Citation
The Florida agriculturist

Material Information

Title:
The Florida agriculturist
Uniform Title:
Florida agriculturist (De Land, Fla.)
Place of Publication:
DeLand Fla
Publisher:
Kilkoff & Dean
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Monthly[1908-June 1911]
Weekly[ FORMER 1878-1907]
monthly
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ;

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agriculture -- Florida ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- De Land (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Volusia County (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Jacksonville (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Duval County (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Genre:
newspaper ( marcgt )
newspaper ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Florida -- Volusia -- DeLand
Coordinates:
29.02889 x -81.30055 ( Place of Publication )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1, no. 1 (May 15, 1878)-v. 38, no. 6 (June 1911).
Numbering Peculiarities:
Numbering is irregular.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Some issues for 1911 also called "New series."
General Note:
Publisher: E.O. Painter, <1887>.
General Note:
Editor: C. Codrington, 1878- .
General Note:
"A journal devoted to state interests."
General Note:
Published at Jacksonville and De Land, <1902>-1907; at Jacksonville, 1907- .
Funding:
Funded by NEH in support of the National Digital Newspaper Project (NDNP), NEH Award Number: Project #00110855

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item.
Resource Identifier:
000941425 ( ALEPH )
01376795 ( OCLC )
AEQ2997 ( NOTIS )
sn 96027724 ( LCCN )

Related Items

Preceded by:
Volusia County herald (De Land, Fla.)

Full Text
Only Papir East of Rocky Mountains Making a Spsoialty of Tropicafand Semfijropical Agriculture

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! Everglades = Everglades = Everglades
I SELECT YOUR TRACTS TODAY
j 100 Five-Acre Tradts Left in
I OKEECHOBEE PARK
| Highest Point in the Everglades
| On the Southern Shores of Lake Okeechobee
| MOST PRODUCTIVE SOIL IN EXISTENCE
[ Cool Summers Mild Winters Pure Waters
[ Perfectly Healthy No Swamps Few Insects
| Natures Gift to Florida
| The Mid-Winter Garden of America
All kinds of Fruits and Vegetables Thrive in This Rich Soil Contains about 3 per cent of Free
N.trogen Ava,lable for Plant Life Should Produce, with Proper Culture, SSOO to $1,500 per Acre
All Tracts Sold on Following Conditions:
Warrant y Deed when tracft is paid for. Possession when desired. No taxes. No inteie&. Free Warranty
Deed in case of death. Payments suspended in case of illness. No negroes can own land in
Okeechobee Park. Examination before purchase binding at following prices and terms:
Five-Acre Tradts, Each, $175.00
($35.00 per Acre)
1 TRACT, $15.00 CASH, SIO.OO MONTHLY
2 TRACTS, 20.00 15.00
3 25.00 20.00
4 30.00 25.00
5 35.00 30.00
Adjoining Tradts to the individual purchaser. All Tradts front on 40-foot roads
Will allot Tracts nearest Lake remaining unsold when order is
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Florida Land
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V\ \\% Jacksonville, Fla.
\\VH titles perfect



A FEW FINE REAL ESTATE OPPORTUNITIES
Orange Groves, Vegetable Lands, Farms and Homes
Suggested by the many inquiries received daily regarding Florida and its opportunities
for homes and investments, the Agriculturist some time ago published the following :
If you have more land than you really need sell some of it at a reasonable price and
surround yourself with good neighbors, and thus let us fill up the State with industrious
people who will make homes here and add to the general prosperity. The Agricultur st
receives letters almost every day asking ibout homes in Florida, mostly small places worth
SI,OOO to SIO,OOO, already planted, or suita le for planting, to oranges, pineapples, peaches
or pecans, and on whic t they can grow truck or raise poultry profitably until their trees
come into bearing. If any of our readers have such property that they will sell cheap, and
will furnish us a full description and location of same, with price and terms, we may be
able to put them in communication with a purchaser.
In response to tms we have received descriptions of a number of properties, of which
the following is a partial list:

No. 58 5-acre farm at Sisco,
Putnam county, about 14 miles from
the county seat, on A. C. L. railway,
one mile from depot; wire fence all
around; 5-room house and small
barn; good for peach orchard and
poultry farm, or camphor grove;
healthy and good water; entirely
clear and free from stumps. Price
$500; terms.
No. 59 Fine Garden Ten acres,
near Orlando; first class land, in
high state of cultivation, thoroughly
equipped; half under irrigation
(Skinner system); gasoline engine
and pump, tank holding 10,000 to
15,000 gallons, on large inclosed
tow r er; fine crop of lettuce, cauli cauliflower
flower cauliflower and cabbage now growing.
Price, including crop, $7,000 cash.
No. 60 50 acres splendid muck
land fronting on Lake Apopka; will
grow all kinds of crops without fer fertilizer;
tilizer; fertilizer; will sell any quantity desir desired
ed desired at $35 per acre.
No. 61 8 acres on lake front in
Polk county, 5 acres in grove.
Price $1,400.
No. 62 55 acres near Bartow;
350 orange trees, one-half now
bearing, balance just coming in.
Price $3,500.
No. 65 50 acres ten miles from
Arcadia; 10 acres good hammock; 4
acres cleared; fine for truck; ten
bearing grapefruit, twenty bearing
wild oranges. Price SSOO.
No. 66 40 acres ten miles south southeast
east southeast of Tampa, well located for
home; unimproved. Price S2OO.
No. 68 60 acres, two miles south
of Bartow; 10 acres under cultiva cultivation;
tion; cultivation; 15 acres fenced; good 5-room
house and barn. Price $l,lOO.
No. 69 House and ten acres in

While we are not in the real estate business
If you are interested and do not find anything to suit you in the above list write us
your wants, inclosing stamp for reply, and we may be able to locate it for you.
Address all communications on this subject to
REAL ESTATE DEPARTMENT, FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST,
Board of Trade Building, Jacksonville, Fla.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

cultivation, in Polk county; house
could not be built for the price asked
51,700.
No. 71 200 acres, five miles from
Lakeland, three-fourths mile lake
frontage; two comfortable but plain
houses; 100 acres fine pine timber,
40 acres hammock, 40 acres prairie
muck land, balance cleared; has 100
old bearing orange an dgrapefruit.
Price $3,000, one-third cash, balance
one and two years.
No. 72 80 acres in Orange coun county,
ty, county, one mile from railroad station;
60 acres first class pine and ham hammock;
mock; hammock; 2 1 /2 acres in cultivation; 75
bearing orange trees. Price SI,OOO.
No. 74 5 acres one mile from
Lakeland depot; on good road; 4
acres old bearing orange trees and
some young trees; lake front, with
good dock. Price $3,000 with pres present
ent present crop, $2,700 without; SI,OOO
mortgage, balance cash.
No. 7 5 5 acres fine hammock,
1 M miles from Plymouth; 240
bearing orange trees. Price $650.
No. 7660 acres cut over land,
some small timber, three miles from
Apopka, on lake. Price SIOO.
No. 80 10 acres near Seville; 5
acres partly bearing tangerine and
Satsuma oranere trees. Price $1,500.
No. 8130 acres lightly timbered
pine land, three miles from New
Smyrna; 65 bearing orange trees.
Price S6OO.
No. 8325 acres near Plymouth;
400 orange trees, 234 bearing, bal balance
ance balance set two years; grove slopes to
a lake, affording fine chance for irri irrigation.
gation. irrigation. Price SI,OOO.
No. 84 100 acres, twelve miles
southeast of Tampa; 45 acres in cul cultivation;

tivation; cultivation; 150 bearing orange trees,
100 pecan trees five years old; un underlaid
derlaid underlaid with phosphate. Price
$4,500.
No. 86120 acres, four miles
west of Tallahassee, near school and
church; fine melon land, also cane,
peanuts and all kinds vegetables; 7-
rocm house and outbuildings. Price
$l,lOO, half cash, balance one year.
No. 87 10-acre orange grove, old
seedling trees; will bear 3,000 to
5,000 boxes fruit; also 30 acres good
fruit land in timber, well suited to
peaches, pears, grapes, cassava,
sweet potatoes, melons, etc.; ten
miles east of Tampa. Price SIO,OOO.
No. 90 160 acres, six miles from
Tallahassee; 30 acres in cultivation;
130 acres fine timber, will cut 400,-
000 lumber; one 3-room house; one
2-room house, barn, etc.; good
spring on place; 75 bearing apple
trees; 50 peach trees and other
fruits. Price SBOO.
No. 9140 acres, iy 2 miles from
Bartow; all hammock, will produce
anything; 3 acres under cultivation,
8 acres fenced; good well and flow flowing
ing flowing spring on premises. Price $2,-
200; terms.
No. 94 9 acres one mile from
Tallahassee; small house, good land.
Price $3.50.
No. 95 30 acres, one mile from
Tallahassee; 6-room house, good
well; 30 pecan trees, paer orchard;
good land. Price $1,700.
No. 96 80 acres bordering on
lake, 3 miles from Bartow; 300
bearing orange and grapefruit trees
(6 acres), crop this year 500 boxes;
balance of land good for farming and
trucking. Price $4,000.

1



4

the land entered, to the exclusion of
any other home, and some part of
the land must be kept in constant
cultivation and use. Just staying on
the land a little while, and then step
ping on it again every few months
or weeks, wont chime in with Uncle
Sams ideas of good faith, and many
a man (and woman), has had the
entry cancelled for just such viola violations
tions violations of the obligations assumed at
the time the entry was made.
Sometimes the land entered is
more suitable for pasturage than
for ordinary crops, and in such case
our kind Uncle accepts such use in
lieu of actual cultivation. The home
steader must begin his actual resi residence
dence residence within six months from the
date of entry, or he loses his claim.
While a clear title will be won
from the Government after five years
of residence without any expense
save that of fees to the proper offi officials
cials officials and such small sum as it may
cost to bring ones neighbor wit witnesses
nesses witnesses before them at the time of
final proof, there is no need to wait
so long if the entryman desires to
obtain title sooner. He can claim
title at any time after an actual resi residence
dence residence and cultivation of fourteen
months from the date of entry, bj
proving such residence in the same
way in which final proof is prescrib prescribed,
ed, prescribed, and by paying one dollar and a
quarter for each acre entered. This
is called commutation of the home homestead,
stead, homestead, and thereafter the holder has
and can give as clear a title as
though he had purchased the land
from a private owner.
Final or commutation proof may
be made before any of the officials
who are competent,-according to the
law, to receive notice of entry. The
whole business of homesteading, as
Mollie wrote in answer to my at attempt
tempt attempt to explain it all to her, looks
like a great big piece of red tape,
but after all, it is quite simple when
one knows how, like setting an egg
on end, and anyone may know it all
by applying to the general land office
of the Department of the Interior at
Washington, or to the local land
office at Gainesville, Florida, for a
certain pamphlet issued by Uncle
Sam, entitled Suggestions to Home Homesteaders
steaders Homesteaders and Persons Desiring to
Make Homestead Entries. That is
what I did and what everyone should
do who is personally interested in
this important subject. It is always
best to go to the fountain-head for
information, and all that I have said
regarding my homestead proceedings
is merely intended as a sort of out outline
line outline sketch for those wise ones whose
thoughts may be turning over the
problem of how to obtain a home
and land to cultivate without means
to purchase.
Having secured our future home
beyond the misfortune of having
some other fellow step in ahead,
as my landlord expressed it, my next
step was to begin a clearing where
the house was to stand. More than
ever now did I wish that my dear
little wife was standing at my side
to help to make the selection for
our home site. But I knew what
spot she would choose just as well
as though she had pointed it out,
and so I marked a site on the bluff
a short distance back from its verge,
having the glorious lake in full

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

view, and near the village-ward cor corner
ner corner of the quarter section.
And now a brief explanation of
the terms that are constantly met
with in connection with the land sur surface
face surface of fair Florida. Broadly speak speaking,
ing, speaking, this is classified as pine, ham hammock
mock hammock and swamp lands. These again
are subdivided into first, second and
third class pine lands; low hammock
and high hammock; swammock and
swamps. The first class pine lands
of Florida cannot be duplicated else elsewhere
where elsewhere the w'orld over. They are
usually undulating, in some locali localities
ties localities rising almost to the dignity of
actual hills, and their soil is com composed
posed composed of a rich, dark vegetaable
mold from a depth of several inches
to a foot or more. Beneath this lies
a chocolate colored sandy loam
several feet deep, while below this
again is a substratum of marl, clay
or limestone.
As might be expected such soils
are very fertile and durable, and I
rejoiced in the fact that at least
me-third of my hundred and sixty
acres was composed of this first
lass pine land. A few acres were
rated by local experts as second and
third class; these too, were good
lands, though in an inferior degree.
The balance of my homestead, (ah,
how proudly I said the word over to
myself, and to Mollie!) was high
hammock, with about two acres of
low hammock.
Would you know the hall-marks
of the several grades? Here they
are, then: As just noted, the sur surface
face surface of the first class pine land is
generally somewhat undulating,
though sometimes level for consider considerable
able considerable distances between the knolls.
Its timber is the famous long-leaf
nine, tall, straight monarchs of the
woodlands. Of underbush there is
little, often none at all, and the
effect of the stately trunks rising
from their base of green wire grass,
with light and shade playing hide
and seek in their midst, is wonder wonderfully
fully wonderfully restful and soothing to eye and
brain. Clay and rich vegetaable
mold are often found close to the
surface, and such lands as these are
eminently adapted to the growth of
an almost infinite variety of vegeta vegetation,
tion, vegetation, including oranges, lemons,
limes, pomelos (grapefruit), peaches,
pears, plums, figs, and berries; cot cotton,
ton, cotton, sugar cane, corn, sweet and
Irish potatoes, oats, rye, and vege vegetables
tables vegetables of all sorts, to say nothing of
grasses and forage crops. In fact the
question is rather, What cannot be
raised? than What can? The one
list is much shorter than the other.
Second class pine land is more
abundant than first class, following
the rule that obtains the world over,
that there is more room at the foot
of the ladder than at the top. Not
that it matters much in this instance,
for these lands when brought under
similar cultural conditions, are lit little,
tle, little, if any, below the value of those
rated as first. The pine timber is
smaller as a rule, and here and there
blackjack oaks are found, with a
plentiful supply of willow oaks as
bushes or stunted trees, and scatter scattered
ed scattered about are clumps of palmetto.
Last, not least, come the once de despised
spised despised third class pine or blackjack
lands, whose surface soil is rather
unattractive in appearance, being

prevalent wire-grass is short and
thin, the few pine trees stunted and
interspersed with blackjack oaks and
thin clumps of saw palmetto, whose
lateral roots lie on the surface ,and
make walking or driving over them
anything but enjoyment. These lands
are usually level, and in rainy sea seasons
sons seasons are often under water for a few
inches for weeks at a time. Alto Altogether
gether Altogether the flat woods, as such sec sections
tions sections are called, used to be regard regarded
ed regarded as waste land.
But, as we all know, appearances
are deceitful. This blackjack land
costs less to clear than the other
grades, and when brought under the
same sort of cultivation, w r ith the
same quality and quantity of proper
fertilizers, its productiveness is sim simply
ply simply wonderful. After a few years of
such cultivation it would be impos impossible,
sible, impossible, judging from results, to tell
which tracts were first and which
class lands. And the once con contemned
temned contemned flat woods, when drained,
have proved to be the ne plus ultra
p or strawberry plants, and have
made fortunes for their owners.
These third class pine lands, in fact,
ire good for almost everything that
grows out of the ground. Many of
the most famous and thrifty groves
in Florida are located on second and
third class pine lands, these lands
being much more abundant than first
lass or hammock lands.
Now as to the hammocks or, as
hey were originally called, hum hummucks,
mucks, hummucks, because they are generally
located on higher ground than that
surrounding them, forming hum hummucks
mucks hummucks on a large scale. They are
tracts of land which usually border
large lakes and rivers, and being
thus on moist ground, have escaped
the destructive fires which so fre frequently
quently frequently sweep through the piney
woods in the spring, and devour the
fallen leaves, branches and grasses
that if spared would increase the
fertility of the soil. The ham hammocks,
mocks, hammocks, on the contrary, being ex exempt
empt exempt as a rule, from this annual
destruction, are enriched year by
year by the falling leaves of the
~!aks, hickories, bays and other de deciduous
ciduous deciduous trees which grow so luxuri luxuriantly
antly luxuriantly in the moist places. A deep
humus soil is thus formed, in which
a wealth of underbrush springs up,
grows, dies, decays, and grows again
and again, all the while adding more
and more to the richness of the soil,
and raising the surface more and
more above that of the surrounding
burned-over pine lands. Such is the
origin of the famous Florida ham hammock
mock hammock lands, in which only were
found the wild orange groves.
Note that I use the word were.
I do so advisedly, because the day
of the quick fortunes made from the
finding and budding to the sweet
orange, of the orange groves, is over,
unless a few still exist in sections
remote from transportation. There
were plenty such wild groves at the
date of my coming to Florida, how T Tever,
ever, Tever, and although I found but a
few such trees on my own land,
there were many fine sweet groves
all around me, that had been bud budded
ded budded on the native sour stock just
as they stood, save where crowded,
so that a few had to be transplanted
for the benefit of the rest. The



lucky owners had then only to wait
for three years before reaping their
reward in the shape of a good and
constantly increasing income. I
visited several of them, and was told
the story of their rise from useless
trees into small gold mines, and I
confess I envied the snug incomes
they were bringing into the pockets
of those fortunate first-comers. But
at the same time my little wifes wise
talk about all the eggs being in one
basket kept coming into my head.
You are a lucky man so far,
said I to one of these big grove
owners, who had been telling me of
five thousand dollars turned into the
bank in the previous year and of
eight thousand profit that current
year, but suppose there should
come a freeze like there was fifty
years ago, and your trees should be
killed to the ground, where would
be your income then?
He laughed, and replied that that
was looking out for a bridge to cross
before you came to it, and that it
was something not at all likely ever
to happen again.
Well, said I, "I have a family
dependent on me, and I am not go going
ing going to trust entirely to an orange
grove for their support. I shall try
other fruits that cold wont hurt,
and cultivate the soil for all there
is in it. More things will grow here
than have been tried yet, and I am
going to find out what they are. If
the orange trees freeze or burn, I
dont want to feel that my all is
gone to destruction.
My friend laughed again, but a
few months after this he asked me
if I was a prophet. And he had
cause.
Low hammocks may be called a
cross between the high hammocks
and the swamp lands, and this fact
is recognized in the queer local name
often used to designate them,
swammocks. They usually need
more or less ditching before they can
be brought under cultivation, but
when once reclaimed are very fertile,
the soil being deep and tenacious,
and producing to perfection such
vegetables and plants as require con constant
stant constant moisture with good drainage.
But there is a difference of degrees
in the low hammocks, for not all
can be called swammocks, being
really first cousins to the high ham hammocks,
mocks, hammocks, with just a suspicion of
more moisture.
The swamp lands are of alluvial
formation, and are the richest of all
lands when they are not water. The
Florida swamps, sometimes embrac embracing
ing embracing a local area of twenty to several
hundred acres, were originally de depressed
pressed depressed basins which have gradually
been filled in by the washings from
higher lands surrounding them.
Broken branches, dead leaves, rotten
wood, grass and debris of all kinds
have been swept into these basins
for centuries. They are really Dame
Natures compost heaps, and form a
splendid object lesson for us dense
mortals. For years upon years all
the trash heaped together in the
swamp basins has laid there rotting,
fermenting, heating, decaying, and
forming a vast series of store-houses
of the richest plant food.
It is an unquestionable fact that
these sWamp lands are even richer

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

than the hammocks and more dur durable
able durable in their fertility. But and
here is the rock on which many
hopes founder they are like gold
mines. You know the richness is
there, but it takes money to dig it
up. The swamp lands must be
carefully ditched and drained before
they will produce, and though a man
may know of a certainty that ten
dollars planted in such soil will
bring back fifty or a hundred, he
must first have the ten dollars to
plant. That is why there is still con considerable
siderable considerable swamp land to be had for
the entering.
The spot I selected for our home
site was a narrow strip of high ham hammock,
mock, hammock, with pine land stretching
away to the back of it. My plan
was to clear two acres at once, set setting
ting setting the house well towards the lake
front, inside a half acre inclosure
which should be devoted to shade
trees, ornamental shrubbery, vines
and small fruits. The barn, cow
sheds, and other farm buildings, and
the. nucleus of a grove, were to oc occupy
cupy occupy the balance of this first clear clearing.
ing. clearing.
Some there were among my neigh neighbors
bors neighbors who laughed at me for being
content with making a beginning on
two acres of ground, but I had no
mind to do as I could see that some
of them had done, albeit uncon unconsciously,
sciously, unconsciously, meaning, to use a homely
but significant saying, that they had
bitten off more than they could
chew. I meant to go slow and feel
my way to success; to make my
mark, if I made it at all, with in intensive
tensive intensive and diversified farming.
Therefore I believed that two acres
were enough for my initial trials.
A small space well cared for would
yield more than ten times the space
half cultivated.
Apart from these considerations,
there was the expense of clearing to
be reckoned with. The heavy
growth of trees and underbrush
make it no joke to clear hammock
land, and it is a costly job. Being
utterly inexperienced at such work,
I deemed it the part of wisdom to
hire it done by men who understood
the business, while I took an object
iesson by looking on and helping
where I could. The ground was well
covered with big trees and little
trees, with vines, roots and tall saw
palmetto in great clumps. All of this
had to be cut down or grubbed up.
My men, according to the custom
thereabouts, were about to burn
what they called the trash, which
term included not only all the small
fry of undergrowth, limbs, roots and
leaves, but the trunks of the mighty
oaks and other large trees that had
been cut down. I demurred at this
wanton waste, however, having just
come from a country where wood
was not so plentiful and was often
badly needed. Instead of allowing
the torch to be applied, I ordered
the lighter debris to be piled in a
corner to decay and furnish fertilizer
by and by, and the heavier limbs
and trunks to be rolled together in
a great heap to be cut as wanted for
fuel.
And just here let me say that this
pile of timber that would have gone
up in smoke but for my interference
kept us in firewood for the next
three years, while the brushwood de decayed

cayed decayed and went far towards fertiliz fertilizing
ing fertilizing our home vegetable garden. My
two workmen grumbled, for they
had always been used to burning up
everything they cleared from the
land. But I was determined to
waste not, want not, and right
then and there I began as I have
kept on ever since. It cost me ninety
dollars to get those two acres in
shape for building and cultivating,
but it was thoroughly done, and the
plot lay out clean and clear of all
growth, save for the few stately live
oaks that were left standing as
shade for the house and barn, and
for several tropical looking cabbage
palmettos that reared their proud
heads here and there along the
bluff. A few choice wild grape vines
too I left, designing to make for
them a canopy arbor in the near
future. And then I was ready for
the building of the house that should
shelter my loved ones and be to
them in truth that home, sweet,
sweet home, of which Mollie loved
to sing.
(To Be Continued.)
The Sago Palm.
In the course of an article on the
subject of some East Indian economic
plants, and their uses, which appears
in the Journal of the New York Bo Botanical
tanical Botanical Garden, the following particu particulars
lars particulars concerning the sago palm (Met (Metroxylon
roxylon (Metroxylon Sagu), and the method
adopted in the Malay States of pro producing
ducing producing starch from it, are given:
Sago, a kind of starch, is a product
of several species of palms and palm palmlike
like palmlike plants, the bulk of which is
probably derived from the trunk of
Metroxylon Sagu, the true sago palm,
native of many of the islands of the
Malay Archipelago and vicinity. This
species of palm, which prefers damp
places, sometimes attains a height of
40 feet, and has a large compara comparatively
tively comparatively smooth trunk, bearing at the
summit a crown of pinnate leaves. In
the preparation of sago a full grown
plant is selected, the palm is felled
close to the ground, cut into sections
3 or 4 feet in length, and soaked in
water for several days, after which
the outer fibrous portion is removed.
Each section is then ground into saw sawdust
dust sawdust by a coarse grater.
The sawdust is then thrown into
a large receptacle made of coarse
sacking, and propped up on poles
several feet from the ground. Into
this receptacle a native enters, and
tramps up and down, while an abun abundance
dance abundance of water is being added. Asa
result of this treatment, the starch
sinks and flows out through a small
bamboo trough into a vessel below,
leaving the woody portion floating
behind. After several days the water
is drained off, and the sago meal
dried, when it is put into bags and
shipped away for refinement.
Cutworm Death Bait
In India the formula used by the
Government for poisoning cutworms
is four pounds of white arsenic and
eight pounds of sugar in six gallons
of water used to moisten eighty
pounds of fine chopped straw. Small
quantities are dropped at the bases
of plants.

5



6

THE EUCALYPTUS
A. Valuable Timber Tree That It Is Believed Will Be
a Great Acquisition to Florida
By W. B. Powell

Mr. A. B. Luther, of Mexico, work working
ing working under the direction of W. H.
Bennett, a banker and promoter, of
New York, is an expert on eucalypts,
having made it a study for some
.'years. He has prospected Florida
fsoils from Orlando to the Everglades
&nd has found the soil about Tampa
best adapted to these exotics. The
proposition of Mr. Bennett is to buy
5,000 acres of Hillsborough county
land, clear it and plant it to two or
more varieties of the eucalypts, and
after the trees are beyond the nurs nursing
ing nursing stage to sell the groves to inves investors.
tors. investors. Also, to sell seeds and seed seedlings,
lings, seedlings, and direct the culture of the
trees to those who desire to engage
in the industry rather than to buy a
thriving grove.
Introduction of Tree Into America.
The first trees planted in America
were brought over from Australia in
the early fifties by visitors to San
Francisco and later were experiment experimented
ed experimented with in Southern California. The
rapid growth and complete adaptabil adaptability
ity adaptability of the exotic to its new environ environments
ments environments instantly claimed the attention
of nurserymen, who recognized its
suitability for commercial planting.
Thus California has fifty years the
start of Florida in the culture of the
tree, and all of these fifty years they
have been aided ana encouraged by
State appropriations until today the
eucalyptus tree is no longer a ven venture,
ture, venture, but is recognizee as one of the
biggest industries in the State.
Botanists have identified more
than 150 species of the eucalypts in
Australian forests, and fully 100 of
these have been introduced into Cali California.
fornia. California. For general purposes, how however,
ever, however, the blue gum has been used
more extensively than others. Sev Several
eral Several other species possess special
qualities which warrant their selec selection
tion selection for particular uses for certain
localities. Among these are the su sugar
gar sugar manna, gray red and lemon
gums, which, owing to their rapid
growth and splendid development,
rank as timber eucalypts.
Sylvical Characteristics.
In Australia the eucalypts reach
uges of from 400 to 500 years, and in
height 300 to 400 feet, with diame diameters
ters diameters exceeding twelve to fifteen feet.
n California the oldest eucalypts are
forty years, 175 feet high and five to
six feet in diameter.
The timber maintains an erect
form, with strong main axes and
slender limbs. The seedlings are
very shade-demanding and succeed
best under partial shade. When
growth has commenced full light
should be afforded them. It is not
uncommon to see saplings too spin spindling
dling spindling to stand erect, caused by their
efforts to overtop a competitor for
light.
The roots use a grer.l r.r.i unt of
water, hence they prefer n soil,

TttE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

through which the roots may pene penetrate
trate penetrate to lower strata in search of
greater supplies of moisture. In shal shallow
low shallow soils, over hardpan, the roots are
forced to spread laterally, and in
such situations the growth is stunted
and slow.
In early years the root develop development
ment development is exceedingly rapid, that of
the young seedlings exceeding the
growth of the plant above the
face. So it is necessary to plant euca eucalyptus
lyptus eucalyptus trees on soil where the hard hardpan
pan hardpan is far below the surface. The
roots exhibit a strong impulse to seek
water, and to reach it sometimes ex extend
tend extend over 100 feet, growing under
ditches, pavements and roads, and
have been known to choke up cis cisterns
terns cisterns like a giant octopus.

A Eucalyptus 23 Years Old, 32 Inches in Diameter, Growing on Mr. Tuckers Place atFruitville.

The production of the rooting sys system
tem system renders the tree very windfirm.
Their strong anchorage in the soil,
combined with the flexibility of the
growing stem, renders them particu particularly
larly particularly valuable for windbreak pur purposes.
poses. purposes.
Tne complete adaptability of the
eucalypts to Florida soil is shown by
their strong reproduction by seed and
sprout, and even from their growth
when frozen down. All eucalypts
sprout vigorously from the stump or
root after cutting off In response to

*meg' ;j v< i yi^ > ''^' a > ;

any injury to the tree. Even after
fire injury, in an attempt to a refo refoliation
liation refoliation the stems generally clothe
themselves thickly from the ground
up. You can cut the eucalypts even
unto the fourth or fifth cutting, and
even seedling trees, thirty years old,
sprout after cutting as thriftily as
young trees. Indeed, it is almost im impossible
possible impossible to kill the stumps of old
trees or to prevent the sprouting of
old roots left in the ground after the
stumps have been grubbed out.
Since natural regeneration is not
practiced, the natural seedling of the
eucalypts is of little commercial im importance.
portance. importance. Seed is produced abun abundantly.
dantly. abundantly.
General Requirements.
Practically, all the eucalypts grow
best on a deep, fertile, well-drained
loam soil. But, as more valuable
crops likewise develop most success successfully
fully successfully here, the necessity arises of
finding poorer or less inaccessible
land. The chemical composition of
the soil is of little importance, so
long as an excess of injurious chemi chemicals
cals chemicals do not occur. The physical prop properties
erties properties of the soil, such as perilled-

taility, retentiveness, etc., are vastly
more important.
No factor has so much influence in
the growing of eucalypts as the tem temperature.
perature. temperature. During the seedling years
the danger froth frost is greatest.
Yet, if California can grow eucalypts
successfully and cannot grow the
avacado pear and the mango and the
guava, which we do* it stands to
reason that South Florida can grow
the exotic even more successfully
than California.
A rapidly growing plant { like any-



thing else which grows rapidly, re requires
quires requires lots of food. This is taken up
by the roots in the form of salts in
solution and elaborated in the leaves.
Hence, the tree can not get its food
unless its roots can obtain water.
While eucalypts will grow where the
soil moisture is deficient, the rate of
growth will be much slower than
where the tree gets all it needs. A
fairly retentive, deep soil, which re receives
ceives receives an annual rainfall of over 30
inches of rain will produce splendid
trees.
Deficient soil moisture is supple supplemented
mented supplemented by atmospheric moisture.
During a heavy fog the foliage of
gum trees drips as if from a shower,
and the ground under the trees be becomes
comes becomes soaked overnight.
The manna and gray gums can be
safely planted where the temperature
does not drop below 22 degrees F.

A Eucalyptus 14 Years old, 53 Inches in Circumference, Growing in Hunta Gorda Hotel Yard.

The blue and sugar gums cannot
-stand less than 26 or 28 degrees F.
The water table should not be more
than 25 feet below the surface. The
trees will not grow in marshy land.
Choice of Species.
The seeds to select in their order
or value would appeal to me as fol follows:
lows: follows: Blue gum (globulus); sugar
gum (corynoclax); red gum (ro (rostrata);
strata); (rostrata); gray gum (teretlcornus);
manna gum (viminalis), and lemon
gum (citriodora).
The seed can be purchased of the
Germain Seed Cos., Los Angeles, Cal.,
a firm I can recommend.
Timber Utilization.
For fuel the eucalyptus has no
equal. It makes a quick, hot fire. It
burn* with a bright blaze and emits

Vjg -| jMffs?v*^K '*
" ', .* 4 ',*
. M ( "\ } >£ > a,
> v w. -'^.A.^fW?>% -V;tr .? ;>* < ~> s
> y *%s%, *-j y %** ~ ; A- A

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

a pleasant aromatic odor. It sells at
an average of $lO a cord in Califor California
nia California After paying for the cutting
and splitting the grower has a mar margin
gin margin of from $3 to $8 a cord say $5
for an average.
I had groves shown me which have
netted 50 to 80 cords an acre at each
cutting, or $250 to S4OO an acre net
profit, and the cuttings occur about
every four years, hence SIOO an acre
per year.
The wood is also used for fence
posts, telephone and electric poles
and piling. Certain species of the
eucalyptus is proof against the teredo
and limnoria and outlasts creosote
piling or cement piling in ocean
wharves. The piles bring $5 to sls
each. The timber is used extensively
for railroad ties. It outlasts ties
from other woods.
For commercial purposes as dimen-

sion material the gum timber sells
from SIOO to $125 per thousand, and
retails for 12 y 2 cents per foot fin finished
ished finished and 10 cents for rough timber.
The timber eucalypts furnish a
hard wood, possessing
ilar to those of hickory and ash.*he
specific gravity of the wood is greater
than that of water, the dry wood of
the blue gum averaging over 60
pounds per cubic foot, varying from
50 to 70 pounds, according to the
age of the timber. The wood of other
species is even heavier. It is very
tough, resisting indentation, tension
or torsion. It will not crack nor
break out under strain at joints or
bolt holes.
The lumber is used for all parts of
vehiclespoles, shafts, axles, double doubletrees,

trees, doubletrees, racks, bolsters, spokes, hubs
and felloes, and for the wooden parts
of plows, harrows and other agricul agricultural
tural agricultural implements. It is used by car
manufacturers, and by furniture
manufacturers, and every place
where hard wood is desired. It fin finishes
ishes finishes beautifully, taking a polish like
mahogany. It is used for insulator
pins, practically supplanting black;
locust. It is used in interior finish
of houses, for hardwood floors, for
pulley blocks, belt wheels, saw tables,
brakeshoes and handles for all sorts
of implements.
The Tampa Board of Trade is now
endeavoring to prevail upon the
Forestry Bureau of the United States,
in conjunction with Commissioner of
Agriculture McLin anQ Hon. P. H.
Rolfs, of the Experiment Station at
Gainesville, to issue a bulletin on the
subject, illustrated with cuts of the
many trees now growing in this
State. If there are no funds avail available
able available for this purpose the Tampa
Board of Trade has agreed to furnish
such sum as is needed to print the
bulletins. The Federal and State ex experimental
perimental experimental stations of Florida have
sufficient data to give the public in information
formation information which will guide them in
the planting of the seeds and trans transplanting
planting transplanting the seedlings.
The writer has seen the collection
of photographs of eucalypts grown
in Florida and is confident that the
industry can be followed profitably.
in this state and thus reforest our
pine lands. If we do not do so, the
State in future years is doomed for
citrus growing, for the deforestation
going on will force the frost belt
lower and lower down the State, and
also reduce our rain fall.
As I write, I have before me this
letter:
Eagle Lake, Fla., Nov. 8, 1909.
I am warranted in stating the euca eucalyptus
lyptus eucalyptus tree made a growth of about
100 feet in ten years on Bartow
lands. M. L. VARN.
And I desire to add if a single
tree will do this, a forest of trees
will do better. I believe that a 25
acre eucalyptus grove in five years
will make a man independent for
life.
Profit In Blue Gum Groves
In setting out a eucalyptus grove
for profit about 600 trees are planted
to the acre. For the first two or
three years irrigation is necessary,
but after that no further attention is
needed. Naturally some of the trees
are malformed and stunted, and
these are cut for firewood when 3
or 4 years old.
The next better class of trees as
they attain sufficient size are cut for
railroad ties, masts, bridge timbers,
piling, telegraph poles and similar
purposes. The best and straightest
of all are allowed to grow until they
are eight years old, or much longer if
the production of very large timber
is more desired than quick returns.
The best quality of large timbers
when manufactured into lumber
sell at from SIOO to $l4O a thou thousand
sand thousand feet for use in cabinet work and
Interior finish..

7



8

INTENSIVE FARMING
How to Grow Four Crops on an Acre in One Year
in Florida.
By C. H. Kennerly.
*

To the average farmer, in and out
of Florida, the above statement is
apt to be doubted, but the writer has
raised four crops on the same acre
of ground, at Montrose Farm Trial
Grounds, in one year; and if you
will be a little patient, he will try
to prove to you, that you can do
likewise.
To start with you have to get
your land in the best shape possible,
and it is best to have it sub-irrigat sub-irrigated,
ed, sub-irrigated, or irrigated from overhead ir irrigation,
rigation, irrigation, if you are going to make
a success of the crops.
The crops that we will raise will
be, two crops of beets, one of sweet
corn, and one of cowpeas. The last
crop will pay best if turned under
for fertilizer, as you can find no nothing
thing nothing better for enriching the soil.
It will be best to deal with each
crop, in the order they are grown.
The first thing that has to be done
in raising a crop of beets, will be
co make up your seed beds. These
beds can be made as long as conven convenient,
ient, convenient, and just wide enough to reach
across. They should be free from
any sticks, weeds, stones, or trash
of any kind. The best fertilizer to
use in your seed beds, is a good arti article
cle article of commercial fertilizer, as weeds
and grass do not grow as fast on
it as on stable fertilizer. It is a good
idea to put some castor pomace in
your beds. This is a low grade of
fertilizer that is a preventive for cut
worms, and as they are the principal
enemy of the beets, it is best to use
preventives to keep them from get getting
ting getting a start. Your seed should be
in the ground not later than Sep September
tember September Ist; they should be planted
in rows six inches apart, and very
thin in the rows. They should be
kept well worked until they are
about six inches high, when they can
be transplanted to the field. One of
the best varieties of beets to plant,
is Kennerlys Truckers Perfection.
Some of our readers will ask, why
dont you plant the seed, where you
want the plants to grow? I will ad admit
mit admit that it does look like double
work, transplanting the plants, but
it is about as much work thinning
them out, and replanted plants will
make twice as quick, and we are
after saving all the time that we
can.
Now while we are letting the
plants grow, we will get our ground
ready to set them in. As I said
above, you must get your land in
the best possible condition, it being
impossible to get the land in too
good condition for planting any crop.
For fertilizer, there is nothing bet better
ter better for beets than good, well-rotted
stable manure, put on as heavy as
you can, and then put on that heavy
again. Let me say right here, what
fertilizer one crop dont get the next
one will, and the second crop will
come on twice as fast. Besides the

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

about a ton of kainit to the acre,
for it not only furnishes what potash
the plant requires, but it is a good
agent to keep cut worms and other
insects away from your plants. After
your land is well fertilized and plow plowed,
ed, plowed, it should be gone over with a
home-made board drag, to level and
pack the ground. When the land is
leveled and packed, we will proceed
to lay it off for planting. The first
thing to do, is to make a wood rake,
putting the teeth, the width of the
rows, which for beets is about
eighteen inches an inch or two
more or less does not make any dif difference.
ference. difference. To mark your rows off,
r stretch a line for the first row, and
mark the rest from these rows, and
they are bound to be straight.
Now our next job will be to mark
off the distance in the rows, for
setting the plants. This distance
should be three or four inches apart.
The easiest and best way to do this,
is to go to the blacksmith, and get
him to make you a wheel, about
thirty inches in diameter, with plugs
in the tire, the width, you wish the
plants set apart. You will have to
put handles on this wheel, like hand
plow handles, to guide it with. When
your marker is finished, run it down
the rows, that you have already
marked off, and when you have
finished you will have your field laid
off ready for setting, and you will
be sure that everything is the proper
distance apart.
There are several things to re remember
member remember in setting any kind of root
plant, as beets, onions, etc., and that
is not to get the bulb down too deep,
or your labor will be lost. You also
have to be careful in watering the
plant after setting. Dont pour the
water on the plant, pour it on the
ground at the base of the plant,
packing the ground around the roots.
It is well to water the plants the
afternoon they are set, and again
the following morning. It may seem
expensive, but it is ten times better
and cheaper than transplanting.
After your plants are all planted
you will leave them for about two
weeks, until they are well rooted,
and have started to grow. Then go
through the middle of the row, and
give them a light fertilizing of ni-
of soda, being careful not to
g(t on the plants. This makes the
beets start off, and keep on growing,
otherwise they would loaf on you for
three or four weeks. The principal
thing now is to keep them well
worked. For this purpose there is
nothing better than a Planet Jr.
wheel plow, (they are equal to an
extra hand on the farm). About
two months after planting in the
field, your beets should be ready for
shipment.
Beets should be packed with the
tops on, as the tops make excellent
greens. Some markets require the

beets tied in bunches, of about four
beets to the bunch, others prefer
them loose. The best crates for
packing them in are the barrel cab cabbage
bage cabbage crate, and the lettuce hamper.
The cabbage crate holds about two
hundred beets, and the lettuce ham hamper
per hamper about half as much. There is
also another flat crate that is used
in the Coleman, Fla., section, but
it does not hold as much as the let lettuce
tuce lettuce hamper, which I prefer, as it
seems to be the stronger package.
Care must be taken in packing, to
shake all the dirt and trash off the
beets, before they are put in the
crates, and to remove all the dead
leaves. The best way to pack them
is in layers, and be sure to get your
crate full, as they will naturally pack
down in transit.
Any of the Southern markets will
use beets nearly the whole season,
paying good prices for them. Wash Washington,
ington, Washington, D. C., and Baltimore, Md.,
are also good markets for them.
Now that we have our first crop
off, we must see about our second.
About a month before the first crop
is ready to ship, you should have
made up your seed beds, and have
made another planting of beet seed.
You will in all probability have to
cover your young plants, this time,
in case of frost, as they are very ten tender,
der, tender, until they are about six inches
high. This covering can be easily
made by putting a frame around
your bed, and stretching a light qual quality
ity quality of duck or canvas over the frame.
Treat your second plants the same
as you did your first.
Before you are ready to set your
second lot of plants, you should
plow your ground several times, and
give it about 1,000 pounds of some
good commercial fertilizer. Mark
your land off the same as you did
before, only making the rows about
twenty-four inches apart, this time.
When your beets are about half
grown, go through the middle of
every other row, and plant sweet
corn, Country Gentleman, or Sto Stowells
wells Stowells Evergreen. As soon as your
beets are off, give your corn a good
dose of nitrate of soda, not less than
150 pounds to the acre, and keep it
well worked, as it is nearly impossi impossible
ble impossible to work it too much. As soon
as the corn begins to show silk,
go through the patch, and dust
powdered sulphur in the silks; this
will keep the ear worms down.
If the bud worms bother your
corn, spray it with a weak so solution
lution solution of arsenate of lead, about
one pound to fifty gallons of wa water.
ter. water. Another suggestion is, to tar
your corn seed before planting, as the
black birds are very bad in some
sections, pulling up the young
shoots. With good culture, you
should make two good ears to the
stalk.
The corn should be packed in egg
plant, or, I prefer, celery crates,
packing in layers, and making two
gradesfancy and second grade.
Mark your fancy grade, but do not
mark x your second grade, writing
your commission merchant and tell telling
ing telling him about it.
Now we have taken our three
crops off the land, and are ready to
plant our fourth. First, turn the
ground over with a good turn plow,



and broadcast it in cowpeas, either
harrowing or plowing them in. The
best varieties that I know of are the
Whippoorwill, California Black-eye,
Clay, or Conch.
One suggestion that I neglected to
make in regard to the beets, is, in
case of a freeze, dont get discour discouraged
aged discouraged if they freeze down, as they
will come out. When they begin to
show signs of coming to life, give
them about 150 pounds of nitrate of
soda, and you will lose but little
time by this backset.
The probability is when you read
this article, that it will be too late
to plant your first crop of beets, but
about the right time to plant your
second crop of beets, and if you will
get busy, you can make three good
crops before hot weather.
Kemerlys Seed Store, Palatka,
Fla.
ORANGE NOTES.
Timely and Pertinent Paragraphs
Prepared by the Citrus Exchange.
A sour orange cannot be made
sweet by any aging" process. An
immature orange will not grow on
the road to market. It will not ripen
in transit,* merely decay.
Decay will not bring to unripe
fruit the world-famed Florida flavor.
Labeling a box Fancy Florida Or Oranges"
anges" Oranges" will not convince those who
eat the fruit that sour is sweet, and
that decayed fruit is sound.
You can fool a man into buying a
gold brick orange" once, but you
cant make him keep on buying.
You can not get as ready sale nor
as good prices for oranges handled
like potatoes as you can for choice,
ripe fruit picked, packed and han handled
dled handled as it should be.
There is always a demand for a
choice article presented in an attrac attractive
tive attractive manner.
There is only the dumping ground
sort of market at any time for in inferior
ferior inferior stuff.
You do not buy wormy, gnarled,
stunted, tough, flavorless apples that
come from the North that is, not a
second time, with your eyes open.
The Northern consumer of oranges
is built on the same lines. He is not
stupid and will demand his moneys
worth.
The Florida orange is all right rightthe
the rightthe Tightest fruit ever but it is
shamefully treated by those who
should be its best friends.
California has taught the consum consumers
ers consumers of the great markets what an or orange
ange orange ought to be, and how it ought
to be treated.
Florida must meet this competi competition
tion competition on its own ground, the ground
of the square deal.
The proof of the orange is gained
at the table.
The Florida orange demands a
fair show from those who demand a
living, and a profit from its culture.
Florida Sugar Cane.
At the tri-county fair at Pensacola
the sugar canes were judged by the
amount of cane sugar in the juice.
Prof. Blair, of the Florida Experi Experiment
ment Experiment Station, tested the juice by the
polariscope. The best cane, a red
one, showed 15.22 per cent of cane
sugar in the juice, and the lowest
showed 9 per cent. There were 21
entries.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

THE TEN ACRE FARM
Some Good Advice Regarding its Location, Prox Proximity
imity Proximity to Transportation and Crops to Be Grown
By B. M. Hampton

Nineteen years have rolled by
since I began taking the Agricul Agriculturist,
turist, Agriculturist, but to day it seems as young
and fresh as then. Not so with your
humble scribe, for the frosts of time
are beginning to tell and the spring
time .of life is long gone by, and 1
vender sometimes whether, with all
my nineteen years experience in
Florida, I am capable of giving ad advice
vice advice to those who contemplate com coming
ing coming to this State for a home, though,
of course, in all these years I must
have learned something.
To those who have plenty of
means, it does net matter so much
whether they settle at first in the
best location or not, but to the man
of small means it does. There is
generally a strong temptation to buy
cheap land; but it is not always
best to do so. To one and all T
would say, it would be far better to
give SI,OOO for ten acres of land
near a railroad station. Yes, you
had better pay double that than go
out *alone a distance from the rail railroad
road railroad and take the cheap land as a
gift, unless you just want to raise
hogs and cattle. But if you want
to put out a grove, or grow pine pineapples
apples pineapples or truck, stick to the rail railroad
road railroad and get good land to begin
with.
Look around well before you buy
and see what the people are raising
where you think of locating. Most
every section has its specialities. In
one place it may be celery; in an another
other another lettuce or onions; or again it
may be strawberries or peaches, cit citrus
rus citrus fruits, or a combination of fruit
and truck. It is safe to say there
Is some good reason for growing
these various crops to the exclusion
of about all else. The soil and gene general
ral general conditions are peculiarly suited
to them or they would not stick to
them for their money" crop. You
should study these things carefully,
for it will be a long distance on the
road to success if you do so.
Decide upon the particular crops
you prefer to grow and feel you are
best adapted to, and then get the
land to suit where you see others
making a success in the lines you
have selected.
Ten acres will be enough for most
persons to handle, and five will be
plenty for a good many.
Instead of clearing SSO or $7 5
per acre, as others may be doing,
you can easily clear SI,OOO to
$3,000, perhaps more, and the re returns
turns returns from your small tract of land
right at the station may soon bring
you affluence. I could quote many
instances where certain crops have
brought SI,OOO to $3,000 or $4,000
per acre, but it is not my purpose
to tell of these, though such things
are possible. But remember it is
the specialist who accomplishes this
the man who has made a study of
the business in all its phases. No
guess work for him. These are the

men whose methods you want to
copy, and improve even on them as
you may become able, for there is
plenty of room for improvement in
most all lines, here as elsewhere.
I often think of a talk I had once
with Mr. Thomas E. Richards, the
pineapple king of his day, and among
.ne first to engage in the culture of
this fruit in Florida. After talking
tn various subjects we finally drift drifted
ed drifted to the culture of pines. Now
ae sa l s > I am at home. The fact
18 1 ? ou know very much about
anything else, and dont want to;
out I have learned about all there is
to Know about pines, and it is all
I care to know.
wa oor m an when he came
O Florida, but I need hardly tell
you that he did not stay so. He was
i specialist, and did Florida a great
service in his chosen line.
Now, having decided upon the
paiticular crops you intend to grow,
and secured* your land (of course
you have picked on a healthy loca location,
tion, location, with congenial neighbors and
all that) you are ready to clear the
land and prepare it for planting. In
this, as in other things, be a spe specialist..
cialist.. specialist.. Clear the land clean of all
stumps and roots, and dont leave
a single tree standing in your would wouldbe
be wouldbe truck patch. You cannot grow
trees, let them be ever so pretty,
and make a success of truck raising
at the same time on the same
ground, and right here many make
a failure. If you would succeed
always have an eye single to the
good of the crop you intend to grow,
for, remember, you are a specialist
so far as that crop goes.
Then again, do not let any one
tool you into putting up most any
kind of an excuse for a fence. Make
it your special business to build the
very best hog and cattle proof fence
that money will buyand if it is
also rabbit proof at the bottom so
much the betterfor your peace of
mind and the good will of your
neighbors. Then have a good lock
on your gate, and when night comes
you can go to your rest without the
fear of finding jmur crop destroyed
by the ever-watchful razor-back, for
be it known he is a specialist in his
line too, and just as thorough as
it is possible for you to ever get in
yours, and above all he is always
cnto his job.
Now, to sum up: Select good
land in a healthy location, with
genial and pleasant surroundings,
close to transportation, even if /it
dees cost more than you had plan planned
ned planned to pay; stick to the special crops
you have chosen, and in the end you
will win out.
Discouragements you will have, of
courseit wont be all smooth sail sailing
ingbut sailing as you master your calling
success will crown your efforts more
abundantly than elsewhere.

9



10

A FLORIDA HOME
Brief Description of a Beautiful Place on the
Indian River, Near Micco.
By S. A. Livingston

In a recent issue you extend an
invitation to your readers to send
some kodak pictures of Florida
points of interest. The question
arises, who is judge of what points
are of most interest, and the charac character
ter character of interest? Do we mean St.
Augustine, Daytona, Palm Beach,
Miami all of which have been ko kodaked
daked kodaked to death and printers ink
without stint expended? And yet
much can be written about the above
of utmost interest to those who have
experienced any of the balmy win winter
ter winter weather in Florida.
But for the home body, the do domestic
mestic domestic individual who has any lik-

ing for country life, there are places
bordering the Indian river in Flor Florida
ida Florida that for beauty, climate and pro productiveness
ductiveness productiveness cannot be excelled, and
if he be a sportsman, with gun and
dog, or fisherman, with rod and reel,
he can find both, a variety of all, in
abundance to gratify his utmost de desire
sire desire for sport, for the woods abound
in game, animals and birds, and the
river abounds in a variety of fish oi
the finest.
Some six years ago I was capti captivated
vated captivated with a locality on Indian river
known as Micco, Brevard county.
At that time and even at this date
not one-half the territory is yet
brought into cultivation. I presume
the reason is mainly because Micco
is only a flag station on the East
Coast Railroad, with no hotel and
very few people and consequently

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

very little known, and the resident
owners are not very anxious to be
known, hence no effort of any kind
is made to invite new comers. Some
splendid orange and grapefruit
groves are to be found here, and the
land bordering the river in Micco
is some twelve to fourteen feet
above the river. So we have a pair
of stairs to go down to the water,
where a sandy bottom affords good
bathing, and the water is shoal so a
person can walk out some 100 or
more feet before the water would
be up to the neck.
At this place the river is some
four miles wide from mainland to

the peninsula. The peninsula is
only about 2,000 feet wide here.
Then with the surf from the At Atlantic
lantic Atlantic ocean, from which a breeze is
blowing almost all the time, and
even with the thermometer reading
80 or 90 degrees, one does not feel
excessively warm.
I selected a piece of ground some
380 feet front on the river and ex extending
tending extending back from the river a dis distance
tance distance to give me thirteen acres.
This was growm over with scrub,
wild vines, briar root, etc. I had the
same cleared up, fenced with barb
wire to keep out wild hogs or other
depredators, then procured some
500 fruit trees, planted same, and
to insure my young trees against
drouth in the dry season provided a
1%-inch wrought iron pipe through
the center of my ground from front

to rear, and at every 100 feet I at attached
tached attached a one-half inch pipe leading
each way from center to fence on
each side of property. On each side
of these cross pipes I erected a stand
pipe three feet high, with a hose
faucet to attach a garden hose. So
on completion of my pipe system I
can, with one 50-foot length of hose,
water my whole ground. Then I
drove a 1%-inch pipe well twenty
feet deep, erected a windmill tower,
also a tank tower. My tank tower
is two storiesthirty feet high.
The upper story is a work-shop for
making boxes, etc; the lower story
is a packing room in fruit season. I
pump into the tank with the wind windmill,
mill, windmill, and have no trouble at all.
Capacity of tank 2,500 gallons, and
can fill it at any time in three or
four hours, and I have the pipes
connected with my dwelling house.
So we have the convenience of run running
ning running water in kitchen and the sys system
tem system is complete.
I send you a kodak picture of my
house, also my tank house and wind-

mill; also my son with a wheelbar wheelbarrow
row wheelbarrow gathering fruit two years ago,
and the system now of gathering
with a wagon; one picture of my
wife, who is admiring a punch of six
grapefruit on one stem not much
larger than a lead pencil and each
grapefruit almost as large as her
head; another picture of your hum humble
ble humble servant just up from the river
with a mess of fish and wild ducks.
The various pictures will give some
idea of the trees in my grove. To Today
day Today all are thrifty and in full foli foliage
age foliage and loaded with a good crop of
fruit. The water from my well is
excellent no sulphur fumes to it
whatever. A number of artesian
wells are driven in this section,
some 80 or 100 feet deep, from
which a constant flow is obtained.
(Continued on page eleven.)



STRAWBERRIES
Some Valuable Suggestions Regarding the Cul Culture
ture Culture of This Profitable and Popular Firuit.
W. C. Steele

Strawberries are the most popular
of all the small fruits that are known
in Florida. They are also the most
easily grown, yet are not so common
on the tables of Florida farmers as
they should be. When farmers learn
to ftse more fruit and less meat, they
will find they and their families will
enjoy better health.
Probably the lack of this fruit is
due to the erroneous idea, which
many seem to have, that strawberries
are a difficult crop to grow. In many
cases this opinion has been formed
from observation of failures among
neighbors, or from personal lack of
success. But the reason of these fail failures
ures failures is usually not difficult to ascer ascertain,
tain, ascertain, and is generally one which
might have been remedied.
The two essential requisites of suc success
cess success are an abundant supply of fertil fertilizer
izer fertilizer and plenty of water.
In regard to fertilizer, the major majority
ity majority of growers are too economical;
stinting the supply of plant food is an
illustration of the old adage, Save
at the spigot and waste at the bung bunghole.
hole. bunghole. Many years ago a promi prominent
nent prominent and successful market gardener
of Illinois, in writing about the cul cultivation
tivation cultivation of asparagus, said: The
profit in growing asparagus comes
from the fertilizer that you put on
after you think you have enough on
the land.
From the experience and observa observation
tion observation of many years, I am very sure
that this rule is applicable to almost
every crop, but is especially so to
strawberries. It is almost, if not
quite, impossible to get the soil too
rich for strawberries, provided that
the proper proportions of phosphoric
acid, potash and nitrogen are rigidly
maintained. It is quite possible to
make the soil so rich in nitrogen
that there will be a vigorous growth
of top but little if any fruit. This
might easily occur on heavily cow cowpenned
penned cowpenned land; yet the most prolific
strawberry plants that I have ever
seen, in Florida, were growing on a
small piece of land which had been
very heavily penned. The ideal con condition
dition condition of soil for strawberries would
be to have it heavily fertilized with
stable manure for several years, until
the soil is filled with humus, and
then apply a liberal quantity of phos phosphoric
phoric phosphoric acid and potash in the form of
some commercial fertilizer.
The abundant supply of water
needed is quite commonly found in
this State, by planting on flatwoods
land, which is supposed to be always
moist. Yet two serious objections
may be found to planting on this class
of lands. In very rainy seasons the
soil is often too wet, in fact, such land
in this settlement has been so wet this
fall that growers were not able to set
their plants as early as they would
have liked. On the other hand, dur during
ing during a prolonged drouth, I have known
fiatwood land to dry out down to the
fiard pan, so that every plant died,
while those growing on high ham-

THB FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

mock land, within a mile, lived
through, because owing to capillary
attraction, moisture was constantly
coming up from the porous sub-soil.
The most certainly profitable
strawberry beds are those set on high
pine or preferably high hammock
land, provided that an ample supply
of water can be furnished when there
is not sufficient rainfall. A few days
ago, I visited the farm of the most
successful strawberry grower in Clay
county. He has been in the business
on the same farm for over 30 years.
This year his beds are on a high
hammock ridge between a creek and
a lake. The land sloped down to the
creek on one side and the lake on
the other, a strip on each end being
too wet for strawberries. The end
next to the creek was partly set to
cabbage, cauliflower, beets and other
vegetables. The other end was de devoted
voted devoted to lettuce, some of which was
already well started and growing
thriftily, although the season has
been so wet that the beds have been
overflowed several times. The grow grower
er grower told me that this piece of land had
been in lettuce for fifteen years con continuously.
tinuously. continuously. Evidently lettuce is like
onions in that it can be grown suc succussfully
cussfully succussfully year after year on the same
land, not requiring a rotation of
crops.
For his vegetables, the gentleman
uses a compost of stable manure,
poultry droppings, etc., to which he
adds a liberal percentage of potash,
this element being necessary to all
crops and being usually deficient in
Florida soils. To his strawberry beds
he applies a well known brand of
commercial fertilizer, to which he
adds extra potash to the amount of
a condensed milk can full to each
wooden bucket full of fertilizer.
These beds were provided wffth
rows of water pipes from an artesian
well, with hydrants so arranged that
by means of sprinklers and fifty-foot
lengths of hose he could saturate the
soil at pleasure.
You will understand something of
the success of his methods when I
tell you that he showed me rows of
plants, set about a year ago, which
last spring yielded a quart of ripe
berries at one picking from seven
plants; this is a remarkable showing.
A crop of strawberries at the North
all ripens up in from three to four
weeks, while the crop in this State
spreads over from three to six
months, so that usually the pickings
at one time are not heavy. In the
case of the specially prolific plants
mentioned earlier in this article,
many of them held a promise of as
many berries as I ever saw on one
plant at the same time in the North,
but they varied from ripe fruit to
green berries of all sizes, with fruit
stalks where there were open blos blossoms
soms blossoms and buds varying down to the
smallest size that are visible.
The plants in the Clay county beds
which I have been describing were

set in single rows 22 inches apart,
with 12 to 15 inches between the
plants. Every grower has his own
ideas as to the best distance between
rows and plants. My own rule, for
many years, has been to set in double
rows one foot apart, allowing 12
inches between the plants with a
three-foot space between the double
rows. I prefer this because when
rows are only 22 to 24 inches apart,
a vigorous growth brings the plants
so close together that it is difficult to
keep the pickers feet off the fruit on
the rows behind them while they are
busy with that on the row in front of
them. With double rows a foot apart,
with three-foot spaces between them,
the rows have exactly the same space
as when set in 24 inch rows, while
the wide spaces allow room for the
pickers to turn without danger to the
fruit behind them.
With these brief hints to guide
your judgment, there is no reason
why you may not have a good supply
of berries for home use. It is a little
late for planting, this year, still
about the only difference will be that
the late set plants will not have time
to make so large a growth and con consequently
sequently consequently yield a smaller crop. Still,
if properly set and cultivated, on well
fertilized soil, they should yield a
quantity which will be satisfactory,
on the principle that, Half a loaf is
better than no bread. Then, if suc successfully
cessfully successfully carried through the sum summer,
mer, summer, you will be in a position to have
a bountiful crop the next season.
Switzerland, Fla.
Sugar Factories in Cuba.
There have been 186 sugar fac factories
tories factories in operation in Cuba during
the past season. Of these, seventy seventytwo
two seventytwo are of Cuban ownership, thirty thirtysix
six thirtysix of American, seventy-six English,
French and Spanish ownership. The
average area of canes associated
with each factory is about 4,500
acres, and the average output of su sugar
gar sugar about 8,100 tons. The sugar
acreage of Cuba has doubled within
the past ten years.
A FLORIDA HOME.
(Continued from page ten.)
But to me the sulphur fumes are of offensive
fensive offensive and I do not think it is just
the water for irrigating. My opinion
was so convincing to myself that I
chose the windmill system and the
upper stratum of sweet water rather
than put in an artesian pipe that
would flow continuously (but sul sulphurous
phurous sulphurous water), and the latter I
could have had at less cost than the
system I have adopted.
This question of sulphurous water
such as is obtained along the East
Coast of Florida for irrigating is a
debatable one. I would like to learn
more about it from others who have
had longer experience.
I do not know that this article
will furnish much material to guide
anew comer, but after considerable
labor it has now caused my grove,
the home and surroundings to as assume
sume assume what I had pictured in my
mind six or seven years ago. I have
dedicated my grove as Paradise
Grove and the house as Paradise
Cottage.

11



12

SOME UNTRIED CROPS
A Man of Large Experience in Florida Tells What
May Be Grown on Five Acres.
By George H. Wright

In the North and West a farmer
thinks he must work at least eighty
acres of land in order that he may
make a living for his family, and
most farmers want to farm a full
quarter section and many a half sec section
tion section in order to be able to send their
sons to an agricultural college and
give their daughters an education
necessary to fit them to be at the
head of a farm house.
When such farmers in the West
are told that the same amount of
money can be made, and is made, in
the State of Florida on five and ten
acre farms they shake their heads
in doubt of the accuracy of such
statements, yet such is the case and
they are being verified every year by
many men who have come to the
State and are now making good and
happy homes on five and ten acres
of land, and in the healthiest State in
all this great Republic.
In order to do this one must aban abandon
don abandon their grain that they have de depended
pended depended on for a money crop and
adapt themselves to the crops that
bring money in a sub-tropical cli climate.
mate. climate.
Allow me to suggest a money crop
to be made on a five or ten-acre Flor Florida
ida Florida farm.
To do this the proper land must
be selected, and this is among the
cheaper lands of the State today.
They are known as flatwoods, or
lands that require surface drainage,
and this can be done by simply back backfurrowing
furrowing backfurrowing the land, as many farmers
in the North do in order to raise a
crop of winter wheat. What crop
can be raised on such lands? is at
once asked by the newcomer, and I
will suggest a few of the many, and
then they will see that there is no
difficulty at all in making the money
out of five acres of land.
First, select good flatwoods cut cutover
over cutover land, and remove the stumps
and roots so the entire ground may
be worked with one horse or mule
and a nine-inch plow and use some
fertilizer such as a reliable manufac manufacturer
turer manufacturer would recommend. Then for
the crop to be grown: Say one acre
of blackberries, the common wild
variety that grows spontaneously in
Florida. Plant the roots in rows
five feet apart and two feet apart in
the rows; give first class cultivation
so as to get the best growth the first
season, and the second seasicn a lit little
tle little more fertilizer and clean culture
and gather a crop that will bring the
grower five hundred dollars.
The second acre plant to sage.
Yes sage. This may be anew thought
to many, but sage will make the
grower one hundred dollars the first
season, double that amount the sec second
ond second season, and double again the
third season. I have been asked by
several where they can get a market.
I answer, ask any groceryman if he
sells dried sage, and he will tell you
yes, and lots of it. It Is a perennial,
and when once planted it improves

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

in quality and quantity for several
years after planting. The same thing
is true of the blackberry. All you
have to do with the blackberry is to
mow off the old canes as soon as the
crop is gathered every year and the
new growth of canes makes the next
crop.
For the third acre plant Lady
Thompson strawberries in the last
week of September or first week in
October, and begin to gather a crop
in holidays. Can any other State
beat this? And if the crop is raised
near Orlando there is a home market
that never goes below 20 cents per
quart for No. 1 berries, and the
earlier one 30 to 50 cents per quart.
The tourists eat them and pay for
them, and Orlando has from two to
four thousand tourists every winter,
while your strawberries are at their
best. From $l5O to S2OO per acre
can be realized, and if the grower has
done his part he will increase the
acreage of strawberries the second
October.
The fourth acre may be planted to
celery, and the growers at Sanford or
Orlando will tell you that SSOO per
acre is a very modest income and
many men have made double that
amount.
Let the fifth acre be put into a
kitchen garden, where the good
housewife can gather lettuce, beans,
beets, cabbage, cauliflower, Irish po potatoes
tatoes potatoes and sweet potatoes, egg plants,
radishes, cucumbers, sweet peppers,
tomatoes and a half dozen othr edi edible
ble edible vegetables, and live like a king
and not work in the hot sun in Au August.
gust. August.
There are many other valuable
things that may be grown on the
small Florida farm, but let this suf suffice
fice suffice for this time, and if this finds
favor I will come again with yet oth other
er other money making crops.
Orlando, Fla.
IRRIGATION
A Comparison of the Systems Most
Generally in Use in Florida.
The importance of irrigation is
becoming more and more apparent
to all who cultivate the soil in Flor Florida,
ida, Florida, and there is no doubt that, in
most cases, a good irrigation plant
w r ould pay a large interest on its
cost every year. The best method
of doing the work has not been sat satisfactorily
isfactorily satisfactorily settled. The Tampa Times
describes a plan which certainly has
some great advantages. It is as fol follows:
lows: follows:
The Times is greatly pleased to
see the fight it has been making the
past five years or more for irrigation
being taken up so intelligently and
earnestly by the press of South
Florida. Hundreds of enterprising
farmers and grove owners are in installing
stalling installing plants as rapidly as possible
and the story of loss and disaster

from drouth will never be told of
them again. Various methods are
being adopted, and right here the
Times wishes to drop an earnest
word of caution. The best method
of applying water to Florida soil
is by underground pipes of porous
terracotta. It is more expensive in
the first application, but it is the
best and cheapest in the long run.
Ditches on the surface are waste wasteful
ful wasteful of water, have to be cleaned and
opened up anew with almost every
turning on of the water, they inter interfere
fere interfere with plowing and harrowing and
are a continual nuisance. Sprinkling
must be done with metallic conduc conductors,
tors, conductors, costly and short of life, enjoin enjoining
ing enjoining continual expense and renewal,
demanding a much more expensive
and elevated tank. Sprinkling also
hardens the surface of the ground,
it being baked into a crust, and the
water seeks the lower spots of the
surface away from the trees and
plants. While it is profitable com compared
pared compared with non-irrigation, it is not
the best method.
The underground pipe method is
the nearest approach to perfection
possible. The labor of installing is
simple, the pipes cover the field
with perfect uniformity and are for forever
ever forever away from the reach of the
plow, while every drop of water is
applied directly to the roots of trees
or plants, and none of it escapes into
the air. The supply tank need not
be so high, saving much of the labor
and cost of pumping. A few iron
pipes convey the water to the open opening
ing opening heads of the underground pipes,
a riser with a fifty foot length of
cheap rubber hose will feed the pipes
for a breadth of a hundred feet and
a child can attend to the whole busi business
ness business of irrigation. The supply is
steady and sufficient and the ground
is always kept in the best of condi condition
tion condition as is attested in many sections
where the terra pipes are em employed
ployed employed in connection with artesian
wells.
For orange groves a line of pipe
on each side of the row of trees,
say at a distance of five or six feet,
is sufficient. By this means the trees
can be stimulated during the bloom blooming
ing blooming and growing seasons and allow allowed
ed allowed to become dormant during the se severer
verer severer portion of the winter. It is a
fair estimate to say that the best
crops can be increased fifty per cent,
and the average crop doubled, the
trees can be brought to uniforrm ex excellent
cellent excellent condition and made to pro produce
duce produce twice the amount of bearing
wood each summer for next years
fruit. There is scarcely a limit to
the improvement that can be brought
about in the average grove by the
judicious application of water and
fertilizer. With this combination it
is just as easy to have ten boxes a
tree as eight, twenty as twelve.
Sugar Lands in Hawaii.
Of the total sugar area of the Ha Hawaiian
waiian Hawaiian Islands, 105,000 acres (about
50 per cent) have been reclaimed
from practically arid land, entirely
through private enterprise, and by
means of irrigation, magnificent
crops are now r produced. The cost
of reclamation, w T ith the provision of
irrigation plant, was about $l4O per
acre.



JAPANESE SUGAR CANE
The Feeding Value and Method of Cultivating
This Most Productive Forage Plant.
By John M. Scott

The Japanese sugar cane is one of
the best forage crops for the farm farmers
ers farmers of Florida to grow. It is easy
to propagate, requires only a mini minimum
mum minimum amount of cultivation, and the
yield that can be secured is very
large. A good crop will yield from
20 to 30 tons of feed per acre. This
yield, under ordinary conditions, is
two or three times as much as we
can expect from sorghum or corn.
Not only is the yield in tons more
than from almost any other crop, but
Japanese cane is much richer in car carbohydrates
bohydrates carbohydrates than corn or sorghum,
and for that reason is a more valu valuable
able valuable forage crop. It does not produce
its maximum yield until about the
third year after planting.
The feeding value of Japanese cane
lies in the large amount of carbohy carbohydrates
drates carbohydrates that it contains. In combina-

r. -v'
> j

tion with velvet beans, it gives an al almost
most almost ideal ration for either beef or
milk production. It furnishes the
necessary carbohydrates (fat-produc (fat-producing
ing (fat-producing material), while the velvet beans
supply a large amount of protein
(bone and muscle-producing materi material).
al). material). By growing these two crops,
Florida farmers can have an abund abundance
ance abundance of good winter feed, for fatten fattening
ing fattening cattle or feeding dairy cows. In
the steer-feeding experiment, con conducted
ducted conducted during the winter of 1908-9,
it was found that when Japanese cane
was fed with a light ration of corn,
velvet beans, and sweet potatoes, an
average daily gain of 3.12 pounds
was obtained. Hogs are also fond of
Japanese cane. They readily eat the
hard canes rejected by cattle and
horses. A number of farmers are now
using Japanese cane for fattening
their hogs.
Japanese sugar cane may be used
as pasture or for soiling, during No November,
vember, November, December, and January. Or
it may be cut and cured as hay, to be
used during'the winter and spring
seasons. Perhaps the best methoc
of preparing this crop for feed is tc
put it in the silo. Silage is undoubt

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

edly the cheapest form of roughage
that we can provide for our cattle
and horses. Because Japanese sugar sugarcane
cane sugarcane gives us such a heavy yield of
forage per acre, it is without doubt
one of the cheapest, of the crops we
can grow for silage. When used for
winter pasture it will not be advis advisable
able advisable to pasture it later than March 1.
If pastured after growth begins in
the spring, the canes are likely to be
killed or at least weakened in vital vitality.
ity. vitality. and the result will be a poor
stand and a small unsatisfactory
yield. If cut and cured for dry for forage
age forage it will be found advisable to run
it through a feed-cutter before feed feeding.
ing. feeding. This in curs additional expense,
but the increased feeding value ob obtained
tained obtained will more than pay for it.
The cost of planting is only a small
item of expense, when we consider

that one planting will continue to
produce good yields for fifteen or
twenty years, if properly handled.
The ground should be thoroughly
plowed to a depth of six inches. Then
harrow with tooth harrow, and mark
off the rows with a marker. The
rows should be not less than six feet
apart. When planted at this dis distance
tance distance it will be only eight or ten
years before the entire ground will
be covered, as the canes rattoon
very rapidly. After the ground is
slowed and harrowed the rows car
ie thrown cut with a disc cultivator.
The canes are then dropped by ham
n a double line. The disc cultivator
an again be used to good advantage
a covering the canes, the discs beim
eversed and set as wide apart a
ossible. If the discs are not set wid
part they will throw a large per
entage of the canes out on top c
he ground. It will be found advh
ble to cut the canes into short piece
cntaining about four eyes. The
;r immature parts of the canes shoul
e discarded, as they will not prcdiu
strong plants. If care is taken j
.electing only good healthy see
canes, 4,000 to 5,000 whole canes^

will be sufficient to plant an acre of
ground. The canes can be planted
at any time from November to April
1 Spring planting is advised for
North and West Florida. If planting
is postponed until late in the season
the seed canes must be protected
from cold by banking, as a heavy
frost will kill the buds.
We know very little as to the best
fertilizer for this crop. However,
good results have been secured by
the use of the same formula as for
corn, applying from 400 to 600
pounds per acre.
Florida Experiment Station.
Agricultural Education In U. S.
The following will serve to give an
idea of the growth of Agricultural
Education in the United States (Ex (Experiment
periment (Experiment Station Record, February
1909):
The total Income of the AgricuL
tural Colleges was $5,000,000 in
1897, and $15,000,000 in 1908; the
value of their property was $51,000,-
000 in the former year and $90,000,-
000 in 1908. The students in 1897
numbered 4,000; in 1908, 10,000.
One agricultural high school ex existed
isted existed in 1897, and there are now 55.
Not one normal school taught agri agriculture
culture agriculture in 1897, but now 115 do so,
besides many privately endowed
schools. About half of the Agricul Agricultural
tural Agricultural Colleges now give training
courses for teachers in agriculture;
44 States and Territories give some
instructions in elementary principles
of agriculture in the lower schools.
The Graduate School of Agriculture
for instruction of investigators and
for discussion of advanced problems
of research in agriculture was or organized
ganized organized in 1902, and is now doing
work under the Association of Amer American
ican American Agricultural Colleges and Ex Experiment
periment Experiment Stations. A strong move movement
ment movement for the systematic organization
of all agencies in agricultural exten extension
sion extension work has been started within a
few years, and the National Educa Educational
tional Educational Association has added a de department
partment department of rural and agricultural
education.
Outside of schools which are for
the education of youth and teachers
in agriculture, the farmerrs have re received
ceived received a greatly increased degree of
education by means of demonstra demonstration
tion demonstration work and advice given orally
and by letter, by countless official
and private publications, by corn and
live stock judging contests, and by
farmers institutes. The number of
sessions of the last named held in
1908 was 14,000, with an attendance
of about 2,000,000 persons, an enor enormous
mous enormous increase over the attendance
twelve years ago. About 1,200 train trained
ed trained lecturers are now employed in
farmers* institute work in all States
and Territories.
Last year Escambia county realiz realized
ed realized $1,900,000 from 7,500 acres of
ruck farms, which was an average
of $253 per acre. The average
production realized in this section
*rom growing cotton or corn is
'12.50 per acre. Which means if a
nan has ten acres in cotton or corn
he loses during the year $2,400.
vVe have as good truck farm land as
Escambia. DeFuniak Breeze.

13



14

CLEARING NEW LAND
Extracts From Farmers Bulletin No. 150, Issued
By the United States Department of Agriculture.
By Franklin Williams, Jr.

tf'iie clearing of new land is an
important factor in the agricultural
economics of many farms, yet prob probably
ably probably no feature of farm life Is so
little understood and so blindly pur pursued.
sued. pursued. This unfortunate condition is
largely due to lack of information
upon the subject. Almost every oth other
er other field of farm operations has been
more or less thoroughly covered by
agricultural publications of one kind
or another; but the writer has long
looked in vain for any definite and
authentic information upon the sub subject
ject subject of clearing land,
There is a notion which obtains
among many persons that the own ownership
ership ownership of land imparts respectability.
The correctness of this idea is con conditional.
ditional. conditional. The possession of broad
and productive acres, it is true, gives
prestige as well as profit, but the
ownership of nonproductive bushy
land is discreditable. The character
and thrift of the farmer may be
justly estimated by the appearance
of his land.
A good plan for the owner of un unimproved
improved unimproved land is to sell the surplus.
Such a course will not only promote
the owners interest, but the com common
mon common wealth of the community.
Loafer land not only represents
idle and taxable capital for the land landlord.
lord. landlord. but the withholding of possible
support from others.
If he is a benefactor of mankind
who succeeds in making two blades
of grass grow where only one grew
before, how much more beneficent
is the mission of making grass grow
where only bushes were wont, to
thrive.
Cost of Clearing.
In many sections farm improve improvements
ments improvements can be bought for less than
cost. Certainly in such cases it is
cheaper to purchase improved land
than to buy impoverished or wooded
tracts with a view to their improve improvement
ment improvement by clearing. If a living has to
be earned upon it, poor or foul land
is dear as a gift. Generally the ex expense
pense expense of clearing will exceed the
original cost of the land. The cost
per acre will vary from $5 or $lO,
to S3O or S4O, conditional upon kind,
density and size of wooded covering.
In many localities there is a fair de demand
mand demand for wood, the proceeds of
which will help to defray the cost of
clearing. In fact it might be profit profitable
able profitable in some instances to dispose of
the wood to the best advantage and
then to give away, if it can not be
sold, the land with all its stumps and
roots and purchase improved land.
However, in clearing most pine
land the cutting method is the most
expedient. The pine genus, except excepting
ing excepting two or three species, is happily
peculiar. Contrary to the rule in
forestry, when the pine is cut off
just above the ground it does not
throw up shoots. Consequently it
soon dies, and if the stump be small
it rapidly decays.
Many pine lands throughout the

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

South may be cut off and safely left
idle for several years with assurance
that roots and stumps will rot. Pine
soil is not so impregnated with ob objectionable
jectionable objectionable growth in an embryo
state, waiting for an opportunity to
develop into bushes, as is hard-wood
land.
This nonsprouting characteristic
of the stump of most species of pine,
together with the relative freedom
of pine soils from foul growth the
first years, renders Southern pine
land comparatively easy and inex inexpensive
pensive inexpensive to especially if the
timber is not large. New pine land
is much more amenable to cultiva cultivation
tion cultivation than lands from which other
kinds of timber has been removed by
cutting. This is owing to the semi semitaproot
taproot semitaproot system of the pine and the
brittle nature of its roots.
Clearing With Dynamite.
In the removal of large stumps
dynamite is serviceable and economi economical.
cal. economical. While it will seldom blow the
stump out of the ground, it will
usually split, it in several parts and
lay bare the roots, thus enabling the
grubber to take out the stump piece
by piece, which is less laborious
than removing the whole stump.
The cost of this explosive will not
justify its use on stumps under 6
or 8 inches in diameter. It is too
expensive for general use in clear clearing
ing clearing land. W r hile it is undoubtedly
the cheapest method for removing
stumps of large size, it is a question
whether it is advisable for general
farming to clear land covered with
many such stumps.
The cost of dynamite will approxi approximately
mately approximately vary from 10 to 20 cents per
stump. It is readily seen that if
there are some hundreds of these
oer acre the cost will be too great to
justify clearing by this method land
destined for general farming.
Experienced hands should be em employed
ployed employed when using dynamite, and
great caution must be observed, for
it is very dangerous if carelessly
handled. Also, if placed by inexpe inexperienced
rienced inexperienced hands, much of it is likely
to be misapplied. Hence, if contem
plating its use, it will be safer and
cheaper to employ experienced help.
Dynamite comes in cylindrical
sticks of different sizes and lengths.
The quantity to use in blowing out a
stump depends necessarily upon the
size of the stump. The charge, with
cap and fuse attached, should be
placed in a hole bored for the pur purocse
ocse purocse as nearly as possible under the
stump. The hole should then be fill filled
ed filled with earth and gently tamped.
Then the fuse may be lighted and
Tie operator retreat beyond the
range of flying fragments.
It is generally conceded by those
familiar with dynamite that the mosi
effectual destruction of the stump is
achieved by boring into it as low
down as possible, thus adding con considerably
siderably considerably to the force of the explo explosion.

sion. explosion. This method, however, adds to
the time and labor and hence to the
cost per stump, while the more com common
mon common method of digging down by the
side of the stump and hollowing out
a place under it where the charge
is placed will generally split up the
stump sufficiently to make its re removal
moval removal an easy matter.
Clearihg With Machinery
There are many different makes of
stump-pulling machinery upoh the
market. The promoters of these va various
rious various grubbing devices claim great
merit for their respective machines,
but catalogue claims should be ac accepted
cepted accepted with great caution.
The difficulty with most stump stumppulling
pulling stumppulling machines is that if they are
strong enough for the work desired
of them they are too expensive, cum cumbersome
bersome cumbersome and unwieldy.
When these machines are once
properly adjusted, their work, pro provided
vided provided nothing breaks, will be satis satisfactory.
factory. satisfactory. But the labor of moving
and the care of adjusting, together
with the liability to breakage, more
than outweighs the virtues of any
stump-pulling machine known to the
writer.
However, it may be said of ma machinery
chinery machinery cleared land that the clear clearing
ing clearing is thorough. The machine re removes
moves removes practically all the roots of
nny size from the ground, leaving
the land in good tillable condition.
When it is the intention to use
a machine the timber should be cut
away and removed and the brush
burned. Such preparatory work will
greatly facilitate the moving and op operation
eration operation of the machine. The stumps
should be left high enough to con conveniently
veniently conveniently loop with a chain, for it is
much easier to get a secure hold
above than below ground.
The best time to operate a ma machine
chine machine is immediately after a heavy
rain. The stumps will draw much
easier when the ground is soft and
loose than when it is dry and hard.
Clearing with horses and chain
consists in pulling the young trees
out of the ground. Where conditions
are favorable it is surprising how
rapidly this may be accomplished.
Best results can be obtained where
the growth consists of saplings, say
2 to 4 inches in diameter, which
have a lateral root system. The
ground should be soft and loose.
The plan is simple. It consists in
fastening one end of a long log chain
to the trunk of the sapling as high
above the ground as the flexibility
of the tree will permit and hitching
a steady horse, or, if necessary, a
team of horses to the other end of
the chain. While the horses are
pulling at the tree a man should be
at its base with an ax and assist
them by severing such roots as seem
loath to give away.
In this manner, when the saplings
are of the right size and kind, the
ground in proper condition, the
horses true and steady, the man with
the ax alert and discreet, wonderfully
good and fast work can be accom accomplished.
plished. accomplished.
Stumps may also be pulled up
with chain and horses. One end of
a log chain should be fastened
around one of the large roots of a
stump, a team of horses being hitched
to the other end. The chain is



placed across the top of the stump
which acts as a fulcrum arid fur furnishes
nishes furnishes leverage for its own removal.
It is not generally advisable to
cut off timber with a. view to grub grubbing
bing grubbing out the stumps afterward. It is
much easier to grub the standing
timber than the stumps after the
trunk and tops have been severed,
for it is the tap roots that are most
inaccessible and difficult to reach
and cut, and the tops, by serving as
a lever, greatly assist in loosening
the&e.
In the removal of trees of consid considerable
erable considerable size much labor may be sav saved
ed saved by digging a trench immediately
around the base of the tree, cutting
ail the laterals, and leaving the tap
roots for the action of rain and wind.
Water will collect in the trench and
soften the subsoil and the wind with
its swaying force will soon throw
the tree. Indeed, when the side roots
and the earth have been removed
from around a tree, the prying force
which the top will exercise upon the
remaining roots will be irresistible.
Each drop of rain and each puff of
wind will contribute tow r ard loosen loosening
ing loosening and breaking those tap roots,
which on account of their position
almost defy the mattock. The assist assistance
ance assistance which nature is capable of af affording
fording affording in clearing away trees is
wonderful.
The Avacado or Alligator Pear.
The writer noticed an article in
the Agriculturist some time ago
about the avacado pear. Not a word
too much was said about the fruit,
but the writer said, It is hardly
probable that here in this country we
ran ever produce fruit quite equal
in size to the largest from the trop tropics,
ics, tropics, etc. I have seen many who have
seen the foreign pear and have said
that for quality none they have ever
seen or tasted were equal to the
bears grown successfully in low r er
Dade county, Florida. And as to
size, the writer is not an authority
on the foreign pear, but I have seen
many that would weigh up in the
poundsenough for a meal for at
least four people who were fond of
them. Then here in Dade county we
have a late variety, perhaps smaller
than the seedling, that matures after
the seedlings are all gone. This is
known as the Trapp pear, originat originating
ing originating here in this county. These are
marketed until December. All of the
growers of fruit in lower Dade coun county
ty county have avacado pears and a fine va variety
riety variety of mangos coming on, many
now bearing. The avacado will hold
its own, and but a very small portion
of the United States is suitable for
its cultivation as it will not stand
a severe cold. It grows to perfection
at Modello.
I am sincerely yours,
... S. A. MURDEN.
Cassava in the Phillippines.
Cassava is grown on a considera considerable
ble considerable scale in the Philippine Islands,
and the roots are utilized in the
manufacture of starch. About 11
tons of roots constitute an average
return per acre, and from these a
yield of about 34 per cent of starch
is obtained, i. e., about 8,000 to 10,-
000 pounds of starch per acre.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

These notes are for the purpose of
adding to the theoretical and prac practical
tical practical knowledge of the everyday or ordinary
dinary ordinary farmer and fruit grower.
Down at Gilmore at Ferndale
visitors, and others, are continually
remarking, what fine land you
have! We are constantly hearing of
old land! Now all land is old land,
and never will be young land.
People are loath to expose their
own faults either in agriculture or
other economical propositions. There
; s a business man in Jacksonville,
not long returned from California,
who states that in the wheat dis districts
tricts districts of that State they can raise but
eight or ten bushels of wheat to the
acre.
Think of this. California used to be
noted for her wheat, of which she
exported vast quantities. In England
fields that were under cultivation
during the lifetime of Julius Caesar
are now producing thirty bushels to
the acre.
We remember very distinctly when
Gennesee Valley wheat had a world worldwide
wide worldwide reputation. Now Gennesee Val Valley
ley Valley does not raise enough wheat to
feed its own people. The term old
land is a misnomer. It should be
called impoverished land. In other
words, there has been taken from the
land continuously its nutritive ele elements
ments elements in crop raising, and very little
or none at aP returned to it.
This process continuing for a num number
ber number of years renders the land bank bankrupt,
rupt, bankrupt, or permanently old.
Recognizing these facts, and appre appreciating
ciating appreciating the importance of a practical
application of remedies, we are con continually
tinually continually striving to treat our land as
we do our bank account, viz., we add
to the soil fertility as much, or more
than we take out.
Both these accounts are larger
each year than the preceding. We
therefore destroy nothingnot even
weeds on our place, but the roots
and brush, the result of new land
clearing. We give back the mineral
elements obtained by burning. Were
we able to wait for the breaking
down of these organic materials we
would not burn them.
Ihie above remarks were suggested
by reading an article in Farm and
Fireside for October by W. Milton
Kelley. I have furnished the Agri Agriculturist
culturist Agriculturist with a copy of this most val valuable
uable valuable article, with a request to re republish
publish republish the same and increase-its cir circulation
culation circulation here in Florida where it is
so much needed.
Here on Ferndale Farm we are
continually experimenting along
practical lines, and we find our very
failures are in reality successes, inas inasmuch
much inasmuch as they teach how to succeed.
Our plan of work is as follows:
We have already two nice crops of
potatoes, one sweet and the other
Irish. Both these were planted on
newly reclaimed land, very rich in
humus. We restored to the land oc occupied
cupied occupied by sweet potatoes the ashes
obtained by burning the roots and

FERNDALE FARM NOTES
By A. T. Cuzner, M. D.,

brush, the result of our clearing tup*
process.
Our Irish potatoes were treated a
little differently. After putting the
land in good tilth by plowing and
harrowing, we run a furrow from
north to south into which we placed
well rotted stable manure and ashes.
Running a furrow alongside this we
covered it up and provided a place for
our seed potatoesalready sprouted,
and the remains of our spring crop.
We then covered them by running a
furrow alongside, into which we
placed ashes and stable manure. We
then run a furrow alongside covering
up this manure and ashes. The next
row and every row was treated the
same way.
Our object in placing manure each
side of the plants was to avoid bring bringing
ing bringing it in immediate contact with the
plants; to avoid rot, and yet to have
a supply of fertilizing elements close
at hand for the plants use.
Both these plantings are looking
well and we will report results later
on.
We have reclaimed another acre
of land containing an abundance of
humus, which we intend to plant in
oats, to be cropped by our stock dur during
ing during the winter, and in the spring to>
be allowed to mature grain. Thte
land we have treated differently
from the other. Recognizing that
this soil had an abundance of plant
food but was too sour for grain we
plowed in 800 pounds of finely
ground land plaster (sulphate of
lime 1. We will watch the results.
One of our sows has done "well by
us this season, having presented us
with twelve small pigs. She after afterward
ward afterward overlaid part of them.
We keep our hogs up, realizing
that we have no more moral right
to keep animals that will destroy and
consume our neighbors property,
even though sanctioned by law, than
we have to do the same personally.
We feed both our hogs and chick chickens
ens chickens on foul fish and crabs from the
river. This is one of the advantages
of a place on such a stream. We
supplement this feed with acorns,
potato vines and scraps from the
farm, together with a grain ration.
Our stock and horse we partially
feed with marsh grass. Now meat
is so dear it will once more pay the
average farmer to raise more stock
and chickens.
We have planted- a large number
of seed from the Carnegie orange.
The young plants are looking well
and we have set them out in nur nursery
sery nursery rows. The King orange is such
a fine fruit that I have planted seed
and have a large number of plants
o set out. Likewise Satsuma and
Tangerine. The last two come true
to seed when there are any found to
plant.
We are now devoting our available
time to hay making. We have bought
but one bale of hay in one year. We
have already several stacks and will
have a number more before we get
through harvesting it.

15



16

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Euteren as second class mail matter Octo October
ber October sth. 1.1,9 at the Postoffice at Jacksonville,
rla un ler the Act of March 3. 1879.
DECEMBER, 1909.
The Agriculturist for 1910.
We are pleased to make the an announcement
nouncement announcement that we have secured the
services of Mr. C. Fred Ward, of
Winter Park, Fla., as editor of the
Poultry Department of the Agricul Agriculturist.
turist. Agriculturist.
Mr. Ward has been raising poultry
in Florida for the past six years, and
in the establishment of the Lake Lakemont
mont Lakemont Poultry Farm and his strain
of Single Comb Rhode Island Reds
has made a big success.
He plans to give our readers from
month to month a series of practical
' articles on successful poultry raising,
as well as clippings from other up upto-date
to-date upto-date magazines.
We are also pleased to announce
that Prof. John M. Scott, Animal In Industrialist
dustrialist Industrialist of the Florida Experiment
Station, will in future have charge of
the Live Stock pages of the Agri Agriculturist.
culturist. Agriculturist.
Another gratifying piece of in information
formation information is that Prof. B. F. Floyd,
Plant Physiologist of the Experiment
Station, will have a regular depart department
ment department in the Agriculturist.
Mr. John Belling will continue his
monthly review of the work and
other interesting matters connected
with the Experiment Station, and we
have the promise from time to time
cf special articles from other attaches
of this institution.
It affords us more than ordinary
pleasure to make this announcement,
for these men are all specialists in
their lines of work, and their state statements
ments statements carry with them the weight of
authority.
In this connection we feel that we
ought to express our appreciation of
Prof. Rolfs willingness for his effi efficient
cient efficient assistants to render us this
service. While he is prompted no
doubt only by a desire to promote the
agricultural interests of the State
and to give the widest publicity to
the work of the station of which he

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

is the head, we are no less grateful
that the Agriculturist is thus recog recognized
nized recognized for the disseminating of this in information.
formation. information.
With the above and the large num number
ber number of practical writers from vari various
ous various sections of the State who will
contribute regularly to its columns,
we feel sure that the Agriculturist
for 1910 will rank with the best agri agricultural
cultural agricultural and horticultural publica publications
tions publications in the United States, and be
worthy of the support of every per person
son person who is in any w r ay interested in
Florida.
Buying Land In Florida.
The Agriculturist continues to re receive
ceive receive inquiries almost daily concern concerning
ing concerning the lands being offered by the
many colonization companies that
are advertising small tracts in this
State, and many in regard to the re reliability
liability reliability of the companies them themselves.
selves. themselves.
In a large percentage of these
cases the parties have already
bought or contracted for the land
and seemingly are only desirous of
finding out whether or not they have
been victimized. Nevertheless we
endeavor to give them the most re reliable
liable reliable information we are able to
obtain.
Some cf these companies are thor thoroughly
oughly thoroughly reliable and are handling
only good average lands at a rea reasonably
sonably reasonably fair valuation, but we regret
to state that this cannot be said of
all of them. Therefore prospective
purchasers should exercise at least
ordinary business prudence before
parting with their money.
In this connection we would like
to reiterate and emphasize what we
have said before. If one has surplus
money that he can lose without in inconvenience
convenience inconvenience in case his investment
does not prove to be what he ex-?
pected, then he can possibly afford
to buy for speculative purposes with without
out without investigation. But if such a loss
would entail any hardship, or if one
is buying for a home, then by all
means make a thorough personal in investigation,
vestigation, investigation, not only of the charac character
ter character of the land and its productive productiveness,
ness, productiveness, but also as to its proximity to
markets and transportation, and
especially be sure that the title is
good. The titles to much of the land
in Florida are questionable, and
while the maker of a warranty deed
may be solvent and responsible today
it is possible that he may be a bank bankrupt
rupt bankrupt tomorrow and unable to make
his warranty good.
Another word of caution we feel
like giving t 6 prospective purchasers
is not to place too much confidence
in the exaggerated statements made
in the advertising matter sent out
by the people who are exploiting the

State. Make liberal allowance for
these statements, and do not come
here inexperienced, unfamiliar with
the climate, soil and other condi conditions
tions conditions peculiar to Florida, and expect
to make SSOO to SI,OOO per acre
year in and year out. These large
sums are often realized, and even
exceeded under favorable conditions,
but cannot be counted upon with
certainty every year.
Again, do not buy a home site
without comparing prices on what
you are offered with other land sim similarly
ilarly similarly situated. Often times one can
buy an improved or partially im improved
proved improved place for very little if any
more than some of the colonization
companies are asking for their lands,
and thus save expense of clearing
and years of time in the growth of
trees, etc.
County Experiment Farms.
Every county in Florida should
have a model experiment farm to
demonstrate the agricultural possi possibilities
bilities possibilities of the county, not only to
homeseekers and strangers but to
home people as well. Such a farm
should contain 80 acres, or more,
equipped with modern implements
and conveniences, a model house,
barn, water supply, etc., and should
be typical of the county in which it
is located, and the stock raised and
crops grown should be representa representative
tive representative of the highest development pos possible
sible possible by the county which it repre represents.
sents. represents.
This farm should be operated un under
der under the general direction of the
Board of County Commissioners, by
a practical, well-educated, up-to up-todate
date up-todate farmer, capable of demonstrat demonstrating
ing demonstrating not only the possibilities of
such county, but the best and most
economical methods of producing
the crops grown.
This farm should be in a conve convenient
nient convenient location, so as to be easily
accessible and should be made one
of the show places of the county
for strangers and a place where ev every
ery every farmer could go and spend a
day or more every season posting
himself on crops, methods and ev everything
erything everything pertaining to agriculture.
Such a farm would be both helpful
to the citizens and a great aid in the
settlement and improvement of the
unoccupied land in the county.
Work for December.
Much to our regret we are ccm ccmelled
elled ccmelled to omit The Work for the
Month from this number. This se series
ries series of articles, which is one of the
nest popular features of the Agricul Agriculturist,
turist, Agriculturist, is being written by Mr. W. H.
Haskell, of DeLand, a fruit and vege vege
vege



table grower of wide experience, but
before he had prepared his Work
for December, he was stricken with
pneumonia, from which he has not
yet recovered, and was unable to
complete the article.
With very few exceptions the rec recommendations
ommendations recommendations for November will be
found applicable to December also.
The Work for January will include
such special matters as are not cov covered
ered covered by November.
Feijoa Sellowiana.
Mr. G. A. Purdie sends us the fol following,
lowing, following, condensed from the Garden Gardeners
ers Gardeners Chronicle:
Some years since we noticed a
new fruit Feijoa Sellowiana of Uru Uruguay.
guay. Uruguay. We are not informed if this
has been tried in Florida. Dr. F.
Franceslii introduced it into South Southern
ern Southern California. The three original
plants and also seedlings from these
plants are already bearing fruit reg regularly.
ularly. regularly. It is about the size of a
small hens egg and in character
closely resembles that of the guava,
to which plant Feijoa is closely al allied.
lied. allied. It is dull green in color, some sometimes
times sometimes with a touch of crimson on the
cheek. The seeds are very minute,
being very little larger than straw strawberry
berry strawberry seeds, and the pulp is most
delicious. It is so aromatic that a
few specimens will scent a whole
room.
The plant grows to a height of
about 6 feet and its beautiful flow flowers,
ers, flowers, which open in May, render it
very ornamental. The plant has been
found perfectly hardy wherever it
has been planted in Southern Cali California.
fornia. California.
This plant is likely to become of
commercial importance as it stands
shipment well and is liked by almost
all who taste it.
How He Grows Corn.
Editor Florida Agriculturist:
Replying to your request to tell
your readers how I made my prize
crop of corn will say that about the
first of February I break my land
with a two horse plow about 6 inches
deep, burning the vegetation just
ahead of the plow, simply burning
over as much as I can plow in one
day.
The last week in March and the
first week in April I planted on the
level. Just before the corn came up
I crossed the rows with an Acme
harrow, then cultivated shallow with
wing sweeps until the corn was laid
by. Yours very truly,
B. H. DUPREE.
Fresh Corn Meal.
Editor Agriculturist:
In your October issue, U. S. P.
asks you to tell where seme fresh
corn meal can be obtained. There
is a good mill here that runs every
Saturday and grinds home grown
corn, and it has run every Saturday
this year, the farmers of this section
bringing corn to the mill to be
ground.
I finished feeding the last of my
crop of 1308 corn last week. We
make tight cribs and use carbon bi bisulphide
sulphide bisulphide to keep out weevil. I think
U. S. P. can get fresh ground corn
meal if he will write C. E. Bate Bateman.
man. Bateman. He had best tell Mr. Bateman

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

if he prefers meal ground fine, me medium
dium medium or coarse.
S. H. GAITSKILL.
Well Pleased.
Gentlemen: The Agriculturist was
recommended to me by the Times-
Union. The sample copy was far
beyond my expectations. I am sur surprised
prised surprised to note that the price of the
paper was formerly less than SI.OO.
Inclosed find express order for one
years subscription. If possible,
please let this begin with November
issue. C. E. KAESTLE.
WOODMAN SPARE THAT TREE.
A Strong Defense of the Umbrella or
Chinaberry Tree.
W. S. Chapman.
Articles have been appearing, late lately,
ly, lately, in the State and local papers ad advocating
vocating advocating the destruction of all the
Umbrella or Chinaberry trees be because
cause because it is an assured fact that they
form a harbor and nesting place for
the Whitefly. Lately the Atlantic
Coast Line Railroad Company have
ordered their workmen to cut down
all such trees on their right of way.
If it were not so serious a matter
these articles and this action of the
railroad company could justly form
subjects for ridicule. It seems amaz amazing
ing amazing that such arguments as are ad advanced
vanced advanced in condemnation of these
trees could be taken seriously by in intelligent
telligent intelligent people.
Aside from the prejudice against
them because of their supposed con connection
nection connection with the Whitefly, these trees
are among the most beautiful and
ornamental of any we have, yet many
persons, even among those who have
elegant specimens, stand ready to
sacrifice them without question or
investigation.
Admitting for the sake of argu argument,
ment, argument, all that has been charged, and

WHAT PROF, BAILEY SAYS;

J 1 y Farmers of to toe
e toe A-q, day respect the
opinions and rec rec_
_ rec_ ommendations
sSfik- of the P rofes
& iMEMPMmfimm i sors and instruc instructors
tors instructors in tbe Agri Agri'J+J'J/
'J+J'J/ Agri'J+J'J/ cultural Colleges
and the Experiment Stations. That
this is so has been brought about by
the great work done by leaders in
this line, such as Professor L. H.
Bailey, of Cornell Agricultural Col College.
lege. College. Prof. Bailey is so widely
known and esteemed by farmers be because
cause because of his work in their interests
that his opinion is sure to be accept accepted
ed accepted as a safe and conservative author authority,
ity, authority, speaking from his own experi experience.
ence. experience. In a letter to the Cutaway
Harrow Cos., of Higganum, Conn.,
Prof. Bailey gave the following opin opinion
ion opinion as to the merits of those well wellknown
known wellknown farm implements, the Cuta Cutaway
way Cutaway Tools. Prof. Bailey said: The
Double Action Cutaway Harrow has
been satisfactory. I use it almost
continuously on our hard clay land
with good results.
To such words of approval can be
added these of thousands of others

supposing that every tree of this kind
in the State is destroyed, what will
be accomplished? In the destruction
of the trees will the Whitefly have
been exterminated? For want of
these trees will the insect give up
and cease to propagate? Does this
seem reasonable? Rather is it not
consistent to assert that the insect
will accommodate itself to the alter altered
ed altered conditions, and the new order of
things, and find other, even if less
favorable quarters, and go on with
its business of laying and hatching
as before? Most assuredly. What,
then, will have been accomplished by
the destruction of these trees?
Aside from their loss as beauti beautiful
ful beautiful ornaments of our streets and
grounds, the Whitefly will certainly
be scattered over a larger territory
than it now occupies, because there
will be no broad shelters, like the
trees, accommodating millions, so
they will be distributed in small lots
over thousands of weeds, shrubs,
etc., extending for miles beyond
their present homes.
It would seem as though the very
best thing that orange growers
could do would be to pull up say
every tenth orange tree in their
groves and plant Chinaberry trees
in their places. Why?
Because the whitefly would take
possession of them, and the trees,
from their shape and their manner
of growth, being admirably adapted
for spraying or fumigation, could
be used as traps, and be treated in instead
stead instead of each particular orange tree,
as at present, soon making away
with the pest, root and branch, kill killing
ing killing them and their eggs by whole wholesale
sale wholesale on the Chinaberry trees in instead
stead instead of the orange trees.
Does it not seem reasonable to
claim that these trees, instead of
being a curse, can be made a great
blessing? Think well before you de destroy
stroy destroy them.

who have become regular users of
the Cutaway Tools. Among them
are many other well-known names,
and those of farmers not so well
known, but good substantial farm farmers,
ers, farmers, who are awake to the best meth methods
ods methods of farming and whose experience
has been such as to make them en enthusiastic
thusiastic enthusiastic in praising Cutaway Tools.
The Double Action Cutaway Har Harrow
row Harrow referred to by Prof. Bailey is one
of the most wonderful farm tools
ever invented. We reproduce it in
the accompanying illustration. Be Being
ing Being double action in principle, it
works the earth in opposite direc directions,
tions, directions, thus leaving the land true and
ready for planting. It takes the
place of both plow and harrow. The
iotnted pole, with which it is equip equipped,
ped, equipped, takes all the load from the
horses neck. With a medium-weight
teem of horses a man can cut 28 to
8 0 acres of land a day, or double cut
15 acres in one dav. Full descrip description
tion description of this wonderful tool, together
with other necessary tools for farm farmers
ers farmers use, will he found in their free
booklet. Ask for it from the Cuta Cutaway
way Cutaway Harrow Cos., Higganum. Conn.,
mentioning Florida Agriculturist,

17



18

FLORIDA EVERGLADES
The Character, History and Future Possibilities of
This Interesting Section of the State.
By Malolm McClellan

Nature has dealt liberally with
Florida in the distribution of beauty
and wealth. She has labored long
and' effectively creating and perfect perfecting
ing perfecting her own garden spot, known as
thb Everglades located in the pen peninsular
insular peninsular part of Florida.
This work was started from five
hundred thousand to one million
years ago, according to ideas ad advanced
vanced advanced by geologists, who seem to
unite on the conclusion that during
the prehistoric age when the north northern
ern northern part of Florida was formed, this
extreme southern section was shallow
salt water, heavily laden with car carhas

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" .. .* v.. .* * '. v v:
: v: 'T'\ : ; ; ' *v- v
; ' '
1 1.-.' q

bonate of lime, which was converted
into a coraline limestone by the in insects
sects insects washed by the sea, into a great
nesty on this shallow bed, forming
a network of coral, which through an
unknown force bulged upward, caus causing,
ing, causing, the drainage of the salt water
into, the sea,, holding the fresh wa water
ter water from the north in a large shal shallow
low shallow basin. Seeds and roots of vari various
ous various aquatic plants were washed by
the,floods into this basin, which, with
the aid of ideal climatic conditions,
lived the. year around, the older roots
dajcaying and gradually choking the
southern portion of. the basin, (now
Lq,ke Okeechobee). For centuries
and .these conditions exist existed,
ed, existed, until the decayed organic matter
hasaccumulated from several to
thirty feet in depth, decomposed into
a rich, muck, with a foundation of
coyaline limestone. The sand has
washed on the east and west of the
lake, which joins this muck at its
southern extremity.
Thus Nature has developed in
thousands of years that which man
copld never accomplish; but Nature
is so gratuitous to mankind that she

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

has carhas held in wait, for the settler, this
wonderfully fertile area of approxi approximately
mately approximately two million acres of soil rich richer
er richer in minerals, than the valley of the
Nile, on which she has lavished her
choicest stores and added her wild
beauties.
Under an act of Congress, ap approved
proved approved September 28, 1850, the Ev Everglades
erglades Everglades were granted to the State of
Florida. The Florida Legislature
passed a bill which was signed by
Governor James E. Broome, January
6, 1855, irrevocably vesting the man management
agement management and sale of these lands in a
board of five trustees, consisting of

CLEARED LAND, OKEECHOBEE PARK.

the Governor, Comptroller, Treasur Treasurer,
er, Treasurer, Attorney General and Register of
State Lands, the proceeds derived
therefrom to be expended in internal
improvements. Without realizing the
full value of this body of land, and
disregarding public trust, large
tracts w'ere granted to various rail railroads.
roads. railroads.
In 1880 Hamilton Disston, the
great saw manufacturer of Philadel Philadelphia,
phia, Philadelphia, became interested in the won wonderful
derful wonderful possibilities of the Everglades,
made a proposition to the trustees to
dig canals sufficient in size to drain
this area, receiving in payment al alternate
ternate alternate sections of land reclaimed
by these canals. Articles of agree agreement
ment agreement were signed between himself
and associates and the Trustees of
the Internal Improvement Fund Feb February
ruary February 6, 1881. Mr. Disston com commenced
menced commenced operations within a few
months and dug his first canal to re reclaim
claim reclaim the Everglades proper, from
Lake Okeechobee into Lake Hicpo Hicpochee
chee Hicpochee into, the Caloosahatchee river;
also a canal for twelve miles south of
Lake Okeechobee. These operations
were completed in 1883. The canals

lowered the waters of Lake Okeecho Okeechobee
bee Okeechobee several feet, but ilot sufficiently
to reclaim any large area of land for
cultivation.
In 19Oi, W. S. Jennings was in inaugurated
augurated inaugurated Governor of Florida, and
be started the ball to rolling by de denying
nying denying the right of the Legislature or
the trustees to grant any more lands
to railroads.
During this agitation, Napoleon
Broward, made a map showing the
drainage district, and went in search
of a candidate for the Governorship*
who would pledge himself to com complete
plete complete the drainage of the Everglades
if elected. No suitable candidate came
forward, so he himself made tile
race successfully and was inaugur inaugurated
ated inaugurated in 1905, and immediately car carried
ried carried out his pledge, and commenced
operations to drain the Everglades.
Through his efforts sufficient land
was sold to capitalists to build
dredges and carry out his drainage
scheme. Four of these dredges were

built and put to workone in the
Caloosahatchee river, one in the
north fork and another in the south
fork of New river from Ft. Lauder Lauderdale,
dale, Lauderdale, and the fourth in the Miami
river at Miami. These dredges have
been at work steadily since their
completion and the work is well un under
der under way, and the first' dredges start started
ed started should reach the lake by Novem November
ber November of 1910. The entire drainage
problem is a simple one, and there is
no doubt in the minds of people who
have inspected the country about the
feasibility of drainage. Chief En Engineer
gineer Engineer J. O. Wright says in a report
dated February 25, 1909: Immedi Immediately
ately Immediately north of the Everglades lies
Lake Okeechobee, the largest fresh
water lake, wholly within the United
States, except Lake Michigan. At
mean level it contains an area of
168,860 acres. At high stage its sur surface
face surface is about 22% feet above tide
level and at low state about 19 feet.
With a fall of 19 to 2214 feet in a
distance of 35 to 75 miles, through
the system of canals now under con construction,
struction, construction, and with the proper locks
and, dams, the lake can be lowered



to any stage desired and the water
raised as needed for irrigation pur purposes.
poses. purposes.
The climatic conditions of the Ev Everglades
erglades Everglades are unsurpassed anywhere
in the world. The average tempera temperature
ture temperature in the winter is 57 degrees, and
the tropical vegetation is absolute
hroof that the Section south of Lake
Okeechobee is immune from frost.
The average temperature in the sum summer
mer summer ife 89 degrees, arid the trade
winds from the Gulf arid the Atlantic
ocean, make the mid-summer ideal,
as the evenings are always cooler
than the days.
The soil cf the Everglades is the
most productive to be found. No Nowhere
where Nowhere iti the World does a more fer fertile
tile fertile area exist. The Soil is jet black
and perfectly uniform, containing
over 3 per cent nitrogen which is
free and available for plant life. This
soil has undergone such a complete
process of decay that it has lost its
peaty character, and from the most
severe tests, has proven it will not
burn. It is pure and sweet and there
is not a drop of stagnant water any anywhere
where anywhere on its surface. The water in
Okeechobee is a clear, pure wa water
ter water and far superior to any of the
Northern rivers and lakes for drink drinking
ing drinking purposes*
The Everglades present the ap appearance
pearance appearance of the Western prairies as
far as the eye can see. The canals
hhd shores of the lake have heavy
gi'owths of custard apple trees cov covered
ered covered with morning gloty vines, the
Unusually large blossoms of ali col colors.
ors. colors. Lemons, limes and rubber trees
are found growing wild near the
shores and canals.
When these lands are reclaimed
and settled, they will place Florida
first in agriculture in the United
States. The Glade banana is su superior
perior superior in flavor to any grown, and the
Everglades can produce a sufficient
supply of this fruit for the consump consumption
tion consumption of the entire United States, cut cutting
ting cutting off the import. Cocoanut palms
are produced here as well as in the
tropics of South America. The rubber
industry will prove lucrative, as the
trees growing wild are as fine speci specimens
mens specimens as can be found anywhere in
the world, and rubber in its crude
state is worth $1.89 per pound, each
tree bearing over a pound a year,
with about four hundred trees to the
acre. These trees can be boxed after
the fifth year.
The one crop that would make
Florida wealthy and save the United
States millions of dollars annually is
sugar cane and its sugar production.
Government reports of 1900 show
that 386,986 acres (principally
Louisiana) in the United States pro produced
duced produced 4,202,202 tons of cane, a frac fraction
tion fraction less than 11 tons to the acre.
Capt. R. E. Rose, State Chemist of
Florida, states in a recent communi communication:
cation: communication: I have grown for a number
ofyears in succession fine crops of
cane, with a maximum yield of 65
tons of cane to the acre, with a max maximum
imum maximum sugar content of 17 per cent,
with less than 1 per cent glucose.
Also an average of 35 tons per acre
on 500 acres, with an average of 14
per cent sucrose; the average yield in
available sugar was 8 per cent or
160 pounds of granulated sugar to
the ton. This was by no means as
.much as should have been the yield,

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

as the apparatus was crude and the
labor unskilled. Taking these fig figures
ures figures as a maximum and a minimum
of what can be produced on Ever Everglades
glades Everglades soil, under more favorable
conditions we will say the land will
produce 50 tons per acre with
an available sugar content of
the minimum of 8 per cent
or 160 pounds of granulated, su sugar
gar sugar to the ton, which we will call 3 %
tons to the acre. One million acres
of this soil planted in sugar cane
will produce 3,500,000 tons of sugar,
which V/outd give the United States
the lead over the world in sugar
production. The Bureati of Statistics
of the Department of Commerce and
Labor shows in the 1907-8 report
that Germany excels in the produc production
tion production of sugar. During these years
Germany produced 2,102,900 tons of
sugar, nearly 1,500,000 tons less than
1,000,000 acres of Everglades soil
will produce. British India was sec second,
ond, second, producing 2,051,900 tons. When
this section is finally opened for set settlement,
tlement, settlement, it will be the home of thou thousands
sands thousands of people from all sections of
the United States, and there is no
reasonable doubt, but with the wealth
producing possibilities of the soil, the
New York of the South will be lo located
cated located on the southern shores of Lake
Okeechobee. Already engineers have
made a survey for a ship canal con connecting
necting connecting the Gulf and Atlantic by
Lake Okeechobee. This section is
several days nearer Northern, East Eastenr
enr Eastenr and Western markets than Cali California,
fornia, California, and is the only tropical por portion
tion portion of the United States. Can you
realize just What the possibilities of
this country are? If so you are more
far-sighted than Prof. H. W. Wiley,
chief chemist of the United States
Department of Agriculture, who in
part says: There is practically no
other body cf land in the world which
nresents such remarkable possibili possibilities
ties possibilities of development as the muck
lands bordering the southern shores
of Lake Okeechobee. With a surface
almost absolutely level, it affords
premise of development which
reaches beyond the limits of
prophesy.
FARM NOTES.
Some Instinctive Paragraphs From
the Pen of a Florida Farmer.
By Samuel Shaw.
Please allow me room in your val valuable
uable valuable paper to express some views on
farming in Florida.
In the first place we are liable to
get too many plants on the ground
for the fertility of the land and
moisture therein.
Soil preparation is the first step
in successful farming. We should
have a moderately deep soil, say
eight or ten inches. If our soil is
thin we should deepen it. If three
plow four inches in the fall and win winter
ter winter when land is not too wet. If your
land will not grow weeds and grass
to turn under plant some kind of
crop to furnish humus, and fertilize
it and turn it in early. Plow one
inch deeper every year until you have
the depth you wish.
Never burn trash or stalks of any
kind that will rot quickly.
Just before you are ready to plant
harrow your land with some good

harrow. If rough go twice over ft.
If low laud bed with plow or harrow,
to suit your convenience, not too
high.
Never use much fertilizer on cot cotton
ton cotton at planting time 75 pounds is
sufficient, and use the remainder in
May in siding furrow.
Never fertilize corn until the
second plowing.
Oats should be planted in Novem November,
ber, November, on land prepared as mentioned
above, and seed harrowed in. For a
good stand sow from 1% to 2 bush bushels
els bushels per acre. If you use fertilizer
sow it with the seed.
I believe in deep and thorough
preparation and shallow cultivation,
and rotation of crops. Follow corn
with cotton, cotton with oats and
when oats are off sow peas at the
rate of one bushel per acre for hay.
Peanuts and sweet potatoes are
the best crops for hogs. Should plant
peanuts as near level as possible and
work them when they are young,
and when they begin to pin down
never break them loose, for when
they are disturbed they only make
pops and no kernels.
If this escapes the waste basket
will come again and give my plans
for planting and cultivating crops of
different kinds.
Hawthorne, Fla.
A 70-Foot Bamboo.
Possibly the tallest bamboo in
America grows in Arcadia, Fla., and
is about seventy feet high. The
clump has a spread of fifty feet and
the diameter at the ground is twelve
feet. The specimen is only eight
years old.
This is the common bamboo of
India, probably brought to South
Florida from the West Indies. In Ja Jamaica
maica Jamaica it has become naturalized and
is popularly supposed to be indige indigenous.
nous. indigenous.
This bamboo makes an astonishing
growth during our rainy season, the
canes often attaining their full height
in six weeks, after which they begin
to put on leaves. The canes are from
four to five inches in diameter at
their base.
Unfortunately this species cannot
stand low temperatures and the spec specimen
imen specimen in Arcadia has frequently been
damaged by cold.Garden Magazine.
Fertilize When Planting.
At practically, all the Experiment
Stations, where accurate tests are
made and no guess work as to yields
indulged in, it has not paid to divide
the commercial fertilizer into two or
three parts and make two or three
applications. The net profit has been
greater where all the fertilizer has
been put in before planting. Where
increased yields resulted from two
or more applications the increase
was not usually sufficient to pay for
the extra work.
If the soil be a loose sandy one,
and the nitrogen in the fertilizer is
nitrate of soda, possibly two appli applications
cations applications might pay, but as a general
rule the cost of two applications
over the cost of one is just that
much lost.
Look to the water supply for your
cows. It may account for that Ob Objectionable
jectionable Objectionable taint in the milk.

19



20

FARMERS INSTITUTES
List of Subjects Dicussed, Showing Their Value
to Those Who Attend These Meetings.
By John Belling

The work of the Experiment Sta Station
tion Station is mainly to discover and then
publish new facts of importance to
agriculture. The work of the Far Farmers
mers Farmers Institutes is to spread the
knowledge of the important facts al already
ready already discovered. The bulk of the
work at the Experiment Station is
devoted to the peculiar agriculture
and horticulture of peninsular Flor Floryeai;

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Ida, since the conditions of north northwestern
western northwestern Florida much resemble those
of the neighboring States. Hence
more farmers institutes have been
held in northwestern Florida. On
the map, the sessions of institutes
held from 1907 to 1909 are shown by bydots.
dots. bydots. More than 220 addresses were
given at these institutes, to over 10,-
000 hearers. The sessions from July
to the middle of November, in the

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

yeai; Floryeai; 1909-1910, are shown by
crosses. The institutes of the pres present
ent present year have been held so far at
Jennings, Wardville, Cottage Hill,
Whitmire, Myrtle Grove, Jay, Laurel
Hill, Glendale, Newhope, Greensboro,
Bristol, Blountstown, and Arcadia.
The following addresses were then
given: Cotton Failures, Forage
Production, Hay-Making, Labor-

Saving on the Farm, Preventing
Loss of Moisture From Soils, Ro Rotation
tation Rotation of Crops, Diversification of
Farm Crops, Progressive Farm
ing, The Rounds of the Dollar, by
P. H. Rolfs; Corn Culture, Cane
Crowing and Syrup Making, Corn
Breeding, Irish Potatoes, Foragf
Production, Sweet Potatoes,
Deep Plowing, Home Dairying,
Peach Growing, The Home Or-

chard, Tomato Culture, Better
Farming, Cantaloupe Culture,
Farmers Kitchen Garden, Rota Rotation
tion Rotation of Crops, by C. K. McQuarrie;
Feeds, Acid Soils and How They
May Be Improved, Origin, Compo Composition
sition Composition and Source of Fertilizing Ma Materials,
terials, Materials, by R. E. Rose; Deep Plow Plowing,
ing, Plowing, Diversification of Farm
Crops, More Crops and Better
Ones, by A. S. Meharg; Forage
Production, Hay Making, Better
Farming, by C. H. Simpson; Water
Supply for the Farm, Water Con Contamination,
tamination, Contamination, by E. H. Sellards.
Anyone in Northern, Central, or
South Florida, who wishes an insti institute
tute institute in his neighborhood, is request requested
ed requested to write to the Superintendent of
Farmers Institutes, P. H. Rolfs, at
Gainesville, Fla.
Seedless Avacado.
R. L. Mills is experimenting with
the avacado in an attempt to pro produce
duce produce a seedless variety and he is
meeting with great success. He has
already produced several specimens
of the fruit which were almost with without
out without a seed. Just the least bit of a
seed could be found in the fruit, and
it is expected that this will disap disappear
pear disappear as the tree increases in age.
The fruit is small, but if the seed
can be made to disappear it will be
only a small job to increase the
size of the fruit. Mr. Mills is con confident
fident confident that he will in a few years
have made a complete success in
this line and will be able to put a
new variety of avocado on the mar market
ket. market Miami News-Record.
S A Seed Drill and Wheel Hoe is
not only in a village I SAVE
jlgarden but on largest farms. \ HIRED *i
1 Fanners should grow all maimer HFLPI
gjof vegetables aud live on the fat 3.
fofthe land. Should provide
succulent roots for Cattle, Swine, mi^r\
gPoultry and eave hiuh One of|
formed teea stuff. Great Many
fiabor saving tools S flron Age Tool*
sof sgeuuvatae
r-The King Spreaderx
Will BROADCAST or DRILL any qaan*
tity to acre.
*>force feed
Distributes damp clod clod-100
-100 clod-100 to 1000 lbs. to acre.
A
SAMPLE MACHINE
Durable, simple, always ready. Will distrib distribute
ute distribute nitrate or fertilizers between rows of stowing
plants, broadcast or in two rows.
Take Jigeney and KING WEEDER CO.
get free sample RICHMOND, VA.
Ask for sample of our Trucker's Hoe.
mmmmmKmmmmmmmamamummmmmmmmmmam



TRUCK GROWING IN CUBA
General Directions for Cultivating Some of the
Principal Vegetables Grown on the Island
By E. W. Halstead

It is difficult to give accurate in information
formation information as to the expense of grow growing
ing growing vegetables for market, for it de depends
pends depends on many conditions, such as
the season, the soil, etc. The cost of
growing such crops as tomatoes,
eggplant, squash, okra and peppers,
taken on the basis of cleared sod
land, such as exists in this country
in the fall, will vary from $30.00 to
$50.00 per acre. Soils that are in
a fine condition and do not have to
be plowed but once can be handled
for less cost, while on the other
hand there are soils that are harder
to prepare and will cost much more.
The items of cost may be divided as
follows:
Fertilizers cost about $40.00 per
ton and most soils require from 500
to 1,000 pounds per acre, according
to the kind of crop grown and the
general fertility of the soil.
The cost of harvesting and ship shipping
ping shipping the crop will vary from SI.OO
to $1.40 per crate according to the
size of shipment and the distance
from shipping point.
For convenience of treatment we
shall separate the different varieties
of the vegetables which we wish to
consider into groups having about
the same cultural methods. It must
be remembered that our work has
been done upon the heavy red lands
and that our suggestions for soils of
a different character are made from
conversation with the growers in
those sections.
Beets, Carrots, Parsnips, Radishes,
Rutabegas, Salsify, and Turnips.
The results have shown very clearly
that all of the root crop vegetables
can be successfully grown in this
country. During the past three years
we have produced a good many crops
of these vegetables, and we feel con confident
fident confident that in no othher place can
any better or choicer line of root
vegetables be grown. There is ab absolutely
solutely absolutely no reason why a full supply
of these should not be in every gar garden
den garden from November until May.
For the home garden the seed
should be sown thickly in drills from
sixteen to eighteen inches apart. As
soon as the young plants have made
a good start, thin out until they
stand from two to four inches apart.
For commercial purposes we have
found it best to grow them in slight slightly
ly slightly raised beds, just high enough to
prevent washing from heavy rains.
The beds should be from two and
one-half to three feet apart, and in
each bed from two to three rows of
seed should be sown, according to
the kind. It is usually best to make
the beds far enough apart to culti cultivate
vate cultivate with a horse.
The ground should be frequently
worked and watered whenever nec necessary
essary necessary to keep the plants growing
rapidly, for the value of these vege vegetables
tables vegetables lies in having them fresh, ten tender
der tender and crisp.
During the past winter we made
a few shipments of beets and car-

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

rots to the New York market, but
the results were not very satisfac satisfactory,
tory, satisfactory, for, as already explained, if
this class of truck is to please the
choice winter trade it must be ship shipped
ped shipped in bunches of four to six, with
ihe tops on, and must reach the mar market
ket market with the tops fresh and green.
This is impossible under the present
ransportation conditions. Success
might be possible with refrigeration,
yet we are told by the commission
firms that there is usually a very lib lib-3ral
3ral lib-3ral supply from the southern part
of the United States.
They are sold in the wholesale
market in lots of a hundred bunches
each. When shipped without the
tops, we have found the onion crate
a very convenient one to use.
For the Habana wholesale market,
beets, carrots, etc., should be tied in
bunches of six each, and then three
of these tied into a larger bunch, and
two of the larger bunches tied to together,
gether, together, making the final bunch con contain
tain contain six small bunches. This large
bunch is sold as a dozen or one
count.
The selling of vegetables in the
Habana markets has been very un unsatisfactory,
satisfactory, unsatisfactory, for the price which the
grower receives for his product is
altogether too low in comparison
with the price which the consumer
has to pay. There is absolutely no
relation between the two. Many of
the vegetable products are grown at
a loss to the farmer, while the price
that* the consumer has to pay is ex exceedingly
ceedingly exceedingly high. We know of no
other city where there is such an
opportunity as there is in Habana
for a live, honest, active, reliable
person to take up the wholesale and
retail produce business.
Corn Salad, Dandelions, Endive,
Kale, Mustard, Spinach, Swiss Chard,
and Parsley. We have found that
all classes of salad vegetables
can be very successfully grown, and
there is no reason why they should
not be common in every garden. Our
results in all ways have been suc successful
cessful successful from November to May.
The seed for the first crop should be
sown in September or October and
after that the sowings should be as
frequent as may be necessary to
keep up a continuous supply. Drill
the seed thickly in rows from sixteen
to eighteen inches apart, for the
home garden, but, where horse culti cultivation
vation cultivation is to be used, leave from two
and one-half to three feet between
the rows. As soon as the plants are
well started, thin them out and com commence
mence commence using them. Swiss Chard
should be thinned out until the
plants stand from eight to twelve
inches apart, and the stalks should
be cut off and used when needed.
To bleach endive so as to make
the centers white and tender, bring
the outer leaves up around the head
and tie, a few days before using.
Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts, Cauli Cauliflower,
flower, Cauliflower, Cabbage, Collards, and Kohl

Itabi All vegetables of this class do
nut succeed here upon the red lands.
Tne different varieties of broccoli,
brussels sprouts, and cauliflower
nave ail done very poorly. Cabbage
and kohlrabi can be very success successiuiiy
iuiiy successiuiiy grown. It is quite possible tflat
some of the kinds which do not give
good results with us might on land
of a different character.
For these vegetables the seed
should be grown in seea-beds during
September or October, and, when the
seedlings are about one inch high,
they should be transplanted to an another
other another bed, setting them four inches
apart each way, and should be left
to grow until four or hve inches
nigh, when they should be trans transplanted
planted transplanted into the field. For the home
garden tne rows should be at least
twenty inches apart, and the plants
twelve to hfteen inches apart in the
rows. For commercial culture, plant
ill rows three to three and one-naif
i.eet apart, leaving from eighteen to
owenty-four incnes between the
plants in the row, according to the
size of the variety. Plants of tnis
vlass succeed upon almost any soil
cnat is meliow, moist, and rich. In
order to give tne best results they
must have a good supply of water
and be kept growing rapidly and vig vigorously.
orously. vigorously.
THE ISLE OF PINES
Is Peopled Largely by Americans, But
Under Cuban Control.
The Isle of Pines lies south of Cuba,
hugged by the great arm made by Pinar
del Kio province in the west. It is l,.i(Jo
miles from New York, sixty miles south
of the port of Batabano, Cuba, and ninety
miles by rail and boat from Havana.
Everywhere American colonies are
springing up. It is popularly known as
the American district of Cuba, for
ninety per cent, of the good agricultural
lands of the Isle of Pines are owned by
Americans. You hear no more Spanish
there than in one of our own Gulf cities.
In fact, American money passes current
everywhere, English is the ordinary lan language,
guage, language, and American school houses and
churches have sprung up on all sides. In
the eight hundred square miles, nearly
the size of the State of Rhode Island,
there are over fifteen hundred Americans,
while some five thousand have bought
land there, and are, many of them, pre preparing
paring preparing to emigrate. The native Pineros
themselves number something less than
one thousand. They are of Spanish ex extraction,
traction, extraction, with all the courtesy and hos hospitality
pitality hospitality of the Latin races.
The largest town is Nueva Gerona, on
he north shore nearest Cuba. There the
typically American is gradually submerg submerging
ing submerging the typically Spanish. There, also,
besides the school house and church, and
the government wireless telegraph sta station.
tion. station. is the American bank, whose direc directors
tors directors are drawn from the States.Van
Norden.
In selecting your breed, go slow
and careful. Much depends upon
your personal satisfaction. When
'nee started always look higher/'
When breeding your animals, if you
annot afford the sire you want, per perhaps
haps perhaps a mutual clubbing arrangement
could be made i with a neighbor.
Much depends on the sire.

21



22

How Fertilize rs Injure Citrus Tree s
A Scientific Explanation of a Matter of Impor Importance
tance Importance to Orange Growers.
By B. F. Floyd

It sometimes happens that ill ef effects
fects effects follow the use of fertilizers in
citrus groves. This may result from
two causes the solution of the fer fertilizer
tilizer fertilizer in the soil may be too strong
for the tender rootlets, or it may act
as a true poison.
All materials obtained from the
soil by the orange trees are taken in
through the rootlets, dissolved in wa water.
ter. water. Insoluble fertilizers, like cotton cottonseed
seed cottonseed meal, are first changed by par partial
tial partial decay into soluble salts, such as
nitrate of lime. In most cases only
a small portion of the rootlets can
take water and dissolved material
from the soil. This part begins just
back of the tip, and is usually only a
fraction of an inch long. Usually this
absorbing part is covered with min minute
ute minute root-hairs, which increase the
surface, and allow more material to
be taken from the soil. The remain remainder
der remainder of the rootlet is often covered
with brown cork, and is more or less
waterproof. This part serves only as
a conductor for the raw material
(water and salts) than in and for the
food which passes back for the use
of the growing parts near the root
tips.
Under the microscope the rootlet
is seen to be a mass of cells, each of
which usually consists of a cell-wall,
enclosing the living substance (proto (protoplasm)
plasm) (protoplasm) and the cell sap. Let us sup suppose
pose suppose a mass of shoe-boxes placed end
to end, in close contact, in such a
way that the whole would appear in
outline as a rootlet many times en enlarged.
larged. enlarged. Suppose each of these boxes
to be linked half an inch thick
throughout with a substance similar
to the white of an egg, and complete completely
ly completely filled with water; also the walls of
the boxes to be wet through.
If this mass of boxes was then re reduced
duced reduced in size until it was as small as
an ordinary rootlet, the boxes could
only be seen by the aid of the micros microscope,
cope, microscope, and each, box would correspend
to a cell. The wall of the box would
be the cell-wall; the white of egg,
the protoplasm; the water, the cell cellsap;
sap; cellsap; and the water-soaked condition
of the walls of the boxes would be
similar to that of the cell-walls of
the root.
The cell-wall is dead matter and
serves mainly for support and protec protection.
tion. protection. The cell-sap is a watery solu solution
tion solution of sugar, salts, and other mate materials.
rials. materials. The living protoplasm, which
surrounds the cell-sap, exercises a
selective power, by allowing only cer certain
tain certain salts to enter and only certain
ones to escape.
The ability of the rootlets to take
up water and distribute it through
the plant depends mainly upon the
strength or concentration of the cell cellsap.
sap. cellsap. The rootlets absorb water when
the concentration of the celLsap is
greater than that of the soil solution.
When the soil solution is the more
concentrated, water is drawn from
the cell-sap, and the tree wilts. A
soil solution stronger than one-half

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

per cent is usually considered to be
too strong for the health of plants. A
heavy application of certain readily
soluble fertilizers or other salts
(such as nitrate of soda, or common
salt), may bring on this condition.
When the action is severe, the roots
are sometimes said to have been
burnt.
Water is also absorbed and carried
in the cell-walls. But the amount
thus obtained is not nearly sufficient
to maintain the tree.
Fertilizers and other salts in solu solutiin
tiin solutiin in the soil water enter the root rootlets
lets rootlets by diffusion. Large quantities of
water may be taken into the tree and
only a small quantity of the fertiliz fertilizers
ers fertilizers or other salts that were in the
solution be carried along. If the
quantity per volume of any particu particular
lar particular salt in the cells of the root is
equal to or greater than that in the
soil solution, the rootlets are proba probably
bly probably unable to take up any of it from
the soil. Thus, an orange grove may
suffer from the lack of a particular
fertilizer, though there may be a
small quantity of it present in the
soil.
Some salts may act as poisons,
and, in certain quantities, kill the
protoplasm with which they may
come in contact. On the other hand,
very small quantities of these salts
may act as a stimulus when absorb absorbed.
ed. absorbed. An example of this is copper sul sulphate
phate sulphate or bluestone, which is used so
generally in the treatment of die dieback.
back. dieback. This salt is placed on the* soil
or beneath the bark. When placed
beneath the bark, its poisonous effect
is evident from the large wounds that
are produced. The course of the salt,
as it diffuses up and down the stem,
can be traced by the extension of
these wounds. An excessive quantity
placed upon the soil will kill the tree.
This excessive quantity is very small
in comparison to the amount of fer fertilizer
tilizer fertilizer that would be required to in injure
jure injure the tree.
Florida Experiment Station.
A New Wax Plant.
Consul P. Merrill Griffith, of
Tampico, reports as follows concern concerning
ing concerning the anticipated importance of the
discovery that a superior quality of
wax, in paying quantity, can be ex extracted
tracted extracted from the candelilla plant,
which grows freely throughout a
large portion of Mexico.
It has been recently discovered
that the candelilla plant contains
wax of an excellent quality and of
sufficient proportion to make it ex extremely
tremely extremely valuable. The plant, the bo botanical
tanical botanical name of which is Pedilanthus
payones euphorbiacer, is found grow growing
ing growing in the following States: Tamau Tamaulipus,
lipus, Tamaulipus, Coahuila, Neuvo Leon, Chi Chihuahua,
huahua, Chihuahua, Durango, Zacatecas, Sonora,
Sinaloa, Baja California, Jalisco,
Pueblo, and San Luis Potosi.
In a recent issue of the Monterey
News the plant is described as grow-

ing to a height of from 3 to 5 feet,
in the shape of stalks without leaves
or thorns, as many as a hundred
stalks springing from the same root.
The stalks are about a quarter of an
inch to a half inch in diameter. From
an acre of land may be cut from
one-half to two tons of weed a year.
The plant also contains rubber, but
not sufficient to make the extraction
profitable. In wax, however, it con contains
tains contains a high percentage, averaging
from 3 1-2 to 5 per cent.
The wax is of light color, very
hard, and has a high melting point,
which places it in the front rank of
all vegetable wax. Purified, it will
make the best quality of candles,
lasting, and giving a brilliant light.
Dissolved in turpentine it makes an
excellent varnish and it is also used
for the manufacture of shoe polish.
It is said to give more luster than
the high-priced Carnauba wax from
Brazil, which is at present exclu exclusively
sively exclusively used for the latter purpose.
Purified and molded into phono phonograph
graph phonograph records, the Candelilla wax
will register the sounds perfectly.
Successful tests have also been made
with reference to its adaptability for
the insulation of electric wires. An Another
other Another use for this wax would be its
substitution for beeswax in pharma pharmaceutical
ceutical pharmaceutical laboratories, where its hard hardness
ness hardness and higher melting quality in
the manufacture of plasters and oint ointments
ments ointments where beeswax is now the
principal ingredient, would make it
especially serviceable.
This wax can be bleached perfect perfectly
ly perfectly white, and burning it gives off an
agreeable odor.
Only a few years ago it was dis discovered
covered discovered that the small and what was
then considered worthless Guayule
plant contained rubber, and many in interesting
teresting interesting articles have appeared
from time to time in the Consular
Reports relative to the growth of
this plant and its manufacture and
commercial value. This discovery of
rubber has resulted in the reclama reclamation
tion reclamation of large stretches of arid terri territory
tory territory in Mexico and the sudden en enhancement
hancement enhancement of the value of all lands
upon which the weed happened to
grow. The plant has brought as high
as $l5O per ton; its present market
price is SIOO. Guayule land owners
have become wealthy, and about
$50,000,000 have been spent in this
industry up to the present time.
Spraying for Scale Insects.
It is pointed out, in the Journal of
the Jamaica Agricultural Society,
that, although the methods of mak making
ing making the different washes for this pur purpose
pose purpose and those of applying them may
be known and employed correctly,
it is of equal importance, if the work
is to be effective, to have a knowl knowledge
edge knowledge of the best time to use them.
As the scale insect on the plant ma matures,
tures, matures, its waxy shield becomes more
and more impervious, and its power
to protect the insect beneath it there therefore
fore therefore increases. This consideration
affords an explanation of the irregu irregularity
larity irregularity of the measures of success,
with the same wash, which are ob obtained
tained obtained at different times.
The obvious way, then, in which
to insure the best results in attempt attempting
ing attempting to reduce the numbers of any
given kind of scale insect, is to spray
or wash just after the eggs of anew
brood have hatched.



NEW VARIETY OF MANGO
Propagated by Mr. Wallace R. Moses and Considered
an Acquisition.

This has been an exceptional sea season
son season for mangoes. The trees of the
common variety have borne bounti bountifully,
fully, bountifully, and the people of the East
Coast section have had a generous
supply, but mangoes of the choice va varieties
rieties varieties and cultivated sorts have not
been as plentiful as could be wished,
but this year there have fruited for
the first time some remarkably fine
choice varieties, and in one instance
a Mulgoba seedling, the only one
ever heard of in the country to come
true to seed and the first one to have
fruited, has borne a fair crop. This
tree is the property of Wallace R.
Moses, of West Palm Beach. It is
five years old and grown from a man mango
go mango seed. The fruit is of the same
general appearance as a Mulgoba,
and ranges from thirteen to seven seventeen
teen seventeen ounces in weight, the same size
as the Mulgoba. It is almost entirely
free from fiber, and is of a delightful
flavor and texture, being in fact a re remarkably
markably remarkably fine fruit, and ranks well
with the parent Mulgoba. Mr. John
B. Beach, the nurseryman, of West
Palm Beach, who has had a wide ex experience
perience experience in the propagation of the
choice sorts of mangoes, considers
this seedling of special value, and to
him is due the naming of it The
Moses Seedling, and to Mr. Moses is
due the distinction of being the first
person to propagate the Mulgoba
seedling that distinctly represents the
parent tree.
Some years ago, during the life lifetime
time lifetime of the late Rev. Eldridge Gale,
among other specimens, he received
from the department at Washington
a choice imported mango called the
Perlouis, which he with great diffi difficulty
culty difficulty kept alive and finally obtained
an inarched plant which has develop developed
ed developed very slowly, and this year his son,
George Gale, for the first time, se secured
cured secured a fruit from the tree at Man Mangonia,
gonia, Mangonia, and it has proven to be one
of the very choicest of these fruits.
It is not large, weighing but about
seven or eight ounces, but it has a
very distinct and delicate flavor, is
almost absolutely free from fiber and
the meat is soft and custardy and
can be eaten with a teaspoon. In
this tree Mr. Gale has a prize, as it
is one of the most delicate, highly
flavored and aromatic of the family
of mangoes, and is a valuable addi addition
tion addition to the varieties being grown in
Florida.
Another sort of fruit this year is
the Rajapauri mango, a plant sent to
Mr. John B. Beach from the depart department
ment department at Washington. This is a fruit
averaging from eleven to twelve
ounces, and while it is practically
free from fiber and of a delicate tex texture
ture texture and flavor, its remarkable char characteristic
acteristic characteristic is its perfume, which is en entirely
tirely entirely different from any mango yet
grown in this section. This perfume,
fascinating and delicate as it is, is
hard to describe, and this mango,
like many others that are being prop propagated
agated propagated here, is bound to become of

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

great value, as it promises to be a
prolific bearer and a great favorite.
The Soondershaw, the largest of
the known varieties of mangoes, is
another fruit at the nursery of Mr.
John B. Beach, where the enormous
mangoes hanging on the trees are an
interesting sight. This is a late va variety
riety variety and will not ripen for three or
four weeks yet.
Another new variety of mango
propagated by John B. Beach has rip ripened
ened ripened this year and has produced a
splendid fruit. It is known as the
Amini mango. The fruit weighs
about eight ounces, the flesh of a
light yellow color, very tender, and
of a delightful acid flavor. The flesh
has scarcely any fiber and like others
grown by Mr. Beach, this will be a
splendid variety added to those al already
ready already being propagated.
The propagation of the mango has
been a long and discouraging pro process,
cess, process, but the propagation of these
fruits is now well understood by the
nurserymen, and they are supplying
large quantities of the trees to the
public that are being set out and it
will not be many years before there
will be a good supply of this most
valuable of tropical fruits and West
Palm Beach, the home of the original
Mulgoba mango, grown by the late

CLARKS CUTAWAY
Grading or Smoothing and Leveling Harrow
With this tool every field can
be made as smooth as a floor
\S and the soil pulverized fine
\\l enough for a flower bedmakes
perfect melon and onion beds.
Will smooth an acre as true as
a P OII d in twenty minutes.
One-horse, 6 feet: two-horse,
8 feet. Made in other length,
Clarks Reversible Market Garden or Grove Harrow
This machine is used extensively for small garden or truck and
market garden use, and for orchard cultivation in Florida.
0 1-horse, two gangs of five 14-meh disks each.
00 Light 2-horse, two gangs of six 14-inch disks each.
000 Heavy 2-horse, two gangs, seven 14-inch disks each.
We make 120 sizes and styles of the original CUTAWAY tools. Dont be de deceived
ceived deceived by poor imitations or infringements. Theres only one original CUTAWAY
and ita Clarks. Send today for FREE booklet.
CUTAWAY HARROW CO., 938 Main St, HIGGANUM, CONN.

Rev: Eldridge Gale from the plalit
sent to him that was imported from
India by the department at Washing Washington,
ton, Washington, will be known as the center of
the mango industry and the home for
the propagation of practically all of
the choice varieties. Homeseeker.
Fanning in Northwestern Florida.
Mr. C. K. McQuarrie, Who has been
addressing farmers institutes in
Northwestern Florida, says that there
is ten times as much corn grown
there this year as ever before. Sev Several
eral Several farmers in Escambia and Wal Walton
ton Walton counties have harvested over 100
bushels of corn per acre, and in
Washington county more than 90
bushels per acre has been gained.
Farming is reported to be booming
there. More dairying is wanted,
though there is a lack of the proper
kind of labor for this. Northern men
come to farm in Florida often
think dairying impossible, because
they do not find their succulent robt
crops or silos. :
NO. 98Five acres improved on Merritts Is Island,
land, Island, fine frontage on both Indian and Banana
rivers; frost protection: splendid location for
wintei home: excellent fishing and shooting;
a bargain at $600; quick sale. '
FOR SALE Pure Bred Swrnean Pigeons
mated branded, .young birds about one year
old. the best and most prolific breeders in
existence, price low, will sell three or six
pairs at a time. Address C. B. Saunders, 808
Robinson Ave.. Orlando, Fla. ;
rprr A watch, knife or fountain pen
riiLL FREE. Costs you nothing if
TO you write now for particulars.
CENTRAL NEWS CO.
OO I O Chattanooga, Tenn.

23



24

HOUSEHOLD DEPARTMENT
By Mrs. E. J. Russell

To Housekeepers.
It is our earnest desire to make
this department of the Agriculturist
of the utmost practical value. Hence
we urge our many readers to con contribute
tribute contribute something from their own
personal experience that will be help helpful
ful helpful to others.
Good Neighbors.
I have a host of good neighbors,,
said a friend, but tne one wno does
most to make my life worth while
is one who is so humble that she
never thinks of herself as my neigh*
bor. She is an old colored woman,
and her house is a bit of a shanty b>
the side of the road. She has a tiny
garden so full of flowers that one
wonders how they grow. Her cat,
her dog, her crippled grandson, and
her ne'er-do-well old husband, who
sits and smokes in the sun, and never
does a stroke of honest work, are
Aunt Nancys family. Meet the old
soul when you may, she is jolly. She
compliments you on your looks.
Honey, you doant look a day older
dan you did twenty years ago! Your
mirror tells another story, but
aunties cheery flattery pleases you,
nevertheless, and you take a lesson
you need from the unconquered en energy
ergy energy and childlike goodness of an old
woman who never learned to read,
but whose knowledge is deeper than
that of some philosophers.
A Great Help in the Kitchen.
The greatest labor saver in any
kitchen is the meat chopper. I use
one for chopping all kinds of meats,
grinding cocoanut, chocolate and
nuts. After the dough is made in
the usual way run it through the
chopper eight or ten times using the
coarse grinder in the chopper, then
make out the biscuits and bake in
the usual way; you will never go
back to the mallet and block after
trying the chopper. F. M.
Nothing to Be Thankful For.
Here and there is an ingrate who
declares that he or she has nothing
to be thankful for. Poor amid the
wealth of the universe, here this
starveling is famished amid abund abundance.
ance. abundance. Why, havent you the sky, and
the clouds and the winds, and the sil silver
ver silver slanting rain, and the dancing
sunbeams, the treasures of Nature,
all your own, and treasures of Art,
too, within your reach? God pity
the pauper who prefers to be miser miserable
able miserable in a world that is radiant and
glorious! Please God, let us avoid
that low mood, and that unprofitable
condition of mind, body and estate.
The homely, plodding, common commonplace
place commonplace years, when nothing happens
and we go on our rather humdrum
and monotonous round without ex excitement
citement excitement or anxiety, are the bes.
years after all. God be praised!

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

Timely Recipes.
Rusks One quart of hop yeast
dough, two eggs, one and one-half
cupfuls of sugar, one-half cupful of
cream, flour to thicken. Make into
oblong rolls, let rise, bake a light
brown and cover with a glace of
sugar, moistened with cream and fla flavored
vored flavored with ground cinnamon.
Boiled Suet-Pudding with Orange
Sauce One pound of suet chopped
line, one pound of stoned raisins, one
pound of currants, one pound of
brown sugar, one coffee-cupful each
of minced citron, lemon and orange
peel, eight eggs, half of the whites,
half a nutmeg grated, one teaspoon teaspooniul
iul teaspooniul of ginger. Beat the eggs first,
then one-half pint of fresh milk,
then beat both together, and by de degrees
grees degrees stir in the flour. Roll the fruit,
citron and the lemon and orange
peel in flour, and add them, together
with the suet and sugar, to the eggs
and milk. Mix all thoroughly, add adding
ing adding more flour and milk if necessary.
Boil five hours, or steam in a bag.
Orange Sauce for PuddingBeat
stiff the whites of two eggs; stir in
powdered sugar to make creamy,
adding the juice and pulp of two or oranges
anges oranges and one tablespoonful each of
melted butter and grated orange orangepeel.
peel. orangepeel.
Pumpkin Pie with Whipped Cream
A most delicious pumpkin pie is
made as follows: Having removed
the pulp and seeds, cut in pieces and
grate. Put through a bag to drain
off the water. Place in a good-sized
bowl when drained, and add two
well-beaten eggs, one cupful of fresh
milk, two tablespoonfuls of mo molasses,
lasses, molasses, one tablespoonful of dried
bread-crumbs, one teaspoonful of
ginger, a pinch of salt, and sugar to
taste. The pumpkin requires no
cooking beforehand. Prepare your
crust, and line the dishes two or
three days before baking the pies;
this assures a well-baked under crust
that will not soak up moisture.
Serve with fluffs of whipped cream
upon each piece of pie.
Georgia Plum PuddingFive
large apples, finely chopped, one cup cupful
ful cupful of raisins, one-half cupful of but butter,
ter, butter, one cupful of sugar, one cupful
of sweet milk, five eggs, one cupful
of flour, with one teaspoonful of
baking powder. Heat well, and bake
one hour. Serve with hard sauce.
Cranberry JellyTo three quarts
of cranberries take two pounds of
good white sugar and one quart of
water; cook thoroughly, mashing all
the berries fine, then put all through
a fine sieve. Return the juice to the
stove, and cook fifteen minutes more.
Pour into a meld or into glasses,
which should be sealed when cool.
Roast Turkey, Mock Chestnut
Stuffing, Giblet GravyCut off the
head and neck close to the body,
leaving the skin covering the neck
to draw back under the bird after
stuffing. Clean, wash and dry; then
stuff, truss, place on a rack in the
roasting pan, rub with salt, and
spread the breast, wings and legs

with one-third of a cupful of butter
worked until creamy and mixed with
one-fourth of a cupful of flour.
Dredge the bottom of the pan with
flour, and put in a hot oven, reduc reducing
ing reducing the heat as necessary that the
bird may not become too brown be before
fore before it is well done. As soon as the
flour is browned baste the turkey
with one-third of a cupful of butter
melted in three-fourths of a cupful
of hot v/ater, and, after this is used,
with the fat in the pan. Turn the
bird often that it may brown evenly,
and baste every fifteen minutes dur during
ing during the cooking. A tender ten-pound
turkey requires about three hours
for roasting.
The making of the stuffing must
always vary with ones taste.
Mock chestnut stuffing can hardly
be told from a genuine chestnut one,
and is very popular. Cook one-half
of a tablespoonful of fifiely chopped
onion with one-fourth of a cupful of
butter for five minutes. Add one onefourth
fourth onefourth of a pound of sausage meat,
and cook two minutes; then add one
and one-fourth cupfuls of hot mash mashed
ed mashed sweet potatoes, one-half of a
tablespoonful of finely chopped pars parsley,
ley, parsley, and salt and pepper. Heat to
the boiling point, and add one-half
cupful of stale bread crumbs.
Mince Meat (without alcoholic
liquor)Mix together one cupful of
chopped apple, one-half cupful of
raisins, seeded and chopped, one-half
cupful of currants, one-fourth cupful
of butter, one tablespoonful of mo molasses,
lasses, molasses, one tablespoonful of boiled
cider, one cupful of sugar, one tea teaspoonful
spoonful teaspoonful of cinnamon, one-half tea teaspoonful
spoonful teaspoonful of cloves, one-half a nut nutmeg,
meg, nutmeg, grated, one-eighth of a tea teaspoonful
spoonful teaspoonful of mace, and one and one onehalf
half onehalf teasp'oonfuls of salt. Add stock
in which meat was cooked to mois moisten;
ten; moisten; heat gradually to the boiling
point and simmer one hour; then
add one cupful chopped cooked lean
beef, and two tablespoonfuls of bar barberry
berry barberry jelly. Cook fifteen minutes.
Household Notes.
There should be three pairs of
scissors in the kitchen, one for dic dicing
ing dicing vegetables, one for trimming
fish, and one for general use.
Grind a handful of sunflower seeds
and give them to the canary. The
birds relish the little tender pieces
that are found among the seeds.
An excellent household remedy
for burns is olive oil or vaseline. The
great thing is to exclude the air
from the burned surface, and this
the oil will do.
A delicious salad is made of ba bananas
nanas bananas cut in slices, dipped in may mayonnaise,
onnaise, mayonnaise, relied in minced nuts and
served on white lettuce heart leaves.
There is no more efficacious way
of removing finger marks from
woodwork, windowpanes or porce porcelain
lain porcelain than by wiping them with a
cloth moistened with kerosene.
An effective scarf for a hall table
may be made of linen crash with a
figure embroidered on each end and
of the same design as the paper on
the wall.
When a slice or two of bread is
left from a meal, do not put into the
bread.bag to be forgotten, but cover
over in a dish and use for toast at
the next meal.



How They Cook In Mexico.
It is a frequent complaint among
Americans when first traveling in
Mexico that they can scarcely get
enough to eat, and that what they
do receive in the way of fare is of
a very indifferent quality and hardly
fit for food. After the palate has ac accustomed
customed accustomed itself to the piquant tastes
of the sub-tropics, a decided liking
for Mexican cookery is gradually
formed, and many a traveler is then
ready to declare that nowhere has
he discovered more toothsome at attractions,
tractions, attractions, as he fondly reviews the
delights of the fervid chile and the
tempting tortillas.
The great drawback with Spanish
cookery everywhere is its eternal
sameness, although the advent of the
French chef is gradually lending a
versatile touch to the ways of the
Mexican cocinera. But the routine
of the courses comes to be rather
dreary when one knows for an abso absolute
lute absolute certainty, that no matter with
what new dishes the dinner pro programme
gramme programme may be varied from day to
day, boiled rice will succeed the
soup, eggs fried or in the form of an
omelet with their unchanging accom accompaniment
paniment accompaniment of fried bananas, will*fol will*follow,
low, will*follow, and baked beans and tortilla
corn cakes will surely precede the
coffee. These are all good, and the
Mexican reasons that being good,
they should always appear, but to
an American the menu grows very
monotonous.
Fried PeppersChiles reinus may
be made in the United States as well
as in Mexico, if sufficient care be
taken. In preparation, the pepper
pods should be cut lengthwise down
one side, and then carefully roasted
in hot ashes, after which the outer
skin can be easily peeled off. Re Remove
move Remove all the seeds, and lay them
aside; grate dry cheese to a fine
powder, stuff the pods full and press
the sides of the opening together.
According to the number of peppers
being prepared, take enough eggs
for a liberal dressing; beat the
whites and yolks separately to a very
light froth and then mix. Have
ready a frying pan with sufficient
boiling lard to cover the peppers, dip
each pod into the frothy eggs for a
moment, then drop into the boiling
lard, pouring over each, more of the
egg, while the frying peppers are
turned. Roast and peel two toma tomatoes,
toes, tomatoes, adding an onion together with
the pepper seeds; hash and mash
them to a pulp, after which salt and
stew. When the peppers are done,
turn the remainder of the eggs into
the sauce, and serve. The dressing
may be omitted entirely, and this is
better if the chiles reinas are to be
eaten cold, but the sauce adds great greatly
ly greatly to their excellence when served
hot. Sometimes the sauce is made
with the addition of green walnuts.
Roast TurkeyA typical Mexican
dish is amoli de guajelote, or turkey
and dressing. The fowl is parboiled
and then roasted, after which it is
smothered in a rich, blood-red, pun pungent
gent pungent sauce. This dressing is thick
with pepper, and after being poured
over the turkey is sprinkled with
aromatic seeds. The mixture of pep pepper
per pepper and turkey is eaten with a lib liberal
eral liberal allowance of tortillas, and all
true Mexicans agree that nothing can

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

approach to the solid satisfaction at attendant
tendant attendant upon a repast of amoli de
guajelote, which is an Aztec crea creation,
tion, creation, hundreds of years old in its
enduring popularity.
How the Mexicans Make Choco ChocolateThe
lateThe ChocolateThe Chocolati made by the Az Aztecs
tecs Aztecs was a revelation of delicacy to
the Spaniards, nearly four centuries
ago, and the Mexicans have always
held first place in the brewing of
chocolate as a table beverage. The
chocolate beans are mixed with cin cinnamon
namon cinnamon and ground to a powder im impalpably
palpably impalpably fine by the hand mill wom women
en women on the metate, a rude stone hand
mill over which the grist is passed
several times, each grinding adding
to the final smooth flavor of the deli delicious
cious delicious beverage. Just before being
brought to the table the chocolate is
rapidly beaten by a palito, a small,
spindle-like piece of carved wood
whirled between the palms.
A Novel Way of Preparing Coffee
Home-prepared extract of coffee is
employed almost entirely in Mexican
kitchens. When ready for use the
extract is of a dark, rich ebony color
and thick as syrup. In serving the
mesero appears in the dining room
bearing two pots with long spouts.
The smaller of these contains the
heated extract of coffee, and the
other is filled with boiling milk.
About a tablespoonful of the extract
is poured into the cup of each one
at the table, and this is then drown drowned
ed drowned in the hot milk with which the
cups are filled.
Fresh Food Every DayThe sup supplies
plies supplies for a Mexican kitchen are pur purchased
chased purchased every morning at one of the
numerous mercados, and only
enough is bought to supply the
needs of the family for a single day.
When at night the ten oclock cena
has been disposed of, the cupboards
are practically bare of ordinary sup supplies,
plies, supplies, and an early start must be
made by the cook to the market the
following morning to replenish the
stores for breakfast. Edward Page
Gaston.
For washing windows, which
should be done when the sun is not
shining on them, use warm water
with a tablespoonful of kerosene
added to each pail of water.

Fancy Oranges and Grapefruit
Al\4 t*lcrry yvIII3.S WHAT to get bothers most people. Dont bother
further, but order a box of our ASSORTED (six varieties) $5.00, prettily packed, best
fruit. Its Our Special I I'ts suitable for your friends, father, mother, brother, sister, or
somebodys else sister, not forgetting the children. Send your cards to go in boxes if you
like. We prepay all charges to door when so ordered. If in doubt as to amount of these
charges, send along your orderwe will prepay and send you bill for the prepay pay if
you say so. Order NOW-leave it to us to get them there on time.
Best grade Oranges, $3.50 per box. Grapefruit, $5.00. Half and half $4.25.
San Mateo Fruit Company, San Mateo, Fla.

For the Complexion.
;
Fill a quart bottle full of rain wa water,
ter, water, add 5 cents worth of rose water,
5 cents worth of epsom salts, 5 cents
worth of tincture of benzoin. Dis Dissolve,
solve, Dissolve, and after washing and drying
the skin apply the solution with the
hand and rub until dry. This is fine,
cheap and harmless. Mrs. B.
To keep a hat on straight with
thin hair, place a small piece of tulle
or veiling across the top of the head
before placing on the hat.

A CYPRESS CONTAINER FOR SYRUP
5 Gallons and 10 Gallons.
Made entirely of clear cypress strong strongly
ly strongly hooped with steel. Will preserve the
flavor of good syrup. Convenient and
saleable sizes. Write for description
and prices.
Pierpont Mfg. Cos.
SAVANNAH. 33 GEORGIA

Herrons Subscription Agency
Is helping thousands to save on their magazine
money; why not you? Write a postal card for
catalogue giving the prices on 3,000 magazines
and much more that wilL interest you.
Address HERRONS SUBSCRIPTION
AGENCY, Box 241, Jacksonville, Florida.
rnrr A handsome Post Card Album
rrILL filled with beautiful cards FREE
T i Costs you nothing if yon write now
nni c for particulars. Central News
VI I IV GO Company, Chattanooga, Tenn

25



26

Improvement of Florida Cattle.
The accompanying illustration
gives a good idea of the class of bulls
that some Florida farftiers have been
and are still using. This bull is
about five or six years old, and
weighs from 700 to 750 pounds.
There was a time, not many years
ago, when any one wna proposed to
produce a better grade of cattle in
Florida would have been considered
destitute of all' business qualities.
That was during the period when
everyones attention was devoted to
the growing of citrus fruits. How However,
ever, However, after the hard freezes of 1894-5
and the lighter freezes of 1901-2, a
few people began to realize that their
success must depend on other sources
of income than a citrus grove. This
was especially the case in Middle and
North Florida. Accordingly a few
farmers began the pioneer work of
improving their live stock. Since
Florida is below the quarantine line,
the beginning was a hard one. The
loss of bulls brought in from the
North was heavy. This loss gave
weight to the argument against im improvement.
provement. improvement. However, these energetic
pioneers were not discouraged. The
first few calves sired by the surviv surviving
ing surviving bulls gave the enthusiastic live
stock improvers new hopes.
These hopes have been fulfilled,
for the last ten years have witnessed
a wonderful improvement of the live
stock of the State. Fifteen years ago
there were not a dozen pure-bred beef
bulls in Florida. Today there are
perhaps a hundred, and most of these
are Florida-bred animals. Farmers
are beginning to realize that the im improvement
provement improvement of cattle is not so hazard hazardous
ous hazardous as they once thought it. They
see that it is both possible and prof profitable
itable profitable to produce a better grade. In
company with Mr. S. H. Gaitskill, of
Mclntosh, Fla., we lately had the
pleasure of riding over Mr. A. L.
Jacksons range and noting how, in
the last few years, he had improved
his cattle by the use of pure-bred
bulls. At the present time there are
on this range a half dozen pure-bred
beef bulls, all doing service. Within
the next two months there will go
from this range 100 head of two and
three-year-old steers, half and three threequarter
quarter threequarter grades, that are just as good
as a large percentage of the grass grassfattened
fattened grassfattened cattle that are sold on the
Chicago and Kansas City markets
every day. Yet some people tell us
that good cattle cannot be raised in
Florida. These doubting Thomases
should visit a few T of our good stock
farms, and be convinced. The writer
is pretty well acquainted with live
stock conditions in the corn-belt sec section,
tion, section, and also with the range condi conditions
tions conditions of the Southwest; and he feels
safe in saying that as good cattle can
be produced as cheaply in Florida
as in any othher section. To do this
the knife must be used very freely to
reduce the number of native and

LIVE STOCK
By Prof. John M. Scott

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

low-grade bulls that are now being
used.
Florida conditions demand that
many more beef cattle of a good class
should be produced. Florida today
depends upon the States of the North
and West for at least three-quarters
of the beei we consume. The whole
of this amount can be produced here
at home. Few other States can grow
such a variety of protein foods as can
be produced in Florida. Velvet
beans, cowpeas, and beggarweed, all
grow to perfection; to say nothing of
other forage crops, such as Japanese
cane, sorghum, Para grass, Guinea
grass, Natal grass, crab-grass, and
corn. It has been stated that good
corn cannot be produced in Florida.
This is erroneous, for excellent corn
can be grown and is being grown in
many sections of the State, though
not in all. Throughout Central and
West Florida, farmers are now har harvesting
vesting harvesting 30 to 80 bushels of corn per
acre. The cost of raising it varies
from $lO to sls.
There is perhaps no State in the

Union that uses as much commercial
fertilizers per cultivated acre as
Florida. This large expenditure for
commercial fertilizer is at present a
necessity. If the farmers of the State
will keep more live stock to consume
the feeds they grow, they can in this
way produce a portion of their fer fertilizer
tilizer fertilizer at home. This method of
farming would result in a system of
crop rotation, and the fertility of our
farms would be increased, while the
farmers would not be compelled to
make such heavy expenditures for
commercial fertilizers as is done
now.
With the unimproved native cat cattle,
tle, cattle, feeding for the market will not
be found profitable. But as soon as
there are enough good grade steers
available for feeding purposes, then
cattle feeding on a commercial scale
can be made a paying business. The

A Native Florida Bull Note His Weak Points.

breeders will then have a large
enough supply of good cattle to com command
mand command a better price than is now be being
ing being paid for native beef.
Money In Live Stock.
The prices of fat hogs in the
western packing house markets are
now about six dollars and a quarter
a hundred pounds on the hoof, says
the Tampa Times. A year ago they
were nearly two dollars less. In the
same markets good beef cattle are
bringing about the same prices as
hogs. A ten months shote is worth
twelve to fifteen dollars and a two twoyear-old
year-old twoyear-old steer from sixty to eighty,
according to condition and weight.
The l imes has for many years been
urging the farmers of Florida to
take advantage of the national mar market
ket market for live stock and their own fa facilities
cilities facilities for producing it at a lower
cost than it can be produced in the
neighborhood of the markets where
these prices prevail.
It is encouraging to note that
there is something doing in this line,
that more and more of the stock stockbreeders
breeders stockbreeders of the State are making ef efforts
forts efforts to improve the breeds they han handle
dle handle and to put their animals into
better condition. It doesnt cost a
Florida farmer more than a dollar
to add five dollars to the amount he

gets for a hog, nor more than five
dollars to add ten or fifteen to the
selling price of a nice fat steer. In
the fullness of time the success at attending
tending attending the enterprise and shrewd shrewdness
ness shrewdness of up-to-date stock breeders
will spread all over Florida and
there will be exported millions of
dollars worth of live meat instead of
importing millions of cured and cold
storage stuff.
The press of the State should
take this matter up more freely than
it is doing and direct the attention
of people to the immense amount of
cash they are allowing to get away
from them. \
As soon as the pastures begin to
drop off start in on your soiling
crops. It is hard to bring a cow back
that has once started to fall off iix
hervinilk supply.



Points of a Good Sow
The body of a good sow is long,
deep and comparatively narrow. It
should be remembered that the di didigestive
digestive didigestive organs of the brood sow
play, perhaps, the most important
part in her career* They are called
hpoh to do more work at certain
times than the digestive organs of
any other animal, and the success
of her litters is largely determined
by the amount of food which those
organs can make ready for conver conversion
sion conversion into milk. Heh.ee it is, that
length and depth in the body are ex exceedingly
ceedingly exceedingly important features in a
sow for breeding purposes. The next
thiiig to look for is a well-formed
udder, free from badly developed or
calloused parts. The phlegmatic,
sleepy sow is to be avoided. Good
mothers are generally somewhat ner nervous,
vous, nervous, like dairy cows. Milk secre secretion
tion secretion has been proved to be largely
a nervous function, and the dull,
somnolent cow is seldom a mother
of a high order. A good backline is
a uteeful point* ttollowed backs are
not safe; they should at ieast be
level, and, if arched, so
much the better. Journal of Agri Agriculture,
culture, Agriculture, Western Australia.
t
Wool Shipments from Florida.
A special from Pensacola, Fla.,
says:
A shipment of 30,000 pounds of
Wool taken from sheep raised in
panta itosa couiity, passed through
Here this morning in two cars, en
route to Savannah, where it has been
sold to buyers for 30 cents per
pound. The shippers are Peaden
Brothers, probably the largest sheep
raisers in Florida, and it is the sec second
ond second shipment to go out, the first be being
ing being of 20,000 pounds and which was
sold for the same price. The ship shippers
pers shippers expect to make a third ship shipment
ment shipment within the next few weeks,
while othher farmers of that county
will send out large quantities of
wool. This is the second season that
sheep raising has been undertaken
in that county to any extent but the
good prices obtained for the wool
and -the success attained in caring
for the flocks has caused many other
farmers to engage in the business on
a more extended scale.
Scours In Calves.
By Dr. David Roberts.
Scours in calves or calf cholera
in many instances differ from diar diarrhoea
rhoea diarrhoea in grown animals, and has spe specail
cail specail features of its own, taking the
form of infectious intestinal catarrh
which is far more serious than the
diarrhoea of the full grown animal.
Scours in calves generally appear
suddenly. A perfectly healthy calf
may be seized all at once, apparent apparently,
ly, apparently, without any change in food or
care. The symptoms of this infantile
diarrhoea usually appear during the
first two or three weeks of life. In
many cases scours appear within a
few hours after the animal is born,
and the calf may die within from
twenty-four to forty-eight hours un unless
less unless it receives prompt and proper
treatment.
.It is common for the calf to be

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

afflicted with scours immediately at
birth, even before it has had time to
suck or take any nourishment what whatever.
ever. whatever.
The foeces or manure is very thin
and watery. It has a sour, disagree disagreeable
able disagreeable odor and is usually light color colored.
ed. colored. The evacuations are frequent
and expelled With force.
The first indication of scours is
the soiled condition of the tail, loss
of appetite, sunken eyes, sometimes
the saliva flowing from the mouth,
no attempt being made to swallow.
They have a staring coat, grow thin,
and lose strength rapidly. Death
usually follows in from twelve to
twepty-four hours unless prompt
measures are taken to check the dis disease.
ease. disease. If allowed to continue for any
length of time the scouring Will be
accompanied by congestion and ul ulceration
ceration ulceration of the intestinal mucous
membrane caused by the irritating
secretions. Asa result of this dis disease
ease disease partial or'double blindness is
sometimes brought on.
To prevent scours in calves, prop proper
er proper care should be given to the moth mother
er mother while pregnant, that she may be
able to give birth to a healthy calf.
As scours is a germ disease, it is
important that the calf be free from
this disease when born. Cows af afflicted
flicted afflicted with the disease of abortion
convey this disease to their offspring.
It is for this reason that calves so
often die of scours before they have
even taken nourishment. It is there therefore
fore therefore necessary that the cow be kept
from disease in order to obtain
healthy calves.
Calves horn, afflicted with the
germs of this disease in their sys system,
tem, system, are in a position to spread the
disease to other calves that they
may come in contact with in the
same herd, or if shipped to other
herds. This is another proof of its
infectious nature.
To prevent and overcome scours
in calves, they should be given medi medicines
cines medicines that prevent fermentation of
food to allay irritation and conges congestion,
tion, congestion, soothe and heal inflamed mu mucous
cous mucous membrane, act as an antiseptic,
as this is quite necessary when the
disease is due to a germ.
The most important factor in the
raising of cattle is their care while
young. Do not think that you are
doing the correct thing if you are
| only managing to keep the life in
the calf until it is three months old,
and then have it get fat on grass be before
fore before the winter comes. If you do
this, you will be apt to have a lot
of stunted calves with their digestive
organs destroyed which will never
make strong, healthy cattle, and will
not be good for either dairy, beef or
breeding animals.

- iWlWPlW^^^wwp^bh ' P*^*fP>^P"^PPw^Wipi^^W^^WBWMWgWWWwww^*w^> W*gHWgP!PtMWBIMWWgWHWWWTaaWggMWWWBBeWg^W

DAIRY NOTES.
Dairying means ready moneya
prosperous neighborhood. But, not
every man is a dairyman.
Accustom the calves to quiet, gen gentle
tle gentle handling. You are responsible
for their future character and dis disposition.
position. disposition.
"in growing most crops the farm is
continually depleted of its richness.
In dairying, it is continually made
more fertile.
Keep up your reputation. Never
mark butter Fancy unless it truly
comes under that head. Be fair and
just. It counts in the long run.
Spray the cows every morning to
free them from fleas and like pests,
and you will get enough more milk
in a week to pay for twenty sprayers.
Be gentle to your cows. It makes
a great difference in the capacity to
make and the flow of the milk. Never
permit a hustling dog to hurry or
worry the cows. This means direct
and sure loss.
Hamilton Reservoir
Orchard Heater
The only heater known that combines simply
and perfectly the three vital features that make
for the most successful and economical out outdoor
door outdoor heating.
NOTICE THIS: A simple and positive regula regulation
tion regulation of the fire by simply drawing the cover
This gives a flow of heat just according to the
temperature requirements of the night and
the consumption of oil just in proportion to
the amount of fire used. This is the, only sen sensible
sible sensible and economical principle and makes it a
small consumer of oil. It couldnt be other otherwise.
wise. otherwise.
Secondly. A reservoir of oil not under fire firewhich
which firewhich admits of an all night burn with posi
tively no attention required after lighting
This feature makes a uniform fire throughout
the period of burning and saves labor as no
others can.
Thirdly, It gives just the proper combustion
for most successful out-door heating, Roches Rochester
ter Rochester lamps and oil stoves are intended for in indoor
door indoor heating and orchard heaters have to
work under very different conditions. Look
into this thoroughly and dont he deceived.
It is the simplest in construction, the easiest
to operate and positively the most effective
heater known and these features have all been
proven and tried thoroughly in this valley last
Spring, when more fruit was saved from the
frost per heater than any other devices used
We can show you.
Draw the cover and the fire does the rest
Write us for mpi
Hamilton Reservoir Orchard Heater Go.
Grand Junction, Colorado

27



28

THE POULTRY YARD
By C. Fred Ward

FALL WORK WITH POULTRY.
Selection of the Laying Stock for
This Years Hatching.
In Florida we must begin our
hatching early, for the pullets that
will be laying for us next fall must
be hatched in January and February.
Then, too, the little chicks do so
much better, through the cooler
weather, if they have proper care.
The ones hatched in late spring and
summer grow slowly and have little
vitality.
So now is the time to look after
the layers, so that we can be sure of
good fertile eggs from vigorous
stock for mating purposes.
Select good healthy hens or pullets
that have laid their first litter of
eggs. Young pullets eggs may hatch,
but the chicks will be a disappoint disappointment
ment disappointment dying early or giving many
runts. Have a good, vigorous rooster
to every fifteen hens and keep the
roosters and their flocks of hens sep separated,
arated, separated, and roosting in separate
houses.
If the hens are two or three years
old purchase a cockerel. If the hens
are only just matured, mate them
with a good cock.
The next thing to consider after
the age and vigor of the stock, is the
purpose for which the young chicks
are being hatched.
If you have a good egg trade, and
that alone, the White Leghorns are
a most excellent breed to select, but
incubators and brooders will have to
be used for the hatching and raising
as White Leghorns make, very poor
mothers. The Brown Leghorns lay as
many, but smaller eggs. It is hard
to get a vigorous strain of Buff Leg Leghorns.
horns. Leghorns.
The Rhode Island Reds lay nearly
as many eggs as the Leghorns, are
more hardy as a breed, and make
gooft mothers, but are not such great
foragers.
For table fowls, broilers and eggs
the American varieties are best.
Rhode Island Reds, after careful trial
and selection, we consider the best
all rmrpose fowl for this climate.
The popular Wyandottes and Ply Plymouth
mouth Plymouth Rocks are very good fowls,
but are long in maturing and not
such prolific layers and more given
to setting.
The Asiatics, while fine for table
fowls, are too heavily feathered to
do well in Florida.
For the farmer who takes pride in
his hens and does not wish a mixed,
ugly looking flock, or no known type
or variety, a good all-purpose breed
should be selected.
From the chickens hatched this
winter and spring, he will next fall
select his breeding hens, and if
care is taken now he can soon have
a poultry yard to be proud of.
If he must breed up his present
flock, then select the most vigorous
hens, of as uniform size and color as
possible and by a good rooster or two
of the variety selected. Next year he
can make a better selection of hens
and in a few years have a very pre-

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

sentable flock, though he can never
claim, nor market them as thor thoroughbreds.
oughbreds. thoroughbreds.
The better way is either to buy a
breeding pen from some reliable
breeder, or buy two or three settings
of eggs for hatching, set all pure
bred eggs carefully and keep the
chicks hatched separated from any
others hatched for market or table
use.
Use the pullets raised with anew
cock of the same breed, next year, in
your yards and you will have a start
in Standard Poultry.
Next month we will tell of the care
and feed the layers should receive to
insure plenty of good strongly fer fertile
tile fertile eggs for hatching.
Personal.
We are pleased to note that Mr.
and Mrs. E. S. Brewer, who left Flor Florida
ida Florida to establish a poultry farm in
Texas, have returned to our midst.
They were very successful in their
work in Texas and built up a good
business, raising last season over 1,-
500 Rhode Island Reds. But finding
hey could sell out to advantage and
F eeling the strong desire to return to
Florida, which everyone who lives
here long and moves elsewhere al always
ways always feels, they will take up their
work again in our State.
Just where they will locate this
time they have not yet decided. But
we are very glad to to welcome home
such energetic, enthusiastic and well
oosted poultry raisers.
POULTRY RAISING FOR WOMEN.
Profits are Reasonably Certain, and
the Work is Congenial.
There are a great many women
whose housework does not require all
heir time, and who could give a lit little
tle little time each day to a few hens.
\nd a great many would like to earn
i little extra pin money for them themselves.
selves. themselves. Such can do so by keeping
a few hens, and find the work easy
and beneficial to their health, that
is, if they have a natural liking for
the w'ork.
If one does not like and enjoy the
work, they had better let it alone.
Most people have yards. Some
have very small ones, others larger.
Where the space is very small a
few hens can be kept for eggs alone,
if for no other purpose. They can be
made profitable by having eggs for
family use. And one can always find
a ready market for all surplus eggs,
as fresh ones re always in great de demand.
mand. demand.
When beginning with poultry,
without having had any experience,
it is best to start with but a few. If
hens are kept for eggs, buy six or a
dozen. Before starting stock it will
pay to subscribe for one or more
good poultry journals and study
them and get all the information pos possible
sible possible on the different breeds, room
required, feeds, etc.
My advice is to begin with some
pure breed. Start with a small pen

and buy good ones. It is better to
have quality than quantity.
Buy from a breeder that you know
has good ones. In buying the best
you are getting for a small sum that
which has cost the breeder years to
perfect. I advise pure stock, even
where it is kept for eggs only, as
they lay better than the mongrel.
Pure strains are bred for laying as
a general tsing, an da pure-bred fowl
is a much better table fowl than the
common stock. And where one has
a pure breed, better prices can be
asked for their stock; eggs for hatch hatching
ing hatching can be sold for a good price. A
few pure-bred fowls are easily cared
for and require but little time, and
are an ornament to any farm or city
lot.
If, after working with a few, one
becomes interested enough to want to
try the fancy poultry business that
is entirely a different question. When
poultry raising reaches the dignity of
a business it demands all ones time
and thoughts, as does any other busi business.
ness. business. To carry it on with odds and
ends of time and in any way is to
invite disaster. Of course, one may
not go into the poultry business on
a large scale in either branch. But
if a business is to be made of it, to
make a success it must be carried on
in a business way.
If a woman has no business tact, I
advise her to keep a few hens for
eggs only. Most any one can do this
successfully.
Do not get the poultry fever and
think there is a fortune in it; begin
small and build up; get the best
stock you can afford; get all the in information
formation information you can by reading your
poultry and farm journals.
There is a great deal of work to
be done in the poultry yards, if one
keeps things straight, but it is not
hard work. Most any woman can do
it with a little extra help for the
heavier work.
I like the wor kand love my pretty
chickens and like to be among them,
feeding and caring for them. They
are so gentle they will eat from my
hand. I would not have a mongrel
in my yards. The most popular vari varieties
eties varieties are the American class.
Personally, I have found the
Rhode Island Reds the best all-pur all-purpose
pose all-purpose fowl. They are great layers;
especially are they adapted to winter
laying. They make a splendid mar market
ket market fowl, having a deep long body.
Their meat is of the finest flavor.
They have rich yellow skin, which
sives them a fine appearance when
dressed. To all who are thinking of
going into the poultry business I
would suggest, they get a pen of Reds
and give them a trial, and I think
they will find in them just the fowl
they are looking for. I hope these
few remarks may be of interest and
benefit to some of the many readers
of this paper.Mrs. P. C. D. in Farm
Progress.
How Can We Produce More Eggs?
To those keeping poultry for utility
the question of greater egg produc production
tion production is an important one. The de demand
mand demand for eggs increases much faster
than the supply, the price is good,
and it bids fair to keep rising. There
was never such an outlook for the
egg farmer and he is as anxious to in-



crease the output of his plant. He
might do this by keeping more hens,
but a more profitable way would be
to increase the average egg produc production
tion production of each hen he keeps. It takes a
certain number of eggs to pay for
the hens keep, and as the number
above this is increased, clear profit is
the result.
There has been much said about
the 200-egg hen and how to produce
her. Some have thought she would
be found in some of the egg laying
breeds, but the egg laying contests
have shown that no breed can lay
claim to be the greatest egg produ producers.
cers. producers. Others have contended that by
selecting your greatest layers as
breeders, and raising pullets from
them each year, in time a strain of
great layers would be produced. This
was tried in the Maine Experiment
Station for nine years without rais raising
ing raising the average number of eggs laid.
Still others contend that feed and
management are the greatest factors,
but in the same flock with the same
care, some hens lay as many dozen
eggs per year as other hens lay eggs.
While this is the case we will not
be content to let this question rest.
The production of eggs is a great
drain on the hens system, in fact
there is not a domestic animal that
produces anything like the amount
of concentrated food product that a
hen does in comparison to her weight.
A Jersey cow weighing 1,000 pounds
would have to give 7,142 pounds of
milk to equal a 3y 2 pound Leghorn
hen that lays 200 eggs, and still there
is more nutriment per pound in the
egg than in the milk. To stand this
strain requires great constitutional
vigor. That means that we must not
keep as layers or as breeders, the
crow-headed, long-legged, knock knockkneed,
kneed, knockkneed, weak-eyed, drowsy looking
hen, even if she belongs to the Medi Mediterranean
terranean Mediterranean class, and her mother laid
217 eggs, and her sire won the blue
at the great Punkin Hollow Poultry
Show. It might be that her mother
was forced to lay so many eggs that
she could not give to each egg the
required vitality to produce a pullet
as good as herself. Prof. James
Rice, of Cornell, proves that it pays
to keep only the strong constitution constitutioned
ed constitutioned birds as layers or as breeders.

*
Lakemont Poultry Farm.
HEADQUARTERS FOR. THE FAMOUS
S. C. RHODE ISLAND REDS
>
The finest of breeding and laying stock for sale at all seasons. Special prices on application.
We have 15 yards of our best birds mated up to supply the fall and winter demand for eggs for
hatching. Prices are $2 per setting or two settings for $3.50, Incubator eggs a specialty at
$8 per hundred. 35 prizes at last two State Poultry Shows tell the quality of our stock.
WRITE FOR CIRCULAR.IT'S FREE.
LAKEMONT POULTRY FARM. WARD LANE, Proprietors.
Box S> Winter Park, Florida.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

He separated a flock of White Leg Leghorns
horns Leghorns with this point in view and
with the same food and care the pul pullets
lets pullets showing strong constitutional
vigor laid on an average 32 more
eggs in a year with 91 cents greater
profit than those not showing this
vitality. Their eggs also showed
greater fertility and hatched strong stronger
er stronger chicks.
But when should this sorting be
done? As soon as the chickens are
hatched, kill all the deformed and
weakly looking ones. As they de develop,
velop, develop, mark the puny ones and dis dispose
pose dispose of them as soon as possible, and
again before putting up your breed breeding
ing breeding pen take out the poorest speci specimens
mens specimens and by keeping this process up
fro a few years we think better re results
sults results can be obtained.
Hats Off to the Hen!
Primary as the great crops are
among the things that make for farm
prosperity and business recovery,
they are ably supplemented by such
subsidiary sources of farm revenue
as come from dairying and poultry
raising. In 1899 the farm value of
eggs produced in this country was
$144,286,158. That was when prices
were comparatively low. During the
current year the price has ranged
from 16 to 40 cents a dozen at St.
Louis, or fully twice that of eight
years ago. It is, therefore, easily
within the facts to say that the
American hen now adds to the in income
come income of the farm in eggs alone no
less than $280,000,000 a year.
Few people appreciate how much
these minor sources of farm income
help to turn the tide from depression
to prosperity. There are at a rough
estimate 200,000,000 laying hens
(roosters excused) in the United
States responsible for the production
of at least 1,400,000,000 dozens of
eggs in the course of a year. When
hard times run up against such facts
as these there is going to be a change
for the better. And this is why.
From the cash income derived from
these sales the current farm pur purchases
chases purchases are made for the individual
and household needs, in the daily or
weekly visits to the country and vil village
lage village stores. High prices for this and

other products help to increase the
output. Month by month the com command
mand command of the farm over the products
of industry gives proof of a demand
which merchant and manufacturer
are quick to recognize as the advent
of better times. The turning point
between bad times and better times
is to no insignificant extent the work
of the patriotic American hen. Hats
off to her! Wall Street Journal.
Rhode Island Reds
SINGLE COMB
Bred for Business(Eggs and Meat)
All breeding pens are headed by 19(=9 early
hatched co kerel* lr< m trap-nested 200-egg
hens. Eggs 10 cents each. No stock for sale.
Guarantee a good hatch.
Six-IMile Poultry Parm
Route 3, JACKSONVILLE, FLA.
Single Comb White Leghorns
SNOW WHITE
Bred to Lay Eggs SI.OO per 15
No Stock for Sale
J. A. BELL [- White Springs Fla.

Indian Runner Duck Eggs
from the best English strain. 280 egg layer.
10 cts. each. Angora Cats, Pheasant Eggs,
The Golden. Two cents and your address
secures a beautiful Pheasant Photo and our
price list.
Choctaw Poultry Yards
62 S. Lafayette St., - Mobile, Ala.

Single Comb White Leghorns
Eggs, 18 for $1.00; 100 for $7.00
Throop Poultry Farm
Enterprise Fla

29



30

FLORAL DEPARTMENT.

Sowing Flower Seeds.
By F. A. Knull.
I would like to say a few words
to the amateurs concerning the sow sowing
ing sowing of flower seeds. So much de depends
pends depends on careful sowing and plant planting,
ing, planting, in the cultivation of flowers, that
I am giving these few notes in the
hope that they may smooth some dif difficulties
ficulties difficulties out of the way of the novice
in floriculture.
First, the soil in which the seed
is sown should be rich and nourish nourishing,
ing, nourishing, but not too heavya light, rich
loam, well mixed with leaf mold, or
a slight mixture of charcoal powder powdered.
ed. powdered. Press the soil down firmly, so it
will not sink when watered, thus
disturbing the young plants. Scat Scatter
ter Scatter the seeds on the surface, cover
with sifted earth and do not allow
it to get too dry.
Be careful not to bury the seed
too deeply; the very best of seed
cannot grow when choked with soil.
The depth of planting depends on the
size of the seed. Sweet peas should
be planted about 3 inches deep;
morning glory may be covered from
% to 1y 2 inches; such seed as zinnia,
mignonette and candytuft, from V*
to y 2 inch. In case of very small
seeds, such as petunia, lobelia, etc.,
the covering of soil should be very
thin, barely hiding the seeds, and
pressing down with a small board
or the palm of the hand, as seeds so
small are liable to be carried down
into the soil unless very carefully
watered. It is advisable to moisten
the surface of the soil before sowing
the seed instead of afterward.
Flat seeds, such as zinnia and co cobea,
bea, cobea, are best put in edgewise, being
sometimes liable to rot when sowed
flat. Sun and light must be excluded
from the newly sown seeds. Cover
with paper until seed has germinated,
then admit gradually to the air and
light. When plants are large and
strong enough, transplant* to the
places you want them to grow.
Annuals are plants which flower
and produce their seeds within the
year they are sown.
Biennials are plants which bloom
and seed the second year.
Perennials are plants which live
and bloom for a series of years.
The Pansy Bed.
There is nothing lovelier in the
whole garden than a bed'brimful of
pansies. Dont neglect any longer to
have one, for I am sure you will love
it as we do ours. Pansies are grown
with very little trouble, but the best
seed and good care are necessary to
produce the largest blooms.
Beds should be filled about a foot
deep with rich, loamy soil. Leaf
loam from the woods is excellent, as
is well-rotted chip manure. If these
are hard to obtain, a good substitute
is plenty of old rotted manure stirred
through and through the soil. Give
plenty of water, soaking through the
bed thoroughly in a dry time. Too

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

little water is worse than none at all.
Water always at sundown.
One of the worst enemies of the
pansy plant is the cutworm, which
needs prompt and thorough attention
once his appearance is noted. With
a sharp stick, stir up the surface
about the plants, doing this early in
the morning. Worms will not have
had time to go far into the ground,
for they only feed during the dark darkness.
ness. darkness. They can easily be dug out in
a few minutes, and destroyed.
A clear rich bed located in a cool
spot with plenty of moisture will
grow extra large flowers, finely mark marked
ed marked and as nearly perfect as possible.
The essentials to success with pan pansies
sies pansies are the choice of the best seed,
sowing at the proper time and a
cool, moist bed. Hard baked soil or
dry, parched beds are fatal. Pansies
must be fed to grow, and so they
cannot thrive in a bed which has not
been fertilized or enriched since the
growing of a dozen previous crops.
Where the summers are dry and
hot, planting in half shade or where
only the morning sun will strike
them is advocated, as well as supply supplying
ing supplying deep soil and mulching the sur surface
face surface in dry weather.
The good pansy plants in proper
soil should have flowers not less than
one and one-half inches across; they
may be much larger than that.
Flowers should be round and full and
when fully grown quite flat. Every
tint of color in a perfect pansy blos blossom
som blossom is clear, soft and deep, never in indistinct
distinct indistinct or hazy.

SEED for FLORIDA PLANTING
*~ r gMMlMMMDlgga,; ; ra liK/^ia -' 3>l 1 "'** fsaewms^aara^Mxtmtmmm mmmm MB 1 MBMBWBMBWMfMMMMJBWMMWMBWMMBMMMBMMMMWMP
We have ali of our Seed grown for planting in
Florida. We have had five years experience in
truck growing in Florida, and understand the
conditions here the w r ants of the growers, and
our Seed are raised to meet them.
Catalogue KENNERLYS SEED STORE
Kennerly & Hickman Block PALATKA, FLORIDA

M'WtT Jacksonville, Florida
S p ENTtwent y y ea r s j earn
grow the Best Bushes that
give Best Results and Most
We have them. The Best
Shade Trees, Hedges and
Shrubbery too. Write for catalog of the
Mr 4o RPCT DACrc For The
ill 1 IVV/ijLj Lower South

Preserving Cut Flowers.
Mr. F. A. Knull, an experienced
florist, suggests that cut flowers will
maintain their freshness much longer
if the stems are dropped into a jar
or other vessel of boiling water as
they are cut. This does not accord
with generally accepted theories, but
a trial will prove its correctness.
Failure with the Holly.
Many people find it difficult to suc successfully
cessfully successfully transplant the holly, and
the reason for this is usually that
they do not severely prune them and
cut off all their leaves. This tree re requires
quires requires the hardest kind of pruning,
and in addition the cutting away of
every leaf. More die from inatten inattention
tion inattention to these two things than from
any other cause.
Most nurserymen understand this,
and always advise their customers to
treat their hollies in this way; in
fact, they often ask permission of
their patrons to prune the stock be before
fore before they deliver it, knowing how im important
portant important it is that this be done.

California Seeds
for Florida.
Write for our Illustrated
Catalogue ot Seeds for
Semi-Tropic Gardening.
AGGELER & MuSSER SEED CO.
113-115 Main St.,
Los Angeles, California.



THE BOSTON FRUIT SHOW.
A New Fungicide Indorsed by Promi Prominent
nent Prominent Horticulturists.
New England gave a very com complete
plete complete demonstration of her capabili capabilities
ties capabilities as a fruit growing section by
the New England Fruit Show lately
held in Horticultural Hall, Boston,
Mass.
The exhibit of apples included all
sizes, shapes and colors from primi primitive
tive primitive crab-sized specimens that are
found growing in Asia Minor to the
magnificent products of the present
day orchards of America, alluringly
displayed in barrels, baskets, and on
plates. It was perhaps the finest
and most interesting exhibition of
apples that has ever been seen in
the East, while the demand for ap apple
ple apple cider would have moved the
heart of a Milwaukee brewer. The
missing link was there as well
as anew creation by Mr. N. B.
Whute of apples, grapes and sweet
corn. There were also interesting
exhibits of peaches, pears and
grapes.
During the exhibition, which last lasted
ed lasted several days, talks were made by
prominent men upon fruit and its
culture. One of the most interesting
was made by Mr. George T. Powell,
of Ghent, N. Y., who is the proprie proprietor
tor proprietor of one of the finest orchards in
New York State embracing several
hundred acres of choice varieties.
Mr. Powell spoke at length upon
the methods to be followed in mak making
ing making and caring for an orchard, and
spoke particularly of the difficulties
that confronted New Englands fruit
growers in resisting the attacks of
San Jose Scale and other fungi, as
well as of insects. It was necessary
he said, to find a substitute for the
Bordeaux Mixture. To quote him,
as reported in the Boston Tran Transcript:
script: Transcript:
Avery important essential in
New England apple culture is that
of spraying. The San Jose Scale is
spreading over every section of the
country. For five years I have used
one of the Misable Oils called Seale Sealecide,
cide, Sealecide, with much success, for the
control of all scale insects. Anew
fungicide called Sulfocide has
been brought out. the past season
that gives promise of very valuable
results. Bordeaux Mixture has of
late been most injurious to many
kinds of apples in discoloring them,
and we must look to something bet better
ter better as a fungicide.
The new fungicide called Sulfo Sulfocide
cide Sulfocide is made by the B. G. Pratt
Company, of New York City, and
was on exhibition at the show. A
special diploma was awarded them.
The public at large manifested
great interest in the subject by their
attendance and the show was a suc success
cess success in every way.
Colemans Cabbage Crop.
Coleman truck growers are in
high spirits over the prospects of a
cabbage crop. While the plants are
not so large or well advanced as last
season they are all strong and
healthy plants, and while some few
have not enough plants to set their
crops, others have more than enough
/

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

to set out twice, and when they get
through setting out the crops there
will be a million plants left over.
The Truck Growers Association
had a rousing meeting last Monday
night, and were loud in their praise
cf the way D. W. Swicord managed
the business last seaso nand unani unanimously
mously unanimously elected him manager for an another
other another year, and pledged their hearty
support to him for the next season,
and he will manage four-fifths of
the cabbage crop from Coleman this
coming season, as the truckers know
that in union there is strength, and
are resolved to be united.
Facts About Florida.
The Governors message brought
forcibly to the attention of the state
some striking facts about Florida.
For instance:
The death rate in Florida is 6.6
per thousand; in New England,
New York, New Jersey, Delaware
and the District of Columbia, it is
17.8. And, as the Orlando Reporer-
Star comments, the Florida rate in includes
cludes includes the sick tourists who come
here and die. If the rate were based

PABOR LAKE COLONY LANDS
Orange and Pomelo Groves and Winter Homes
In Lake Region of South Florida.
Orange, Grapefruit Groves and Pineapple Plantations
Set Out and Cared for in the Interest of Mon-
Residents or Winter Tourist Owners.
FULL PARTICULARS GIVEN ON APPLICATION.
Address W. E. PABOR & SONS,
PABOR LAKE, AVON PARK. FLORIDA.

A Handsome Calendar for 1910

One of the most pleasing calendars
for 1910 that we have seen is the
one sent out by our friends, the Ver Vermont
mont Vermont Farm Machine Company.

upon the native population it would
be much lower.
Florida produces over half the
phosphate of the world and over
half the naval stores of the United
States.
Floridas population has increased
35.5 per cent, in the last ten years
a greater percentage than North
Dakota, Oklahoma, Idaho, Washing Washington,
ton, Washington, Texas or Montana. And we
have room for millions more

Plant Bed Cloth
For Florists, Gardeners,
Truck Farmers,Tobacco
Growers, Etc.
Protects from Frost. Safer than
Glass. Waterproof Sheeting for
Chicken Runs. Hay Caps
Stack Covers and Canvas Goods
Circulars, Samples
HENRY DERBY
4 D WARREN STREET, NEW YORK

It is in several colors and shows
a pretty dairy maid in full regalia in
the foreground, with a setting of
trees, a running brook and a herd of
dairy cows. And in the corner, mod modestly
estly modestly symbolizing the support that it
is to all dairy maids who use one, is
a United States Cream Separator. It
is fitting that it should be there, be because
cause because these famous machines make
liwe a pleasure to thousands of dairy
maids and dairy women throughout
the world.
We reproduce the calendar in the
accompanying illustration. Of
course, the beautiful effect of the
many colors is lost and the reduc reduction
tion reduction detracts from its beauty, but it
affords at least an idea of this strik striking
ing striking picture.
The original painting is the effort
o fone of New Yorks best artists and
is a credit to the painter, lithograph lithographer
er lithographer and company issuing it.
The Vermont Farm Machine Cos.,
Bellows Falls, Vt., inform us they
will mail to those readers of the
Florida Agriculturist interested in
improved dairying methods, this
beautiful ten-colored lithographed
calendar who mention our paper.
Better write at once before the cal calendars
endars calendars are all gone, as we under understand
stand understand their quantity is limited.

31



32

SI
I Know

That I've only to get my magazine into
the homes of the reading, thinking American
farmers to make them readers of the
NATIONAL for good and always.
You read local papers for local news.
You read your religious paper for helps
and suggestions on religious matters.
You will read my magazine to get and keep
a dose grip upon real happenings in the
every-day life of our Nation.
Youll want my magazine in your home
For Yourself, For Your Wife,
For Your Sons and Daughters
I was reared among farmers and I learned
on a farm the things that have moulded my
careerthat are largely responsible for what whatever
ever whatever success I have attained.
I know that the young man and young
womanyour son and your daughterwant
to keep in close touch with the outer world
with national life.
Give them a clean, wholesome, human mag magazine
azine magazine that appeals to the best that is in them.
The articles on Affairs at Washington
are the most widely quoted that appear any anywhere.
where. anywhere. Actual word-photographs of inside
life at the. Capitol, flash-lights of public men,
and the big National happenings, a unique
and exclusive feature of the NATIONAL,
first suggested by William McKinley.
Every month I have a chat with the
heads of the departments at Washington
and write you what I can find out about
new ideas in governmental matters.

GILMORE, FLORIDA
On the St, Johns River, Between Jacksonville
and the Ocean, Healthful, Salt Air, Lands
at Right Prices, Address -
A. T. CUZNER, M. D., for PARTICUL A. RS

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

1m proud so many good Home
Folks now read my Magazine

I want 10,000 more Real Home Readers for the
NATIONAL MAGAZINE by January Ist. Thats
why Im making this Great Offer. Let me send
my Magazine on 4 months FREE TRIAL and
one of my splendid Gift Books a
FREE for good measure. c

When Theodore Roosevelt was president
lie wrote: Joe Chappie is a good fellow and
has done excellent ivork. ,> Similar generous
endorsements from senators, congressmen
and men high in public life are treasured
more for what it means to the NATIONAL
than for anv personal gratification.
But the NATIONAL MAGAZINE isnt
Washington alone. Not by a long way; it
is as big and broad as its name.
It takes in every state in the forty-six
touches every corner of the country.
Not heavy and deep, nor cold and stilted
but written in a friendly heart-to-heart
style that glows and grips your attention
from the first to last.
I am enthusiastic about the NATIONAL
MAGAZINE and I have a right to be. No
other publication has ranked with it in
winning readers among the plain people of
the country, as Lincoln loved to call us.
I want you to be one of my readers.
1 w r ant you to know' the good things in
the NATIONAL MAGAZINE, and I want
you to have your choice of these two splendid
gift books.
THESE GREAT'
BOOKS FREE
"HEART THROBS" the Old Scrap Book
j was compiled bv 50,000 readers of the
j NATIONAL MAGAZINE sending me their
! favorite poems, sentiments gems of real
, heart interest that had helped them in their
! daily lives and inspired them to better things,
i I paid SIO,OOO in cash for these contribu contributions
tions contributions and found in them fabulous riches of
helpful human thought.
\ ou u'ill find in Heart Throbs the gems
of sentiment that you love best, and hun hundreds
dreds hundreds of new and old thoughts that will
help along the w'ay. The other book is
"THE HAPPY HABIT"
Through all my life I have gone about
with both eyes open for the bright, cheerful,
do-your-heart-good kind of things that
happen on the brighter side of life.
Best cure in the w r orld for the blues best
livener of dull hours.
Both books are well printed and beauti beautifully
fully beautifully bound in gold and garnet they are
selling in the book stores for $1.50. But
Because I want vou for a subscriber to
the NATIONAL MAGAZINE, I am making
this great offer

Send me $1.50 (regular price) for a 3'ears
subscription to the NATIONAL MAGAZINE
and Ill send you, prepaid, either one of these
splendid gift books, Heart Throbs or The
llappy Habit, and if you wish, Ill autograph
the first 1000 books ordered.
Choose the book you like; or if you prefer
ILL SEND BOTH BOOKS
and let you take your choice
And return the other one to me. Thats
how' much Ill stake on your honesty and
your interest. Ill do even more.
FOUR MONTHS* FREE TRIAL
Ill give you four months tojprove the wonder wonderful
ful wonderful value of the NATIONAL MAGAZINE. If
at the end of that time you say you are not
satisfied, Ill return your money. Tell me
how I could make a fairer, squarer offer.
Now*, friend, just fill out the coupon
and mail it to me today. Address me
personally Joe Chappie, Editor National
Magazine, Boston, Massachusetts.
Pin your check money order will an anand
and anand this coupon and mail direct to me.

FREE BOOK COUPON
joe Chappie, Boston, Massachusetts:
Dear Sir: I accept your offer and enclose $1.50
for which please send me NATIONAL MAGAZINE
for one year and a free copy of the Gift Book
Indicate your choice
I understand that I have the privilege of discon discontinuing
tinuing discontinuing this subscription at the end of four months
f I am not satisfied with the magazine and will
receive my money back in full.
Name
Address
Please mention if you want me to send both
books, so you can choose the one you like best.



Books on Florida. Crops
Wilson & Toomer Fertilizer Cos,
JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA
Manufacturers of
IDEAL FERTILIZERS
9 The following booklets are sent free on request: How and When to Fertilize Citrus Trees
Spring Time with Citrus Trees. The Good Old Summer Time in the Orange Groves. Why
Fertilize Citrus Trees in the Fall. (The last three issued in season.) Die back Its Causes
and Treatment, How to Begin Orange Groves. Our Florida Sol s, Florida Vegetables, Florida
Strawberries, Irish Potatoes, Pineapple Fertilizing, Ideal Fertilizers and Ideal Field Crop
Fertilizers. In December an attractive Picture Be ok will be ready that will show Ideal Results
from Ideal Fertilizers. Your requests for same will be filed.

Fruit and Vegetable
GROWING IN MANATEE
COUNTY, FLORIDA.
t O those interested in Florida, we wish to announce the issu issu£
£ issu£ ance of the above mentioned booklet. It consists of fifty.six
P a S es > s handsomely illustrated, and describes the advan
tages and opportunities in the famous LAND of MANATEE,
located on the west coast of southern Florida, reached by the
Seaboard Air Line Railway. It also contains a map of the State.
Within the pamphlet are presented facts and figures concern concerning
ing concerning the culture of fruits and vegetables and illustrations of life in
that ideal section.
~ 4 r e you inter e st ed in knowing and having your friends knew more cf this de dehghtful
hghtful dehghtful spota place m which to lecate where good pre-fits and cn ideal heme
will reward your efforts? A copy of the book will be mailed free upon request.
Addressmentioning this publication
J. W. WHITE, General Industrial Agent,
SEABOARD AIR. LINE RAILWAY,
Dept. FA, Norfolk, Virginia.

SOMETHING HEW tor GREENHOUSES
SULFOCIDE
PRATT'S
SOLUBLE QULPHUR
UMMER OPRAY
Non-caustic and non-irritating
A FUNGICIDE AND INSECTICIDE
FOR FRUIT TREES. VEGETABLES and GREENHOUSES
A promising substitute for Bordeaux mixture.
For 10 cts. to cover postage will send sample
sufficient for one gallon of spray.
Use 1 part to 75 or 100 parts of water.
B. fi. PRATT CO., 50 Church St., New York. U. S. JL

McTIMMONS & COMPANY
HEAVY GROCERIES
Corn, Oats, Hay, Flour, Feed and
FERTILIZER
Agents for Wilson . Toomer's Id, al Fertilizer ft r all Crops
Spot cash buyors of
Hides, Furs, Wool and Wax
27.29 South Ocean St. JACKSONVILLE, FLA.



The Finest Timber Land
in Florida
100,000 Acres Virgin Pine in the
Orange Growing Sedtion of the State
Easily Accessible to Deep Water Transportation
Land has been carefully inspected by
Experts who estimate it as follows:
Turpentine Lease per acre $ 2.50 1 WILL SELL
Timber per acre . . 7.00 FOR LESS
Land per acre 5.00 r THAN HALF
Actual Value per acre, $14.50 j THIS VALUE
Address, for description, price, terms, etc.
TIMBER, care Union Savings Bank, Jacksonville, Fla.

One of the Most Com Complete
plete Complete Homes in
JACKSONVILLE
For satisfactory reasons
1 will sell my home in
city proper
Desirable location
All modern conveniences
Will sell furnished if
purchaser desires
Address OWNER
Care AGRICULTURIST
Jacksonville Florida

FOR SALE
6,000 to 9,000 acres
Fine Fruit Land
in British Honduras
The Mahogany Timber on the Tract
is alone worth the price asked
Only $6,000
Will trade for well located property
in Flo iid a
For particulars apply to
Editor of the
FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST
Jacksonville, Florida