years ago.
Since she has brought him 34 pigs, all
of which have been raised, except the
last litter, producing in the neighbor neighborhood
hood neighborhood of $250 worth of meat.
Mr. Britt who is one of our most in intelligent
telligent intelligent and practical farmers, is posi positive
tive positive that hog raising- could be made one
of the most profitable undertakings in
Leon county. He says that meat can be
produced here at a lower cost than any anywhere
where anywhere in the country. This sow and
twenty-six of her progeny were raised
and fattened on the root crops in his
fields.
A Good Hog.
A Brooksville farmer has raised a
Berkshire hog which weighed over 600
pounds dressed. It only lacked ten
pounds of tipping the scales at 700
pounds.
L. C. SMITH & BROS.
TYPEWRITER
All the writing ALWAYS in sight
Easy Payments
H. M. ASHE CO.
JACKSONVILLE, FLA.
All Other Makes Rebuilt and
Second-Hand Cheap
FINE
Stock Farm
Equipped with all needed appli appliances.
ances. appliances. Choice land, mostly under
cultivation, in best farming section
of Florida. Several good
Dwelling Houses,
Barns, Etc.
Splendid location for colony or
for stock raising.
For prices, terms and other par particulars,
ticulars, particulars, address,
P. O. Box 73,
JACKSONVILLE, FLA.

25



The Question of the Jigger,
Now, at the hatching time, with a
prospect of some weeks of dry weather
before us, it behooves the poultryman
to consider the jigger, and his ways
if we hope to raise successfully a goodly
number of little chicks.
The jigger loves a dry, dustv, dirty
place, that is where he thrives and grows
and multiplies. And how he can multi multiply
ply multiply Any one who has had occasion to
visit a dirty hen house, with a sand
floor, after a protracted drouth, can tes testify
tify testify to their ability in this direction.
Why, coming in from such a place we
have known of peoples clothing, near
the feet, to be actually black with these
little pests.
But all this is due to carelessness and
ignorance. There is no reason why
there should be a jigger on the place
and very many reasons why there should
not.
It, however, calls for eternal vigi vigilance
lance vigilance on the part of the poultry raiser
to keep entirely free from this little
nuisance. The secret lies in three words
cleanliness, moisture, carefulness.
To keep the hens and their quarters
free from the jigger it is well to have
a hard clay floor for the house. In
this jiggers can not breed. A board
floor will have dry sand under it, into
which more or less of the droppings
from the hen house will sift, and so
form a good place in which the pest
will multiply.
If, however, the hen house has a
board floor, it is well to have the house
raised a foot or more above the ground
so that the ground below may be wet
down and sprayed. Or else the floor
should be perfectly tight. The hen
houses must be kept cleaned out well
and sprayed twice a month with a good
emulsion of soap powder, kerosene, hot
water and a lice killer.
It is best to have the nests separated
from the houses, in smalt, water-proof
boxes of some kind, that are not too
light inside. In these nest boxes the
nesting material can be easily changed
and kept replenished. The old material
should be burned so as to destroy any
vermin that may have found a lodging
place there.
In setting the hens it is well to choose
a grassy place on which to place the
incubating nest. Dusting the hen well
and all the nesting material with'a good
insect powder is necessary, and then
dust her again before hatching time.
Some people use a covered dust bath
and put the insect powder in this sand,
so that the hen can dust herself when
going off the nest for food and water.
If there are no jiggers on the hen
when the little chicks hatch and they
are moved to perfectly clean quarters
and their coops kept clean and sprayed,
there will be little trouble from these
little chicken destroyers. The coops or
brooders must be sprayed, however, on
a bright day and early enough so that
they will be perfectly dry by night, and
not when the chicks are too young. If
the dry weather is greatly prolonged, to
keep perfectly free from this pest, it is
necessary to use plenty of water and

THE POULTRY YARD
By C. FRED WARD

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

thoroughly dampen the little chickens
runs once in a while.
We have known years when farmers
have told us that they raised hardly a
chick on account of the jiggers, and at
the same time we were raising hun hundreds
dreds hundreds perfectly free from any signs of
the little flea. We have had people
come into our yards in the spring time,
evidently in fear and trembling, walking
gingerly about and looking as if only
great necessity brought them there. We
recognize at a glance that these people
have had an unhappy experience with
the poultry business as sometimes con conducted
ducted conducted in a sandy, warm climate, but
we can quickly put their fears at rest by
showing them that we do not have the
jigger on our premises now.
This has not always been the case, for
there was a time when we did not real realize
ize realize the importance of such strict clean cleanliness
liness cleanliness and constant spraying. At the
beginning of one season we were very
short of help and attempting to do too
many things to do them well. We were
quickly brought to a realizing sense of
what the poultry business would be if
the jigger were allowed to flourish side
by side with the chicks. By quick and
strenuous measures we routed tips foe,
and never have we allowed him to tres trespass
pass trespass again.
Poultry work is an industry requiring
great care in small details. These must
be most carefully looked after, or all
the money, work and thought put into
the business will be of no avail.
There are many of these little things
and not the least among them, though
seemingly so small, is the jigger.
C. FRED WARD.
Handling Incubators.
By N. A. King.
Well do I remember our first machine.
It was a thing of beauty and (going to
be) a joy forever but. I wish I could
print that word but as large as this
sheet of paper for thereby hangs a tail
or tale whichever way you want to put
or take it. Well, we set the machine
up, wife and I, and studied the makers
printed directions till we could repeat
them blindfolded or starting in the mid middle
dle middle go both ways and never miss a let letter.
ter. letter. But (there it is again), when we
started the lamp and the heat moved the
regulator we thought wife and Iwe
knew more about the regulation of that
thing of beauty than did the man who
made it. So we moved the little round
ball the balancing ball on the regulator
arm, you knowuntil we thought we
had things coming our way. But when
we had her filled with $lO eggs and
she (the incubator) held 240 of them, we
found we didnt know as much as we
supposed we did. Result, 15 weak lit little
tle little chicks that didnt have energy
enough to cry, and soon died. But had
we studied those directions and used a
little common sense at the same time
our success would have been greater and
we would not have felt like taking the
ax to that thing of beauty which had
turned into a thing of sorrow for us.
The moral of this preamble is this: Fol Follow
low Follow directions to the letterunless your

common sense tells you to deviate, then
do so slowly and watch results.
If your machine says it is a non nonmoisture
moisture nonmoisture one, believe it until you find
out differentlv. If the directions say
burn a steady even flame, do so until
you find a higher or lower flame will
do as well or your cellar demands a
larger one. When your directions say
turn eggs twice a day until the 19th
day, do it if it takes your last breath.
The maker knows more about the ma machine
chine machine than you give hina credit for, and
if he should tell you to stand it on its
sidedo it, for he knows what he is
about. Don't for one instant imagine
you have forgotten more of the game
than the man ever will know, for if yon
persist in that belief it is going to cost
you a bunch of money for eggs and oil,
let alone other things that dont look
well in orint. Dont move the regu regulator
lator regulator ball on the armfind out where to
regulate the temperature and do it the
right way. Dont set your machine in
the dining room and hold a dance in the
same room and expect a good hatch.
Neither set your machine where the
temperature will vary 45 degrees in the
24 hours from the outside and never
turn your lamp up or down; if you do
you are going to have baked eggs or
half chicks in a few days. Where the di directions
rections directions say air eggs morning and even evening,
ing, evening, do so, but do not go off to bed
and forget to put them back in the ma machine.
chine. machine. You know the maker gives you
credit for a certain amount of horse
sense and expects you to use it when
hatching with his machine. So better
air the eggs often and not very much at
one time, than to air them too long all
at once. You know an egg that con contains
tains contains a chick demands more space and
air than does a dead germ or non-fertile
egg. So test your eggs when the di directions
rections directions say to do so, for the poisonous
gas from one rotten egg left in your
machine may cost you the lives of 50
per cent of the total number of eggs set.
Oh, yes! A child of 10 can run an in incubator;
cubator; incubator; so can that same child run an
automobile, but how? Thats the ques question.
tion. question. Is your machine going to be an
expense or a profit? That is for you
to decide and the only way to decide
is to follow what the man who made
it says in his little book that comes
with every machine.
HensNatural and Artificial.
There is no doubt but that when large
hatches are desired the incubator way
is the only way. And then, when thou thousands
sands thousands and thousands of chicks are to be
raised, there is no doubt but that the
brooder is the only way. The fact that
hundreds of thousands of chickens are
so raised successfully every year and
come out healthy is a sound argument
in the artificial methods favor. If the
hen is used to hatch and rear your
chicks, she should never be allowed to
care for more than twenty, and that is
almost too many, outside the hot
months; an outside brooder can rear
fifty, and some are built for more, but I
think fifty ought to be the limit. It
takes no more labor to run a brooder
for fifty chicks than to care for one old
hen with fifteen chicks. When a sudden
shower comes Up, it is as much work
to drive the old hen and chicks under
shelter as the fifty. It takes no more
time to clean a brooder than it does a
brood-coop.
Brooders are too well known to need
lengthy description, but a few hints on

27



28

their care will not be amiss. In buying
one ought to consider their convenience
to the operator, as well as comfort for
the little chicks. Heat the brooder up a
day or two before you want to put the
chicks in it. Cover the floor of the nur nursery
sery nursery with fine sand, then sprinkle in fine
hayseed, cut clover or some other good
scratching material. Give the chicks
plenty of fresh water in some kind of a
fount so they will not run through it and
foul it. See that vou have small grit in
the brooder, unless your chick feed has
grit in it; even then a dish of it will
help.
Clean your brooder every day if pos possible
sible possible and give it a good airing each time.
It is necessary, of course, to trim the
wick and fill the lamp day for best
results. In regard to the temperature,
I have found that you have to make al allowances
lowances allowances sometimes and use your own
judgment. If you have a strong lot of
chicks you will find they will require less
heat than a hatch not blessed with that
stout, rugged appearance. Brooder man manufacturers
ufacturers manufacturers give directions for heating,
but in case you see your little fellows
crouching and huddling you will be safe
in running the heat a little higher than
directions call for. At nfght when you
find the little chicks with heads sticking
out under the felt of the hover, you may
rest content that your heat is pretty
nearly right, whether it be ninety de degrees
grees degrees or more.
There are many who still believe that
chicks raised by the natural methodthe
hen will develop much better than
brooder-reared chicks, but I have failed
to notice a difference. Some fanciers
swear by the artificial method, others
swear by the natural method. I would
say, let the beginner start with the old
hen, and then, after he gains experience
he can take a swing with the incubator
and brooder.A. E. Vandervort, in
Farm and Fireside.
Incubators or Hens?
By P. M. Wickstrum.
Taking the practical side of the poul poultry
try poultry business, the biggest profit comes
to those who raise their chickens in
the countryin the villages, suburban
towns and on the farms. Nearly all
of incubator and brooder customers live
outside the big cities and they raise
chickens to sell to the city folks and they
make money by doing it.

LAKEMONT POULTRY FARM
HEADQUARTERS FOR THE FAMOUS
S. C. RHODE ISLAND REDS
The finest of breeding and laying stock for sale at all seasons. Special prices on application.
We have 15 yards of our best birds mated up to supply the fall and winter demand for eggs for
hatching. Prices are $2.00 per settings or two settings for $3.50. Incubator eggs a specialty at
S B.OO per hundred. 35 prizes at last two State Poultry Shows tell the quality of our stock.
WRITE FOR CIRCU LA R-I T S FREE
LAKEMONT POULTRY FARM : : WARD & LANE, Proprietors
Box S Winter Park, Florida.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

It has not been so very many years
since eggs were selling in the spring
throughout all the west central States
for 10 cents a dozen, and in the extreme
eastern and western sections of the
United States they were down to 20
and 25 cents. Quite a change though
in late years, especially so the last two
years. Chickens have been so scarce
and the price so high that I could not
have enjoyed many chicken dinners had
I not made broilers out of some of my
chicks hatched for exhibits and in my
experiments.
These good prices have come to stay.
In every part of the entire country,
poultry raisingfor eggs and market marketcan
can marketcan be carried on successfully. It is
not much work to raise a profitable
bunch of chickens if you have good in incubators
cubators incubators and brooders. The work,
drudgery and disappointment comes
from raising in the old way with hens
or with cheap, unreliable machines. It
is true, some care and patience is needed.
There is only one way you can get
money without having to do something
for it, and that is to have it left you by
a rich relative. People who are in the
poultry business find the work of hatch hatching
ing hatching and raising chicks and in gathering
the eggs, sending them to market, etc.,
very pleasant. Lots of people who, on
account of their health, cant do hard
work, find that the outdoor life that
poultrj raising affords improves their
health, furnishes a great amount of
pleasure and yields a nice profit be besides.
sides. besides.
The only way to raise chickens in
large numbers in a short space of time
is to use incubators and brooders. By
use of the hen for hatching and brood brooding,
ing, brooding, enough chickens can not be raised
in a season to make poultry raising
from a market standpoint materially
profitable. Experienced poultry raisers
will tell you that they would rather
take care of 100 chicks in a brooder
than to care for one old hen and her
brood. You can set as many eggs in
a medium sized incubator as you can
put under ten sitting hens. With mod modern
ern modern machines, you can have absolute
control at all times. No lice to fight.
No danger of eggs being broken or
chilled during incubation. Eggs and
chicks perfectly safe at all times. No
work at all compared with what ten
fussy old hens might cause you.
Reader, if you want to raise chickens

show chickens or market chickens chickenseither
either chickenseither for pleasure or profit,, you will
be better satisfied if you use incubators
and brooders. During a years time
the writer receives letters from thou thousands
sands thousands of poultry raisers, who tell me
how they raise their chickens and the
methods they have found the best, if
I didnt know from my own experience
that artificial hatching and brooding
gives the best satisfaction, the letters
I get would soon convince me.
POULTRY NOTES.
Reader, if you want to escape the
chicken fever dont read the incubator
catalogues.
Get at that leaky chicken house roof.
Many poultry diseases owe their origin
to a leaky roof.
You can tell the minute you look at
a flock of hens whether they have been
well fed and cared for. The hens will
tell you, no need to ask the owner.
Deg bands cost only a trifle and are
useful for marking poultry. If you wish
to be sure about the age of your birds
mark them in one way or another.
When a ration is fed with the idea of
pushing the egg yield and the hens are
confined, poor hatches are likely to be
the result.
The treatment given turkeys must be
entirely different from that given to
chickens. We can learn much about
handling turkeys from others, but our
own actual experience will be worth
more to us.
A goose can lay a larger egg than a
hen but there is a big difference in
the demand for the eggs.
The flower garden may not be as
profitable as the vegetable garden, but
it will add cheer, comfort and content contentment
ment contentment to the home. The rest and peace
of mind afforded by strolls in the flower
garden is not to be compared with
money.
The full waterbarrel under the eaves
of the house is a source of constant
danger to the occupants of the dwelling.
Mosquitoes lay their eggs in these places
and both malaria and yellow fever may
result.
See to it that your scuppernong grape
arbor is sufficiently large to accommo accommodate
date accommodate next seasons growth.



Money in Poultry.
The hen, someone says, ought to be
established as our national bin! She is
certainly the bird which contributes most
to the welfare and enjoyment of our
people, and a weath producer to the
farmers of the country; she is as fine an
asset as they possess. The'figures show
well, no matter what they show; the
estimated value o the annual production
of poultry and eggs in the United States
is simply stupendous. It wauid build a
double track tailroad from the Atlantic
to f he Pacific.
Every portion of the co'intr/ con contributes
tributes contributes something to the vast aggregate.
No po; tion is so adijiirao y adapted to
profitable poultry raising as 'the South,
ard no other region rhould lead it in the
sum total of the product of the poullrv
fa mis and poultry yards. Whenever at attention
tention attention has been given to the develop development
ment development of the poultry business in the
Southern States it has been pronounced
a success.
The opportunities lies in many com communities
munities communities for the establishment of poul poultry
try poultry farms and for paying the closest at attention
tention attention to the chicken as a side issue on
all the farms. The South itself is the
best market for poultry. Its great con consuming
suming consuming centers are all too poorly sup supplied.
plied. supplied. Some Southern poultry and eggs
now find a market* in the North, but the
amount is not large enough to offset
the shipments which steadily go from
Northern States to Southern States.
There is a demand in the North, es especially
pecially especially in the winter months, which
would take largely increased shipments
from the South. The market of the
West Indies and of Mexico makes a
steady demand upon the ports of Mo Mobile,
bile, Mobile, New Orleans and others which
must be supplied in great part from the
Northern States. This is not because
the South is not the poultry raising
section, but because the industry has not
been developed as it should.
Rhode Island may have the honor of
supplying the White House table each
Thanksgiving with an especially grown
turkey, but the finest turkeys which
reach the Washington market are from
Virginia and Tennessee, and the Caro Carolinas.
linas. Carolinas. Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi and
Florida produce just as fine turkeys and
the finest chickens. Kentucky is now
supplying in part many Northern mar markets
kets markets with their poultry products.
Just outside Mobile, Ala., Mr. R. L.
Mcride, a merchant in the city, has a
poultry farm. He has, as a rule, about
500 grown chickens, which he keeps for
their eggs alone. For the past five
years his daily average sale of eggs has
run from nineteen to twenty-three doz dozen
en dozen at from 25 to 45 cents a dozen, with
perhaps 30 cents as an average price.
This means a daily income from the
eggs of about $6.
As the poultry farm is looked after
by hired help, it received no special at attention.
tention. attention. He has an inclosure of about
five acres for the chickens, but allows
them to roam at large and feed in his
barnyard and on other lands nearby. He
feeds but once a day, late in the after afternoon.
noon. afternoon. He has found that section a
splendid one in which to carry on the
poultry business, and has never suffered
loss nor had trouble from disease in
his flock.
In Northwestern Alabama, along the
Northern Alabama Railway, poultry
buyers have worked up a considerable
business, and are now shipping live poul poultry
try poultry and eggs to various sections of the
country. From the stations along that

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

road in a distance of fifty miles proba probably
bly probably $250,000 worth of poultry and eggs
each year are shipped. Birmingham and
the industrial and mining regions sur surrounding
rounding surrounding it furnish a great market for
poultry and eggs, which can not be sup supplied
plied supplied from nearby points, though the
country is most favorable for the in industry.
dustry. industry.
The little town of Eupora, Miss., has
worked up a poultry business with the
Delta section of the State amounting to
about $75,000 a year. Here as in the
Northern Alabama section the supply
all comes from the barnyards of the
farms, no extra attention being given to
the raising of chickens.
A trip over the Norwood branch of
the Southern Railway recently developed
the fact that a steady business in live
poultry existed from two or three towns
on that short line, shipments going to
nearby centers and to Florida points.
The aggregate amounts to $200,000 or
$300,000 a year. This development, too,
has been reached without any special
efforts to enlarge the business. Like
conditions may be found in a great
many communities in the Southern
States showing that the advantages for
the industry are very pronounced. The
testimony of everyone who has paid
careful attention to poultry growing is
that the South is pre-eminently adapted
for it, and that the profits are very
large.
In the valley country of Virginia are
some very large poultry farms, where
turkeys, geese and ducks, as well as
chickens are raised in great numbers
and which have their well established
markets in the Eastern cities. There is
a very large poultry farm near Rich Richmond,
mond, Richmond, with as many as 5,000 chickens
and ducks. In several other places in
the South are some especially large
farms, all of which are proving very
profitable. The opportunity in the poul poultry
try poultry business is so good that in a very
few acres, which may be purchased at a
few dollars an acre, will enable one to
keep from 400 to 1,000 chickens, and
from which the returns will give a
family a good income sufficient to pay
all expenses and to make good annual
savings.
Morristown, Tenn., is one of the best
known poultry centers in the country.
It is in East Tenessee, at the junction
of three lines of the Southern Railway,
and a place of about 5,000 population.
About fifteen years ago Messrs. George
W. Ivy, J. F. Mathes and W. B. Melvin
began buying poultry in the country ad adjacent
jacent adjacent to Morristown and bringing it to
that place tor shipment. One or two
carloads a week were shipped. The
business grew, and the Southern Rail Railway
way Railway put on a special poultry train for
Washington and New York. This train
now leaves Morristown every Saturday
afternoon at 2 oclock, and reaches New
York in forty-eight hours, carrying from
fifteen to eighteen cars of live and
dressed ooultry and eggs. At first ship shipments
ments shipments were confined to live poultry and
eggs, but as the business grew a plant
for dressing poultry was established.
This is now known as the Morristown
Produce and Ice Company. It has sev several
eral several buildings, including a feeding house
with a capacity of 20,000 chickens. The
company is now spending $50,000 in ad additions
ditions additions and improvements. During the
last twelve months there were shipped
from Morristown 416 carloads of eggs,
312 cars of live and 62 cars of dressed
poultry, a total of 790 cars. All this
poultry was marketed at Morristown

and stations on the Southern Railway
just east. Southern Field.
Rhodelslandeds
SINGLE COMB
Bred for Business (Eggs and Bleat)
All breeding pens are headed by 1909 early
hatched cockerels from trap-nested 200-egg
hens. Eggs 10 cents each. No stock for sale.
Guarantee a good hatch.
Six-Mile Poultry Farm
Route 3, JACKSONVILLE, FLU.
coll White Leghorns
SNOW WHITE
Bred to Lay Eggs SI.OO per 15
No Stock for Sale
J. A. BELL - White Springs, Fla
com l b White Leghorns
Eggs, 13 for $1;00; 100 for $6.00
Throop Poultry Farm
Enterprise, Fla.
California Seeds
for Florida.
Write for Our Illustrated
Catalogue of Seeds for
Semi-Tropic Gardening
AGGELEI & Mm SEED CO.
113-115 Wain St.,
Los Angeles, California.' 1
Plant Woods Seeds
3 For Superior Crops C
Woods 30th Annual Seed Booh
is one of the most useful and com complete
plete complete seed catalogues issued. It
gives practical information about
the best and most profitable seeds
to plant for
The Market Grower
The Private Gardener
IThe Fanner l
Woods Seeds are grown and [j
selected with special reference to 11
the toils and climate of the South, Y
] and every southern planter should
have Woods Seed Book so as to
be fully posted as to the best seeds
for southern growing. Mailed free j
on request. Write for it.
T. W. WOOD & SONS,
Seedsmen, Richmond, Va.
We are headquarters for
Grass and Glover Seeds, Seed Po>
tatoes, Seed Oats. Cow Peas,
Soja Beans, and all Farm
and Garden Seeds.
1 1

29



30

Among Our Exchanges.
The hog and hominy farmer is not
worrying about the high price of living.
He is independent of Armour, Swift
and the other conspirators to rob the
public.Manatee River Journal.
Ten thousand acres of Volusia coun county
ty county land, planted to sweet potatoes, would
fatten one hundred thousand hogs, and
furnish two hundred thousand home homecured
cured homecured hams. And every one of these
hams would find a ready sale in the
market.DeLand News.
The present high prices of meats
should result in the paying of more at attention
tention attention to the raising of hogs and cat cattle
tle cattle in the South. Improved breeds of
both hogs and cattle should be intro introduced,
duced, introduced, and feed crops grown by the
farmers to fatten them. Manatee River
Journal.
Mr. C. C. Carroll has a lot of fine
sweet potatoes, and says there is no
reason why people should not have plen plenty
ty plenty of sweet potatoes to eat by June or
July, if they follow his method which is
to plant a lot of very small potatoes in
'March, just as one would plant Irish
potatoes for seed; then by July there
will be large, fine eating potatoes. He
has ?ome that weigh three pounds and
over.
Again our agricultural editor rises to
remark that the symptoms were never
better for a good crop year, and the
same eminent authority suggests that
the surest guarantee of a low price for
cotton next fall is the planting of a
very large acreage this spring. Hogs
and cattle have the call now as the
farm products of which we cant have
too large a crop, and the farmer who
diversifies always lives better and makes
a larger net profit than the one-crop
man.Suwannee Democrat.
While all the world is topsy turvy,
jerky and panicky, we hear of but
mighty few farmers making assignments.
And while they often feel they are the
oppressed of the nation, yet after all,
how little they know of the sudden re reverses
verses reverses of wealth to pauperism, and a
struggle for life in the uncertain spec speculative
ulative speculative world. They are the reverses
which the army of the nation can drop
back to and start anew to victory.
Mr. H. A. Williams, who grew a
fine crop of cucumbers for the fall
trade under shade last year, carried out
the seed on Tuesday, and is this week
planting ( twenty-six acres of this luscious
vegetable. He was so well pleased with
his experiment last fall that he believes
the crop can be made a most profitable
one in this section. His fall crop of
cukes were as fine as were ever grown
in the State, even with irrigation, of
which his was denied.Tallahassee True
Democrat.
Farms bring a greater revenue now
than most industries in which the same
amount of money is invested, yet farm
lands are comparatively cheap. It is
evident that land values will anpreciate
as a logical sequence to high-priced farm
products. Now is the time to buv a
farm home.
When writing to advertisers, please
mention the Florida Agriculturist.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

GAINESVILLE NURSERIES
fIT Offer you a complete list of Fruit. Nuts and Ornamental Trees in variety. Hardy
Nl Orange on hardy stock. Field-Grown Roses, Shrubs, Palms, Ferns, etc.
KEKP OUR CATALOGUE ON FIRE
GAINESVILLE NURSERIES : : Gainesville, Fla.

SEED FLORIDA PLANTING
We have all of our Seed grown for planting in
111 Florida. We have had five 5 ears experience in
ll truck growing in Florida, and understand the
conditions here and the wants of the growers,
and our Seed are raised to meet them.
Catalogue } KENNERLYS SEED STORE
Kennedy & Hickman Block PALATKA, FLORIDA

MONEY LOANED
OIN REAL ESTATE
LONG TIME, EASY PAYMENTS
Reliable Representatives Wanted
THE JACKSON LOAN & TRUST CO.
JACKSON. MISSISSIPPI

CLARKS CUTAWAY
Grading or Smoothing and Leveling Harrow
With this tool every field can
v\i enough for a flower bed--makes
\\'ii l perfect melon and onion beds.
Will smooth an acre as true as
,:; : a mill poiid in tw r enty minutes.
One-horse, 6 feet; two-horse,
Clark's Reversible Market Gardener Grove Harrow
This machine is used extensively for small garden or truck and market
garden use, and for orchard cultivation in Florida.
0 1-horse, two gangs of five 14-inch discs each.
00 Light 2-horse, two gangs of six 14-inch disks each.
000 Heavy 2-horse, two gangs of seven 14-inch disks each.
We make 120 sizes and styles of the original CUTAWAY tools. Dont be deceived
by poor imitations or infringements. Theres only one original CUTAWAY and its
Clarks. Send today for FREE booklet.
CUTAWAY HARROW CO.. 938 Main St., HIGGANUM, CONN.



What Florida Grows.
One Sanford trucker is now growing
asparagus. He got sl2 a crate for the
first shipment, made about ten days
since.DeLand News.
Cabbage growers at Leesburg and
Montclair and from other sections in
this county have practically sold their
entire crop of cabbage in advance, at
prices ranging $1.35 to $1.50 crate.
Truckers at Coleman are shipping cab cabbage
bage cabbage at the rate of 8 to 10 cars daily.
Growers are receiving excellent prices,
and are now holding at $1.35 to $1.50
crate. The cabbage, while smaller heads
than last year, are solid and good mar marketable
ketable marketable sizes, running 35 to 40 head a
crate.
Oscar Scalley, at Tampa, has one and
three-fourths acres in celery, from which
he has gathered and shipped $2,314.50
worth at $1.50 crate. Mr. Scalley was
paid cash for his crop, as it was de delivered
livered delivered at the station. He estimates the
cost of producing, packing and deliver delivering
ing delivering the celery at cents crate, leav leaving
ing leaving him a fine profit.
A. B. James, a grower and packer at
Little River, has 100 acres planted to
different crops. He expects to ship not
less than 40,000 crates of tomatoes.
Tomatoes, cukes and melons will be
the main shipping crop from Webster
this spring. The acreage is larger than
last year and crops are looking fine. If
weather conditions remain favorable,
truckers will have a banner crop. There
are 150 acres of cukes ready April 1;
40 acres beans, April 15; cantaloupes,
35 acres, May 15; melons, 40 acres, May
25; tomatoes, 1,200, May 25. There will
be 2,000 crates of beans for April ship shipment.
ment. shipment.
The crop through this section is the
best I have ever seen. There are to tomato
mato tomato fields that will make 1,000 crates
to the acre and eggplant fields where
there is not a missing or sick plant and
loaded with of all sizes. Beans
and peppers are particularly good, and,
as fine as ever grown;"Miami Cor. N.
Y. Produce News.
Things are moving along quite smooth smoothly
ly smoothly in the Williston neighborhood. It is
rapidly becoming a fine vegetable sec section.
tion. section. Irrigation plants are being sup supplied
plied supplied and the farmers are becoming
masters of the situation. This season
there will be 1,000 acres planted in cukes,
500 acres in watermelons, 350 acres in
cantaloupes, 125 acres in tomatoes and
25 acres in beans. This is 2,000 acres,
and means a vast amount of capital.
Twenty-five acres of cabbage are now
ready for shipment.
The Atlantic Coast Line Railway has
completed a list of citrus and melon and
cantaloupe growers at different points,
and have also just completed the acre acreage
age acreage of different vegetables at all sta stations
tions stations on their lines in Florida. Follow Following
ing Following is the acreage of vegetables, mak making
ing making a grand total of 22,999, located on
the A. C. L. Railway: Melons, 7,531
acres ; cantaloupes, 2,725 ; beans, 3,101;
cukes, 2596; tomatoes, 3,648; lettuce,
576 ; cabbage, 664; peas, 146; berries,
385 ; celery. 932; eggplant, 168; Irish
potatoes, 465; squash, 662.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

Prosperous Times Warrant *>*
Y 5; oi everything for the farmer and the farmers one quarter inch thick, covered with an iron grate, i
\ s-fo i* wife. You would not for a minute think of put there to stay you can see it.
L. ~6.Lt0 i" i reverting to your grandfathers method of reap- The reservoir is all copper, heated like a tea
W miSSSSS 1 ing grain with the scythe and cradle. Why kettle through copper pocket (stamped from
then should your good wife suffer the annoy- one piece of copper) setting against left hand >skll\sU 1 IBAft' rt
'('/ **' ances and inconveniences of an old style cook lining of fire box. It boils 15 gallons of water, ItErlaj
yMFBHg ilppi stove, or cheap range. The best binder, mower, and, by turning lever, the frame and reservoir i
# LUmpi i plow, or cultivator is none too good for your moves away from fire. This feature is patented i fWUI
* JranTTW l use the best Range that money can buy is and is used only on the Majestic.
Perfect V 1 none too good for your WIFE. Remember these three important features: fIffWSPS
Baker L nTv 4 1 f ~ ~/ .If The Great Majestic Range is indeed worthy of The material the Majestic is made of the way Pure
Fuel \ lyour most careful consideration. It is a Range it is put together the reservoir then glance Asbestos
s with a reputation built on HONOR of the best at a few of the other features posessed by ..Lining
materials and while the first cost of a Great the Majestic that follow:
rV Majestic may be more than __ . All doors drop down
jB I / i iJI I v I some others, it out-wears I U A and form perfect and msbMlmm L BT-s o faTI I N
three ordinary ranges, Ulv Mlvol QltG VAiOilQ rigid shelves. Malleable
and its Fuel Saving, m m oven racks slide out,
I 1 Baktng and Water Heat- Mil X MB I automatically holding BKw > I |
ing qualities make it Ifl A tfl P* I I anything they contain. wMreTgflHd>yyaraaiy
TO much cheaper in the end. <*- AArmmm mm mm X A. mm Open end ash pan pro-
VJk§T | WZ 1111 l 4 V Here are the reasons: Majlpahlp and Charmal Jrnn vents shoveling ashes go a BBBBT
i L* J I W The Majestic range is made rldliCdPK ana irOn out of ash pit. Ventilated I 1 ff
of Malleable Iron, and Char- ash pit prevents floor |y
coal Iron. Charcoal /ronWOnt from burning. Ash cup Mrlr-l
S rust Malleable Iron cant break. M m. xjl catches ashes that would mg* \j i MWnprf. jjri i J| w*s
. itnTtfiTl'l They are put together with otherwise fall on the floor. m$ M |{maj[stic]| I{majesticTl Wjtcr
! mUe R l vet ? (not bolts and stove putty) making them No springs anywhere to weaken or get out ip: I Front r,r
Reserwo,r rH-! ri Mii-gg absolutely Air Tight like an engine boiler. No n f fix Tt>s iha hod ..t on,, JALn r Pressure
F'ush W f heat esca P es r coid air gets into the oven, thus /.. at^. y J* rice aad Wa,er
with Top needing only half the fuel used in other ranges, should be m lOIR kitchen. It is for sale by Ws.;t? ff Heating
pHeat, causing expansion and contraction is what the best dealers in nearly every county in 40 s RiTirf! A
-tV loosens the stove putty, opens the joints and states. If you dont know who sells them JIL-'i y .-sarfiS^lV
rUrTtLF^ 8 :r Jt 1 } ffi}* ln write us and we will tell l p /:
Pllllli' C* US Majestic ai i r snt hfc liimd and with paper of Majestic Glory. Every farmers wife who
t covered with steel, but is lined with contemplates buying anew range should xA x jf
rTl I guaranteed pure asbestos board first read this booklet.
HundrSsrtf*l

Eucalyptus TreesNursery Stock
Largest Growers on the Pacific Coast
Orange County Nursery & Land Cos., Fullerton, California
SEND FOR PRICE LIST

31



32

I Everglades ===== Everglades. Everglades
I SELECT YOUR TRACTS TODAY
FEW TRACTS LEFT IIS
OKEECHOBEE PARK
Highest Point in the Everglades On the Southern Shores of Lak? Okeechobee
I MOST PRODUCTIVE SOIL UN EXISTENCE
Cool Summers Mild Winters Pure Waters Perfectly Healthy No Swamps Few Insects
| iNatures Gift to Floridt---Tlie Mid-Winter Garden oi Amerim
SgliStt* .* 'Tv/i&I &4; mamm JL, x -.- < xjtL A'J^Bi^wfci'
&8 ,# ," w stf,,V: * <>- jwy? : ''y 1&%, y IBrSri'^p^*4%# >1 >^f
*fT *£&- */ -< v* v + >'tvd** £. */ x aon>-^^i^v B|j3S
EARLT SET TLER.3OKEECHOBEE PARK
All Kinds of Fruits and Vegetables Thrive in this Rich Soil Contains about 3 per cent of fcr Plant Life -Sh
with Proper Culture, SSOO to sl,oiiO pj ,ww. ||| tg/% g£
AH Triirtc Snld nn Knllnwind C' nnrlifirtric Warranty Deed when tract is paid for. Possession when desired. N lllc
_ 1 1 1 dtis OUIU Ull 1 UIIUWlIIj; UUHUILIUIIb. i nterest Free Warranty Deed in case of death. Payments suspen. O
H illness. No negroes can own land in Okeechobee Park. Examinations before purchase binding at following prices and terms:
Flve=Acre Tracts, Fach, $175.00
fs3s 00 Per Acre)
THLY 3 TRACTS, $25.00 CASH, $20.00 MONTHLY
4 30.00 25.00
>35 00 CASH, $30.00 MONTHLY
Inal Purchaser. All Tracts Front on Torty Foot Roads
=
Lake remaining unsold when order is received Send in
emittance and we will send you Plat of Okeechobee Park
ir Tracts and agreement containing conditions as above
da Land
Development Cos.
Uedemaun Baldly
Jacksonville, Fla.
TITLES PERFECT

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.



Send Books on Florida Products
gjSSggSSHteSgSggfiHggfi l
Oranges flfWty Fertilize Citrus Trees in the Fall. Fertilizing for Profit. JfDie-Back: Its
Catses and Treatment.
Florida ioils A most valuable Treatise to the grower of any Florida Product.
Ideal Results From Ideal Fertilizers Pleasing and instructive, being not only a most attract attract-4
-4 attract-4 ive souvenir o Florida but showing the wonderful results that can be gained by industry
and IDEAL METHODS.
T deal Fertilizers A booklet giving the analyses, prices, etc., of our different brands.
WILSON & TOOMER
Jacksonville FERTILIZER CO. Florida

>
FRUI'L AND VEGETABLE
GROWING IN MANATEE
J j FLORIDA
O those interested in Florida we wish to announce the issuance of
o i:he above mentioned booklet. It consists of fifty-six pages, is
handsomely illustrated, and describes the advantages and oppor opportunities
tunities opportunities in the famous LAND of MANATEE, located on the
oast of Southern Florida, reached by the Seaboard Air Line Railway.
a map of the State.
Within the pamphlet are presented facts and figures concerning the culture of
fruits and vegetables and illustrations of life in that ideal section.
Are you interested in knowing and having your friends know more of this delightful spot a place in which to locate
where good profits and an ideal home will reward your efforts? A copy of the book will be mailed free upon request.
Address mentioning this publication
J. W. WHITE, General Industrial Agent,
SEABOARD AIR LINE RAILWAY,
Dept. FA, Norfolk, Virginia.

GILMORE, FLORIDA
On the St. Johns River, Between Jacksonville and the Ocean. Heathful
Salt Air. Lands at Right Prices. Address for Particulars
A. T. CUZNER, M. D. = GILMORE, FLORIDA



Tpil* IN I 1.1 r.nnur .i>ir PLANTIN& 30

GRIFFINGS TREES GIVE RESULTI
THEY HAVE STOOD THE TEST FOR OVER TWENTY YEARS I
QUICK SELLINO TREE PRICES I
The Trees and Plants offered on this page are growing in fields that must be clearedl
within the next few weeks. Order Early Before Supply Exhausted.

Peach Trees. Jewell, Waldo, Angel Bid Bidwell
well Bidwell Early and Late, Florida Craw Crawford,
ford, Crawford, Gibbons October and others. 3
to 4 ft. grade 15c each, $1.20 per 10,
$lO per 100. ito 6 ft. grade 20c each,
$1.50 per 10, sl2 per 100.
Fig Trees. Celestial, Lemon and Bruns Brunswick
wick Brunswick varieties. 2to 3 ft. grade 20c
each, $1.60 per 10, sl4 per 100. 3 to 4
ft. grade 25c each, $2 per 10, $lB per
100.
Pear Trees. LeConte, Keiffer, Garber,
Early Harvest and Bartlett varieties.
3 to 4 ft. grade 20c each, $1.50 per 10,
sl2 per 100. 4to 6 ft. grade 25c each,
$2 per 10, sls per 100 trees:

mi'll wiimwWiiiWPiiiMi>Mig----35?wWB'wimi?i'T< i " f.
PECAN TREES AT 3Ri FFI NGS NURSERIES

Japan Persimmon Trees. Eleven best va varieties.
rieties. varieties. A fruit that should be more
* generally grown. The past season they
brought better prices than oranges. 3
to 4 ft. grade 25c each, $2 per 10. 4to
6 ft. grade 30c each, $2.50 per 10 trees.
PI ?m Trees. Excelsior, Terrell and
Stumpe varieties, kinds that bear
heavy crops. 3to 4 ft. size 20c each,
$1.70 per 10. 4to 6 ft. size 25c each,
$2.00 per 10 trees.
Pecan Trees. Best large thin shell. Bud Budded
ded Budded and grafted varieties. 4to 5 ft.
size $1 each, s.soper 10. 5 to7ft. size
$1.25 each, $lO per 10. 7to 9 ft. size,
fine for street or yard planting, $1.40
each, $12.00 per 10 trees.

Grape Vines.Early bunch grapes. Coni
\ cord, Moores Early Delaware, Elvira!
arSfl other best varieties, also the fam famous
ous famous James and Thomas,
loc eacih, $1.20 per 10. 2-year-old
vines 20c&SSk l ,$l | .60 per 10 vines.
Camphor Trees.The
camphor of commerce is
beautiful evergreen tree. 2 to 3 f
trees 25c each, $2.00 per 10 trees.
Rose Bushes. 69 leading varieties b
for the South. 2-year field-grc
bushes, grafted, nursery selection
varities. $2.50 per 10 bushes. 1
the best, choicest varieties use
these collections. 40