ONLY PAPER EAST OF ROCKY MOUNTAINS MAKING A SPECIALTY
OF TROPICAL AND SEMI-TROPICAL AGRICULTURE^
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Some fertiliz manufacturers may tell you that as he may have on hand at the close of the
they will sell you potash cheaper than we will. season.
We are offering carloads for cash direct from the You know how it has been in the past. If you
German mines to the buyer at the lowest price are contracting for other fertilizers, be sure that
ever quoted. If any one offers it to you for less the contract requires delivery of the potash at the
than our price, before accepting his offer be sure same time with or before the delivery of the other
that the manufacturer signs a contract with you goods. Do not accept the other goods until the
absolutely guaranteeing delivery of potash salts potash is delivered. Do not depend on the assur assurand
and assurand not some substitute in the A Â¥Â¥ AVC ance sa^esman Write it in the
shape of such mixed goods iV-f J. xV3JH. ml A. Ri3 contract. It will pay you to do so.
for particulars and prices write to
GERMAN KALI WORKS, Continental Building, Baltimore
fir Farm lands in ten, twenty and forty acre tracts at the
" ince, the most famous tobacco district of the world.
f|T Citrus fruit lands in tracts from ten acres up in Las
\\\ Tunas plantation, Isle of Pines. The coming citrus
1 fruit country.
fIT Building lots on very easy terms in Havanas most fash-
ionable suburb, San Martin. Connected with Havana
1 by both electric and steam roads and also finest auto automobile
mobile automobile road in world.
FRANK K. HARVEY
Zulueta No. 9 F>. O. Box 1135
Cable Address: YEVRAH, HAVANA
Direct from the German Mines
to Your Farm
REAL ESTATE OPPORTUNITIES
Orange Groves, Vegetable Lands, Farms and Homes
Suggested by the many inquiries received daily regarding Florida and its opportunities for homes and
investments, The Agriculturist some time ago published the following:
If you have more land than you really need, sell some of it at a reasonable price and surround your yourself
self yourself with good neighbors, and thus let us fill up the State with industrious people who will make homes here
and add to the general prosperity. The Agriculturist receives letters almost every day asking about
homes in Florida, mostly small places worth SI,OOO to SIO,OOO, already planted, or suitable for planting,
to oranges, pineapples, peaches or pecans, and on which they can grow truck or raise poultry profitably
until their trees come into bearing. If any of our readers have such property that they will sell cheap, and
will furnish us a full description and location of same, with price and terms, we may be able to put them in
communication with a purchaser.
In response to this we have received descriptions of a number of properties, of which the following is
a partial list:
No. 58. 5-acre farm at Sisco, Putnam coun county,
ty, county, about 14 miles from the county seat, on
A. C. L. railway, one mile from depot; wire
fence all around; 5-room house and small barn;
good for peach orchard and poultry farm, or
camphor grove; healthy and good water; en entirely
tirely entirely clear and free from stumps. Price $500;
No. 59. Fine Garden. Ten acres, near Or Orlando;
lando; Orlando; first class land, in high state of cultiva cultivation,
tion, cultivation, thoroughly equipped; half under irriga irrigation
tion irrigation (Skinner svstem); gasoline engine and
pump, tank holding 10,000 to 15,000 gallons,
on large inclosed tower; fine crop of lettuce,
cauliflower and cabbage now growing. Price,
including crop, $7,000 cash.
No. 60. 50 acres splendid muck land front fronting
ing fronting on Lake Apopka; will grow all kinds of
crops without fertilizer; will sell any quantity
desired at $35 per acre.
No. Gl. 8 acres on lake front in Polk coun county,
ty, county, 5 acres in grove. Price $1,400.
No. 62. 55 acres, near Bartow; 350 orange
trees, one-half now bearing, balance just com coming
ing coming in. Price $3,500.
No. 65. 50 acres, ten miles from Arcadia;
10 acres good hammock; 4 acres cleared; fine
for truck; ten bearing grapefruit, twenty bear bearing
ing bearing wild oranges. Price SSOO.
No. 66. 40 acres, ten miles southeast of
Tampa, well located for home; unimproved.
No. 68. 60 acres, two miles south of Bar Bartow;
tow; Bartow; 10 acres under cultivation; 15 acres
fenced; good 5-room house and barn. Price
No. 69. House and ten acres in cultivation,
in Polk county; house could not be built for
the price asked $1,700.
No. 71. 200 acres, five miles from Lakeland,
three-fourths mile lake frontage; two comfort comfortable
able comfortable but plain houses; 100 acres pine timber,
40 acres hammock, 40 acres prairie muck land,
balance cleared; has 100 old bearing orange
and grapefruit. Price $3,000, one-third cash,
balance one and two years.
No. 72.80 acres, in Orange county, one
mile from railroad station; 60 acres first class
pine and hammock; acres in cultivation;
75 bearing orange trees. Price $750.
No. 74. 5 acres, one mile from Lakeland
depot; on good road; 4 acres old bearing or orange
ange orange trees and some young trees; lake front,
with good dock. Price $3,000 with present
crop, $2,700 without; SI,OOO mortgage, balance
No. 75. 5 acres fine hammock, 1 % miles
from Plymouth; 240 bearing orange trees. Price
While we are not in the real estate business, if you are interested and do not find anything to suit
you in the above list write us your wants, inclosing stamp for reply, and we may be able to locate it for you.
Address all communications on this subject to
Real Estate Department, Florida Agriculturist,
Board of Trade Building Jacksonville Fla.
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
A FEW FINE
No. S3. 25 acres, near Plymouth; 400 or orange
ange orange trees, 234 bearing, balance set two years;
grove slopes to a lake, affording fine chance
for irrigation. Price SI,OOO.
No. S4. 100 acres, twelve miles southeast
of Tampa; 45 acres in cultivation; 150 bearing
orange trees, 100 pecan trees five years old;
underlaid with phosphate. Price $4,500.
No. 86. 120 acres, four miles west of Talla Tallahassee,
hassee, Tallahassee, near school and church; fine melon
land, also cane, peanuts and all kinds vegeta vegetables;
bles; vegetables; 7-room house and outbuildings. Price
$l,lOO, half cash, balance one year.
No. 87. 10-acre orange grove, old seedling
trees; will bear 3,000 to 5,000 boxes fruit; also
30 acres good fruit land in timber, well suited
to peaches, pears, grapes, cassava, sweet po potatoes,
tatoes, potatoes, melons, etc.; ten miles east of Tampa.
No. 90. 160 acres, six miles from Talla Tallahassee;
hassee; Tallahassee; 30 acres in cultivation; 130 acres fine
timber, will cut 400,000 lumber; one 3-room
house; one 2-room house, barn, etc.; good
spring on place; 75 bearing apple trees; 50
peach trees and other fruits. Price SBOO.
No. 91. 40 acres, Ix/z1 x /z miles from Bartow;
all hammock; will produce anything; 3 acres
under cultivation, 8 acres fenced; good well
and flowing spring on premises. Price $2,200;
No. 94. 9 acres, one mile from Tallahassee;
small house, good land. Price $350.
No. 95. 3O acres, one mile from Tallahas Tallahassee;
see; Tallahassee; 6-room house, good well; 30 pecan trees,
pear orchard; good land. Price $1,700.
No. 96. 80 acres, bordering on lake, 3 miles
from Bartow; 300 bearing orange and grape grapefruit
fruit grapefruit trees (6 acres), crop this year 500 boxes;
balance of land good for farming and trucking.
No. 98. Five acres, improved, on Merritts
Island, fine frontage on both Indian and Ba Banana
nana Banana rivers; frost protection; splendid location
for winter home; excellent nshing and shoot shooting:
ing: shooting: a bargain at $600; quick sale.
No. 101. 5 acres, three miles from Sorrento.
Has 7-room house, good well, etc. Price S2OO.
No. 103. 10 acres, two miles from Lakeland,
all cultivated; small cottage, peach, orange and
grapefruit trees; an ideal little farm. Price
No. 104. 100 acres within two miles of
Ocala, nearly all in cultivation; large two-story
house with modern conveniences, large barn,
stables, etc., pump, gasoline engine, and all ap appurtenances
purtenances appurtenances for a first class farm; rich lime limestone
stone limestone land. For immediate sale $6,500; terms.
No. 105.100 acres, four miles from railroad
station; good location for store; good 6-room
house; also store building; land fenced, and has
300 bearing orange trees. Price $3,000; terms.
No. 107. 300 acres in Marion county; near nearly
ly nearly all in cultivation; 5-room cottage, two ten tenant
ant tenant houses, barn, packing house; good well and
gasoline engine. Fine farming land, with sev several
eral several acres muck; splendid for celery, lettuce
and cucumbers. Price S3O per acre.
No. 108. Orange and grapefruit grove, one
mile south of Cocoanut Grove, in Dade county,
about five acres; inclosed with stone wall; on
fine elevation overlooking Biscayne bay; ele elegant
gant elegant site for winter home; convenient to
church, school, library, etc. Price $2,750.
No. 109. Three desirable lots in West Palm
Beach. Price for all S9OO.
No. 110.7-room dwelling and store room
combined; 4 outbuildings; fine water and 10
acres best pecan and truck land in West Flor Florida;
ida; Florida; ideal for poultry; 5 acres sugar cane; at
depot, 16 miles from Pensacola. Price $2,500
about cost of improvements; terms.
No. 111. 18 acres, near Okahumpka, 7 in
grove of 500 bearing orange and grapefruit, 50
bearing peach, pear and other fruit; 7-room
house, packing house and other outbuildings.
No. 112. 9 lots 45x145, six blocks from de depot,
pot, depot, in Lakeland; new 7-room house; 20 young
orange trees; poultry yard; ground thoroughly
irrigated and in high state of cultivation; gas
engine, pump, pipes, farming tools and grow growing
ing growing crops. Price $2,800.
No. 114. 222 acres, two miles from Wau Waukeenah,
keenah, Waukeenah, all fenced; 20 acres in timber; 15 in
beautiful lake, 60 in pasture; 3-room house,
good well; pears, peaches, pecans, etc. Price
No. 115. 74 acres, near Waukeenah; fenced
and half cleared; 4 acres in fruit and pecans.
No. 116.- 2 acres, one-eighth mile from No.
115; a 5-room house, well, etc.; land planted
in figs, peaches, pears and pecans/ Price SBOO.
No. 118. 5 acres at Floral Bluff, opposite
Jacksonville; improved land; 10-room house
(cost to build $3,000) ; situated on a bluff over overlooking
looking overlooking St. Johns river for a long distance.
No. 119.45 acres most excellent farming
land, only a few miles from Jacksonville, on
opnosite side of river. Price S3OO.
No. 120. House of 7 rooms, barn and two
acres improved land, on St. Johns river. Price
No. 121. 10 acres about one mile from Mt.
Dora; 300 very large, fine, budded orange trees
in full bearing; an especially fine grove, well
situated. Price $2,500.
Fruit Trees and Ornamentals for
Florida and the Tropics
A specialty of Tropical Fruit Trees, especially East Indian Man Mangoes,
goes, Mangoes, etc. Also Citrus stock. Then Palms, Bamboos, Flowering
|ul Plants and Shrubs, etc. in fact the greatest variety in the South.
O r JhJ Send for catalog. Establish everything for a complete Florida home
i lace at reasona hle prices.
Reasoner Bros., Oneco, Florida
Turkey Creyk Nurseries
We are the place to get high grade
Budded and Grafted Pecans
We also offer a hue lot of
Orange and Grapefruit Trees,
Grapes, Figs, Peaches, Plums, Pears, Japan
-Persimmons, Mulberries and a general
Line of Fruit and
Ornamental Shade Trees
Ornamental Shrubbery and Field Grown Roses
Write for Descriptive Catalogue
Turkey Creek Nurseries
BOX 19 McCLENNY, FLORIDA
PABOR LAKE COLONY LANDS
Orange a.nd Pomelo Groves and Winter Homes
in Lake R-egion of South Florida.
Orange, Grapefruit Groves and Pineapple Plantations
Set Out and Cared For in the Interest of Non-
Residents or Winter Tourist Owners.
FULL PARTICULARS GIVEN ON APPLICATION.
Address W. E. PABOR & SONS,
PABOR LAKE, AV N PARK, FLORIDA.
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
Hamilton Reservoir Orchard Heater
The only heater known that combines simply
and perfectly the f/irÂ£Â£ vital features that make
for the most successful and economical out outdoor
door outdoor heating.
NOTICE THIS: A simple and positive reg regulation
ulation regulation of the fire by simply drawing the cover.
This gives a flow of heat just according to the
temperature requirements of the night and the
consumption of oil just in proportion to the
amount of fire used. This is the only sensible
and economical principle and makes it a small
consumer of oil. It couldnt be otherwise.
Secondly. A reservoir of oil not under fire
which admits of an all night burn with posi positively
tively positively no attention required after lighting. This
feature makes a uniform fire throughout the
period of burning and saves labor as no others
Thirdly. It gives just the proper combustion
for most successful out-door heating. Rochester
lamps and oil stoves are Intended for indoor
heating and orchard heaters have to work un under
der under very different conditions. Look into this
thoroughly and dont be deceived.
It is the simplest in construction, the easiest
to operate and positively the most effective
heater known and these features have all been
proven and tried thoroughly in this valley last
Spring, when more fruit was saved from the
frost per heater than any other devices used.
We can show you.
Draw the cover and the fire does the rest.
Write us for information.
Hamilton Reservoir Orchard Heater Cos.
Grand Junction, Colorado
g'The King Spreader*
Will BROADCAST or DRI LL any quan-
I titytoacre. ** FORCE FEED
Distributes damp clod cloddy
dy cloddy stuff cant clog, from
to 1000 lbs. to acre. Â§
SAMPLE MACH IIM E
Durable, simple, always ready. Will distrib distribute
ute distribute nitrate or fertilizers between rows of growing
plants, broadcast or in two rows.
Take Agency and KING WEEDER CO.
get free sample RICHMOND, VA.
Ask for sample of our Truckers Hoe.
The FARMERS GARDEN
A Seed Drill and Wheel Hoe is in- [ 5
dispensablenot only in a village \ uiqetiX
garden but on largest farms. X. 1
Farmers should grow all manner HELP#
of vegetables and live on the fat of J
the land. Should provide succu-
lentroots for Cattle, Swine, Poultry,
and save high priced feed Â§
stuff. Great labor-sav- Only One S
ing tools of special W of Many fÂ§
value forthehome Iron Age Tools I
as well as the Tv 1
market gar- IIjIV V* M
den. Send mllV The I
for fre f Th g
book. liy .jf most g
BATEMAN MFG. CO., Box 28-G GRENLOCH, N. J, |
ONE FUL LB ALE
150 Feet Long for 75c
Galvanized Poultry Netting
A I WRITE FOR CIRCULARS.
NETTING DOW WIRE&IRON WORKS, Louisville, Kjt
Old Series Vol. XXXVIII, No. 2
New Series Vol. 1, No. 5
FROM FROZEN NORTH TO SUNNY SOUTH
OR TWENTY YEARS IN FLORIDA
BY HELEN HARCOURT
AUTHOR OF FLORIDA FRUITS AND HOW TO RAISE THEM, HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA,
SOUTHERN STORIES FOR LITTLE READERS, ETC.
I This is a story with a motive to show what
can be and is being done by industry and in intelligent
telligent intelligent effort in Florida. To term it fiction
would be a misnomer for it deals with the
practical side of the life of a family who made
their home in this favored State, and tells hoy
they made their great success.'!
Some Chicken Talk.
It had been a tedious and fatiguing
journey from the old home to the new,
and for one whole day after entering
into her kingdom, Queen Mollie conde condescended
scended condescended to rest quiet, not within doors,
be sure, but on the porch in the comfort comfortable
able comfortable hammock I had made ready for her
majestys use. How did I do it? Well,
Im going to tell you about that before
long, but just now we have to do with
chickens. So Queen Mollie says now,
and so she said then.
Yes, she actually did keep quiet for
that one day, simply because she couldn't
help herself, but after that brief rest
she got very lively, and so continues to
the present day. And right here I want
to say in all seriousness and devotion,
that my little wife has ever been such
a powerful helpmate as few men are
blessed with, or women either, for that
matter. In sickness and health, in joy
and in trouble, in prosperity and in ad-
% Â£> ST* T
- y -~ ' l t~- w h^^ks^^'mks!
S3HR*ts3r^S'3i?* -"'' y ' 1 1 ** 1 1 Sill MBiMwKi t >* i vA jj
VIEW NEAR PANAMA PARK
Jacksonville, Fla., February, 1910
versity, she has ever been close at my
side, always ready to cheer and to sym sympathize,
pathize, sympathize, but never to despond or to look
on the dark side of life, or to weakly
surrender to evil fortune. Asa man's
true mate should be, Mollie has been
to me, and as to me, why I have tried
to follow her example so far as in me
Where is your spy-glass, Harry?
asked the Queen, after she and her
mother had washed up the breakfast
dishes on the following day, and un unpacked
packed unpacked some mysterious baskets. I hand handed
ed handed it to her, supposing she wanted to
look off over the beautiful lake. But
she turned the other way.
Come on, she said, tucking the glass
under one arm and me under the other.
Stepping out into the small clearing de described
scribed described aforetime, Queen Mollie, with a
portentously solemn look on her sweet
face, and a twinkle in her eyes, raised
the glass and swept it here and there,
inside and outside the inclosure.
Strange! she exclaimed, I don't
See what? I timidly ventured to
Why, the hen-house and yard. You
got them ready, of course, for you know
we'll need chickens and eggs the first
thing. Where have you hidden them,
von funny boy?'
I turned and looked at that little
woman. 1 frowned at her. She says I
did not, that I never knew how, but I
did the best I could, and they say an
angel can do no more than that. So I
frowned, and said, gruffly:
The hen-house and yard, madam,
are just around the corner, in the per perspective.
spective. perspective. Or perhaps that is the house,
Taking the glass from her, I levelled
it anxiously at the top of the tall pine
tree I had left for a lightning rod.
No, I continued, meditatively, I
believe that is not even a chicken birds
nest, much less a hen-house. It must
be somewhere else.
You ridiculous boy! laughed Mollie.
Of course I did not expect to find a
hen-house ready; you've had too many
other things to plan and to and
that had to be done for our comfort. I
was just teasing you a little, and leading
you gently up to the point of going out
among your neighbors and engaging
three hens that want to set right away,
hens that are determined to do it, too,
and havent had any eggs given to them
yet. We must have them tonight, for
I bought two settings of eggs in Jack Jacksonville,
sonville, Jacksonville, Langshans and Houdans.
Good! I exclaimed, you thoughtful
little woman. I confess I never once
remembered that we must have some
poultry, or I would have got some kind
of a house ready. Ill go down into
our apology for a village, and see if I
can find the birds we need. But hows
this, Mollie, I continued, turning back
as a sudden thought struck me, I have
always heard that a hen cant be made
to set anywhere except in the spot she
has chosen for herself.
Thats all humbug, benighted ignor ignorance,
ance, ignorance, said the little wife, with a fine
scorn; There are ways known to some
folks, and unknown to others. Try to
get the hens in loose boxes so that they
can be brought home without lifting
them out. Just secure the hens and a
setting of eggs, and then come right
home, for we must fix up some coops
and a little yard around them. Then
about dusk you and Jack can go and
get the hens.
I was back home in a couple of hours
with the desired eggs, and able to report
three nice, motherly hens secured, but
brought a message from their erstwhile
owner to the effect that no hens
wouldnt set nowhere but where they
chooses, and it aint no use a-tryin to
make em. Theys just dratted fools
about settin, anyway.
Mollie laughed. We will show that
good woman something. Come now,
you and Jack, and let us get the coops
and yard ready.
I looked around in dismay, for no nowhere
where nowhere did I see any small, light pieces
of boards suitable for making coops.
But my wife was equal to the occasion
She had not been brought up on a ranch
by a thrifty mother for nothing. Under
her directions we carried three barrels
beneath the shelter of one of the big
oaks that stood near the kitchen. They
were strong sugar barrels and when the
hoops had been strengthened by nailing
them here and there to the staves, and
a couple of odd hoops secured on the
inside to prevent any sagging downward,
they were pronounced ready to be laid
in their places, on their sides of course.
We scooped out a space so as to make
them lie flat and steady, and threw the
sand back inside the barrels, thus giving
a smooth floor to these odd coops.
The next step was to make three
square frames to fit across the open
fronts of the barrels, the side pieces be being
ing being long and sharpened at the bottom
ends so as to be driven deep into the
ground. On this frame were nailed
laths about two inches apart, the cen center,
ter, center, however, being a barrel stave made
to slide up and down as a doorway.
Jack and I felt quite proud when our
work was completed, and gazed at the
improvised coops admiringly.
'Completed! No indeed; our stern task
master had plenty more work in store
for us. The hens could not be kept
fastened up inside the coops all the
time, and the moment they were let out
they would stray from their new sur surroundings,
roundings, surroundings, and probably return to their
old home. So a small yard must be
fenced in right away, to inclose the
This was not so much of a task, after
all, as it might have been. Acting still un under
der under Queen Mollies directions, Jack and I
selected from the piles of lumber that
were lying around ready for building
the house, five battens each ten feet
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
long, and enough heavier pieces, rafters,
to make ten posts four feet long.
These we nailed together so as to
make five frames or panels ten feet
long and four feet high. The bottom
of each section was an eight inch board,
and a little above the center, or nearly
three feet from the bottom, the batten
was nailed on. Not right along the
top, you see, but a foot below. There
was a reason, and everyone who is
versed in chicken lore knows what that
reason wasthat it is a rare thing for
one of these often aggravating birds to
fly over a fence where they can see no
top rail to alight on en route. Even
the flighty Leghorn will hesitate under
Now, what next? I asked Mollie.
Next thing is to bring around that
roll of poultry netting I bought in Jack Jacksonville,
sonville, Jacksonville, and get a file, or something that
will cut it. We will want five lengths,
each ten feet, four inches long, and
tacked on to the bottom board and the
sides, and stretched tight across the top
where there is no rail. When youve got
this done, well have the making of a
nice, solid worm fence that will keep
the hens just where we want them for
As Queen Mollie ordered, so did we,
and then 10, it needed but the addi addition
tion addition of some stout cord loops to fasten
the panels together until we could get
the regulation hooks and staples, and
in a few moments more our barrel coops
were safely inclosed in a fifty foot wire
fence that needed no help to stand alone
when set up in the shape of the familiar
self-bracing Virginia or worm fence of
rails that was then the universal fence
of the Southern country. One panel
we arranged with hinges and a latch
to serve as a gate, raising its base on
blocks just enough to clear the ground.
This cut shows what it looked like when
we set it up. There was so little hold
for the wind that even a sharp gale
failed to shake it, provided the panels
were placed at the proper angle. The
fence was so satisfactory, in fact, that
we were never afterwards without it.
For a movable, always-ready poultry
fence it cant be beaten. Of course hooks
and staples soon took the place of the
less durable cords with which our im impromptu
promptu impromptu fence started on its career of
usefulness, so that it required only a
moment to detach the panels or put them
Late in the afternoon (or evening,
as our neighbors called it), Jack and I
went down into the village and brought
back the three hens in the boxes they
had selected for their brooding opera operations,
tions, operations, a cloth being carefully wrapped
around each. We tried not to joggle jogglethem
them jogglethem overmuch, but the road was sandy
all the way, and rough in many places,
and it was not the easiest task in the
world to keep our balance. Jack had
the largest box, and I the two others
tucked securely under our arms. We
walked, as Jack laughingly said, as
though we were treading on eggs, but
all the same my good brother came a
cropper just as we entered our gate.
I was ahead, and hearing a very ener energetic
getic energetic exclamation, turned to behold the
big box on the ground, with Jack sprawl sprawling
ing sprawling on top like a spread eagle, but
valiantly holding down the cloth that
confined the feathered prisoner, whose
indignation at being turned upside down,
as it were, was expressed in no uncer uncertain
tain uncertain terms. Of course the ever ready
Mollie heard the commotion, and came
to the rescue.
There was no little talking and scold scolding
ing scolding also in the nests that I carried, and
by the time we got them slipped into the
back part of the barrel coops, the hens
were all making remarks that certainly
were not intended to be complimentary
to those who had so rudely disturbed
their peaceful reveries, and upset their
household arrangements. Such another
scolding, grumbling, disgruntled trio is
seldom seen. Some china eggs were
given to each of the ruffled bundles of
feathers, and the eagerness with which
they tucked them under their soft
breasts, scolding all the while, was good
to see. Then a light cloth was thrown
over the nests, to settle the hens, and
the frames that closed the front of the
barrels were set firmly in place.
Now, said Queen Mollie, Well
hang a burlap curtain over the front
to darken the coops. But before we
go to bed we must take off the cloths
from the nests, or the hens might strug struggle
gle struggle out early in the morning, and get
disgusted at not being able to get back
on the eggs again.
And as she ordered, so we did, of
After supper was cleared away, and
the happy twins tucked safely in their
beds, tired little folks, who had been
busy all day long, revelling in the sand,
and chasing butterflies and each other,
Mother Bronson brought out the eggs
that had been purchased in Jacksonville.
Then came an exclamation of dismay
from Mollie, who was laying them care carefully
fully carefully to one side.
Oh dear me! three of the Houdan
eggs, and two of the Langshans are
cracked. It is too bad, to lose so many.
Maybe they are not lost, said
mother. Is the inner skin broken?
No, I dont think it is, was the re reply,
ply, reply, the lining seems sound with all of
Well then, said mother, just cut
some very thin strips of court-plaster
and fasten them over the cracks. If
this is done carefully and the skin is
really not broken, the chances are that
the eggs will hatch just as well as if the
shells had not got cracked.
It was anew idea to all of us, but I
will say right here that eventually, four
of. the six eggs did hatch out strong
chicks. The other two, when tested,
proved not to be fertile, and so would
not have hatched under any circum circumstances.
stances. circumstances. Perhaps this is anew wrinkle
for some other folks, too. Of course, as
a rule, it dont pay to monkey with
cracked eggs, but when you have paid
a good price for special kinds, and each
one represents a big fraction of a dollar,
it does pay to try to save them. If
court-plaster is not handy, strips of thin
muslin and flour paste will answer, al always
ways always bearing in mind that as little as
possible of the surface must be covered,
since the life of the chick depends on
the air that passes through the pores of
the shell. Many a one has been smoth smothered
ered smothered to death by being coated with grease
rubbed on the hen to kill mites, or
sich, and probably the poor hatch
remained a mystery to the owner. A
broken egg in the nest, smearing the
others, will have the same effect if the
eggs are not promptly washed, and in
lukewarm water, so as not to chill the
There is o,ne thing that Ive been
puzzling over, I remarked, and that is
why, when you had only these two set settings,
tings, settings, you wanted another, and a third
hen right off.
Mollie laughed and said: The solu solution
tion solution of your puzzle is this, you stupid
boy. It is always best to set at least
three hens at the same time because
there are always some eggs that wont
hatch. On the sixth or seventh day
they can be tested, and all the unfertile
ones weeded out. They are still per perfectly
fectly perfectly good for use in cooking, for cakes
or omelets, so there is no waste that
way. When three hens are set, there are
usually enough for two full settings left
after the weeding out. Then, you see,
fresh eggs can be given to the third
hen. Thats why, my dear boy. When
we go out to lift off the nest cloths, we
must put a little dish of water, and
some feed in each coop, so the hens can
find them in the morning. Well have to
keep them in the coops for the first
day until towards night. Let them fuss
and growl all they want to until they
settle down to business; thev cant break
the china eggs, thank goodness.
Well, those hens did do considerable
scrambling and loud talking in their bar barrels
rels barrels during the greater part of that first
day, but toward night they had become
so quiet that Mollie decided to let them
out in the yard for a little exercise and
a dust bath. So the velvet-burlap hang hangings
ings hangings of their parlor doors and the sliding
panels were removed, and directly three
ruffled bunches of feathers came darting
out, waltzing around that nice little yard,
and making faces at each other.
But they did not stop there, for the
next thing we knew a triangular fight
was in progress. I scattered the com combatants,
batants, combatants, and then they took it out in
scolding some more, and did it as though
they had been brought up to it as a pro profession.
fession. profession. They took their dust bath (so
did I, some of it), and then they prome promenaded
naded promenaded a while, circling the yard and
casting sidelong glances at the fence,
the like of which they had never seen
before, by the way, for it came from
the first roll of poultry netting that had
ever been brought into that section. The
only poultry fences those hens had seen
previously, were made of rough palings
hewn from pine trees. That poultry net netting
ting netting was as much of a curiosity to the
majority of our neighbors as our pump.
When the time came for those three
feathered ruffs to go back to their beds
they declined to go. They just waltzed
some more around the yard watching us,
and cocking their eyes at the fence, in
perplexity because they could see no top
rail to use as a half-way house in a
flight over into the outside world. So
Mollie and I and the twins essayed to
shoo them back to their coops; but they
wouldnt shoo worth a cent! They did
swear at us, though, several dollars
Well have to catch them, laughed
Mollie, panting from the fruitless chase,
and catch them we didafter a time timenever
never timenever mind how much of a time. We
did it, and that was triumph enough.
Each hen was landed in her own coop,
and the slide closed, not to be opened
again until the next afternoon. By that
time the hens had evidently concluded
to make the best of what they could
not helpa wise bit of philosophy that
might well be oftener imitated by their
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
lords and masters. So we let them out
in the yard again, and this time, after
a little fuming and scrapping with each
other, they went quietly back, each to
her own particular nest, tucking the
china eggs carefully out of sight under
her soft, fluffy breast.
Conquered! cried Mollie, trium triumphantly.
phantly. triumphantly. Now come with me, and lets
get their eggs ready. They wont quar quarrel
rel quarrel with them now.
So out came the eggs and a soft pen pencil,
cil, pencil, and together we sat down on the
porch steps, then and always our favor favorite
ite favorite porch towards nightfall.
Why dont you run a line all around
them at the middle, instead of putting
it at the small end? I asked.
Because the line around the middle
of the egg would soon wear off from
rubbing against the hen, and as the large
end, or air-cell is always uppermost in
the nests, it would wear off there too.
So it is best to put the circle and date
of setting on the small end, but, and
here Mollies merry laugh rang out, I
need not really have marked these eggs
at all, for there are no other hens to
lay fresh eggs in the nests, and as they
are all set at one time, we could easily
make a record of the date too. It was
just the force of habit. Of course the
mark and date are necessary where other
hens have access to the nests of setting
hens, for they seem to make a point ot
squeezing in there to lay their eggs, and
break the others. So mother brought
me up to always mark every egg that we
set. And I go the way I was trained,
you see, without rhyme or reason.
It was quite dark when I reached into
the nests and abstracted the china eggs,
to the intense indignation of those much muchtried
tried muchtried hens, and a small-pox effect on the
back of my hand. But their tune
changed when I slipped in front of their
warm breasts a lot of nice, smooth really
truly eggs, which they tucked beneath
them with chuckles of delight.
Conquered! cried Mollie, once
more. Now we will invite the old-time
owner of them dratted hens to come
and see how they have been transplanted
and made to sit where we, and not they,
(To be continued.)
Description, Habits and Methods of
By Prof. H. Gossard.
Cut-worms are the larval forms of a
family of inconspicuous, dull-colored,
night-flying moths, the Noctuidse. The
moths are not often seen in the daytime,
as they hide in dark corners, under
dense vegetation, beneath boards, clods
or stones, or settle upon gray or dark
surfaces such as tree trunks or fence
boards, their colors harmonizing so well
with the objects upon which they rest,
that only the eye of the practiced obser observer
ver observer is likely to detect them at all. They
come quite readily to lights but not in
sufficient numbers to pay for trapping
them in this way. They are readily
decoyed at night to sweetened baits of
penetrating odor, such as fermented
molasses, or syrup mixed with a little
beer or rum. Sugar dissolved in water
may be substituted for syrup. The col collector
lector collector avails himself of this habit but it
hardly pays to catch them in this way
from an economic standpoint.
There are many species of cut-worm
moths with varying habits and differing,
details of life history. Most of the
larvae are comparatively naked cater caterpillars,
pillars, caterpillars, living near the surface of the
ground though some have a climbing
habit and ascend trees. The eggs are
laid in grass land,, lettuce beds, weedy
patches or in any place which supports
a low, dense, succulent vegetation. They
are rarely laid on or in the ground, be being
ing being normally deposited on the leaves
among which the moths hide them themselves.
selves. themselves. The full grown worms are from
an inch to an inch and a-half or more
in length and the number of broods
varies from one to three, according to
the species, though one brood is the gen general
eral general rule. In Florida some of the pests
may be found at all seasons and special
care to get rid of them must be taken
upon land from which a dense low crop
has just been removed.
The most effective treatment is found
in a poisoned bait consisting of wheat
bran and Paris green, just enough of
the latter to tinge the mass with a
greenish color, to which a little syrup
may be added with advantage. Corn
meal or cotton seed meal may be sub substituted
stituted substituted for the bran. Immediately after
the ground is plowed scatter this bait
in little heaps all over the field and
leave for two or three nights before
planting the new crop. The insects hav having
ing having nothing else to feed upon will de devour
vour devour the poison greedily and the dead
will very soon be found in numbers on
the surface. If the plants of the new
crop are set out singly a ring of the
poisoned mixture may be placed around
each one or if planted in rows a line of
it may be distributed along each side of
the row. The observance of these pre precautions
cautions precautions will generally give very satis satisfactory
factory satisfactory results.
In small gardens, plants such as toma tomatoes
toes tomatoes and cabbages are sometimes planted
each one in a cone of thick paper, heavy
brown wrapping paper will do, with the
upper edge or base of the cone project projecting
ing projecting about two inches above the ground
and the apex extending about three or
four inches below. This cone does not
interfere with the passage of moisture
to the plant and will not rot down until
the plant has outgrown the danger of
cut-worm attack. It is a good plan to
make vertical holes having a depth of a
foot or more in infested ground and
with perfectly smooth and firm sides. A
sharpened broom handle is a suitable
instrument with which to make such
holes. The worms will retreat into these
holes to hide and are unable to crawl
out again. Where cultivation is prac practically
tically practically continuous this plan will not do.
Little protection can be secured from
choice of fertilizers, though kainit has
some value in destroying them. Cut Cutworms
worms Cutworms are often destroyed by parasites,
the most common of which are the mag maggots
gots maggots of large, gray bristly flies, closely
related to the well known flesh flies in infesting
festing infesting putrid meats. The uninformed
are often puzzled by the presence of
these maggots within the bodies of the
cut-worms and suppose them to be
younger cut-worms in' the process of
development. Their true nature can be
proven by keeping a parasitized insect in
a bottle with a little moist earth and
stopped with a cotton wad until the
Letting the stock run down by stint stinting
ing stinting their feed is the most expensive of
all feeding economy.
SOME PRINCIPLES INVOLVED IN PRODUCING NEW
VARIETIES OF PLANTS AND IMPROVING
BY A. T. CUZNER, M. D.
In America improvements in the
breeding of plants is of recent date and
has been accomplished mainly by men
who write but little, and are known less.
Hence when men like Luther Bur Burbank,
bank, Burbank, who combine scientific attain attainments
ments attainments with literary ability, give to the
public the result of their efforts along
a scientific line in plant breeding, they
are dubbed Wizard.
Besides being of vast economic im importance,
portance, importance, plant breeding is a most fas fascinating
cinating fascinating study, and an enchanting pas pastime.
time. pastime. Bright young fruit growers of
Florida can undertake this enterprise,
which is so well calculated to add in interest
terest interest and profit to their chosen pro profession
fession profession with the assurance that as Jhe
breeders of new kinds of pedigreed
plants, there will be a reward commen commensurate
surate commensurate with the painstaking efforts they
may put forth.
There is a fine opening in the direc direction
tion direction of fig culture, for while it is not
generally known figs can be raised from
We have taken the common imported
fig from Asia, washed the seeds from
the pulp and planted them, obtaining
thereby several varieties, most of which
Griffing Brothers likewise nursery nurserymen
men nurserymen in generalstand ready to pay good
prices for useful new varieties. Plant
breeders need not work along narrow
lines, nor follow cast-iron rules.
The simple principles of heredity and
variation will enable any one of aver average
age average intelligence to conduct a series of
efforts to obtain new and better (from
mans standpoint) plants, with great
prospect of success.
Just here it will be as well for us to
consider briefly the principles of plant
life and growth. A few physiological
facts and inferences will help us under understand
stand understand these principles, and also aid us
in our consideration of variations in
plants. Variation takes place in two
ways, either by hybridization or bud va variation.
Hybridization is usually obtained by
crossing or combining the male and
female elements of different varieties of
the same species. A study of biology
reveals these facts.
The cell is the morphological unity of
organic life. Every living organization organizationplant
plant organizationplant or animal both microscopic and
macroscopic, begins its existence as a
minute gelatinous matter called a cell.
Every organic form-leaves, flowers,
shells, and all varieties of vegetable
and animal tissues originate in the cell
and continue their life history by sub subdivision
division subdivision and multiplicationchange of
bioplasm into form material. All cells
are the result of the life of previous
Cells are endowed with an individual individuality
ity individuality of their own, but are capable of
modified growth and development by
external conditions, some of which are
under the control of man.
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
They have the power, when conditions
favor, of relapsing to an earlier or primi primitive
tive primitive condition, and from such commence
a neoplastic process, benign or dele deleterious.
The complete animal life is only the
exnression of the life of each cell in individually
dividually individually and of their collective and
harmonious work as a whole.
In budding a plant man merely unites
an individual bud of one kind to the
stock of another plant of a robust nature,
both being of the same species. Tire:
bud possessing, as it does, the kind from
which it was taken, by its union with
the stock to which it is attached ob obtains
tains obtains nutriment for its future growth and
development. At the same time, there
can be no doubt that under certain cir circumstances
cumstances circumstances it has the power to influence
the cells of the stock to which it is
The stock likewise or the cellshavg
also the power of influencing the cells elf
the growing bud. Hence one of the
causes of bud variation.
Another cause may be due to the sting
of insects, such as the gall-fly, which
influences the structure of many plants: ;
Just here let me state that bees may
be the cause of many of the spontaneous?
varieties that make their appearance ini
plant life from time to time.
We know from observation and exper experience
ience experience that the fruitfulness of many plants
is mainly the work of bees carrying
pollen from one flower to another. We
have purchased some colonies of bees for
our pear orchard, hoping by the aid of
these industrious workers to obtain bet better
ter better crops in the future.
Cultivated plants are more subject to
the ravages of insect pests than wild
Again, domestic fruit and animals are
more subject to variation than wild
ones; although these variations are sel seldom
dom seldom permanent.
Now the question arises. Can man,
with a knowledge of these facts of na nature,
ture, nature, do anything to modify the growth
and development of plants through bud
variation? In other words can he more
or less control bud variation ?
The labors of Burbank, Normand and
the Agricultural Department have given
us great encouragement in this direction.
Heredity and Variation.
A few thoughts on the subject of
Heredity and Variation will not be amiss
just here. Heredity is the transmis transmission
sion transmission by parent organization of forms,
character and qualities like its own, so
that the offspring resembles it in all
respects. Thus nearly all, the individ individuals
uals individuals of a species, variety, strain, breed
or family resemble the average of their
class in any chosen characteristic, there
are a few which excel, and also a few
which are considerably below the
medium in that quality.
Variation. As stated above, in organic
life individuals are influenced by their
environment and forces from the out outside
side outside over which heredity contends with
but partial success. Hence in nature
we have forms that vary in some respect
from their parents. It is the province
of the plant breeder to seize upon and
permanently fix such deviations when
they are more suited to his special wants.
An example of the results of plant
breeding will be interesting to the reader.
The Wealthy apple, originated by Peter
M. Gideon, of Minnesota, will serve as
Mr. Gideon planted many apple seeds
and watched the seedling trees develop.
Most of the young plants succumbed to
the severe Minnesota winters. One plant
stood out prominently as being very
hardy and as 'the years passed it grew
into a fruitful tree. Its fruit was fine
in appearance and of a superior quality.
Mr. Gideon grafted some of the scions
011 other trees, and others he grafted on
seedling roots, making independent trees.
True to the nature of the apple tree,
all these cuttings grew and bore fruit
likf that p|f fll Q l1: ~g tr-X-..
The following account of success iri
hybridizing the orange is from the pen
of J. L. Normand, Marksville, ha.
"I send you by mail sample of fruit
from my new hardy hybrid orange Car Carnegie.
Your readers may wish to know how
we, in central Louisiana, successfully
raise oranges. It takes one a lone time
to accomplish this worksome twelve
years of painstaking hybridizing to ob obtain
tain obtain an orange that would stand the cold
we are subject to in this part of the
South a temperature that drops as low
as 10 degrees above zero.
The trees (or* the pollen used) were
the trifoliate and an early standard sweet
variety that ripens its fruit in October.
It fruited four successive crops of fruit fruitis'likely
is'likely fruitis'likely to revive the orange industry in
this State and the northern section of
I have succeeded in infusing in this
cross enough of the hardiness of the tri trifoliate
foliate trifoliate without imparting any of its
unfavorable properties, deteriorating the
variety obtainedwhich has now many
Qf the good qualities of the sweet tree.
It ripens its fruit in October.
This orange stood the blizzard of Feb February
ruary February 1909 without being perceptibly af affected
fected affected while one of the government hy hybrids
brids hybrids was cut to the ground.
The Satsuma were the next in hardi hardiness,
ness, hardiness, yet some of their foliage was curled
and scorched by the blizzard. However
the last of December cold and that of
early January, 1910, affected some new
Just here I pause to remark, that the
condition of the orange trees as to
growth or dormancy has much to do
with its resistance to the effects of cold.
Hence the Trifoliate as a stock is so
valuable for budding purposes. The tri trifoliate
foliate trifoliate being a deciduous tree, becoming
dormant in the fall and remaining so
until all danger of frost is past. How However
ever However our experience has been that under
the combined influences of warmth and
cultivation the trifoliate puts % on a
growth and becomes'as tender as sweet
or sour stock.
One reason that we have such ill suc success
cess success with certain northern fruits, is on
account of a lack of sufficient frost to
destroy the insect pests that affect them.
I am now exnerimenting with the King
orange. It comes true to the seed.
Gilmore, Duval County, Fla.
THE CITRUS GROVE
BY B. F. FLOYD
Prune the Dead Wood Out of Your
The dead branches in your citrus
trees should be pruned out and burned.
Some will have been killed by the recent
cold spell; others were killed during the
past season by withertip or some other
disease; and others still were killed by
adverse conditions. These branches
form the natural home of the withertip
fungus. In them it lives over the win winter.
ter. winter. In the spring the spores or
seeds that the fungus produces, infect
the blossoms, causing the bloom to drop.
Healthy trees that were injured by the
cold, will be the first to be attacked
by withertip this spring. This fungus
will start its growth into the tree at
any weakened point. Once within the
tissues, the fungus secretes a poison,
that, when absorbed by healthy tissue,
weakens it and allows the fungus to
grow into it. Thus the fungus spreads
from the dead and weakened tissues into
the healthy parts.
During the recent cold spell the trees
that were most injured were those
diseased with withertip. The fungus
had weakened them so that they were
in no fit condition to resist unfavorable
weathers. The same thing happened
during the fall drought.
If you wish to fight withertip fungus
in your grove, hit it where it lives by
pruning out and destroying by fire all
the dead wood. One of the reasons for
not pruning later in the year, is that the
removal of the dead branches would
cause cuts and abrasions of the growing
leaves, which would be easily infected
with the disease you are trying to eradi eradicate.
cate. eradicate. If your trees were defoliated by
the cold, they are now in excellent con condition
dition condition to be pruned.
Conserving Soil Moisture in a Grove.
March, April, and May are usually dry
months, and unless some method is fol followed
lowed followed for conserving the moisture in the
soil the trees are likely to suffer from
lack of water. Groves that are irri irrigated
gated irrigated are protected from this; in other
groves some form of mulch should be
used to conserve the moisture.
The lack of sufficient moisture in the
grove may lead to serious trouble. Its
first effect is the general weakening of
the tree. In severe cases there will be
a withering of the leaves and small
branches. A tree in this condition is
liable to further injury from withertip
and other diseases that attack trees in
a weakened condition.
It is well known that the citrus tree
is giving off moisture all the time. The
under sides of the leaves, the green
stems, and the fruits are covered with
minute openings, known as stomates or
breathing pores. These are so construct constructed
ed constructed that the state of the plant controls
their opening and closing. It is through
these that the water vapor passes out,
and the exchange of gases between the
air and the plant occurs. In time of
drought, these openings close more or
less, so that the amount of moisture
given off nearly corresponds to the
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
amount supplied by the roots. During
and after wet weather, the openings will
be wide open, and large amounts of
water will be given off. Experiments
with different kinds of fruit have shown
that the leaves of fruiting trees may
draw upon the fruits for moisture in
case the tree is suffering from lack of
water. This accounts for the stunting
and dropping of the oranges during the
The question uppermost in the minds
of the grower who has no irrigation
is how to conserve the moisture in his
grove. Without irrigation, the grower
must resort to some form of mulch. This
may be either a dust mulch, or a mulch
of dead weeds, grass, vines, leaves, or
To obtain a dust mulch the grower
plows under the grass and weeds, and
follows this with shallow cultivation
once every week or two during the dry
weather, and if possible after each show shower.
er. shower. On April 18 and 24, 1908, the Experi Experiment
ment Experiment Station made a determination of
the difference in the moisture contained
in cultivated and in uncultivated land.
The determinations were made for each
foot, to the depth of four feet. It was
found that there was a difference of
175.2 tons of water, equivalent to one and
a half inches of rainfall, in favor of the
cultivated land. In groves suffering from
a lack of moisture, a dense growth of
weeds and grass should not be allowed,
because these plants are continually
pumping from the soil the water that
should be conserved.
The other system of mulching is that
of covering the ground around the trees
with large quantities of vines, moss,
leaves, weeds, or grass. This not only
protects the soil from drying out, but
also provides material from which
humus may be formed. It has been
found that where soil contains plenty of
humus, less cultivation is required. In
case young trees are beginning to show
the effect of the drought before the
mulch has been applied, it may be profit profitable
able profitable to moisten the soil around the trees
just before applying the mulch. During
the late drought, young citrus trees on
the Agricultural Experiment Station
ground which were beginning to wilt
were given a few buckets of water and
mulched with moss and vines. They
immediately revived, and have since
showed no sign of wilting.
Fertilizing Constituents Removed in
an Orange Crop.
By S. E. Cou,i son.
In order that we may fertilize intelli intelligently
gently intelligently we should know the amounts of
the fertilizing elements which are re removed
moved removed from our soils in the fruit we
send away. A further knowledge of the
nature and behavior of our soils is re required
quired required to guide us in this respect. Finally
we should make due allowance for the
plant food that is lost through leaching.
We find that in an average crop of
300 boxes of 80 pounds each, per acre,
there are removed from the soil 34.4
pounds of ammonia (equal to 28.3
pounds of nitrogen), 12.7 pounds of
phosphoric acid, and 70.3 pounds of
This loss could just be supplied by
138 pounds of sulphate of ammonia
(analyzing 25 per cent), 79.5 pounds of
acid phosphate (analyzing 1G per cent),
and 143.5 pounds of high-grade sul sulphate
phate sulphate of potash (analyzing 49 per cent).
The fertilizing constituents removed in
the fruit do not represent the total loss
of plant food from the soil. We must
take into consideration two other sources
of loss: the material used in the pro production
duction production of new wood, leaves, and roots;
and that lost from the soil by leaching.
The following are the numbers of
pounds of ammonia, phosphoric acid,
and potash, in 1,000 pounds of leaves and
1,000 pounds of wood. In the leaves are
8.5 pounds of ammonia, 1 pound of phos phosphoric
phoric phosphoric acid, and 4 pounds of potash; in
the wood there are 8.5 pounds of am ammonia,
monia, ammonia, 5 pounds of phosphoric acid, and
7 pounds of potash. As may be seen,
the tree draws most heavily upon the
ammonia and potash. However after
the tree reaches maturity the loss of
plant food from the soil due to forma formation
tion formation of leaves and wood would be rela relatively
tively relatively small.
The loss by leaching falls most heavily
on the ammonia, and is greatest when
applications of nitrate of soda are fol followed
lowed followed by heavy rains. In open sandy
soils the loss of phosphoric acid and
potash must also be considerable. Should
we have a continuous heavy rainfall
say 4 to 6 inches soon after fertilizers
have been applied, much more of the
plant food would be leached out, and
carried beyond the reach of the roots,
than if this same amount of rain had
been distributed over a period of sev several
eral several weeks. On groves where we have
a cover crop established during the
rainy season, the loss would not be so
great as it would where clean culture
is the rule, since the network of roots
would tend to check the downward
movement of the water.
It is impossible to form an accurate
estimate of the loss from the last two
causes; but that more or less loss is
sustained is evident, and it must be taken
into consideration when we decide upon
the quantity of fertilizers to be applied.
No doubt in many cases this loss could
be reduced without harm to the crop by
a judicious use of more humus-forming
materials, and thus the cost of fertilizing
would be lessened.
An average crop of cotton consisting
of 300 pounds of lint and 654 pounds
of seed per acre would remove from
the soil 25.3 pounds of ammonia, 6.8
pounds of phosphoric acid, and 9.9
pounds of potash. Nearly all this is in
the cotton seeds, there being only 3.3
pounds of fertilizing ingredients in 300
pounds of lint. It is assumed that the
body of the plant is returned to the
soil. It is apparent that the orange
crop draws much more heavily upon
the soil than does the cotton crop.
Analyses of eleven varieties of Flor Florida
ida Florida oranges show that every 10 boxes, of
80 pounds each, contain 1.2 pounds of
ammonia, (equal to .96 pounds of nitro nitrogen),
gen), nitrogen), 4 pounds of phosphoric acid, and
2.32 pounds of potash. With these fig figures
ures figures at hand it is easy for us to calcu calculate
late calculate the amount of fertilizing consti constituents
tuents constituents removed per acre in a crop of
Florida Experiment Station.
STEM-END ROT OF CITRUS
SECOND PAPER ON THIS SUBJECT GIVING RESULTS
OF RECENT INVESTIGATIONS AND SUG SUGGEStING
GEStING SUGGEStING REMEDIES
BY H. S. FAWCETT
In November, a serious rot of citrus
fruits was described in Press Bulletin
131, under the name of Stem-End Rot.
By stem-end is meant the place where
the stem joins the fruit. Since that time
investigations have been carried on to
learn the nature of the rot, in order that
in the future the disease may be success successfully
fully successfully combated.
The fruit first begins to soften and
sink a little round the stem end, without
the rind changing color. There is no
blackening nor molding at first, and the
rind remains intact over the softened in interior.
terior. interior. The rot proceeds inward along
the fibers of the rag, and then outward
into the pulp cells. At first both the in inside
side inside and outside of the fruit remain al almost
most almost unchanged in color; but, as the
softening goes on, the rind turns dull
brown. Finally the rag and the pulp
cells are disintegrated, and the entire
fruit becomes soft and mushy. Early in
the development of the rot, small white
specks are seen in the pulp. These are
similar to those produced by freezing, or
by the blue mold.
This rot usually occurs on full-sized
fruits after they have colored. Though
the softening may begin while the fruit
is still hanging on the tree, it usually
develops after the fruit has dropped or
after it has been picked. In groves
where the disease was most prevalent it
was estimated that from 10 to 50 per
cent of the fruit had dropped. Some of
this dropping was due to withertip or
other causes, but in many cases a large
percentage of the dropped fruit devel developed
oped developed stem-end rot while lying on the
ground. In one instance 30* per cent of
the grapefruit were estimated to have
dropped from this cause. In other places
the percentage was smaller, there being
only from 1 to 5 per cent of the fruit
But the dropping and rotting of the
fruit in the grove is not the end of the
trouble. The rot may develop on fruit
that to all appearances was perfectly
sound when packed, and make itself ap apparent
parent apparent on arrival at the market. Reports
have been received of shipments of or oranges
anges oranges having from one to eighteen per
cent of the fruit affected by stem-end
rot on arrival at New York.
The direct cause of the stem-end rot
has been shown by laboratory experi experiments
ments experiments to be the growth of a .species of
fungus which appears to belong to the
genus known as Achlya. It is closely
related to the water-molds, and re resembles
sembles resembles in many respects the fungus
causing the brown rot of lemons in
California. Our experiments indicate
that this fungus infects the orange only
at the stem end. This was shown by
placing pure cultures of this fungus up-
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
on the stem ends of sound oranges. In
almost every case the oranges so treated
developed the rot in two or three weeks,
while in the laboratory at about 65 de degrees
grees degrees F. When cultures were placed on
parts of the oranges other than the stem
ends, no infection resulted, except when
a cut or abrasion had been previously
1. That oranges already affected with
the rot may spread the disease to sound
fruits has been shown by placing pieces
of rotted fruits upon the stem ends of
sound oranges. The oranges so treated
developed the rot in the same manner as
did those on which only the fungus had
been placed. Pieces of diseased oranges
placed on parts of sound fruit other than
the stem ends caused no infection.
2. That the soil may be the means of
infection was shown by placing sound
oranges, and a small portion of soil
from under a severely infected orange
tree, together in water for 24 hours.
They were then wrapped in paper, and
placed in a temperature of 85 degrees F.
in one week 42 per cent, of these fruits
showed an infection with stem-end rot.
The following suggestions as to
remedial measures are based on our
study and experiments to date: (1) All
dropped fruits should be picked up and
destroyed, as they are liable to infect the
soil and other fruits. (2) All fruits on
the trees showing softening at the stem
end should be removed and destroyed,
as these, too, are liable to infect others.
(3) As an additional preventive the
fruit on the trees should be sprayed
with ammoniacal solution of copper car carbonate.
bonate. carbonate. The formula for this solution
is: 5 ounces copper carbonate, and 3
pints of ammonia (26 degrees), to 50
gallons of water. Mix the copper car carbonate
bonate carbonate with enough water to make a
paste, pour in the ammonia, and dilute
to the proper strength. Do not dissolve
the copper carbonate before you need it,
as the solution will deteriorate on stand standing.
ing.Florida standing. Experiment Station.
Broom Corn Culture.
By E. M. Graves.
I am in receipt of your favor inquir inquiring
ing inquiring about my experience in raising
broom corn in Ohio and some advice in
regard to growing it in Florida. I know
that broom corn does well in Ohio, and
is one of the most profitable crops
grown there but as to how well it will
do in Florida I do not know. I judge,
however, that from the small quantity
I saw growing on Mr. Bears place near
here it will do on any good soil that
will grow Indian corn, and I intend to
grow some just as soon as I can get in
shape to do so.
Broom corn is an easy crop to raise
and grows very rapidly, although the
plant is rather tiny when it first comes
up then is where it requires the most
attention so that grass and weeds do
not get the start of it. In Ohio we
plant the seed in May, four or five to
the hill, hills about a foot apart in the
row and the rows about four feet apart,
so as to cultivate with a horse.
I do not know just when the best
time would be to plant here in Florida,
but along about the proper time for
planting field corn, I would think.
The object in planting thick in the
row is to get more and finer brush for
broom making, and I consider the ever evergreen
green evergreen variety the best, as the brush
grows finer and is more likely to be
greener than most other kinds.
The dwarf variety grows the finest
brush, but a sheath generally covers so
much of the brush that in rainy weather,
when it is maturing, water will settle in
behind the sheath and drown or spoil
much of the best brush.
The seed from an acre of broom corn
will produce a large amount of grain
and is one of the best feeds for poultry
and is also good for stock. Horses and
cows are very fond of it.
The brush from an acre of broom
corn will make from 1,000 to 1,500
If there are any other points you
wish to know about this subject, I will
gladly supply them as far as in my
Floridas Palmetto Leaf Industry.
In advices from Hamburg concerning
the market for palmetto leaves from the
Southern States the American consul
'According to an estimate of the lead leading
ing leading German importer, who himself
handles about 160 tons per annum (400
cases of 400 kilos or 880 pounds each),
the total imports into Germany of palm
and palmetto leaves approximate 300 to
850 tons, almost all of which are via
Hamburg and from Florida. No separ separate
ate separate official statistics for these articles
are available. The goods are shipped
from Fenandina, as well as from New
York and Baltimore, and are used ex exclusively
clusively exclusively for the manufacture of arti artificial
ficial artificial palms. Small quantities of palm
leaves are also imported from Cuba, but
these are used for the manufacture of
straw-hat braids only.
The shipments are consumed in Ger Germany,
many, Germany, and are also distributed in Rus Russia,
sia, Russia, Austria, and Switzerland. The busi business
ness business is done on firm orders, with pay payments
ments payments cash against documents. Some Sometimes
times Sometimes advance payments are made to the
shipper to enable him to pay wages. It
is a trade in which the foreign importer
must have confidence in and rely upon
the collectors of the leaves in the
The business is one that can not be
extended to any extent, and it would be
unwise to overstock the market by con consignments.
signments. consignments. The firms handling the arti article
cle article appear not to be capable of handling
larger quantities than they order regu regularly.
larly. regularly. The local importers sell direct
to the consumer, with almost no busi business
ness business through brokers.
The farmer is a business man who
gets his goods at wholesale from the
land and sells at retail.
SUGAR CANES IN FLORIDA
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF SOME OF THE VARIETIES
FOUND MOST PROFITABLE TO CULTI CULTIVATE
VATE CULTIVATE IN FLORIDA
BY JOHN BELLING
|ln a letter accompanying this article Mr.
Helling says: My experience nearly six
years on the staff of the Department of Agri Agriculture
culture Agriculture of the West Indies gave me excep exceptional
tional exceptional facilities for judging the value of seed seedling
ling seedling canes. There is nothing by which a
planter can gain more money at less expense
than by choosing that variety of cane which
will yield him the most sugar per acre. In
ten years or so there will probably be ex extensive
tensive extensive sugar cane plantations in Florida. Mr.
C. K. McOuarrie furnished me the information
about Florida canes.]
There are many varieties of sugar
canes. They differ in germinating pow powers,
ers, powers, in their ratooning qualities, in the
time they take to mature, in the tonnage
per acre, in the percentage of juice in
the canes, and in the percentages of cane
sugar and glucose in the juice. For
most of the Southern States the canes
with the shortest period of ripening are
best for sugar. In South Florida speedy
ripening is not necessary. A cane which
requires and is allowed fourteen months
or so of growing season will, of course,
often yield more per acre than another
kind which ripens and is harvested in
eight months. In North and Central
Florida a cane, for sugar-making, should
not take more than about eight months
to ripen. The richness of the juice in
cane sugar is important for sugar sugarmakers.
makers. sugarmakers. But a juice may be too rich in
cane sugar for syrup-making on a small
scale. For syrup-making, a cane with
more glucose in the juice is often pre preferred.
ferred. preferred. The Commissioner of Agricul Agriculture
ture Agriculture for Florida reported the area of
sugar cane in the State, in 1907-8, as
7,307 acres, yielding 47,960 barrels of
syrup, valued at $593,439, while only a
little over three tons of sugar was pro produced.
duced. produced. In 1903, the sugar and molasses
of Louisiana were valued at over $28,-
500,000. It has been pointed out by com competent
petent competent authorities, that the State of
Florida is suited to the growth of the
sugar cane for the manufacture of sugar
on a large scale.
Varieties of Sugar Cane.
Louisiana Purple (Red). This is the
common cane of Louisiana, Georgia,
and North Florida. It resists cold well
and gives a good stand. (The Striped
Purple or Red Ribbon has the same
qualities.) It is not regarded as quite
so good for first-class syrup as the
green cane, because of the red matter
in the rind. This cane is considered
identical with the Black Java, or Black
Tanna. An average of several years
analyses at the Louisiana Experiment
Station showed 11.3 per cent of cane
sugar in the juice in that State, while
33.3 tons of cane per acre were the
average yield. The analysis of ten
Florida samples (Tri-county Fair, Pen Pensacola,
sacola, Pensacola, November, 1909) gave an average
of 11.38 per cent of cane sugar.
Crystalline.Much grown in North-
Central Florida (Clay, Putnam and Ma Marion
rion Marion counties). Suited to bottom land.
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
Not grown so far north as the Purple
cane. Probably the same as the White
Transparent of the West Indies.
Green. (Sometimes shows a ribbon
sport). Said to have been a very long
time in Florida. Excellent for syrup syrupmaking,
making, syrupmaking, as the syrup is of the first
quality. Inferior in germinating power.
Juice may be thinner than that of the
Purple cane. The average juice (Tri (Tricounty
county (Tricounty Fair, Pensacola, November, 1909)
gave 11.8 per cent of cane sugar.
Hawaiian.(Large White). Intro Introduced
duced Introduced by Aasnas, a sugar boiler from
Hawaii, in 1891. Grown in Florida for
chewing cane. A slow grower.
IT 74. An erect seedling cane from
Demerara. Introduced into Louisiana
about 1893. Juice too rich and pure
to make syrup well on a small scale.
Excellent for sandy land in North Flor Florida.
ida. Florida. Has large buds and germinates
well. Good tonnage per acre. Largely
planted in Louisiana, where it has been
found superior to the home Purple cane.
A back number in the West Indies, aban abandoned
doned abandoned for newer seedlings yielding more
cane sugar per acre. Analysis (average)
in Louisiana, 13.14 per cent of cane
sugar; yield of canes 39 tons per acre.
Analysis at Tri-county Fair, 14.7 per
cent of cane sugar.
D. 95. A purple erect seedling from
Demerara. Introduced into Louisiana
with D. 74. Inferior in Louisiana and
Florida to D. 74. Docs not stand
drought well. Analysis (average) in
Louisiana, 12.24 of cane sugar; yield of
canes, 31.7 tons per acre.
Japanese Cane. lntroduced from
Japan to Louisiana. Yields a good grade
of syrup, but the expense of stripping
is great. Yielded 15 tons of cane per
acre on dry land at the Florida Experi Experiment
ment Experiment Station (1909). The average of
eight analyses of juice at the Florida
Experiment Station in 1909 showed 13.4
per cent of cane sugar.
B. 147. A yellow seedling cane from
Barbados. (Florida Experiment Station,
1909). Has a long period of ripening.
Suited to frostless regions. Grown in
some places in the West Indies. Aver Average
age Average for ten years (1898-1907) in Bar Barbados
bados Barbados : cane sugar nearly 19 per cent;
yield of canes per acre, 33.8 tons.
B. 208. A stout, upright yellow seed seedling
ling seedling cane from Barbados. (Florida Ex Experiment
periment Experiment Station, 1909). A famous cane,
5,250 acres of which were grown in
Demerara in 1908. It has given very
heavy yields in Jamaica and Australia.
It is an early ripener. and from the
purity of its juice may be suitable for
sugar manufacture in Florida. In Bar Barbados
bados Barbados it gave (average of ten years), 22
per cent of cane sugar in the juice, and
25U tons of cane per acre. Its juice
contained 3.4 tons of sugar per acre.
Analysis at the Florida Experiment Sta Station,
tion, Station, after six months growth, showed
17.3 per cent of cane sugar in the juice.
B. 3390. Seedling cane tested, for nine
years in Barbados. (Florida Experi Experiment
ment Experiment Station, 1909). Its juice contained
4.8 tons of cane sugar per acre in
Barbados. Ratoons out well in Florida.
Analysis at the Experiment Station,
after six months growth, showed 14.5
per cent of cane sugar in the juice.
B. 3405. Seedling cane tested for nine
years at Barbados. (Florida Experiment
Station, 1909.) Its juice contained 5.1
tons of cane sugar per acre at Barbados.
Ratoons out well in Florida. Analysis
after six months growth in Florida,
gave 13.1 per cent of cane sugar.
B. 3412. Seedling cane tested for nine
years at Barbados. (Florida Experiment
Station, 1909.) Its juice contained near nearly
ly nearly 5 tons of cane sugar per acre at Bar Barbados.
bados. Barbados. Analysis after six months growth
in Florida gave only 12.3 per cent of
cane sugar, while the Brix reading was
The West Indian seedling varieties are
to be tested on the Experiment Station
plots for yield of sugar and of cane per
acre in 1910 and 1911. As all the seed seedcane
cane seedcane will be needed to plant out the
trial plots, there will be none available
for distribution this year (1910).
My plan for growing watermelons is
to select a piece of ground that has been
given a rest period of at least two years,
or longer is better.
In the fall turn under deeply with a
three-horse disc plow. Let lie until
winter, then lay off rows twelve feet
apart with a middle burster, subsoil in
same furrow; fill furrow with stable
manure and ridge; this leaves two open
furrows. Early in the spring put down
a high grade fertilizer at the rate of
2,000 pounds per acre. Begin by drill drilling
ing drilling in the open furrow, cover this by
opening another furrow, one on each
side, putting the fertilizer in each furrow
until we have, at least, six furrows to
The idea is to not heap the fertilizer,
but get it farther from the truck. Let
this lie until time to plant then open a
furrow in the centre with an ordinary
scoop, put down fertilizer at the rate of
100 pounds per acre; run a small furrow
over this before planting seed; now
plant seed eight feet apart, putting eight
or ten seed at a place. Cover with a
light double foot. Shortly before the
seed comes up run a weeder over the
Cultivate often, but shallow, as
long as possible without injury to vines.
Use the weeder occasionally between
If large melons are desired thin out
to one stalk at first working; if smaller
melons and a greater number are want wanted,
ed, wanted, leave two stalks to a hill. At the
last plowing broadcast a light coat of
cottonseed-meal and nitrate of soda, 50
pounds each to the acre, and plow under,
sowing peas also; they will serve as
shade for the melons and also return a
handsome crop of peas.
Most men think they are too busy
to fool with the scales at milking time.
So they guess what their cows give
and guess miles off frequently. The
scales can guess closer than any of us.
It is not such an awful job to know
about these things, and knowing beats
guessing every time.
THE TALLOW TREE
AN IMPORTATION FROM CHINA THAT GIVES
PROMISE OF BECOMING A VALUABLE
BY E. MOULIE
A Year Ago Last Fall (1908)
The Department of Agriculture of the
United States government sent to me
a large supply of seed of the tallow tree
imported from the Flowery Kingdom,
China, for propagation in this country.
I was left to use my own judgment as
to the way of investigating the economic
value of that seed (which is at the same
time the fruit) and of propagating the
cultivation of same.
It is hardly necessary to point out that
the government has not imported these
seed without knowing their economic
value and the satisfactory results of my
experiments in that line need not be de described
scribed described in detail to assure the public
that the development of that new indus industry,
try, industry, closely connected with the soap tree
and perfumery industries, now progres progressing
sing progressing admirably under the official work of
the government, will, in a very relatively
short time, be a very profitable source of
revenue for those who will have had the
wisdom of availing themselves of an op opportunity
portunity opportunity that entails no expense outside
of a little care at the start.
Tree and Seed Fruit.
It is a native of China; it is beautiful
and ornamental; it begins to bear fruit
when three years old. Between twelve
to fifteen years it reaches a height of
twenty-four to perhaps thirty feet, with a
corresponding spread at the top. It bears
large crops of a wax-like white berry
about the size of a large coffee bean.
The fruit is at the same time the pro propagating
pagating propagating seed. The pulpy part of that
fruit contains a fatty substance used in
China for candles which burns with a
white brilliant flame and is odorless.
That fatty substance has all the charac characteristics
teristics characteristics of tallow in its chemical con constituents
stituents constituents and furnishes to various indus industries
tries industries elements of incontestable value.
The raising of that tree is easy and
while when possible a rich loamy upland
soil known as hammock is preferable I
can say out of my own experience, that
it can be raised in any soil.
How He Raised Trees.
I planted the seeds on the open
grounds. The soil was thoroughly
cleaned and prepared just as good as
for the sowing of the tinest seed.
To the top soil, about six inches thick,
I mixed a liberal supply of well decayed
stable manure. I then made furrows
one inch deep and planted the seeds one
by one, five inches apart, covered the
seed, pressing the soil gently; mulched
with Spanish moss, watered the mulch mulching
ing mulching liberally the first time and took care
to keep the ground moist until the seeds
had germinated and the plants had
grown up to the surface, at which time
I removed the mulching in proportion
that the tiny plants made their appear appearance.
ance. appearance. The growth is certainly rapid as
it can be seen on the spot.
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
Very few people realize the beauty of
the tallow tree and much less of its
Those who have seen my nursery can
testify to the beauty, but the economic
value is yet under study so far as the
full scope of that value can be defined;
and when that stage of experimentation
is reached, a wonderful and agreeable
surprise is in store for the enterprising
people who have grasped the opportuni opportunity.
ty. opportunity. My experimental work, so far, con consists
sists consists in the extraction of the tallow from
the fruit (which is also the seed), the
bleaching of that tallow and a splendid
toilet soap made from both the crude
and bleached tallow, respectively. All
these products of my experiments are on
record at the bureau of plant industry,
United States Department of Agricul Agriculture,
ture, Agriculture, Washington, D. C. As an illustra illustration
tion illustration of the future that awaits the pro product
duct product of that tree I will state that I had
the visit of the representative of one
of the largest manufacturers of soap in
this country. That firm is anxious to
secure the tallow from the fruit of the
tallow tree and they have taken steps
toward importing it from China and
would be very glad to be able to pro procure
cure procure it in this country.
It is a secret for nobody interested in
the industry of soap manufacture, that
the cotton seed oil is nearly beyond
reach of the soap manufacturers on ac account
count account of the hourly rise in the price of
that material; therefore, the prediction
I made when I inaugurated the move movement
ment movement of the soap berry tree industry,
that the time would soon come when the
soap berry would lie in demand for the
soap industry. That prediction has come
true much sooner than I expected as
Mr. J. H. Livingston of Ocala, Fla., has
received several inquiries and quotation
of the soap berry in car load lots, to
say nothing of the inquiries I have been
myself the recipient.
The prediction holds good for the tal tallow
low tallow tree and its fruit. The latter, be besides
sides besides furnishing all the elements neces necessary
sary necessary for the soap maker, will furnish
material for the arts in which bees-wax
is used. The transformation by lime
saponification of its stearine and oleine,
into stearic and oleic acids will supply
a great felt want and enhance the value
of the fruit as a raw material.
The cost of production of these raw
materials is nil outside of the few cares
to take to have the trees well started.
The raw materials while produced at
an enormous profit, will be on the mar market,
ket, market, purchasable at as low and even
lower prices than the cotton seed oil.
The growing of cotton is expensive
and the production has to be restrained
to a certain limit in order to preserve
the commercial equilibrium of the laws
of supply and demand; over production
of cotton means low prices and conse consequently
quently consequently heavy losses and discouragement
for the producers.
Not so with the products of the soap
berry tree and the tallow berry tree,
because, first, the production costs prac practically
tically practically nothing, and at the worst the tim timber
ber timber from both these trees is of great
value, since both are excellent for furni furniture
ture furniture and fancy articles.
The climate of this state, principally,
is so favorable that the fruitage period
is in advance at least one year of the
other countries where these trees are
An instance which has been witnessed
by scores of people from this city is
proof irrefutable at least concerning the
tallow tree. The official data furnished
me states that the tallow tree begins to
bear fruit when three years old, and at
my nursery seedling trees only nine
months old were in bloom and are nine
feet tall; their foliage thick and beauti beautiful
ful beautiful is an ornament for any place, and
none of those who have taken the trou trouble
ble trouble to come and see them has regret regretted
ted regretted it.
The industry of the soap tree shall in
a very short time rank among the most
important in this country. The market is
open and ready at any time to take all
the fruit of these trees that can be pro produced.
duced. produced. to say nothing of their usefulness
in other directions and for family use.
In demonstrating the adaptability and
great value of the tallow tree and soap
nut tree, Mr. Moulie has paved the way
for what may become in the not distant
future a most important industry to this
State. Mr. Moulie is a native of France,
but has spent the larger part of his life
in Florida, and most of that time in
testing and developing plants especially
for essential oils and perfumery. The
thoroughness of his work and his ability
as a chemist are not only well known
to the people of Jacksonville, but have
also earned for him the recognition of
the Department of Agriculture at Wash Washington,
ington, Washington, and experts in the country gen generally.
Propagation of Sweet Potatoes.
In order to demonstrate the advisa advisability
bility advisability of occasionally having recourse to
the tuber in the propagation of sweet
potatoes, and the bad economy of con continuing.
tinuing. continuing. year after year, to plant vine
cuttings from crops which have been
themselves grown from vine cuttings,
some trials were in 1905, and again in
1906, carried out at one of the Cuban
In these tests, sweet potatoes of the
same variety were grown on adjacent
plots which received identical treatment
in all respects. In one case, however,
the crop was grown from vine cuttings
which had been raised in this way con continuously
tinuously continuously for many generations, while
in the second case planting was made
with slips grown directly from potatoes
themselves. The plots planted with
slips returned a crop three and a half
times as great as the plots planted with
cuttings. It is evident that the gain of
350 per cent fully repaid the extra ex expense
pense expense and trouble involved.
A Garden Marker.
If you have a garden and do not use
a seed drill, you will need a marker.
A common garden rake can be used as
a marker, simply by putting a corn cob
on two or more teeth as may be needed.
Corn cobs are not always to be found
on Florida farms, but every house con contains
tains contains a good substitute. An empty spool
with one end sharpened and then stuck
on the teeth will answer just as well
and often better.
FEBRUARY IN FLORIDA
WORK FOR THE MONTH IN THE GARDEN, ON THE
FARM AND IN THE ORCHARD
February is usually a busy month
with the fruit and truck growers in Flor Florida
ida Florida and this will be unusually so, as
much replanting of tender vegetables
will probably be necessary in addition to
the regular work for the month. Even
should conditions be such that planting
can not be done on a large scale with
safety, much can be done in the way of
plowing and preparing the ground that
will facilitate the work later on.
The time to begin planting corn in this
latitude is usually about February 15th
in favorable seasons and farther south
plantings may be made a little earlier.
Plant sugarcane for syrup, and espec especiallv
iallv especiallv some of the Japanese variety for
green feeding for horses, cows and hogs.
It also makes syrup of a fair quality.
If you have stock, plant some cassava
in rows about three and one-half feet
apart and three feet in the rows. Plant
the canes from four to six inches deep
and fertilize moderately.
In the Grove and Orchard.
February is the month to plant or
continue planting fruit trees. As it is
usually considered that the coldest
weather has passed by the 20th, orange
and grapefruit trees may be planted to toward
ward toward the end of the month.
If 3Ott are experienced in the art of
grafting, or care to experiment in this
line, February and March are the best
months in which to do this work.
Plant some Japanese persimmons,
figs and guavas and if south of the 27th
degree of latitude, also plant some
mangoes and avacados or alligator
pears. These fruits are growing. more
and more popular each year as they be become
come become better known, so that reasonably
large plantings of the improved vari varieties,
eties, varieties, where the conditions are favorable,
will most likely prove profitable.
In the Family Garden.
Plant turnips, mustard, collards, beets,
and in fact all the long list of vege vegetables
tables vegetables that were planted in January.
Plant radishes about every week. An
occasional planting of turnips, to be
cooked tops and all while they are
young and tender will also be appre appreciated
ciated appreciated by the good wife.
In addition to planting onion seeds, it
will be well to put out a few sets to
furnish a relish for the supper table as
soon as the tops grow large enough.
Dont wait too long on them.
Of course, you must keep down the
weeds and this is much easier done eb ebfore
fore ebfore they come up than after; you can
kill more in five minutes now than you
can in an hour when the weather be becomes
comes becomes warmer.
The Commercial Garden.
Now as to what we consider our
shipping or commercial crops. To onions
we may add, especially in the southern
half of the peninsula, snap beans, toma tomatoes,
toes, tomatoes, potatoes, melons and peppers.
Potatoes need rather moist, rich soil.
Lot manure or compost in the furrows
is good, but if this can not be had. use
a regular potato fertilizer, about three-
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
fourths of a ton to the acre. Plant six
inches deep and two feet apart in the
row, and rows three to three and a
half feet apart. Do not plant in the
northern part of the State uptil near
the close of the month so as to avoid
Snap beans are a paying crop. Learn
locally as to the amount and kind of
fertilizer to use also to whether your
market requires wax or green podded
Plant melons after the middle of this
month. Prepare as for corn, that is
flat. Plow the land to be used, and lay
it off in squares about eight by eight
feet, put a peck of compost or lot man manure
ure manure in the checks, to be followed with
a good dressing of a special melon fer fertilizer.
tilizer. fertilizer. Plant in the same hills every
two weeks, so that if the first should be
killed by a frost, more will be coming
on. You might try putting a handful
of pine straw over the plants, in case of
threatened cold. Consult those who
have made a success of growing melons
for market, as to the best varieties.
Tomatoes, eggplant and peppers re require
quire require about the same preparation and
fertilizing as Irish potatoes, though pos possibly
sibly possibly the proportion of phosphate,
potash and nitrogen required bv these
crops may not be the same as for Irish
potatoes. In growing the best crop of
tomatoes I ever saw in Florida, the
ground was prepared the same as for
potatoes, the same amount of rich com compost,
post, compost, with plenty of potash in it, was
used, and a perfect wilderness of vines
covered with fine tomatoes was the re result.
sult. result. You can hardly overdo it in pre preparation
paration preparation and abundant fertilizing. One
of the best varieties for commercial
purposes is the Duke of York.
A Seedman's Suggestions.
In addition to the above suggestions,
we call your attention to the following
by Air. L. Cameron, an experienced
trucker and seedsman, who has lived in
Florida many years and whose advice
may be relied upon as being practical:
The planting of what promises to be
the largest potato crop ever raised in
Florida is just being finished. The ex extremely
tremely extremely dry weather has induced many
to plant on rather low ground and these
should be sure that proper drainage be
given to carry off any heavy rains that
may come. Should a heavy or con continuous
tinuous continuous rain come a good plan is to
plow a furrow as near the potato row
as possible, throwing the dirt away from
the row and then work it back as soon
as dry enough.
Most all winter vegetables can be
planted yet such as turnips, mustard,
collards, beets, radish, lettuce, onions,
carrots, spinach, parsley early peas, such
as Alaska, Extra Early Philadelphia
and Bliss Everbearing for late crop.
Early cabbage plants in field will do
Tomatoes, eggplants and peppers
should be sown in hot beds or cold
frames that can be protected. Covers
.should be left off during the day or
when weather is mild so that plants
will not grow up spindling. These can
be set in the field after the middle of
March ; by that time all danger of frost
is over. The most popular varieties of
tomatoes are Sparks Earliana for ear earliest
liest earliest crop; New Stone, Acme, Beauty,
Matchless and Duke of York for main
Tomatoes require moderately high
ground, which, if new, ought to get a
liberal application of lime. Where ashes
can be had a small quantity may be
sprinkled around the plants. Pieces of
charcoal will prevent rotting at the
stem and also blight.
Eggplants and peppers both require
very rich, loamy soil and plenty of fer fertilizer,
tilizer, fertilizer, especially peppers.
The earlier varieties of corn may be
planted this month, Adams Earlv, small
ear but very early, for first crop.
Stowells Evergreen Mammoth Sugar
and Country Gentlemansugar varieties
are the best for market.
Hickory King, Early Red Cob Dent,
Snow Flake, Southern Prolific, Cockes
Prolific and White Dent for white.
Golden Beauty and Yellow Dent, yellow,
are the leading field varieties.
Every one should have a few rows
of White Rice Popcorn. There is pos possibly
sibly possibly more weight of shelled corn per
acre from it than any other, and by far
the best for chickens, and being very
hard keeps much better than others.
Should corn get nipped by frost, it will
not hurt any.
Early beans, such as Valentine, Re Refugee,
fugee, Refugee, Green Pod Stringless, Black Wax
(German), Golden Wax, Wardwell
Kidney Wax and Bush Limas may be
safely put in by March Ist. Pole kinds
later. Kentucky Wonder or Old Home Homestead
stead Homestead and Southern Prolific Green Snaps
are the best. Sewee and King of the
Garden, running butter, for shell beans.
Cucumbers, squash, cantaloupes and
watermelons may be planted about
Eucalyptus on East Coast.
Mr. E. N. Waldron, writing of the
eucalyptus in a recent issue of the Day Daytona
tona Daytona Halifax Journal, says:
In a recent conversation with Mr.
Cole Reynolds, former transportation
agent of the Panama canal, and a man
of considerable travel, he suggested that
the eucalyptus might be utilized on the
banks back of the beach for morning
shade, and some protection to the house
from severe fall storms. He has seen
them at Oakland and San Francisco,
where it is colder than we have it here,
and they were growing on the seashore
as poor as our sand dunes, and the
winds did not seem to injure them.
I wrote to the department at Wash Washington
ington Washington in relation to it and in their
reply they said: the eucalyptus globulus
were mostly grown in California for
their timber, but there were others per perhaps
haps perhaps better adapted to our needs here,
viz: The Tiger Gum, will rarely endure
lower temperature than 25 degrees but
endures drouth well. The Lemon Gum
is a moderate drouth resistant. The
Grey Gum has a wide range on account
of its ability to endure considerable
drought and cold. The Red Gum has
been planted to a limited extent and
stands considerable drought and cold.
With water within 10 to 15 feet will in insure
sure insure their success, other conditions be being
ing being favorable.
A DESIRABLE SECTION
WITH FERTILE LAND, AN IDEAL CLIMATE AND PRO PROGRESSIVE
GRESSIVE PROGRESSIVE PEOPLE, LEE COUNTY HAS
BY E. E. GOODNO
Editor Florida Agriculturist:
Please find enclosed check for one dol dollar
lar dollar for subscription to The Agricul Agriculturist.
turist. Agriculturist. I find your paper very interest interesting
ing interesting and instructive, and one that should
be in every Florida home. I should be
pleased to have you make us a visit and
see our fertile and beautiful country,
and give us a little write-up in your
paper. We have the goods, and all they
need is to be seen and advertised, and I
know of no better way than through a
good agricultural paper.
The people are becoming tired of a
crowded city home and life, and are
turning their attention to farming stock
y,,. . 3 --
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raising, etc., and the} 7 naturally turn
their attention to a good agricultural
paper for information and instruction.
As an illustration of what one may do
in this country will say I came here
fourteen years ago with small means,
being advised by doctors that this
climate was all that would raise mother,
and that they did not think this would;
but she is a hale and hearty old lady of
eighty-six today and has led a very
active life for the past twelve years;
only recently giving up the management
of the Fort Thompson Park Hotel and
moving into a private home.
The first two years in Florida I took
no part in business here, but at that
time bought some land and began to
make an orange grove, spending our
winters working at same and the sum summer
mer summer on the road. At the end of eight
years I sold my grove for $40,000 and
bought Fort Thompson Park, and have
since added to it until now it comprises
eight thousand acres of fertile prairie
and hammock land. We are very much
pleased with Florida and especially Fort
Thompson Park, and well we may be,
for it is a beautiful place and I worked
hard for ten years to secure it.
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
I, like many others, made the trip up
the Caloosachatchee river, fell in love
with Fort Thompson Park, and then and
there vowed that some day I would own
it and my dream has been realized,
hence our pleasure in the possession.
I have always been a great lover of
fine stock, and have some four hundred
head of Jersey and Galloway cattle,
counting among them such famous herd
bulls as Hood Farm Pogis 63, of
Hood Farm, Lowell, Mass., considered
the most valuable herd of Jerseys in the
world; also the Prince of Blackwell of
the Signal strain; and in Galloways
Baron II of Avondale and Galloway Bay.
We also have a herd of sheep and
goats, breeding pure bred Angora goats
and Southdown bucks.
Horses in this country have not re received
ceived received the attention they should and are
entitled to, as the climate and conditions
are favorable for them. I have some
very good horses and mules.
I have been trucking on a small scale,
but large enough to demonstrate that
it can be a successful business raising
tomatoes, peas, beans, cabbage and the
famous Bermuda onions, and our water watermelons
melons watermelons are the finest in the land; but
these things, owing to our building ar arrangements,
rangements, arrangements, have been neglected. How However,
ever, However, Mr. Cumming, of Illinois, will
plant seventy acres of sweet corn for the
Chicago market, and Mr. J. M. Byrd
one hundred acres in cantaloupes,
ground for which is being prepared now.
I also have a dairy of fine Jerseys and
our hotel patrons enjov the pleasure of
having as fine butter, cream, and milk
as if in New York or any of the best
Three years ago we decided to fill up
the old Fort Thompson ranch house for
a tourist hotel, and met with such flat flattering
tering flattering success that during the past year
I built a modern hotel at Labelle, two
miles away, equipping it with electric
lights, hot and cold baths, etc., and have
greatly enlarged and newly furnished
the old house, so that both are practical practically
ly practically new, and when the hotel opens on
the 25th inst., our electric light plant
and ice and cold storage plants for both
places will be in operation. These im improvements
provements improvements are located on the famous
Caloosahatchee river, forty-five miles
from Fort Myers, and has the distinc distinction
tion distinction of bieng the farthest from a rail railroad
road railroad of any similar plant in the United
States, but the country is rapidly filling
up with thrifty, intelligent people, and
soon the iron horse will follow in their
trail, and the shrill whistle will disturb
the dreamy life of those who have been
so fortunate as to have their lots cast
in Floridas Eden, but who shall say it
is not a glad awakening, a calling to the
more advanced and responsible positions
of the life of our fair State.
With the great drainage system now
being carried on by the State, whereby
thousands of acres of the most fertile
land in the United States will be brought
into extensive cultivation; thousands of
people will find prosperous and con contented
tented contented homes.
The old Caloosahatchee dredge is
gradually plowing her way through the
rocky rapids in Fort Thompson Park;
in fact she is already through the only
fixing to turn around when she will re retrace
trace retrace her steps and plow her way to
The writer predicts for Lee and De-
Soto counties a bright future. With
their stock, their extensive citrus fruit
and farming and truck business, backed
by the rich soil, this section will be one
of a few.
Labelle (meaning the beautiful) is
situated two miles below old Fort
Thompson, on the banks of the winding
and tropical Caloosahatchee river. It is
naturally a fine location for a town and
it is fast coming to the front. Here is
located anew drawbridge over the river,
a modern hotel, The Everett with
electric lights and all modern improve improvements
ments improvements ; also churches, schools, and last
but not least, fine climate and rich soil,
and with three boats leaving her docks
daily has the assurance of good trans transportation.
DEEP VERSUS SHALLOW
A DEEP SOIL WILL HOLD A GREATER AMOUNT OF
PLANT FOOD AND BETTER WITH WITHSTAND
STAND WITHSTAND DROUTH
BY W. C. STEELE
Throughout Florida, and, so far as I
can learn from reading the agricultural
papers, throughout the Southern States
generally, one-horse farming is the rule.
All the breaking up of the land is done
with one-horse plows. A year or two
ago I happened to visit a neighbor when
he was having a field plowed for a crop
of Irish potatoes; the plow was running
very shallow, not to exceed 3 or 4 inches
"A- ' *
A: ; JERSEY and GALLOWAY CATTLE . v
at FORT THOMPSON PARK V
FORT THOMPSON, FLA. '
deep. I said that was not deep enough,
but he said that he did not want it any
deeper. I did not say any more, because
I saw that it was useless. When I began
to have my land broken up for crops,
after coming to Florida, I had great dif difficulty
ficulty difficulty in getting hands to plow as deep
as 1 wanted it done. They said that it
would spoil the land, but I insisted on
having it done as I desired, and the
results always showed that the soil was
not injured in any way, but was really
I can remember when it was a common
thing to say that deep plowing would
ruin the land. I have lived through the
whole controversy until now deep plow plowing
ing plowing is as universal throughout the
Northern States as shallow plowing is
in the Southern.
There is no doubt that a deep soil will
produce better crops than a shallow one,
and the thinnest soil can be made deep
by plowing and fertilizing. The deeper
the soil the greater the amount of plant
food it will hold. Moreover, the deeper
the roots go the easier it will be for
the crop to withstand a drouth. For
several years we have been having very
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
dry seasons in Florida, so that many
truck farmers and orange growers
throughout the State have been installing
irrigation plants wherever possible. I
have no doubt that in most cases such a
plant will prove to be a profitable invest investment,
ment, investment, yet many will not be able to have
one for lack of capital. Such parties
might easily provide a partial remedy for
drouth by deepening their soil; a deep
soil full of humus will stand a drouth
which would destroy the crop on the
next field which has a similar but more
Deep plowing should not be carried to
excess at the start. Do not turn up
more than one or at the most two inches
of new r soil at a time; this is not so im important
portant important with a light sandy soil as it is
with heavy clay. If you turn under the
fertile soil and cover it with two or three
inches of pure sand, it can be easily
mixed with the good soil and from the
start the rots of the crop will go through
the sand into the good soil and make a
good growth. But if your soil is a stiff
clay the turning up of two or three
inches of the clay, below what has ever
been plowed before will probably be
fatal to the crop for that season. Col.
Waring, the expert who died of yellow
fever in Cuba, wrote a series of articles
for the American Agriculturist under
the title of Odgen Farm Papers.
Treating on this very subject he used
an expression which I have never for forgotten,
gotten, forgotten, though it has been forty years
since I read the article. His soil was a
heavy clay, and he said that he plowed
a field several inches deeper than it had
ever been plowed before, turning up a
lot of hard clay on top which had never
seen the light of day before. Of the
result he said: I sowed oats for soil soiling
ing soiling but they hardly soiled the ground.
He did not on this account abandon
deep plowing; he merely did what I am
recommending, that is turned up a little
at a time and added more as he got it
Whether your land is sand or clay,
the method is the same; do all in your
power to increase the fertility of the
soil. I believe in the free use of com- 1
mercial fertilizers, but many farmers
spend money for nitrogen when they
could obtain an ample supply free of
charge by the use of leguminous crops,
clover where it can be grown, or still
better alfalfa, but in this State we are
still depending on cowpeas or velvet
beans. Use a heavy application of com commercial
mercial commercial potash and phosphoric acid to
insure a large growth of vines and
roots and they will supply the nitrogen,
which is the most expensive ingredient
of all fertilizers.
This plan persistently followed up will
give you as deep a soil as you can plow
with a good strong team. On sandy
land an inch or two a year can be added
to the depth until it is as deep as is
desired, but on clay the process will
necessarily be much slower, but it can
be done as surely by taking more time.
Many farmers in the Southern States
do not keep more than one horse or
mule, yet that need not prevent them
from plowing much deeper than one
animal pull the plow. When I
lived at the North, I was in the truck trucking
ing trucking business for several years. When
I had only one horse, I always hired a
two-horse team to do the plowing and
then harrowed it and did the rest of
the work with my one horse. In the
South, it would be an easy matter for
two or more neighbors to buy a two twoor
or twoor three-horse plow and then combine
their animals into a team to do all their
plowing. One man can do more plow plowing
ing plowing in a day with two horses and do a
better job than two men with one horse
plows, so that there will be economy
(Continued on page 15.)
TRUCK GROWING IN CUBA
GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR CULTIVATING SOME OF
THE PRINCIPAL VEGETABLES GROWN
ON THE ISLAND
BY E. W. HALSTEAD
[For convenience of treatment we have sepa separated
rated separated the different varieties of the vegetables
which we wish to consider into groups having
about the same cultural methods. It must be
remembered that our work has neen done noon
the heavy red lands and that our suggestions
ft r soils of a different character are made from
observation and from conversation with the
growers in those sections.]
Garlic, leeks and shallots all grow well
here, while onions have given only re results
sults results upon the red lands. With plenty of
water for irrigation they can be grown
on this soil for home use and local mar markets,
kets, markets, but they are not equal to the ones
grown upon the chocolate or loamy
lands. We have tried nearly all classes
of American onions, but with no suc success.
cess. success. The Bermuda onion from Ten Teneriffe
eriffe Teneriffe sets or seed is the commercial
onion for this country.
Tike all vegetables of this class, onions
should have a very rich soil that is well
supplied with vegetable matter. The
seeds or sets should be planted in Sep September
tember September or October, or just as soon as
they can be found upon the market from
the Canary Island.
The sets should be planted in rows
from fourteen to sixteen inches apart
and should stand from eight to ten
inches apart in the row. The rows for
seeds should be the same distance apart
as for sets, but the seeds should be
sown thickly in the rows; when the
young plants are two or three inches
high they should be thinned out so as
to stand four or five inches apart. Some
prefer to sow in seed-beds, and, when
the young plants are from three to four
inches high, transplant them into the
There are various methods of plant planting
ing planting in the field. If the land is low or
washes badly, it is a good plan to use
some form of bed. Some farmers make
the beds from two to three feet wide
and plant them with two or three length lengthwise
wise lengthwise rows, while others make the beds
from four to six feet wide and plant the
rows across the beds. Narrow walks are
left between the beds and shallow ditches
to carry off the water.
When the beds are necessary, we pre prefer
fer prefer the long narrow ones with the rows
planted lengthwise, for then a number
of the smaller hand tools can be used
which are difficult to handle with short
narrow rows and wide beds; but wher wherever
ever wherever possible we prefer the single row
and level culture.
The growing of onions from sets for
commercial purposes has been demon demonstrated
strated demonstrated as a success in the chocolate
soils, but they have not done so well
from seed. We have seen some very
fine ones grown from seed in the loamy
soils of Pinar del Rio Province, and
have hopes that their production can be
made a commercial success.
Our work with Bermuda onion sets
from Teneriffe has led us to the conclu-
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
sion that a good deal of the stock that
comes to Cuba for planting as sets is
practically worthless and should be sold
at home for whatever it will bring as
commercial onions. Some step should
be taken to protect the Cuban growers
from this class of goods. In the fall of
1905 we bought 800 pounds of sets for
planting and after cleaning them of those
which had decayed and of the leaves,
tops, roots, stones, and rubbish that had
been packed with them in the crate, we
had 693.36 pounds of onions, leaving
106.64 pounds of waste material. Very
little of this was decayed onions; the
rest was rubbish which there was no
excuse for having brought into this
country. A crate of Bermuda sets as
shipped, weighs from 40 to 50 pounds.
In order to determine something about
the size of the sets and of the value of
the different sizes for planting, we di divided
vided divided them into four grades, the smallest
running from one-half to three-fourths
of an inch in diameter. There were
135 pounds of this smallest size, which
was the only grade which could truly
be called onion sets. The onions of the
second grade ran from three-fourths to
one and one-half inch in diameter. There
were 126.20 pounds of this grade. Onions
of this size are good for planting and
may be used with profit. The third
grade, running from one and one-half
to two and one-half inches in diameter,
gave 317.10 pounds. These onions were
practically worthless as sets for com commercial
mercial commercial culture. They would grade as
small to medium commercial onions.
The fourth size was from two and one onehalf
half onehalf to four inches in diameter. There
were 115.6 pounds of this grade. They
were worthless for planting and would
grade as large commercial onions.
Our work of the previous year (1904-
05) while on a much smaller scale, gave
the same kind of results. These investi investigations
gations investigations show that more than two-thirds
of the onion sets that come from Ten Teneriffe
eriffe Teneriffe are too large for the best sets and
should be sold as commercial onions.
The result of the crop of 1905-06,
while very unsatisfactory from a com commercial
mercial commercial standpoint, showed clearly that
the larger the set the poorer it was for
planting. Grade No. 1 and Grade 'No. 2
gave good results; the results from No.
3 were poor, while No. 4 yielded prac practically
tically practically nothing, considering commer commercially.
We have continued the work with
grading Bermuda onion sets in different
sizes. During the year 1906-07 400
pounds of the sets were bought and
sorted into grades, just as in the pre previous
vious previous years. The land was laid off into
slightly raised rows or ridges about two
feet wide on top and two feet between
the ridges, so as to make a good irri irrigation
gation irrigation ditch. Two rows of sets were
planted upon each ridge, planting about
a foot apart each way.
Teneriffe grown Bermuda onion sets
usually sell in this country at 3 to 4
cents per pound, and the onions pro produced
duced produced from them bring from 2 to 2 I A
cents per pound, so that there is a very
small margin of profit on planting the
We have not had very good results
with Bermuda onions from the seed in
the red soils, but as before stated we
have seen some very good onions grown
from seed in the loamy lands of Pinar
del Rio Province.
In 1905-06 we tried a small planting
of Florida grown onion sets of the red
Bermuda, Red Danvers, and Silver
Skin varieties, but the results were not
very satisfactory, the onions produced
being small and poor.
From seed we have grown many
varieties, but the results have generally
been very unsatisfactory, for, although
the seed will grow, the plants do not
produce bulbs in this red soil. The
Creole has been the only kind that has
done anything worthy of mention. The
crop from Creole seed produced small,
well-developed sets and, when these
were replanted, they made a good crop
of medium-sized onions.
This is a vegetable that is very little
grown in Cuba, but from our work dur during
ing during the past winters we believe that it
is possible to produce it here with suc success.
The seed should be sown early in
September in seed-beds. As soon as
the plants are from three-fourths to one
inch high they should be transplanted
to other beds, set at a distance of three
to four inches each way, and left to
grow until three or four inches high,
when they are ready to set in the field.
The young plants should be handled
very carefully as they are very tender
When preparing the land for plant planting
ing planting we have found it best to make beds
about four feet wide and from four to
six inches high. In each bed we plant
six rows, the rows six inches apart and
the plants six inches apart in the rows.
The soil should be made very fine, loose
and rich. It must have a good supply
of vegetable matter.
When the plants have been set out
three or four weeks, a dressing of
nitrate of soda at the rate of 100 pounds
per acre, will give them a fine start.
When the stalks are from six to eight
inches high they can be blanched and
used. By growing the self blanching
sorts and planting them thickly in beds,
very little other blanching is needed.
We have found that wrapping each
stalk with heavy brown paper is suf sufficient.
ficient. sufficient. It can not be blanched with soil
for the stalks rust too much.
With proper care good celery can be
grown for home use and for the local
markets. Careful refrigeration during
transportation will be necessary before
it can be made an export crop.
A Jefferson County Specialty.
Farmers in Jefferson county hi Wau Waukeenah
keenah Waukeenah neighborhood, have found the
raising of watermelon seed more pro profitable
fitable profitable than the culture of cotton. These
farmers are getting rich raising water watermelons
melons watermelons for their seed for nurserymen in
other States. It has been found that the
watermelon seed raised in that Florida
county is superior to any that can be
produced elsewhere and the business is
growing year by year.
SELECTING SEED CORN
ADVICE OF C. M. CONNER, FORMERLY OF FLORIDA
Few farmers give the attention to
seed selection that they should. It is
true that the seed for a number of our
truck crops should be grown farther
north, but this is not true of the farm
cropsfor example, corn, cotton, rye,
There are no crops that will give
greater returns for the trouble taken in
seed selection than corn and cotton.
While Florida is not classed as a corn
State, it does not follow that large yields
of corn can not be made here. The
largest yield of corn ever made was
made in the South. Florida has quite a
large area of land which, if properly
used, will give good yields of corn year
after year. We can not import our seed
corn from the North, because it does not
make as good corn the first year as our
native corn. The weevil also attack it
more readily, on account of the thin
shuck and soft condition of the grain.
If one is starting to improve his corn,
seed may be purchased from the North
to start with, and by growing it three
or four years in this climate before us using
ing using for field crops, it will adapt itself
to Southern conditions.
Native varieties may be used with
In selecting your seed to start with,
do not select a corn having an ear too
large. Select a medium-sized ear. The
color may be any you fancy, but if you
expect to sell seed to your neighbors it
should be a white varietv, and prefer preferably
ably preferably a white cob, length medium, grain
rather wedge-shaped and long. Grain
should not be rough at outside end, but
rather horny; grain should set firmly on
the cob; there should be as little open
space as possible between outside ends
of grain on the ear; ear should look
compact and solid.
Seed, once selected, should be planted
on a good piece of land, apart from the
rest of the crop, so that the pollen from
the field crop will not get to this field.
The ground should be well fertilized,
but not over-fertilized. Care should be
taken not to over-stimulate the growth
of the plant, as it will react when the
seed is planted under normal or below
The selection of next years seed
should be made as soon as the corn is
dry enough to keep and near the center
of the field.
You have the choice of two methods
of selection: One is to select stalks hav having
ing having two medium ears (no more) and
the other is to select stalks having one
good ear. When the crop is to be grown
on good land, where a yield of from
twenty to thirty bushels or more can be
expected, I much prefer the former formerstalks
stalks formerstalks having two medium ears. But
when a crop is to be grown on thin,
sandy land giving a yield of from six
to ten bushels, seed producing one ear
to the stalk is better.
In the South, on account of a long
growing season and increased amount of
sunlight, the corn plant has a tendency
to grow tall and thus be easily blown
down; this can be remedied by selecting
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
from stalks having the ears lower down
on the stalk. In the North they select
for small amount of shuck, while in this
section we want the shuck to come well
over the end in order to protect it as
much as possible from the birds and
After the selection has been made in
the field, the seed should be again
selected, using only such ears for next
years seed as come up to your standard.
It is true that the amount of good seed
corn that you will get from one acre
will be rather small, but in a' very short
time you will begin to notice that the
percentage will increase rapidly. After
enough seed has been secured to plant
the farm crop, the selection will be
much easier and more effective.
Does it pay to select seed corn? You
may just as well ask, Does it pay to
improve your breeds of live stock? The
yield may be increased from 10 to 25
per cent., and if one has a good variety,
well suited to most parts of the State,
the profits per acre can be increased
from 50 to 100 per cent.
The time to begin making prepara preparations
tions preparations for seed selection is noiv.
DEEP VERSUS SHALLOW PLOW PLOWING.
(Continued from page 13.)
in doing it this way, besides doing so
much better wo'rk.
If you undertake to carry out this
plan do not forget that you must use
plenty of fertilizer to enrich the new
soil as it is turned up. An application
which would be considered ample on a
shallow soil would be insufficient on
one which was twice as deep. You own
the farm as far down as you can go,
and you will find it much cheaper to
double the size of your farm by making
the soil twice as deep as it was before,
than by buying more acres adjoining
these which you have. It is also cheap cheaper
er cheaper to cultivate a heavy crop on a deep
soil than to go over twice the number
of acres of thin soil to get the same
crop. Besides this, if you fill your land
with humus to a depth of ten inches
there will be little danger of the potash,
nitrogen and phosphoric acid of your
fertilizers being washed and carried
below the reach of the roots by heavy
Anyway you look at it, it pays to
An Optimistic View.
A hard winter like this one is more
often than not succeeded by a good crop
season, followed by an abundant har harvest
vest harvest of the kindly fruits of the earth.
Our farmers here in Suwannee county
are evidently strong in this faith, for
they are preparing on a larger scale than
ever for the planting season just ahead
of them, and the government demonstra demonstration
tion demonstration work last year will undoubtedly
have its good effect this year in the way
of improved culture and general better betterment
ment betterment of farm conditions Suwannee
A Farm Convenience.
Editor Florida Agriculturist
Here is a simple little thing that I
have found a great help in moving large
stumps from one place to another while
burning them out and one any of your
readers can make themselves:
Cut six pieces of 2x4 three feet long
with square ends and two pieces four
feet long with beveled ends in this shape
spike the six three-foot pieces on the
runners thus formed to make a sled like
Bore holes through ends of runners
and put bolts through them to fasten
log chain to the whiffle tree, or double
trees can be fastened to the chain by a
clevis.W. B. Smith.
The Governor Urges That It Be Eradi Eradicated
cated Eradicated From Our Orchards.
Governor Gilchrist recently wrote the
secretary of the Tallahassee Chamber of
Commerce as follows:
I herewith enclose you copy of a
communication I have this day received
from Mr. M. B. Waite, United States
Department of Agriculture, relating to
pear blight. I certainly hope that the
Chamber of Commerce will take this
matter up, with the view of having pear
blight eradicated from this vicinity. If
the people of South Florida had given
up to every disease that attacked the
orange trees, the orange industry of
Florida would not be in its present high
state. I feel assured that the pear in industry
dustry industry can be revived in Northern
Florida. I do not know of anything to
which the Chamber of Commerce could
better direct its energies than to a re rejuvenation
juvenation rejuvenation of the pear orchards of
Following is the letter alluded to
I have received, through Dr. L. O.
Howard, Chief of the Bureau of Ento Entomology,
mology, Entomology, a communication from D. L.
Van Dine, of that bureau, informing me
of your interest in the pear blight situa situation
tion situation in Florida and South Georgia. I
am writing to let you know that we have
done a good deal of investigation work
on this disease, and have worked out a
method of control, mainly through cut cutting
ting cutting out the holdover blight and using
disinfection methods in the eradication
of the disease from the orchards. We
endeavored to work up an interest in
this matter by starting a three years
eradication test in the orchards of Mr.
J. B. Wight, at Cairo, Ga. We also
tried to introduce the work in other
places in Georgia, but have met with
but little success. The trouble is that
the fight against pear blight had prac practically
tically practically been given up through the ter terrific
rific terrific onslaughts of this disease before
we knew very much about it. We are
now getting some very satisfactory
results in saving the pear trees of Cali California,
fornia, California, and more so in saving the or orchards
chards orchards of the Rogue River valley in
Published monthly by the
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Future of the Orange.
While the fact that other people are
afflicted with corns will not enable us
to forget that those in our own shoes
are very troublesome, the knowledge
that we have not been singled out as
the victim of ill-fitting foot covering
gives us courage. This principle makes
the citrus growers of Florida feel less
dissatisfied when they learn of the great
damage done to orange and other trees
in California, and in fact every orange
growing section of the United States.
We do not exult in the misfortune of
California, but as we look over our
groves and see where old Jack Frost
has hit us here and there our first im impulse
pulse impulse is to find fault, but reports from
all over the country show us that we
have fared no worse than others, and we
take courage and say that in climatic
changes our sister on the Pacific has no
advantage over us, while in quality of
fruit, cost of production and proximity
to market we have the balance greatly
in our favor; so here goes for larger
and better crops in the future.
That orange growing is more profit profitable
able profitable in Florida than in any other sec section
tion section of the United States no one will
question, and our prediction is that from
now on the interest in this industry will
increase more rapidly than at any period
in the past.
But, some timid one will ask what as assurance
surance assurance have we that we wont have
more freezes in the years to come. We
have none. Fifteen years elapsed be between
tween between the last two freezes, and if we
fail to have another between now and
1925 you will have ample time to har-
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
vest many crops of golden fruit and
golden dollars, but get right to work and
secure all during that time you can.
Those who after the freeze of 1895 had
the courage to pitch in and make the
best of what the freeze left them reaped
bountiful reward for their efforts, and
as the cold snap of a couple months
ago did very little damage to the trees
we are in much better condition to
face future developments than were
those of the freeze of 1895.
Florida oranges are in a class by them themselves.
selves. themselves. They constitute the standard of
excellence. Our soil seems to impart a
flavor that can not be approached in
any other part of the world, and the
fruit dealers long ago discovered the
fact that a little card bearing the magic
words Florida Oranges, has enabled
them to dispose at a good price of a lot
of inferior imported fruit.
In some of the groves the trees may
be set back a year or so, bur this may
cause the grower to give attention to
other matters vital to his success. It
may enable him to see that he can pro produce
duce produce nearly everything he needs, so that
when the grove again comes into bear bearing
ing bearing a much greater percentage of the
yearly returns for the fruit crop will be
retained by the producer. He will not
have to pay out so much of it for such
little items as beef, pork, milk, butter,
vegetables, etc., for his family, or corn
and hay for his horse. All of these
and many others can be produced right
at home, and as the orange money rolls
in thereafter a much larger proportion
of it can be placed to the account of
The Small Farm.
A youthful poultry enthusiast aston astonished
ished astonished his mother by stating that he had
just set the old hen on 50 eggs. His
mother naturally asked how he did it.
He replied that he arranged the eggs in
the bottom of a tub, jammed the old
hen in and told her to everlastingly
Many a man in Florida has made a
miserable failure of farming simply be because
cause because he tried to everlastingly spread
himself. In every neighborhood you
will find men who have toiled early and
late only to find out their energies had
been wasted in attempting too much.
Had some kind friends years ago placed
them in a small patch surrounded by a
stockade so that they would have been
compelled to concentrate their efforts
on a small space the results would have
been far different.
We all remember the old saw:
A little wife well willed,
A little farm well tilled, etc.
Well, in no State that we have ever
seen do these elements contribute to
success than in Florida, and we often
think that our little wives would be
better willed were our farms little and
well tilled, for it certainly is very dis discouraging
couraging discouraging to not only the wife, but the
children also to see the very unsatisfac unsatisfactory
tory unsatisfactory results of wasted labors.
We wish every reader of this paper
could have heard the excellent talk of
Dr. Knapp in the Jacksonville Board of
Trade Auditorium on January 14. The
good doctor made us feel proud of the
privilege of living in Florida. His talk
was chock full of good, sensible, prac practical
tical practical advice. To be sure, he caused
some criticism on account of advocating
farms larger than five acres, and doubt doubtless
less doubtless many will need a larger acreage
eventually, but we would like to see our
State dotted all over by groups of 5-
acre farms. This would concentrate our
rural population and make country life
much pleasanter in many ways. Our
little well willed wives could run across
a few acres and have a talk with the
neighbor; there would be greater op opportunities
portunities opportunities for religious or social gath gatherings;
erings; gatherings; the children could have better
educational facilities, etc. Those of us
who have lived in sections where the
farms are very large and consequently
the houses badly scattered must recog recognize
nize recognize the fact that the little wife rather
than ask for the use of a horse or to
take the time necessary to make a social
call on her distant neighbor has settled
down and grown old before she ought,
simply on account of the lack of a
chance to be relieved of the horrible
monotony of the drudgery to which a
woman on the farm is usually subjected
and which a few social privileges would
To be sure, if a man wants to plant
five acres in fruit, lie should have more
than five acres of land, for even inten intensive
sive intensive farming can not be conducted among
a lot of trees, but it is not essential that
the grove or orchard be right around the
house, it can be off some distance. In
other words, when a man gets his five
acres in such a state of cultivation that
he can handle more land to a good ad advantage
vantage advantage he can procure it at a little dis distance
tance distance from his home place, but let the
5-acre tract first be brought up to the
limit of production before he tries to
Duval County Soils.
A soil survey of the trucking soils in
the immediate vicinity of Jacksonville,
k la., has been recently undertaken by
the Bureau of Soils, U. S. Department
of Agriculture, and Mr. Grove B. Jones
has charge of the work, assisted by Mr.
J. E. Ferguson. During the present
winter it will be possible to complete
a soil survey of about 400 square miles
in extent in the immediate vicinity of
Jacksonville. In this way the character
and extent of the different soils and
their adaptability for the production of
a wide range of truck crops will be
The Board of Trade of Jacksonville
requested this work some time ago, and
it has just been found possible to detail
a soil survey party to undertake an ex examination
amination examination of the soils in this vicinity.
It is anticipated that the field work will
be completed early in April and that
the report upon the results will be
published and ready for distribution dur during
ing during the coming summer.
Florida for All Seasons.
The Clay Countv Times thus dis discourses
courses discourses on our climatic conditions:
Every winter Florida is filled with
tourists who come here from other
States and revel in our delicious climate,
enjoy our fishing, hunting, bathing and
out-door sports, and go back to their
Northern homes refreshed and benefited
and invigorated by their stay among us,
and certainly we are glad to have them,
our welcome is warm, cordial and sin sincere,
cere, sincere, and would reach out to thousands
more if they would come, and there is
plenty of room for others, but when we
pick up the papers and read of floods,
snowstorms and calamities of various
kinds in winter, and heat prostrations,
cyclones, etc., in summer, we can't help
but wonder why it is Florida doesn't fill
chock full of folks who will cast their
permanent lot here and live in the very
best State in the Union the whole year
Certainly, no State presents so many
real attractions as our State does, and
we cant understand why it is so many
people are willing to risk their all, in including
cluding including their own lives and the lives
of their families when they can secure
We have lived in Florida for many
years and we have never heard of a dis disaster
aster disaster from floods or suffocation from
heat, nor have we ever heard of men,
women and children freezing to death
from cold, and in Florida we have few fewer
er fewer diseases of a fatal nature than any
other State. Barring the sick who come
here from other States, with one foot
in the grave and the other almost and
die within its borders.
We suppose that one reason more
people do not come here to make their
permanent homes where they can en enjoy
joy enjoy such manifold advantages is due to
the erroneous reports that have gone
abroad that Florida is a veritable bake bakeoven
oven bakeoven in summer. This idea comes prin principally
cipally principally through a natural supposition
because of Floridas nearness to the
equator, but there are many who have
had a similar experience to ours, and
have found the heat in Northern States
far more oppressive in summer than in
Florida. In fact, the Florida summer
temperature is several degrees lower
than that of other States and this is due
to the fact that the peninsula is narrow
and the breezes from the gulf and
ocean keep the air cool and pleasant,
hence it is rarely uncomfortable in the
When this fact becomes thoroughly
rooted and grounded in the minds of
people of other States there will be
many who will seek homes in Florida,
and they will find equally as warm a
welcome as we extend to the tourists
who come and only spend a few short
weeks with us.
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
From An Indiana Subscriber.
Editor Florida Agriculturist:
I am glad to find one paper in the
Union encouraging tropical and semi semitropical
tropical semitropical agriculture and I inclose $1
for a years subscription to the Agri Agriculturist.
Would it not pay you to devote some
space to bee-keeping? If the planting
of the eucalyptus should become general
in Florida, bee culture would be a very
Has any effort ever been made to
grow English walnuts in Florida; and
if so, what has been the result?
It seems to me the people of Florida
had better pay more attention to the
more hardy kinds of fruits, such as
peaches, pears, plums, etc.
Hoping to be a citizen of Florida be before
fore before long.
C. A. N.
Diversified Crops the Thing.
Editor Florida Agriculturist:
Replying to your letter asking what
advice I would give a man whose prin principal
cipal principal crop was oranges, and he had
lost them by the cold, I would say that
I have been in Florida twenty-six years
and have been through all of the freezes
since 1884, and I have been here long
enough to realize that I dont know
what would be best for the other fellow
to do were he frozen out. I don't know
what I would do; but I would take
stock of damage done and do like the
Irishman Spit on my hands and take
a fresh holddoing what seemed best
under the circumstances. Different parts
of the State differ so in conditions that
a man living in one part can not give
intelligent advice to a man living in an another
other another part.
I think it a bad plan for a man to :
have all of his eggs in one basket,
but he should diversify, and one thing j
that Florida possesses to a greater ex extent
tent extent than any other country or State
that I know of is its great diversity of
profitable crops. I think a man takes
great risks in locating in a one-crop
country. I think every one should grow
some crops that will provide food for
the family and for the horse, cow and
pig; that will give the family some
bread and meat, and then grow fruits
and vegetables for his needed cash.
Also have some chickens one of the |
most profitable things in the State. I
wont presume to tell the other fel fellow
low fellow what to do when I dont know i
what I would do myself.
S. H. GAITSKTLL.
Soap-Nut Tree Seed.
Editor Florida Agriculturist:
Since the publication of the article
on the soap-nut tree in your issue of
January, I have received several appli applications
cations applications for seed and even for trees.
I beg that you kindly inform your
readers that my communications to your
valuable paper are intended to make
known, as broadly as possible, that the
industry of the soap-nut tree is an es established
tablished established fact, and the same applies to
the tallow tree, the description of which
With Our Correspondents
you are going to publish in your issue
The distribution of the seed of the
soap tree was closed long ago, and I
have neither seed nor trees for distribu distribution
tion distribution ; but I have some seeds left of the
tallow tree, and while I wanted to keep
them for future experiments, I may de decide
cide decide to distribute some of them to about
one hundred applicants provided the ap applications
plications applications have reached me on or before
the Ist of April next. After that date
no more applications will be considered,
and the distribution of the seeds applied
for up to the Ist of April will be made.
All that is required from applicants is
that they send a self-addressed and
stamped envelope and that their name
and address be placed at the upper left
corner of the outer envelope. Each ap applicant
plicant applicant will receive between 60 to 75
seeds. E. MOUEIE.
Advertisements inserted in this column at
the rate of 2 cents per word each insertion.
No advertisement taken for less than 25 cents.
WHEN YOU BUY HUNS. Pick out best lay layers
ers layers only; how to choose; never fails; write to
day. Model, Experiment Farm, Waycross,
BLACK MINORCAS. Eggs for hatching,
$2.00 per setting of thirteen. Eargest eggs
of any bird; eight eggs weigh one pound.
Cockerels and pullets and baby chicks for
sale. Mrs. Koerber, 1532 Walnut street,
FOR SALE. Two lots on Long Island, N. Y.,
located at a famous summer resort. Will sell
cheap. For particulars write Ira Moore, 250
Arlington Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y.
MANNS SALT SICK CURE. Salt sick
cured for $1 or money refunded. Edward L.
Mann, Mannville, Putnam County, Fla.
PROPERTY WANTED. I have been very
successful in selling Florida property; pos possibly
sibly possibly can sell yours; it wont cost you any anything
thing anything if I dont. Send full description of any
property you want to sell and give lowest
cash price you are willing to sell for. C. H.
Stokes, Mohawk, Fla.
FOR SALE. Pure bred Carnean Pigeons;
mated and banded; young birds, about one
year old; the best and most prolific breeders
in existence. Price low. Will sell three or
six pairs at a time. Address C. B. Saunders,
30S Robinson Ave., Orlando, Fla.
FARMERS. Make your own Shingles. Farm
machine for sale cheap. For price and full
particulars write at once to D. E. HiLLR,
FOR SALE. Japanese Seed Cane, $5 per
1,000. Perry M. Colson, Gaineeville, Fla.
WANTED. A good patent; state particulars.
T. W. Wright, 105 Reade street, New York
CALIFORNIA PROCESS for preserving fruit
and vegetables for two years as fresh as
when gathered. Put up raw; no heat or seal sealing;
ing; sealing; costs but a trifle; positively no humbug.
Formula and full instructions mailed for only
25c. Send now. Mack & Cos., Warren, Pa.
FOR SALE OR EXCHANGE.For improved
Florida farm 83-acre improved Tennessee
farm. Good buildings and fences. Address
Box 741, Summertown, Tenn.
WANTED. Responsible position with fruit
grower or nurseryman in Southern Florida.
In present position as working manager of
general farm for four years. Temperate and
reliable. Virginian, care Florida Agri Agriculturist.
EUCALYPTUS SEEDS, 25c. packet; trees,
25c., five for SI.OO, mailed. Roselle seeds,
15c. packet. E. Thompson, Avon Park, Fla.
DR. KNAPPS ADDRESS
AN INTERESTING AND INSTRUCTIVE TALK THAT HAS
CALLED FORTH MUCH UNJUST CRITICISM
We regret that we have not space to
give our readers verbatim the excellent
talk made by Dr. Knapp in the audito auditorium
rium auditorium of the Board of Trade at Jackson Jacksonville
ville Jacksonville on January 14th.
This speech as reported in the State
press has caused much criticism. Of
course one law can not be made appli applicable
cable applicable to all sections and indeed the in intelligent
telligent intelligent farmer will study and see what
points are especially practicable in his
Among other things the doctor said:
Beware of the plausible real estate agent
who promises you a fortune in a five fiveacre
acre fiveacre tract of land in Southern Georgia
or Northern Florida, his reason being
that the truck farmer will necessarily
require a horse, or horses, a cow, and
other animals, and that the five acres
devoted to trucking would not admit of
Dr. Knapp advised the truck farmers
to adopt trust methods in marketing
their products. He pointed out the
beauties of co-operation in fighting com competition
petition competition offered by the fruits and vege vegetables
tables vegetables of the West Indies, which reach
the Northern markets earlier than those
from Florida and Georgia. Under the
present condition of things it is abso absolutely
lutely absolutely necessary to have quite a large
body of men; that it is just as important
that a good many truck men be in one
locality as it is to have a number of
stores make a city. The single trucker
is at the mercy of the commission man
and every other class. He can neither
buy fertilizers to advantage or market
The advantages and disadvantages of
these locations for market gardening are
worthy of your consideration, he said,
among the advantages I will name your
sandy loam soil; your temperate
climate; which, while reasonably free
from frost, does not get so warm that
a man can not toil in the field with
safety and energy. Your proximity to
the Atlantic ocean must regulate your
Your disadvantages, I should say,
are, first, that your lands are largely
stump lands and it is rather expensive
to dispose of the stumps. It is scarcely
necessary to discuss the matter of re removing
moving removing the stumps because you all
understand that and as much possibly
as is necessary, and I only make this
observation, that it is the height of un unwisdom
wisdom unwisdom to allow them to remain in the
field, and cultivate around them. The
loss every year is too great, and it is my
judgment that in a field cultivated for
vegetables, they should be removed at
The sandy soil is a much better soil
than the average man estimates. You
will recall that all of our soils are simply
crumbling of rocks. The great defic deficiency
iency deficiency in sandy soils is the inability to
carry moisture enough to make the crop;
they carry about 25 per cent of the
moisture while a clayey loam will carry
as high as 80 per cent. Then again
they are warm and dispose of their
moisture rapidly, so that in sandy soils
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
there are periods when the plants grow
but very little, and frequently stand still
for weeks, especially when there is a
One of the great problems in agricul agriculture
ture agriculture is to improve the soil and to deepen
it that it may carry enough moisture to
nourish the plant at all times even in
seasons of drouth. Sandy soils, there therefore,
fore, therefore, require a large amount of green
vegetable matter plowed in. All the
leaves from the surrounding forests
should be gathered and green crops
should be plowed under, and while the
sandy soils carry only 25 per cent of the
moisture, humus and decayed vegetation
will carry 80 per cent, therefore the
retention of moisture depends on filling
the soil with a large mass of humus.
The humic acid will help dissolve the
food material from the particles of sand.
The great value of sandy loams when
they are properly improved by the re removal
moval removal of stumps and the plowing under
of green crops or the use of sufficient
stable manure is that they are easily
worked. They are warm and force
vegetation along rapidly; they seldom
suffer from excessive rain.
For gardening purposes it is better
to make this soil about 15 inches deep,
possibly 20 inches would be better, for
this purpose deep plowing and the use
of beggar weed, the velvet bean, and
cowpeas make it possible to create condi conditions
tions conditions that are favorable at all times for
Right at this juncture it might be
well to say that one of the greatest
mistakes made by farmers in moving in into
to into anew section is in buying too small
areas. Real estate men will tell them
five acres are enough, and possibly it is,
in some cases just for gardening, but it
is not enough to profitably use for all
purposes. Every gardener must have a
horse, or horses, and must always pro provide
vide provide for their support. He needs some
oasture and some grain land, and it is
important to rotate for gardening pur purposes
poses purposes the same as for any other. For
instance gardens may become so weedy
that it is almost impossible to keep the
weeds out. A good cover crop for one
season will destroy nearly all the weeds,
besides enriching the soil a great many
dollars by the supplying of humus. The
single crop plan is just as much a fail failure
ure failure in trucking as it is in anything else.
Your climate enjoys one very great
advantage, and that is you are liable to
have frosts. This is considered a great
disadvantage, but I prefer to occasional occasionally
ly occasionally have some frost than to have such an
abundance of insect life as they have in
Another point that should be guarded
against is not to get a truck garden at
any great distance from the railroad, be because
cause because an acre of truck produces a great
many loads, and it is too expensive
hauling to the depot and looking after
the shipments, etc. Then, as I have said,
every farmer should be a complete farm farmer.
er. farmer. He requires his horse and some
cows and some poultry; also some pigs
if he wants, the best results and to dis dispose
pose dispose of his waste to advantage.
A point that should be discussed
here is the fertilizers. It has been
thought almost impossible to produce
truck profitably without the use of large
amounts of stable manure, but where a
large body of men are trucking it is im impossible
possible impossible to obtain this. Section after
section is now inquiring where they can
get stable manure. Let me make the
suggestion here that if the muck from
your swamps and the leaves from your
forests be brought together and com composted
posted composted with a little soil, and using some
acid phosphate and in ordinary years
some cotton seed or some cotton seed
meal, a compost can be made that will
answer all the purposes of stable man manure
ure manure and at much less cost than trans transporting
porting transporting it any distance. The amount of
valuable fertilizer burned up each year
in forest fires is something astounding.
The leaves are natures own fertilizing
materials, provided by the Creator to
nourish the trees, and there are acres
and acres of good land where the tim timber
ber timber is not very valuable but the trees are
valuable for the leaves which they
furnish. Men pass these and purchase
an inferior article of commercial fer fertilizer.
tilizer. fertilizer. There must be decayed vegeta vegetation
tion vegetation in the soil, and the leaves furnish
that decayed vegetation and at the same
time furnish nitrogen, phosphate and
Propagating the Mango.
Editor Florida Agriculturist:
In a paper read by Prof. P. H. Rolfs
before the Florida Horticultural Society
a year or so ago in speaking of budding
the mango he said: !t
For general purposes I think the
methods advised by Mr. J. B. Beach, and
which he has published repeatedly in the
agricultural papers, and also in addresses
before the Horticultural Society are
probably familiar to every one here, so
I will not take them up again at this
Now would it be possible and agree agreeable
able agreeable for you to republish Mr. Beachs
instructions as to his method of budding
the mango? Many of us never saw the
publications referred to and would great greatly
ly greatly appreciate their republication.
H. C. H.
fWe have not been able to find one
of the articles alluded to but if any sub subscriber
scriber subscriber has a copy of the Agricul Agriculturist
turist Agriculturist containing such information we
will be glad to republish same.)
The true habitat of this plant is in
Georgia. It is largely known as the
Georgia collard. The southern half of
Georgia grows the collard seed for the
whole United States seed trade. A
January temperature of 15 degrees F.
is apt to kill the seed pods then in the
milk; hence seed growing commercially
is confined largely to the southern part
of the State. Probably 15,000 or 20,000
pounds of collard seed are sufficient for
the United States seed trade. Most of
the collard gardeners let a few plants
each year go to seed, and thus a good
proportion of the collard crop of the
South is from home saved seed. One
ounce will give 2,000 plants.N. L. in
Farm and Ranch.
FERNDALE FARM NOTES
BY A. T. CUZNER, M. D.
Just before Christmas we had a couple
of gentlemen visiting us at Ferndale.
They came down from Jacksonville by
the way of Floral Bluff. On the way
we had a running commentary of the
nature of the land, its adaptability to
various crops and purposes.
One of the gentlemen, a large land landholder
holder landholder and stock raiser, comparing it to
land around Leesburg, remarked that,
like it, it varied in quality, but on the
whole he thought it about as good.
When we arrived at Ferndale Farm,
while dinner was preparing, we showed
him our land bordering on the St. Johns
river, when he remarked: There was
no better land to be found, or desired.
We informed him that we intended the
following season to plant celery, for I
believed that we could do as well as at
Ferndale being an amateur experiment
station, we, at Gilmore, have demon demonstrated
strated demonstrated onions to be a very profitable
crop. Mr. A. Cameron, having just the
land and soil, intends to plant a large
piece of land with these vegetables.
Speaking of soil there is great mis misconception
conception misconception in regard to the part soil
plays in the life and development of
plants in general.
One most important fact to be re remembered
membered remembered is, that plants grow mainly
from air and water, and hardly at all
from the soil beneath them. Let us ex experiment.
periment. experiment. Suppose we take a plant, thor thoroughly
oughly thoroughly dry it, leaves and all, then burn
it. What remains?
You will find but a very small portion,
by weight, remaining. The bulk has dis disappeared
appeared disappeared into the atmosphere from
which it came originally.
The ash that remains is composed of
mineral elements the plant obtained from
the soil. It is true that a portion of the
nitrogen that disappeared in the burning
was derived from the soil. How great
a portion is determined by the plants
All plants derive a portion of their
nitrogen from the atmosphere. How
great a portion is again determined by
the plants themselves.
Recognizing these factsdemonstrated
by experiencefarmers resort to what
is called soiling to restore to the soil the
lost nutrition, the result of cultivation.
Therefore we ought to consider even
weeds as friends, when they are not
acting the part of robbers and inter interlopers.
Our guests in discussing the differing
merits of California and Florida, com comparing
paring comparing the great California with the by
110 means small Florida, came to the
following conclusion, viz.: That in re respect
spect respect to area California is greater than
Florida, but that owing to its physical
conformation it has not as much land
available for cultivation.
Another advantage Florida has over
California is the fact that the last named
is no place for the man of small means
to locate in.
As stated to me in letters by intend intending
ing intending settlers, California is no longer the
place for the poor man to settle in inthat
that inthat is if he has to work for wages as
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
a farm laborer. He has to compete with
Japs, Chinese, Coolies and peons from
Just here I wish to state, that telling
the truth with regard to Florida will
be found to pay better.. Much exaggera exaggeration
tion exaggeration is being put forth and is deluding
the prospective settler into the belief
that by purchasing land at $lO to S2O an
acre lie can swing in his hammock and
realize SI,OOO per acre on his invest investment.
ment. investment. This can but redound to injury.
The truth is, to realize profit from Flor Florida
ida Florida land you have to work, and zvork
hard, but climate and soil are in partner partnership
ship partnership to enrich the faithful, intelligent
Three crops a year can be raised to
say nothing of hay, but this means the
expenditure of nearly three times the
labor and fertilizer required for one crop.
But then, Life is short, and time is
fleeting, hence the.advantage of Florida
besides 'its comfortable climate com compared
pared compared with that of the North.
Here at Ferndale we strive to get as
much out of our place as possible.
On Thanksgiving we had roast pig,
which reminded me of Charles Lambs
comical Dissertation on Roast Pig. On
Christmas we had another.
Our hogs being mainly raised on pro produce
duce produce from our farm, partially solve the
meat problem in these days of high
prices and low wages.
Just here let me say this after twenty
years experience in Florida and fifty
years elsewhere that of all places in
the United States, Florida is eminently
the poor mans paradise. While it is
folly to thinkas has been represented representedthat
that representedthat a man can live here without work workingyet
ingyet workingyet with smaller means the poor
man, willing to work and endure, can do
better than elsewhere with larger means.
Yet no farmer from the North should
think of settling here with only means
to pay for his place. He should have
enough to tide him over one crop sea season.
Before closing these notes I will make
a few remarks in respect to the part soil
plays in plant life.
Why do farmers and gardeners think
so much about the soil and so little
about the air, which is the chief source
of all living material?
Plants have leaves by means of which
they obtain the great mass of their
nutrition from the air. Plants have
roots. These roots perform for them
two or three separate functions.
First, They fix the plant securely to
Second, They suck up the water which
circulates in the sap; and they also
gather in solution certain other neces necessary
sary necessary material for the growth and devel development
opment development of the plant.
The ultimate rootlets are the ones
that do the most important work. They
drink up water, holding in solution cer certain
tain certain organic and inorganic material. Here
they exercise a selective discrimination
and ingenuity, so much so that Darwin
likened it to that of the brain of ani animals.
mals. animals. For these roots go feeling their
way underground, touching here, re recoiling
coiling recoiling there, insinuating little fingers fingersas
as fingersas it were among pebbles and crannies,
and trying their best by endless offshoots
to reach out and secure for the plant a
| satisfaction of its desires. Roots have
been known to come out of ground,
climb over dry rock in order to reach
more favorable soil to exploit. Roots
are, however, limited to a depth or space
in which they can obtain nutriment. That
portion of the ground or soil not de depleted
pleted depleted of nutriment by plant develop development,
ment, development, if brought to the surface by deep
plowing will render a good account in
the way of nutritionof future plant
Again, all plants do not select the
same material for their own use, or the
same proportion of such elements, hence
rotation of crops is most advisable.
Horace Greely in his What I Know
About Farming, advised the farmers of
New Jersey to plow deep. They took
his advice, and followed the same by
curses both loud and deep. They after afterwards
wards afterwards had occasion to thank him for his
By plowing deep they turned under
such humus as the land possessed, and
brought to the surface mineral elements
as yet unappropriated. After fertilizing
this sub-soil with organic material the
land became of increased value, having
a greater depth of soil.
The soil has another function to per perform.
It is there that chemical transforma transformations
tions transformations occur by which plant food is ren rendered
dered rendered available for plant digestion. Or Organic
ganic Organic acids are more powerful combiners
with mineral bases than is generally
supposed. But these notes have already
exceeded limit; therefore, I stop.
It is always the safe plan to have
the herd tested, where tuberculosis is
Feed the pig all he will .eat up clean,
and he will be found to be an excellent
and economical profit making machine.
Eight rooms, reception halls and
third-story attic full size of house;
two baths and lavatory, tiled, with
finest fixtures obtainable; halls, clos closets,
ets, closets, etc.; furnace, steam heat, electric
lights and gas; plate glass windows,
inside blinds and screens; conve conveniently
niently conveniently arranged and elegantly fin finished
ished finished throughout. Was not built to
sell, but for a permanent home. Lot
feet. Within eight blocks
of postoffice. Address
BOX 73, CITY
BY MRS. E. J. RUSSELL
System In the Home'.
No two families living on small means
will plan the expenditure of money in
the same way. Much depends on the
size of the family, and whether that
family lives in the city or country. What
may be practical for one may be un unwise
wise unwise for another, and while one family
saves in one way, another finds it wise
to economize somewhere else. Every
housekeeper will agree that many things
once considered luxuries are now neces necessities,
sities, necessities, and that modern methods have
relieved her of many duties while adding
others. This is all the more reason
why the home manager should system systematize
atize systematize her living so that the largest re returns
turns returns may come from money and time
invested. In all your work be system systematic.
atic. systematic. She who plans her work, whether
she does it herself or is dependent on
others, so that there is no friction or
hurry, can make a small income go fur further
ther further and at the same time save her
health and disposition. Conditions vary
so that it is difficult for two women to
follow the same program, but if each
day has its allotted duties much more
is accomplished at the end of the week
and is in striking contrast to the home
where no system prevails and where the
work is never done.
Cut a piece of w r ood to fit the bottom
' of one of the drawers of the sewing sewingmachine
machine sewingmachine and drive into it nails from two
to three inches apart. Keep the spools
of thread used for the machine on these
spindles. A piece of blotting-paper,
kept in another drawer, will be found
useful to remove superfluous oil from
the exposed parts of the machine. The
lowest drawer of all may be kept for
scraps of thread and cloth which collect
when sewing at the machine. The draw drawer
er drawer can be emptied when you are through
sewing and will save much time usually
spent in picking up.E. V.
Wishing to give my lace curtains an
ecru tint when I washed them I poured
boiling water upon powdered rhubarb,
and added starch and fresh water until
I had sufficient to dip all at once. I used
three cents worth of rhubarb for three
curtains. When it came to drying I hung
them by the sides, one over the other,
using several pins. After carefully
stretching down the lower corners, I
pinned them together, and kept each
curtain in its proper shape. I found
this method quite as satisfactory and
much easier and more convenient than
stretching on the carpet.Mrs. S.
Care of the Broom.
When a broom becomes shorter on
one side than the other and ends of the
straw become sharp as needles, dip it
into hot water, trim it evenly with the
shears and you will have a broom near nearly
ly nearly as good as new.
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
For Ink Stains.
Several years ago I had the misfor misfortune
tune misfortune to have a bottle of ink overturned
on a fine damask table cloth. I thought
it was ruined but after trying all the
directions I had ever heard of for re removing
moving removing ink stains, I found the follow following
ing following successful: Cut a lemon in halves
and rub into it common salt, rub well
into the stain, then put the cloth to
bleach in a good hot sun. If the stain is
badly set, you will need to apply the
lemon and salt several times.Susan
When mending gloves have the cot cotton
ton cotton match the color of the kid, and over overseam
seam overseam for a rip; for a tear buttonhole buttonholestitch
stitch buttonholestitch the edges of the rent around
closely, once or twice, as the size of the
hole may require, then join the button buttonholed
holed buttonholed edges together with a single row
of close buttonhole stitches. Kid gloves
may be patched beautifully by insert inserting
ing inserting a piece of kid and overseaming neat neatly
ly neatly on the wrong side.
HEALTH AND BEAUTY.
A hearty meal should never be eaten
when one is exhausted or even greatly
fatigued. Half an hours rest before
dinner is a great aid to good digestion.
The influence of the psychical on the
process of digestion has not been suffi sufficiently
ciently sufficiently well understood. Jt is intimate intimately
ly intimately bound up with the sensations of appe appetite
tite appetite and hunger. Appetite is the most
powerful excitant of the gastric juice.
Hence the importance of such esthetic
aids 'to the appetite as agreeable sur surroundings,
roundings, surroundings, a well-appointed table and
The gastric secretion may be wholly
arrested by violent emotions. If in the
course of a delightful dinner, you should
be handed a telegram telling you of the
death of a friend or of a heavy financial
loss, all appetite would go at once, and
the food that you had eaten would lie
like lead on the stomach. This shows
the important role played by the nervous
system over the secretion of the diges digestive
tive digestive juices.
Wholesome food, fresh air, bathing,
proper clothing, plenty of sleep and the
absolute avoidance of tight lacing are
among the requisites for promoting
health and perfecting beauty.
How to Check a Cough. lt is not
usually supposed that any exercise of the
will power can be made efficient in
checking a cough or a sneeze, but a cele celebrated
brated celebrated doctor says sneezing can be
stopped by pressing on the nerve of the
lips in the neighborhood of the nose.
Coughing may be stopped by slight pres pressure
sure pressure in front of the ear. This will also
stop hiccoughing. Pressing very hard
on the top of the mouth is also a means
of stopping coughing, and many say the
will alone has immense power. There
are various other affections associated
with breathing which can be stopped by
the same mechanism that stops the
hearts action. In spasm of the glottis,
which is a terrible thing in children, and
also in whooping cough, it is possible to
afford relief by throwing cold water on
the feet, or by tickling the soles of the
feet, which produces laughter, and at the
same time arrests the spasm almost at
Simple Remedy eor a Coed. One of
the simplest and best remedies to relieve
a cold, accompanied by soreness and
tightness of the chest, is hot lemonade,
using glycerine instead of sugar to
sweeten it. Taken the last thing at
night, and in bed if possible, it causes a
decided improvement before the night is
half over and if repeated for two or
three nights in succession it will entirely
cure a cold. I can vouch for this remedy
acting almost instantaneously, as I used
it in what threatened to be a severe
cold with success, in the past week.
Mrs. K. E. H.
For the Hands. Grind common
starch with a knife until it is reduced to
the smoothest powder; put it in a clean
tin box and keep it where it will be
handy when washing the hands. After
washing the hands, rinse them thorough thoroughly
ly thoroughly in clean water, wipe them, and while
they are yet damp rub a pinch of the
starch thoroughly over them, covering
the whole surface. The effect is magical.
(A convenient way to use the starch
is to put it into a cheese-cloth bag. It
can then be dusted on to the hands.
Buttermilk for the Skin. Washing
the skin in buttermilk may be disagree disagreeable
able disagreeable to contemplate, but it will not seem
so after a trial has been given and the
results manifested. Buttermilk will make
the skin soft and smooth. It is nourish nourishing
ing nourishing as well as whitening. When using usinghave
have usinghave at least a quart and lave it on the
face and hands just as if using water;
then apply it to the neck and arms with
a sponge, letting it dry on. In the morn morning
ing morning wash the skin with warm water and
a little soap.
A good wash for whitening the skin
is made by adding half a wineglassful of
fresh-strained lemon juice and a little
rosewater to half a pint of distilled wa water.
ter. water. Keep tightly corked. Apply several
times a day with a piece of soft linen,
allowing it to dry in.
The treatment of excessively oily hair,
which is a disease with some, should be
very judicious. Once every two weeks
is not too often to wash the hair when
the scalp is being treated for dandruff
or any other trouble.
To get rid of warts touch them every
day with acetic acid on the end of a
wooden toothpick. Little by little the
callous flesh will dry up and may be
scraped off with the finger nail.
Cream together one cup sugar, one onehalf
half onehalf cup shorteningeither butter or
butter and lard mixed. Add two eggs,
beat well. Dissolve one yeast cake in
one-fourth cup warm water, add one onehalf
half onehalf teaspoon soda, a little salt and nut nutmeg
meg nutmeg to taste. Mix with the other in ingredients,
gredients, ingredients, then add one pint warm milk
and flour to make a soft dough. Let rise
over night, cut down twice in the morn morning,
ing, morning, letting rise again each time. Roll
out three-fourths of an inch thick, fry
when light. This makes four dozen.
A word about strawberries seems ap appropriate
propriate appropriate now that our strawberry sea season
son season is at its height. It is the one fruit
with which those who like them at all
never become satiated, no matter how
often served. Three times a day and
between meals is the rule with straw strawberries
berries strawberries wherever grown to perfection as
in our good State of Florida, and good
health waits upon him who enjoys to
the full the opportunities presented by
the strawberry season. Some of the
many ways in which the strawberry may
be made a source of pleasure by the
skillful housewife are here given:
Strawberry Sauce. One-half cup
butter beaten to a cream with two cups
powdered sugar. Mash well one pint
strawberries, beat into the sugar, and
butter and set on ice to harden. Good
with any plain pudding.
Strawberry Shortcake. One pint
flour, one and a half teaspoons baking
powder, one-third cup butter, one cup
sweet milk. Mix ingredients and di divide
vide divide into three equal parts; roll out and
bake in tin. Spread each layer with
melted butter and place them one on
top of the other. Bake twenty minutes;
when done separate them and return to
the oven five minutes. Have one quart
strawberries mashed and sweetened, and
spread between the layers, with a gener generous
ous generous suoply poured over the top.
Strawberry Layer Cake. For straw strawberry
berry strawberry layer cake cream a liberal third
of a cupful of butter, a cupful
and a half of sugar, using with the
white a few spoonfuls of pink sugar.
Heat the bowl first before creaming the
butter and sugar. Add half a cupful of
strained strawberry juice to the sugar
and butter, and then two cupfuls of the
best pastry flour, with which a quarter
teaspoonful of soda has been sifted two
or three times. The acid juice will rend render
er render cream tartar unnecessary. Fold in
the whites of five eggs, stiffly whipped.
Bake in layer cake tins and when cool
spread each layer except one with a soft
icing made by boiling a cupful of sugar
with three tablespoonfuls of strawberry
juice, and two of water. When it threads
pour it over the whipped white of an
egg and beat it a little before putting
on the cake.
Strawberry Sago Pudding. Select
fine ripe strawberries, dip them in a
little dissolved gelatine and arrange
them around the sides of a glass dish
which has been chilled on ice. Make a
syrup with a cup of water and two-thirds
of a cup of granulated sugar, add one
quart of sound ripe berries and let them
simmer until soft. Flavor with the
juice of half a lemon. Stir into the hot
berries three tablespoons of sago and let
cook until it is done. Remove from the
fire, and fold in gradually the stiff
whites of two eggs. Then cool, and
pour gently into the berry-lined dish.
Chill on ice and serve with sweetened,
Strawberry Feoat. Scald one quart
of milk and pour it over the yolks of
four and the whites of two eggs which
have been beaten with one-half of a cup cupful
ful cupful of sugar. Pour into a double boiler
and stir over the fire until the custard
thickens; add a pinch of salt and when
partly cooled flavor with vanilla. In a
glass dish put a layer of hulled and
washed berries, pour over them a por portion
tion portion of the custard then add another lay layer
er layer and the remainder of the custard.
Whip the whites of two eggs with two
tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar until
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
stiff and glossy; add a few drops of
vanilla and heap over the fruit. Dot the
top with a few berries and serve.
Strawberry Icecream. Wash, stem
and mash a quart of berries; scald a
pint of cream with nine ounces of sugar;
stir till the sugar is dissolved; cool, and
add another pint of uncooked cream. Put
into the freezer and slowly turn till icy
cold, then rapidly turn until it is nearly
frozen. Remove the top of the cooler
and add the berries. Re-cover and turn
until it is frozen a second time, then
remove the dasher, scrape down the
sides, draw off the water and repack.
Put a cork into the hole in the lid, and
cover it tightly with a piece of brown
paper. Cover the freezer with old carpet
and let it stand an hour to ripen. This
rule will answer for all kinds of fruit,
but sweeter fruits require less sugar and
are improved by the addition of the
juice of a lemon.
Strawberry and Lemon Ice. To one
quart of strawberries add a pint of water
and a pound of sugar. Let it boil
twenty minutes. Then add the juice and
rind of two lemons. Strain through a
coarse chehesecloth strainer or sieve that
is fine enough to exclude the seeds.
Freeze it, using about six or seven cup cupfuls
fuls cupfuls of salt to a gallon freezing can.
Sometimes more water is added to the
berries, but the ice is not then so rich.
Politeness, even to people you dislike,
is never lost and always pays.
It enhances your own character and
it calls from your enemies the respect
thev are bound to give you no matter
what they may think or feel about you.
Manv an enemy has been changed in into
to into a friend by a continually pleasant
manner and a strong determination not
to see that which is disagreeable.
A Spool Holder.
A simple little device for holding the
spool when crocheting is a wire hair hairpin
pin hairpin with the ends bent in at right angles
a quarter of an inch above each end.
Snap the ends into the holes in a spool,
or into the sides of a ball; hook the
head of the pin over a button on the
waist or some other convenient place,
and run no further risk of soiled wool
or silk through dropping.
Cleansing Hair Brushes.
Put one heaping tablespoonful of soda
in a wash basin. Fill half full of warm
water. Hold brush, bristles down, and
THE CHEAPEST BECAUSE OF KNOWN VALUE.
f price is evidence of INFERIOR quality and poor service. The NEW
lilt upon honor, in a manner to insure PERFECT SERVICE for a
ive you seen our latest achievement in COMBINATION WOODWORK?
NO OTHER LIKE IT. NO OTHER AS GOOD.
Buy the machine manufactured for long service. Those who -used the
NEW HOME forty years ago are now doing so. All parts are inter interchangeable,
changeable, interchangeable, can be renewed any time. Ball Bearings of quality.
NOT SOLD UNDER ANY OTHER NAME. WARRANTED FOR ALL TIME
NEEDLES, Superior quality, our own make, for any machine. If there
is no NEW HOME dealer near you write direct to
rHE NEW HOME SEWING MACHINE GO., Orange, Mass., for Catalog No. 18
dip rapidly in water until clean. Dip in
cold water and dry, bristles down.To
soften food dried hard on a dish, turn
bottom upwards in dish water for two
minutes, and see the magic of steam.
Mrs. W. H. B.
This Means You.
We again urge those interested in this
department to help us to make it inter interesting
esting interesting and practical by contributing to
it from your own storehouse of knowl knowledge
edge knowledge and experience. Send your favorite
recipe or your method of performing
some piece of work. It will help some
one, however simple and easy it appears
Pot Cover Handies.
When the cover of the teakettle or
any other cover wears out around the
knob so it pulls off it is easily fixed in
this way: Take a flat-headed screw, one
with a head large enough to well cover
the hole made, put it up through from
the under side, hold firmly in place, and
pound a cork down tight to the cover.
Then you have a lifter as good as new.
Use for a Thimble.
Keep a childs size thimble on hand,
even though there may be no little miss
in the family to use it. The housewife
herself will find it a saver of time ma material
terial material and temper if she slips it over the
end of the brass curtain rod. before
attempting to run the rod into the
freshly-starched curtain. E. S. H.
A Jardiniere Stand.
Three old stove legs and the bottom
of a wooden tub (both picked up from
the rubbish heap), were made into a
handsome flower-pot stand. Slits were
cut in the edge of the wood to fit the
iron legs, three at equal distances, and
the legs slipped in. A coat of black
paint completed it. E. M.
Most people are always looking for
something to do that will cause others
to look up to them for doing.
Herrons Subscription Agency
Is helping thousands to save on their magazine
money; why not you? Write a postal card for
catalogue giving the prices on 3,000 magazines
and much more that will interest you.
Address HERRONS SUBSCRIPTION
AGENCY, Box 241, Jacksonville, Fla.
ORNAMENTAL HORTI HORTICULTURE
CONDUCTED BY WM. A. COOK OF ROYAL PALM
NURSERIES, ONECO, FLA.
The recent freeze that swept over
Florida, doing so much damage to the
fruit and vegetable crops of the State,
has an interesting feature in the study
of the hardiness of ornamental plants,
both native and those introduced from
time to time both through the Depart Department
ment Department of Agriculture and private inter interests.
ests. interests. That this question of ornamental i
planting is of moment to both the prac- ;
tical horticulturist as well as to those j
interested in landscape art, is beyond
question. For all persons in the State,
especially those interested in the buying
and selling of lands, know and appre appreciate
ciate appreciate the inestimable value of the attrac attractive
tive attractive features of well planted properties.
Heretofore Florida, like all newly set settled
tled settled sections, was almost given over to
the speculator and these seeking an easy
livelihood from the then considered
Bonanza of the State citrus fruits!
But with the hard lessons of freezes,
whitefly etc. came a reaction and many
are giving up the idea of rapidly ac accumulating
cumulating accumulating fortunes and are settling
down into the more desirable attitude of
slow, consistent development.
Now, in gardening, as in almost any anything
thing anything worth while, the amateur especial especially
ly especially is likely to learn the full meaning of
the saying that there is no royal road
to learning. This applies fully as well
to the grown-up as to the child who digs
up the bean each morning to see if it
has yet sprouted! For there is nothing
that repays careless, indifferent methods
so disappointingly as Nature, nor is
there anything that gives such bounti bountiful
ful bountiful returns tor a little judiciously
applied thought and well directed
energy. For, while what Emerson says
about fools and consistency may
apply to humans, Madam Nature, on the
contrary, is painfully consistent. She
has her laws, and woe to the transgres transgressor
sor transgressor And so, if the amateur will care carefully
fully carefully bear in mind the few lessons
learned either from hearsay, or, better
yet, through experience, and build upon
them the superstructure of -his knowl knowledge,
edge, knowledge, Nature will not fail to respond!
And just here, a few hints may be in
season : First properly prepare the soil.
This is best done some time previous to
the planting, though that can not al always
ways always be accomplished. In any event,
for the general run of plants see that
the soil is well drained that water docs
not stand in puddles for a day or two.
This may be accomplished by either
ditching or by tile-draining. Next see
that it is in good condition as to physi physical
cal physical texture. (Nearly all soils are
benefited by additions of organic matter
for this reason alone. Then the plant
food that it contains is of varying value,
according to the needs of the plants
grown thereon.) This condition may be
obtained by spading or plowing under
a green crop and allowing it to become
thoroughly decomposed, or else by mix mixing
ing mixing in considerable well rotted manure.
For quick results, many forms of com commercial
mercial commercial fertilizers are better, but con considerable
siderable considerable judgment should be exercised
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
in their application, as too much has
quite as harmful results, if not more so,
than too little. For securing vegetative
growth, use nitrogen, nitrate of soda
being a good form. This is best ap applied
plied applied as a rule, in the early rather than
the late part of the growing season as
it tends to delay the period of maturity.
In applying potash the muriate is gen generally
erally generally considered the best form because
of its cheapness and comparative uni uniformity.
formity. uniformity. These two elements, with
phosphoric acid, are the chief elements
that need to be added to the soil.
Though for small places, and for some
other special cases, the ready-mixed
complete fertilizers, sold under a
guaranteed analysis, are usually prefer preferable.
In the laying out of the grounds, first
consider the objects in view plan your
landscape picture. This, the most im important
portant important consideration of all is, as a rule,
the one point receiving the least atten attention.
tion. attention. The general attitude taken to toward
ward toward gardening is that it consists of
putting the plants in the ground, giving
them an occasional watering, and letting
Nature take its course. And the result
is a deplorable failure. (Then the oper operator
ator operator takes up raising chickens.) In
other words, don't consider the plants as
individual units, to be placed in con conspicuous
spicuous conspicuous places and photographedthis
is for nurseries and botanical gardens.
But so plan the grounds that each plant
will be merely a factor contributing to
one broad effectthat is, the landscape
Having found that we want a picture
in the landscape, the next considera consideraj
j consideraj tion is, what are the elements making
up such a composition. First, the ground
work upon which to build this should
be good smooth greensward. Next
the central object, which should be the
home. And, to throw that into relief,
a good background is required, and, to
frame in the whole, cutting out all
extraneous matters, suitable side plant plantings
ings plantings are necessary. (Of just what these
plantings should consist we will take up
later.) Having thus laid the founda foundations,
tions, foundations, let us take up the more detailed
The Greensward. Preferably this
should be slightly rising ground ap ap:
: ap: proaching the home but where this
i condition does not exist, much can be
done to secure the same effect by means
of judicious planting. It is desirable
for this to cover by far the larger part
of the grounds, flanked on each side by
heavy plantings which, in front, should
be at the extremities of the picture, and
should sweep back with increasing
strength and focus at the home. Above
all, do not cut up the sward with flower flowerbeds,
beds, flowerbeds, summer-houses, or even roads or
paths. These should all be made sub subservient
servient subservient to the main features, and should
skirt the open ground, serving to edge
The Home Building.These should,
with the exception of the residence, be
placed rather to the side, and made as
inconspicuous as possible. They are,
for the most part, devoted to the busi business
ness business ends, and as such, should not in intrude
trude intrude on the home landscape. This, of
course, does not include such decorative
small buildings as summer-houses, pa pagodas,
godas, pagodas, etc., each of which may serve its
own purpose in the general scheme. Not
only should the plantings approach to,
and even back up the house, but the
lines of the latter should actually melt
into the landscape, without losing either
its personality as the home, or its
identity as the center of the picture.
This last is secured by appropriate
plantings of shrubs, climbers, flower flowerborder
border flowerborder edgings, etc.
Mass Planting. These should be
planted in every place to secure foliage
effect. They should, of course, include
flowering trees and shrubs, and edg edgings
ings edgings of bright flower-borders, but
only as accentuation, and to add to
the beauty of the whole. Now the
term mass planting does not mean
that the trees and shrubs be jammed to together
gether together in two straight lines, but the
entire effect should be a mass of irregu irregular
lar irregular natural planting. The background
may consist of grove or orchard, or, in
lieu of this, large ornamentals. The
side plantings, at the rear, should be
large and of heavier foliage working
downward toward the center with smal smaller
ler smaller trees and shrubs of more delicate or
fantastic foliage, with the flower-borders
to edge the lawn as a connecting link.
Specimen plants may be isolated so far
as to give room for perfect development,
but should never be placed far enough
from the mass to be considered as
separate specimens, so that the onlooker,
instead of saying What a pretty
shrub! will say What beautiful sur surroundings
roundings surroundings for a home! What a lovely
picture! In short, should be no
straight lines, but rather sweeping
curves, lines broken by inlets and bays,
making infinite masses of light and
shade and foliage character.
In succeeding numbers we will take
up more detailed questions of orna ornamental
mental ornamental gardening, giving explicit direc directions,
tions, directions, planting hints and plans, descrip descriptions
tions descriptions and other details on plant mater materials,
ials, materials, etc. Any reader desiring informa information
tion information on special problems, or assistance
of any kind, may receive same by com communicating
municating communicating with the writer, inclosing
stamped envelope for reply.
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SAVANNAH. - GEORGIA
By H. L. SAWYER
The Care of House Plants.
After the plants have been indoors for
several months they usually begin to
show the effects of being shut in. This
is largely due to the very dry atmos atmosphere
phere atmosphere of most living rooms.
Most plants commonly seen in the
house love a warm and very moist
atmosphere and unless they are taken
out of doors and given an occasional
thorough spraying and washing they are
not apt to do well in the house. This
applies more especially to palms and
ferns of the several varieties excepting
the newer varieties of the ostrich plume
type of ferns and the maidenhair fern or
adiantium, these want very little water
on the fronts.
Palms and ferns are also very subject
to scale in the house and these must be
kept in check or they will soon get so
thick as to nearly kill the plant. On
palms it is easy to keep them off by
soaking the leaves in Ivory soap suds
and then wiping with a soft cloth, being
sure to rinse thoroughly with clear
water afterwards. With the ferns they
must be picked off with a pointed stick
and if fronds are found with a great
many on, it is advisable to cut off the
frond. A thorough watering with lime limewater
water limewater that looks about like skimmed
milk will be very beneficial at this time,
especially if worms are found in the
soil, for besides ridding the soil of
worms it has a tendency to sweeten the
soil and strengthen the growth. In mak making
ing making this lime-water use only old air airslaked
slaked airslaked lime.
Most palms when growing in pots re require
quire require very little fertilizer; this is especial especially
ly especially true of the kentia family but if you
have palms of the phoenix family they
can be fertilized now to good advantage,
using very weak liquid cow manure.
With ferns of all varieties it is very
different as they are gross feeders,
especially after the pots are full of roots,
a little ground bone stirred into the top
soil at the rate of a teaspoonful to a
seven-inch pot is good, but if possible
use liquid cow manure of about the con consistency
sistency consistency of strong coffee. This may be
used about everv two weeks if plants
are growing well.
If the fronds of ferns are light colored
an application of soot will make them
a dark rich green. Apply this by mix mixing
ing mixing one teaspoonful of soot to four of
damp soil. Stir this into the top soil
and water well.
If the fern pots are overcrowded with
roots, repotting will be necessary, but
this -is not desirable at this time, as in
most cases the liquid manure will be
better. In repotting be careful not to
overpot. Use only one size larger pot ex except
cept except when plants are large and growing
rankly, then the second size larger will
It is safe to say that more house
plants are killed by overpotting than in
any other way.
A few pieces of coarse charcoal in
the bottom of fern pots is very benefi beneficial
cial beneficial ; besides affording good drainage this
has a tendency to keep the soil sweet
and prevent moss growing on the top
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
soil. A good soil for potting plants
may be made by mixing two parts trashy
loam or muck, one part finely sifted
clay and one part old well rotted cow
manure. Well rotted wood ships or
leaf mold may be added to this if soil
Boston ferns and the coarser varieties
of the ostrich plume delight in a light
airy location such as a window that is
open a great deal on warm sunny days
although they do not like the direct sun
rays. The newer and more lacy vari varieties
eties varieties of ostrich plume and the many
varieties of maidenhair do not like draft
in any form, but rather a close room.
These like plenty of light but no sun.
There is one plant often seen in the
house during the winter that is very
badly abused after it is through bloom blooming,
ing, blooming, this is the Azalia. This popular
plant is grown in large quantities in
Holland and Belgium and is from three
to six years old when shipped to this
country. Hundreds of thousands are
brought here every fall and they are
full of flower buds at that time. Florists
generally use them for Christmas and
Easter blooming but they may be had at
almost any time between these dates.
While in bloom they require large quan quantities
tities quantities of water, but after the flowers are
gone care must be taken not to over overwater,
water, overwater, but neither must they be allowed
to dry, as it is at this time that they
do their growing and perfect the flower
buds for the next winters blooming. A
good plan is to plunge the pot in the
ground in the coolest and dampest loca location
tion location to be found, just as soon as danger
from frost is over, and let it stay there
until late in the fall. The damp, cool
nights at that time do the plant a great
deal of good. When frost comes the
plant may be removed to the house and
in the late winter it should produce more
then enough blooms to repay for the
care given it, the blooming period last lasting
ing lasting many weeks. No repotting is neces necessary
sary necessary with this plant during all of this
time, but a weekly watering of very
weak liquid cow manure will be bene beneficial,
ficial, beneficial, starting about December 25th and
continuing until the flower buds show
color; after that time nothing but clear
water should be used.
The True Sweet Shrub.
Unless in some old garden, it is al almost
most almost impossible to procure the true
sweet shrub, calycanthus floridus. The
one common everywhere nowadays,
which has been and still is sold by many
for the true sweet shrub, is calycanthus
lrcvigatus. Were it not that it lacks the
odor of the true sort it would make no
difference, for it forms a shapely shrub,
ftt Offer you a complete list of Fruit, Nuts and Ornamental Trees in variety. Hardy
Nl Orange on hardy stock. Field-Grown Roses, Shrubs, Palms, Ferns, etc.
KEEP OUR CATALOGUE ON FILE
GAINESVILLE NURSERIES s : Gainesville, Fla.
blooms freely and is hardy. But the
odor of the flowers, though not lacking
is not nearly as pronounced as in those
of the true floridus. When one is of offered
fered offered a lot of calycanthus seed or seed seedlings
lings seedlings as C. floridus he may be sure it
is not true, for the latter rarely seeds,
while the less worthy one, C. lsevigatus,
The true one is propagated by root
cuttings and by layers, chiefly; and it is
such a desirable shrub that it would be
well worth increasing largely by those
to whom a quantity of roots is acces accessible.
sible. accessible. Cut into small lengths and placed
in bottom heat in a greenhouse in late
winter should see a supply of young
plants by the time to set out stock in
The seedsmen are certainly out-doing
themselves in the production of new
varieties of sweet peas. Each season
sees a host of new and beautiful types
in double and single styles. Sweet peas
may be grown even at altitudes of 8,000
feet if started in the house and set out
where the sun and air have full force
upon the plants. The colors seem to be
more brilliant at the higher altitudes.
Rubber plants make but little growth
during the winter months, as that is the
season when they take a needed rest.
During this period they should not be
given much water. After growth begins
in the spring, new soil should be fur furnished,
nished, furnished, but do not use too large a pot.
During the summer liquid manure can
be used, but this should be discontinued
in the fall.
Infinitely better is it to keep two cows
which would give 950 pounds of butter butterfat
fat butterfat per year, and take care of them, than
to keep five cows that will only give you
150 pounds of butter per year as they
are kept now. A man with two cows
who takes' care of them is a much great greater
er greater dairyman than the man who has a
large herd which receives no attention
except that necessary to get the milk
Why not spend the winter in
Florida? Houses to rent,
boarding house rates, real
estate bargains, orange groves,
etc.; hunting, fishing. Copy
weekly paper, any information
write, J. F. A. Crosby,
San Mateo, Fla.
Keeping Dairy Records.
By John M. Scott.
It is doubtful if there are half-dozen
dairymen in Florida who can tell what
it costs them to produce a gallon of milk,
or whether .every cow in the herd pro produces
duces produces enough milk to pay for the feed
given it. These are, however, two import important
ant important questions, and every dairyman ought
to be able to answer them. It is just as
important to know the cost of producing
a gallon of milk, as it is to know how to
combine feed so as to get the best re results.
sults. results. Without the knowledge of the
cost for each cow, failure will often fol follow.
low. follow. The only way to know this is to
keep a daily record of the feed given
and the milk produced. The excuse
Mum Reeord for Week Beginning Week IS /90% j
Date co// cow COIV row cm cow cow cow cow cm cm cow cow
No I Not N0.5 No 4- NoS No 6 No 7 No.B No 9 NolO No ll No ll No li
\ _*_/*_ ill /. 700 7.0 5.0 OS H.O
% p.M n_o s\s_ f.S 00_ 4.3 90 00 ZOO 3. T ZO 5 zoo
- a m //. 3 JO ZZO ZOO iO 4.3 70 tk.o 0.0 Z 5.0 90
1 pm 7.0' SO 9$ JS So 43- SS ZOO So ZOO 75
I JO. 6.3 ZZ3 7S S.S SO 70 Z3O SO 12.0 9.0
Â§ 7-3 SO IS 7.0 SO 4 S 5S ZOO SO ZQS 7.5
|a m I/O 6.S I/O 10.0 50 5.0 70 10 oso 10.0 90
I P.M 1.5 Â£5 IQ.Q }.O 5.0 9$ 55 HO 5.0 Z0.0\75
I 9jj 1 Ho 95 50 50 70 h-0 5.0 190 100
1 M 5.5 100 USO 4 5 S.S ZIP 9 5 10.5 7S
| jvm Jo_ 70_IUL 100 M 5.0 SO Z 3.0 50 7XO ZOO
_pm_ JLQ 6.0 95 7.0 4.3 9.0 SO l/.O 95 7/5 7.5
| /JS_ 6.0 l/.O /QS 10 Z/.O SS 13.0 5.0 Z3.S 90
lUh \%\ \(-o\lo.o\io\ss\s.c\l,.o\lo.o\9o\/Z.0\7.0
given by most dairymen for not keeping
a complete record of their herd, is that
they cannot afford to do so, because
it takes so much time and because labor
To make a fair profit, milk must be
produced at the lowest possible cost. To
do this, the dairyman must know the
returns from each cow in the herd. It
is not enough for him to know how
much milk each cow produces, but he
must also know the amount and cost
of the feed eaten to produce this milk.
If the dairyman fails to get this infor information,
mation, information, he is not likely to find dairying
as profitable as he has expected. The
result will often be that he will con condemn
demn condemn tlie business, and say that Florida
.is no place for dairying, as there is no
money in it. The real cause of the fail failure,
ure, failure, is, however, the poor method of con conducting
ducting conducting the business.
Any commercial enterprise, if not con conducted
ducted conducted on business principles, will sooner
or later become a failure. The first
question the business man asks is, Will
it pay? If he is convinced that a change
in his methods will pay, he is apt to
make the change. Dairying is just as
BY PROF. JOHN M. SCOTT
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
much a business as is manufacturing
or mercantile work, and it requires just
as close attention to details, if the dairy dairyman
man dairyman is to make a fair profit.
The following are the records of a
herd of seven cows on the Experiment
Station farm. These seven cows are
only average dairy cows; and the results
here given can be duplicated by any
good dairyman in the State. All the
cows were fed the same feeds, namely,
7 pound of bran, 3 pounds of cotton cottonseed
seed cottonseed meal, 25 pounds of sorghum silage
per day, in two equal feeds. No silage
was fed after April 1, as the cows had
good pasture after that date
In the six months from January 1 to
June 30, cow No. 10 produced, 3868.25
pounds of milk, at a cost of 7.3 cents per
gallon; cow No. 5 gave 3281.75 pounds at
a cost of 8.6 per gallon; cow No. 2 pro produced
duced produced 3029.5 pounds of milk, costing
9.3 cents a gallon; cow No. 13, 2633
pounds, at a cost of 10.7 cents per gal gallon;
lon; gallon; cow No. 4 produced 2058.25 pounds
at a cost of 13.7 cents per gallon; cow
No. 7, 1949.25 pounds, at a cost of 14.5
cents per gallon; and cow No. 8, 1805.25
pounds, at a cost of 15.6 cents per gallon.
The average cost per gallon for the herd
was 11.3 cents. The average cost per
gallon for the best four cows was 8.9
cents, and the average cost for the three
poorest was 14.6 cents, showing a dif difference
ference difference in the cost of production of 5.7
cents per gallon.
These results show plainly the need
of keeping a daily record, and in this
way weeding out the unprofitable dairy
The total amount of milk produced
by these seven cows in six months was
18625.25 pounds, or 2165.72 gallons.
With this herd of cows, it cost $244.72
for feeds to produce this amount of milk,
If all the cows in the herd had been as
unprofitable as cow No. 8, it would have
cost $337.85 to produce that amount of
milk; but if all had been as profitable as
cow No. 10 it would have cost only
$158.10, or less than half as much. Had
the entire herd been as good milk pro producers
ducers producers as the best four cows, the 2165.72
gallons of milk would have cost $192.75
while if the entire herd had been as un unprofitable
profitable unprofitable as the three poorest cows, the
milk would have cost $316.20, an increase
of $123.45, or $17.63 per cow.
These figures should be convincing
enough to show the profits to be obtain obtained
ed obtained by keeping a daily record of each
cow in the herd.
Why Florida Is Not a Dairy State.
Since Florida imports products to the
value of thousands of dollars every year,
it has often occurred to the writer to
query why a larger percentage of these
Products were not produced at home.
The climatic conditions of Florida are in
fact better suited to dairy work than
those of several of the Northern States.
Feeds should cost no more here than
in the North. Yet in spite of this the
dairy farmers of Wisconsin, Michigan
and Illinois find a ready market in Flor Florida
ida Florida for their condensed milk, butter and
Here is. I think, the secret of the
whole business. Florida farmers have
not the cows. I do not mean that there
are no cows in Florida, but that there
are not nearly enough profitable dairy
cows in the State. Every dairyman
should realize sooner or later, and bet better
ter better sooner, that every cow is not an eco economical
nomical economical milk and butter producer. Some
cows will produce only 3,000 to 4,000
pounds of milk during the year, while
others will produce 8,000 to 10,000
pounds in the same time. The heaviest
milk producers go far beyond these fig figures;
ures; figures; for instance Colantlrs 4th. Johanna
(bred and owned by W. J. Gillett, Rose Rosedale,
dale, Rosedale, Wis.) in ]2 months produced 27,-
432 pounds (3,189 gallons) of milk. This
cow is a pure bred Holstein. A Jersey
cow, Jacoba Irene, (owned by A. O. An Anton,
ton, Anton, of Jerseyville, 111.), produced in 12
months, 17,253 pounds (2,006 gal gallons),
lons), gallons), of milk. These few records
will show what is possible with
good dairy cows. The Holstein cow
mentioned above produced as much
milk in a year as six ordinary cows;
while the feed consumed was perhaps
equal to about what two ordinary cows
would need. The Jersey cow, Jacoba
Irene, which produced 17,253 pounds of
milk in a year, consumer $96.43 worth
of feed. This amount is perhaps equal
to what two of our ordinary cows will
eat in the same period.
The milk she produced (2,006 gallons)
at 30 cents per gallon is worth $601.80,
six times the cost of the feed. The
writer is well aware that such cows are
no found every day but these results
show what is possible, with proper breed breeding
ing breeding and feeding.
Perhaps the average milk production
per year per cow for Florida is less than
2,000 pounds of milk. With such small
yields is it any wonder that dairying is
unprofitable? It should be the ambition
of every shrewd dairyman to increase
the average milk flow of each animal to
the limit. He should be satisfied with
less than 6,000 pounds of milk per year
from each and every cow in his herd.
The reason Florida is not a great dairy dairying
ing dairying State is because there are too many
so-called dairy cows in the State that
do not produce enough milk to pay for
the feed they eat.
The Supply of Feed for Cattle.
It will soon be time for the farmers,
especially those who are interested in
dairy work, to plan their crops for the
coming years supply of feed. There are
a number of crops which require to be
planted early in the spring, that give
good yields, both as green feed for soil soiling
ing soiling purposes, as silage, or that may be
cured and put in the barn to be used
as dry feed during the winter months.
Among these crops, the Japanese sugar
cane should, perhaps, be given first place,
because it produces a heavier yield in
tons per acre than almost any other for forage
age forage crop we can grow. It is not un unusual
usual unusual to secure from 20 to 30 tons of
green material per acre from this crop.
Another point in its advantage is that
one planting will last from 15 to 20
years, while most of our crops, such as
corn and sorghum, must be planted anew
each year. Perhaps the second crop on
the list should be sorghum. This also
may be used as a soiling crop, as silage,
and as dry forage. If the sorghum is
planted early in the spring, say in
April, with proper fertilization and cul cultivation
tivation cultivation two good crops may be secured
during the year. There are a large num number
ber number of varieties of sorghum, some of
which gives very satisfactory yields in
Florida, while with others the yields are
unsatisfactory. The early Amber is
probably one of the varieties most com commonly
monly commonly grown in Florida. Yet there is
hardly any variety that will give such a
low yield in tons per acre as this. It is
an early variety, maturing in about 75 to
85 days. Among our best varieties for
yields are Gooseneck and sumac. These
two varieties do not mature so early as
the early amber, but the yield in tons
per acre is double. For that reason
either of these two is better for the
Florida farmer than the early Amber.
Corn should oerhaps take third place.
It makes a good quality of silage, about
equal to either sugar cane or sorghum;
but as a rule on our light sandy soils,
the yield of silage from corn is about
15 to 20 per cent, less than that from
Japanese cane or sorghum.
For pasture grass Bermuda is appar apparently
ently apparently the best we have at the present
time. However, Bermuda grass has its
disadvantages, especially when farmers
have it as a weed in their cultivated
fields, since it is very hard to eradicate
when it once gets a good foothold. Nev Nevertheless
ertheless Nevertheless Bermuda is one of the best
friends in the way of grasses that the
stockman of Florida have, and when
growing on ground that is not to be
cultivated for any other crop, it should
be given a good chance and should
receive careful cultivation and fertiliza fertilization.
tion. fertilization. Given such treatment, it is sur surprising
prising surprising how much pasturage can be se secured
cured secured from a small area of this grass.
Para grass requires a little more atten attention
tion attention in the wav of cultivation than does
Bermuda. The yield per acre from
Para grass will be much more than from
Bermuda, as it will be possible to pasture
the Para grass for a part of the season,
-and after it is plowed, it will in a short
time produce a good crop of hay. The
yield in hay will vary with the condition
and character of the soil on which this
crop is grown; but on good soil, yields
of from 2 to 4 tons of hay per acre are
not too much to expect. Another crop
that all dairymen should grow is the
velvet bean. By growing the velvet bean
the dairyman can reduce his feed bill
by 50 per cent, of more. Velvet beans
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
as a feed are equal to cotton seed meal
as a milk producer. They are not equal
pound for pound, but three pounds of
velvet beans in the pod will be found
to be equal to one pound of cotton seed
meal. But the farmer can raise 5 tons
of velvet beans in the pod for what one
ton of cotton seed meal will cost on the
Give the Cow Credit for Her Share.
The cow is the foundation of the
whole dairy business. Success depends
more on the cow than any other one
point. Much of course depends on the
feed and care; but the best feed and
care will not make a good, profitable
cow out of an unprofitable one. That is,
feed will not make a cow that produces
only 300 gallons of milk per year pro produce
duce produce 700 or 800 gallons in the same
length of time. Feed of course has its
influence, but the influence of feed can cannot
not cannot overcome the individuality of the
animal. If the animals temperament
and function is to use the feed given
for the production of body fat, feed
cannot change that temperament and
function to that of milk production productionthat
that productionthat is, economical milk production.
All dairy herds in the State at the
Dresent time are not returning a fair
profit, but it is not all the fault of the
cows. The cows are not endowed with
the gift of speech and hence are not
able to say that they can produce a large
flow of milk or not. This has been left
for the dairyman to find out for him himself.
self. himself. If he fails to get this informa information,
tion, information, he is not likely to find dairying a
profitable business. The result will be
that he will condemn the business, and
say that Florida is no place for a dairy dairyman,
man, dairyman, as there is no money in it.
The real cause of the failure is the poor
method of conducting the business. Any
business enterprise, if not conducted on
business principles, will sooner or later
become a failure. The dairyman should
know the ability of each cow in the
herd. Until he knows this, he is not in
a position to know whether dairying is
profitable or unprofitable. This is no
more than what any business man should
know. Take for instance the man who
employs a dozen men or more, in a
ihort time he knows the ability of each
man, and knows how much he can ac accomplish
complish accomplish in a specified time. The dairy dairyman,
man, dairyman, to make a success of his business,
must become thoroughly acquainted with
each animal in the herd. Then he will
know to which animal to give the cre credit
dit credit for his profits.
Feed and Milk Quality.
Feed has very little if any effect upon
the quality of milk. By quality we refer
to the per cent, or amount of total solid
matter in the milk. It is a well recogniz recognized
ed recognized fact that some feeds affect the flavor
of milk and possibly to a light extent its
color. Feeds rich in protein have a .ten .tendency
dency .tendency to slightly increase the percentage
of fat in the case of some cows; the
same can be said of feeds rich in fat.
This increase is probably only tempor temporary,
ary, temporary, however, the milk gradually com coming
ing coming back to its normal composition. Ani Animals
mals Animals very thin in flesh and insufficiently
fed, if brought into good condition by
proper feed, will probably yield milk of
rather better quality. The improvement
in quality will not as a rule be very
The milk producing functions are to
a large extent under the control of the
nervous system. Any influence that
disturbs the quiet or normal condition
of the animal, be it rough usage, ex extremes
tremes extremes of temperature, exposure to rain,
etc., will have its effect upon the quality
A Magnificent Place
The Celebrated Dudley Adams
Grove for Sale
The entire tract embraces 140
acres on east side of Lake Dora, be between
tween between the lake and county hard sur surfaced
faced surfaced road, I*4 miles from Tangerine
and about same distance from Mt.
Dora, where there is a Citrus Ex Exchange,
change, Exchange, packing house and transpor transportation.
There are in the grove 1,600 large
budded or grafted trees of choicest
varieties. Trees stand 35 feet apart
and are uniform in size, very large
and spreading, and this years crop is
estimated at 9,000 boxes.
This is one of the best protected
groves in the State, and all conditions
are right. Is protected by the chain
of large lakes on the west; the land
is elevated and is surrounded by
heavy pine timber the turpentine
men have not been admitted to this
There is on the place a fine modern
residence, beautiful grounds and good
The late Dudley Adams was the
first president of the Florida Horti Horticultural
cultural Horticultural Society and a recognized au authority
thority authority on citrus culture, and this was
his home place.
It is being offered just now for
$.25,000 on favorable terms.
For further particulars address
Frank H. Davis, Apopka, Fla.
Equipped with all needed appli appliances.
ances. appliances. Choice land, mostly under
cultivation, in best farming section
of Florida. Several good
Splendid location for colony or
for stock raising.
For prices, terms and other par particulars,
ticulars, particulars, address,
P. O. Box 73,
of the milk. On the other fraud, plenty
of good feed increases the quality of
milk until the animal reaches her maxi maximum
mum maximum production. What has been said
with regard to.the influence of feed upon
the quality of milk is equally true rela relative
tive relative to the amount of butter that can be
made from a given quantity of milk. No
method of feeding has yet been dis discovered
covered discovered that so improves the quality of
the milk as to make a given quantity
of milk produce more butter at one time
than another. The quality of milk varies
during the different stages of lactation,
but this is entirely independent of the
influence of feed. The above statements
are based on the teachings of carefully
conducted experiments. They are con contrary
trary contrary to the general belief that the better
the animal is fed the better the quality
of the milk produced.Kansas Farmer.
View of Dairying.
There never was a better time to
engage in the dairy business than the
present, as every indication points one
way towards steadily higher prices for
dairy products. Only a few years ago,
throughout the Middle West, when far farmers
mers farmers were asked to invest only a few
dollars in milk cans, so as to ship cream,
they often made the remark that they
were afraid to invest so much for fear
the dairy business would be over before
the cans were worn out. At that time
the United States was doing quite an
export business in dairy products, which
of course, helped to regulate and main maintain
tain maintain prices. It was generally believed
that the volume of export trade would
remain low or lower. The opposite has
been the fact.
Home demand has increased with the
growth of the country so that today
there is hardly any export business in
dairy products. From 1880 to 1905 the
butter exports fell off 61 per cent., while
the cheese exports fell off from the 1880
total of 123,000,000 pounds to only 3,-
000,000 for 1905. The price increase has
been steady all through this period, ir irrespective
respective irrespective of hard times.
With our climate conditions so fa favorable
vorable favorable to dairying and our soil so well
adapted to growing the best of feed, it
is certain no man can make a mistake
in engaging in the dairy business and
pushing it year after year for all it is
worth. There is no gamble in dairying
whatever; it is as certain in its returns
for the man who goes into it in earnest
as is the interest on government bonds.
Possibilities In Dairying.
There is more in farming than the
single problem of seeing how large a
crop can be harvested from an acre of
ground. Every bale of cotton, every
ton of corn, every carload of cantaloupes
takes from the soil a large amount of
plant-food or soil fertility. For in instance,
stance, instance, when the cotton farmer sells a
ton of seed coton, for which he obtains
about $l2O, he at the same time sells
from his farm sl2- to sls worth of fer fertility.
tility. fertility. But the dairyman, when he sells
a ton of butter worth SSOO or S6OO, sells
from his farm only about 50 cents worth
or fertility. Whilst the dairyman is
producing the ton of butter his animals
have produced 15 to 20 tons of good fer fertilizer
tilizer fertilizer worth altogether S3O or S4O. The
cotton grower who sells his seed cotton
returns no fertility to his fields, but his
crop has robbed his soil at the rate of
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
sl2 to sls, for every ton of seed cotton
which leaves his farm. This is of im importance
portance importance to Florida farmers, since they
probably use more commercial ferti fertilizer
lizer fertilizer per cultivated acre than do the
farmers of any other State. The evi evidence
dence evidence is plain, and the reader may draw
his own conclusion as to which is the
most profitable system of farming in
the long rundairying which enriches
or the one crop system which exhausts
Salting the Cows.
A supply of salt available whenever
the cows want it is necessary to main maintain
tain maintain a high yield of milk. Salting feeds
for dairy cows once a week is not suf sufficient.
ficient. sufficient. It is a good plan to keep rock
salt under shelter where the cows can
get at it at will, and then feed loose salt
once a week in such quantities as the
cows will eat. Loose salt may be used
exclusively if it can be sheltered from
rain and snow. It is not best to mix
salt with feed, for frequently the cows
will get more salt than they need, which
will reduce the flow. Cows having salt
kept before them at all times in separate
compartments will not too much.
An overfeed of salt to a cow that has
been deprived of it for some time acts
like a poison and produces an irritation
in the digestive organs which results in
Buying a Dairy Sire.
Any man with a herd of ten cows
can afford to head his herd with a
pure bred sire. Many men are satis satisfied
fied satisfied if they can buy a registered calf,
and the registration is about all they
get. It dont make a sire better because
he is registered. The question is,
What are the calfs ancestors, and
what is their record ? The best pure
bred sire at the head of the herd means
more than one-half the herd. Buy only
of a man in whom you have confidence.
Buy a sire that has been tried and has
produced a daughter of high produc production,
tion, production, even if it was an aged sire. Buy
on the records of the dams back of him.
Buy a sire with dams that were great
A poor general farm by intelligent
management through dairying may be
made into a rich farm and be placed
on a high paying basis. It is the most
direct and the cheapest way of feed feeding
ing feeding the soil and of making it grow more
fertile and nroductive each year. Rough
and concentrated feeds given to dairy
cows not only go for producing milk
and butter, but for rich fertilizers to
build up the soil with the proper hand handling
ling handling of the manure. The man who
makes dairying one of the main branches
of his farming, and sticks to it for a
number of years, may not get rich
quickly but is sure to get rich sooner of
Once bread and butter or cheese were
food for the peasant; now only the well wellto-do
to-do wellto-do can afford to buy them. But with
a few good cows the independent farm farmer
er farmer should resolve that he is entitled to
the best food which his lands affords.
In estimating the profits from a cow.
the by-products should not be omitted.
Add to your monthly check the advan advantage
tage advantage which the skim milk has been to
pigs and chickens; the number of dishes
of ice cream which have gone as treats
to your friends and family; the milk
and cream which have gone to your table
in various forms, even the baking pow powder
der powder bill saved by using soda and sour
milk or cream is quite an item if you
use warm biscuits, etc., frequently. And
then think of what your bill of fare
would have been without the cow!
The best dairymen carry accurate
watches, and work up to them. The
milking hour is less movable than the
dinner hour. The man who fancies he
can skip a milking occasionally is not
in the dairy busines with a good show
of making money.
A three-cent brush should be kept for
washing the hands after milking; and
another is most efficient for washing
strainer and pails, cleansing and remov removing
ing removing dirt much better than a cloth.ln cloth.lnland
land cloth.lnland Farmer.
The cows that are really profitable
have to answer for the sins of those
that are not. Is that fair to good
cows? We all know it is not, but it
is a fact that the poor cows set the
pace for the dairy. The first thing
every dairyman should do is to find out
the drones and clean them out. That
will give the good cows a chance to
show how good they really are.
A handful of bran is sometimes
more effective in inducing an unruly
cow fo stand than half a dozen straps.
Plant Bed Cloth
For Florists, Gardeners,
Truck Farmers, Tobacco
Protects from Frost, Safer than
Glass. Waterproof Sheeting for
Chicken Runs. Hay Caps, Stack
Covers and Canvas Goods.
123 D Chambers Street New York
BRANCHS GENUINE RATTLESNAKE
ONLY PURE STRAIN Carefully selected. Kept
IN UNITED STATES pure forty years. No
other variety grown on
plantations of 1500 acres. Pure seed impossible
where different kinds are grown. 1 oz. 15c2
oz. 25c4 oz. 40c34 lb. 00c 1 lb. $1.005 lbs. $4.50
lO lbs. $8.50 delivered.
Remit registered letter or money order. Send
for Seed Annual. Manual on melon culture with
all orders. M. I. BRANCH, Berzelia,
Columbia County, Georgia
SOMETHING NEW for GREENHOUSES
Non-caustic and non-irritating
A FUNGICIDE AND INSECTICIDE
FOR FRUIT TREES, VEGETABLES and GREENHOUSES
A promising substitute for Bordeaux mixture.
For 10 cts. to cover postage will send sample
sufficient for one gallon of spray.
Use 1 part to 75 or 100 parts of water.
B. G. PRATT C 0 50 Church St.. New York. U. S. A.
THE POULTRY YARD
BY C. FRED WARD
POULTRY RAISING IN FLORIDA
Answer to an Inquirer Desiring to
Locate in Florida.
Florida has an ideal climate for poul poultry
try poultry raising and many natural advantages
that make it a State especially adapted
to this business.
We cannot speak with authority of
the very Northern part of the State, as
its soil is not the loose sand of the
Middle and Southern parts; the winters
are colder and the summers hotter, as
that part of the State does not lie be between
tween between the Gulf and Ocean. But in the
central part of the State the soil is es especially
pecially especially adapted to this business. The
rainfall is heavy in the rainy season as
a rule, but the water sinks at once into
the ground and there are no pud puddles
dles puddles or damp corners to breed roup
amongst the dock. This disease -is
very rare here when the houses are
correctly built and then not over overcrowded.
crowded. overcrowded. In the far Southern part of
the State, on the East Coast, we have
been told that the mosquitoes have been
very troublesome to poultry raisers, and
screened houses are necessary for roost roosting
ing roosting purposes. But in the central part of
the State we do not have any trouble of
As we are far from the grain raising
States the cost of transportation makes
the cost of grain higher here than in
those States where it is grown.
There are foods that can be raised
for feed here, if the flock is small, but
not very profitably if several hundred
chickens are kept. Cow peas, winter
rye, sorghum, millet, rape, chufas and
oats all do well. Green feed, of course,
is obtainable all the year, which helps
much in the cost of feed. Bermuda grass
in the runs, for the hens, if not too many
are yarded together, supplies this green
feed at all seasons. The young, grow growing
ing growing stock soon kill out the Bermuda
grass in their runs; so lettuce, mustard
and other green foods can be raised to
supply them. We have two gardens a
year in this section, and it is only in
mid-summer, when young stock do not
grow well that there is no green stuff
in the gardens.
There is a plentiful suply of bugs
and insects here but foods which con contain
tain contain protein must be fed to the laying
stock. Fresh beef scrap is good. Ground
bone and fresh meat are apt to cause
sickness in this climate.
We have very little sickness here, in
a well handled flock of chickens, the
weather being neither too cold in winter
nor too hot in summer. Of course, clean cleanliness,
liness, cleanliness, care in feeding and proper roost roosting
ing roosting quarters, each count as much as
climate proper soil in poultry rais raising.
ing. raising. Cleanliness is more essential here
than in the North, and the houses must
be occasionally sprayed with a good
carbolic solution to prevent vermin.
Fowls will lay here all winter at which
time eggs bring a good price. The hatch hatching
ing hatching is most profitable done, in Florida,
in winter and early spring.
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
A poultry plant can be established
with much less capital here than in the
North as very inexpensive houses closed
only on the North and West ends, and
half way on the East, are all that is need needed.
ed. needed. They do not have to be tightly
built. Rough lumber answers every pur purpose,
pose, purpose, and a little red paint makes them
presentable in appearance. A clay or
board floor, preferably clay, is necessary,
and chicken wire on the South and East
ends of the house protect from prowlers.
A hood on the South is necessary to
prevent sudden hard rains from that
quarter wetting the fowls and making
the floors damp. The chickens need
shade during the heat of the day. Our
yards are made of chicken wire, built
without top or bottom boards, but the
wire is close against the ground at the
bottom of the fence and well pegged
town. A barbed wire along the top is
a' protection. No brooder houses are
needed. The small outdoor brooders,
placed entirely in the open do much bet better
ter better for the little chicks than indoor
brooders in a heated house. We have not
experimented with the natural-heat
brooders, but there are poultry raisers
here that consider them well adapted
to this climate. An incubator house
need only be built free from drafts and
well ventilated, one thickness of up and
down boards answering this purpose.
The house should be in a shady place,
as it is more a question of keeping the
heat down then of the eggs getting gettingchilled.
The running of a poultry business de depends
pends depends so largely on personal qualifica qualifications
tions qualifications that its success or failure can
hardly be predicted. We believe, how however,
ever, however, that Florida has great prospects
as a poultry State.
Farming in this section is much bet better
ter better understood now than formerly, and
is becoming a leading industry of the
State. With general farming, poultry
raising always goes hand-in-hand. And
with such an ideal climate and soil, so
little expense is necessary in establish establishing
ing establishing a poultry plant. The only other es essentials
sentials essentials are the right man and a good
market. Jacksonville, Tampa, and other
large cities and towns and the prosper prosperous
ous prosperous East Coast afford good markets that
have never yet been over supplied with
either eggs or poultry at any time dur during
ing during the year, and the prices hold good
at all seasons. Eggs bring from twenty twentyfive
five twentyfive to forty-five cents a dozen in this
The right breed of fowls are raised
here with small loss in incubation and
breeding. The Asiatics are too heavily
feathered and too long in maturing to be
profitably raised. The Mediterraneans
lay well and are great foragers, and are
healthy when grown, but are* raised with
greater loss when a few weeks old than
the American breeds. The American
varieties do the best here. The Ply Plymouth
mouth Plymouth Rocks are long in maturing and
so are not so profitable as the Wyan Wyandottes
dottes Wyandottes and Rhode Island Reds. We
personally prefer the Rhode Island Reds
as they are so hardy and such good lay layers
ers layers of large brown eggs, and the
brown eggs are the kind called for in
There are several large paying poultry
plants in Florida.
As is well known, the profits from
poultry culture are not wonderful, but
a paying business here brings in a good
living income, and as a side industry
in general farming, it is one of the best
paying branches of that occupation.
And in every respectexcept the disad disadvantage
vantage disadvantage of distance from grain markets
Florida offers exceptional advantages for
this business.C. Fred Ward in the In Industrious
dustrious Industrious Hen.
Florida for Poultry.
Within the past year we have had so
many inquiries about Florida as a pro profitable
fitable profitable section for poultry work that we
have seriously thought of having printed
some little circulars describing condi conditions
tions conditions here as adapted to poultry raising
and something of the experience of a
few leading poultry men in our State,
to mail in answer to these inquiries.
Such circulars would be of help both to
the man in search of information about
this country and to the poultryman in
Florida. For this is certainly an ideal
climate for this work and if the condi conditions
tions conditions are truthfully set forth, we think
many would feel that they could make a
venture here with poultry in connec connection
tion connection with farming or fruit growing.
Then the more persons engaged in poul poultry
try poultry work in the State the better for
those already in the work, for the great greater
er greater interest will then be taken in poultry
culture. Our shows will be improved,
our papers will give more thought and
space to poultry and their needs, markets
will be developed and we may even hope
for courses of study in poultry cul culture
ture culture in our State schools.
There is no reason why Florida should
not become one of the greatest poultry
raising States in the Union, with its
climate and soil so especially adapted
to the business.
Orange growing is, and probably al always
ways always will be one of our leading indus industries.
tries. industries. Vegetable farming is also fast be becoming
coming becoming a business to be depended on in
this State, as the conditions here are
being better understood, and with all
fruit growing and farming industries,
poultry raising has always gone hand
In farming it is best not to have all
your eggs in one basket, for when one
thing fails another will succeed and
keep things going until mistakes have
been remedied, the cause of failure un understood,
derstood, understood, and all the diversified branches
of farm work made to yield a good
There have been quite a number of
experiments made with poultry in this
State, especially those who have be begun
gun begun on a large scale, which have not
been successful, and as far as we can
learn this has been largely due to one
of three reasons, i. e., first a lack of pre previous
vious previous knowledge or experience with
poultry work; second, no knowledge of
the climate or conditions here, or third,
no suitably developed market for the
Now, we want people to come to our
State and to take up one line of work
here, but we do no want them to fail,
and this is the reason why it is very
difficult to answer the many letters of in inquiry
quiry inquiry from those who wish to come here
and begin poultry raising.
We are printing a letter in this issue
which we wrote to the Industrious Hen
in answer to a number of questions
about conditions here. Such a letter
must be, of necessity very brief and so
many things left unsaid that might
mean success or failure to the individual
who was about to begin work here, that
we believe it would be a great help to
these newcomers and to all poultry
workers in this State if the poultry men
now successfully engaged in the busi business
ness business here in Florida either on a small or
larger scale, would write of their exper experience,
ience, experience, of the peculiar conditions in their
localities that they have successfully
mastered, how they raise the little
chickswith incubators and brooders or
with hens, what they feed and the feed
stuffs that they find profitable to raise,
how they have developed a market for
Much informatfon from poultry work workers
ers workers outside of our State is valuable to
us, but it is the word from a neighbor
worker who has just our conditions to
meet that means the most to us.
So we feel quite hopeful that many
who read this issue of the Agriculturist
will take their pen in hand and write
the poultry editor of their work, know knowing
ing knowing that by so doing they will be greatly
furthering the work in our State and
helping many outside of the State who
are hesitating about beginning work
We are copying, also, this month an
article from The Southern Ruralist, in
which several persons do not seem to
have found poultry raising profitable on
account not having a good market. This
is an important point to consider. But a
good salesman can usually develop a
market unless conditions are very un unfavorable.
favorable. unfavorable. This we can realize by study studying
ing studying how it has been done in other parts
of our country and especially how it is
being done in England. The quality of
the product is of great importance and
its prompt delivery in good condition.
In all business, mercantile or manu manufacturing,
facturing, manufacturing, to produce the goods is im important,
portant, important, but to make people realize that
they want the goods produced and cant
get on without them, is most important,
and so it is in the poultry world, through
advertising, or special ability as sales salesman,
man, salesman, or excellent business methods, we
must make the people realize that they
w r ant and must have fresh eggs and good
LAKEMONT POULTRY FARM
HEADQUARTERS FOR THE FAMOUS
S. C. RHODE ISLAND REDS
The finest of breeding and laying stock for sale at all seasons. Special prices on application.
We have 15 yards of our best birds mated up to supply the fall and winter demand for eggs for
hatching. Prices are $2.00 per settings or two settings for $3.50. Incubator eggs a specialty at
SB.OO per hundred. 35 prizes at last two State Poultry Shows tell the quality of our stock.
WRITE FOR CIRC UL A R-I T S FREE
LAKEMONT POULTRY FARM : : WARD & LANE, Proprietors
Box S Winter Park, Florida.
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
dressed poultry, that they want plenty
of them and cant get on without them.
C. FRED WARD.
Poultry Management for Florida.
As pioneers in the poultry industry in
the South we have had to w r ork our way
ahead carefully and by degrees, and with
many failures and successes have learned
to adapt this business to the conditions
of a soil and climate which is very dif different
ferent different from that of the North, for which
most of the poultry literature is written,
and which here has often proved more
of a hindrance than a help.
The important principle of ventilation
was one of our greatest stumbling blocks.
Upon the difference in temperature be between
tween between air inside and outside of anything,
be it a brooder, incubator or roosting
house, depends the rapidity of the circu circulation
lation circulation of the air through it. By not fully
realizing this, but using plans for houses,
brooders and incubators adapted to a
colder climate we lost many a hatch and
brood and even growing stock. Now we
make larger holes in the incubators, re remove
move remove all felts and obstacles to free em emulation
ulation emulation of air; make the brooders more
roomy and with more openings; and the
roosting houses open entirely to the
South and partly to the East, never
Also the necessity for absolute cleanli cleanliness
ness cleanliness in this latitude had to be proven.
In a moist, warm climate vermin will
multiply with great rapidity, so it is very
essential to keep the brooders cleaned
out daily, and the hen houses twice a
week, the roosting material well dusted
with a good lice killer, and the setting
hens also. The houses should be sprayed
with a lice-killing solution once in two or
three weeks. This may seem too much
work, but if not done the poultry busi business
ness business here will become anything but a
11l selecting the breed best adapted to
this climate we made very careful ex experiments.
periments. experiments. Pens of several varieties were
purchased from reliable breeders, espec especial
ial especial attention being paid to vigor and lay laying
ing laying qualities.
The fowls were placed in runs, side by
side, under exactly the same conditions,
and careful records kept for two or
three years. Gradually one breed after
another was given up as it fell behind
the others in laying ability, vigor and
age of maturing. At the end of that
time only the Rhode Island Reds and
White Leghorns remained as the sur survival
vival survival of the fittest/
Then as the greatest success has al always
ways always been made in specialty work, and
as the Leghorns did not quite come up
to the Rhode Island Reds in vigor, we
decided to keep only the later breed.
At one time we had to again do much
work already done in establishing a good
laying strain, by not being sufficiently
diligent in selecting the necessary new
blood. We have found that even greater
consideration must be given to its vigor
and laying qualities than to the beauty
Where a very small number of chick chickens
ens chickens is raised annually, hatching with
hens is usually successful, provided the
right breeds are selected, but if many
eggs are to be hatched the necessary
work is greatly reduced if incubators and
brooders are used. The financial loss,
in eggs, where a number of hens are
spared for natural incubators, and then
for mothering the young chicks, is quite
an item to be considered on a large poul poultry
try poultry plant. The work of watering, feed feeding
ing feeding and keeping setting hens free from
vermin greatly exceeds the work of run running
ning running the incubator. Then the danger of
the hens leaving the nest, or breaking
the eggs, or trampling the young chicks,
is overcome when the responsibility for
a good hatch is transferred from her to
a good incubator which does none of
these things. There is the greatest dif difference,
ference, difference, though, even in individual in incubators
cubators incubators of the same make, so each ma machine
chine machine must be carefully experimented
with, its faults remedied, and its ability
to turn out a good hatch of chickens
than can be raised, proven.
Often the brooder is blamed when the
incubator is at fault and the chicks have
had no chance from the first. If the in incubator
cubator incubator with proper care hatches a good
number of healthy chicks, the poultry poultryman
man poultryman has indeed a true friend in his poul poultry
try poultry work. But if one has had all proper
care and the hatches are small and
chicks hard to raise, and if the eggs
are beyond question, then if fault can cannot
not cannot be found it would be best to dis discard
card discard that incubator at once.
A brooder is a necessity if an incuba incubator
tor incubator is used. We have had excellent suc success
cess success with an outdoor kind. The eggs
and chickens must not be overheated.
In using a brooder, covered runs protect protected
ed protected from chilling winds are a necessity,
for the chicks need plenty of fresh air.
As the natural instincts of the hen
cannot be depended upon, for she will
often wear out a brood with much wan wandering
dering wandering or leave them at an age when
they worst need her care, we find the
poultry man can much better depend on
his own intelligent care of the brooders
to raise a far greater proportion of the
Starting a large poultry plant in an un untried
tried untried climate was, at first, of necessity,
uphill work and required considerable
outlay for experiments that were some sometimes
times sometimes successful and sometimes utter
failures, but the way is much plainer
now and we are raising many hundreds
of Rhode Island Reds every season with
but little loss during the hatching and
brooding times, and almost none
amongst the growing and grown stock.
We believe the way is well opened for
the establishing of successful poultry
plants in the South, and not many years
will pass before it is very generally real realized
ized realized that this latitude and not that of the
cold North is the natural place for the
poultrymans work. C. Fred Ward in
Hints for Poultrymen.
You can tear down in a day what it
has taken several years to build up. So
dont take up with all new methods,
theories, etc., that you happen to hear of.
When you do undertake to improve by
them, go at it by degrees. Take one or
two fowls and experiment. Then, if
you find that such methods are practical,
apply them to your flock.
There are many has beens who have
blighted their success by pellmell applica applications
tions applications of what someone has tried to help
Dont put a sick fowl in a coop with
healthy ones, it matters not how slight,
or what the disease may be. Read that
again, comply with it and save yourself
much time and money.
Nothing will show neglect on your
part quicker than will the condition of
your fowls. Their appearance tells the
tale to your friends and,callers.
Dont read your poultry journals for
pastime, but for what there really is in
them. Profit by what you read and hear,
provided you like it.
One quart of water to which has been
added one-quarter pound of copperas
and a tablespoonful of sulphuric acid
one teaspoonful of this to a gallon of
drinking water makes a good tonic to
build up a run down flock.
Sulphur burnt in your poultry house
will kill lice and mites, and at the same
time destroy disease germs. It also de destroys
stroys destroys odor expelled from sour dropping
Twenty drops of carbolic acid to a
gallon of drinking water will correct
most bowel troubles.lndustrious Hen.
Things to Remember.
Ashes, help to keep away lice. Scatter
them all over the roosts and inside of
the poultry house. Whirl the ashes
.through the air and let them settle over
everything, but be careful that there is
no fire in them.
When you buy new chickens keep
them confined for tw r o or three weeks in
a place remote from your old fowls so
disease will have time to show if they
are infected with it. This precaution
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
may save your flock and a great deal
of trouble besides.
If you value the health of your fowls
dont feed them in filthy vessels nor fail
to give them pure, fresh water every
day. Scald out all vessels frequently
and spread lime on all floors and
grounds where the birds use.
Poultry is not fit to eat till about
twelve hours after it is killed. At first
it is tough, but if left in an icebox or
other cool place over night, it will part
with its animal heat and become ten tender.
It is important to study the methods
of wild animals that kill poultry so that
you may identify and secure them.
The mink or weasel cuts the veins of the
neck and sucks the blood, killing a dozen
or more fowls in one night. The opos opossum
sum opossum kills only one or two at a time and
eats off the head and neck.
Sell at once every hen that does not
pay for her keep by laying eggs. It does
not pay to keep drones and you should
know it. Yet every farmer is guilty of
this offense. There are on farms to today
day today thousands of hens that do not earn
Plant Mulberries for Chickens.
A shade tree is often wanted in a
chicken run. In fact, shade of this kind
should be there as a protection in the
heat of the summer days, says Practical
Farmer. A gentleman who recognizes
this spoke to me recently of his wish to
plant a tree there and mentioned the
mulberry as his choice because of the
fruit it would afford the' fowls. His
choice was one of the ever-bearing sorts.
[ advised him to take one of the com common
mon common Italian type, either the ordinary
white or black fruited one or the Rus Russian
sian Russian or Japanese, all of which belong to
the same class. These all bear enor enormous
mous enormous crops of fruit. I think much
heavier crops than the everbearing sorts,
and some of them continue bearing al almost
most almost as long a time as those known as
everbearing. The everbearing ones are
of the native type. Our woods contain
the wild one, Morus Rubra. The fruit
is large, and the foliage also is large and
rough to the touch. Downings Ever Everbearing
bearing Everbearing is of the same nature, so is
Hicks Everbearing. These have large,
reddish black fruit, but it is not pro produced
duced produced as abundantly as on the common
small fruited ones. If planting for
table use I would set one of the ever everbearing
bearing everbearing sorts; if for the use of the
fowls, the Russian, Japanese or Italian.
Healthfulness of Fruit.
If people ate more fruit they would
need less medicine and have better
health. There is an old saying that
fruit is golden in the morning and lead leaden
en leaden at night. Asa matter of fact, it
may be gold at both times, but then it
should be eaten on an empty stomach
and not as a dessert, when the appetite
is satisfied and digestion is already suf sufficiently
ficiently sufficiently taxed.
Fruit taken in the morning before the
fast of the night, has been broken is
very refreshing, and it serves as a stimu stimulus
lus stimulus to the digestive organs. A grape grapefruit
fruit grapefruit or an orange may be taken at this
time with good effect. Fruit, to be
really valuable as an article of diet,
should be ripe, sound, and in every way
of good quality, and, if possible, it
should be eaten raw.
Instead of eating a plate of ham or
eggs and bacon for breakfast, most peo peopie
pie peopie would do far better if they took
some fruitfresh fruit as long as it is
to be had, and after that they can fall
back on stewed prunes, figs, etc. If only
fruit of some sort formed an important
item in their breakfast, women would
generally feel brighter and stronger, and
would have far better complexions than
is the rule at present.Ex.
A Mammoth Yam.
Capt. Douglass brought in to Dishong
Brothers recently a 6V/2 pounds West
Indian yam that he grew from a potato
planted in the spring. It is easily grown
in this climate and soil and is an ex excellent
cellent excellent substitute for Irish potato. The
captain says it grows best on sandy soil
and requires little or no fertilizer. As
the potatoes can be safely left in the
ground the year round and dug as need needed
ed needed they are in that respect superior to
the Irish potato.Arcadia Champion.
Rhode Island Reds
Bred for Business(Eggs and Meat)
All breeding pens are headed by 1909 early
hatched cockerels from trap-nested 200-egg
hens. Eggs 10 cents each. No stock for sale.
Guarantee a good hatch.
Six-Mile Poultry Farm
Route 3, JACKSONVILLE, FLU.
comb White Leghorns
Bred to Lay Eggs SI.OO per 15
No Stock for Sale
J. A. BELL, - White Springs, Fla.
ITS White Leghorns
Eggs, 13 for $1.00; 100 for $6.00
Throop Poultry Farm
Indian Runner Duck Eggs
from the best English strain. 280 egg layer. 10
cts. each, Angora Cats. Pheasant Eggs, The
Golden. Two cents and your address secures a
beautiful Pheasant Photo and our price list.
ChoctaLW Poviltry Yards
62 S. Lafayette St., v Mobile, Ala.
The Jewell Fruit and Poultry Farm For
Sale at a Bargain
About 150 acres at sls per acre, includ including
ing including a beautiful building site, on Lake
Worth. Many orange and other valuable
tropical fruit trees in bearing. Also six sixroom
room sixroom plain farm house, five poultry houses
with five chicken parks. Railway and
county rock road run half mile each
through this land. Oysters in the lake.
Six miles south of West Palm Beach, but
within two miles of a store and station.
Also too acres with small house and
some fruit trees; high and dry land; good
for pineapples, oranges, grapefruit, etc.
Railway and rock road run through it. No
lake front, though it overlooks the lake. It
is a little south of this tract in Sections 27
and 34, Township 44, Range 43. Price at
present $ll.OO per acre if all is taken.
Also 56 acres good fruit land four miles
south of the city on the rock road. Price
sls per acre.
Address Mrs. F. A. James, Care Florida
Agriculturist, Jacksonville, Fla.
Keeping Corn from Weevil
HOW TO PREVENT THE RAVAGES OF DESTRUCTIVE PEST
By C. K. McQUERRIE
It is generally recognized that the
loss to the farmers of Florida from the
weevil pest is, in many cases, from ten
to fifteen per cent of their whole crop.
And as the value of the corn crop of the
State, according to the statistics of the
U. S. Department of Agriculture, is
now upwards of six and a half million
dollars, we can figure the annual weevil
loss at six hundred and fifty thousand
Kind of Cribs Necessary.
We can overcome the weevil ravages
and clear our cribs of this insect by the
proper and systematic use of carbon bi bisulphide.
sulphide. bisulphide. To get good results we must
have tight cribs or granaries. It is also
advisable to shuck the corn ears en entirely
tirely entirely when gathering the crop. The
corn crib, as it is generally found on
the Florida farm, is not a good place
for successful fumigation; since it is
too open, and allows the fumes to es escape
cape escape into the atmosphere. But any of
these cribs can be put in good condi condition
tion condition for the purpose by lining and ceil ceiling
ing ceiling with matched lumber, and making a
tightly fitting door. A crib that will
hold four hundred bushels of corn in
the ear will measure approximately 12
by 12 by 6 feet, and seven hundred and
sixty feet of lumber will line and ceil it.
With country lumber, nails, and labor,
the cost need not exceed eighteen dol dollars
lars dollars ; as second-grade lumber can be
used for the purpose. The cost of fix fixing
ing fixing up an ordinary crib will be returned
in one season in the amount of corn
How to Fumigate.
Where small quantities of corn are to
be treated, it is advisable to use air-tight
barrels for the purpose. Filling them
with corn, apply a tablespoonful of the
bisulphide in a plate, and close them
tightly; subjecting them to fumigation
for a day or two. Then refill the bar barrels
rels barrels till all the crop has undergone the
treatment. An effective covering for
these barrels may be easily made. The
rim of the barrel should be treated with
a heavy coating of thick grease, such as
vaseline or axle grease. A sheet of thick
paper is laid on the top, and then cov covered
ered covered with sacking to keep the paper in
place. In this way all air is excluded,
and fumigation will be complete.
The quantity of carbon bisulphide
needed depends somewhat on the kind
of crib or granary in use, but there will
generally be required about six pounds
of the liquid for a five-hundred-bushel
crib. This will cost about thirty-five
cents a pound, retail. But when a large
quantity is required, it can be bought
wholesale from some of the fertilizer
manufacturers in Jacksonville at a con considerably
siderably considerably lower price.
For holding the liquid, shallow vessels
should be used; and soup plates are ex excellent
cellent excellent for the purpose. These plates
should be set on the highest spots in
the crib or barrel, and at distances of
not more than five feet apart in the crib.
One vessel to each barrel is enough.
The fumes being heavier than air will
penetrate downwards, so it is only when
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
the vessels are placed on the highest
spots that we are sure that the results
will be perfect.
In handling carbon bisulphide care
should be exercised to keep it away from
fire, and no smoking should be allowed
in its vicinity, because the vapor is very
explosive and will light with a spark.
Carelessness in this respect might re result
sult result in serious accidents.
Faulty Cultural Methods.
The methods of corn culture and sav saving
ing saving the crop, as generally practiced by
the average farmer in Florida, tend to
make the corn susceptible to the ravages
of this insect.
The practice of fodder-pulling in
vogue tends to stop the full develop development
ment development of the grain on the cob, thus leav leaving
ing leaving ample space for the weevil to get
possession and lav eggs in abundance
to perpetuate its kind. As the life-cycle
of this insect is only forty-five days, it
may have eight or more broods every
Your Last Chance
of buying PECAN TREES of us, as we have sold to the AMERICAN PE PECAN
CAN PECAN COMPANY, Palatka, Fla., an Incorporated Company that will plant
1,000 or more acres to the finest Pecans and increase the Pecan Nurseries in
If you are interested in PECAN CULTURE and not in position, person personally,
ally, personally, to look after an orchard, get in touch with them and look over their Pros Prospectus.
pectus. Prospectus. Only experts will be employed to manage the different departments,
which will be a big advantage to the stockholders. The expense per acre will
be low on account of the large acreage. Samples free.
On the other hand, if you want PECAN TREES for planting now, we
will fill your orders for ten or more trees, while our stock lasts, at THOUS THOUSAND
AND THOUSAND PRICES, to increase the Companys mailing lists. Ask for prices to today.
day. today. Graft Wood furnished.
Bears Pecan Nurseries
McTIMMONS & COMPANY
Corn, Oats, Hay, Flour, Feed and
Agents for Wilson & Toomers Ide.l Fertilizer for all Crops
Spot Cash Buyers of
Hides, Furs, Wool and Wax
27-29 South Ocean St. JACKSONVILLE. FLA.
year, and we can readily understand
why it is so destructive.
The fodder-pulling practice also tends
to loosen the shucks on the ears from
exposure to the sun, wind, and rain, dur during
ing during the time the stalk is left standing
in the field. So that to prevent weevil
destruction as far as possible, better
farming methods should be adopted;
such as shallow and constant cultivation
during the growing period to promote
well-developed ears, and cutting and
shucking the crop, so as to insure thor thorough
ough thorough curing under the best possible con conditions.
Florida Experiment Station.
fliere you are
when you buy a machine for
TOMATO, CABBAGE, TOBACCO,
Sweet Potato, Onion Slips, Etc.
you ought to get the best there is.
Is the one that puts the plant dotrn
to its proper depth and gives it half
a tea cup of water or liquid fertilizer
right at the root and then scoops
the dirt up around the plant, all
done at the one operation, without
any stooping whatever. W rite to today
day today for price and full particulars.
County Agency to First Purchaser
MASTERS PLANTER CO.
So. Water St., Chicago, 111.
Grafted Pecan Trees
Of Selected Paper Shell Varieties
For Descriptive List Write
BA YVIEW NURSERY
C. FORKERT, Proprietor. Ocean Springs, Miss.
ml S. OCEAN ST.
WALTON SEED CO.
We make a Specialty of
Burpees Seeds. Also sell
Poultry Supplies, Insect Insecticides,
icides, Insecticides, Etc.
7 SOUTH OCEAN STREET
Write for Our Illustrated
Catalogue of Seeds for
AGGELEI & MUSSER SEED CO.
113-115 Main St.,
Los Angeles, California.
Plant Woods Seeds
For Superior Crops
Woods 30th Annual Seed Book
is one of the most useful and com complete
plete complete seed catalogues issued. It
gives practical information about
the best and most profitable seeds
to plant for
The Market Grower
The Private Gardener
Woods Seeds are grown and
selected with special reference to
the soils and climate of the South,
and every southern planter should
have Woods Seed Book so as to
be fully posted as to the best seeds
for southern growing. Mailed free
on request. Write for it.
T. W. WOOD & SONS,
Seedsmen, Richmond, Va.
We are headquarters for
Grass and Clover Seeds, Seed Po*
tatoes, Seed Oats, Cow Peas,
Soja Beans, and all Farm
and Garden Seeds.
When Writing to Advertisers Please
Mention the Florida Agriculturist
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
Eucalyptus TreesNursery Stock
Largest Growers on the Pacific Coast
Orange County Nursery & Land Cos., Fullerton, California
SEND FOR PRICE LIST
SEED jir FLORIDA PLANTING
Â£TT We have all of our Seed grown for planting in
111 Florida. We have had five years experience in
|| truck growing in Florida, and understand the
conditions here and the wants of the growers,
and our Seed are raised to meet them.
Catalogue 1 KENNERLYS SEED STORE
Kennedy & Hickman Block PALATKA, FLORIDA
ON REAL ESTATE
LONG TIME, EASY PAYMENTS
Reliable Representatives Wanted
THE JACKSON LOAN & TRUST CO.
Grading or Smoothing a.nd Leveling Harrow
With this tool every field can
ma^G aS a,S a r
Will smooth an acre as true as
a mill pond in twenty minutes.
8 feet. Made in other length
Clarks Reversible Market Gardener Grove Harrow
This machine is used extensively for small garden or truck and market
garden use, and for orchard cultivation in Florida.
0 1-horse, two gangs of five 14-inch discs each.
00 Light 2-horse, two gangs of six 14-inch disks each.
000 Heavy 2-horse, two gangs of seven 14-inch disks each.
We make 120 sizes and styles of the original CUTAWAY tools. Don't be deceived
by poor imitations or infringements. Theres only one original CUTAWAY' and its
Clarks. Send today for FREE booklet.
CUTAWAY HARROW CO., 938 Main St.. HIGGANUM, CONN.
Everglades Everglades Everglades
SELECT YOUR TRACTS TODAY
FEW TRACTS LEFT IIS
Highest Point in the EvergladesOn the Southern Shores of Lak? Okeechobee
MOST PRODUCTIVE SOIL, IIN EXISTENCE
Cool Summers Mild Winters Pure Waters Perfectly Healthy No Swamps Few Insects
Natures Gift to FloridaThe Mid-Winter Garden of America
JHH i ?z- *&*b ? .Â£* jLv s : .,w^HH9B^NMEfIKSNJKRfI9K**Â£Â£jÂ£. < r ', t-?
EARLY SETTLERS-OKEEGHOBEE PARK
All Kinds of Fruits and Vegetables Thrive in this Rich Soil Contains about 3 per cent of Free Nitrogen Available for Plant Life Should Produce,
with Proper Culture, SSOO to $1,500 per Acre.
MT rnnfe Qnld fin Fnllmrind fAnditionc* Warranty Deed when tract is paid for. Possession when desired. No taxes. No
1 IdtlS i3OIU Oil r Olio Will ViOUCII lions* interest. Free Warranty Deed in case of death. Payments suspended in case of
illness. No negroes can own land in Okeechobee Park. Examinations before purchase binding at following prices and terms:
Five-Acre Tracts, Each, $175.00
($35.00 Per Acre)
V 1 TRACT, $15.00 CASH, SIO.OO MONTHLY 3 TRACTS, $25.00 CASH, $20.00 MONTHLY
X 2 TRACTS, 20.00 15 00 4 30.00 25.00
'O-iX. Adjoining Tracts to the Individual Purchaser. All Tracts Front on Forty Foot Roads
Will allot Tracts nearest Lake remaining unsold when order is received. Send in
X \%v coupon today with first remittance and we will send you Plat of Okeechobee Park
XX showing location of your Tracts and agreement containing conditions as above.
\Xlm Florida Land
XXPX Development Cos.
\ X.. %Xa Uedemann Bulding
X\W\ TITLES PERFECT
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
Send for Free Books on Florida Products
Causes and Treatment.
Florida Soils A most valuable Treatise to the grower of any Florida Product.
Ideal Results From Ideal Fertilizers Pleasing and instructive, being not only a most attract attractive
ive attractive souvenir of Florida but showing the wonderful results that can be gained by industry
and IDEAL METHODS.
Ideal Fertilizers A booklet giving the analyses, prices, etc., of our different brands.
WILSON & TOOMER
Jacksonville FERTILIZER CO. Florida
FRUIT AND VEGETABLE
GROWING IN MANATEE
O* those interested in Florida we wish to announce the issuance of
o the above mentioned booklet. It consists of fifty-six pages, is
handsomely illustrated, and describes the advantages and oppor oppor_____
_____ oppor_____ tunities in the famous LAND of MANATEE, located on the
West Coast of Southern Florida, reached by the Seaboard Air Line Railway.
It also contains a map of the State.
Within the pamphlet are presented facts and figures concerning the culture of
fruits and vegetables and illustrations of life in that ideal section.
Are you interested in knowing and having your friends know more of this delightful spot a place in which to locate
where good profits and an ideal home will reward your efforts? A copy of the book will be mailed free upon request.
Address mentioning this publication
J. W. WHITE, General Industrial Agent,
SEABOARD AIR LINE RAILWAY,
Dept. FA, Norfolk, Virginia.
On the St. Johns River, Between Jacksonville and the Ocean. Heathful
Salt Air. Lands at Right Prices. Address for Particulars
A. T. CUZNER, M. D. = GIEMORE, FLORIDA
Ter. I j| K FIVE rEAM FROW 30 |
GRIFFINGS TREES GIVE RESULTS
THEY HAVE STOOD THE TEST FOR OVER TWENTY YEARS
QUICK SELLING TREE PRICES
The Trees and Plants offered on this page are growingin fields that must be cleared
within the next few weeks. Order Early Before Supply is Exhausted
Peach Trees. Jewell, Waldo, Angel Bid Bidwell
well Bidwell Early and Late, Florida Craw Crawford,
ford, Crawford, Gibbons October and others. 3
to 4 ft. grade 15c each, $1.20 per 10,
$lO per 100. 4. to G ft. grade 20c each,
$1.50 per 10, sl2 per 100.
Fig Trees. Celestial, Lemon and Bruns Brunswick
wick Brunswick varieties. 2 to 3 ft. grade 20c
each, $1.60 per 10, sl4 per 100. 3to 4
ft. grade 25c each, $2 per 10, $lB per
Pear Trees. LeConte, Keiffer, Garber,
Early Harvest and Bartlett varieties.
3 to 4 ft. grade 20c each, $1.50 per 10,
sl2 per 100. 4to 6 ft. grade 25c each,
$2 per 10, sls per 100 trees:
PECAN TREES AT GRIFFINGS NURSERIES
Japan Persimmon Trees. Eleven best va varieties.
rieties. varieties. A fruit that should be more
generally grown. The past season they
brought better prices than oranges. 3
to 4 ft. grade 25c each, $2 per 10. 4 to
6 ft. grade 30c each, $2.50 per 10 trees.
Plum Trees. Excelsior, Terrell and
Stumpe varieties, kinds that bear
heavy crops. 3to 4 ft. size 20c each,
$1.70 per 10. 4to 6 ft. size 25c each,
$2.00 per KL^ees.
Pecan Trees. large thin shell. Bud Budded
ded Budded and grafted varieties. 4to 5 ft.
size $1 each, s.soper 10. sto 7ft. size
$1.25 each, $lO per 10. 7to 9 ft. size,
line for street or yard planting, $1.40
each, $12.00 per i0 trees.
Grape Vines. Early bunch grapes. Con Concord,
cord, Concord, Moores Early Delaware, Elvira
and other best varieties, also the fam famous
ous famous Scuppernong James and Thomas.
15c each, $1.20 per 10. 2-year-old
vines 20c each, $1.60 per 10 vines.
Camphor Trees. The tree from which the
camphor of commerce is made, is a
beautiful evergreen tree. 2 to 3 ft.
trees 25c each, $2.00 per 10 trees.
Rose Bushes. 69 leading varieties best
for the South. 2-year field-grown
bushes, grafted, nursery selection of
varities. $2.50 per 10 bushes. Only
the best, choicest varieties used in