Citation
The Florida agriculturist

Material Information

Title:
The Florida agriculturist
Uniform Title:
Florida agriculturist (De Land, Fla.)
Place of Publication:
DeLand Fla
Publisher:
Kilkoff & Dean
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Monthly[1908-June 1911]
Weekly[ FORMER 1878-1907]
monthly
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ;

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agriculture -- Florida ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- De Land (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Volusia County (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Jacksonville (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Duval County (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Genre:
newspaper ( marcgt )
newspaper ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Florida -- Volusia -- DeLand
Coordinates:
29.02889 x -81.30055 ( Place of Publication )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1, no. 1 (May 15, 1878)-v. 38, no. 6 (June 1911).
Numbering Peculiarities:
Numbering is irregular.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Some issues for 1911 also called "New series."
General Note:
Publisher: E.O. Painter, <1887>.
General Note:
Editor: C. Codrington, 1878- .
General Note:
"A journal devoted to state interests."
General Note:
Published at Jacksonville and De Land, <1902>-1907; at Jacksonville, 1907- .
Funding:
Funded by NEH in support of the National Digital Newspaper Project (NDNP), NEH Award Number: Project #00110855

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item.
Resource Identifier:
000941425 ( ALEPH )
01376795 ( OCLC )
AEQ2997 ( NOTIS )
sn 96027724 ( LCCN )

Related Items

Preceded by:
Volusia County herald (De Land, Fla.)

Full Text
ONLY PAPER EAST OF ROCKY MOUNTAINS MAKING A If
OF TROPICAL AND SEMI-TROPICAL AGRICULVTU ft^pSCZIVEB

JH



The German Kali Works have talked Potash and its benefits for twenty-five
years. They have never sold a pound direct to local agents or farmers.
You know how hard it was to buy and get Potash. Things have changed.
The mines are now producing enough to enable us to offer
POTASH FOR SALE
in carload lots of twenty tons, to local dealers without interfering with the requirements of
those to whom we have sold Potash to be used in mixed goods. We have therefore estab established
lished established a Selling Agency in Baltimore, Md., and in B 1! C aratl foorl
1910 will sell all potash salts in carload lots for cash, LJ til VC I V VI llal itIILCCU.
direct from the mines to the buyers in original sealed bags, or kainit in bulk, at lower rates
than was ever before quoted.
Y) K TANARUS) You can buy the real potash salts plant food without fillers or make make-1
-1 make-1 Otash I 3YS weights you save all the money you have been spending for interest,
freight, excessive profits on fillers and mixing charges.}
For particulars and prices write to
GERMAN KALI WORKS, Continental Bnding, Baltimore

CUBAN LANDS
£T( Farm lands in ten, twenty and forty acre tracts at the
\J| American colony of Herradura, Pinar del Rio Prov Prov
Prov ince, the most famous tobacco district of the world.
Citrus fruit lands in tracts from ten acres up in Las
fruit country.
gTf Building lots on very easy terms in Havanas most fash fashlij
lij fashlij iooable suburb, San Martin. Connected with Havana
by both electric and steam roads and also finest auto automobile
mobile automobile road in world.
FRANK K. HARVEY
Zulu eta INo. 9 F*. O. Box 1135
HAVANA, CUBA
Cable Address: YEVRAH, HAVANA



A FEW PINE
REAL ESTATE OPPORTUNITIES
-
Orange Groves, Vegetable Lands, Farms and Homes
Suggested by the many inquiries received daily regarding Florida and its opportunities for homes and
investments, The Agriculturist some time ago published the following:
If you have more land than you really need, sell some of it at a reasonable price and surround your yourself
self yourself with good neighbors, and thus let 11s fill up the State with industrious people who will make homes here
and add to the general prosperity. The Agriculturist receives letters almost every day asking about
homes in Florida, mostly small places worth SI,OOO to SIO,OOO, already planted, or suitable for planting,
to oranges, pineapples, peaches or pecans, and on which they can grow truck or raise poultry profitably
until their trees come into bearing. If any of our readers have such property that they will sell cheap, and
will furnish us a full description and location of same, with price and terms, we may be able to put them in
communication with a purchaser.
In response to this we have received descriptions of a number of properties, of which the following is
a partial list:

No. 58. 5-acre farm at Sisco, Putnam coun county,
ty, county, about 14 miles from the county seat, on
A. C. L. railway, one mile from depot; wire
fence all around; 5-room house and small barn;
good for peach orchard and poultry farm, or
camphor grove; healthy and good water; en entirely
tirely entirely clear and free from stumps. Price $500;
terms.
No. 59. Fine Garden. Ten acres, near Or Orlando;
lando; Orlando; first class land, in high state of cultiva cultivation,
tion, cultivation, thoroughly equipped; half under irriga irrigation
tion irrigation (Skinner svstem); gasoline engine and
pump, tank holding 10,000 to 15,000 gallons,
on large inclosed tower; fine crop of lettuce,
cauliflower and cabbage now growing. Price,
including crop, $7,000 cash.
No. 60. 50 acres splendid muck land front fronting
ing fronting on Lake Apopka; will grow all kinds of
crops without fertilizer; will sell any quantity
desired at SBS per acre.
No. 61. 8 acres on lake front in Polk coun county,
ty, county, 5 acres in grove. Price $1,400.
No. 62. 55 acres, near Bartow; 350 orange
trees, one-half now' bearing, balance just com coming
ing coming in. Price $3,500.
No. 65. 50 acres, ten miles from Arcadia;
10 acres good hammock; 4 acres cleared; fine
for truck; ten bearing grapefruit, twenty bear bearing
ing bearing wdld oranges. Price SSOO.
No. 66. 40 acres, ten miles southeast of
Tampa, well located for home; unimproved.
Price S2OO.
No. 68. 60 acres, two miles south of Bar Bartow;
tow; Bartow; 10 acres under cultivation; 15 acres
fenced; good 5-room house and barn. Price
$l,lOO.
No. 69. House and ten acres in cultivation,
in Polk county; house could not be built for
the price asked $1,700.
No. 71. 200 acres, five miles from Lakeland,
three-fourths mile lake frontage; two comfort comfortable
able comfortable but plain houses; 100 acres pine timber,
40 acres hammock, 40 acres prairie muck land,
balance cleared; has 100 old bearing orange
and grapefruit. Price $3,000, one-third cash,
balance one and two years.
No. 72. 80 acres, in Orange county, one
mile from railroad station; 60 acres first class
pine and hammock; 2acres in cultivation;
75 bearing orange trees. Price $750.
No. 74. 5 acres, one mile from Lakeland
depot; on good road; 4 acres old bearing or orange
ange orange trees and some young trees; lake front,
with good dock. Price $3,000 with present
cron, $2,700 without; SI,OOO mortgage, balance
cash.
No. 75. 5 acres fine hammock, I*4 miles
from Plvmouth; 240 bearing orange trees. Price
$650.

While we are not in the real estate business, if you are interested and do not find anything to suit
you in the above list write us your wants, inclosing stamp for reply, and we may be able to locate it for you.
Address all communications on this subject to
Real Estate Department Florida Agriculturist
Board of Trade Building Jacksonville Fla

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

No. 76.60 acres cut over land, some small
timber, three miles from Apopka, on lake. Price
SIOO.
No. 80. 10 acres near Seville; 5 acres partly
bearing tangerine and Satsuma orange trees.
Price $1,500.
No. 81. 30 acres lightly timbered pine land,
three miles from New Smyrna; 65 bearing or orange
ange orange trees. Price S6OO.
No. 83. 25 acres, near Plymouth; 400 or orange
ange orange trees, 234 bearing, balance set two years;
grove slopes to a lake, affording fine chance
for irrigation. Price SI,OOO.
No. 84.100 acres, twelve miles southeast
of Tampa; 45 acres in cultivation; 150 bearing
orange trees, 100 pecan trees five years old;
underlaid w'ith phosphate. Price $4,500.
No. 86. 120 acres, four miles w'est of Talla Tallahassee,
hassee, Tallahassee, near school and church; fine melon
land, also cane, peanuts and all kinds vegeta vegetables;
bles; vegetables; 7-room house and outbuildings. Price
$l,lOO, half cash, balance one year.
No. 87.10-acre orange grove, old seedling
trees; will bear 3,000 to 5,000 boxes fruit; also
30 acres good fruit land in timber, well suited
to peaches, pears, grapes, cassava, sweet po potatoes,
tatoes, potatoes, melons, etc.; ten miles east of Tampa.
Price SIO,OOO.
No. 90. 160 acres, six miles from Talla Tallahassee;
hassee; Tallahassee; 30 acres in cultivation; 130 acres fine
timber, -will cut 400,000 lumber; one 3-rooin
house; one 2-room house, barn, etc.; good
spring on place; 75 bearing apple trees; 50
peach trees and other fruits. Price SBOO.
No. 91. 40 acres, I*4 miles from Bartow;
all hammock; wdll produce anything; 3 acres
under cultivation, 8 acres fenced; good well
and flowing spring on premises. Price $2,200;
terms.
No. 94. 9 acres, one mile from Tallahassee;
small house, good land. Price $350.
No. 95. 3O acres, one mile from Tallahas Tallahassee;
see; Tallahassee; 6-room house, good well; 30 pecan trees,
pear orchard; good land. Price $1,700.
No. 96. 80 acres, bordering on lake, 3 miles
from Bartow; 300 bearing orange and grape grapefruit
fruit grapefruit trees (6 acres), crop this year 500 boxes;
balance of land good for farming and trucking.
Price $4,000.
No. 98. Five acres, improved, on Merritts
Island, fine frontage on both Indian and Ba Banana
nana Banana rivers; frost protection; splendid location
for winter home; excellent fishing and shoot shooting;
ing; shooting; a bargain at $600; quick sale.
No. 101. 5 acres, three miles from Sorrento.
Has 7-room house, good well, etc. Price S2OO.
No. 102. 40 acres good orange and vegetable
land, two miles from Orange Bend, eight miles

from I,eesburg; 10 acres cleared. Will sell
cheap.
No. 103. 10 acres, two miles from Lakeland,
all cultivated; small cottage, peach, orange and
grapefruit trees; an ideal little farm. Price
SBOO.
No. 104. 100 acres within two miles of
Ocala, nearly all in cultivation; large two-story
house with modern conveniences, large barn,
stables, etc., pump, gasoline engine, and all ap appurtenances
purtenances appurtenances for a first class farm; rich lime limestone
stone limestone land. For immediate sale $6,500; terms.
No. 105. 100 acres, four miles from railroad
station; good location for store; good 6-room
house; also store building; land fenced, and has
300 bearing trees. Price $3,000; terms.
No. 107. 300 acres in Marion county; near nearly
ly nearly all in cultivation; 5-room cottage, two ten tenant
ant tenant houses, barn, packing house; good well and
gasoline engine. Fine farming land, with sev several
eral several acres muck; splendid for celery, lettuce
and cucumbers. Price S3O per acre.
No. 108. Orange and grapefruit grove, one
mile south of Cocoanut Grove, in Dade county,
about five acres; inclosed with stone wall; on
fine elevation overlooking Biscayne bay; ele elegant
gant elegant site for winter home; convenient to
church, school, library, etc. Price $2,750.
No. 109. Three desirable lots in West Palm
Beach. Price for all S9OO.
No. 110. 7-room dwelling and store room
combined; 4 outbuildings; fine water and 10
acres best pecan and truck land in West Flor Florida;
ida; Florida; ideal for poultry; 5 acres sugar cane; at
depot, 16 miles from Pensacola. Price $2,500
about cost of improvements; terms.
No. 111. 18 acres, near Okahumpka, 7 in
grove of 500 bearing orange and grapefruit, 50
bearing peach, pear and other fruit; 7-room
house, packing house and other outbuildings.
Price $2,000.
No. 112. 9 lots 45x145, six blocks from de depot,
pot, depot, in Lakeland; new 7-room house; 20 young
orange trees; poultry yard; ground thoroughly
irrigated and in high state of cultivation; gas
engine, pump, pipes, farming tools and grow growing
ing growing crops. Price $2,800.
No. 114. 222 acres, two miles from Wau Waukeenah,
keenah, Waukeenah, all fenced; 20 acres in timber; 15 in
beautiful lake, 60 in pasture; 3-room house,
eood well; pears, peaches, pecans, etc. Price
$3,000.
No. 115. 74 acres, near Waukeenah; fenced
and half cleared; 4 acres in fruit and pecans.
Price $1,200.
No. 116. 2 acres, one-eighth mile from No.
115; a 5-room house, well, etc.; land planted
in figs, peaches, pears and pecans. Price SBOO.

1



2

GAINESVILLE NURSERIES
gft Offer you a complete list of Fruit Nuts and Ornamental Trees in variety. Hardy
Orange on hardy stock. Field-Grown Roses, Shrubs, Palms, Ferns, etc.
KEKP OUR CATALOGUE ON FIRE
GAINESVILLE NURSERIES : is Gainesville. Fla.

FRUIT TREES AND ORNAMENTALS FOR
FLORIDA AND THE TROPICS
A specialty of Tropical Fruit Trees, especially East Indian Man-
goes, etc. Also Citrus stock. Then Palms, Bamboos, Flowering
Plants and Shrubs, etc.in fact the greatest variety in the South.
Send for catalog. Establish everythingJor a complete Florida home
place at reasonable prices.
Reasoner Bros., ONEGO, FLA.

Turkey Nurseries
We are the place to get high grade
Budded and Grafted Pecans
We also offer a fine lot of
Orange and Grapefruit Trees,
Grapes, Figs, Peaches, Plums, Pears, Japan
Persimmons, Mulberries and a general
Line of Fruit and
Ornamental Shade Trees
Ornamental Shrubbery and Field Grown Roses
Write for Descriptive Catalogue
Turkey Creek Nurseries
BOX 19 McCLENNY, FLORIDA

PABOR LAKE COLONY LANDS
%
Orange a.nd Pomelo Groves and Winter Homes
in Lake Region of South Florida.
Orange, Grapefruit Groves and Pineapple Plantations
Set Out and Cared For in the Interest of Non-
Residents or Winter Tourist Owners.
FVLLL PARTICULARS GIVEN ON APPLICATION.
Address W. E. PABOR & SONS,
PABOR LAKE, AVON PAR.K, FLORIDA.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

Hamilton Reservoir Orchard Heater
The only heater known that combines simply
and perfectly the three vital features that make
for the most successful and economical out outdoor
door outdoor heating.
NOTICE THIS: A simple and positive reg regulation
ulation regulation of the fire by simply drawing the cover.
This gives a flow of heat just according to the
temperature requirements of the night and the
consumption of oil just in proportion to the
amount of fire used. This is the only sensible
and economical principle and makes it a small
consumer of oil. It couldnt be otherwise.
Secondly. A reservoir of oil not under fire
which admits of an all night burn with posi positively
tively positively no attention required after lighting. This
feature makes a uniform fire throughout the
period of burning and saves labor as no others
can.
Thirdly. It gives just the proper combustion
for most successful out-door heating. Rochester
lamps and oil stoves are intended for indoor
heating and orchard heaters have to work un under
der under very different conditions. Look into this
thoroughly and dont be deceived.
It is the simplest in construction, the easiest
to operate and positively the most effective
heater known and these features have all been
nroven and tried thoroughly in this valley last
Spring, when more fruit was saved from the
frost per heater than any other devices used.
W e can show you.
Draw the cover and the fire does the rest.
Write us for information.
Hamilton Reservoir Orchard Heater Cos.
Grand Junction, Colorado
r-The King Spreader
Will BROADCAST or DRILL any quan quantity
tity quantity to acre. 4FORCE FEED
Distributes damp clod cloddy
dy cloddy stuff cant clog, from
to 1000 lbs. to acre. I
Fertilizer,
A Y ~ Compost.
SAMPLE MACHINE
Durable, simple, always ready. Will distrib distribute
ute distribute nitrate or fertilizers between rows of growing
plants, broadcast or in two rows.
Take Jigeticy and KING WEEDER CO.
get free sample RICHMOND, VA.
Ask for sample of our Truckers Qoe.
The FARMERS GARDEN
A Seed Drill and Wheel Hoe is in- |
dispensablenot only in a village \ uiDrn\
garden but on largest farms. riir*c.u 1
Farmers should grow all manner V HELPI
of vegetables and live on the lat of 3
the land. Should provide succu- jdLr
lent roots for Cattle, Swine, Poultry,
and save high priced leed B B
stuff. Great labor-sav- Only One
ing tools Of Special V ofManr
value l or the home Au r iron Age i'ooii
as well as the ft
market gar- k Jp* jt*
den. Send mlftlf The
for free 4.\ An
book. dr most
BATEMAN MFG. CO., Pox 28- S GRENLOCH, N. J.
lUIWWWWWWWraBWMWWWWMft
CRCC A watch, knife or fountain pen
iiCC FREE. Costs vou notliii g if
TO you write now for particulars.
DnVC CENTRAL NEWS CO
Chattanooga, *Tcnn.



jFlori6a .Agriculturist

Old Series Vol. XXXVIII, No. I
New Series Vol. 1, No.

FROM FROZEN NORTH TO SUNNY SOUTH
Or Twenty Years in Florida
By HELEN HARCOURT
Author of Florida Fruits and How to Raise Them, Home Life in Florida,
Southern Stories for Little Readers, Etc.

[This is a story with a motive to show what
can be and is being done by industry and in intelligent
telligent intelligent effort in Florida. To term it fiction
would be a misnomer for it deals with the
practical side of the life of a family who made
their home in this favored State, and tells how
they made their great success.]
Chapter Four.
The Building of the Home.
There was one thing to which I had
made up my mind even before I turned
my back on the old home, and that was
that my dear, patient wife should have
as many of the comforts of life in her
new home as it was in my power to
give her. A certain degree of roughing
it might be, nay. would be. unavoidable;
that was part of the penalty of settling
in a comparatively new country, but so
far as a fairly comfortable, home-like
house was concerned, Mollie was going
to have it, even though she should ac accuse
cuse accuse me of extravagance, as I knew her
unselfishness would lead her to do. She
always had a way of thinking of her herself
self herself last, and to my way of thinking
that was all the more reason for those
who loved her to think of her first.
[ had not gone about among the peo people
ple people with my eyes shut. I had been a
guest in several hospitable pioneer homes
and had seen many more, and in them
all, without exception, I had noted one
thing in particular that rubbed my feath feathers
ers feathers the wrong way. It was a thing
that revealed the inconsiderateness of
men for their brave, hard-working
women folks on whose efficient work
their own daily comforts depend. If 1
had been one of those women I would
have struck for more room and more
light, and if I had not got it. I would
have let the selfish men whistle in vain
for their beloved dinners.
This special thing which roused my
wrath was the kitchen, which in Florida,
as in most other warm climates, is usu usually
ally usually detached from the main house, to
which it is connected by a covered
piazza. Wherever I went, this one
room, which < ought to be one of the
largest and best lighted and ventilated
in the house, was small and cramped,
and often so shut in by other buildings
as to be dark and close. Many a time
have I seen the wife and daughter step
outside when preparing a meal to get
a few breaths of comparatively cool and
fresh air, while their red faces and
panting breath, and the glistening per perspiration
spiration perspiration standing in beads on forehead
and cheeks, attested to their actual suf sufferings
ferings sufferings in that little hot cook-room.
That was why I resolved to have a
big kitchen, well lighted and with plenty
of doors and windows, if all the rest
of the house had to be made smaller

Jacksonville, Fla., January, 1910

in consequence. A large part of the
housewifes life must necessarily be
spent in the kitchen if she has no ser servant,
vant, servant, and that is hard enough in itself,
and so I vowed that my Mollies sur surroundings
roundings surroundings should at least be as pleasant
as it was in my power to make them.
I had early placed my order for lum lumber
ber lumber with a saw mill that chanced to be
located near by, exchanging some of the
pine trees on my land in part payment.
1 was also fortunate in finding carpen carpenters
ters carpenters who could go to work at once, and
you may imagine the joy I felt when
I saw the big live oak blocks, (sawed
from those very trunks l had saved from
the vandals who would have burned
them) set down in their places as a
foundation for the floor joists of the
kitchen and dining-room. It really be began
gan began to look like home once more, for
1 was tired of being adrift. It seemed
very odd to me to be starting a building
in this way, set up on blocks about two
feet above the ground instead of having
a cellar beneath. It was anew idea alto altogether
gether altogether to one used to the deep north northern
ern northern cellars with their stone walls and
cement floors, but it suited the soil and
climate, especially of the more south southern
ern southern parts of the State. There is not
enough cold weather to chill the ground
and so a cellar would not be as cool a
place as a wire-screened closet built or
the covered porch that connects the
kitchen with the main building, where
there is constant shade and breeze. The
absence of a cellar, too. makes the build building
ing building of a Florida home much less costly
than a northern one of the same style
and size.
I had decided to build the kitchen and
dining-room end to end, with a continu continuous
ous continuous roof and floor, but with a three
foot space between the two. Of course
this necessitated two end walls, instead
of one partition wall, and my neighbors
were very curious as to what my idea
was in this, to them, odd arrangement.
But they acknowledged afterwards that
there was method in my madness, and
later on some of them followed the
example thus set. That three foot space
served several important purposes. The
doorway in the end kitchen wall, (it
had no door), was cut two feet from
the outer wall, exactly opposite the
door into the dining-room, and the
space thus left between the two apart apartments,
ments, apartments, three feet by two, made a fine
closet for brooms and a place to hang
up the everyday hats and coats and
kitchen aprons, and sich.
This to the right of the doors. On
the left, spanning the space from wall
to wall, a low closet was built in, with
two doors like a sideboard, opening into
the dining-room. This was to be used
for the fine china and glassware for

table use. An opening was cut in both
walls level with the top of this closet,
that in the dining-room having a sliding
door or panel. ]t was just the arrange arrangement
ment arrangement that is >often called a dumb
Betty out in the western country.
There was a good deal of wondering
comment among my more primitive
neighbors as to what I meant by it, but
when I showed them how a person
standing in the kitchen or dining-room
could place the full or empty dishes
on it, and then step into the other
room and lift them to their places with without
out without having to carry them to and fro
between the two rooms, there was a
general chorus of approval, it had never
occurred to them that there were ways
and reasons for saving steps and
strength in the work of the household.
The size of the building was another
source of wonder. Such a thing as a
kitchen fifteen feet by sixteen, and a
dining-room of the same width and two
feet longer, had never been dreamed of
: n that region. Asa rule these rooms
were even smaller than the bed-rooms,
and they were none too large. We
mostly live out of doors, said a neigh neighbor.
bor. neighbor. when I commented on this fact
where the saving of land was no object,
and we only want the bed-rooms for
deeping and dressing, so there's no
teed for having them big.
In fact, my proceedings altogether
eented rather eccentric to my new
riends hi general. For instance, build buildng
ng buildng the kitchen and dining-room in ad advance
vance advance of the rest of the house, seemed
ike putting the cart before the horse,*
but 1 had my own reasons for this re reversal
versal reversal of the usual methods of building.
To tell the truth, I was getting so home homedck
dck homedck for my wife and little ones that
l felt I could not stand it much longer,
and Mollie was about as bad.
Therefore I pushed on the work as
f ast as possible, and I wrote to Jack
Bronson, my brother-in-law, to make
he start southward, going by rail to
New York, thence by steamer to Jack Jacksonville,
sonville, Jacksonville, and there to board the quaint
little steamer Okahumpka, which would
bring our party up the Ocklawaha, and
across our own lake, landing them with with:n
:n with:n half a mile of our homestead. This
would be by far the most comfortable
route for our travelers, with the addi additional
tional additional advantage of being much less ex expensive
pensive expensive than the all-rail route, and this,
by the way, is as true today as it was
twenty years ago. I would advise every
settler to take to the water for trans transportation
portation transportation whenever possible. I requested
my brother-in-law to get a small tent
in New York for his and my use, while
his sister, motherland the children oc occupied
cupied occupied the two finished rooms until the
main building was completed. This,

Established 1873



4

you see, was the end I had in view in
putting the cart before the horse.
As soon as the building was com completed
pleted completed I set the carpenters to work on
a covered porch ten feet wide, and ex extending
tending extending the whole length of the two
rooms with the three foot space between
and a blow-way of ten feet separating
it from the main house, included, mak making
ing making a stretch of forty-two feet. The
kitchen had one glass door opening on
the porch, the dining-room one, and
each room had two side and one end
window. This plan gave plenty of ven ventilation
tilation ventilation and breeze, no matter in what
direction the wind might be. While the
building was going up I had a well dug,
and bricked it until the solid clay was
reached. When the porch was floored,
a pump stood conveniently between the
two kitchen doors, two feet from the
wall, so as not to interfere with the
free use of the porch. That was an another
other another of Craw'fords queer notions.
But I had no idea of allowing my little
wife to hoist heavy buckets of water
out of a deep well, or to carry those
buckets from a distance and then up
several steps into the kitchen. I had
seen nine out of ten women doing this
very thing in their pioneer homes, and
it made me feel ashamed of the men

Mall | Porc)\ |
nr M -JI F M
[ ? g | jt [ W. £
PLAN OF HOUSE

who allowed such needless strain and
toil to fall on those they should have
shielded. And let me whisper in your
ear, that I advised every one of those
poor women to strike and to draw no
more water until they received more
consideration from those who might
make their heavy work lighter if they
choose.
Now as to my plans for the main
house; they were experimental in a
way, but turned out so well that I have
no hesitation in recommending them for
the consideration of all new comers sit situated
uated situated as I was in those days, the owner
of a small purse and of a small family,
yet seeking the maximum of comfort in
my home life without waste of material
or means. Asa boy I had traveled a
good deal in New Mexico, Arizona and
California, and had visited among the
old blue-blooded Spanish families as
well as among the more humble natives,
people who had for centuries studied the
problem of comfort in a warm climate.
Their ideal home is a long, low, one onestory
story onestory dwelling with a single row of
rooms one after the other, and a cov covered
ered covered porch on each side with doors and
windows galore opening upon it. By
this plan there is always and everywhere
a free circulation of air, the sun is
prevented from heating the walls, and

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

the maximum amount of coolness ob obtained.
tained. obtained.
This, then, with some modifications,
was my plan for my own home. In Instead
stead Instead of placing the kitchen building in
the usual way, at right angles to the
main house, connected with it by a
covered piazza, I built it parallel and
end on to the house, so that all the
rooms were on one line. Through the
center of the house, or what would be
the center in the future, was a hall
twelve feet wide opening on the end of
the long porch, so that a person stand standing
ing standing at the front door could look right
down the entire length of the latter, the
view ending in the screened provision
closet built at the end by the kitchen
door, and in the wood shed, the latter
being a lean-to with two steps leading
down into it from the porch. This plan,
as can be plainly seen, gave more light
and air not only to the kitchen and din dining-room.
ing-room. dining-room. but to the hall also.
The hall, as I have said, was twelve
feet wide, and while it was to be event eventually
ually eventually the center of the house with two
rooms opening upon it on either side,
I was fain to be satisfied for the pres present
ent present with two rooms fifteen feet square
on one side, having no doubt that I
should see my way to adding the others

at no distant day. In the meantime
windows occupied the place of the future
doors. These windows with glass dou double
ble double doors at each end of the hall, con converted
verted converted it into as light and airy a parlor
and sitting room as could be wished
for, and as it measured thirty feet in
length, there was plenty of room to
swing the proverbial cat. All the doors
and windows, by the way, had to be
ordered from Jacksonville and brought
down on the little Ocklawaha steamer.
Now as to chimneys. It is not always
summer in Florida, not even in South
Florida. From November to March and
even into May, there are many days
when a fire part of the day or even the
whole day, is very grateful to ones
feelings, and very good as a bracer for
ones health. Therefore chimneys and
flues must be included in ones building
plans. In the kitchen and dining-room
I had flues built reaching from two feet
below the ceiling to a point well above
the roof.
There is always danger of fires start starting
ing starting in the ceiling where the pipe passes
through it into the chimney from be below,
low, below, and for this reason I adopted the
safer plan of bringing the brick work
right down into the room, and resting
its base on a thick square of planking
set on top of a stout beam reaching

from the floor upwards. About half
way in the chimney or flue, a circular
hole was cut for the pipe, which entered
with an elbow. The space inside below
the pipe was filled first with a couple of
bricks and on top of these, sand, so that
there could be no possible danger of
tiring the plank base. A flue of the
same sort was built in the dining-room.
In the house itself the arrangement was
different. Here I had a triangular stack
chimney built, so that a fireplace was in
the hall and in each of the two rooms.
And I saw that all this brick work was
carefully done, for I had no mind to
face the loss of my home by reason of
any carelessness as to heating arrange arrangements,
ments, arrangements, as so many are doing all the
while.
Of course all this main part of our
home was built after the arrival of its
queen, and her enthusiastic approval
was set upon each and every plan that
I had made. But there were some addi additions,
tions, additions, for I, being only a mere man,
had forgotten all about those most nec necessary
essary necessary items of comfort and neatness,
yclept closets, except the dumb Betty
china closet and the screened provision
closet on the porch. I suppose, as Mol Mollie
lie Mollie said, that I thought of them because
they were associated with a mans heart,

otherwise his stomach. And no doubt
she was right, as she always was. I
was proud of those two closets, any anyhow,
how, anyhow, but they did not go far enough,
and my queen ordered another to be
put in a corner of the dining-room,
where it took up very little space, but
gave room for stowing a lot of things
on its five triangular shelves. I felt
rather crestfallen too when, on viewing
the kitchen, the little wife laughingly
asked me where I had hidden the closet
for the common china and the pots and
pans ? I declare I had never given those
things a moments thought! Just like a
man, wasnt it? Fortunately my over oversight
sight oversight was easily remedied, as there was
no lath or plaster to tear down. Ours
was just a plain box house, you know,
and there are lots of advantages in such,
easily to be observed by the ordinary
man, for nails can be driven here and
there as wanted, and no harm done,
and nobody to call out, ware!
But I have run ahead of my story
somewhat, for I have not yet told of
the triumphant entry of Queen Mollie
into her future kingdom. She and her
retinue arrived one lovely afternoon in
the latter part of October, and it would
have been hard to find in all Florida a
happier family than ours as we sat to together
gether together that evening and compared notes



of all that had happened during the long
months of our separation.
Some of the more necessary articles
of furniture I had bought at the two
general merchandise stores that sup supplied
plied supplied our little village and the surround surrounding
ing surrounding back country, and some our travel travelers
ers travelers had purchased at my suggestion in
Jacksonville, where there was a greater
choice, and these they had brought along
with them. So from the very first the
two rooms were fairly home-like, the
one serving as a combination kitchen
and dining-room, the other as a bed bedroom
room bedroom for my wife and her mother and
the children. Jack and I slept in the
tent close by, on a couple of cots, with
mosquito bars to shut out unwelcome
visitors. The building, of course, was
protected by screens in doors and win windows.
dows. windows. At the same time, I would re remark
mark remark here in passing, that mosquitoes
were by no means the pest that they
were in many other localities I had visi visited,
ted, visited, whether in Florida or in the North
and West. I had pitched my home site
on high, dry land, with a clear water
lake in front, having a clean, sandy
beach, and with a back country not of
swamps, but of dry hammock or pine
lands, and we benefited accordingly.
The surroundings of the new home
were shrouded in darkness when the
travelers arrived, and so they could see
little of the outside view. The back
porch paralleled the lake, and I shall
never forget the surprise and delight
that beamed over my wifes sweet face
as she stepped out in the early dawn
to take her first look at the new home.
For a time she stood speechless, her
eyes sparkling. Then she turned to me.
Oh, Harry, she exclaimed, it is
beautiful, beautiful! And this is to be
our home, ours, all this lovely view is
our own ; the noble oaks, the drooping
vines, the flowers, and the sparkling
lake! It seems as if it must be a dream
from which I shall wake up shivering
as of old. You dear boy, you never
told me the half of the beauty of it.
And to think this is October, and when
we left the West it was bitter cold and
snow was falling and a bleak wind howl howling
ing howling after more chilly victims. And here
are flowers and birds and butterflies, and
warm sunshine! What a contrast, and
how happy we shall be. I can hardly
believe that this is really our own home,
to have and to hold as long as we live.
I said nothing; truth to tell, my heart
was too full of joy and thankfulness for
words, but I looked a great deal, if my
looks told one-fourth of what I felt. I
clasped the little woman close to my
heart, and together we gazed out over
the lovely lake in a silence that meant
more than speech. As we stood thus,
there came a patter of little feet, (oh,
how many times I had longed to hear
that familiar sound!) and the twins,
Joe and Jean, trotted out on the porch
in search of the missing parents. Scarce
less delighted were they than their dear
mother as they shouted their wonder at
the big trees, the lake, the warm sun sunshine,
shine, sunshine, and all the green things about
them, not forgetting themselves, for
they were very, very green, the little
tots. They had never seen so much
water before in one place, nor could
they comprehend how in a few days
the weather had changed from snow and
ice and cold winds to warmth and sun sunshine,
shine, sunshine, and flowers and birds and butter butterflies
flies butterflies and all sorts of out-of-the-way
things. Poor little tots, their short lives
had seen more cold weather than warm,

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

and they did not know what to make
of it. Altogether they were a handful
to manage for some weeks to come, for
they were actually wild with delight and
out-door play.
Brother Jack had started off on an
exploring expedition at daylight and
only returned in time to help us discuss
the big trout, more correctly called
bass, that one of our workmen had
caught in time for breakfast. He and
his mother joined in the general jubi jubilee,
lee, jubilee, for they were both as enchanted
with the scene and the new home as
was Mollie. More than that I can not
say, except this, that those first good
impressions never wore off, in spite
of sundry cares and mishaps that came
into our lives from time to time.
Never in all the future years did one
of our little party regret having laid
ourselves down to rest on fair Floridas
bosom.
{ To be Continued. )
Winter Pruning for Withertip.
By H. S. Fawcett.
Withertip is one of the worst fungus
diseases of citrus trees in Florida. In
the winter season, diseased trees may
be distinguished by the yellowing and
falling of their leaves, the dropping of
their fruit, and the dying of their twigs
and branches. A citrus tree affected
with withertip will begin to lose its in inside
side inside leaves. The outer leaves then turn
mellow and fall, leaving many bare and
discolored branches. The fruit also
drops, with or without spotting.
The important thing in pruning is to
cut out enough of the wood, in order
to get rid, not only of the bare branches,
but also of all the branches that show
even a slight sign of the disease. In
severe cases of withertip, there are seen
in addition to bare branches, many limbs
on which the yellowish leaves are about
to fall. Close examination will show
that the disease is slowly making its
way back and poisoning these limbs.
This poisoning may start from an in infection
fection infection at the tip, or from an infection
on a side branch lower down, from
which the poisonous effect has spread
to the main limb. Sometimes only one
side of a tree, or only one branch, is
severely affected, while the remaining
part of the tree is uninjured. What Whatever
ever Whatever may be the conditions, it is im important
portant important to get rid of these poisoned
limbs. All limbs that show the be beginnings
ginnings beginnings of the disease must be taken
out. Drastic measures must be em employed,
ployed, employed, and many bearing limbs may
have to be sacrificed. To prune only
half-heartedly may make matters worse
rather than better. When pruning, care
should be taken to make smooth cuts,
usually at the base of a branch or limb,
so as not to leave any projecting stubs,
in which infection is almost sure to
start again. After pruning paint the
larger cut surfaces with carbolineum or
pine tar.
The grove should be given unusual
care after a severe pruning of this kind.
It should be fertilized, so as to bring
about a vigorous healthy growth, and
to render the trees resistant to further
attacks of the fungus.
Winter pruning for withertip should
be done between the middle of Decem December
ber December and the middle of January. It is
important not to delay the work beyond
this date. Do not prune while the new

growth is putting out, for this is almost
sure to result in injury rather than bene benefit.
fit. benefit. Begin the work at once, and do not
consider the looks of the trees, but take
out everything that sho./s the presence
of the disease.
The beneficial results already obtained
on hundreds of acres of groves treated
in this way, under the direction of Ex Experiment
periment Experiment Station workers, have proved
the effectiveness of this treatment.
Different results of the attack of the
withertip fungus are seen at other sea seasons
sons seasons of the year. These vary accord according
ing according to weather conditions and the part
of the tree affected, and need different
treatment. Some of these effects of the
disease are: (1) dropping of bloom;
(2) browning of tender leaves; (3)
brown spotting of older leaves; (4)
spotting of fruit, and (5) tear-staining
of fruit. Florida Experiment Station.
Growing Fruit for Market.
When we grow fruit on a small scale
we must select varieties that do not
come in competition with the market
leaders.
The special market fruit grower will
find fair profits in working a small fruit
farm, while the commercial fruit grower
must work altogether on a larger scale,
if he makes his business profitable.
In commercial fruit growing the de demand
mand demand regulates the supply to a great ex extent,
tent, extent, whereas in the private trade the
supply largely regulates the demand.
I'll us we see that while the commer commercial
cial commercial fruits find their outlet in the general
or open markets, special and fancy fruits
find their markets in the particular and
personal trade.
We can not afford to grow commercial
fruits on dwarf trees and compete with
the commercial fruits in the open mar markets.
kets. markets. These facts are worth studying if
you contemplate going into the fruit
growing business.
The time is past when we should set
out varieties of fruit just because we
can raise them. We must devote more
attention to setting out varieties that
will sell best.
The business of growing market fruit
and that of growing fruit for a private
trade is an altogether different proposi proposition
tion proposition and the selection of varieties must
be made according to the line of grow growing
ing growing that is to be followed.
Wax from Sugar Cane.
A recent issue of the Board of Trade
Journal mentions that the process which
has lately been patented for the extrac extraction
tion extraction of wax from the epidermis of the
sugar cane will be adopted on over a
hundred estates in Java during the com coming
ing coming reaping season. It is estimated that
about one pound of wax will be recov recovered
ered recovered from a ton of cane. The product is
somewhat similar to Carnauba wax, and
can, it is thought, be used for the manu manufacture
facture manufacture of phonograph records.
Jewish societies of the United States
have united in a general movement to
turn the rapidly increasing Jewish pop population
ulation population of this nation toward the farms.
The best available figures place the num number
ber number of Jewish families in the country en engaged
gaged engaged in agriculture at about 5,000.
Money does not grow on trees, but
that which grows on trees in the or orchard
chard orchard can easily be turned into money.

5



6

THE SOAP-NUT TREE
Origin and Method of Propagating This Valuable Tree
and the Usefulness of Its Fruit
By E. Moulie

At the beginning of the year 1905 a
report from Hon. Kidder, then United
States consul at Algiers (Algeria), was
published in the American Soap Journal,
a journal of which I have been the cor correspondent
respondent correspondent for more than seventeen
years. That report related the existence
of an industry of great importance in
that country, that industry being the
growing of the soap tree and of the com commercial
mercial commercial and industrial resources derived
from its fruit, the soap-nut.
Mr. Kidder describes that tree as fol follows
lows follows : The Algerian soap tree originated
from China, and has been propagated by
seeds imported from that country.
The name is given as Sapindus Utillis
that tree is ornamental and reaches a
height of fifty feet. It begins to bear
fruit when six years old.
The wood is close grained, takes a
good polish, and is admirably suitable
for furniture.
The average crop of a full grown tree
is about 200 pounds of fruit.
The average income from a tree is
from $lO to S2O per year. The compo composition
sition composition of the fruit consists of a nut nutshaped
shaped nutshaped hull in which is a seed.
In the hull exists the saponaceous mat matter
ter matter (saponine) in the proportion of 30
to 40 per cent of the bulk of the hull.
This saponaceous principle is set free
by the shredding of the hull and using
it with water just as if it were a piece
of soap. A beautiful lather is the re result,
sult, result, and the cleansing qualities are such
that there is no soap made by human
process that can compare to them. For
toilet purposes the same applies. No
human skill can produce, nor approach,
that marvelous product of nature.
That hull can also be made into a
powder and that powder into a cake so
as to make the use of it easier. It also
can be made into a liquid for hair wash,
dentifrice and various other prepara preparations
tions preparations and these various articles can be
made by such simple process or pro processes
cesses processes that in every household that com commodity
modity commodity will become a source of economy,
of recreation and of pleasure.
I contemplate, too, in the near future,
to demonstrate freely these processes,
and thus to render an invaluable service
to the growers of the soap tree.
The seed has a kernel which contains
a fixed oil in every respect preferable to
the best imported olive oil, either for
eatable or culinary purposes, and also
for all kinds of industrial products in
which the olive oil is used. The yield
in oil of that kernel is twice the yield
of the olive fruit, and when the produc production
tion production reaches an importance, necessitat necessitating
ing necessitating the use of proper machinery, that
oil will be produced as cheaply, if not
cheaper, than the cotton seed oil. For a
solid shortening the delicious flavor
Qf that oil will surpass anything ever
produced in that line.
Asa meal for poultry and other ani animals
mals animals feed, the product from the press
after the oil is pressed out, there is
nothing superior to it. The leaves of
the soap-nut tree supply a fodder of
unequaled value.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

MEDICINAL VIRTUES.
Reliable authorities assert that the
' soap-nut is used internally in cases of
salivation, epilepsy and as an expector expectorant.
ant. expectorant. That the seeds, pounded with
water, are said to often put an end to a
paroxysm of epilepsy when a small
quantity is introduced into the patients
mouth. This fruit is also recommended
bv native practitioners for the cure of
chlorosis.
While the foregoing synopsis has been
related as pertaining to the Algerian soap
tree, the seeds of which I imported in
1905 and 1906 for my first free distribu distribution,
tion, distribution, everything in that description ap applies
plies applies to the Florida soap tree.
The discovery of a full-grown soap
tree in Florida, owned by Mr. J. H.
Livingston, of Ocala, Fla., was due to
my publication of the report of the
American consul, as stated before. The
origin of that tree is also from China,
some seeds having been imported about
twenty-two years ago by Rev. Benjamin
Helm, who was a missionary in that
country. Although these two species are
the same names, as a variety they differ.
As stated several times in my articles, I
requested from the United States De Department
partment Department of Agriculture a reliable iden identification
tification identification of the Florida soap-nut tree,
and we found that this variety is the
sapindus mukorossi, and it is the
seeds of this variety that I am now dis distributing.
tributing. distributing.
NORTHERN PEOPLE ANXIOUS, ALSO.
At the Jamestown Exposition I had
the good fortune to make friends with
a gentleman who has realized the im importance
portance importance of that industry for all the
United States, and who is in position to
know.
That gentleman is Mr. Julius J. Hein Heinrich,
rich, Heinrich, who represented the great firm of
Peter Henderson & Cos., of 'New York,
and who had the entire and exclusive
charge of the horticultural and flori floricultural
cultural floricultural decorations of the exposition
grounds, and all those who have seen
the results of his work will testify to
his abilities.
It is Mr. Heinrich who has taken
charge of the five living soap trees I had
on exhibition for transplanting in the
hothouse of the Central Park, New York
city.
It is Mr. Heinrich who suggested the
possibility of introducing that tree into
the country houses of wealthy people
who have conservatories and where my
lady of fashion could have the satis satisfaction
faction satisfaction of gathering from trees of her
own such a valuable and incomparable
adjunct to the requisites of the beauty
table. It is Mr. Heinrich who believes
that it will be possible to successfully
grow the soap tree to a full develop development,
ment, development, in stunting it at the right time
to suit the height of the conservatory,
or to raise the roof in behalf of that
beautiful, majestic tree, when it becomes
necessary.
HOW TO PLANT THE SEED.
'The seed should be sown l]/2 inches
deep in pots of sufficient size to permit
the tree to grow in them for one year,

when they can safely be transplanted
on the spot where they are intended to
grow to their full development.
The pot should be about nine inches
in diameter. I think a well rotted leaf
mold mixed with sand would be the
proper soil for these seeds; in fact, it
has been successful. One seed should
be enough in one pot; the soil should be
kept moderately moist in the pot, and
also after the transplanting of the tree,
until, in the latter case principally, the
little seedling has had time to develop
roots enough to reach the permanently
| moist soil. This takes but a few months
as that tree has a tap root of unusual
length, indicating that it belongs prob probably
ably probably to the species of forest tree.
HOW TO PLANT THE TREE.
My experience is that it can be trans transplanted
planted transplanted at any time, and in nearly any
kind of soil. The preference should be
given to soil neither too high nor too
low. The ordinary care given to any
kind of trees is only required. I would,
however, suggest that no manure or fer fertilizer
tilizer fertilizer be mixed with the soil when plant planting,
ing, planting, but a liberal supply of stable manure
on the surface of the ground would help
considerably. It may be that other fer fertilizers
tilizers fertilizers might prove equally satisfactory.
This is a matter of experiment. I speak
only of what I have done myself on that
line, with satisfactory results.
While young and until a reasonable
size has developed, the tree should be
protected against beasts and farm stock,
even chickens, for it is worth while to
take the proper amount of care for the
protection of so valuable a tree.
PROPAGATION FROM CUTTINGS.
It has been officially reported that the
soap tree can not only be propagated
from cuttings, but that by this means of
propagation, the fruit is larger than the
fruit produced by the seedling tree. There
should be no difficulty in making the ex experimenting,
perimenting, experimenting, since Ocala, Fla., has the
trees that can supply the cuttings now;
a few years hence the cuttings will be
available in hundreds of places; mean meantime,
time, meantime, I think that Mr. J. H. Livingston,
of Ocala, Fla., would be very glad to
help along in that direction, and I would
suggest that application be sent to him
for cuttings; 1 dare say only the neces necessary
sary necessary expense for postage is only what he
would require, as he is the soul of gen generosity.
erosity. generosity.
MARKET FOR THE SOAP-NUT.
I have mentioned in previous commun communications
ications communications that my work of demonstrations
at the Jamestown Exposition would not
be in vain.
There are thousands of people anxious
to see on the market the various toilet
articles that can be made from the soap soapnut.
nut. soapnut. Already a substantial beginning
has taken place. 1 have sold to Mr.
James M. Coddy, proprietor of the Sal Salvonna
vonna Salvonna Supplies Company, 2717 Dickson
street, St. Louis, Mo., all the hulls I
had of the soap-nut, in order to facili facilitate
tate facilitate the creation and development of
various products. Mr. Coddy is anxious
to buy all that can be found, as well
here as in Algeria, and this is a hint to
owners of bearing soap-nut or soap berry
trees. The soap-nut tree, it must be re remembered,
membered, remembered, is the tree owned by Mr. Liv Livingston,
ingston, Livingston, and the soap berry tree is the
native of the Florida west part, bearing
a small berry; that tree is abundant and
owners of same would do well to cor correspond
respond correspond with Mr. Coddy and to send
him samples.



SUMMING UP.
The results of this movement, inau inaugurated
gurated inaugurated in 1905, are:
FirstThe importation and free dis distribution
tribution distribution of the Algerian soap-nut tree
seeds.
Second the importation of the Alge Algerian
rian Algerian tree for Mr. Eugene Merrill.
ThirdThe discovery that a tree simi similar
lar similar to the Algerian species was in bear bearing
ing bearing for more than twelve years in Flor Florida;
ida; Florida; in possession of Mr. J. H. Living Livingston,
ston, Livingston, Ocala, Fla. The original intro introduction
duction introduction of that tree is traced to Rev.
Benjamin Helm, a missionary, who had
brought the seed from China.
FourthThe experiments by me and
by Prof. Baker, of the Rollins College
at Winter Park, Fla., of the fruit of the
soap tree; these experiments have been
conducive to the opening of a market
of commercial value for various prod products.
ucts. products.
FifthThe second free distribution by
me, this time of all the seeds that I have
been able to secure from Mr. J. H. Liv Livingston
ingston Livingston (and some other small produ producers)
cers) producers) and this second distribution has
been much more important than the
first one, as quantity of seeds distributed
and as an absorbing, intense interest,
awakened for the development of the
soap tree industry among the highest
elements of progressiveness, such as the
mightiest organs of the press and fore foremost
most foremost of all, the great industrial power,
the Scientific American, whose columns
have been opened free to my communi communications
cations communications for the interest of the industry;
and the results of that liberal and gen generous
erous generous policy, emulated from the long longstanding
standing longstanding one of the Florida Times-
Union, has been such, that in less than
two weeks after the article published
by the Scientific American the applica applications
tions applications had completely exhausted my stock
of seeds.
Sixth The material, substantial open opening
ing opening of the market for the soap-nut and
its derivations.
Seventh The enormous quantity of
seeds which have been planted without
or through my agency and initiative. In
order to show the interest manifested
substantially, I think it proper to enter
into a kind of statistical figuring, because
it will give information that may be
wanted in the future and because it will
no doubt prove to be an incentive for
more elaborate development.
(1) To my initiative is due that the
Government has imported seeds from
Algeria and China, distributed them,
grown trees, and also is distributing
same, I can not say what quantities.
(2) Mr. Livingston has, for the past
three years, distributed free or sold,
probably thousands of seeds, besides the
thousands planted by himself.
(3) Messrs. Eugene and Alex Merrill
have imported, through my agency, liv living
ing living trees and seeds from Algeria.
(4) Mr. Fetting, Sr., has purchased
from Mr. J. H. Livingston hundreds of
trees and probably 20,000 seeds.
(5) At this writing, negotiations are
pending, the object of which is to take
off my hands the balance of my stock
of seeds and perhaps some 2,000 trees
one year old. The proposition comes
from one of the most prominent men of
Jacksonville. It is quite probable that
the project will have materialized at
the time this is printed.
(6) And the hundreds of thousands
distributed by me, disseminated
mostly all over this State, but also in
other states of the Union, and even

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

foreign countries. I am conservatively
safe in saying that in Florida, this sum summer,
mer, summer, could be found probably one-half
million of growing soap-nut trees, some
coming into bearing next year, all of
these being species of China origin. And
I am also safe in saying positively that
that industry is now an established fact.
EighthAnd last but not least, the
warm, encouraging indorsement of my
work by the officials of the United
States Department of Agriculture,
whose work in the same line attests the
importance of the industry and gives a
guaranty for further and more impor important
tant important developments than I could hope to
attain.
HOW THE INDUSTRY STANDS TODAY.
The above description refers to the
situation of the soap berry tree industry
jin the spring of 1908. Since that time
a great deal has been done in the way
of experiments in creating commercial
products from the berries, the samples
of which are on record at the Bureau
of Plant Industry, United States De Department
partment Department of Agriculture, Washington,
D. C.
Not only have I added to the value
of the raw material by my own experi experiments,
ments, experiments, but I have secured the co-oper co-operation
ation co-operation of scientific laboratories of first
class standing and succeeded in having
these laboratories work in connection
with the United States Department of
Agriculture.
From this country and from foreign
countries I have been asked for price
quotations on the berries for enormous
quantities. Mr. Livingston himself has
been asked for quotations for car load
lots. From the northwest, the west and
the Pacific slope applications for seeds
come both to me and to Mr. Livingston
by the scores.
The prospects are of the brightest
imaginable for that industry, which is
now on a substantial basis, and it is
not idle talk to assert that in a very
few years from now the resources avail available
able available from the trees growing in Florida
will surpass in magnitude and profits
the most sanguine expectations.
Jacksonville, Fla.
Packing Fruits and Vegetables.
No fruit or produce dealer or ex experienced
perienced experienced shipper will hardly contradict
our statement that the proper selection
of fruits and vegetables and packing are
by all odds the most important features
of successful market gardening and
profits in shipping products to market.
The minutest detail about a crate or box
guages at once the selling price; the
style of box, the bright appearance of
the new wood, the neat and proper
marking, the careful and substantial nail nailing
ing nailing are all features which produce pleas- ;
ant impressions in the buyer, because
they denote a careful and cautious
packer.
The shippers of California could never
have crossed the continent of nearly 300
miles to market with any hope of profit ;
if it were not for their scientific artistic j
packing. All means are exhausted to |
make every package look as attractive j
as possible. Who has not admired and I
was tempted to buy by the inviting rows
of pears, peaches, apricots, cherries and
grapes as seen in our fruit stores in j
the exposed California packages? They
should convey a lesson to every observ observing
ing observing shipper. Then, again, very little, if
any, deception is practiced by topping
off the top with the best; the California

package will average good all the way
to the bottom and this is most note noteworthy
worthy noteworthy and commendable.
Every shipper has the privilege to
make his shipments look attractive by
topping with nice fruit or truck, but
when this is done for the purpose of
deception he deceives only himself.
Every strange brand or mark is care carefully
fully carefully examined to the very bottom by
the buyer before purchase is made, and
it is no advantage or benefit to even
attempt to deceive the customer for
your goods; even should you succeed for
one time, the buyer will steer clear of
your shipments the next time.
The Fruit Canning Industry.
The preservation of fruits by canning
has become a great enterprise, enlisting
many millions of dollars.
It would be difficult to state what pro proportion
portion proportion of the fruits of this country are
consumed fresh and what proportion are
consumed after having been canned,
evaporated or dried, but I do not doubt
that the portion of our fruit which is
consumed fresh is but a small part of
that which is consumed after being
canned or otherwise prepared.
Remember there are people who are
living under conditions which render it
impossible for them to be favored with
fresh fruits. Steamships, expeditions,
armies, hunters, trappers and many oth others,
ers, others, if they enjoy fruit at all, must con consume
sume consume those which have been canned or
evaporated.
It is not many years ago that the
canning of fruit was first heard of in
this country. Forty years ago our moth mothers
ers mothers preserved fruits by the use of sugar,
making preserves or jams, but they
| knew nothing of canned fruit. Now
| canned peaches, plums and other fruits
go to the utmost ends of the world, and
are opened there with nearly all of their
flavors intact.
The canning, evaporating and drying
of fruits, has made a great boon to fruit
growers. Were it not for these methods
of preserving fruit, but a small portion
of the fruits grown could be consumed.
The canning of fruits when conducted
in a business-like manner has nearly al al.
. al. ways proved profitable.
Humus in the Soil.
Humus has been called the bread of
plants, and the term seems very ap appropriate
propriate appropriate when its relations to plant
growth are known, says the Farmers
Digest. Soils lacking humus have very
little vitality, and are practically worth worthless
less worthless from an agricultural point of view.
Speaking of the power of humus soils
for holding water the Alabama Farmer
says: The power of absorbing water
is eight times greater in a humus soil
than in a soil without humus.
Wild Birds and Insect Pests.
Mr. C. K. McQuarrie has not allowed
a gun on his farm of about 60 acres
near DeFuniak Springs for twelve years.
The quails are abundant and tame.
They seem to come there as a haven
from the hunters. In return they keep
his crops free from grasshoppers and
caterpillars. His fields of velvet beans
are clean, while in other places where
the birds are hunted, they may be eaten
up by worms. It is a case of a bird in
the bush being worth two in the hand.

7



8

TREE PLANTING
Proper Treatment of Trees and Plants When Received
From Nursery and Directions for Planting
BY C. M. GRIFFING

Failure to get satisfactory results in
planting or transplanting trees and
plants can be largely avoided if a few
simple rules for pruning and planting
are observed. In most cases failure
may be traced to a lack of knowledge
of pruning, planting and care of trees
upon arrival from the nursery.

aJ
(f~~ Ready for Tree Planting,
b Dont Forget the Water
P- '' Bucket

Every planter, whether a commercial
orchardist or a lady planting a few rose
bushes in her garden, should have the
place for each tree or plant selected and
the ground properly prepared before
the arrival of the trees or plants from
the nursery. In case of a large orchard
planting, the ground should be thor thoroughly
oughly thoroughly broken, pulverized, harrowed,
leveled, surveyed or laid off, with a
small stake standing where each tree
is to be planted. For the home garden
or the yard the ground should be well
spaded or oulverized.
If compost or fertilizer is used it
should be thoroughly spaded or worked
into the ground at least a week before
the arrival of the trees or plants, so
that if any heating manure, compost or
fertilizer has been used the injurious

Figure IHeelinglHeeling in Trees

effect would have passed away before
planting. Use no fertilizer at time of
planting.
On arrival of the trees from the nur nursery,
sery, nursery, if unable to plant all of them im immediately,
mediately, immediately, they should be heeled in as

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

shown in figure 1. To do this properly,
select a well drained but moist piece
of ground that can be thoroughly pul pulverized,
verized, pulverized, dig a short trench sloping on
one side sufficiently deep to take in the
entire root system, place the roots of
the trees in the trench with tops lean leaning
ing leaning up the sloping side, spread out so
that loose earth sifted over the roots
and wet will come in contact with all
the roots, cover the roots with four or
five inches of earth and pack firmly. If
you have a quantity of trees several
rows may be placed one in front of the
other as shown in illustration. In heel heeling
ing heeling the trees in, care should be taken
to see that the roots are well covered,
moistened and the earth firmly packed
around them. Trees taken care of in
this manner will if necessary keep sev-

llilMhiii
3 s A yM: § s S/'M
3 t .s> ViO ml// £ 2'-1 $
s vH | AkA\/ !§ % i$ &
a s 5 $ 8' s I 5 !'
-i 5 3 4> 'S 3 ,< Si '5 I 0 .3 'l6 S £
O] U > !| § S'
VI fit j **j t
mm Peach Trees Pear Trees Fig Trees
' /T 1 Persimmon Trees Even a more severe pruning is advise*
'/l | and recommended by many, and it i
certain that no harm will be done i
Figure 2 Pecan Trees nrnned much more scvcrelv The sam

eral weeks, but we do not advise or
recommend the heeling in of trees un unless
less unless absolutely necessary. Should the
ground be frozen upon receipt of trees,
so as not to permit of heeling in or
planting at once, or should there be frost
in the box or bale, place the box or
bale in a dry place, free from frost, (in
a cellar, if it can be had), but where
they will not come in contact with arti artificial
ficial artificial heat, keep the roots and tops of
the trees moderately moist. Burying or
covering the box or bale with a foot
or more of earth is a good plan. Do
not expose tree roots to frosty air, or
remove them from box or bale while
there is frost in the packing. As soon
as the frost is out of the ground, plant
or heel in immediately.

Pruning at Time of PlantingAll
broken or mutilated portions of roots
must be cut off so as to leave ends
smooth and sound. The mass of small
fibrous roots should be largely removed,
leaving the main or lateral roots which
are of sufficient size to callous and send
out new feeding roots. The fiber or
hair roots on a tree are the feeding
roots, and in nearly all cases sluff off
after transplanting. Lateral roots rang ranging
ing ranging from one-sixteenth of an inch in
diameter and up commence to throw
out new feeding roots almost as soon
as the trees are transplanted. In the
South while most trees are inactive in
the formation of new tops or leaves
during winter months, they are never
inactive for the formation of root sys system.
tem. system.
Pruning the Tops of Trees This is
the one most important feature in tree
planting. The accompanying illustra illustration
tion illustration (figure 2) shows pecan, persim persimmon,
mon, persimmon, peach, pear and fig trees in three
grades, as they will be received from
the nursery. The line marked across
the tree in the illustration indicates the
point at which it should be cut off or
pruned to. These lines show the maxi maximum
mum maximum amount of top that should be left.

Even a more severe pruning is advised
and recommended by many, and it is
certain that no harm will be done if
pruned much more severely. The same
severe method of pruning applies to all
classes of deciduous fruit and orna ornamental
mental ornamental trees.
All broad leaved evergreen trees, in including
cluding including orange, grapefruit, lemon and
other evergreen fruit and ornamental
trees, should have the foliage largely
or entirely removed before digging from
nursery, unless the trees are to be re removed
moved removed and transplanted with a ball of
earth intact with the roots. Illustra Illustration
tion Illustration figure 3 shows the general type
of three grades of the orange, grape grapefruit
fruit grapefruit and lemon trees, as they are grow growing
ing growing in the nursery before digging, also
the trees after pruning and digging.
Nearly all nurserymen prune in this
manner when filling orders, unless es especially
pecially especially instructed to the contrary. This



method of severe pruning and defoliat defoliating
ing defoliating has after many years of test proved
the most universally satisfactory. Occa Occasionally
sionally Occasionally we hear of good results from
citrus and evergreen trees transplanted
with the foliage left on. These cases,
however, are exceptions rather than a
rule, but where the trees are properly
Figure 3 Citrus Trees
Before Digging and After
Pruning and Digging 'ji
defoliated before digging from the nur nursery,
sery, nursery, thus conserving the vitality and
vigor of the tree in body and root, much
more uniform and satisfactory results
may be expected.
Figure 4 shows an average strong two twoyear-old,
year-old, twoyear-old, field-grown, rose bush, as they
appear in the nursery before pruning and
digging, and after pruning, digging and
made ready for shipment. To the lover
of roses, one who is ambitious to get
immediate effect in the rose garden, one
who has visions of large beautiful plants
full of fragrant blossoms, may deem
this a severe treatment, but if you will
bear in mind that the rose is a very
ii
Figure 4 Rose Bush Before Digging, and After
Digging and Pruning
scantily rooted plant, not making the
great mass of roots that many trees
or plants do, and also that the ability
of a rose to bloom and produce flowers
depends upon its ability to produce new
wood growth, you will understand why
this severe pruning is best. Many other
shrubs, plants and vines have to be
treated to a severe pruning similar to
the rose for best results.
In most cases where severe pruning is
absolutely necessary for the trees and
plants to live and give results, nursery nurserymen
men nurserymen take the matter into their own
hands, pruning them before shipping
from the nursery. In the case of de deciduous
ciduous deciduous fruit trees, which are largely
graded and sold by the height of the
tree, the purchaser usually wants to see
what he is paying for, and to avoid
controversy, nurserymen ship with the
entire top left intact, except in cases
of extremely large sizes, which are

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

pruned for convenience of packing. The
pruning can be done either before the
trees are placed in the ground or im immediately
mediately immediately afterwards. Some people pre prefer
fer prefer to wait until they have planted the
tree, so that in case the tree is par partially
tially partially branched they may trim the tree
to grow into the desired form, but it
should be done immediately. Do not
wait several days, as the top left is
exhausting moisture and strength from
the body and root of the tree. If fig
trees are to be trained in orchard or
tree form, cut off as shown by solid
lines. If the bush form is desired, cut
off at lower dotted line. (See figure 2.)
Transplanting ln transplanting care
should be taken to cut off all broken
or mutilated roots with a smooth up upward
ward upward cut. Dig holes large and deep
enough to admit the roots without
cramping. Place the tree in the hole
the same depth that it originally grew
in the nursery, spreading out the roots
in their natural position with the hands.
(See figures 5 and 6.) The proper depth
<
;
Soiling Your '* '§'!>
Clothes and ~
Hands
T ty
. >. -v
of the tree can be determined by change
in the color of the bark at the ground
line. Fine, moist, pulverized earth
should be sifted in and worked around
the finer roots and the hole largely
filled with this class of soil, after which
pour in from one to three buckets of
water, according to the size of the tree
I
I
i (
A
L
wilt/
' Figure 6
and amount of earth to be moistened.
Use water, whether the ground is moist
or not; it pulverizes the lumps and
settles the soil around the roots. Finish
filling the hole with earth, hilling it
up two or three inches above the level
of the ground, and pack earth around

and near the tree firmly with the feet,
do not be afraid to stamp it; the harder
you pack the dirt around the trees the
better. After this packing rake a little
loose, dry earth around the trees to act
as a dust mulch, and make a ring a
distance of fifteen or twenty inches from
the tree so it will retain and run water
i
s
b
?
f
v
' Figure 7
that may fall toward the tree. This
completes the job of planting the tree.
If, however, it can conveniently be had,
we advise mulching the tree with straw,
leaf mold or other decaying matter to
the depth of two or three inches. Coarse
stable manure may well be placed around
the tree as a mulch, being careful to
keep it from coming in contact with the
body or trunk of tree.
Special to Pecans ln transplanting
pecans dig holes deep enough to admit
the entire tap root without cutting off,
and sufficiently large to admit the lateral
roots without bending. (See figure 7.)
The dotted lines indicate the hole be before
fore before the earth has been filled in around
the roots. Pack the earth from the bot bot,
, bot, I f/ \
' I
% I ' W
V Figure BProtect8 Protect
' V the Tree if Planted
"O-v-' >n an Exposed \
Place
l
tom to top of hole with a rammer, same
as you would firm earth in a post hole;
water freely. These holes should be
from 18 inches to 2 feet across the
top and sufficiently deep to allow the

9



10

tree to be planted same depth it origi originally
nally originally stood in the nursery row.
If the following simple but necessary
rules are followed and kept in mind you
can hardly help but succeed.
First. Never allow the roots of the
trees to become dry.
Second. Remove broken or mutilated
roots with a sharp knife.
Third. Firm or pack the earth around
the roots of the trees, using water to
settle the soil around the roots.
Fourth. Plant the trees the same depth
that they originally stood in the nursery.
Fifth. Mulch the tree either with loose
earth, straw or other material.
Sixth. Have the ground properly pre prepared
pared prepared and give the tree good atten attention
tion attention after planting.
Seventh. If tree is planted in an ex exposed
posed exposed place where liable to be run over
or broken down, prot'ect it. (See figure
8.)
Make friends of your trees and plants.
Live in your orchard and garden. Watch,
love and nurse them, and they will smile
on you, and even blush when you look
at them, and bow down to you and say,
Come, pick from us the burden of fruit
and flowers, it is all yours, yours for
the kind treatment you have given us.
Growing Oranges in California.
What I don't know about growing
oranges in California would fill a larger
book than what I do know, and still I
am impelled to write on the subject,
seeing a letter from a man who writes
in the Produce News, of Tampa. He
says they charge from SSOO to SI,OOO per
acre for orange land, and I suppose,
water. I will not dispute this, though
in special locations, as in the Imperial
Valley, where oranges mature earlier
than in other places, land may be very
high priced. I would too, as he says,
prefer special localities in Florida, where
they mature early, as on some of our
rich phosphate pine lands, or in our
hammocks where phosphate marl or
shale distinguishes it. We have plenty
of this kind of soil at from SSO to SIOO
per acre. On such land orange trees
need but little fertilizer till they begin
to bear large crops. Irrigation is not
a necessity, though it might pay to be
prepared to help out the rains a little
at times.
One thing our California friends dont
fail to do, and that is to push a good
thing. They are making moneybig
money too by their methods. We seem
to be rather slack-twisted and easy-go easy-going
ing easy-going in all our operations, and are prone
to count the cost too much.
After seeing California I have more
faith in the future of orange growing
in Florida. This high priced land out
there will drive many another man to
Florida. We grow a superior quality
and are nearer by half to the great
markets, and when we learn to handle
and pack and market our fruit after their
manner we are going to distance her
in this business. It is awfully expen expensive
sive expensive growing oranges out there now,
and when they get a few more pests to
contend with out goes the orange trees
and into eucalyptus timber, alfalfa, sugar
beets, or lima beans they go. I mention
these crops as I learned that they were
very profitable. Not many people are
given" to wait for eight or ten years
for a crop that is as expensive to grow
as oranges when crops that pay SSO to
SIOO per acre can be grown in a few
months. WM. P. NEELD.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

CHINABERRY AND UMBRELLA TREES
The Let-Alone Policy Regarding This Curse Has Cost
Florida Hundreds of Thousands of Dollars
By Prof. P. H. Rolfs, Director Florida Experiment Station

There is no other species of tree or
plant in Florida which is responsible for
the propagation of so many billions of
whitefly as the Chinaberry. In the spring
of the year the whitefly are drawn in instinctively
stinctively instinctively towards these trees and mul multiply
tiply multiply there with extraordinary rapidity.
In fact, a medium-sized umbrella tree
will be likely to hold all the way from
ten millions to twenty millions of white whitefly
fly whitefly by the end of August, provided it
stands in an infested district. In the
fall, the insects instinctively migrate
away from the umbrella tree and mil millions
lions millions of flying insects are thus turned
loose, to infest every nook and corner
within a wide radius from the umbrella
tree.
WHITEFLY MENACING THE COMFORT OF
HOME FOLKS.
Whether we should cut down our
umbrella trees or let them stand is pure purely
ly purely a question that must be weighed be between
tween between sentiment and dolalrs. Dollars
say emphatically that the umbrella tree
is a menace. This has been proven too
many times to need to be reiterated.
Tens of thousands of dollars have been
spent by the State and Federal Govern Governments
ments Governments to gather specific information on
the whitefly question; and, without ex exception,
ception, exception, those who have given the mat matter
ter matter serious consideration have pro pronounced
nounced pronounced the chinaberry and umbrella
tree an unmitigated nuisance in white whitefly
fly whitefly sections. The smaller and beautiful
cities along the Seaboard Railroad from
Jacksonville to Pensacola have been tor
a number of years scourged with this
pest. During July and August it is fre frequently
quently frequently impossible for women and chil children
dren children to enjoy the cool afternoons and
evenings, so many billions of whitefly
are present in the atmosphere. Ninety
per cent of these whitefly, and -in many
cases, nearly a hundred per cent, are
bred in the chinaberry and umbrella
trees.
CHINABERRY AND UMBRELLA TREES COST
US HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF
DOLLARS.
Already the chinaberry and umbrella
trees have been the indirect cause of
the loss of hundreds of thousands of
dollars to citrus growers in
Florida. Repeatedly the scientists
in Florida. Repeatedly the scientists
have traced the source of distribution
to some worthless and neglected china chinaberry
berry chinaberry or umbrella tree. It therefore
behooves us to join hands with the cit citrus
rus citrus grower and do all we can to sup suppress
press suppress or exterminate the umbrella and
chinaberry trees. The citrus-growing
industry, whose property is now worth
over a hundred million dollars to our
State, can well receive our co-operation
and sympathy. Every citizen of the
State should do all he can to improve
the citrus conditions, as it means the
bringing into the State of from five
to ten million dollars of good cash every
year.
It should be remembered that out of the
thousands of species of plants that grow

in Florida, less than thirty species, both
native and introduced, are known to be
food-plants of the whitefly. It would
be just as sensible to accuse a barbed
wire fence or the globe of an incan incandescent
descent incandescent light of breeding whitefly as to
accuse every bush on which a winged
whitefly happens to rest. Frequently
these little pests come to rest on the
globes of incandescent lights in such
numbers that they materially reduce the
light that is given off, yet no one would
accuse the incandescent light of being
a breeder of whitefly. The frequent
statement that our hammocks and bay bayheads
heads bayheads are full of whitefly is founded on
hearsay and not on direct observations.
One of our most competent entomolo entomologists
gists entomologists at one time offered five dollars re reward
ward reward to be shown a gallberry bush in infested
fested infested with the citrus whitefly, but no
one was able to find the citrus whitefly
breeding on a gallberry bush. This bush
is very frequently accused of being a
breeder of the whitefly, but the accu accusation
sation accusation is not founded on fact.
RAILROADS SET A GOOD EXAMPLE.
It is hoped that all of the railroads
of the State will follow the splendid
lead taken by the A. C. L. and the S.
A. L. and cause to be destroyed all the
chinaberry and umbrella trees on their
right-of-way and their premises. These
particular umbrella and chinaberry trees
are a special menace, from the fact that
they are along the lines of transporta transportation
tion transportation ; and as they have already proven
to be great disseminators of the white whitefly,
fly, whitefly, no amount of sentiment should per permit
mit permit them to remain on railway prop property.
erty. property. It would be just as sensible to
tolerate open aquaria, fountains, and
other mosquito-breeding places, in cities
infested with yellow fever.
To those having a right to speak, as
having knowledge in connection with the
whitefly and its distribution in the State,
it seems like a piece of foolhardiness to
plant, or allow to continue to grow,
either the chinaberry or the umbrella
tree in any part of the State. It has
already cost Florida hundreds of thou thousands
sands thousands of dollars, and if people persist
in the let-alone policy, it will continue
to rob many a citrus grower of the
hard-earned fruits "of honest toil. Why
not throw our selfishness to the winds
for a little while, and be neighborly,
and help our friends to control this
serious and menacing pest?
A small investment in the plant bed
cloth manufactured by Henry Derby,
New York, would have saved some of
our readers many times its cost during
the recent freeze. Write for samples
and prices and be prepared for the next
cold snap.
It is a matter of regret that every
grove owner in the State was not pro provided
vided provided this winter with a sufficient num number
ber number of the Hamilton Reservoir Orchard
Heaters to protect his fruit. Those who
were thus prepared for the cold were
well repaid for their foresight.



A MINIATURE FARM
What an Industrious Man Has Actually Accomplished
on One and One-Half Acres in Florida.
* By J. B. SMITH.

For the benefit of the thousands who
are laboring in factories, shops, mines,
etc., for a mere existence, having day daydreams
dreams daydreams of an independent life, liberty
and home, while they toil on day by day,
filling only the capacity of the machine
they operate, I wish to give them
through the medium of your valuable
journal, a little of my experience, which
I trust will inspire such with hope and
confidence that they, too, may become as
independent as Rockefeller, Rothschild,
or the Astors or even myself.
I do not mean by this that by follow following
ing following my instructions or my experiences,
that they can hoard up surplus gold to
the extent of a multi-millionaire, who
becomes thereby more dependent upon
his fellow man than even I am.
One of the least considerations as to
what it takes to constitute independent
American manhood, is the hoarding of
wealth we are unable to use in the pro production
duction production of happiness and independence
in our home life.
In fact, an immense bank account is
not always an absolute guarantee of a
peaceful, happy and independent home.
Having traveled over the principal
part of the United States and Cuba in
search of a place where I would be will willing
ing willing to locate for life, and at the same
time, making a close study of the condi conditions
tions conditions of humanity, I find the greatest
degree of happiness, independence and
patriotism exists among the classes who
own their own little homes and are de dependent
pendent dependent upon no corporation, factory,
shop, or any thing else except their own
brain and muscle for an independent
existence.
I have also learned that the State of
Florida is the haven for industrious
men who wish to become independent,
who have a very limited capital to start
with. As evidence of this, I give you
below a little of my own experience.
I came to Lakeland, Fla., five years
ago, and launched out in the retail gro grocery
cery grocery business, but as a precaution, I
bought V/2. acres of land in the suburbs
of the city.
During the time of my mercantile
experience I did not pay much atten attention
tion attention to my little farm (the V/2 acres).
Just about one year ago, I sold out
my grocery business and after paying
my debts, I had $4.00 and my acre and
a half of land. I then devoted my entire
time to the cultivation of this little tract,
and I was myself surprised at the won wonderful
derful wonderful results.
On one acre of this land, I planted
9,000 cabbages the Ist of December. The
Ist of January, I put down Irish pota potatoes
toes potatoes in the alleys. The Ist of March, I
commenced shipping these cabbages to
the Northern market, and by the Ist
of April, I had my potatoes all off.
The half acre I planted in various
kinds of truck and sold here in the
local market. During this year the
truck gathered from this half acre and
sold here on the local market, has paid
all of my living expenses.
The principal part of the truck from
the one acre I have shipped to the
Northern market and have during the

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

year, with the proceeds, erected quite
a nice six-room cottage on the place.
I have had no income whatever ex except
cept except what I derived from the cultivation
of this acre and a half of land, and yet
I enjoy the most absolute independence.
I work by no whistle, I have no super superintendent
intendent superintendent except my own judgment.
I am not worried with strikes, lock lockouts
outs lockouts or lack of orders. I am produc producing
ing producing a commodity which is inevitable and
indispensable. No power can corner the
commodity which I produce.
Supply and demand does now and
always will fix the price of Florida
vegetables. They are as essential to
the existence of humanity as Standard
Oil stock and will bring a price when
stocks and bonds are worthless.
In conclusion, I want to say to the
millions who are huddled in crowded
cities that we have here in Florida
millions of acres of land as fertile as
the one and one-half acres I till.
You need not fear to make the ven venture
ture venture to make an independent living in
Florida on five acres of land.
In the shops, if you do not work full
time, you are docked. In other words,
you are driven to work, while in your
little Florida home you use your own
judgment as to whether it is best to
work, and when to work.
If you have saved, in all your years
of toil, in the factory, a few hundred
dollars, you can do no better than to
put that in a little home in Florida and
for the balance of your life at least be
as independent as Nature first made
man.
My friends, I am telling you this from
a personal experience. I have worked
in the shops, mills and factories. Ten
years of my life, I was a hired traveling
man.
Three years I was a local merchant,
but in the last year and a half on my
little farm I have derived more divi dividends
dends dividends on the capital invested, and more
genuine satisfaction, than in many years
previous.
If I could convince you that the con conditions
ditions conditions as above stated really exist in
Florida, what a rush for this fair fertile
clime there would be.
In writing this, I have no axe to grind
more than my interest in the teeming,
struggling millions, who are. laboring
day after day and can promise them themselves
selves themselves or their children nothing but a
mere existence and a life of servitude.
If you doubt my statements as to
making an independent living on one
and one-half acres of land, with no
other income whatever, I beg to refer
you to the Citizens Bank of Lakeland
or Hon. John S. Edwards, mayor.
Lakeland, Fla.
The split-log drag is still meeting fa favor
vor favor in many parts of the country. Good
roads associations are being formed all
the time, and better roads are making
their appearance over many sections of
the country. All this agitation.will lead
to permanent roads. The quicker the
better. Get into the movement.

Protection of Young Citrus Trees from
Cold.
The Agricultural Gazette of New
South Wales in a back number describes
an excellent method of protecting the
young citrus trees from the cold. To
begin with, the branches are drawn to together,
gether, together, and tied with binder twine, but
not so tightlv as to preclude a free
circulation of air. A small trench is
made around the base of the tree, in
which are placed the butt-ends of sor sorghum
ghum sorghum or corn, the leaves being then
spread loosely around the tree, not so
closely, however, as to smother it. All
that is required is just sufficient to pro protect
tect protect it from frosts, and if covered too
closely it might smother and kill the
tree. Then tie about fifteen inches from
the ground, and again near the top. It
will be observed that a portion of the
leaves can be seen through the cover covering;
ing; covering; there is, however, little danger of
this foliage being damaged, as the sor sorghum
ghum sorghum will protect it all right, and, as
before stated, trees should not be cov covered
ered covered too closely. After the sorghum is
tied with the two ties, a little earth is
thrown around the base to assist in
holding the covering in place.
In Florida it is usual to bank soil
around the trees up to the first branches
in order that enough of the tree will
be left to bud upon, in case of a severe
freeze that would kill the tree back to
the ground.
The Ponderosa Lemon.
*
This truly ever-bearing variety pro produces
duces produces lemons of remarkable size. The
trees are strong and healthy, easily cul cultivated
tivated cultivated and enormously productive.
They bloom and bear fruit when quite
young. The flowers are pure white, with
yellow stamens, and as fragrant as or orange
ange orange blossoms. The beautiful foliage
is thick, glossy, and resists insect at attacks
tacks attacks admirably. A tree of this sort,
covered with masses of flowers and
large, handsome lemons is a sight to
behold. The lemons are excellent for
culinary purposes. Usefulness and beau beauty
ty beauty are combined in a high degree in
this remarkable plant. So say the cat catalogues
alogues catalogues especially of California that
are exploiting this lemon, which is all
that is claimed for it except that relat relating
ing relating to its culinary qualities. It is too
large to come into general use. The
writer has grown it for years and there
is no demand for it in Florida. The
good housewife takes the rough lemon
or the regular lime in place of it, while
scores of four-pound Ponderosas hang
on the bushes until they rot and drop to
the ground. In pots it is to be com commended,
mended, commended, but for general use it is use useless.
less. useless.
The people of the entire United States
will regret the removal of Gifford Pin Pinchot
chot Pinchot as head of the forestry service.
Whatever objectionable characteristics
he may have manifested toward his su superior
perior superior officers, it is universally conceded
that he is capable and zealous for the
protection of the timber interests of
the country.
Chemistry of soils is a fact which
has always been true, but has not al always
ways always been known. Man is thinking Gods
thoughts after Him these days even with
respect to the possibilities of the land.

11



12

EUCALYPTS IN FLORIDA
A Brief Description of These Trees Growing in Different
Sections of the State
By John Belling

The growing of eucalyptus as forest
trees has been so successful in Califor California
nia California that groves of these trees are de desired
sired desired in the few other States where the
cold is not too severe for them to be
raised. Among these, South Florida
is probably one of the most important.
Different eucalypts grow in different
parts of Australia from Tasmania in
the south to the tropical regions in the
north. Even in California some suc succeed
ceed succeed best in the moister and others in
the drier parts of the State, while their
resistance to cold also varies much.
The climate of Florida is so different
from that of California, that it may
be that those eucalypts which do best
in California will not do best here, and
that some of those which grow badly
in California will succeed in Florida.
Hence we want to find out what are the
best kinds to grow in South Florida,
and on what lands we can best grow
these kinds. At Avon Park, DeSoto
county, there are a number of healthy
eucalypts of different kinds and ages.
One manna gum (E. viminalis) was re reported
ported reported as 13 years old, nearly G feet
in girth, and its height was estimated
at about 45 feet. Three sprouts from
the stump of an old lemon gum (E. cit citriodora)
riodora) citriodora) had grown in four years to a
girth of two feet, more or less, and an
estimated height of about 40 feet. One
red gum (E. rostrate), V/> years old,
was 9 inches in girth, and 24 feet high.
At Punta Gorda, DeSoto county, are
found a number of healthy eucalypts,
about 15 years old. One swamp ma mahogany
hogany mahogany (E. robusta) was reported as 5
years old and 27 inches in girth; an another,
other, another, 15 years old, was 7914 inches
around; and a third, 16 years old, was
89 inches in girth. At Estero, Lee coun county,
ty, county, there are to be seen a number of
healthy eucalypts, 5 to 15 years old. A
blue gum (E. globulus) was reported
as 2 years old, and 14 inches in girth,
and was estimated at 20 feet high. Eu Eucalypts
calypts Eucalypts may also be found at Eustis,
Lake county; Sutherland and St. Pet Petersburg,
ersburg, Petersburg, Hillsborough county; Braden Bradentown,
town, Bradentown, Fruitville, and Sarasota, Mana Manatee
tee Manatee county ; and Fort Myers, Lee coun county.
ty. county. The different eucalypts differ so in
their qualities that there is not much
advantage in knowing how big a eu eucalyptus
calyptus eucalyptus tree is in any part of Florida,
unless we also know what kind it is.
Anyone who has one or more large eu eucalyptus
calyptus eucalyptus trees is requested to send speci specimens
mens specimens of the flower buds, leaves and
seed-vessels, to the Experiment Station
at Gainesville, for identification. They
may be sent by mail as fourth-class
matter.
Mr. E. N. Reasoner, of Oneco, Mana Manatee
tee Manatee county, from whose nurseries thou thousands
sands thousands of eucalypts have been distribu distributed
ted distributed in South Florida, has kindly given
me the following account of his ex experience
perience experience with these trees: In 18S3,
the late P. W. Reasoner raised seedlings
of blue gum (E. globulus), and about
the same time seedlings of probably the
red mahogany (E. resinifera), near Bra-

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

dentown. The blue gums were tender
and froze back several times, grew in a
few years 15 to 20 feet high, and finally
died from the roots rotting in the soggy
soil during the rainy season. The other
trees grew to about 55 feet and then
died from the same cause. Several
other kinds of eucalypts were tried in
the next few years, but after reaching
50 or 60 feet they died from the rotting
of the roots. Hundreds of eucalypts
were planted out in Manatee county be between
tween between 1883 and 1895. Some of these
were about 75 to 80 feet high at the
time of the freeze of 1894-5. This freeze
cut back the trees severely, but the
main trunks of the large trees near the
river were unhurt and came out again.
Since that year most of the old trees
have died, probably from neglect of the
drainage ditches. In Manatee county
there are now perhaps less than a dozen
surviving trees more than 18 years old,
and these are on the highest and driest
ground. All the eucalypts which were
grown were tender when young, and
were raised under a lath-house in pots.
The blue gum (E. globulus) was one of
the tenderest kinds. Except the tender tenderest
est tenderest kinds, the young trees usually stood
light frosts after the second year, and
hard frosts after four years, when they
would be 25 to 35 feet high. Some
thousands of eucalypts, of more than
thirty kinds, were distributed in South
Florida before 1895. Among these were
the peppermint eucalypt, lemon gum,
bloodwood, narrow-leaved ironbark, ci cider
der cider eucalypt, yellow box, white iron ironbark,
bark, ironbark, black-butt, red mahogany, white
gum, broad-leaved ironbark, and white
stringy-bark. The blue gum (E. glob globulus)
ulus) globulus) did not succeed in South Florida.
The red mahogany (E. .resinifera) and
the swamp mahogany (E. robusta) did
well, and were pretty hardy and vigor vigorous.
ous. vigorous. They might be grown well on
the sandy hills of Polk county, on land
that it is impossible to get too wet.
The climate of South Florida, es especially
pecially especially during the rainy season, resem resembles
bles resembles the climate of the West Indies
more than that of California. In some
of these islands may be seen large eu eucalyptus
calyptus eucalyptus trees grown from Australian
seed. The blue gum (E. globulus) is
reported as dying out in the lowlands
soon after reaching about 20 feet in
height. The lemon gum (E. citriodora)
has grown to a height of 50 feet and
a girth of 3 feet in about 7 years. Some
trees of this species had a straight trunk
70 to SO feet to the first branches, with
a girth of 5 feet at the base. The forest
red gum (E. tereticornis) is reported
to be a good timber tree. Eucalyptus
tessellaris is also promising, and trees
of this species have grown 90 feet high
with a girth of nearly 6 feet. The nar narrow-leaved
row-leaved narrow-leaved ironbark (E. crebra) has
also grown well in some places.
Summary Large trees of manna gum
(E. viminalis), lemon gum (E. citrio citriodora),
dora), citriodora), swamp mahogany (E. robusta),
red mahogany (E. resinifera), and prob probably
ably probably red gum (E. rostrata), with other

as yet unidentified species, have been
grown in Florida, and have apparently
done as well in certain places as in
California. Seedling eucalypts are ten tender
der tender in Florida; but several old trees
withstood the freeze of 1894-5, and
doubtless, when grown closely, under
forest conditions, would be less liable
to damage from frost. Many kinds have
failed in Florida on badly drained soil.
Full directions for the growing of
eucalypts from seed are found in Bul Bulletin
letin Bulletin 196 of the California Experiment
Station, which can be obtained by writ writing
ing writing to the Director of the Experiment
Station, Berkeley, California.
WHEN GARDENING PAYS
Many Truckers Make Mistake of Try Trying
ing Trying to Produce Too Much.
A successful truck gardener has said:
Truck gardening pays well, only when
not conducted on too large a scale.
Many gardeners make this mistake every
year, which results chiefly in producing
perishable stuff of doubtful marketable
qualities to the neglect of the more staple
things. Feed stuff for stock and for
the home use should claim a just share
of the gardeners attention. So enthu enthusiastic
siastic enthusiastic do some gardeners become at
selling a certain kind of perishable pro product
duct product that everything else is overlooked
and they use all their time and energy
toward raising that one thing. Unless
one is thoroughly familiar with his mar market,
ket, market, such a course as this should never
be taken. The large profits often made
in a lump are never so sure as the staple
commodities; and if the specializing
idea is engaged in at all, it should be
followed along conservative lines.
The wise gardener, says the Journal
of Agriculture, always sets aside cer certain
tain certain portions of his land for the stable
old cabbage, tomato and potato which
will generally find some sort of a good
price in the market. It is the unwise
man that uses every acre he possesses
for a crop which has only a chance
to do well, and at that, to get the prices
anticipated.
Palm Scale.
The brown scale attacking palms and
other house plants is the so-called Hemi Hemispherical
spherical Hemispherical Scale (Lecanium hemisphseri hemisphsericum).
cum). hemisphsericum). This scale insect is distinctively
a greenhouse pest in the East and North,
although it often occurs in California
and Florida out of doors on citrus and
other trees, rarely, however, in injurious
numbers.
This insect has been carried all over
the world on plants. In color it ranges
from a light brown of the young to a
dark brown, changing to reddish in
the old scale. The adult scale is hemi hemispherical
spherical hemispherical in shape, perfectly smooth and
shining; and this, with its color, readily
distinguishes it from allied species.
The remedy for this pest on house
plants is in fumigation with hydrocyanic
acid gas where this is feasible. For a
few plants, or where fumigation is not
advisable, the infested plants may be
thoroughly washed with kerosene emul emulsion,
sion, emulsion, 10 per cent dilution, or even with a
strong soap wash made by dissolving
soap in water at the rate of half a pound
to a gallon, the weaker wash being for
more tender plants. This application
should be repeated as often as neces necessary.
sary. necessary. Two applications ought to effect
a pretty complete riddance.



JANUARY IN FLORIDA
Work for the Month in the Garden, on the Farm
and in the Orchard
By W. H. Haskell

Up to the 20th of this month it is
very risky to have seeds just coming up.
After that date the coldest weather is
supposed to be past, though there are
occasionally heavy frosts as late as
March 20th.
If your garden spot is not located
when you read this, locate it, if for a
winter garden, on your highest spot.
There is much less danger of frost in
such a location. For a summer garden,
the lowest spots may be more moist and
the soil better.
Suppose your garden ground was
plowed in September; by this time it is
all covered with weeds, grass, etc. Now
dont plow it again. Just hoe off the
weeds, etc., as to plow it would disturb
whatever you may have plowed under
in the way of vegetable matter or other
fertilizer.
Lay off your rows, for convenience
of working, wide enough. For small
stuff, such as onions, beets, etc., let the
rows be eighteen inches apart; for Irish
potatoes, cabbage, English peas, etc., lay
off your rows not less than three feet.
If possible use some, if but a double
handful to the yard, of stable or lot
manure with your garden or commercial
fertilizer. This animal manure produces
some heat and starts the fertilizers to
work.
In using commercial fertilizers, I
would not use all at one application.
Use about one-half of what you expect
to use for that crop, when, or a week
before, planting the seeds, and the re remainder
mainder remainder when the crop is well started;
say for onions, seedlings, when they
are the size of a wheat or rye straw.
A good way to mix fertilizers in the
drill, is to drag a pole through the rows.
This fines and mixes and compacts the
soil at one operation.
All seeds should be drilled with a
seed drill. Set the machine so as to
plant twice or three times more seed
than you will want planted. In sowing
by hand, you will likely drop seed too
thickly, so practice a little before going
to the regular work. Devise some
means for compacting the ground after
the seeds are sown. I have found a
small, narrow roller, say one foot or
less long, does the work fairly well. To
tramp the rows with the feet, go up and
down the rows three times, and leave
the place tramped level and smooth.
For outside market plant this month,
Irish potatoes, cabbage, beets, onions
and English peas.
For home use add turnips, rutabagas,
carrots, mustard, lettuce and celery.
I would defer planting the Irish pota potatoes,
toes, potatoes, especially, till near the last of the
month. By so doing you will be less
liable to encounter extreme cold after
they are up.
In regard to onions, I wQuld depend
mostly on sets at this late time of plant planting.
ing. planting. Onions from seed, Bermudas, will
make green bunch onions for nearby
markets, and for pickling, and also for
sets and for seed. The white or silver
skin onion is much the most popular.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

In Irish potatoes, the Ohios and Bur Burbanks
banks Burbanks are the reliable ones. Dont plant
late varieties. They do not do well as
compared with early varieties.
Consult the seedsman as to best va varieties
rieties varieties of cabbage and other plants for
your section, especially when planted
for market.
Thin and transplant onions this
month, also cababge. If you will try
celery, buy your plants already grown,
the same practice in regard to lettuce
probably would be best.
For these crops choose the richest
spots, somewhat moist also, then make
it as rich as you please, for these crops
need to be grown quickly to be tender.
for THE farm.
It would be well to plan ahead and
see about the seeds needed during the
next six months, and determine what
crops you will grow on the farm.
With poultry, a horse, a cow and
hogs, something like the following crops
should be grown during the season.
Some of them you and the family will
share with the pets of the farm, such
as sugar cane, peanuts, sweet potatoes
and field peas.
Add to these rye, oats, barley, chufas,
rice and rice corn, sorghum, millet,
velvet beans, cassava and field and sweet
corn. The rye, oats and barley with
the grasses, should be planted right
away, for green feed for poultry and
other stock.
Plant field corn in rows, six feet
apart, with cow peas or velvet beans be between
tween between the rows.
Watermelons, cantaloupes and cash cashaws,
aws, cashaws, should be grown according to your
need of them.
The last of the month is soon enough
to plant field corn. Dont depend on
some highly recommended variety. Get
the common Florida white flint.
Of watermelons the Augusta and the
Kleckley sweet, will fill the bill.
You should have an acre or more
each of St. Lucie and Para grass for the
cow; St. Augustine grass for lawns in
shady places and St. Lucie in the sun.
Aim to raise your own ham and eggs.
Poultry pays the best of any stock. Give
; the same systematic care to poultry as
i to other stock.
IN THE ORANGE GROVE.
Fertilize the old bearing trees this
month and harrow the fertilizer in. Do
not plow the bearing orange trees.
They do not need root pruning. Get
off the orange crop as soon as possi possible,
ble, possible, to free you from anxiety and possi possible
ble possible loss by cold. This month is a suit suitable
able suitable time to plant trees of all kinds.
Every reader of the Agriculturist
should have a copy of the Iron Age
catalogue. It illustrates almost every
implement needed for properly tilling the
soil, and can be had free by writing to
Bateman Mfg. Cos., 2S-G, Grenloch, N. J.
| For best results the hogs should be
kept warm and comfortable. Sleeping
in dirty, wet pens is dangerous and leads
to many ills.

THE LITCHI
A Highly Prized Fruit in Sections
Where It Can Be Grown.
A correspondent sends us the follow following
ing following clipping with the suggestion that
this fruit is worthy of a trial in the
southern part of this State:
It is noticed that among the plants
lately introduced into the United States
from foreign countries by the Depart Department
ment Department of Agriculture, are included speci specimens
mens specimens of the Litchi, brought from China,
vinegar and a small brought from China.
The Litchi (Nephelium Litchi) is an im important
portant important fruit tree belonging to the nat natural
ural natural order Sapindacese, which grows wild
in Southern China and Malaya, and is
also largely cultivated both in those
countries and in British India. Speci Specimens
mens Specimens are to be found in a few of the
West Indian Islands, notably in the
French islands of Guadaloupe and Mar Martinique,
tinique, Martinique, and at the Botanic Gardens of
Jamaica, Trinidad and Dominica. It
was introduced into the last-named isl island
and island from Guadaloupe in 1898. The fruit
of the Litchi consists of a nut, contain containing
ing containing one seed, surrounded by a fleshly
aril.
The Litchi tree is a handsome ever evergreen,
green, evergreen, which is propagated by layering
or circumposition. it flourishes best in
a moist alluvial soil. In the East this
tree yields large crops of fruits annually,
but the few specimens under observa observation
tion observation do not appear so satisfactory in this
respect in the West Indies. A Litchi
at Dominica flowered and fruited in
1905-6 and again in 1906-7, however, and
in this connection, Mr. Jones wrote:
The difficulty with this tree in the West
Indies is to get it to fruit annually. On
one of the small Litchi trees, where a
number of branches were being propa propagated
gated propagated by circumposition, it was noticed
that nearly every shoot so treated pro produced
duced produced flowers. This seems to afford a
hint that if branches of the trees had a
ring of bark removed about October or
November, the check given might prob probably
ably probably cause the trees to flower and fruit
early in the following year.
The Litchi has been long established
at Guadaloupe, and specimens are to be
seen in many parts of the island. Ac According
cording According to Dusss Flore des Antilles
Francaises, the trees flower in January
or February.
Reports on the growth and productive productiveness
ness productiveness of the Litchi in the East refer to
it as a most hardy and fruitful tree.
A point insisted upon in connection
with its growth is the need of a good
water supply, as the trees are apt to
suffer from drouth.
According to Watts Dictionary of
the Economic Products of India, this
fruit is grown and consumed in large
quantity in Bengal. It is stated that
when fresh, the great bunches of Litchis
look like bright, pinkish strawberries,
but they rapidly lose their bloom, and
assume a dirty, brownish color. The'
fruit is nearly round, and about \ x /z
inches in diameter. The edible portion
is the bitter-sweet, jelly-like pulp or aril
which covers the seed, and the whole
is inclosed in a thin reddish, or brown brownish,
ish, brownish, brittle shell.
Litchi fruit are dried in China and
Cochin-China, from whence they are ex exported
ported exported to the United States and Eng England.
land. England. Dried Litchis bear no resemb-*
lance to the fresh fruit, but are by no nomeans
means nomeans unpalatable. In appearance and.
taste they are not unlike raisins.

13



14

CORN CULTURE
The Plan Followed by a Successful Alachua
County Farmer.
By B. F. ORMOND.

My plan for growing corn is first, I
thoroughly break my land with a turn
plow, breaking it about four inches deep,
turning under the litter and vegetation
where the growth is not too dense. I
follow the breaking with a wooden drag
which levels the land thoroughly and
packs the surface just enough for the
land to retain the moisture longer than
any other way. This should be done
in December and January, which gives
time for the vegetation to decay and for
the land to get a good season in it by
time to begin planting, which I usually
start about the middle of March and
put in about half of my corn crop, and
put in the balance the first week in
April.

g^p*** 1 I ' M-w . mp y MU uwMgwuwwnMHiui' pyfpwpjapjyi p I <>wm
v ** ? \
V ' V ;
' I

I open the ground with a six-inch
shovel plow about six inches deep and
follow with a double-footed stock with
two little scooter plows on it, which
covers a row each time through, and on
the fourth or fifth day from planting, I
run a board over the row, which will
leave the corn covered about three
inches deep and cleans the drill of the
young grass that is just coming up
then and makes the drill on a level
with the ground.
My drills are four feet, three inches
wide and I plant four feet in the drill
and then plant a hill of pindars between
the hills of corn, making my hog feed
on the same ground, which does not in-

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

jure the corn and the vines will keep
up the land by turning them under after
the hogs have rooted out the pindars and
the pindar vines keep the ground cool
and check the growth of the grass.
I cultivate my corn and pindars with
a narrow wing sweep from sixteen to
twenty inches wide, plowing out clean
three times, three weeks apart. The
sweeps are run flat by using a heel pin
slide.
Successful Corn Contest.
Editor Florida Agriculturist:
Replying to your request, I beg to
say it affords me pleasure to give an
account of our local corn contests. It
was in every way helpful.

CORN ON DRAINED MUCK LAND

My idea was first to increase the sale
of my own fertilizer, and second to stim stimulate
ulate stimulate and encourage our people to do
better farming. We had been working
along in the same old ruts, raising about
eight to ten bushels of corn per acre.
I made the proposition as follows: S4O
in gold to the farmer raising the most
corn on an acre of land; S2O in gold to
the farmer raising the second most, and
a ton of fertilizer to the one raising
third most. The conditions were as fol follows
lows follows : Must use Campbells fertilizer,
but not prohibited from using home
raised fertilizer also, in order to com compete.
pete. compete. Must have in cultivation not less
than ten acres.

In October we had a good, live meet meeting
ing meeting to award the prizes. The first prize
went to W. D. Owens, Wausau, Wash Washington
ington Washington county; the second to A. D. Nel Nelson,
son, Nelson, Vernon; third to W. T. Jeffries,
Chipley. The first prize man raised 92
bushels and three pounds; second best
76 bushels; third best 59 bushels. There
were 19 in the contest who registered
and only two ran below 40 bushels per
acre. There were a number who great greatly
ly greatly increased their yield, but were not in
the contest.
I have given notice that in 1910 I ex expect
pect expect to make another proposition still
more attractive, and I am assured by
my farmer friends that every effort is
being appreciated, and in 1910 we expect
to show still greater results. In fact
we not only expect 92 bushels, but con considerably
siderably considerably over a hundred as our first
premium. A. D. CAMPBELL.
Chipley, Fla.
The Big Yield of Corn.
Mr. A. W. McCollough, who won the
premium this year for the largest yield
of corn, producing ninety bushels and

one peck, was here last week and gave
the following as his method of produc producing
ing producing the corn:
He had four acres in the piece of
corn, and on a part of it he used twenty twentyfive
five twentyfive two-horse wagonloads of stable fer fertilizer,
tilizer, fertilizer, and on the remainder about a
ton per acre of cotton seed. About half
of the acre from which the corn was
measured was fertilized with the stable
manure and the remainder with the cot cotton
ton cotton seed.
The fertilizer was broadcasted and the
land broken with a two-horse plow
about the first of April, and immediate immediately
ly immediately afterwards the land laid off in four fourfoot
foot fourfoot rows and the corn planted eight



inches apart in the drill. Soon after the
corn came up it was barred off with a
common turn plow to check its too rapid
growth and in this furrow a thousand
pounds to the acre of 10 2-2 commercial
fertilizer was applied. This was allowed
to stand for ten days and then the dirt
was thrown back to the corn, filling the
furrow, and at this time two hundred
pounds more of the same fertilizer was
applied. Ten days later the middles
were cleaned with a sweep and this fin finished
ished finished the cultivation.
Mr. McCullough says that after the
corn was measured he got at least a
bushel and a half more that had been
left by the parties who gathered it, mak making
ing making his total close to 03 bushels.
Next year he says that he will put
up an amount equal to that contributed
by any individual as his contribution to
another contest of this kind.DeFuniak
Breeze.
Potash for Sale to All.
Farmers who farm on business prin principles
ciples principles and fertilize their soils as a manu manufacturer
facturer manufacturer puts money into a plantfor
investmenthave never needed much ar argument
gument argument to be convinced that Potash
Pays, as the German Kali Works puts
it. The trouble for the farmer has been
not only the price but the difficulty of
getting Potash at any price. The manu manufacturers
facturers manufacturers have heretofore absorbed it all.
All this has been changed, and thou thousands
sands thousands of farmers who farm for profit
rather than for mere wages and a liv living,
ing, living, will now be able to buy all the
Potash Salts they need, in anv quan quantity
tity quantity they want it, of local dealers every everywhere.
where. everywhere. And not only thisbut they can
get it at lower rates than have ever be before
fore before been charged.
This means that farmers can now in invest
vest invest in plant foods that they themselves
can buy and mixfertilizers without
fillers or make-weightsand put the
money saved from interest, freight, ex excessive
cessive excessive profits on fillers and mixing
charges into so much more actual crop cropmaking
making cropmaking fertilizer.
The great German potash mines are
now producing enough potash to enable
the American selling agency to guaran guarantee
tee guarantee delivery of all that is required both
by fertilizer manufacturers and by local
dealers and farmers. Ask your dealer
to carry these invaluable salts in stock.
Tell him to write to the German Kali
Works, .Continental Building, Baltimore,
for particulars and prices. And we rec recommend
ommend recommend you to write to them also, for
their Farmers Note Book and their
valuable literature on fertilizing and cul cultivation.
tivation. cultivation. Mention what crops you are
most interested in. It will pay you to
do it. And see your dealer the next
time you are in town.
One of the most instructive addresses
that the farmers and fruit growers of
Florida are likely to have an opportunity
to hear will be that of Dr. S. A. Knapp,
of the United States Department of Ag Agriculture,
riculture, Agriculture, at the Board of Trade Audi Auditorium
torium Auditorium in this city on the 14th inst. The
subject will be Some of the Farm Prob Problems
lems Problems in South Georgia and North Flor Florida,
ida, Florida, and it is hoped the attendance will
be such as the reputation of the speaker
and the importance of the subject de deserve.
serve. deserve.
X
Better preparation of the seed bed
should be the slogan during the next 90
days. Actual doing of it should be the
work in hand.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

A THREE-ACRE FARM
What a Dade County Man Has Done in Three Years
on Wild Land.
By D. E. HILLS.

Taking notice of your editorial in the
October Agriculturist regarding five and
ten acre farms, I thought I might give
my experience and observations for the
benefit of some who are trying to make
a home and a living in this delightful
climate.
This is between 25 and 26 degrees lati latitude,
tude, latitude, and frost rarely reaches this far
south. I have been here about three
year and have about three acres grubbed
and cleared and set to grape fruit, or oranges,
anges, oranges, limes, guavas, mangoes, avoca avocadoes,
does, avocadoes, etc. The soil from the coast back
four to six miles is a fine white sand
and is deficient in humus, but will make
fine citrus fruits and garden truck if
supplied with the necessary amount of
fertilizer.
The most successful grove makers
here will grow crops of tomatoes, egg
plants, peppers, beans, cukes, squashes,
etc., from the time the fruit trees are
set until they are about eight years old.
These truck crops are grown and ma mature
ture mature in December, and all along through
the winter months until May. Then
plant leguminous plants, such as cow
peas, beggarweed, velvet beans, etc. If
the latter is planted, care must be taken
not to plant too close to trees, as the
velvet bean is a great climber and must
not be allowed to encumber the trees.
These crops plowed under will soon
rot and furnish a great amount of hu humus
mus humus if grown every summer for eight
years. By managing in this way far farmers
mers farmers will not have to buy the most ex expensive
pensive expensive part of fertilizer, namely am ammonia
monia ammonia and nitrates. The soil here is
deficient in potash, and this is about all
that will be necessary to buy for the
trees. But the vegetable crop of course
will need to be well fertilized and the
trees will throw out long lateral roots
and get some of the fertilizer that the
plants leave. This will establish a large
broad root system, which will make
larger trees, with large, broad tops, and
are much less liable to die back, be besides
sides besides producing a better quality of fruit.
I am writing this for the benefit of
people of limited means. Of course the
rich can make a grove if it costs SI,OOO
per acre, and as large as they wish. Let
the poor man not make the mistake of
spreading out too much. Three or four
acres properly cared for will take a
good lot of work and may be made to
produce more and better fruit than
many adjoining groves of ten and twen twenty
ty twenty acres that do not have the proper
care. I find that most of the people
are from the North and do not catch
on to tropical conditions, and the na natives
tives natives are not too energetic and seem
very slow in using their brains to work
out new ideas as the Northern fruit
growers do. If we could get more prac practical
tical practical Northern fruit growers down here
they might work wonders in the fruit
growing development.
It is strange that most tropical fruits
are yet in their primitive jungle type,
and no doubt could be bred up in a few
years to a much more desirable quality
than they are at present. I am expect expecting
ing expecting to see great improvements along
this line within the next ten years.

The United States Government Sub-
Tropical Experiment Station is located
here and is carrying on experimental
work which will be of great benefit to
this part of Florida as well as to many
who are located on the Bahamas and
the West Indies. There is very much
to speak of in this new country, but I
fear my letter is now too long.
TEXAS STOCK MELONS
An Opportunity to Try a Product that
Promises to Ee Valuable.
I am writing this article for the bene benefit
fit benefit of my brother farmers of our great
Southland. I have been growing this
valuable melon for three years, and it
has proven to be the most profitable
crop that I have grown, in the way of
furnishing green feed in cold weather.
This melon grows very large and many
melons to the vine, some weighing as
high as sixty pounds.
The great value of this melon is its
keeping qualities. They will keep all
winter, and for hogs, cows, sheep, goats
and fowls of all kinds there is nothing
that will furnish so much green feed at
a time when it is scarce and with such
little labor. They are about the only
substitute I know of for a silo; and for
table use they are hard to beat; for pre preserves,
serves, preserves, hot or cold sauce they are fine,
and for pies they are more like green
apples than anything I know of. And I
want to say right here if you want plen plenty
ty plenty of good milk in cold weather, feed
them to your milch cows.
They have no insect enemy, and they
will grow among corn the same as
pumpkins. They are a cross between
the Florida white and Kansas black
melon, and are adapted to all parts of
the country. If any brother farmer
would like to get a start of this melon
and will write to me I will send him a
package by mail, for I know they will'
pay him many times over for the labor
expended. If any one should happen to
write for seed kindly* send postage.
G. D. PEREGO.
Newton, Tex.
Good Way to Grub Palmetto.
Editor Florida Agriculturist:
Complying with'your request, I would
say that in clearing land I take a sharp
axe and cut lines about 2 feet apart,
sinking the axe through the scrub palm palmetto
etto palmetto and fern roots. Then by crossing
these lines at right angles the land is
cut into little patches about two feet
square. Now, with a good grubbing hoe
1 can turn these pieces over, and with a
blow knock out the dirt, throwing the
roots in a pile. I find this is cheaper
than grubbing the palmettoes put piece
by piece. I have heard of the use of
some chemical whereby the palmetto is
killed and easily gotten rid of. Have
any of your readers used the prepara preparation,
tion, preparation, or can any one suggest an easier
way then mine for clearing this kind
of'land? CHAS. FIOOKSTRA.
DeEand, Fla.

15



16

Florida Agriculturist.
Published monthly bv the
AGRICULTURIST PUBLISHING CO.
Walter Connelly, Manager.
office:
Board of Trade Building,
205 Main Street.
SUBSCRIPTION RATES.
In the United States, Mexico, Porto Rico,
Philippine Islands, Hawaiian Islands and Cuba
(including postage) :
One Year Single Subscription. .SI.OO.
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per year, $1.25.
NET ADVERTISING RATES.
Rate SI.OO per inch, regular newspaper col column
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Preferred Positions. Outside cover pages 25
per cent, additional; inside cover pages and
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Classified advertisements, set in uniform type
with no display or cuts, under appropriate
headings, will be published at two cents per
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Important.Advertisements to insure inser insertion
tion insertion must be in the hands of the printer not
later than the 20th of the month preceding
date of issue.
Money should be sent by Draft, Postoffice
Money Order on Jacksonville, or Registered
Letter, otherwise the publishers will not be re responsible
sponsible responsible in case of loss.
Entered as second class mail matter October
sth, 1909, at the Postoffice at Jacksonville, Fla.,
under the Act of March 3, 1879.
JANUARY, 1910.
The Recent Cold Snap.
Since the last issue of the Agricul Agriculturist,
turist, Agriculturist, Florida has been visited by the
lowest temperature since 1895, and for a
few days it was believed that all the ten tender
der tender truck and a large proportion of the
fruit on the trees was destroyed, but
later reports are much more favorable.
Letters from correspondents and re reports
ports reports in the State papers indicate that
no damage to the orange and grapefruit
trees has resulted, and that the loss of
fruit will not exceed 10 to 20 per cent.
Tender vegetables that were unprotected
were frozen, but the hardier varieties
suffered very little injury.
While this information, of course, is
very gratifying, the uneasiness felt by
our people will more than justify them
in the conclusion that the sooner they
indulge in a diversity of products the
sooner will they be able to face a little
freak weather like that which visited us
the latter part of December, without
fearing the outcome, and the cold wave
signals will not cause such great anx anxiety
iety anxiety as at present.
Give Florida a Square Deal.
Thousands of settlers are flocking to
Florida from all parts of the country,
and during the next year the State will
be dotted all over with happy, contented
homes of hard working, industrious
newcomers; but on the other hand we
will hear curses loud and deep hurled
against the best State in the Union by
parties who have come here with ideals
not justified by circumstances.
Hundreds of people are coming from
the cities and towns, whose entire ex-

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

perience in agricultural affairs consists
in a small garden and a dozen hens in
some back yard, and many with no ex experience
perience experience whatever. They are allured by
statements (which are true) of SSOO to
SI,OOO or more per acre made on special
crops, but fail to take into considera consideration
tion consideration the fact that these immense profits
are secured by men who have made the
subject a special study and have invested
hundreds of dollars in preparation and
cultivation of the soil, and who have
means and grit to tide them over crop
failures, which are sure to occur oc occasionally
casionally occasionally in all parts of the world.
Others, who have made a success in
their former homes, and while there
were content with a moderate return for
the money and labor invested, come to
Florida with the same ideas of immense
returns, and are dissatisfied if their
expectations are not immediately real realized.
ized. realized.
Friends, be honest with Florida. Do
not come here from portions of the
country where land is worth up into the
hundreds and expect the same advan advantages
tages advantages of good roads, plenty of neighbors
and all the improvements which are
bound to come in a densely settled coun country.
try. country. If Florida were settled up to the
limit of what she is capable of support supporting,
ing, supporting, her lands instead of being sold for
tens of dollars per acre could not be
touched for hundreds of dollars, for here
wth our three or more crops a year
the returns on the investment would be
far greater than anywhere else.
Come here with the expectation of
being learners, and take into careful
consideration your experience, or lack
of experience, the amount invested and
be content to work for a moderate re remuneration
muneration remuneration if necessary, with the knowl knowledge
edge knowledge that as the State settles up your
holdings will increase in value and you
will thus accumulate a competence as
you grow older.
Many people come here, and conscious
of their knowledge gained from experi experience
ence experience in other parts of the country, de decry
cry decry the seeming slipshod methods of the
native population and endeavor to work
along what to them appears to be more
modern lines. These people in many
cases make a miserable failure and con consequently
sequently consequently the whole State is condemned.
The safest way is to assume that these
methods are possibly the result of a
cause which cannot be discerned by the
newcomer; let him begin his work along
nearly similar lines and then make modi modifications
fications modifications as he sees his way.
Dont come with the idea that you
know it all. Dont come with the inten intention
tion intention of making much out of nothing, and
above all do not get it into your head
that good horse sense and plenty of hard
work, or sufficient capital to buy the
labor of others, will not stand you in
hand.

Diversify Your Crops.
Personally, I believe it is a great mis mistake
take mistake for people to spend all their means
and energies on citrus fruits. To be
sure, I have a grove, and lost some
fruit, but this is simply a side issue
with me. Those who buy everything
they consume in the way of food, feed,
etc., will at times be hard put in case
of partial failure of the one crop which
was their sole hope. The above was
a sentiment expressed in our office a
few days since by a man who has a
grove down in the central part of the
State, but as he said, it was a side issue,
so the loss of his unshipped fruit will
not seriously embarrass him.
Some years since, Horace Greeley
wrote an article expressing similar sen sentiments,
timents, sentiments, and in the piece mentioned that
the great wheat growing and exporting
districts of the Russian empire, the corn
growing portions of Kansas and the cot cotton
ton cotton growing districts of the South were
all in a poverty stricken condition on
account of the single crop system. Kan Kansas
sas Kansas has diversified her products and is
now a great and prosperous State, the
greater portion of the South now pays
homage to Queen Corn as well as King
Cotton, and those portions which have
diversified the most are now enjoying
an unprecedented degree of prosperity.
How about Florida? For years peo people
ple people in other sections of the country have
had dreams in which appeared visions
of immense trees loaded down with gold golden
en golden fruit from which the owner received
a princely income and was able to sit on
his broad piazza, smoke Havana cigars
and clip his coupons. Hundreds worked
while under the influence of this dream,
and neglected the minor details of pro producing
ducing producing a living. Prior to the freeze of
1805 there was nearly enough grain,
feed, hay, etc., brought to Florida to
make a substantial wall around a small
State, and if the tin cans which contained
food shipped here were flattened out
they would make a tin roof over the in inclosed
closed inclosed territory.
Since that freeze people have been
compelled to think; they have found that
the State can and does produce annually
millions of dollars worth of vegetables,
we hear of immense crops of corn, oats,
hay and other things which go a long
way toward living at home and we have
in mind a man in middle Florida who
produced over sixty thousand pounds of
pork the past year. We predict that
the freeze which visited our State re recently
cently recently b n s burst asunder many an iron
bound prejudice and has liberated many
a dormant idea and resolution, and that
within the next year or two we will
find that with the millions of dollars
heretofore poured into the North and
West for supplies which we could pro produce,
duce, produce, kept within our own borders, the
cold snap simply had the effect of crack-



ing the shell of prosperity in order that
we might enjoy and wax fat on the
kernel.
Let us all make a mighty effort to
live at home even to a greater extent
than at present. Let us each feel that
at least a portion of the responsibility
rests upon our shoulders. Let us be of
some good to ourselves, our neighbor
and consequently to the State at large.

WITH OUR CORRESPONDENTS

Good Word for the Agriculturist.
Editor Florida Agriculturist:
Your December issue at hand, and if
the way you wind up the old year is an
indication of what you will furnish dur during
ing during the new, this State should be proud
of your occupancy, and you of your
efforts.
If this section of the Stateextreme
West Floridahad a publication so apt aptly
ly aptly advocating the merits of these wild
lands and illustrating their possibilities,
with its dissemination among the thou thousands
sands thousands of snow-bound, tax-ridden work workers
ers workers of the North who are trying to
learn of our conditions, a few years
time would see these forest-denuded
lands yielding crops that are of unknown
value to the corn and wheat man of
those thickly populated sections, and the
market values of some more in line with
where they should be. Mr. Wrights
five acres of frank facts, Mr. Hamptons
ten acres of tactics, Mr. Scotts mild
championship of Japanese cane as a beef
and pork builder, those three articles,
with your editorial caution on expecting
too much, should point to success for
any man with money, intelligence and
ambition enough to keep out of the
poor house in the strenuous North.
While the data therein set forth might
have been written for West Florida, so
closely does it outline our possibilities,
yet the facts are hardly enough demon demonstrated
strated demonstrated here to put an agricultural value
on our lands.
The fast disappearing pine forests, our
agricultural fair last fall with its pros prospective
pective prospective enlargement in the future, the
drifting in of cotton growers from the
north of us, and the constant and rapid rapidly
ly rapidly increasing volume of inquiries from
all over the North, East and West,
point to an early approaching time when
these broad acres will be yielding ample
reward for the energy bestowed upon
them, and furnishing many happy homes
to thousands who are now thinking of
fuel bills and doctors calls.
Heres renewing for another year,
hoping for more such issues as the last,
and wishing you full prosperity due
therefrom. W. S. REEWE.
Cottage Hill, Fla.
Some Appreciated Suggestions.
Editor Agriculturist:
I hope you will pardon me for pre presuming
suming presuming to make suggestions as to the
policy of the Florida Agriculturist, but
you may be sure it is due to my intense
interest in the success of your interest interesting
ing interesting publication and a love for Florida,
and a desire to have the public at large
know, not only of the beauties of Florida
but to learn the fact that with right

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

If any person is successful in any one
direction, dont be selfish. Write a little
letter to the Florida Agriculturist tell telling
ing telling what you have discovered or done,
and we will endeavor to give it the
widest publicity possible, and you can
feel that yoc are a factor in the de development
velopment development of the grandest portion of
the United States and have a right to
be proud of the development of Florida.

knowledge of the use of legumes and
the proper use of other fertilizers for
which one does not have to pay one
penny (see Ferndale Farm Notes, Octo October,
ber, October, 1909, Florida Agriculturist), Florida
lands can be made as rich as the rich richest
est richest lands in the world and to produce
immense crops.
I would like to see the Florida Agri Agriculturist
culturist Agriculturist made a magazine of national
interest, similar somewhat to Sunset
Magazine, placing therein plenty of good
photographs of Florida scenes. And to
obtain such I would suggest communi communicating
cating communicating with Mr. Harry Hill, Ft. Pierce,
Fla., official photographer for the Florida
East Coast Railway and former editor
of a bee-keepers journal published in
New York, and also an authority on
bee-keeping; also Mr. C. E. Pleas, Chip Chipley,
ley, Chipley, Fla., who is also a photographer
of ability and an experienced farmer
handling with success barred rock fowls,
Italian bees, and who, as you may know,
discovered the great value of the Kudzu
vine as a wonderful forage producer,
producing tons of forage per acre an annually
nually annually and, being a perennial, needs
planting but once in years; no one yet
knows how long it will continue to pro produce
duce produce profitably.
Another successful farmer is Mr.
Donald Dunham, Doctors Inlet, Fla.,
with whom and his work you are pos possibly
sibly possibly acquainted, who last season pro produced
duced produced a very successful crop of Irish
potatoes, and who would very likely be
pleased to tell about his methods through
your columns for the benefit of people
contemplating a move to Florida.
Still another very charming writer
on Florida horticulture and allied topics
is Dr. E. P. Powell, Clinton, N. Y., and
Sorrento, Fla., who has made an ex extended
tended extended study of the possibilities of the
State.
From a personal study of Florida ex extending
tending extending over a number of years, both
from books and at first hand, I believe
we have hardly scraped the surface as
to the possibilities of the State in an
agricultural way, especially in the win winter
ter winter gardening and horticultural branches.
I fully believe that the day will come
when Florida will produce largely of
olives and also the superb foreign grapes
not insinuating that our delicious scup scuppernongs
pernongs scuppernongs are not worthy, but that any
new plants that can be added to the
already large list of Florida products
only adds to the delight of living here,
the" olives being already largely grown
in California and the grapes covering
thousands of acres there and also some
of the varieties succeeding in North Northeastern
eastern Northeastern Texas. The time will come
when some Florida Burbank arises

and gives us the proper varieties for
Florida conditions.
So firm is my belief in the above pre predictions
dictions predictions that I have secured a delight delightfully
fully delightfully situated little farm of ten acres
enough (remember the book written
some thirty odd years since, about a
family tiring of city life and making an
excellent income from such a place in
New Jersey), and I have also induced
three of my friends to go and do like likewise,
wise, likewise, where we- will grow pecans, hardy
citrus fruits and all other fruits and
vegetables which we can induce to grow
in Sunny Florida.
And then the flowers, what a beauty
spot one can make of a Florida home
with the beautiful roses, and how easily
they grow with a little careMarechal
Neil, Chromatella, Reve DOr, Banksia
and other beauties, if only a little study
be given the subject; also the other de delights.
lights. delights. Gladioli bloom in March, cannas
in profusion and all the long list of
flowering shrubs and last of all, the
orange blossom with its almost intoxi intoxicating
cating intoxicating perfume.
The great majority of country lov loving
ing loving people, simple life people if you
please, do not begin to realize what
Florida holds in store for those who
will study.
'EARLE F. TOWNSEND.
Trenton, Mich.
A Few Opinions of Agriculturist.
As newcomers, we were depending
not a little on it. The reappearance of
the Agriculturist was most welcome to
me. It gives me plainer and more prac practical
tical practical help than anything else or any
one.
I think your paper can not fail to be
of great value to the State, and I shall
endeavor to increase the number of your
subscribers.
I received the October number and
read it through and through advertise advertisements
ments advertisements and all. If my subscription has
expired, let me know.
Please send me two more copies as
soon as possible. It looks well. Can
you keep it up to that standard?
If you have them to spare, wish you
would send me anywhere up to 100
copies of your December issue, and bill
for same. I have no ad. in it that I wish
to exploit, but it is simply the best piece
of literature to send to Northern home homeseekers
seekers homeseekers (that is what I want these for)
that I have seen for many days.
Every farmer and truck grower should
have a Masters Rapid Plant Setter. For
setting out all kinds of plants such as
tobacco, cabbage, tomato, sweet potato,
onion sets, etc., it has no equal. With Without
out Without stooping down, a man can walk
through a field and set from ten to fif fifteen
teen fifteen thousand plants in a day. Write
to Masters Planter Cos., 170 South Wa Water
ter Water St., for free booklet and learn all
about this remarkable labor saving de device.
vice. device.
Reader, wont you write and tell us
how you grow some of your principal
crops? Once you get in the habit of
writing you will find it a pleasure to tell
other people what crops you find most
orofitable and your methods of growing
them. Do not think that fine writing is
necessary. Plain, every day talk is what
we want.

17



18

TRUCK GROWING IN CUBA
General Directions for Cultivating Some of the Principal
Vegetables Grown on the Island.
By E. W. HALSTEAD.

For convenience of treatment we shall sepa separate
rate separate the different varieties of the vegetables
which we wish to consider into groups having
about the same cultural methods. It must be
remembered that our work has been done upon
the heavy red lands and that our suggestions
for soils of a different character are made
from observation and from conversation with
the growers in those sections.
Beans, Peas, and Garden Varieties
OE Cowpeas With exception of some
of the garden varieties of cowpeas, our
results with vegetables of this class have
not been very satisfactory. Garden va varieties
rieties varieties of cow-peas can be grown very
successfully during the summer time.
In the southern part of the United
States they are used very extensively
for human food.
We have seen both pole and string
beans growing in the light loamy soils
of Pinar del Rio Province, and see
no reason why they should not become a
commercial crop during the winter
months. Our hope is that not only
string beans but also the common white
bean which is such a universal article
of diet in this island may be grown
with success.
For commercial growing, beans should
be planted in rows two feet apart and
the hills in the row should be from
eight to ten inches apart and three or
four beans should be planted in each
hill. For garden purposes the rows
may be from sixteen to eighteen inches
apart. String beans of both the yellow
and the green type, should be gathered
when the pods have reached their full
length and nearly their full size, yet
before they become tough and stringy.
The pods should snap easily when bent,
if they are at the proper stage of ma maturity.
turity. maturity.
Garden cow peas are planted and
handled in the same way as beans and are
used in a green stage like string beans.
Peas should be planted in rows from
two to three feet apart and the seed
sown quite thickly in the rows. Our
results have been the best with the
large growing varieties, and we have
had no success at all with the small,
early dwarf sorts. The large varieties
should be staked with brush for they
need something to climb upon, and do
much better than when left to run over
the ground. While our results have
not been such that we can recommend
them for commercial growing we see
no reason why they should not be
grown more in the home garden.
Cucumbers, Muskmeeons, Water Watermelons,
melons, Watermelons, Pumpkins, and Squash We
have grown a good many varieties of
these different kinds of vegetables dur during
ing during our work here, and, while our
results have not been very successful
in the red lands, we see that they can
be grown for home use.
In the loamy soil of Pinar del Rio
Province we have seen very choice
specimens of most of these vegetables.
Summer squash is grown and exported
to the New York market in large quan quantities.
tities. quantities. Cucumbers and watermelons, too,
have been successfully grown in the
sandy soils, while muskmelons and
citrons have not succeeded so well.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

Summer squash, cucumbers and musk muskmelons
melons muskmelons should be planted in rows four
to five feet apart and with four to
five feet between the hills in the row.
Sow from eight to twelve seeds in each
hill, and, as the young plants grow,
thin out to three or four.
Pumpkins, watermelons, and the
larger growing varieties of squash
should be planted in hills about six to
ten feet apart each way.
In the loamy soils near Candelaria
all varieties of summer squash have
good results. Winter squashes and
pumpkins were not very satisfactory.
Here at the Station, when plenty of
water was used so as to keep the plants
growing rapidly, they gave good results,
but without irrigation they did not pro produce
duce produce anything.
Eggplant, Peppers, Okra, Lettuce,
and Tomatoes These plants grow to
perfection in this country and are among
the leading vegetables for commercial
production.
The seed for eggplant, peppers, toma tomatoes,
toes, tomatoes, and lettuce should be planted and
treated in the same way as cabbage seed
until ready for the field. When set
out the rows for eggplant and for pep peppers
pers peppers should be from 2-2 l / 2 to 3 feet
apart and the plants from 18 to 20 inches
apart in the rows.
Okra is usually planted directly in
the field. The rows should be from 3
to 3 y 2 feet apart and the seeds are plant planted
ed planted in hills from 8 to 12 inches apart.
It is best to put in plenty of seed and
then thin out to one good strong plant.
Some prefer to sow in drills and then
thin out the plants to the required dis distance.
tance. distance. This plant grows upon nearly
all soils. In shipping, okra should be
cut when it is from 4 to 6 inches long.
With peppers, only the large sweet
varieties are profitable to grow for ship shipping.
ping. shipping. They should not be picked until
fully grown, but should still be green.
Do not ship them ripe.
Eggplant is one of the most difficult
crops to grow, but when it succeeds it
is very profitable. It wants a rich soil
and the more vegetable matter the bet better.
ter. better. It is not a poor, drv-land crop.
The fruit should be very carefully
handled, for every bruise, no matter how
slight, leaves a bad spot. In many sec sections
tions sections it is handled with soft cloth mit mittens
tens mittens and carried in soft lined baskets.
Too much pains can not be taken to
have eggplants arrive in the best possi possible
ble possible shape. In grading, care should be
taken to see that each crate has a defi definite
nite definite grade made up of fruits of the
same size.
Lettuce This is one of our common commonest
est commonest garden vegetables, and yet choice
lettuce is seldom seen in this country.
It may be grown either in beds or rows.
We have always found that the bed
system gave us the best results. The
young plants should be large and strong
when they are transplanted from the
seed-beds to the field. Lettuce does
best in a moist, rich soil containing
plenty of vegetable matter, for it must
be grown very rapidly to have it tender
and crisp. If grown too slowly it be-

comes strong and tough. The soil
should be made very mellow and fine,
for the young plants are rather delicate.
Either for field or garden culture we
have found it best to make slightly raised
beds, about five feet wide, and set with
four rows of plants, about one foot
apart each way, if the common heading
varieties are used. Some of the larger
varieties need a little more room and
the smaller kinds may be set a little
closer. In order to keep the growth
rapid give careful attention to weeding,
hoeing, and watering. To keep up a
continuous supply, seed must be sown
every two or three weeks, and anew
bed planted every month, for lettuce
only lasts a few days after it is ma mature.
ture. mature. To be at its best, head lettuce
should be left until the heads are fully
grown, when they become solid and the
inner leaves white. There are many
loose-heading varieties that can be used
as soon as the leaves are large enough.
Tomatoes Tomatoes will succeed for
home use in almost any soil that will
produce ordinary farm crops. The
ground should be carefully plowed, har harrowed,
rowed, harrowed, etc., so that it will be fine, loose,
and mellow. The season for planting is
from October until March. The young
plants are ready to set in the field when
they are from 4to 6 inches high. They
should be strong, stocky plants, for long,
spindling ones are of little value.
Lay off the field into rows from 3}/2
to 4 feet wide, and set the plants from
2Yi to 3 feet apart in the rows. Use
great care to set the plants deep and
make the soil firm around them. Give
frequent cultivations and careful hoe hoeings.
ings. hoeings. When the fruit is ready to gather
do not pick it too green; this is a mis mistake
take mistake made by many growers. In pack packing,
ing, packing, grade so as to have the tomatoes
in each crate of uniform size and ripe ripeness,
ness, ripeness, and pack carefully. For local mar markets
kets markets the fruit should be left upon the
vine until it begins to color, and for
home use it should be fully ripe.Esta-
cion Estacion Central Agronomica.
Treatment of Muck Lands.
By A. W. Blair.
Muck soils are formed by the decay,
in low wet places, of grasses, weeds,
twigs, leaves, and even trees. Being
so largely formed from vegetable mat matter,
ter, matter, they are much richer in nitrogen
than ordinary soils. They usually also
contain small amounts of phosphorus
and potassium. No systematic survey
of the muck soils of Florida has yet
been made, but such evidence as has
been accumulated tends to show that
they are generally very acid or sour.
If muck soils are to be cultivated it
is obvious that they must first be drained.
This is necessary in order that they may
become the home of the various kinds
of micro-organisms that play an impor important
tant important part in the making of a fertile
soil. These micro-organisms need mois moisture,
ture, moisture, but they can not develop in mud
or standing water.
Cultivation should be deep, especially
at first, in order that the air may thor thoroughly
oughly thoroughly penetrate the soil. Muck soils
often contain substances that are in injurious
jurious injurious and even poisonous to plants.
When these poisonous substances are
exposed to the air they are probably
oxidized to a considerable extent, and
thus destroyed. A free circulation of
the air also improves the conditions for
the development of the useful micro microorganisms.
organisms. microorganisms.



Suitable materials for this purpose are
finely ground limestone, air-slacked lime,
wood ashes, and marl. A fuller discus discussion
sion discussion of rhis subject is found in Bull. 93.
It will be necessary in most places to
use larger quantities on muck soils than
on upland soils. If limestone is used,
two to six tons per acre should be ap applied.
plied. applied. If lime is taken, a ton and a
half or two tons may be used. The
material should be thoroughly worked
into the soil one or two months before
the crop is planted.- This will give time
for the lime to neutralize the acid.
The importance of destroying the
acids can be better appreciated, when
we remember that the micro-organisms
that convert organic nitrogen into a
form that can be used by plants can
not develop in a highly acid soil. The
limestone and lime also furnish a suit suitable
able suitable base with which the nitric acid that
is formed may unite, thus producing
calcium nitrate which can be taken up
by plants.
. If muck is to be used on upland soils,
it is also necessary for the acids to be
destroyed. This can be done either by
composting it with one of the materials
already mentioned, or by applying the
latter when the muck is applied, or after afterwards,
wards, afterwards, and thoroughly mixing both with
the soil by cultivation. Muck may be
improved by simply drying and thor thoroughly
oughly thoroughly airing it. This is especially true
of mucks that contain iron compounds.
We can not expect a satisfactory yield
of such crops as celery and lettuce on
muck land until the acids have been
largely destroyed.
It occasionally happens that a muck
deposit is underlaid with marl, or is in
close proximity to a limestone forma formation.
tion. formation. In such cases it is not so likely to
be acid, and might not require the treat treatment
ment treatment with lime.
Muck soils being especially rich in
nitrogen should, one would think, re require
quire require but little, if any, of the nitrogen nitrogenous
ous nitrogenous fertilizers. Experience, however,
has shown that in many cases they do
require added nitrogen. This is because
they are so strongly impregnated with
acids that the bacteria which would
otherwise convert the inert nitrogen of
the organic matter into soluble nitrates,
can not live. When this unfavorable
condition has been corrected, less nitro nitrogen
gen nitrogen in the form of commercial fertilizer
will be required. If a quick-growing
vegetable crop is being produced, nitrate
of soda may be used to good advantage,
as may also stable manure since it in introduces
troduces introduces beneficial bacteria; but sulphate
of ammonia, and organic forms of ni nitrogen
trogen nitrogen (such as cotton seed meal and
castor pomace) should not be used; the
former because it will aggravate the acid
condition, and the latter because there
is already enough organic nitrogen pres present.
ent. present. Phosphoric acid and potash may be
used liberally if desired. For phosphoric
acid, ground bone is an excellent ma material
terial material ; while a ton or two of finely
ground phosphate rock (floats) would
also be helpful; not so much, however,
for immediate results, as for future
crops, since the acids in the muck will
very gradually convert the insoluble
phosphoric acid into the available form.
For potash, any of the potash salts will
suit. Kainit has been used on the muck
soils of Illinois, with good results. Hard Hardwood
wood Hardwood ashes are an excellent source of
potash, if they can be produced on the
place or bought at a reasonable price.
Florida Experiment Station.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

ADVANTAGES OF IRRIGATION
An Interesting Article in Defense of Artesian Water and
Surface Irrigation for Fruits and Vegetables
By G. W. Watkins

I notice in the December number of
the Florida Agriculturist an article by
Mr. Livingston in which he said he
would like to hear more on the subject
of irrigation. As I have had consider considerable
able considerable experience, I have concluded to
write a few lines in response to this
request.
I first learned to irrigate in Utah.
One cannot learn to be an expert irri irrigator
gator irrigator in a day, and a great many can
never learn. I think Mr. Livingston
wasted a- great deal of time and money
putting in a windmill when he could get
flowing water. The sulphur water of
the East Coast will not injure any kind
of plants or trees. I think it is better
than the upper strata of water. I know
it is better than rain. I can raise finer
crops without rain than I can with the
rain.
I have pine land with hardpan sub subsoil.
soil. subsoil. I irrigate by running the sulphur
water between the rows of vegetables.
I had celery last winter planted three
feet apart in the rows and think I had
the finest celery in the State. I had
bunches that were twenty inches in cir circumferences
cumferences circumferences and of fine quality. If it
was not the best in the State it was
good enough.
I put out some fig cuttings about this
time last year and some of them are
five feet high now and have had two
crops on them. I run the water within
a foot of them during the hottest
weather.
I planted grapes and dewberries and
they run all over the place. I gathered
water buckets full of grapes off one
vine and it was planted last January.
The sulphur water did not hurt, I am
sure.
I have many fine cabbages now ready
for market. They were planted two
feet one way and two and one-half feet
the other. I ran the water between the
rows the hottest days we had last fall.
. I planted tomatoes last February and
the plants bore all summer and were
loaded with tomatoes the other night
when the frost got them.
I have all kinds of flowers, plants and
trees, and everything does well. It is a
mistaken idea that some have about
plants needing the leaves washed every
few days. A slow rain may not hurt a
plant, but it does not do it any good.
That is, the plant would be better off if
the rain fell around it without striking
the leaves. And it will do just as well
to have the water run around it from a
well as to have it rain. All hard rains
injure plants and often kill them.
I sowed some pie-plant seed last Jan January,
uary, January, and by April I was selling pie pieplant,
plant, pieplant, and it was as fine as I ever saw.
After the weather got hot it did not
do so well, but I irrigated all through
the hot weather. I flooded it the hot hottest
test hottest day last summer and that did not
hurt it, but this fall there came a hard
rain, and then the sun came out hot
and killed every bit of it. I have found
out why you cannot raise pie plant in

Florida. The rain and sun kill it. The
same rain killed watermelons and some
tomatoes. Now it was not the roots
that were injured, it was the top. Most
all plants have fine hairs on the outside
of the leaf. These little hairs catch the
dirt. The hairs and the dirt protect
the plants from the sun and rain. If a
hard, beating rain comes it beats the
hairs and dirt off, and if the sun comes
out soon after it will kill them; but
if the sun does not come out for a
few hours they will soon recover so
that they can resist the heat of the
sun. That is why surface irrigation is
better than rain. It is better than sub subirrigation
irrigation subirrigation because you can get the wa water
ter water on the roots of the plant where it
is needed and nowhere else. Here in
Florida, where it rains so much, it is
best to have your ground tiled so you
can get rid of the extra water. You
can drown all kinds of vegetation,
though some plants require longer to
drown than others. I never let the
water run on my plants longer than
over night.
No one need be afraid to irrigate with
sulphur water or irrigate in the heat
of the day. The hotter the better. You
can use hot sulphur water, and unless
it is boiling it will not hurt the plants.
I kill ants by pouring hot water on
them when they are working around
my plants.
New Smyrna, Fla.
Classified Advertising
-A-d ver tisements inserted in this column at
the rate of 2 cents per word each insertion.
JMo advertisement taken for less than 25 cents.
WHEN YOU BUY HENS.Pick out
ers only; how to choose; never fails; write to
day. Model Experiment Farm, Waycross,
MINORCAS. Eggs for hatching,
$2.00 per setting of thirteen. Largest eggs
of any bird; eight eggs weigh one pound.
Mrs. Koerber, 1532 Walnut St., Jacksonville,
CELERY PLANTS FOR SALE. John IX
Jinkins, Sanford, Fla.
FOR SALE.Two lots on Long Island, N. Y.,
located at a famous summer resort. Will sell
cheap. For particulars write Ira Moore, 250
Arlington Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y.
MANNS SALT SICK CURE. Salt sick
cured for $1 or money refunded. Edward L.
Mann, Mannville, Putnam County, Fla.
PROPERTY WANTED. I have been very
successful in selling Florida property; pos possibly
sibly possibly can sell yours; it wont cost you any anything
thing anything if I dont. Send full description of any
property you want to sell and give lowest
cash price you are willing to sell for. C. H.
Stokes, Mohawk, Fla.
FOR SALE. Pure bred Carnean Pigeons;
mated and banded; young birds, about one
year old; the best and most prolific breeders
in existence. Price low. Will sell three or
six pairs at a time. Address C. B. Saunders,
308 Robinson Ave., Orlando, Fla.
FARMERS.Make your own Shingles. Farm
machine for sale cheap. For price and full
particulars write at once to D. E. Hill,
Miami, Fla.
FOR SALE. Japanese Seed Cane, $5 per
1,000. Perry M. Colson, Gaineeville, Fie.

19



20

Value of Leaf to Citrus Tree.
When walking through an orange
grove, one can usually gather much con concerning
cerning concerning the condition of the grove from
the appearance of the leaves. If a
branch is diseased, or if the roots are
affected, the leaves will testify to the
diseased state, either by or by
their abnormal color or size. There is
a close relation between the leaf and
the vital activities of the plant, so that
any condition that affects the latter is
soon visible in the former.
The vital activities of the plant are
those processes by means of which life
is maintained in the plant body.
TranspirationThe roots absorb the
water from the soil; it is carried up
through the plant body, and all except
a portion that is utilized, evaporates
from the plant through small openings
known as stomates or breathing pores.
Hence transpiration is mainly effected
by the leaves.
RespirationOxygen is also absorbed
from the air through these stomates;
and chemical compounds within the
plant are oxidized and broken down,
and energy is liberated; the waste pro product,
duct, product, carbon dioxide, being liberated
from the plants through the stomates.
Hence respiration is mainly effected by
the leaves. This is similar to respira respiration
tion respiration in animals.
PhotosynthesisCarbon dioxide is al also
so also absorbed from the air through the
stomates; water is absorbed by the
plants through the roots; the sunlight
shining upon the green coloring matter
of the plant, known as chlorphyll.
causes it to unite the water and carbon
dioxide forming sugar or starch; and
the waste product, oxygen, is liberated
from the plant through the stomates.
Photosynthesis is mainly effected by the
leaves.
It will be noted that respiration and
photosynthesis are exactly opposite pro processes;
cesses; processes; the former tears down the plant
food and thus liberates energy; the lat latter
ter latter builds up plant food and thus stores
up energy. Respiration goes on* at all
times; photosynthesis only during the
day-time.
Growth Raw food materials, mostly
mineral salts, are absorbed from the
soil; some of these are united with the
sugar or starch formed during photo photosynthesis,
synthesis, photosynthesis, and new living matter
(known as protoplasm) is formed. The
materials for growth are worked up
mainly in the leaves. Hence the leaves
take the chief part in nearly all the vital
activities of the plant.
Root Disturbances.
In times of drought the leaves are the
first to show the lessened supply of
moisture. They wilt and fall. This re reduction
duction reduction of its evaporating surface en enables
ables enables the plant to equalize the amount
of moisture given off by transpiration
to the amount supplied by the roots.
The same thing happens when the soil
solution becomes so concentrated, from
the presence of soluble salts, that the
roots are unable to absorb the water,
or when the roots are killed by poison poisonous
ous poisonous salts such as bluestone, or when the
roots are cut, from too deep cultivation.

PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
By B. F. FLOYD.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

The first effect of plant starvation due
to the absence of soluble plant-food in
the soil is shown in the leaves. They
become yellowish in color and are un undersized.
dersized. undersized.
Branch Disturbances.
The best example of branch disturb disturbances
ances disturbances as affecting the leaves is wither withertip
tip withertip poisoning. The withertip fungus,
vvhen growing in a live branch, secretes
i poison that spreads to the leaves,
causing them to become of a sickly yel yellow
low yellow color. Later the branches become
defoliated and die from the tip back backward.
ward. backward.
Leaf Disturbances.
The leaves may show local injury
from insects, fungi, spraying mixtures,
or what are presumed to be physiologi physiological
cal physiological troubles. Too strong solutions of
sprays, such as whale-oil soap or Bor Borleaux
leaux Borleaux mixture may cause leaf injury. The
insects that injure the foliage may be di divided
vided divided into two classes the biting in insects
sects insects and the sucking insects. Amongst
die biting insects are the grasshoppers
md the orange dogs. Both of these do
much harm, especially to young trees,
by chewing the leaves.
Amongst the sucking mites and in insects
sects insects the injury done to the leaf by
he red spider, the purple scale, apd the
.vhitefly may be mentioned. The red
spider causes a yellowish spotted ap appearance
pearance appearance of the leaves, accompanied by
i crimping and stunting if they happen
iso be young. The purple scale causes
i yellowing of the leaves at the spots
where the scales are attached. When
iresent in large numbers they may in injure
jure injure the leaf to such an extent that it
will fall.
The whitefly larvae are the most
lreaded enemies of all. Living on the
mder surface of the leaves, they suck
nuch juice from them. In addition
hey excrete honey-dew, which falls on
he upper surfaces of the leaves below,
md serves for the development of a
'ungus known as the sooty mold. The
>ooty mold forms a black mantle over
he surface of the leaf, so that very lit little
tle little light can reach it. Since light is
accessary for the vital activity known
is photosynthesis, very little sugar or i
itarch can be formed. Hence the plant j
s starved, and as there will not be much
sugar available for the fruits, they have
in insipid flavor. And since sugar is
ilso necessary for the formation of the
living matter (protoplasm) the growth
of the tree is affected injuriously.
There are several diseases either due
to physiological or unknown causes
that affect the leaves. Perhaps the most
Important of these is the yellow spot spotting,
ting, spotting, which is confined to the leaves.
This disease produces spots a fraction
of an inch or more across that extend
through the substance of the leaf. The
structure of the leaf is so modified
that all of its vital activities are affected.
Asa result the plant is much weak weakened.
ened. weakened. This allows the withertip fungus
to attack the branches, from which fur further
ther further injury results.
Melanose also attacks the leaves, as
well as the twigs and fruit. It is not

so harmful to the leaves as is the yel yellow
low yellow spotting, though harmful in the
same manner. In severe cases it may
cause the leaves to fall.
Frenching is another leaf trouble. The
only symptom of this disease is a lack
of green color between the veins of the
leaf. Without the green, this part of
the leaf cannot manufacture sugar and
starch; hence in cases where the french frenching
ing frenching is severe, the tree will be weakened
from this cause.
Withertip.
Is the withertip fungus injuring your
grove? If so, now is the time pruning
should be done. The dead and diseased
branches if left on the tree will be a
source of infection later in the year.
Bloom dropping is caused by this fun fungus
gus fungus which lives over the winter in the
leaves, or in the twigs of the tree, or
on fallen fruit. From these sources
some of the spores find their way to an
open bud, where the fungus grows very
rapidly and produces myriads of spores.
Bees, flies and other honey-loving in insects,
sects, insects, visit the affected blossoms, and
coming into contact with the fresh
spores, not only carry them on their
bodies to almost every open blossom
on the tree, but in crawling over the un unopened
opened unopened buds they convey the spores to
these as well. But worse still, the in insects
sects insects which have visited an infected
tree carry the spores to other trees in
the grove, and from these secondary
infections, numerous other infections oc occur
cur occur in time; so that hundreds of other
trees that were free from the wither withertip
tip withertip fungus may become infected from
one single tree with diseased blossoms.
As pruning for the withertip fungus
is different from ordinary pruning, you
should carefully read the press bulletin
from your agricultural experiment sta station
tion station on Winter Pruning for Wither Withertip,
tip, Withertip, which appears in this issue.

Plant Bed Cloth
For Florists, Gardeners,
Truck Farmers, Tobacco
Growers, Etc.
Protects from Frost, Safer than
Glass. Waterproof Sheeting for
| Chicken Runs. Hay Caps, Stack
, Covers and Canvas Goods.
Circulars, Samples
HENRY DERBY
123 D Chambers Street New York

ft \ Here you are
YX MR. FARMER
Ivixi/Tl] when you buy a machine for
setting out
'hfHF tomato, cabbage, tobacco,
PBf Svveet Potato Onion Slips, Etc.
m mg you ought to get the best there is.
in If Masters
!; 'a Plant Setter
Ini I III Bf is the one that puts the plant down
! Hr to its proper depth and gives it half
Mil fa tea cup of water orliquid fertilizer
ii If right at the root and then seoops
WIgJL tne dirt up around the piart, all
mBMIiIbHib done at the one operation, w itnout
fa any stooping whatever, wr te to-
IBiijnf day for pnce and full particular s.
W County Agency to First Purchaser
MASTERS PLANTER CO.
V So. Water St,, Chicago, 111.



FERNDALE FARM NOTES
By A. T. Cuzner, M. D.

Of the many obstacles in the way of
settlement and successful farming in
Florida the illusions and delusions that
beset and possess the most to be de desired
sired desired settlers are the most deterrent.
Take the delusion that our summers
are too hot for outdoor work for the
white man. Now the Government rec records
ords records show that our summer heat is ex excelled
celled excelled by that of the North. Sunstrokes
are so rare as to find no record. Again
as to soil, Florida will compare favor favorably
ably favorably with the best in the country. Again
with regard to Florida, which is a
smaller State than California, yet it
has much more land available for culti cultivation.
vation. cultivation.
Take the following comparison of
what can be done in the South as com compared
pared compared with California, known as a large
raiser and exporter of wheat.
A gentleman, a former resident of
Florida and lately from California, says:
It has got so now that it is rare for
them in California to raise more than
fifteen to twenty bushels of wheat to
the acre.
Below we give from an exchange the
following offset to this as a Southern
effort.
FiFTY-BUSHEE WHEAT IN GEORGIA.
A Georgia farmer tells in the South Southern
ern Southern Cultivator how he grew three hun hundred
dred hundred bushels of wheat on six acres of
what he calls common land, because it
was the ordinary sort of Southern land
which produces only about half a bale
of cotton to the acre. It is interesting.
He prepared the ground well, and used
on the field six thousand pounds of
guano, costing sixty dollars, and two
sacks of nitrate of soda, costing twelve
dollars. His entire expense for labor,
seed, fertilizers, threshing and hauling
was $132.80. He got $1.30 a bushel, or
a total for the crop of $390, or about
$43 profit an acre. Moreover, he was
able to harvest a good crop of pea-vine
hay after the wheat was removed, and
counts on a bale of cotton to the acre
this year, instead of half a bale as for formerly.
merly. formerly. It would seem that all the prof profitable
itable profitable wheat growing in the world is
not done in the Dakotas or Western
Canada.
While we dont raise wheat at Fern Ferndale
dale Ferndale farm, we think we can give as
profitable a showing per acre. Last
spring, Mr. Gilmore planted Irish pota potatoes,
toes, potatoes, and from the seed left over he is
just harvesting another crop this fall
about as good as his spring crop, using
no fertilizers for the second crop.
We at Ferndale have likewise raised
two crops of Irish potatoes, and be between
tween between these crops a crop of corn and
all the hay (without cultivation) that
our stock can consume between now and
spring. Oneand the principaldiffi principaldifficulty
culty principaldifficulty we have had to encounter at Fern Ferndale
dale Ferndale has been the lack of good roads.
However, our efficient County Commis Commissioners,
sioners, Commissioners, after sending a committee on a
tour of inspection, have decided to
build a hard surface road from Gilmore
to Floral Bluff. On our side of the
river (south side) the passenger and

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

freight boats do not stop at our land landings
ings landings on account of shoal water.
Now we expect to demonstrate next
season that we have as rich land, and
can raise as good celery as at Sanford.
If we can demonstrate this and we
think we can then there will be a
decided impulse given to the prosperity
of Gilmore in general and Ferndale in
particular.
Before closing these notes for this
month, I will indulge in a few thoughts
and reflections as to the relationship of
soil, sunlight and air in the growth and
development of vegetation.
HOW PLANTS GROW.
The following is from the work of
Grant Allen on Plants. He says:
Plants are living things. That is
the first idea we must clearly form
about them. They are living in just
the same sense that you and I are.
They were born from a seed, the joint
product of two previous individuals,
their father and mother. Plants like likewise
wise likewise live by eating; they have mouths
and stomachs, which devour, digest and
assimilate the food supplied to them.
These mouths and stomachs exist in
the shape of leaves, whose business it is
to catch floating particles of carbonic
acid in the air around, to suck such
particles in by means of countless lips,
and to extract from them the carbon
which is the principal food and raw ma material
terial material of plant life.
Plants also .drink, but unlike our ourselves,
selves, ourselves, they have quite different mouths
to eat with and to drink with. Plants
grow, on the whole, out of the air, not,
as most people fancy, out of the soil.
Yet you must have noticed that farmers
and gardeners think a great deal about
the ground in which they plant things,
and very little apparently about the air
around them.
Plants have roots. These roots serve
to anchor the plant to one spot, and se secure
cure secure it a place in which to grow and
feed. It also drinks water. In addition,
the roots perform a third, and almost
more important service by absorbing the
other needful materials of plant life
from the soil about them. Of these
materials a fourth element, nitrogen, is
the most important. The other materi materials
als materials being mineral elements required by
the plants growth and development.
From this brief epitome of Grant
Allen, we plainly perceive that the bulk
of all organic structures is made up of
carbon. Of this element there is no
danger of a famine, or even a shortage.
But the mineral elements may become
scarce, and of nitrogen there are al already
ready already signs of scarcity. Yet may the
inventive genius of man, aided by chem chemical
ical chemical knowledge, find an easy way of ob obtaining
taining obtaining an unlimited supply from that
forty miles depth of nitrogen in our at atmosphere.
mosphere. atmosphere. Of the mineral elements we
are not in so much danger of a famine.
Character culture should thrive along
with agriculture.
A most important ingredient to mix
with fertilizers is common sense.

Poultry Prices High.
Eggs and poultry were never higher,
never commanded better prices and
never in so great a demand as now.
Never before have fanciers asked and
received better prices for their eggs and
stock. Standard bred poultry is at a
premium everywhere and each year sees
the rapid increase in the number of
thoroughbreds kept and this branch of
the business carried to limits almost be beyond
yond beyond belief. Never was there a better
time to start in the poultry business,
which has become one of the largest in industries
dustries industries in the United States. Southern
Poultry Journal.
There are two classes of workmen workmenthose
those workmenthose who make a living and those who
make money.

A CYPRESS CONTAINER FOR SYRUP
5 Gallons and 10 Gallons
Made entirely of clear cypress strongly
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of good syrup. Convenient and salable
sizes. Write for description and prices.
Pierpont Mfg. Cos.
SAVANNAH, - GEORGIA

FLORIDA
Why not spend the winter in
Florida? Houses to rent,
boarding house rates, real
estate bargains, orange groves,
etc.; hunting, fishing. Copy
weekly paper, any information
write, J. F. A. Crosby,
Mateo, Fla.
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Use 1 part to 75 or 100 parts of water.
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21



22

HOUSEHOLD DEPARTMENT
By Mrs. E. J. Russell

To Reduce Expenses.
As the cost of living continues to in increase
crease increase and most of us find it necessary
to economize our table expenses, a few
suggestions may be helpful.
Soup and salad are wholesome and
inexpensive and prevent one from want wanting
ing wanting too much meat.
A good meat-chopper will enable one
to greatly reduce the butchers bill and
will soon pay for itself. Put two pounds
of round steak through the mill, mix
with it a little salt and pepper, flatten
it out and cook it as you would a por porter-house
ter-house porter-house steak and you will have a
very good substitute. Or chop the beef
as before, add a beaten egg, a cupful
of bread crumbs, a little minced onion onionif
if onionif the flavor is liked salt and pepper
to taste. Mix thoroughly and bake,
basting with melted butter and hot
water. A nice beef loaf is the result and
is equal to roast beef sliced cold. Stews
are also inexpensive and nutricious.
Vegetables are cheap and plentiful and
one can obtain most anything desired
and if we have learned to utilize the
left-overs, we can have variety at small
cost, as nothing need be wasted. If
there is a little corn left, have corn
fritters or add beans and have succo succotash.
tash. succotash. Chop cooked beets and serve with
a mayonnaise as a salad or mix them
with cooked peas and cream both for a
vegetable.
Desserts can be made from stale bread
or cake varied with fruits of all kinds.
But of course to be a successful econo economist,
mist, economist, one must give time and thought to
the subject.
Womans Work.
Women in general underestimate the
value of their own labor and accom accomplishments.
plishments. accomplishments. Every woman who is the
head of a well-kept home has founded,
and'is maintaining, a most complex in institutio
stitution institutio one demanding the most
varied qualities of head and heart, the
most diverse accomplishments of hand,
the highest attainments of both mental
and physical strength. She must mar marshall
shall marshall all her forces in order to meet
the contingencies that arise, and it is
usually done in so successful a manner
that those nearest and dearest take it as
a matter of course, never thinking that
the home might be otherwise than or orderly
derly orderly and agreeable, and seldom, remem remembering
bering remembering that a few words of praise from
their lips would materially lighten that
labor. A genuine heroine is one who,
in whatever position in life she is placed,
sets for herself a lofty and noble ambi ambition,
tion, ambition, and perseveres until she stands on
the pinnacle of success. And what
higher ambition could a wife and mother
have than to see her children grow into
the future leaders of thought and great
enterprises? Read, talk, write, if possi possible.
ble. possible. The best material grows rusty if
not subjected to constant rubbing-up.
Keep your eyes and ears open for your
childrens sake, if not for your own.
Keep your minds active. Dont place
your standard of excellence so much on
perfect housekeeping as on perfect fam family
ily family wholesomeness and development.
Mrs. L. B. S.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

Household Pests.
Last summer my cats were troubled
with fleas. I procured two ounces, equal
parts, of oil of cedar and oil of penny pennyroyal,
royal, pennyroyal, and put just a few drops here
and there all over the house. I put a
drop on my shoes, and rubbed a little on
the cats necks under the chin, where
they could not reach it with their ton tongues,
gues, tongues, as it is poisonous, and the fleas
vanished. This mixture also helps keep
away mosquitoes and flies, and com combined
bined combined with borax will clear the house
of ants and cockroaches. Equal parts
of oil of pennyroyal and oil of tar rub rubbed
bed rubbed on the face and hands will keep
away gnats, mosquitoes and black flies
when you are off in the woods, fishing,
picnicking or botanizing. Camphor gum
and whole cloves put away with furs
and flannels will protect against moths
and buffalo-bugs. Corrosive sublimate
and eternal vigilance will exterminate
begbugs, while rats have so strong an
aversion to peppermint that they will
leave a house or barn where the herb
is kept or the oil is poured.E. E. R.
Clothespin Bag.
Some receptacle for clothespins is
needed in the laundry, and an apron is
much more convenient than a bag. Use
duck for the apron, if durability and
neatness are to be considered. A good,
firm flour sack will answer the purpose
very well, but will not be quite as nice.
Cut a piece twenty inches wide by thirty
inches long for the apron. Gather one
end of the piece and make a two-inch
hem on the other end. Turn up eleven
inches of the hemmed end for pockets,
and bind the side edges of the apron
and pockets with a strip of the cloth.
Run a seam up through the middle of
the end of the apron. This makes two
good sized pockets for the clothespins.
Put a band on the top of the apron with
a button and button-hole to fasten it.
The white apron will become soiled, but
it can be washed very easily by just
putting it into the boiler of soapsuds
to scald after the white clothes are
taken out, and then rinsing. A colored
bag can be used if preferred, but it is
liable to become quite soiled before the
need of washing is realized, while the
white one will be washed frequently and
so kept in perfect order for the clean
clothespins. When not in use for carry carrying
ing carrying the pins to the line the apron strings
are buttoned together and it is hung on
a nail in the laundry, holding the pins
like any other bag.
Warming Up a Roast.
This is not intended for the house housekeeper
keeper housekeeper of a large family nor for a me medium-sized
dium-sized medium-sized family, nor of a rich house household
hold household which can eat its cold roast or
leave it but for her who serves a small,
impecunious, fastidious family, who like
a large roast to begin with, but must
eat it warmed up to the bitter end, and
who dislike hash and will not tolerate
cottage pie. Having catered for some
years to such a family as' this, I have
learned, with regard to cold lamb, mut mutton
ton mutton or beef, where my best resources

lie. Either can be made to pass mus muster
ter muster three times as the staple of the sim simple
ple simple meal which we call dinner. Each
time the meat will go a long way, each
time be relished, and any that is left for
next days luncheon will be welcome.
Spaghetti Stew Cut cold roast meat
into small slices; to a pint of sliced
meat take a cup of broken, uncooked
spaghetti, one-half cup of gravy from
the roast, a cup of canned tomatoes or
two small fresh tomatoes, one medium
sized onion and a dozen whole cloves.
Cover the meat with cold water, add the
onion, sliced, season with salt and pepper
and simmer till tender, one or two hours.
Then add gravy, spaghetti, tomatoes and
cloves, simmer half an hour longer, and
thicken if liked with a flour and water
paste.
Meat Croquettes One and one-half
cups of cold meat chopped fine, one onehalf
half onehalf cup of minced fresh celery, two
hard cooked eggs chopped fine, two
tablespoons of gravy. Mix all together,
bind with half a cup, or less, of thick
white sauce made with milk, and season
to taste with salt, pepper and a dash
of Worcestershire. Make into cro croquettes,
quettes, croquettes, egg and crumb them and fry
in hot, deep fat.
Red Hot This is quick of prepara preparation
tion preparation and calls for tender, juicy meat.
It is a good chafing-dish recipe. Mix
well one tablespoon of Worcestershire
sauce, one tablespoon of tomato catsup,
one-half teaspoon of made mustard, half
a cup of gravy from roast, half a cup
of hot water, and salt and cayenne
pepper to taste. Cook a tablespoon of
flour in one of butter and add the above
mixture slowly to make a thick sauce.
Then add one pint of cold meat diced
or cut in thin slices, and let the whole
stand without boiling until the meat is
heated through. Pour over triangles of
hot buttered toast.
Saving at the Flour Barrel.
By Sharlot M. Hall.
The waste through the flour-barrel is
one of the larger leaks in the average
family, yet every crumb of bread and
cake may be utilized with a little fore forethought.
thought. forethought. In the first place, save the
crumbs from the bread-dish and cutting cuttingboard
board cuttingboard in a wide-mouthed jar with a
cover. Use this also for all crusts* loaf loafends
ends loafends and scraos. Stale bread need not
go into puddings or the breading-can
habituallv, though there are housekeep housekeepers
ers housekeepers who undervalue the latter. Crumbs
for breading should be dried in a slow
oven, but not browned; then, instead
of rolling them fine on the bread-board,
put them in a clean flour-sack and pound
them with a flat-iron or hammer. Turn
out into a flour-sifter, and sift the fine
crumbs through, pounding the coarse
ones again until all are fine enough.
Keep this in cans or fruit-jars with
tight covers. Use in place of cracker crackercrumbs
crumbs crackercrumbs or flour on all fried meat, cro croquettes,
quettes, croquettes, potato and squash cakes. Mix
some of it with any croquette material
of which you have short quantity, and
add it to hamburg steak and meat-loaves.
The better use of stale bread is making
it into bread again.
Crumb Loae Two beaten eggs, one
cupful of sweet milk, a pinch of salt
and one tablespoonful of sugar. Stir in
enough bread-crumbs to make a thin
batter, then add flour enough to thicken
like corn-bread, and one teaspoonful of
baking powder. Bake quite brown, and
eat warm for breakfast or supper.



Crumb Yorkshire Pudding Four
beaten eggs, two thirds of a cupful of
sweet milk, salt to taste, one cupful of
bread-crumbs, flour enough to thicken
like batter-bread, and one teaspoonful
of baking-powder. Pour in the baking bakingpan
pan bakingpan with a roast of beef or pork when
the meat is nearly done. Bake brown,
and serve with gravy poured over it.
Crumb Griddle-Cakes For these,
cold biscuits, muffins, gems, brown bread,
corn-bread or yeast bread may be used,
or a mixture of all or any. If the bread
is dry, cut it in small pieces and soak
a short time in sweet milk or water.
Make an ordinary griddle-cake batter,
but have it very thin, then stir in crumbs
enough to bake nicely. These griddle griddlecakes
cakes griddlecakes are delicious, but should be made
with baking-powder, as soda and sour
milk make them less light. Cold corn cornbread
bread cornbread alone makes excellent cakes. The
yeast crumb cakes are very nice served
with a pudding-sauce as a dessert, es especially
pecially especially if they are baked a pale brown
and of small size.
Crumb Fritters Two beaten eggs,
one half cupful of sweet milk, one half
cupful of yeast bread crumbs, one tea teaspoonful
spoonful teaspoonful of baking-powder, and flour
enough to make a batter. Drop from
a spoon in small pieces into hot fat.
Drain, and serve with sauce or syrup.
Cake-crumbs may be used in these frit fritters
ters fritters with good results.
Crumb Shortcake At least half cake cakecrumbs
crumbs cakecrumbs may be used in this. Make as
for crumb loaf given above, but bake
in a shallow pan. When slightly cool
split the layers, butter, and spread with
berries or fruit. Eat with cream.
Bread Garnishes Stale bread prop properly
erly properly prepared makes a pretty garnish
for many dishes. If the bread is in
slices and is hard, steam until it can
be cut with the fingers, then fry a light
brown in a kettle of hot fat. Dust with
salt and pepper, and serve in a ring at
the edge of the platter. Or cut the
bread in tiny rounds or balls, and fry.
The small, irregular crumbs and scraps
that accumulate may be cut into,suitable
pieces, and fried a crisp brown in the
pan in which steak or chops have been
cooked. Season with salt, pepper, a bit
of parsley if liked, and serve in a ring
edging the chop-platter.
Bread Croquettes These are a de delicious
licious delicious garnish as well as a desirable
separate dish. Put one tablespoonful
of fresh butter in a frying-pan. When
melted, add one heaping tablespoonful
of flour, and stir, but do not brown.
Add salt and pepper and one cupful of
sweet milk. When cooked thick, stir
in a beaten egg. Take from the fire and
stir very stiff with bread-crumbs. Mold
into balls, and fry in deep hot fat. Vary
the flavor, if desired, with kitchen bou bouquet,
quet, bouquet, minced parsley or onion, and bits
of cold meat or oysters chopped fine.
Breaded French Toast This is used
as a garnish to fried ham and pork porkchops,
chops, porkchops, and also as a sweet dish. Cut
stale bread in slices, and dip in a mix mixture
ture mixture of two beaten eggs, to which add
one half cupful of sweet milk. Drain a
moment, roll in crumbs prepared for
breading, and fry, preferably in deep fat.
If for a garnish, cut the bread in tri triangles
angles triangles of small size before frying. As
a sweet dish for breakfast, roll in pow powdered
dered powdered sugar, or spread with butter, sugar
and a dash of cinnamon or nutmeg, or
serve with fruit-sauce or syrup.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

The Value of Salt.
Salt used on the fingers when cleaning
fowls, meat or fish will prevent slipping;
thrown on a coal-fire when broiling steak
will prevent blazing from dripping fat;
used as a gargle will cure sore throat; in
solution inhaled cures cold in the head;
in water is the best thing to clean wil willow-ware
low-ware willow-ware or matting; used in the oven
under baking-tins will prevent them from
scorching on the bottom; mixed with
vinegar will remove stains from discol discolored
ored discolored tea-cups; mixed with soda is ex excellent
cellent excellent for bee-stings and spider-bites;
thrown on soot which has fallen on a
carpet will prevent stain; put on ink
when freshly spilled on a carpet will
help to remove the spot; in whitewash
makes it stick; thrown on a coal-fire
which is low will revive it; used in
sweeping carpets, keeps out moths.
Household Notes.
An ounce of flour equals four level
tablespoonfuls.
A teaspoonful of extract will flavor
a quart of any mixture.
Potatoes should boil slowly to prevent
the skins from curling off.
Polish windows with paper instead of
cloth to avoid lint and streaks.
Thick blotting paper under doilies
will prevent hot dishes from marking
the table.
A tablespoonful of water or milk
should be allowed for each egg in mak making
ing making an omelet.
Allow two level teaspoonfuls of baking
powder to each cup of flour when no
eggs are used.
A piece of fungus, broken from an
old tree, is a splendid buffer for ma mahogany
hogany mahogany furniture.
Blotting paper saturated with turpen turpentine
tine turpentine may be placed in drawers to keep
away moths.
Allow from four to six eggs to each
quart of milk in making a custard to
be turned from the mould.
Put pockets on the under side of
aprons near the right hand edge and thev
will be found just as convenient for
use, yet will not catch on door knobs
and get torn.
Lamp burners should be washed fre frequently
quently frequently to remove dust and carbon that
choke the perforations. Occasionally
they should be boiled in a washing soda
solution.
When giving sticky medicines to chil children,
dren, children, heat the spoon by dipping it for a
moment in hot water; then pour in the
medicine and it will slip easily from the
spoon.

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Buy the machinemanufactured for long service. Those who used the
HOW I NEW HOME forty years ago are now doing so. All parts are inter interchangeable,
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NEEDLES, Superior quality, our own make, for any machine. If there
' is no NEW HOME dealer near you write direct to
THE NEW HOME SEWING MACHINE GO., Orange, Mass., for Catalog No. 18

Cotton gloves to wear in doing house housework
work housework are cooler and better in every wav
then old kid gloves. If bought espe especially
cially especially for this purpose, get a size larger
than usually worn.
To keep white gloves clean in a muff
have an adjustable lining ot white silk
or satin that may be fastened in over
the dark lining of the muff with invisible
hooks and loops.
If collar stays scratch the neck, a
little white sealing wax melted and ap applied
plied applied to the ends of the stays where
they have broken through the casings
will easily relieve the trouble.
When a small clock is beyond re repair,
pair, repair, do not throw it away but keep for
sick room use. Set the hands each time
medicine is given to the hour when the
next dose is to be given.
Cut off the bottom of an old water
bottle and then cut the rubber into
strips up to the curve at the top to make
a whip or beater for couches, mattresses,
pillows, etc.
POSSIBILITIES OF FLORIDA SOIL.
What Can Be Accomplished When the
Soils of This State Are Properly
Fertilized and Cultivated.
By W. C. Steele.
It is a common opinion, at the North,
and also unfortunately among many
Florida farmers, that the light sandy
soil of this State is too poor to produce
good crops. The northern people over overlook
look overlook the fact that there are parts of
many northern States where the soil is
a very light sand. I have seen farms in
Indiana, and also in New Jersey, where
the sand was lighter than any that I
have ever seen in cultivation in Florida.
Yet the owners of those farms made a
comfortable living and in many cases
acquired a competence from the sale of
crops grown on that sand.
For many years I have felt sure that
the greatest cause of most failures in
farming in this State were a lack of
fertilizer and a short supply of water.
Most farmers are too economical in
the use of plant food. The present sea sea(
( sea( Continued on page 26. )
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23



24

Shorthorn Cattle.
This is a beef-breed of cattle, yet
they are often spoken of as a dual-pur dual-purpose
pose dual-purpose breed. In the past they have been
known as Teeswater, Holderness and
Durham cattle. They were first known
as Teeswater cattle. This was due to
the fact that they first came into promi prominence
nence prominence along the border of the Tees
river, in the north of England. Later
their fame spread to a wider area, and
they became known as Durhams, tak taking
ing taking this name from Durham county,
Jingland. The present name of Short Shorthorn
horn Shorthorn has been applied to them on ac account
count account of the shortness of their horns.
The origin of the Shorthorn, like that
of many other breeds, is not definitely
known. It is without question that the
Romans, Saxons, Danes and Normans,
who in turn conquered England, brought

v
v ****
Ki I fj.
j

cattle with them. These all in turn
were crossed upon the native cattle. Af After.
ter. After. the Norman conquest it was per perhaps
haps perhaps centuries before there was much,
if any, interchange of live stock with
any other country. This, of course,
paved the way to the development of
distinct types, through the modifying
influences of treatment, shelter, soil and
climate. Thus the abundant, luxuriant
pastures of Durham and Yorkshire
counties, especially along the river Tees,
produced big-framed cattle, the ances ancestors
tors ancestors of our present Shorthorns. The
modern Shorthorn differs somewhat
from the original Teeswater cattle. It
has not as large a frame, is more
smoothly built and more compact, and
perhaps is not as good a milker. It
has been claimed, and also denied, that
improvement was effected on the Tees Teeswater
water Teeswater cattle by the use of Dutch bulls,
and on the improved Shorthorns by

LIVE STOCK
By Prof. John M. Scott

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

the introduction of a Galloway cross.
The Dutch bulls, if used at all, were
used about the middle of the seven seventeenth
teenth seventeenth century. The Colling brothers
used a Galloway cross near the end of
the eighteenth century. Good herds of
Shorthorns are known to have existed
in the northern counties of England as
early as the middle of the eighteenth
century.
Distribution. The first importation to
America was made about 1785. These
importations were made to Virginia and
Maryland. From 1800 to 1815 impor importations
tations importations were made into New York, Ken Kentucky
tucky Kentucky and Massachusetts. Since 1817
numerous importations have been made
each year. Kentucky, New York and
Ohio were among the earlier States to
become breeding centers. About the
year 1825, Shorthorns were first taken
to Canada, and since that time Canada

THREE GOOD SHORTHORNS

About 1877, one breeder exported from
has become noted for her Shorthorns.
Canada to England some thirty head,
and sold them at public auction at an
average of $2,500 each.
Shorthorns may now be found in
other countries besides those mentioned
above, as in Mexico, a number of the
South American Republics, and New
Zealand.
Conformation. All the beef breeds
have certain features of form which
they possess more or less in common.
These may be considered essential to
good beef production. The differences
between them relate more to size and
to breed peculiarities than to essential
features of form. The more essential
indications, important perhaps in the
order named, are: A compact form;
that is, one wide and deep throughout,
and but moderately long in the coupling.
A good back; that is, one wide from
neck to tail, well fleshed and straight.

A good front quarter; that is, one wide,
deep and full. A good hind quarter,
that is, one long, wide and deep. Good
handling qualities, as indicated in soft
and elastic flesh and pliant skin.
Color. In color the Shorthorns are
known as reds, whites or roans. In
other words, there is no set color or
color pattern. They may be of any one
of the above colors or mixtures or red
and white. Black and brindle are not
permissible. A large number of the best
Shorthorns in the show rings in the
past few years have been roans, includ including
ing including such bulls as Choice Goods (grand
champion of America), Ceremonious
Archer (an international grand cham champion),
pion), champion), and Signet (a junior champion
at the International in 1906). The
champion cow of the Shorthorn dairy
demonstration at St. Louis in 1904, was
a fine roan .animal. Ruberta, undefeat undefeated
ed undefeated from calfhood to maturity, was an another
other another famous prize-winner. The cham champion
pion champion cow and bull at the English Royal
in 1908 were also roans. Whitehall Sul Sultan
tan Sultan is a pure white animal, a noted
prize-winner, and the sire of prize-win prize-winners.
ners. prize-winners. Red, however, is perhaps the

most popular color at the present time.
Shorthorns in Florida.
At the present time there are perhaps
more pure-bred cattle of the Shorthorn
breed in the State of Florida than of
any other one beef breed. The breed
is well adapted to Florida conditions
when given proper care and treatment.
But like any other breed of pure-bred
cattle, they must be given plenty of
good, nutritious food when the best re results
sults results are to be obtained. The raising
of Shorthorns and grades is past the
experimental stage, as shown by the
success attained by Chambliss, Gailokill,
Gist, and Jackson, and many others.
Why the Pure Bred Animal?
There seems to be a mistaken idea
of what pure breds are for. The one
who does not class himself as a stock
breeder sees no use in raising pure
breds. Bless you, pure breds are not



created for the breeder. They are cre created
ated created by him for the farmer.
The purpose of breeding is to make
the animal more productive of milk,
beef, mutton, wool, pork or eggs. If it
does not do this then it is worthless.
But it does do this. Every feeder
knows that a well-graded bunch of
steers will fatten cheaper and make a
better show in the yards and bring a
better price than a bunch of scrubs.
Every dairyman knows that a herd of
dairy cows will give more net profit
in products alone than a herd of scrubs.
The bunch of hogs that has been bred
to be of proper size and weight for
market at six months is more profitable
than the bunch that must be carried ten
or twelve months. Kansas Farmer
Farm Failures.
When farmers realize that scrub stock
and mongrel fowls consume the same
amount of feed and require the same
amount of care as thoroughbreds, we
wonder why they continue to keep the
scrubs. The razorback hog, still to be
found in many localities, will eat his
worth twice over, and then remain in
just living order. The milch cow of
low degree may be fed the richest feed
and still yield a small amount of but butterfat,
terfat, butterfat, and her calf, when market time
comes, must be sold at scrub prices.
The same is true with brood mares.
Few farmers do not raise colts, the
scrubs selling at $45 to SSO per head
while the pure-breds bring almost any
price asked.
Yet hundreds of farmers continue to
feed high-priced feeds to low-priced
stock, and they wonder how their neigh neighbors
bors neighbors get such fabulous prices for their
stock. If one has not the means to in invest
vest invest in a few pure-breds, by judicious
breeding it will take only a few years
to grade up a herd of horses, cattle or
sheep, until they are far superior to the
scrubby, unsalable stock he is now feed feeding.
ing. feeding. Nothing should be too good for
the farmer in the way of live stock, and
he stands in his own light if he does not
obtain it. He can raise S2OO or S3OO
horses just as easy as the $75 or SIOO
ones, and when he once gets out of the
old rut he would never allow scrub
stock on his farm again. Mortgages,
rickety fences and tumble-down build buildings
ings buildings go hand in hand with mongrel
scrubs on the farm. Get rid of all of
them. D. B. Phillips in Ohio Farmer.
Good Breeding Pays.
A test of the feeding and selling qual qualities
ities qualities of pure bred hogs over scrubs was
recently made in Texas. The results
showed a very decided market advan advantage
tage advantage for the well-bred hogs, and indi indicates
cates indicates very plainly that there is some something
thing something very much more to hogs of im improved
proved improved breeding than mere fancy.
Lot 1, the razorbacks, at Fort Worth,
weighed 1,060 pounds, and sold at $6
per hundred weight, making a total sell selling
ing selling price of $63.30. The first cost at 5
cents per pound live weight was sll.
The cost of the gain amounted to $49.30.
The profit on the lot was $3.60 or 60
cents for each hog.
Lot 2, the Poland Chinas, at Fort
Worth, weighed 1,420 pounds, and sold
at $6.65 per hundred, making a total
selling price of $94.43. The first cost
at 5 cents per pound live weight was

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

sl7. The cost of gain was $64.74. The
prof on the lot amounted to $12.69, or
a profit of $2.10 for each hog.Kansas
Farmer.
Notes.
For the land sake raise velvet beans
and keep a few good dairy cows. In
this wav you can increase the soil fer fertility.
tility. fertility.
The bull is at least 70 per cent of the
herd. Do not begrudge paying a good
price for the right kind of a sire.
All cows are not economical milk
producers. This is clearly shown in
Press Bulletin No. 132, Florida Experi Experiment
ment Experiment Station.
Do not overlook giving the live stock
all the clean, fresh water they will
drink. Livestock needs and appreciates
clean pure water as much as human be beings.
ings. beings.
Wool importations for the first seven
months of the current year were 202,-
000,000 pounds, an increase of 175 per
cent over last year. Seventy million
pounds of goatskins were imported dur during
ing during the same period, against 63,000,000
pounds last year. It looks as if Florida
might supply a part of this amount. It
is worth thinking about, Mr. Farmer.
Success comes in cansfailures in
cants. This to a great extent accounts
for a large percentage of the inferior
live stock now found in the State. True
there are hindrances in the improve improvement
ment improvement of live stock. But are thev harder
to overcome than the difficulties that
confront the orange grower or the truck
farmer? The successful man is he who
overcomes these difficulties instead of
letting the difficulties overcome him.
An Agricultural Ode.
The beef steers sleek, plump and fat
To the butcher block must go
Before one pound of steak can be ob obtained
tained obtained
To quench the hungering of the inner
man.
The dairy cow from day to day
Returns to man a heaping pail
Of lacteal fluid, rich and sweet,
To quench mans ravenous appetite.
The squealing little porker
To the butchers knife must yield
Before there can be one pound of chops
To soothe the pallet of the king.
The cackling hen from day to day
Resumes the task of yesterday,
To lay an egg or two each day,
To supply an omelet for the hungering
inner man.

McTIMMONS & COMPANY
HEAVY GROCERIES
Corn, Oats, Hay, Flour, Feed and
FERTILIZER.
Agents for Wilson & Toomers Idee.l Fertilizer for all Crops
Spot Caish Buyers of
Hides, Furs, Wool and Wax
27-29 South Ocean St. JACKSONVILLE, FLA

Now, Mr. Man, which one
To you appeals as being best
To meet the needs of the inner man
The beef steer, dairy cow, the squeal squealing
ing squealing sty or cackling hen?
A Case of Advertising.
An old duck was complaining to a
rooster that she did not get proper rec recognition.
ognition. recognition. She said, I have been laying
e ggs here on this ranch all the season
and I lay just as many eggs as the old
hen does, that sister of yours that every everybody
body everybody writes about and talks about her
at the table and she gets a great deal
more credit and I dont get anything.
Well, the old rooster replied, You
dont understand this business. When
you lay an egg you just waddle off
through the alfalfa and say nothing, but
when my sister does anything she adver advertises
tises advertises it. You want a press agent.Ex.
We have had a number of inquiries in
regard to Florida Fruits, and How to
Grow Them, written by Helen Har Harcourt,
court, Harcourt, the author of our serial story,
From Frozen North to Sunny South.
We are advised that the edition of this
excellent book is limited, but until the
edition is exhausted it may be procured
from Helen Harcourt, Leesburg, Fla.,
at $1.25 per copy.
FINE
Stock Farm
Equipped with all needed appli appliances.
ances. appliances. Choice land, mostly under
cultivation, in best farming section
of Florida. Several good
Dwelling Houses,
Barns, Etc.
Splendid location for colony or
for stock raising.
For prices, terms and other par particulars,
ticulars, particulars, address,
P. O. Box 73,
JACKSONVILLE, FLA.

25



26

THE HORSES FOOT
Some of the Inhumanities Commonly Practiced
by the Blacksmith
BY HELEN HARCOURT

The foot of a horse is a delicate piece
of mechanism, but is seldom recognized
as such either by the owner or by the
ignorant blacksmith. Both are apt to
regard it as a mere piece of bone, to be
cut, rasped, burned and nailed as most
convenient. But it is something more
than a piece of bone, a beautiful piece
of workmanship perfected by the Mas Master-Workman
ter-Workman Master-Workman of the universe. The Lord
put that foot on the horse, and it always
tits him until man interferes with its
perfect development. It can not be
abused without a serious injury. In
effect, the foot is practically the horse
himselfno foot, no horse.
The foot looks from the outside like
a piece of solid wood, but it is really a
horny box filled with blood vessels and
nerves. Only a quarter of an inch in intervenes
tervenes intervenes between the outside and the
sensitive parts inside, and from the bot bottom
tom bottom of the sole to these same delicate
organs there is only from a quarter to
half an inch.
Within this horny box there are thou thousands
sands thousands of horn-like leaves, and between
each of these is a flesh leaf full of blood
and nerves. Nature knows her busi business,
ness, business, and while the fleshy leaves produce
the horny leaves, thev do not crowd each
other, but fit snuglyunless man inter interferes.
feres. interferes.
The fleshy leaves on the outside pro produce
duce produce the wall, and those on the bottom
made the sole. There is a little band
around the top, and the outer part of
the foot grows down from this band
and secretes the outer varnish-like layer
that protects the foot. All this when
the foot is allowed to develop as nature
intended.
But when the horse has been shod
for a few years by the ordinary black blacksmith,
smith, blacksmith, a deteriorating change takes
place: the heels contract, the soles be become
come become concave or convex, and sometimes
have corns; the frog wastes away; the
walls are no longer smooth, but rough
and dry, and are not uniform in shape.
As the sole contracts, the horse becomes
stiff and sore, and feels just as his own owner
er owner does when he wears a tight shoe,
for that is just what happened to the un unlucky
lucky unlucky animal. A tight shoe causes pres pressure
sure pressure on the blood vessels, the sensitive
parts are pinched, a portion of the nour nourishing
ishing nourishing circulation is checked, and the
foot ceases to grow.
The ordinary blacksmith holds fast to
old traditions. One of these is that the
sole should be pared until he can make
an impression on it with his thumb. He
cuts away two-thirds of the wall and
comes down to the sensitive tissues.
Then he rubs the wall over with a hot
iron and dries out the new horn. The
result is that the horse feels everything
he steps on, because he has been robbed
of the protecting layer that nature gave
him. He feels as his master would if
compelled to walk over rough, flinty
ground with bare feet or thin-soled
shoes.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

Then the old-time blacksmith has been
taught that the frog is too long, as if
nature did not know best. So he cuts
away at it, taking out all the old tissue,
regardless or ignorant of the fact that
by natures decree the older parts of the
frog will shed just as soon as the under
part is matured and ready for use. But
the blacksmith cuts the protecting layers
away and exposes delicate tissue that is
not yet in condition to come in contact
with the ground.
Nature bent the corners of the wall of
the foot, and brought them towards
the frog; these are bars intended to keep
the walls from bending in. The black blacksmith
smith blacksmith thinks they dont look well, so
he cuts them off, to make the foot grow
wider, that is the reason he gives, and
he next cuts the V in the side of the
frog to widen the heels. The finishing
touch in the ruin is given when he rasps
all over the outside of the hoof and de destroys
stroys destroys the oily tissue that nature put
there to keep the foot from drying out.
The result of all this malpractice is just
the opposite of that designated by the
blacksmith. With the destruction of the
bars, the natural braces, the heels shrink
together; how can they help it? Con Contraction
traction Contraction of all parts of the foot is the
inevitable result.
But there is a remedy. Dont let the
blacksmith have his own way, if it is
the usual old-time way. Insist on your
right to have your horse shod accord according
ing according to your own directions. Stand by
and watch. See that the sole is not
touched; that no cutting whatever is
done on the frog, tissues or heel. See,
too, that the shoe is made to fit the
foot, not the foot the shoe. Dont let
the rasp be used on the hard varnish of
the hoof, and only a little where the
nails are clinched. And be sure that the
nails are not too long, so as to touch
the sensitive tissues. You would not
like a nail driven into your own foot.
Bear in mind that the intelligent shoe shoeing
ing shoeing of a horse will lengthen his useful usefulness
ness usefulness by several years at least, and add
not a little to his comfort. The foot of
a horse needs care from the time he is
weaned. On the growth of the foot de depends
pends depends the growth of bones and body and
the action of the coming horse. On his
action depends his commercial value.
Never forget that a wet or damp stable
will spell ruin to the feet almost as com completely
pletely completely as the blacksmith.
A liberal feed of grain rich in albu albuminoids
minoids albuminoids and mineral constituents will
make tough, horn}'-, durable feet and
bones. A horses feet may be big and
fine looking, but if they are not built of
the right materials they will not last
as they should. No foot, no horse,
is a good motto for the horse owner
to keep in mind. Anther thing is that
a horse used almost entirely on country
roads need not be shod at all. Nature
never meant him to be, and the wild
horse has perfect hoofs and fine action
because his feet are as nature made

them. The unshod foot will harden and
last longer in perfection than the shod
foot which the hard, streets of cities
make necessary for horses employed
there.
POSSIBILITIES OF FLORIDA SOIL.
( Continued from page 23. )
son I have seen several instances of
crops produced on Florida sand, which
it would be difficult to equal in any
other State, either in quantity, quality or
profits. Probably some who read this
may be inclined to think this statement
too sweeping. However, those who have
read the three preceding articles of this
series; viz, the one on Beets, that on
Sweet Corn, and lastly on Straw Strawberries,
berries, Strawberries, will be ready to acknowledge
that the evidence is very strong.
It is not very many years ago that
Hastings, now so widely known as a
center of a great industry, was not
known outside of its own county, and
land which now sells readily at from
SIOO to S2OO per acre could be bought
for from $5 to $lO.
Sanford is now a thriving city, and
the center of a great celerv and lettuce
producing region. Yet the Sanford
boom is of much more recent date than
that of Hastings. Only a very few
years ago two large tracts of land near
that city were sold by the owners, the
first for 75 cents per acre and later the
other for $1.25. The speculators who
invested in these tracts made fortunes
from the deals, as they are now valued
at from SIOO to S3OO per acre. Nor are
these fictitious speculative values; the
lands are producing crops which would
pay an enormous interest on these es estimated
timated estimated values, after paying all expenses
of growing and marketing them were
paid.
But these two sections have no mon monopoly
opoly monopoly on the production of their special
crops. Within a few weeks past I have
seen thousands of acres in this same
county, which are capable of producing
as large crops of potatoes, of as good
quality, as were ever seen at Hastings.
Most of the land could be bought at
prices ranging from $5 to $lO per acre,
and much of it could be drained, if
the work were done in large tracts, at
a cost not to exceed $lO per acre. Of
course, the land would need to be
cleared, and requires a liberal applica application
tion application of fertilizer, but, in most cases, the
clearing would be an easy job.
Like all Florida sand, the soil is de deficient
ficient deficient in potash, and that element is
especially necessary to the production
of good potatoes.
While Sanford has become widely
celebrated as a celery shipping center,
yet the most profitable celery crop of
which I have ever heard in this State
was grown on the west coast south of
Tampa.
The possibilities of Florida soil de depend
pend depend largely upon the enterprise of the
owner. Good crops of vegetables are
grown by the use of commercial fer fertilizers
tilizers fertilizers alone, yet if you can have a good
supply of stable manure, you will find
that you will have better results, pro provided
vided provided that you do not neglect to add a
liberal application of commercial fertil fertilizer
izer fertilizer which contains a large percentage
of potash.
Switzerland, Fla.



THE POULTRY YARD
By C. Fred Ward

Care of the Laying Stock and Eggs.
Let us consider the care and feeding
of the layers now that we have them
mated upon the breeding yards.
In each yard we have from eight to
a dozen hens with a good cockerel, or as
many pullets with a cock. The yard
must be large enough so that they can
have plenty of exercise and shade of
some kind must be provided. Bermuda
sod is good in the yards but there must
be a place for a dust bath. The fence
around the yard should be about five
feet high and well staked down at the
bottom to keep out prowlers. A barbed
wire along the top would give further
protection.
The house for the layers need not be
expensive. But it must afford shelter
from the cold north and west winds and
the roosting space must be protected
from beating rains. We use shed houses
of upright, unplaned boards, opening to
the south, with a shingled roof and clay
floor, built tight on the north and west
sides and on the north half of the east
side. A wire door completes the rest of
the east side and a wire front is used
on the south. A hood, however, pro protects
tects protects on the south from rain. The di dimensions
mensions dimensions of these houses are 4xG feet
and 6 feet high in front.
The roosting quarters must be kept
clean. They should be scraped out and
swept at least once or twice a week.
Ours are cleaned daily, except Sundays,
and they should be sprayed with a lice
killing solution once a month.
The nest boxes can be built under the
roosts at the back and reached from a
hinged board, low down on the north
side, or nests separated from the houses
and made of soap boxes raised at one
end on two short legs, half of the bottom
knocked out at the end toward the legs,
and nesting material put in remaining
half of the bottom. The hen enters
from this opening made by removing
the half bottom. The top of the box
comes entirely off, is covered with oil
cloth, and has a handle. The slant
given by the legs on one end makes it
shed water well. All nest boxes and
houses can be cheaply painted with
Venetian red.
Great care must be taken to keep the
nests free from vermin and use plenty
of nesting mate Hal, that the eggs may
not be broken or soiled.
If the hens are protected from cold
and rain and kept clean, the remaining
important point in egg production is
correct feeding.
In the morning a crumbly mash of 50
per cent bran, 35 per cent shorts and
15 per cent prepared beef scrap is fed,
giving them all they will quickly eat up
clean, no more. In the afternoon a mix mixture
ture mixture of wheat and oats and a very little
corn, scattered in litter to make them
scratch is given, commercial scratch
food, which contains wheat, cracked
corn, oats, Kaffir corn, sun-flower seed,
etc., is better, if it can be obtained, as it
gives greater variety.
Green stuff must also be provided providedyoung
young providedyoung mustard, lettuce, cabbage, etc.
This is very necessary to keep the hens
laying. If the necessary green food from

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

the garden is lacking, add alfalfa meal
to the mash.
Pure water must be kept before the
hens at all times. Running water, if
possible, which can be obtained by let letting
ting letting water from a faucet drip very
slowly into the water dish, is best.
Otherwise give them fresh water every
day and keep the drinking water shaded
that it may be as cool as possible. Keep
boxes of grit, oyster shells and char charcoal
coal charcoal in each yard.
Trap nests are very useful in select selecting
ing selecting the productive fowls, and so build building
ing building up a good laying strain, but they
require a great deal of care, as the hens
must not be kept confined or they will
not keep vigorous and well.
Pullets and young hens make the best
layers. It is not profitable to keep hens
after their second year, unless they are
known to be especially prolific layers or
have proved especially good breeders,
producing particularly fine birds in
color and shape.
If they have proved especially valua valuable
ble valuable in these points, though, it is well
to keep individual birds as long as
their usefulness continues.
In marketing the eggs, care must be
taken. Attractive egg boxes, containing
clean eggs, uniform in color and size and
marketed at least twice a week in warm
weather, will bring the best prices. Some
use a rubber stamp, giving the date
when laid. Many customers object to
this, as they wish to serve the eggs
boiled and unopened, and the dye does
not always wash off.
Always collect the eggs every day and
keep in a cool place. If to be used for
hatching they should be turned daily.
It is the careful attention to seem seemingly
ingly seemingly very little things that spells suc success
cess success in the poultry business.
Winter Park, Fla.
Good Prices Coming.
Eggs have kept up in price the past
summer better than ever before for
years. Fewer eggs were put in cold
storage last spring than usual, but it is
said that eggs were packed practically
all summer by the cold storage people peoplean
an peoplean unusual thing. This shows the cold
storage people expect to get a big price
for their cold storage eggs or they
wouldnt pay 20 cents and over a dozen
and keep them three or four months.
With eggs bringing good prices, many
people will start into the poultry busi business.
ness. business. In fact, the crop of beginners
will likely be the heaviest known during
the next few months. And there is room
for all. No danger of over production
in the business. And now while prices
are high is a good timein fact, the
best, to start.Ex.
Rhode Island Reds.
The ancestry of the Reds is en enshrouded
shrouded enshrouded in mystery, but there is no
mystery about their present popularity.
Maybe you dont care for chickens.
Thats all right, but you have never
owned the Reds, thats one thing dead
certain. Reds will di;ive away the blues

just like the old gray cat chases mice.
Reds and blues dont travel together,
never. Do you know that there is
something actually enchanting about the
soft, luxurious red of a true Rhode Isl Island
and Island fowl. Psychologists will tell you
that gazing at this particular hue in increases
creases increases ones heart action. In other
words, it stimulates. He sends rich,
red blood through your veins and causes
you to put forth the best thats in you.
1 hats why Red breeders have fire and
enthusiasm. The red of the Reds is the
essence of all that is splendid and worth
while, the warmth and life and color of
real living, of genial good fellowship and
worthy endeavor.Red Breeders Bulle Bulletin.
tin. Bulletin.
Marketing Eggs.
Hggs vary in color, size, flavor and
keeping quality, just as fruits vary, and
it is of much importance that the poul poultryman
tryman poultryman grade his eggs before marketing
as it is for the fruit grower to grade his
fruit. The nests should be clean, other otherwise
wise otherwise the eggs will lack in keeping qual quality.
ity. quality. The germs of decomposition enter
the egg through the shell, and for this
reason eggs laid in dirty nests will de deteriorate
teriorate deteriorate in quality more rapidly than
eggs laid in clean nests. Hggs should be
gathered regularly each day, and broody
hens should not be allowed to sit on
them for any length of time. They
should be of uniform size and color.
Where white eggs are demanded, select
only white ones. Those off in size and
color should be discarded or sold in local
markets. In every city there are reliable
grocery stores that are willing to pay a
premium for regular shipments of select
eggs. It is possible by shipping eggs
direct to the consumer to get higher
prices. For this purpose special crates
will be necessary. These may be similar
in construction to the commercial egg
crate, but smaller, the size depending
somewhat on the requirements of the
individual customer. Southern Poultry
Journal.
Chicken Ranching in Florida.
There is much instruction in compar comparing
ing comparing the prices of land in Florida with
the prices in other sections of the coun country.
try. country. Take the vicinity of any of the
larger cities of the north and west for
the location of a poultry farm, and the
necessary land would cost the buyer ten
to forty times as much as equally suit suitable
able suitable land in Florida. By common con consent
sent consent ten acres is accepted as the best
area of land for a chicken ranch with
such accessories as a cow or two and a
few pigs and a quantity of fruit trees.
Within ten miles of any of the cities of
the Pacific coast that land would cost
from five to forty thousand dollars, and
at the lowest named price it would be
the steep side of a hill or a spot on
the slope of a mountain. Really good
and suitable land for poultry raising
purposes can not be had on the Pacific
slope anywhere for less than ten times
what it would be necessary to pay for
equally valuable land near the big cities
of Florida.
And in the matter of prices of the
products of the chicken ranch the Flor Florida
ida Florida rancher has the advantage in price
and transportation over the Pacific
rancher. The average prices of fowls
and eggs in Tampa and other Florida
cities are higher than in the cities of
any other portion of the country, unless

27



28

it might be in the heart of Nevada,
where the chicken farmer has to buy
both his feed and water. There are
many men on the Pacific coast who are
making money out of chickens, notwith notwithstanding
standing notwithstanding the high price of their plants,
but the same capital would do better
in Florida, while a man can establish
himself in the business here for one onefourth
fourth onefourth the money he would require on
the Pacific coast.
The Times has carefully compared the
market quotations in the western papers
with the figures actually paid to Florida
chicken ranchers, and has found that
Tampa prices paid the producer are the
higher. In view of these indisputable
facts it is clear that a man can do a
great deal worse for himself than in invest
vest invest in ten acres of Florida land and
a few hundred hens and the other de desirable
sirable desirable apparatus. There is no section
where the business is easier and safer
if properly looked after. The only
place in the world where domestic fowls
grow wild is Cuba, and the fowls are
guineas and must be harvested with a
shotgun. Chickens and turkeys must
be looked after, and if that is well done
they will make rich the man who does
it.
Strictly New-Laid Eggs Wanted.
It is imperative that farmers should
bring none but strictly new laid eggs eggsstill
still eggsstill better if they are non-fertilized
to city market or private customer. They
cannot successfully compete with the
specialists if they do not bestir them themselves.
selves. themselves. And I am happy to say I know
of several farmers of this first class, who
put up clean, uniform colored, strictly
new laid eggs in a neat card board box
with a printed label a sfollows:
Strictly New Laid, Non-fertilized Eggs.
These Eggs are from David Smith,
Eggville Farm, Pulletsville,
And are guaranteed to be from well and
cleanly fed hens. Sold only by
Shell, White & Yolk, Purveyors.
The clerk-manager above mentioned
assured me that there was always a de demand
mand demand for new laid eggs at highest fig figures,
ures, figures, especially when neatly put up. And
it should also be remembered by farmers
of the second classthat the fresher the
eggs are that they take to store, in city
or country, the better price will they re receive.
ceive. receive. Oh, says someone, we are al-

LAKEMONT POULTRY FARM
HEADQUARTERS FOR THE FAMOUS
S. C. RHODE ISLAND REDS
The finest of breeding and laying stock for sale at all seasons. Special prices on application.
We have 15 yards of our best birds mated up to supply the fall and winter demand for eggs for
hatching. Prices are $2.00 per settings or two settings for $3.50. Incubator eggs a specialty at
SB.OO per hundred. 35 prizes at last two State Poultry Shows tell the quality of our stock.
WRITE FOR CIRC UL A R-l T S FREE
LAKEMONT POULTRY FARM : : WARD & LANE, Proprietors
Box S Winter Park, Florida.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

ways offered a low price. Yes, because
in the great majority of cases the eggs
are not worth more. A producer can
soon get his name up by supplying none
but the best article if he chooses to take
the trouble. The pedlar, the city or
country store keeper will soon learn
your reliability.
If you have a good article you are in
a position to demand a good price. If
you have not, you must take what is of offered
fered offered to you. I am aware of the lions
in the way of the farmer of the second
class, such as a distance from market,
difficulty in keeping eggs from freezing
in transit during winter, etc. But there
is one thing he can certainly do and that
is to sell for eating none but non-fer non-fertilized
tilized non-fertilized eggs. If from carefully and
cleanly fed hens, such eggs will undoubt undoubtedly
edly undoubtedly keep longer than fertilized ones,
particularly in the summer season. But
I do not wish to be understood as advis advising
ing advising farmers, under any circumstances, to
hold on to their eggs. Eggs cannot be
marketed too soon after being laid in
any and all cases. A. G. Gilbert, in
American Poultry World.
POULTRY RAISING.
Duval County Offers Exceptional Ad Advantages
vantages Advantages for This Industry.
Quite a number of people who are
now settling upon small farms in Duval
county could make a nice profit out of
raising poultry while they are prepar preparing
ing preparing their land for cultivation and wait waiting
ing waiting on fruit trees and nut trees to bring
returns.
This county affords splendid oppor opportunities
tunities opportunities for the raising of poultry for lo local
cal local and other markets. The mild, open
winters make it possible to carry on the
business during the winter months with without
out without intermission or the loss of a single
egg. Those who have undertaken the
business on an extensive scale, using
good broods of fowls, have made a suc success
cess success of this industry.
Turkeys, which are so hard to raise in
many sections in the North, thrive finely
in this county and good breeds of fowls
have always proven to be money-makers.
At the cost of land in this county, es especially
pecially especially land within ten or fifteen miles
of Jacksonville, such as at Dinsmore,
Jacksonville Farms, Jacksonville Heights
and other places, a well equipped poul-

try farm would prove one of the best
investments in the entire community.
Transportation facilities are adequate
and the good, hard-surfaced roads that
the county is now building would place
these farms within a half hour or hours
drive of the city with an ordinary team.
While waiting for a peach orchard or
a pecan grove to come into profitable
bearing a poultry farm would bring in
an income sufficient to maintain an en entire
tire entire family and the poultry would be a
big help to the trees. Times-Union.
PREVENT EGG-EATING
By Properly Constructing Egg Boxes
and Providing Shell-Forming
Materials.
Any poultry keeper who has the am ambition
bition ambition to climb to the summit of success
in poultry culture must keep an eye fixed
upon the minor details of the poultry
yard and plant.
Fowls, like men, are blessed or cursed
with good or bad habits, the latter often
being acquired through the owner of the
birds neglecting to pay attention to some
little detail in their management. It
may be that the birds have acquired a
taste for new laid eggs through becom becoming
ing becoming too fat and laying shelless eggs
while at roost. One shelless egg dropped
from the roost and broken in its fall,
forms a tempting bait for the most in innocent
nocent innocent hen, and one that is likely to so
appeal to her appetite as to immediately
transform her into a bird of vice.
How often do we see pullets coming in
to lay, scratching away in the nest boxes
until their contents are scratched to the
four walls of the house. We see here
the absurdity of having nest boxes
whose fronts admit light. Fowls like
secluded quarters in which to deposit
their eggs. Pullets will visit quiet and
shady places and lay without such pre preliminaries
liminaries preliminaries as scratching about and a lot
of cackling, and will leave their deposits
uninjured. Nest boxes should not ad admit
mit admit too much light, neither should they
be of sufficient height to allow the fowls
to stand upright in them.
Shelless eggs dropped while the fowls
are at roost are, if broken in their fall,
apt to be consumed and so create the
egg eating vice. Indeed the writer thinks
it safe to assert that the two main
causes of egg eating are traceable to



nest boxes of too large a size and ad admitting
mitting admitting too much light, and to shelless
eggs dropped from the perch. The
former can be remedied by the carpenter,
and the latter by the timely provision of
shell forming materials, or in the case
of an over-fat condition of the fowls a
change of diet and an aperient added to
the drinking water. The writer has
never known an instance when a fowl
has acquired the vice of egg eating by
breaking through the shell of a perfect
egg-
An insufficient number of nests for
the quantity of laying hens kept is some sometimes
times sometimes accountable for the egg eating vice.
Where nest boxes are too few in num number
ber number it often happens that two or more
hens will crowd into the same nest, and
eggs are liable to become broken and
consumed. If the birds kept are of no
great value, and the culprit can be de detected
tected detected the quickest cure is a dislocating
or wringing of the neck and a stew pot,
but fortunately, wise readers of Poultry
Gazette do not allow worthless mongrels
to infest their yards.
Have the nest boxes of sufficient size
as to just allow the fowls to comfortably
enter and crouch in them, and place
them in the shadiest part of the roosting
quarters. Collect the eggs as soon as
possible after being deposited. Supply
the birds with sufficient amount of shell
forming material.
Prevent the laying of soft shelled eggs
by a proper diet of the birds upon non nonfattening
fattening nonfattening foods, and by the administra administration
tion administration of a slight aperient in the drinking
water. Poultry Gazette.
A Turkey Experiment.
The report of the Kansas State Board
of Agriculture contains the following:
An experiment was made as to the
gains by turkeys confined in pens com compared
pared compared with those at large. Those in
pens were given all they could eat clean
of a mixture of wheat, oats, and barley,
2:1:1. In the morning the grain was
fed chopped and wet with milk, but in
the evening was fed whole.' The tur turkeys
keys turkeys were apparently more fond of oats
than of the other grains, so toward the
end of the fattening period the propor proportion
tion proportion of this grain was increased. A little
grain was fed the turkeys which were
not confined, in addition to the food
which they could gather. The five tur turkeys
keys turkeys in pens weighed on an average 6.55
pounds each at the beginning of the test.
During the 42 days of the feeding
period the average gain was 4.05 pounds,
6 pounds of grain being eaten per pound
of gain. The turkeys running at large
also weighed at beginning of the test
6.55 pounds each, and made an aver average
age average gain of 1.85 pounds. In both cases
the greatest gains were made during
the first three weeks. It is stated that
the penned turkeys when dressed shrank
5 per cent less than those running at
large and that they were plumper and
were in every way more inviting in ap appearance.New
pearance.New appearance.New York Produce Review.
Overfeeding.
Overfeeding is a mistake in the pro production
duction production of poultry or eggs as well as un underfeeding.
derfeeding. underfeeding. Even if the excess of food
should be digested and absorbed into the
blood stream, the tissues can not take
up more than they need and the rest
will float as poison and waste in the
system. The result will be bad. In Instead
stead Instead of promoting vital action the same

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

will be retarded, just as the production
of steam will be retarded when the fur furnace
nace furnace is choked with an excess of fuel.
The popular idea is that the more
food digested, the greater the number
of eggs in fowls, or the greater the
strength and vitality in any animal orga organism.
nism. organism. There never was a more greatly
mistaken idea. Only evil can come from
overcrowding an animal organism with
an excess of food. There should be just
enough feed and no more. It is safer to
give slightly too little rather than too
much.lndustrious Hen.
Treatment of Fall Colds.
Catarrhal colds in the fall or winter
will not cause any trouble if handled in
a common sense manner. For best re results
sults results the birds ought to be housed in
open-air quarters. When the colds first
make their appearance as first indicated
by sneezing, running of a thin mucous
from the nostrils, bubbles in the corners
of the eyes, the following treatment will
often prove all that is necessary.
Drop twenty drops of spirits of cam camphor
phor camphor on a tablespoonful of sugar and
dissolve the whole in a quart of drinking
water, allowing the birds no other drink.
When the birds go on the roost at night,
rub a little vaseline into the eyes, nos nostrils
trils nostrils and press some in the cleft of the
mouth. Often one treatment is all that
is necessary. The vaseline treatment
may be repeated as often as it is re required.Poultry
quired.Poultry required.Poultry World.
Poultry Notes.
Don't allow yourself to become negli negligent
gent negligent about your poultry duties.
Have some object in view, and work
to it.
Nothing under the sun is better for
fowls, both young and old, than dry
bran.
Keep your breeding fowls active and
working and you will produce more and
better chicks.
Utility means more to the farmer than
fancy points.
There are a great many things to con consider
sider consider before one should launch out in
the poultry business.
Remember good blood counts for
much. In breeding pure bred poultry
insist on the royal blue.
There is danger of vermin getting in
their work no matter how careful you
are. Keep a constant fight against them.
Spray your roosting rooms once a
week with a solution of two parts water
to one of carbolic acid and coal oil.
If you failed last season in raising a
fine flock of fowls it is no sign you will
again this year.
Dont make any sudden change in the
chicks feed; a sudden change often
causes bowel trouble and death. A
weeks time is none too long to com complete
plete complete a change of feed.
An old barrel makes a good coop for
a single brood.
Shallow watering pans are the things
for the new chicks.
The chicks drinking fountain should
be carefully washed. Bowel trouble
often originates from the practice of
giving milk and water from the same
fountain on the theory that all the chick chickens
ens chickens want is a drink. Milk is never a
substitute for water.
Dont have any makeshift coops in
your chicken business.
Why breed scrub chickens in this day
and age of the world?

If you go among the broods often
you will observe their needs.
There is always a right way and a
wrong way with the young chicks.
Be careful not to over feed your
breeding hens. They become too fat and
lay much less and the eggs they do
lay will be much more apt to be in infertile.
fertile. infertile. Feed rather light and keep biddy
busy.
To Succeed With Farm Poultry.
Keep none but pure-bred fowls. Then
their eggs will sell for either fancy or
commercial purposes. Get as good stock
to begin with as you can afford.
Make egg production your prime ob object
ject object and work in other features as de demand
mand demand arises. The greatest demand is
for eggs, especially during the winter
and early spring.
Sell only fresh and clean eggs and
sort them according to size and color.
This is the way to please your custo customers
mers customers and save the middlemens profit.
Cut off all customers at once who do
not give your price and pay promptly.
Of course you will have some fowls
for sale. Some broilers, perhaps also
some old, hens for the fall market and
cockerels in the spring for breeding or
for general market.
Trios of breeding stock may also be
sold when the demand in that line justi justifies
fies justifies and a surplus has accumulated.
In marketing, everything must be in
first class condition and calculated to
render perfect satisfaction to the cus customer
tomer. customer Industrious Hen.
Rhode Island Reds
SINGLE COMB
Bred for Business(Eggs and Bleat)
All breeding pens are headed by 1909 early
hatched cockerels from trap-nested 200-egg
hens. Eggs 10 cents each. No stock for sale.
Guarantee a good hatch.
Six-Mile Poultry Farm
Route 3, JACKSONVILLE. FLU.
comb White Leghorns
SNOW WHITE
Bred to Lay Eggs SI.OO per 15
No Stock for Sale
J. A. BELL, - White Springs, Fla.
com l I White Leghorns
Eggs, 13 for $1.00; 100 for $6.00
Throop Poultry Farm
Enterprise, Fla.
Indian Runner Duck Eggs
from the best English strain. 280 egg layer. 10
cts. each, Angora Cats. Pheasant Eggs, The
Golden. Two cents and your address secures a
beautiful Pheasant Photo and our price list.
Choctaw Poviltry Yards
62 S. Lafayette St., - Mobile, Ala.
ONE FULL BALE
Feet Long for 75c
Galvanized Poultry Netting
WRITE FOR CIRCULARS.
NETTING mesh DOW WHtEAIRON WORKS, Louisville,^

29



30

DR. W. H. WILEY, Chief Chemist of the Agricultural Department
of the United States, has written:
There is practically no other body of land in the world which presents such re remarkable
markable remarkable possibilities of development as the muck lands bordering the southern shores of
Lake Okeechobee. With the surface almost absolutely level it affords promise of devel development
opment development which reaches beyond the limits of prophecy.

I nn
The Southern End of the Peninsula of Florida, Showing Position of the Land of
Florida Land Development Company
l
I.
1

FLORIDA LAND DEVELOPMENT CO.
169 WEST PORSVTH STREET
JACKSONVILLE FLORIDA

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.



Everglades Everglad.es ===== Everglades
SEUECT YOUR TRACTS TODAY
FEW TRACTS LEFT IN
OKEECKOBEE PARK
Highest Point in the EvergladesOn the Southern Shores"of Lak? Okeechobee
MOST PRODUCTIVE SOIL, IIN EXISTENCE
Cool Summers Mild Winters Pure Waters Perfectly Healthy No Swamps Few Insects
iNatures Gift to FloridaThe Mid-Winter Garden of America'
EARLV SETTLER iOK£ EC ri OB EE PARK.
All Kinds of Fruits and Vegetables Thrive in this Rich Soi* Contains about 3 per cent of Free Nitrogen Available for Plant Life Should Produce,
with Proper Culture. SSOO to $1,500 per Acre.
MTrark QaU rm Fnllnwind frmdil-SrmQ* Warranty Deed when tract is paid for. Possession when desired. No taxes. No
i raLIS £3Olll OH ruiiowillj' LUIIUIUOIIS. interest. Free Warranty Deed in case of death. Payments suspended in case of
illness. No negroes can own land in Okeechobee Park. Examinations before purchase binding at following prices and terms:
Five-Acre Tracts, Bach, $175.00
($35 00 Per Acre)
V 1 TRACT, $15.00 CASH, SIO.OO MONTHLY 3 TRACTS, $25.00 CASH, $20.00 MONTHLY
X 2 TRACTS, 20.00 15 00 4 30.00 25.00
5 TRACTS, $35 00 CASH, $30.00 MONThLY
\ Adjoining Tracts to the Individual Purchaser. All Tracts Front on Forty Foot Roads
Will allot Tracts nearest Lake remaining unsold when order is received Send in
coupon today with first remittance and we will send you Plat of Okeechobee Park
showing location of your Tracts and agreement containing conditions as above
% Florida Land
&\\ Development to.
\ \ Uedemann Bulding
Jacksonville, Fla.
\\ TITLES PERFECT
*

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

31



32

Grafted Pecan Trees
Of Selected Paper Shell Varieties
For Descriptive List Write
BA YVIEW NURSERY
C. FORKERT, Proprietor. Ocean Springs, Miss'

ml S. OCEAN ST.
WALTON SEED CO.
We make a Specialty of
Burpees Seeds. Also sell
Poultry Supplies, Insect Insecticides,
icides, Insecticides, Etc.
7 SOUTH OCEAN STREET
JACKSONVILLE FLA.

California Seeds
for Florida.
Write for Our Illustrated
Catalogue of Seeds for
Semi-Tropic Gardening
AGGELEI & mm SEED CO.
113-115 Main St.,
Los Angeles, California.

Plant Woods Seeds

For Superior Crops
Woods 30th Annual Seed Book
is one of the most useful and com complete
plete complete seed catalogues issued. It
gives practical information about
the best and most profitable seeds
to plant for
The Market Grower
The Private Gardener
The Farmer
Wood's Seeds are grown and
selected with special reference to
the soils and climate of the South,
and every southern planter should
have Wood's Seed Book so as to
be fully posted as to the best seeds
for southern growing. Mailed free
on request. Write for it.
T.Jf. WOOD & SONS,
Seedsmen, Richmond, Va.
We are headquarters for
Grass and Clover Seeds, Seed Po*
tatoes, Seed Oats, Cow Peas,
Soja Beans, and all Farm
and Garden Seeds.

rnrr A handsome Post Card Album
rnLL filled with beautiful cards FREE
TO Costs you nothing if you write now
pip! Q for particulars. CENTRAL NEWS
UI nLO C oM PANY. Chattanooga, Tenn.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

Eucalyptus TreesNursery Stock
Largest Growers on the Pacific Coast
Orange County Nursery & Land Co s., Fullerton California
SEND FOR PRICE LIST

SEED Hr FLORIDA PLANTING
£TT We have all of our Seed grown for planting in
111 Florida. We have had five years experience in
ll truck growing in Florida, and understand the
conditions here and the wants of the growers,
and our Seed are raised to meet them.
Catalogue } KENNERLYS SEED STORE
Kennedy & Hickman Block PALATKA, FLORIDA

MONEV LOANED
OIN REAL ESTATE
LONG TIME, EASY PAYMENTS
Reliable Representatives Wanted
THE JACKSON LOAN & TRUST CO.
JACKSON. MISSISSIPPI

CLARKS CUTAWAY
Grading or Smoothing and Leveling Harrow
With this tool every field can
be made as smooth as a floor
vJ enough for a flower bedmakes
\lfjiMperfect melon and onion beds.
Will smooth an acre as true as
~ a mill pond in twenty minutes.
One-horse, 6 feet;-two-horse,
8 feet. Made in other length,
Clarks Reversible Market Gardener Grove Harrow
This machine is used extensively for small garden or truck and market
garden use, and for orchard cultivation in Florida.
0 1-horse, two gangs of five 14-inch discs each.
00 Light 2-horse, two gangs of six 14-inch disks each.
000 Heavy 2-horse, two gangs of seven 14-inch disks each.
We make 120 sizes and styles of the original CUTAWAY tools. Dont be deceived
by poor imitations or infringements. Theres only one original CUTAWAY and its
Clarks. Send today for FREE booklet.
CUTAWAY HARROW CO., 938 Main St., HIGGANUM, CONN.



Books orv Florida Crops
ISSUED BY
Wilson & Toomer Fertiliser Company
JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA
Manufacturers of
IDEAL FERTILIZERS
The following booklets are sent free on request: How and When to Fertilize Citrus Trees, Spring Time
with Citrus Trees, The Good Old Summer Time in the Orange Groves, Why Fertilize Citrus Trees in the
Fall? (The last three issued in season.) Die-Back, Its Causes and Treatment, How to Begin Orange Groves,
Our Florida Soils, Florida Vegetables, Florida Strawberries, Irish Potatoes, Pineapple Fertilizing, Ideal
Fertilizers and Ideal Field Crop Fertilizers. In January an attractive Picture Book will be ready that will
show Ideal Results from Ideal Fertilizers. Your requests for same will be filed.

FRUIT AND VEGETABLE
GROWING IN MANATEE
COUNTY, FLORIDA
O those interested in Florida we wish to announce the issuance of
o the above mentioned booklet. It consists of fifty-six pages, is
handsomely illustrated, and describes the advantages and oppor opportunities
tunities opportunities in the famous LAND of MANATEE, located on the
West Coast of Southern Florida, reached by the Seaboard Air Line Railway.
It also contains a map of the State.
Within the pamphlet are presented facts and figures concerning the culture of
fruits and vegetables and illustrations of life in that ideal section.
Are you interested in knowing and having your friends know more of this delightful spot a place in which to locate
where good profits and an ideal home will reward your efforts? A copy of the book will be mailed free upon request.
Address mentioning this publication
J. W. WHITE, General Industrial Agent,
SEABOARD AIR LINE RAILWAY,
Dept. FA, Norfolk, Virginia.

GILMORE, FLORIDA
On the St. Johns River, Between Jacksonville and the Ocean. Heathful
Salt Air. Lands at Right Prices. Address for Particulars
A. T. GUZ INTER* M. D. = GILMORE, FLORIDA



GRIFFINGS TREES GIVE RESULTS
THEY HAVE STOOD THE TEST FOR OVER TWENTY YEARS
QUICK SELLING TREE PRICES
The Trees and Plants offered on this page are growingin fields that must be cleared
within the next few weeks. Order Early Before Supply is Exhausted

Peach Trees. Jewell, Waldo, Angel Bid Bidwell
well Bidwell Early and Late, Florida Craw Crawford,
ford, Crawford, Gibbons October and others. 3
to 4 ft. grade 15c each, $1.20 per 10,
$lO per 100. 4to 6 ft. grade 20c each,
$1.50 per 10, sl2 per 100.
Fig Trees. Celestial, Lemon and Bruns Brunswick
wick Brunswick varieties. 2 to 3 ft. grade 20c
each, $1.60 per 10, sl4 per 100. 3to 4
ft. grade 25c each, $2 per 10, $lB per
100.
Pear Trees. LeConte, Keiffer, Garber,
Early Harvest and Bartlett varieties.
3 to 4 ft. grade 20c each, $1.50 per 10,
sl2 per 100. 4to 6 ft. grade 25c each,
$2 per 10, sls per 100 trees:*

MMMBMMMMMMMMMMaMBMaMMMMMMMMaMMMMMMMM^MBM^aa I<^[| Jacksonville, Florida.
PECAN TREES AT GRIFFING'S NURSERIES

Japan Persimmon Trees. Bleven best va varieties.
rieties. varieties. A fruit that should be more
generally grown. The past season they
brought better prices than oranges. 3
to 4 ft. grade 25c each, $2 per 10. 4to
6 ft. grade 30c each, $2.50 per 10 trees.
Plum Trees. Excelsior, Terrell and
Stumpe varieties, kinds that bear
heavy crops. 3to 4 ft. size 20c each,
$1.70 per 10. 4to 6 ft. size 25c each,
$2.00 per 10 trees.
Pecan Trees. Best large thin shell. Bud Budded
ded Budded and grafted varieties. 4to 5 ft.
size $1 each, s.soper 10. sto 7ft. size
$1.25 each, $lO per 10. 7to 9 ft. size,
fine for street or yard planting, $1.40
each, $12.00 per 10 trees.

Grape Vines. Early bunch grapes. Con Concord,
cord, Concord, Niagara, Delaware, Elvira and
other best varieties, also the famous
Scuppernong James and Thomas. 15c
each, $1.20 per 10. 2-year-old vines
20c each, $1.60 per 10 vines.
Camphor Trees. The tree from which the
camphor of commerce is made, is a
beautiful evergreen tree. 2 to 3 ft.
trees 25c each, $2.00 per 10 trees.
Rose*Bushes. 69 leading varieties best
for the South. 2-year field-grown
bushes, grafted, nursery selection of
varieties. $2.50 per 10 bushes. Only
the best, choicest varieties used in
these collections.