Citation
The Florida agriculturist

Material Information

Title:
The Florida agriculturist
Uniform Title:
Florida agriculturist (De Land, Fla.)
Place of Publication:
DeLand Fla
Publisher:
Kilkoff & Dean
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Monthly[1908-June 1911]
Weekly[ FORMER 1878-1907]
monthly
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ;

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agriculture -- Florida ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- De Land (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Volusia County (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Jacksonville (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Duval County (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Genre:
newspaper ( marcgt )
newspaper ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Florida -- Volusia -- DeLand
Coordinates:
29.02889 x -81.30055 ( Place of Publication )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1, no. 1 (May 15, 1878)-v. 38, no. 6 (June 1911).
Numbering Peculiarities:
Numbering is irregular.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Some issues for 1911 also called "New series."
General Note:
Publisher: E.O. Painter, <1887>.
General Note:
Editor: C. Codrington, 1878- .
General Note:
"A journal devoted to state interests."
General Note:
Published at Jacksonville and De Land, <1902>-1907; at Jacksonville, 1907- .
Funding:
Funded by NEH in support of the National Digital Newspaper Project (NDNP), NEH Award Number: Project #00110855

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item.
Resource Identifier:
000941425 ( ALEPH )
01376795 ( OCLC )
AEQ2997 ( NOTIS )
sn 96027724 ( LCCN )

Related Items

Preceded by:
Volusia County herald (De Land, Fla.)

Full Text
Only Paper East of Rocky Mountains Making a Specialty of Tropical and Semi-Tropj^AgrMre
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SINGLE COMB
Rhode Island Reds
EXCLUSIVELY
Lakemont Poultry IT arms
WINTER. PARK. FLA.
C. Fred. Ward and C. H. Lane, Propiietors
MEMBERS:. American Poultry Assn., Fla. State Poultry Assn.. Rhode
Island Red Club of America, National S. C. Rhode Island Red Club.
WRITE FOR CIRCULAR==
We have the goods and can please you if you desire the best in
Reds. Our yards contain more High Scoring Reds and Prize Win Winners
ners Winners than any other farm in the south.
Orders booked and filled promptly for Eggs, $2.00, $3.00 and
$5.00 per setting. Incubator Eggs SB.OO per 100.
We are also agents for the Model Brooders and incubators, also
Hardings celebrated Poultry Feeds and Remedies.

| ~ Ik
CLARKS A 4.1 REVERSIBLE COTTON and CORN CUTAWAY HARROW |fe)K §
FOR RIP P RHPR This harrow was especially designed for putting in VI J
lull DIU unuro small grain, preparing land for Cotton, Corn, etc.. |i
bedding up the land, barring off the rows in first working, and then for m w
throwing the soil from the plant. A labor saver. A money maker, m" 'lr* 1
Gangs can be placed 4,6, or 8 inches apart as desired. In this shape it fl
can be used for barring off corn or cotton, cut-
f| ting up the trash, clods, etc., thoroughly pul pulii
ii pulii verizing the soil in the middle of rows,
JIT- making it the most efficient cultiva cultivact
ct cultivact tor used. Made in sizes to cut three and four feet
cX wide, with 16 inch,l inch and 20 inch disks.
Send today for Free booklet and special prices.
CUTAWAY HARROW CO. I
894 MAIN ST. HIGGANUM CONN. I

Good Healthy Chickens, Lots of Eggs
i fc. mill
THATS what any one gets win owns a dozen or more hens and gives them THOMAS EGG PRODUCER occa occasionally
sionally occasionally with their feed. Chickens earn for yon over 100 per cent on investment, if handled properly. Youll
be surorised what your little dock in your backyard will do for you with a little of THOMAS WONDERFUL
EGG MAKER given them. Djnt think it is expensive to use; the extra egg of one hen alone a month pays for
all the trouble and expense.
Thomas £gg Producer is quite different fro m some so-called egg makers, It is not a stimulant; it brings about
a natural increase and a steady one. K-eps your pou .try free from disease, and will make them lay almost continu continuously.
ously. continuously. Just think what a few chicken? will do in helping to defray your expenses. Then, if you are running poultry
on a larger scale, for profit, why not increase the yield of eggs, and have the same number of hens do what would
under ordinary care, take twice as many hens to do the work. If yeulive out of town, just mail us your order at once
for one or a half dozen pockages. One package CO STS YOU 25c, but by taking six packages you get them for $1
whichmakes the freight cost you nothing, as we make a reduction of 50c on six packages.
We are selling this EGG PRODUCER, in the State as fast as we can prepare it, but we want evervbodv in
Florida or elsewhere to learn of THOMAS WONDERFUL EGG PRODUCER; therefore we have equipped
ourselves with everything necessary to handle the volume of business promptly. Mail us your order today dont
wait. Let your hens get to laying, and keep them at it, for once you use Thomais Egg Producer you will never be
without it.
M TliomisEg£ Prad jcr, 25c How are your
package, 6 for SI.OO n u
ygkgiifc J iy f ; Cows, Hogs or
Makes hens lay in winter
' ; v Horses?
b.; as well as summer.
Write us about your Roup, Sorehead, Gaps, Cholera and other remedies for sick chickens. We can supply, you with anv of thoso
save your chickens. They should always he kept on hand for emergencies. The PR.ICE IS 25c A BOTT! it l r ese
generally set your chickens right. r iviwr. LE, and three or four doses wil
Write us about our COrNDITION POWDSR.S for yous stock; how to increase the milk yield of your cows* how to fatton nn von,*
hogs so as to bring better prices and m ike more solid flesh, and to prevent and cure cholera among them; also of yot£ stock
Thomas Pharmacy
MADISON AND ADAMS STREETS PHONE 535
Out of Town Orders Shipped Immediately

iSS
| FIREARMS I
insure results equal to guns of I
much higher price.
Stevens rifles hold the worlds m
records for target scores,
Stevens Single or Double
Barrelled Shotguns
are equally good for field or trap m
shooting. Special steel barrels M
choke bored for any standard shell a
Send for 160-page catalog giving details I
of construction of Stevens shotguns and
rifles for men and boys. Full of informa-
tion every gunman should have. Sentfree -53
for sc. postage.
If your dealer cant supply you with
genuine Stevens, we will ship direct on
receipt of catalog price.
J. BTEM-V. ARMS A TOOL CO. J
135 Front Street
Fhlconee t ails. Mass., IT. S. A. 1

Army Auction Bargains
Tents $1.90 up Old Pistols #SO up
I U U Slices L 25 * OfficersSwords, new 1.75
It? ARMY SADDLES3.OO Cavalry Sabres - 1.50
/Tftgh bridles 1.00 UNIFORMS 1.25 up
/r/LIXMI Leggins. pr. .15 < Shot, Carbine 350
S. SPRINGFIELD B-L RIFLES Jkl/y
Sp Blank or Ball Cartridge, 35 cents box ot 20.
1007 MILITARY CATALOGUE 260 large pages, thou thousands
sands thousands of beautiful illustrationswith 1909 supplement
pSIWpr wholesale and retail prices. Mailed for 15 cents (stamps,
nur**!- 15 ACRES GOV'T, AUCTION GOODS. 4
FRANCIS BANNERMAN, 501 Broadwty, NEW YORK



A FEW FINE REAL ESTATE OPPORTUNITIES
Orange Groves, Vegetable Lands, Farms and Homes
Suggested by the many inquiries received daily regarding Florida and its opportunities
for homes and investments, the Agriculturist some time ago published the following :
If you have more land than you really need sell some of it at a reasonable price and
surround yourself with good neighbors, and thus let us fill up the State with industrious
people who will make homes here and add to the general prosperity. The Agricultur st
receives letters almost every day asking about homes in Florida, mostly small places worth
SI,OOO to SIO,OOO, already planted, or suita le for planting, to oranges, pineapples, peaches
or pecans, and on whicii they can grow truck or raise poultry profitably until their trees
come into bearing. If any of our readers have such property that they will sell cheap, and
will furnish us a full description and location of same, with price and terms, we may be
able to put them in communication with a purchaser.
in response to this we have received descriptions of a number of properties, of which
the following is a partial list:

No. 11. Nice farm two miles from
Orlando; 40 acres, all fenced; 400
orange, tangerine and grapefruit trees,
more than half bearing; seven room
house, new packing house and other
buildings; horse, wagon, farm imple implements,
ments, implements, chickens, etc. Price for the
whole, $2,000.
No. 12. Twenty-six and one-half
acres, one and one-half miles from
Leesburg; house of eight rooms, finely
finished in native woods, stables, etc.;
500 orange trees and small fruits; clear
water lake on the tract; fine place for
chicken ranch. Price SI,BOO.
No. 14. Ten acres four miles from
Sorrento, Lake county; four room house
and small barn; 120 orange and grape grapefruit
fruit grapefruit trees, 40 pear trees, mostly bear bearing;
ing; bearing; 30 peach trees; nice front yard
set with flowers and evergreens; good
well of water. Price $750.
No. 15. Thirty acres good truck
land, three miles from Sorrento; ten
acres cleared and in cultivation; good
ordinary six room house, barn and oth other
er other buildings; i about twenty peach
trees. Ten acres is good round timber,
and remaining ten acres has some small
timber on it. Price $750.
No. 17. About one-fourth mile from
No. 25, tract of 25 acres, from which
timber has mostly been cut off. Good
fruit and vegetable land. Price $lO
per acre.
No. 20. Fifty-acre farm one and one onequarter
quarter onequarter miles from Eustis; 15 acres
cleared, balance pine timber; 500 bud budded
ded budded orange trees, half bearing; 600
bearing peach trees; six room cottage
in good condition, newly painted; barn,
etc. This place is worth $3,500, but for
a quick sale is priced at $2,000.
No. 21. Fifty acres fine muck land
ip Lake county, good for trucking .or
alfalfa; no irrigation or fertilizer need needed.
ed. needed. Price-SSO acre.
No. 22. Fine two-story eight room
house and five acres of land all plant planted
ed planted to orange and grapefruit trees, sixty
of them bearing. One mile from Punta
Gorda. Price $4,000.
No. 23. Forty-acre farm in Lake
county, 20 acres in oranges and grape grapefruit,
fruit, grapefruit, fifteen years old; figs, peaches
and other fruits; three room house,
small barn and other outbuildings; near
railroad station and in good neighbor neighborhood.
hood. neighborhood. A bargain at $1,800; terms.
No. 30. Twenty acres near Winter
Park; good six room house and barn;
small orange grove. Price $2,600;
terms.

While we are not in the real estate business
If you are interested and do not find anything to suit you in the above list write us
your wants, inclosing stamp for reply, and we may be able to locate it for you.
Address all communications on this subject to
REAL ESTATE DEPARTMENT, FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST,
Board of Trade Building, Jacksonville Fla

No. 20. Eleven acres three miles
south of Sanford, with nearly new two twostory,
story, twostory, eight room house; close to rail railroad
road railroad and postoflice; ideal winter home
in healthy location. Price only SI,OOO.
No. 28. Ten acres of first class pine pineapple
apple pineapple land and 10 acres fine muck
land suitable for tomatoes and all
kinds of vegetables; near East Coast
Railroad, the Hillsboro river, East
Coast Canal, and on good hard road,
between West Palm Beach and Miami;
one of the best bargains in Florida.
Full description and price on request.
No. 29. Fine 10-acre orange grove
in Manatee county, containing 550 old
bearing orange and grapefruit trees,
and four acres just beginning to bear;
crop last year 3,500 boxes. Also six
acres rich hammock, sub-irrigated and
especially suited to lettuce, celery, etc.
Newly installed irrigating plant for
both grove and truck farm; fine ship shipping
ping shipping facilities, both rail and water.
Will make liberal terms or trade for
good Jacksonville property. Price
$15,000.
No. 31. Twenty acres good hammock
land, one mile from Leesburg, on hard
clay road and near railroad and fine
large lake; first class gardening, farm farming
ing farming or orange land; 250 bearing sour
orange trees and some sweet seed seedlings
lings seedlings on property. Situated in school
district.
No. 32. Fine 30-acre farm two and
one-half miles from Eustis; 10 1-2
acres of choice budded oranges, tan tangerines,
gerines, tangerines, grapefruit and lemons, besides
peaches, pears, plums, guavas, pecans
and bananas; good water protection;
grove is in high state of culti cultivation
vation cultivation and should have over 2,000 boxes
fruit the coming year; 10 room house,
two-story barn, good well, etc.; ship shipping
ping shipping station on place. Will bear clos closest
est closest inspection. Price $5,000.
No. 33. One hundred acres pine and
hammock land, 7 miles from Ocala, on
hard road; 60 acres cleared and fenced;
5 acres in peaches, 3 years old; small
two room house, large two-story steel steelroof
roof steelroof barn; horse, wagon and imple implements.
ments. implements. Price for immediate sale,
$1,350.
No. 34. Cheapest small good orange
grove and home in Orange county; must
sell, leaving the State.
No. 3<> A very pleasant home place
situated'on Manatee river, near Tampa
Bay; 360 acres of land with grove and
improvements; steamboat landing near
the place.

No. 38.Seventy acres orange, veg vegetable
etable vegetable and pineapple land near Ft.
Pierce; two small houses; three acres
in pineapples; fourteen acres in
oranges, part bearing.
No 39. Eighty acres good high land
between Indian river and ocean, near
the Narrows.
No. 42. Three hundred acres ham hammock
mock hammock land near Gainesville; good for
trucking and farming; timber is worth
the price. Cheap for cash.
No. 43.Five acres near Punta Gor Gorda;
da; Gorda; excellent for celery and other veg vegetables.
etables. vegetables.
No. 44. Ten acres first class veget vegetable
able vegetable land, fenced and in cultivation,
three miles from Bradentown.
No. 47. A 120-acre farm near Jen*
sen; 10 acres hammock in oranges; 35
acres in pineapples; good dwelling and
outbuildings; railway shipping station
at premises.
No. 48. Farm and grove near Plant
City, on good road; 25 acres in cultiva cultivation;
tion; cultivation; 80 apres in tract; splendid for
poultry or vegetables.
No. 49. 146 acres .good pineapple
land, near Aberdeen station on East
Coast Railway; unimproved. Will sell
for sls per acre.
No. 50. 120 acres two miles from
Homestead, part hammock; four room
house; fifteen acres cleared; over 300
fruit trees, half of them bearing. For
a quick sale will take SI,OOO.
No. 51. Eight acres near Eustis, on
hard road; six room house; 100 orange
trees; half acre guavas in bearing.
Price $1,200, half cash, balance $25 per
month.
No. 52. Twenty acres, fronting over
600 feet on Indian river; 300 bearing
orange and pomelo trees, and hundreds
of guavas, limes and other fruits; two twostory
story twostory house and other buildings; estab established
lished established guava jelly business, with all
paraphernalia. Price for the whole
property only $6,000; part cash.
No. 53 Fifteen acres pineapple land
near Stuart; seven acres planted and
bearing; five acres shedded. Also, 70
acres, with one and a half planted and
bearing. Will sacrifice either or both
properties for immediate sale.
No. 54 Homestead of 160 acres,
within one mile of L. & N. depot in
West Florida; five-room house, fine
spring water, fruits and berries; good
fruit and truck land; 30 acres cleared,
balance pasture land with running
water. Price $1,500; terms.



TWO

GAINESVILLE NURSERIES
flf Offer you a complete list of Fruit, Nut and Ornamental Trees in variety. Hardy
" Orange on hardy stock, Field-Grown Roses, Shrubs, Palms, Ferns, etc.
KEEP OUR CATALOGUE ON FILE
GAINESVILLE NURSERIES Gainesville, Fla.

2PJTJ Clears When All Others Fail. No Blight. YV
IF Big Crops. 1
W Jw Recommended for the entire Lower A
South. Away down upon the** (you II
1 mUzS know the rest) there is where** it grows j I
of the Suwanee Pear and
other Nut and Fruit Trees free. jjjF
The Grilling Brothers Cos., Nurserymen jr
Jacksonville, Florida

\li>U/ FriliK New Shade and
I I Ullu Ornamental Tfees
The Creation of anew race of Frost-Proof Orange Trees. The Carnegie, the
finest Hybrid Orange ever produced in this country.
The Umbrella Mulberry, the most remarkable freak of nature, forming the most
dense and compact habit of growth of any deciduous tree in existence. The ideal
shade and ornamental tree for the North and South.
The Albino Umbrella China Tree, another wonderful transformation with beautlfui
cream colored foliage. Bud-wood in season. Prices on application.
Headquarters for Citrus Trifoliata Trees, at from SB.OO to tIO.OO per 1,000. Intro Introducer
ducer Introducer of the New French Fig, the finest of all Figs.
J. L. MORMAND, Marksvillc, La.
HILL-SIDE NURSERY

PQJ^SJH
an average crop of cabbage removes from
tilizeror to increase the Potash g% add 22 pounds of
Muriate of Potash to each 100 pounds of fertilizer.
Our book, * Track Farmmg, is free to farmers.

FRUIT TREES AIMD ORNAMENTALS FOR
FLORIDA AND THE TROPICS
\ SPECIALTY of Tropical Fruit Trees, especially East Indian
A Mangroves, etc. Also Citrus stock. Then Palms, Bamboos,
Flowering Plants and Shrubs, etc.in fact the greatest variety
in the South. Send for catalogue- Establish everything fora
complete Florida home place at reasonable prices.
Reasoner Bros,, Qneco, Florida,

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

Classified Advertising
Advertisements inserted in this col column
umn column at the rate of 2 cents per word
each insertion. No advertisement taken
for less than 25 cents.
SEND for the practical typewriter,
only $2. NELSON & CO., Box 271,
Jacksonville, Fla.
CUT-AWAY HARROWS and repairs.
E. S. HUBBARD, Agent, Federal
Point, Fla.
WANTEDGrapefruit seed. Also sour
orange seed. Give price per gallon.
D. TURNER, Phoenix, Arizona.
FOR SALEHaIf interest in good real
estate business in Jacksonville. Want
party with experience. PARTNER,
care Agriculturist.
MANNS SALT SICK CURESaIt sick
cured for $1 or money refunded.
EDWARD L. MANN, Mannville, Put Putnam
nam Putnam county, Fla.
BOYS AND GIRLSSeII 24 pieces of
jewelry for us; send us $1.65 and
keep 75c commission. NELSON &
CO., Box 271, Jacksonville, Fla.
BROTHER, I have found a root that
Will surely cure that tobacco habit
and indigestion, let me write you
about it. C. H. STOKES, Mohawk,
Fla.
FOR SALE Banana plants. The
Banana will produce more nourish nourishing
ing nourishing food to the acre year by year
than any food grown. BEARHEAD
FARM, Orlando, Fla.
PROPERTY WANTEDI have been
very successful in selling Florida
property; possibly can sell yours; it
wont cost you anything if I dont.
Send full description of any property
you want to sell and give lowest
cash price you are willing to sell for.
C. H. STOKES, Mohawk, Fla.

McTIMMONSSICO.
Heavy Groceries
CORN, OATS, HAY,
FLOUR, FEED AND
FERTILIZER
Agents for Wilson & Toomers
Ideal Fertilizers for all Crops
Spot Cash Buyers of
HIDES, FURS, WOOL
AND WAX
27-29 So. Ocean St.
Jacksonville, - Florida



FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST

Old Series Vol. XXXVII, No 10
New Series Vol. I, No. 1.

FROM FROZEN NORTH TO SUNNY SOUTH
Or Twenty Years in Florida.
By HELEN HARCOURT
Author of Florida Fruits and How to Raise Them, Home Life in Florida,
Southern Stories For Little Readers, Etc.

[This is a story with a motive to show what
can be and is being- done by industry and in intelligent
telligent intelligent effort in Florida. To term it fiction
would be a misnomer for it deals with the
practical side of the life of a family who made
their home in this favored State, and tells how
they made tbeir great success.]
CHAPTER I.
Looking Backward.
Someone lias said, someone who knows
or ought to know, that the story of how
T came to Florida, and of what I did and
how I did it after I got there, would be
a help to others situated today as I was
twenty-five years ago. Well, it may be
so, for certain it is that the experiences
of other men as told in the Florida Ag Agriculturist
riculturist Agriculturist all those long years ago, had
everything to do with my final resolve to
pull up stakes ont of frozen ground and
drive them firmrly into the warm soil of
Florida.
And so, if my story of haps and mis mishaps,
haps, mishaps, of encouragements and discourage discouragements,
ments, discouragements, of successes and failures, of good
fortune and ill, and of all that I learned
thereby, can be of use to anyone, why,
1 am ready to tell all about it. Fortu Fortunately
nately Fortunately I can do this with needful ac accuracy,
curacy, accuracy, tracing my course from day to
day; because at the instance of my wise
little wife, I kept a full record of all my
experiences and experiments and their
results; of all the family happenings too,
setting down every night the doings
of the day just past. And an excellent
thing this is for every man to do who
wishes to know just what he is doing all
the while, and where his mistakes oc occurred,
curred, occurred, and now, likewise, his successes.
I was born and brought up in what
has now become one of our greatest
Northwestern cities, where warmth
reigns but little more than four months
out of the twelve, with bitter cold and
snow and ice and death-dealing blizzards
claiming the other eight months as their
own. It is a fertile country, famous for
its immense fields of wheat, loved by
some rugged natures for its very bleak bleakness,
ness, bleakness, but never by me. Yet the force of
habit and environment made me, like
many another grumbler, slow to wake
up to the fact that there was a more
genial climate to which I might flee if
only I could make up my mind to sever
old customs and familiar landmarks from
out my daily life; not an easy or pleas pleasant
ant pleasant task, I admit, but often the wisest
course to pursue.
I inherited a goodly fortune from my
parents, who both died young, done to
death by the bleak climate in which their
lot was cast. My father left me a well

Jacksonville, Fla., October 1909

established business, which, however, was
not as prosperous as it had once been.
From my mother came mining stocks and
bonds which had until recently paid high
dividends, though not so high as when
her father had invested some forty thou thousand
sand thousand dollars in them.
When twenty years old I married the
sweetest little woman in the world, at
least I thought so then, and I think so
now. She has never succeeded in dis disenchanting
enchanting disenchanting me, though she says she has
tried all her life. But she didnt go the
right way to work, I suppose. By the
time I was twenty-four, my business,
owing to heavv losses through the failure
of several creditors, and depressed com commercial
mercial commercial conditions, had reached a stage
in which the only safety from utter ruin
lay in closing it out. This I did, and in invested
vested invested the three thousand dollars which
remained to me after all my debts were
paid, in a small cattle ranch some few
miles out of the city. I had always
loved the country, and so had my wife,
therefore it was without regret that we
bade farewell to our city home and
moved out on our own land, on which
there was no rent to pay over into the
hands of a landlord. That was a clear
saving of three hundred dollars, a year,
whereat we rejoiced. As my Mollie said,
we had paid fifteen hundred dollars in
five years for a mere roof over our heads,
and might have kept on for twenty years
more, and then would not have owned a
brick in the chimney or a plank in the
floors.
We moved out on the ranch in the late
spring when nature was beginning to
wake up from her long, frozen sleep, and
vegetation was beginning to look as if it
had some life left in it. Through the
brief summer and the comparatively mild
autumn days, we were as joyous and
happy as two children out on a lark.
Our little folks, the blessed twins, waxed
fat and strong as they had never been
before in their cramped city home. My
dear wife, always delicate, likewise felt
the tonic effects of the free country life,
plenty of rich milk and cream, fresh
vegetables and fruit, to say nothing of
the new home interests. For every land landowner
owner landowner knows that it makes one feel
proud and contented to sit down under
ones own vine and fig tree, and to know
that no other fellow has the power to
turn him out, and that all the fixing up
and improvements are not for the benefit
of someone else. Thats the way my
wife and I felt about living in our own
home,and the work we did, and the work

we planned for the future was something
wonderful to us and to our friends. We
knew the latter folks were having their
fun out oi our enthusiasm, but little we
cared for that.
The bulk of my stocks was in one
silver mine, the bonds those of a certain
railroad. All at once the mine shut
down. The silver lode had come to an
abrupt end; it had been worked for
years, paying less and less, until all at
once its stock owners found their stock
not worth the paper it was written on.
That was a fearful blow to me, my in income
come income reduced one-half. But we consoled
ourselves as best we might by the
thought of the railroad bonds and the
sale of our cattle and sheep in the spring.
How could we dream that the railroad
was so heavily involved in debt that it
would be put in the hands of a receiver,
and found utterly insolvent? Or that a
terrible blizzard and continuous snow on
the ground would freeze and starve to
death all our cattle and sheep? Yet
that is what happened. Our income was
gone, and gone beyond hope of recov recovery.
ery. recovery. The one thing left which could be
converted into money was our little
ranch, our home!
Did we sit down in despair? No.
Left to myself, I might have done so,
being a mere man, but I had a better
half, you see, and she had a womans
moral courage, which, nine times out of
ten, is greater than a mans.
Harry, said she, when we had real realized
ized realized the last stroke of our misfortunes,
the loss of our live stock, we must sell
this place.
Our home! I exclaimed. And where
shall we go? Dont forget that I have
no money left to go into business again.
The best I could do would be to get a
clerkship and rent a small house in
town.
Oh, what a dear old goose you are!
exclaimed the plucky little woman, her
big brown eyes fairly sparkling, dont
you see what we can do when we have
sold this ranch and have shaken off the
last of the fetters that have chained us
fast to this bleak spot?
She flourished the last copy of the good
old Florida Agriculturist over my head.
We had taken the paper for years, for,
by the way, we had always looked long longingly
ingly longingly towards a home in that sunny land
but had never seen our wav to raise our
%/
anchor from its old moorings. But now
the cable had been cut for us most effect
ually, once for all.

Established 1873



FOUR

Now, dont you see what we can do
at last? asked my Mollie.
Clo to I stammered.
Florida? Yes, go to Florida, and dig
our living out of the soil of our own
Southern home. Go to Florida, put the
little we have left in the warm sand
where it will grow big. Go to Florida,
and snap our fingers at stocks and bonds
and business risks and clerkships and
blizzards and all the other horrid things
that have tried to down us.
Lets do it! I cried, catching her
hopeful spiri,t and her hands. And then
we laughed like a couple of children,
who were planning a little frolic. And
after all, we were not much more, for
I was only twenty-five and Mollie twen twenty-three,
ty-three, twenty-three, but then we still had each other
and the twins, and plenty of pluck, and
over all this the good Lord to take care
of us, as we never doubted Fie would.
Now, Flenry Crawford, said my wife,
putting her hand on my shoulders, and
shaking me to and fro by way of* em emphasis,
phasis, emphasis, I want you to listen to my
words and make a note of them. All
these losses are a blessing in disguise.
Some day you will see it, and then dont
forget that I, even little I, predicted it.
1 shall remember and say, T told you
so. Only for this upset, we would have
sat still and growled and grumbled at
the cold and the blizzards instead of
turning our backs on them forever, and
our faces to sunny Florida. Dame For Fortune
tune Fortune has given us the Irish hint we
needed, to go hence and be happy in the
sunshine, instead of supinely staying
here to freeze. Just think how happy
the children will be playing out doors
all the year round instead of being shut
up in the house more than half the time.
And I mean to get well and strong, too.
Dont you worry, my boy, we are coming
out on top yet.
And so it was settled, of course. It
was Mollie who said so, and was she not
the ruler of all of ns, big and little?
Accordingly I offered my land for sale,
and as it was located conveniently to the
city, with a good house, barn and out outbuildings,
buildings, outbuildings, it soon found a purchaser, who
took over everything, furniture, farm farming
ing farming implements, horse and vehicles. When
everything was settled up, I drew a sigh
of relief. At last I was free of business
cares and losses, and of worthless stocks
and bonds. Land was the only kind of
property that .1 had really relied on as
lasting, provided that no mortgage were
put on it to sink it under its normial
owners feet. And, as you see, it was my
own little piece of land that saved me
from absolute ruin. As it was, I had
a clear two thousand dollars to the good;
and owned no man a dollar.
I had friends, who urged me to remain
among them, and several positions as
clerk, bookkeeper or salesman were of offered.
fered. offered. But I gratefully declined them
all. My wife and I had thought deeply
over our future course. We had not come
lightly to our decision, but had carefully
weighed the pros and cons from every
point of view. Setting aside the question
of. climate altogether, important as it
was, we felt that there was always a
dangerous surplus of clerks, bookkeepers
and salesmen, with a dozen applicants
for every vacant position, with the ever
present possibility of the successful ap applicant
plicant applicant eventually being thrown out, be because
cause because of the risks and vicissitudes of
business life. At the best, the clerk,
bookkeeper and salesman are likely to
remain such all their lives, living from

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

hand to mouth, paying out a goodly por portion
tion portion of their hard earned salary for a
mere shelter, and able to lay by little or
nothing towards the rainy day sure
to come to every toiler sooner or later.
Then, on the other hand, those who
become producers from the soil in any
of the many lines open to the country
dweller, may reasonably expect to gather
about them pleasant possessions of their
very own, gradually rising from poverty
to competence, and living meanwhile in
comfort and plenty, free from the ruin ruinous
ous ruinous fluctuations of trade or commerce.
The difference in the two conditions is
based on the fact that the immense class
of v non-producing consumers is entirely
dependent on the producing class, while
the latter is almost entirely independent
of the non-producers. The one pays
money for the roof over his head, and
for evervthing- he eats. The other owns
his home and raises almost everything
found on his table, and in lavish abund abundance,
ance, abundance, while that which he does not raise
he can obtain in exchange for that which
he does. The thrifty farmer has little
need of actual cash for household ex expenses.
penses. expenses. It is the tiller of the soil who
administers to the needs of the other
men, and in doing so becomes free and
happy in his pure, healthful every-day
life.
This being true even of the producer
of the frozen North who has short grow growing
ing growing seasons and late and early frost to
contend with, how much more is it true
of genial Florida, with her sunny skies,
warm soil and her growing season of all
the year round? All the year round, for
thtre is no season, not a single month,
in which something is not living and
growing from one end of the State to
the other. As I have already said, Mollie
and I had been looking longingly to towards
wards towards the Land of Flowers for several
years past, and had been studying it up
in all of its moods and tenses from the
honest pages of its leading farming pa paper,
per, paper, the Florida Agriculturist, so that
we were fairly posted as to what could
and could not be raised there to profit.
And now that we had at last overcome
our old-time inertia, or had it knocked
out of us, more correctly speaking, 1
wrote to its then owner and editor, Col Colonel
onel Colonel Codrington, asking his opinion as
to the best location. Herewith is the
courteous answer I received:
If you are willing to work, Florida
holds out rare inducements and heartv
encouragement. If you are not indus industrious
trious industrious and persevering, dont come here
at all. We want brave and thrifty pio pioneer
neer pioneer spirits, conquerors of the forest and
tillers of the soil and growers of fruit,
for Floridas splendid climate makes her
essentially an agricultural State. Her
wealth lies hidden in her soil.
Men who are not afraid of work, who
do not expect to sit down and see gold
dropping into their laps, will win a
competence, and live in peace and com comfort
fort comfort while working up to it. Floridas
soils (there are many varieties here),
are wonderfully responsive to proper
treatment; her climate is kindly, and the
intelligent worker will be repaid in exact
measure with the faithfulness and wis wisdom
dom wisdom of his work.
l The shiftless and the sluggard will
fail here as elsewhere; energy and in industry
dustry industry will be richly rewarded. It is
here as everywhere, only conditions are
more favorable to ultimate success, and
the reward in the end is richer, while
the path to that end is smooth and pleas pleasant,

ant, pleasant, though subject to some lips and
downs. Otherwise it would not be a
human pathway.
As to location, that depends on the
special crops you propose to cultivate.
Also on the amount of money you have
to invest. You can find good properties
able figures, or you can go further out
and enter a homestead, which latter will
give you one hundred and sixty acres of
good land at a merely nominal cost.
There are today many Such subject to
entry, but the number is rapidly growing
less. The country is still sparsely set settled,
tled, settled, and there are hundreds of money moneymaking
making moneymaking openings here for the right man,
where there is but one in the densely
populated centers. Fruit growing, farm farming,
ing, farming, vegetable raising, poultry and stock
breeding, sheep herding, bee-keeping,
dairy farming if near a growing town,
and a long list of like pursuits offer here
unusual inducements, both in pleasure
and profit to those who enter upon them
with intelligence and determination to
persevere to success. Faith, courage and
persistence are essentials, even in genial
Florida, as they are the world over. It
is their absence which leads to defeat
and disaster.
Now, Mr. Crawford, if you are one of
the industrious, staying sort, with a love
of country life and the true pioneer
spirit, as I judge you to be, come with without
out without fear as to the ultimate result. l T ou
will be assured of a comfortable home
from the very start, no more blizzards to
destroy your substance, and an eventual
competence, if nothing more. But surely
that is enough for happiness. But do
not fix upon any particular location, buy
land or enter a homestead, until you
have been over the ground yourself. Do
not depend on hearsay evidence or the
report of an interested party. Come and
go over that part of our beautiful land
which is accessible, keep your eyes open,
have a well defined idea of what you
want, and look about till you find it.
And do not trust the man who runs
down his neighbors land; dont even set settle
tle settle next door to him, for he will not
make you a desirable neighbor. If in
any way 1 can be of service to you, dont
hesitate to write again.
Well, my frisky little wife fairly
danced for joy when she read that letter.
She says she didnt, but I ought to know
when she whirled me around with her,
and when I set it all down in black and
white at the very time, at her own re request,
quest, request, too. Not, to be sure, that she
asked to have the dance part put down,
but she did ask me to begin a daily
journal of all our happenings, and to
keep it up. So I began right there with
her impromptu dance, and thats where
the joke comes in here and in divers
other places during the twenty years
that followed that first Florida waltz.
Mollie is more sedate now, you see, and
the heavy task of keeping me and her
other children in order has sobered her
down a bit, but only a w r ee little bit,
between you and me.
If any stray doubts remained in our
minds as to the wisdom of our decision,
(we were not conscious of any, though),
this plain, straightforward letter of Col Colonel
onel Colonel Codringtons put them to flight. It
was just such a letter as I had expected
to receive from the genial editor. It was
early in the year 1885 when we turned
over our ranch to its purchaser. My wife
and our t\Vo little folks went to her
mothers to remain while I completed our
preparations for the flitting to the Sunny



fSontli. And just at this point came our
only indecision. Should or should not
/
my dear ones remain behind while I went
on alone to select our home site? I
shrank from leaving them; I shrank from
taking them, fearful of the hardships
that might be encountered before the
home was ready.
1 was resolved to do nothing hastily,
and not to make a selection of which I
would repent at leisure. Of course Mol Mollie
lie Mollie was anxious to accompany me, yet
feared undue exposure both for herself
and the children, now just four years
old. Nor did she or I like the idea of
her traveling alone to join me.
Our perplexity was ended in an unex unexpected
pected unexpected manner. My wifes brother, who
lived with their widowed mother, had,
like myself, become tired of the constant
fights and discomforts incident to a
bleak climate, and now suddenly deter determined
mined determined to follow my example and seek a
new home in the Land of Flowers, his
mother, of course, accompanying him. It
was therefore arranged that Mollie
should remain at her old home until 1
had prepared the new, and that then
she and the children with her mother
and brother should travel southward to together.
gether. together. This important point settled,
my preparations for departure were
quickly concluded.
Now, Harry, said my brave Mollie.
her arms about my neck as I stood on
the doorstep, You are not to worry
about us at all. Take plenty of time to
make a good selection. The more haste
the less speed, you know. And dont
get down, you dear boy.
No, said I grimly, Im up!
And then 1 clasped her to my heart,
and rushed for the station, not that
there was any such hurry, but because
there was a lump in my throat, and I
did not want mv wife to see me choke
to death right before her eyes. That
was why I ran, and that was how my
journey towards the new home com commenced.
menced. commenced.
CHAPTER TWO.
Selecting the Home Site
Of my southward journey it is need needless
less needless to speak; suffice it to sav that I
arrived in due time in Jacksonville, then
as now, the gateway of Florida, to which
a 1 roads lead, whether from the North,
South, East or West. As to the date of
my arrival, however, I would like to fol follow
low follow the example of younger scholars
than I, and speak a piece, and that
right earnestlv too. because of the mis misconception
conception misconception that still exists, though not
so universally as in the past, as to the
true inwardness of Florida's summer cli climate.
mate. climate. and the danger of coming into the
State at that season.
I first set foot on the soil of my
adopted State on the first day of June.
It Avas in the year 1885, but it is from
the month, not the year, that I take
mv text.
My departure at the very beginning
of summer had met with the strenuous
opposition of my friends, who were not
ns Florida-wise as Mollie and myself.
They had not studied the subject as
we had done; we knew, while they ar argued
gued argued from ignorant standpoints, and so
we paid no heed to the dire predictions
of disaster that were hurled at us on
everv side.
/
In those davs. even more than in the
partially enlightened present, Florida,
while known as an ideal winter home,
was generally regarded as a liotbed of
malaria in the summer, It was said that

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

new-comers from any other part of the
country would have to pass through a
trying period of all sorts of bodily ills
while becoming acclimated to the terri terrible
ble terrible summer heat, and even those to the
manor born were supposed to pass the
time in shaking with chills and burning
up with fever all the summer long.
Truth crushed to earth will rise
again, and so today it is at last be beginning
ginning beginning to be more generally understood
by outsiders that the summer climate
of Florida is one to be sought rather
than avoided. Also, that chills and fe fever,
ver, fever, in other words, malaria, is due to
local conditions only, and that it be belongs
longs belongs to swamps and marshes all the
world over, wherever mosquitoes most
do congregate. Keep these biquitous
insects from biting you, and you keep
malaria at a distance. It is a wonder wonderful
ful wonderful discovery, this of the savants, that
malaria is due to the sting of the mos mosquito
quito mosquito alone, and not to the much ma maligned
ligned maligned emanations of the swamps. But
when one comes to think about it, it is
rather more wonderful that no one sus suspected
pected suspected it long ago. Certain it is that
persons living near mosquito haunts,
whose houses were well screened from
their entrance, persons who also were
careful not to let the insects sting them
out of doors, never were attacked by
malaria. This was the experience of my
own family, though I confess we never
thought of attributing our immunity to
our avoidance of the stings of the mos mosquitos.
quitos. mosquitos. Our care was because of the dis discomfort,
comfort, discomfort, not from fear of contamination.
It is rather a puzzle to the finite un understanding
derstanding understanding to discover the why and
wherefore of the mosquito whose pres presence
ence presence always means a desire for absence
on the part of human beings. So far as
we can tell, there is but one thing that
can be said in its favor, the same thing
that a certain kind-hearted old lady
once said in defense of his satanic mai maiesty.
esty. maiesty. This old lady was famous for al always
ways always having a, kind word to say for ev everybody,
erybody, everybody, for finding hidden virtues
where none could be seen by the less
charitable. Well, auntie, said a smart
youth, one day, thinking to force her
into breaking her record, you surely
can't find anything good to say of Sa
tan? She thought a moment, then
made reply, He is certainly very indus industrious,
trious, industrious, my dear! And so with the fe fever-bearing
ver-bearing fever-bearing mosquito, it is certainly
very industrious.
But aside from the much*-maligned
malaria, the Florida summers were
popularly supposed to partake of the
nature of Tophet. Now, a glance at the
map of Florida ought to be enough to
convince any intelligent person of the
physical impossibility of such an idea.
A tongue of land one hundred miles wide
and nearly four hundred in length,
reaching out into immense bodies of salt
water, with no portion of its surface
more than fifty miles from the shore,
and with ocean breezes sweeping across
it all the while, cannot be as hot as
interior, land-locked countries. More Moreover,
over, Moreover, lakes and rivers are scattered all
over the State from end to end, and
these also help to cool the heated air.
absorbing much of the warmth into their
placid bosoms, and breathing forth again
in the winter season to temper the cold
winds that sometimes sweep down from
the frozen North.
True it is that the temperature rises
high, as it docs elsewhere, but the con constant

stant constant breezes from the ocean on the one
side, and the gulf on the other, wage
perpetual war upon the thermometer, so
that 1 have many a time known my wife
and others more hardy than she, to feel
cJiilly with the thermometer marking 88
and DO, and to be driven indoors by the
cool breeze that gave the lie to the mer mercury's
cury's mercury's record. The fresh salt water
breezes fan away the excess of the heat,
so that anyone who can keep out of the
direct rays of the sun, will sillier but
little discomfort. Nor, indeed, need I
make this exception save as regards the
sick and weakly ones, it was thought,
and not so long ago either, that no wnite
man could work in the fields exposed to
the Florida summer. That fallacy has
been exploded by practical proof and
experience, and today one may find hun hundreds
dreds hundreds of white men working in the fields
right through the warm season, and ac actuaJly
tuaJly actuaJly suffering less than they would do,
and fiave done, as many of them will
tell, under the same circumstances in the
North, in proof whereof is the fact that
no case of genuine sunstroke has ever
been known in this State. Profuse per perspiration
spiration perspiration is a sure safeguard.
The Floridian knows nothing of the
dry, scorching heat of the Northern sum summers
mers summers that burns up everything before it
for weeks, unrelieved by a cloud or
breeze. Fie knows nothing either of the
oppressed wandering about at night, in
ghostly attire, searching in vain for a
cool spot to lie down in. Many such i
knew myself in our brief but hot sum summer
mer summer in the Northwest, but in fair Flori Florida,
da, Florida, never. Floridas hot days bring re refreshing
freshing refreshing showers and her nights are cool
and restful.
Of the truth of these conditions my
wife and I were fully satisfied, and
therefore we felt no fear of the results
of my summer home search on the score
of my health. And this I can say in all
earnestness, after the long experience of
twenty years, on my own part, and after
comparing notes with settlers from all
other States, North, South, East and
West, that nowhere in all thevast ex extent
tent extent of our Union, can one live in the
same climatic comfort all the year
round as right here in bonnie Florida.
Of course, in a country nearly four
hundred miles long there must be a con considerable
siderable considerable difference in conditions, not
only in degrees of temperature, but in
elevation and in soils and productions.
The watershed of Florida is a line drawn
from the Okefenokee swamp in Georgia,
running southeastwardly and about par parallel
allel parallel with the center of the State. The
highest point above sea level of this
backbone varies from two to three hun hundred
dred hundred feet, and many of its numerous
rivers and lakes send their waters oft'
both to the east and west. This is true
of the beautiful lake on whose shores
l finally chose our home site.
Now, I had made up my mind that in
diversified crops lay the surest hope of
winning a comfortable living while
working up to a steady income in the fu future.
ture. future. Everybody was going wild over
orange groves in those days, and for
one man who had planted other more
hardy fruit trees or had turned to vege vegetable
table vegetable growing, or ordinary farm crops,
for a dependence, hundreds were, as my
Mol lie said, putting all their eggs in
one basket.
Just think, Harry, said she, Sup Suppose
pose Suppose the bottom should drop out of their

FIVE



SIX

kasket? Where would they be, with all
tire eggs broken and nothing left to take
their place after all their years of toil
"and expense in filling the basket? Just
think of the horror of it, Harry! You
know we have read about the big freeze
'of fifty years ago, when great, old orange
"trees were frozen to the ground, and it
is WOt impossible that another freeze
-as bad might come sometime. Then
think of the disaster of losing all ones
dependence at one stroke!
I did think of it, little knowing how
prophetic Mollies plea against put putting
ting putting all our eggs in one basket was to
become in the near future. And so it
was not only for a suitable orange lo locality
cality locality alone that I was looking, but for
a section where other fruits and every everyday
day everyday crops could be grown in comparative
safety.
There was a wide field to go over, and
I spent the next three months in a care careful
ful careful search through the then accessible
parts of the State. That may seem a
good deal of time to devote to such a
search, but it was no small task that
T had set for myself. How many of our
people who have not made a study of
the subject have any idea of the real
size of fair Florida? Not one in a thou thousand.
sand. thousand. It is the largest State east of the
Mississippi river. It is more than seven
times as large as Massachusetts, and
larger than New Hampshire, Vermont,
Massachusetts, New Jersey, Maryland,
Delaware and Rhode Island combined.
Florida is one-fourth larger than the
proud State of New York, and one-half
larger than Ohio, with its millions of
population. Then, sailing across the At Atlantic
lantic Atlantic ocean, we find that Florida covers
more space than Germany, Belgium and
Switzerland combined, and spreads over
all England with a surplus of nine thou thousand
sand thousand square miles to spare.
Thirty-eight million acres of* good,
arable land has fair Florida to her
credit, with four thousand four hundred
square miles of water surface besides,
and a coast line of twelve hundred miles.
Plenty of room here for variety of cli climate,
mate, climate, soil and productions, and plenty
of room for the searching out of the
small spot that should be just right,
and meet ones preconceived ideal for
the desired purpose.
That is why it took me so long to
go over the ground, keeping in mind the
adage look before you leap. I could
not afford to make a mistake. In those
early days the attractive region now
known as South Florida, was not open
to investigation as it is today. Rail Railways
ways Railways were few and far between, and it
was difficult to get farther to the south southward
ward southward than the upper edge of the present
tier of counties embracing South Flori Florida.
da. Florida. The vast extent of country below
this line was without regular transpor transportation
tation transportation facilities, and was practically
shut out for the time to the ordinary
settler who depended on the shipment
and sale of his crops for his living.
T found the Tallahassee and Gaines Gainesville
ville Gainesville sections specially adapted to stock
raising, tobacco growing, and to ordi ordinary
nary ordinary fruits and farm crops, but not safe
for orange growing, though there were
some fine groves that were speciallv pro protected
tected protected by tree belts or water. This was
the country that would suit my brother brotherin-law,
in-law, brotherin-law, who wished to go into stock
raising and tobacco growing as special specialties.
ties. specialties.
For my own purposes a more south-

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

erly location was desirable, and so I
took passage over the newly built line of
the Florida Railway and Navigation
Company, now the Seaboard Air Line.
As we whirled along through a rolling,
pine-clad country, I noted a number of
beautiful lakes and flourishing orange
groves, the latter increasing in number
and apparent vigor as we went south southward,
ward, southward, further and further into what I
had been told was the natural orange
belt, where existed wild groves of the
sour orange.
Mv destination was a little town
about one hundred and fifty miles south
of Jacksonville, in the very heart of the
lake region of the upper border of South
Florida, and in a portion of old Sumter
county that has since been erected into
the county of Lake. The town I sought,
a village, more correctly speaking, nes nestled
tled nestled on an isthmus or narrow neck of
land dividing two large lakes. From
the moment that I stepped from the
train, I felt the conviction that mv
y /
long search was ended. That evening,
in a conversation with the proprietor of
the one small hotel, he informed me that
there were still a number of fine home homesteads
steads homesteads to be had close by the town, some
of them with beautiful lake fronts.
Eureka! I cried.
The next day I secured the services of
a two-wheeled cart, a mule, a negro
as driver, and mine host as guide, and
set forth on a last voyage of discovery,
and, as I felt assured, of conquest.
Passing over a barely discernible wagon
trail leading through a dense mass of
luxurious vegetation and giant live oaks
draped with the graceful gray moss of
the South, we came out upon a scene so
beautiful that involuntarily I leaped to
the ground, threw my hat in the air,
and shouted once more:
Eureka!
Here was my home site, and a hun hundred
dred hundred fold more lovely than I had ever
dreamed of. Before me lay the sparkling
waters of a noble lake twelve miles long
and eight miles wide. The shore before
me was almost a bluff, and at its foot
the waves rippled up on a clean beach
of white sand. Far away on the oppo opposite
site opposite shore was a line of dark green
marking the location of one of the fa famous
mous famous groves of the region, and on every
side was beauty and a luxuriance of tree
and shrub and vine that betokened a fer fertile
tile fertile soil and kindly climate. Here were
all the conditions for successful fruit
and Aegetable growing. There were no
nearby swamps, and the elevation of the
with the clear sandy beach at its
foot, and the wide expanse of pure water
beyond, insured health and comfort. The
day was one of the hottest of the wan waning
ing waning summer, yet the cool breeze coming
over the lake, and the dense shade of
the oaks and bays and magnolias, left
nothing to be desired as to temperature.
I drew a deep breath of relief and de delight.
light. delight. Ah! such an ideal home as ours
would be nestling in this charming spot!
£ longed to talk to my Mollie about it
right then and there.
T declined my landlords offer to show
me other quarter sections. I was satis satisfied,
fied, satisfied, and would look no further. On
returning to the hotel I met a lady who
had just come in to take the train for
the North the next day. That evening
she told me the story of her doings for
the last three years, and it was so full
of significant encouragement that I
wrote it all down that very night as a

postscript to the good news t Was Stenti Stentiing
ing Stentiing Mollie thht I had at last found the
very site for which I had been search searching,
ing, searching, and said I, rather incoherently,
only more so.
I found a chipper little woman at
the hotel when I returned, I wrote,
a chipper little body like unto you,
Mollie, darling, only not so niceto me.
This is her story. She came down here
three years ago determined to start a
home for her husband and herself in this
sunny land. He has a clerkship in New
York and could not afford to give it up
until he had something sure to take its
place, although the doctors said that his
life would be prolonged by a milder clh
mate. He did have something sure
though, a plucky wife, and she resolved
to make a home for him in Florida. She
set out alone, and came up the
waha river to this place on the quaint
little steamer* Okeehumpkee, Captain
Rice. That, by the way, will be the
best route for you folks to come
from Jacksonville, easier for yoUr moth mother
er mother and the tots than by rail, and cheapen
too.
Well, this brave little pioneer, Mrs.
Hull, bought a twenty acre lot about six
miles from here. It was what is called
jaw land, that is, had never been clear cleared,
ed, cleared, and she went to work, with the aid
of a colored man and his wife, and
cleared two acres. She was Wise in not
trying to clear more. Ive seen already
that it dont pay to spread out too much
on limited means. One acre here will
yield more than five acres North, be because
cause because several crops can be raised in the
same year from the same ground. Mrs.
Hull saw this too, and so put all her
energies on these two acres as a starter.
She set aside a quarter of an acre
as a vegetable garden and planted or orange
ange orange trees on the rest, leaving a few
grand old oaks to shade her two-roomed
cottage. Between the trees she set
limes, guavas and peaches.
When she left New York she made
a vow not to return until she could carry
back with her some fruit that she had
herself planted and cultivated to ma maturity.
turity. maturity. And nobly has she kept her
word, for she has with her several large
pineapples grown under a light canopy
to shield them from sun and frosty
nights, and a quantity of limes and
guavas and late peaches.
This chipper little woman is coming
back in the fall, and then you must
meet her, sometime in November she
comes. She will then enlarge her grove,
and in a few years more she expects to
have an income that will enable her hus husband
band husband to give up his position and come comehere
here comehere to live.
So, wife of mine, here is a practical
illustration of what life in the Sunnv
.
South means for we uns/ as our
Cracker neighbors here have it. And so
good night, and pleasant dreams.
(To be continued.)
Always be on the lookout for the new
idea. 'Test it out carefully, and use it if
it is practicable.
Make it the rule to constantly im improve
prove improve the stock on your farm. If you
start with scrub stock dont be content
to continue with that grade, but use
pure bred sires and breed up. In a few
years you will be in possession of a fine
grade of animals.



Mulberries.
A Fruit That Deserves More Attention
in Florida Than It Has Had.
V Fbr feomb year§ past more has been
heard of the mulberry tiiari before* be because
cause because of the use of the tree m forestry
plantings; not so much the planting of
the tree for its timber though not
without value in this respect but for
setting around plantations for protec protection
tion protection of the trees within the inclosure.
The Russian, so called, is the one used
for this purpose. The Russian mulberry
is but a variety of the alba, but having
become acclimatized to a cold clime it
proved just what our colder States de desired,
sired, desired, and it is there that it is the most
esteemed. When grown East, alongside
of the alba, the parent type, no differ difference
ence difference is apparent. In fact, some Western
hied say the alba is as hardy with them
a§ the Riissiau arid appears as good in
every way.
Asa shade tree this mulberry is a
handsome one, and wheri orte sees the
pretty specimens our lawns sometimes
contain, it creates a surprise that it is
not oftener planted. The sterile form is
particularly desirable, and as mulberries
are readily raised from cuttings, nur nurserymen
serymen nurserymen could have a stock of this kind
to offer. The sterile form makes a hand handsome
some handsome spreading tree, and in common
with other forms .it keeps is foliage
green until the last days of autumn.
Should frosts hold off, it is a good green
color until November as far North as
Southern Pennsylvania.
The kinds mentioned alba and its va varietie
rieties varietie are looked to, to supply their
foliage for the feeding of silkworms
where the industry is undertaken, fresh
leaves being fed to the worms every day.
Teas weeping mulberry is a variety
of the Russian, having been found as a
prostrate grower in a bed of seedlings.
Anyone wishing a curiosity should set
some cuttings of this weeper. The prod product
uct product will be of a trailing nature, quite
a curiosity in the way of growth.
Southern writers often mention the
large mulberries of their gardens and
the good shade they afford. The ever everbearing
bearing everbearing kinds Downings and Hicks
are often planted for their fruit. Evi Evidently
dently Evidently from their large rough leaves and
strong growth these varieties belong to
our native sort, rubra, not uncommon in
our woods. The fruit of these is much
larger than that of the alba. It is not
produced in such great quantities, but
the berries being almost black in color,
they are more sought than those of the
others.
Strangely, while those of the alba
tvpe root freely from cuttings, the cut cuttings
tings cuttings of the rubra and varieties are
difficult to propagate.
A Chapter on Eggs.
Much has been written about tliG-influ tliG-influence
ence tliG-influence of food upon the size and quality
of the egg. Experiments and investiga investigation
tion investigation along this line have brought out
some curious facts. It has been found
that the eggs of the hen are not uniform
in size and shape, though shape is more
a fixed character than size. With hens
laying a tinted egg, the shell is not of
uniform color. A hen may lay a dark
egg one day and one considerably light lighter
er lighter the next. Strains and breeds that
have been bred for* a long time along cer-

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST,

tain lines will lay eggs of more uniform
6'olor than those that have been promis promiscuously
cuously promiscuously bred, and old established breeds
are more certain m this respect than
new breeds. White Leghorns of pure
blood lay a chalk white egg, but there
is considerable variation in size and
shape. In some strains there is a strong
tendency for the egg to run off pointed,
and this should be guarded against when
selecting eggs for hatching.
Eggs are formed in the hen in clusters
or bunches, each of which is termed a
clutch. There may or may not be a ces cessation
sation cessation of laying between two clutches,
but usually there is a period of about a
week, and at other times a considerable
period. If there is strong activity of the
ovary and no new egg-cells are formed,
the lien becomes broody. If immediate immediately
ly immediately broken up, the organ will set at work
again on the formation of new egg-cells,
if there is-in it the ovums from which
these cells are developed. If not, the
hen will simply remain unproductive and
may again contract the broody habit
without laying more eggs.
When a pullet begins to lay, the eggs
are small, but it will usually be found
that the yolks are of full size. The first
egg is the smallest, each succeeding one
being a little larger until the middle of
the clutch, when they begin to slightly
diminish in size until the end of the
clutch.
It has been found that the food has an
influence on the quality of the egg. some
foods producing pale and others rich col colored
ored colored yolks, and foods having a pro pronounced
nounced pronounced flavor mav impart that flavor
to the eggs. This has been most noticed
in the case of onions and fish.
While food affects the quality of the
egg, we have failed to determine that it
has any influence on the size. The size
of the egg seems to be the
egg-producing organs of the lien, and
has its limitations. Size is a factor in
the market. Eggs of good size are al alwavs
wavs alwavs preferred to smaller ones, yet there
is not much difference in their nutritive
value.
Taking two Leghorn eggs, one large
and the other small, it was found that
the weight of water-free matter was al almost
most almost identically the same in each. Still
we want large eggs, as they present a
better appearance and will satisfy the
consumer more completely, but we do
not want extremely large eggs at the
sacrifice of numbers. Tn all things there
is a lianpv medium. The hen that lays
the extremely large egg or the one that
lays the abnormally large one are sel seldom
dom seldom our best layers. The heavy laving
hen usuallv lavs a normal, medium mediumsized
sized mediumsized egg. Heavv feeding with the right
kind of fed will increase the egg-pro egg-production.
duction. egg-production. but we cannot induce the hen to
enlarge her e or extra feed.
The ovum or life erm of the eggs in
flip ovnrv of the hen, when seen through
the microscope, even before it has made
apv develonment toward a tiny egg-cell
on larger than the head of a pin. looks
like a pore in the flesh in which there is
p finv white thread, and these are con conceded
ceded conceded with other pores by a still small smaller
er smaller thread. There are also many emntv
pores in the ovary which do not contain
these germs. As these ovums are fed
thev develop into egg-cells or tinv voiles.
At first they are veyv small and may
perish during the process of development.
When the larger yolk of each bunch,
which make up the clutch of eggs, ripen,

laying begins, and it drops from the'
ovary and is caught in the oviduct or
egg passage, where it is surrounded by
tlie white. During the period of laying
these yolks ripen and drop off in regular
succession.
The function of food is to nourish
these egg-cells so they may develop into
mature eggs, and also to supply the mu mucous
cous mucous membrane of the oviduct with the
albumen which envelops the yolk, and
which is added layer after layer as it
passes along this organ. Ifr the latter
or lower part of this organ the deposit
is of an earthy nature, which forms the
shell. The hen must have all these sub substances
stances substances which she uses to prepare her
life germ for entrance into the outer
world, and these substances must be
extracted from the food, so it is plain
that feeding is the most important mat matter
ter matter in the care of hens.
The ovum is a living organism, and
when it ripens into an egg yolk it has;
made one stage of its growth. When the
egg is completed and dropped into the
nest, it has passed into another stage of
growth, and if it is incubated, another
stage is entered upon; but if it is incu incubated.
bated. incubated. it languishes, dies and decomposes.
If while in the second stage, in the ovi oviduct
duct oviduct of the hen, it is fertilized hv the
sperm of the male, it has the power to
reproduce more life, but, if not, its mis mission
sion mission ends here. Tt will remain in this
state for a lone* time, but gradually
evaporates and decomposes, though the
latter process is very slow.
(food laying requires a combination of
rood conditions. To secure large eggs
we must have hens with fully developed
pgg-uroducing organs. Under normal
conditions these organs become enlarged
with age. An old hen will lay a larger
pgg* than a pullet. A pullet tlia is a
heavy layer will develop into a hen that
will lava large egg*, but not an abnor abnormally
mally abnormally large one. Fat in the blood de develop
velop develop egg cells or yolks. Protein is also
vponiverl. as protein builds tissues. The
development of egg-cells is simplv the
building un and breaking down of tis tissvps.
svps. tissvps. Protein is also required for the
albumen of the egg. which is secreted
hv the mucous membrane lining of the
oviduct.. This requires more protein
than is actually contained in the white
of the ego*, as here there is also a build buildin"
in" buildin" up and breaking down of tissue.
The two elements, then, most neces necessary
sary necessary for egg-production are fat and pro protpui.
tpui. protpui. The hen converts carbohydrates
in+o fat and stores it up in her body
when there is a superabundance of these
substances but tins fat is not readily
and carbohydrates is a very
uncertain group of substances. When
they are largely starch and sugar, these
m-P r-oadilv converted into fat and are
''specially useful in surmlving the hea*
ned ocerov of fhe fowl, but thev are pot
q efficient as fat for egg nroductiou.
"pfion rich in protein and lacking in fat
'uav produce fairlv good results, but the
Uo S f resuPs are obtained when there is
+ he rioht quantity of both protein and
fat Tp figuring* an egg ration T think
opi*llohvdrates need not he considered,
other than thoy are useful for body
maintenance.'L. E l Kevser, in Commer Commercial
cial Commercial Poultry.
Have a nlace for the tools and see
that thev are put in their places after
vou have done using them. Many a
precious moment is wasted on the farm
by failure to observe this good rule.

SEVEN



EIGHT

THE CARNEGIE ORANGE
Some of the Methods Employed to Develop New
Hybrid Varieties of Citrus Fruits
By Dr. J. L. Normand

It has been my hobby for the past
twelve years 10 cross-breed plants in or order
der order to secure hardier and better varie varieties.
ties. varieties. The main work in this line has
been to cross the common Louisiana
sweet orange with the citrus trifoliata
in order to secure a palatable orange,
hardy enough to stand the climate of
Central Louisiana.
To say how well I have succeeded, and
describe some of my new hybrids, I hesi hesitate
tate hesitate to do, as it may appear that I am
making extravagant claims for mv new
creations. There has been so much hot
air going around the press of late that
it is calculated to mislead many that
have not studied this subject of plant
breeding practically. It must be ad admitted,
mitted, admitted, however, that by the art of sci scientifically
entifically scientifically mating plants good results are
obtained that are decided improvements
on the parent plants, but it takes years
of painstaking and persistent work to
reach satisfactory results.
My first attempt to cross the common
semi-tropic orange with the hardy citrus
trifoliata was somewhat of a disappoint disappointment
ment disappointment to me. The fruit produced from
these crosses had the rank, bitter taste
of the trifoliata. Now, in order to re reduce
duce reduce or eliminate this bitter taste I had
to again cross the hybrids with the sweet
orange in order to reduce the trifoliata
blood. Out of many seedlings from this
rehybridized lot I had one that produced
fruit in 1902, and has been bearing ev every
ery every year since. It stood the great frost
of 1904-5, and had a full crop of fine
fruit the past season.
This is the variety I have named the
Carnegie. Upon fruiting it for the
first time I could hardly believe my pal palate.
ate. palate. I had to send samples of the fruit
to some of my friends, who were ex experts,
perts, experts, to let me know how they liked it.
I give a few of the letters received re regarding
garding regarding the orange.
The sample hardy orange came safely.
and it has been sampled by three of us.
It is reallv a fine orange. I lived more
than ten vears in Florida and have eaten
/
the famous Indian River oranges, and
think I know how to judge the flavor and
value of oranges generally. Tt is indeed
wonderful that you could produce such
an excellent orange from any cross with
the tiny Japanese orange of no flavor.
Your orange, the Carnegie, is certainly
superior to any of the hardy oranges I
have seen; there is no comparison.
J. P. Wilson, Landon, Miss.
The sample oranges, Carnegie, sent
to the Institution were safely received.
I am much interested in the results of
this development you have achieved, and
am obliged to you for an opportunity
to see some of the results thereof. If I
could get the leisure essential I would
be' glad to visit your establishment and
learn more ofyour work. The lines along
which you have practiced are beyond
question faithful and capable of impor important
tant important economic advantage.R. S. Wood-

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

ward, President Carnegie Institution,
Washington, D. C.
Your new hybrid oranges were duly
received. I will say that I gave them
careful examination and had two of
them described and had paintings made
from them and placed on record in this
office. There is certainly a wide varia variation
tion variation in those hybrids, as shown by the
/ /
specimens received. None of them, how however,
ever, however, came up to the Carnegie, and I
doubt if you ever succeed in getting
anything from your experience that will
surpass it. Of course, there should be
no such word as impossible with the
plant breeder. It is one of the most fas fascinating
cinating fascinating and interesting pieces of work
that can be engaged
Poinologist. Washington, D. C.
The Carnegie oranges, safely and
securely packed, came duly to hand.
They were distributed to several parties,
among them two ladies who are well
known in this community, and they pro pronounced
nounced pronounced them delicious. I confess their
excellence surpassed my expectations. It
has been a lifelong hope with me that
some day the orange belt would be ad advanced
vanced advanced at least a degree or two further
north. I feel assured now that this has
been accomplished by the introduction
and doubtless widespread planting of the
Carnegie. S. G. Connor, Amite City,
La.
The Carnegie orange which you sent
me was certainly a very good quality of
sweet orange. If this should prove as
hardy as the citranges it would certain certainly
ly certainly be of great value. H. J. Webber, in
charge of plant breeding, Washington,
D. C.
I find that the Willetts, one of Dr.
Webbers productions, like too many of
my hybrids, has too much of the taste
of the trifoliata remaining. I have re recrossed
crossed recrossed it with the lemon, and have a
number of second generation seedlings.
These, I hope, will produce a good lemon.
In fact, I am now working on Dr. Web Webbers
bers Webbers creations, the Rusk, Morton, Wil Willetts
letts Willetts and Colinan. by using the pollen
from them on the sweet oranges to mate
them with the sweet orange so as to ob obtain
tain obtain a palatable fruit, and at the same
time to have a frost-resisting orange
for such a climate as we have in Cen Central
tral Central Louisiana, several hundred miles
north of the orange belt proper. My
success in producing the Carnegie leads
me to believe that I may obtain as good
success in making some of the other
crosses.
One of the most startling results that
1 have obtained is a cross between the
jjonderosa lemon and the citrus trifo trifoliata.
liata. trifoliata. It fruited for the first time last
year, producing a good, large lemon of
good quality, but most remarkable, it
ripens in September, at least a month
before frost. It is undoubtedly the ear earliest
liest earliest lemon in point of ripening. It is
perfectly seedless, with not even the
sign of an embryo seed. Yet both pa parent
rent parent trees produce fruits that are very
seedy. It is that some of the
varieties produced by crossing are very

seedy, while others have no seeds, or
very few. It seems that nature provides
in some way, unknown to man, for the
perpetuation and the diversification of
species. In both the vegetable and ani animal
mal animal world, when certain types related
are crossed the result is a creation un unable
able unable to reproduce itself. The cross be between
tween between the horse and the jennet is sterile.
The progeny of the Muscovey and the
common puddle duck will not lay eggs.
The plant breeder has the advantage
over the animal breeder, however, in that
the plant may be cut up and budded
and the same plant produced indefinitely.
Herewith I give a photo of the leaves
and fruits of these various creations.
Out of the five hybrids there is only
one that is worthy of propagation. This
is No. 0, which I have named the Car Carnegie.
negie. Carnegie. The others are too closely re related
lated related to the trifoliata, and have more
or less of that rank, bitter taste, and
can be used only for lemonade.
Thsee hybrids have foliage interme intermediate
diate intermediate between the parent trees. In those
that produce strictly trifoliata foliage
the qualities of the trifoliata predomi predominate
nate predominate so much that the fruit is bitter, as
Nos. 3, 4 and 5. Those which produce
the foliate foliage, such as Nos. G, 7, 8
and 10, have less of the trifoliate blood,
and the qualities of the sweet orange
predominate. The Carnegie is an ex example
ample example of this, the variety even seldom
producing a bifoliate leaf. When the
tree was a small seedling I noticed that
it produced only three trifoliate leaves.
The second year I could find only a few
bifoliate leaves, and as the tree grew
older it seemed to lose that habit, and
produce only unfoliate leaves, somewhat
like the sweet orange, but a little small smaller.
er. smaller. See No. G. I have some second gen generation
eration generation seedlings of most of these hy hybrids
brids hybrids that have been recrossed with the
sweet orange in order to reduce the tri trifoliate
foliate trifoliate blood and make them palatable,
such as Nos. 8, 9 and 10, which are
promising varieties.
No. 1. Citrus Trifoliata Fruit and
Foliage.
No. 2. Foliage of the Sweet.
No. 3. Fruit and Foliage of the Wil Willetts.
letts. Willetts.
Nos. 4 and 5. Citrus Trifoliata and
Satsuma.
No. G. Boones Early and Citrus Tri Trifoliata,
foliata, Trifoliata, the Carnegie.
No. 7. Satsuma and Citrus Trifoliata.
Nos. 8. 9 and 10. Promising Hybrids
of Navel and Citrus Trifoliata, not yet
fruited.
New Nasturtiums.
The new double nasturtiums, scarlet
with maroon markings and yellow with
crimson markings, are popular wherever
they are known. The flowers are double
to the center, are of large size, of more
substance than the single flowers and
consequently more lasting. The vines
are vigorous, bear handsome foliage and
bloom freely and continuously. They
do not bear seeds and the whole energy
of the plant is used in the production of
foliage and flowers. They are of the
easiest culture and grow and bloom sat satisfactorily
isfactorily satisfactorily either in summer or winter.
They do quite as well bedded in summer
as the single varieties. They are grown
only from cuttings.



PINEAPPLES IN HAWAII
One of the Most Profitable Fruits Grown in That
Far-Away Island.

Pineapple cultivation has been found
to be highly profitable in the Hawaiian
Islands, and at present some 3,000 to
4,000 acres are under the crop. The area
is expected to increase, and Mr. Jared
G. Smith, the officer in charge of the
Hawaiian Experiment Station, antici anticipates
pates anticipates that there will be at least 10,000
acres planted with pineapples in the
next five years. Some of the fruit is
consumed locally, a good proportion can canned
ned canned and exported, while the remainder
is shipped in the fresh state to San
Francisco, and other markets on the
Pacific coast of America. In a paper
entitled Agriculture in the Hawaiian
Islands, recently published by Mr.
Smith, the accompanying details are
given as to the methods of pineapple
cultivation followed in Hawaii:
Clean cultivation is practiced by
growers of pineapples in these islands.
The land, if virgin soil, is plowed, cross crossplowed
plowed crossplowed and harrowed, and is planted
with suckers or tops. The plants are
set out at the rate of from 4,000 to
10,000 per acre. Three methods of
planting are in vogue. Where the ob object
ject object is to grow fresh fruit for shipment,
the plants are set out in rows 6 feet
apart, and at distances of from 20 to 24
inches in the row, or at the rate of
about 3,600 plants per acre. This dis distance
tance distance between the rows permits the cul cultivation
tivation cultivation of the crop with horse or mule
labor and machinery, and leads to the
production of large attractive fruits.
Plants set out at this rate of spacing
often produce fruits averaging from 6
to 9 pounds each.
For canning purposes, smaller fruits
are more desirable, and smaller size is
to a certain extent insured by closer
planting. The plants are therefore set
out in rows 4 feet apart, and at dis distances
tances distances of about 2 feet from plant to
plant, which requires about 6,000 plants
per acre; or, at distances of 2% feet
by 2 feet, when 10,000 plants per acre
are required. If there is a good stand,
and the plants are in a healthy condi condition,
tion, condition, about 90 per cent, may be counted
on to bear fruit in from eighteen to
twenty-four months after planting.
When an acre of land is planted with
6,000 pines, the first crop will average
about 10 tons. The second, or ratoon
crop, will be somewhat higher, because
many of the plants produce two suck suckers,
ers, suckers, both of which bear fruit. The vield
of the ratoon crop of pines has run as
high as 20 tons per acre under excep
tionally favorable conditions.
The cultivation consists in keeping
the soil between the rows in good condi condition
tion condition and free from weeds. The pineap pineapple
ple pineapple is a crop that gives best results
with perfectly clean cultivation. Where
the plants are set in rows four feet apart
all of the cultivation for the first twelve
or fifteen months may be done with
horse or mule labor. When the plants
flower, and as they begin to ripen their
fruits, the leaves of the plant spread
out, so that it is no longer possible to
take machinery between the rows, and

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

after that time hand labor is necessary.
The cost of production in the Hawaiian
Islands varies from $lO to sls per ton of
pineapples, and at the canneries, prices
of from S2O to $27 per ton are paid for
the fruit. If the fruit is shipped fresh
to the Pacific or Eastern markets, prices
as high as from S2OO to $240 per ton
may be realized.
The chief variety of pineapple culti cultivated
vated cultivated in Hawaii is the Smooth Cayenne,
which is the kind grown in the Azores,
and the one which commands the highest
price in the London market. This vari variety
ety variety does not do well in the West Indies,
where the Red Spanish is the most pop popular
ular popular and satisfactory kind to grow. The
Red Spanish is also grown to a small
extent in the Hawaiian Islands. It may
be added that the experiments in ship shipping
ping shipping pineapples, conducted by the Ha Hawaiian
waiian Hawaiian Experiment Station, have shown
that this fruit, if carefully handled and
packed, can be shipped successfully to
distances of at least 5,000 miles.
Fiber-Yielding Agaves.
Dr. K. Braun, in Her Pflanzer (German
East Africa, 1906), gives an account of
all the fiber-yielding Agaves. The fol
lowing abstract includes the most im important:
portant: important:
Agave americana, called century plant
American aloe, carat a, pits, magui, an;!
blue aloe. The fiber from this plant is
called sisal, pits, ixtle, magui, and Tam-
I ico hemp. It is cultivated in Mexico
primarily for tin 1 preparation of the na national
tional national drink, mescal. Puluue is prepared
from A. atrovirens.
Agave decipiens, false sisal. This pro produces
duces produces a finer, whiter fiber than the true
sisal, but only half as strong. It is
sometimes mixed by mistake with sisal
in Florida and the Bahamas.
Agave heteraeantha. The fiber is
called pite or ixtle. It froms 90 per cent,
of the commercial 'ixtle fiber from Mex Mexico.
ico. Mexico. The fibers are used instead of bris bristles
tles bristles and for sacking and rope. The plant
is not cultivated in Mexico, and the prep preparation
aration preparation of the fiber is done by the na natives.
tives. natives.
Agave rigida, var. elongata; called
saqui or lienequen. This is the common commonest
est commonest cultivated Agave in Yucatan. It has
a flower-stem no taller than 5 feet. It
is an important fiber plant.
Agave rigida, var. sisalana. This is
also called henequen or sisal. The flow flower-stem
er-stem flower-stem is about 20 feet high. It sel seldom
dom seldom ripens seed, but young plants grown
from bulbils on the flower-stalks. It is
the most important fiber-bearing Agave.
Agave vivipara, caled teometl, maguey,
Bombay aloe fiber, and Manila aloe fiber.
Planted in India, Guam, and the Philip Philippines.
pines. Philippines.
Agave yuccaefolia. The fibers are
prepared in South and Central America,
and come into commerce under the name
of pite fibers.
Well-bred and well-kept are two im important
portant important considerations when considering
a horse.

Fungus Diseases of Sweet Potatoes.
The following brief description of some
of the chief fungus diseases of sweet po pototaes
totaes pototaes may be of interest:
(1) The West Indian disease of sweet
potatoes is caused by the mycelium of a
Basidiomycetous fungus (most probably
a species of Marasmius) that envelops
the roots underground, and eventually
renders them unfit for use.
(2) White Rot. This fungus attacks
the roots and changes the tissues of
the root into a whitish granular sub*
stance. The fungus is a Phycomycete,
and the spores can live in the soil for a
considerable period. Care should be
taken not to plant sets coming from
roots infected with this disease, and
none of the diseased roots should be
stored.
(3) Black Rot. Dark brown or green greenis
is greenis spots are formed on the root. These
spots become larger and extend deeper
into the tissues of the potato, until fin finally
ally finally the entire root turns a brownish brownishblack.
black. brownishblack. The affected potatoes are totally
unfit for use. It is caused by Sphaeron Sphaeronema
ema Sphaeronema fimbriatum (Ceratocystis fimbri fimbriatt),
att), fimbriatt), and this fungus may attack the
young shoots, producing black patches
on the stems. The disease is then known
as black shank.
(4) Dry Rot. The whole upper end of
the root becomes much wrinkled and cov covered
ered covered with small pimples. This condition
progresses until the whole of the root is
diseased and the interior converted into
a dry whitish powder. This rot is said
o be caused by Phoma batatae.
(o) Scab. This disease is confined to
the surface of the root upon which it
makes its appearance first as a small
brownish speck. This spot enlarges, an l
assumes a dark color and rough appear appearance.
ance. appearance. Larger areas of the root may be become
come become affected, or often shrivelling takes
place to a considerable extent.
(() Soil Rot. This disease is strictly
a field disease, and the principal damage
is confined to the early part of the sea season.
son. season. Tt is characterized by the fact that
the affected parts of the root cease to
grow, while the adjacent portions not
only continue growing, but remain per perfectly
fectly perfectly healthy and edible. The roots
therefore assume a shape somewhat sim similar
ilar similar to that of an hour "lass.
(7) Soft Rot. This disease takes place
chiefly where the roots are stored. An
affected potato when broken open is
found to consist of a black mass of
spores. It is due to Rhizopus nigricans,
a cosmopolitan fungus that gains en entrace
trace entrace to the roots through wounds caused
in digging or storing.
(8) Stem Rot. This disease first ap appears
pears appears on the stem at the level of the
ground, and progresses both upwards and
downwards. It is suposed to be caused
by a species of Nectria. Agricultural
News.
Cannas.
C'annas are deserving of general plant planting,
ing, planting, especially with the gardener who
cannot give best and constant care to
the more tender plants. The canna will
stand neglect and yet give a color to the
garden which few others will. Especial Especially
ly Especially is this the case with scarlet, low lowgrowing
growing lowgrowing ones, which all the summer
through insist on showing a mass of red
against the dark green leaves, which
makes a beautiful contrast.
Stools may be divided now; in fact,
at most any time of the year.

NINE



TEN

PECAN CULTURE
Desirable Qualities in the Ideal Nut for Commercial
Purposes as Well as Home Use.
By Thomas Thomas

There are naturally two divisions of
this subject. One is from the stand standpoint
point standpoint of the consumer and the other is
from that of the producer. The con consumer
sumer consumer looks only to the nut itself, while
the "producer looks beyond to the tree
which produces it. It is immaterial to
the consumer whether they .grow on a
few trees or many trees if he can get
only sufficient ideal nuts for consump consumption.
tion. consumption. But this is an important economic
point with the producer, hence we shall
treat of an ideal nut produced by an
ideal tree.
Color of Nut I prefer the nut brown
in color with dashes of black at the apex
end. The solid reddish tinge placed on
the commercial nuts by being polished
and then slopped over with some chem chemical
ical chemical compound is disgusting to any true
lover of natures handiwork.
Flavor My favorite is less oil and a
greater supply of saccharine matter. It
makes the kernel the more palatable
and easier digested. The hard shell va varieties
rieties varieties have, as a rule, a greater propor proportion
tion proportion of oil than the soft shells.
Shell The thinner the shell the bet better
ter better it is for the consumer. I know this
brings up the point of keeping qualities
from the producers standpoint. I heard
of an old farmer who said his apples
never spoiled, for when he placed his
crop in the celler he turned the boys in
on them. So with an ideal pecan, turn
the purchaser loose on them and none
will ever get rancid. There need be no
fears about the price, however glutted
the market may be with common pecans.
But should it be desired to keep them
sweet store them away where the light
and air can not have free access to them
and the thinnest shells will keep indefi indefinitely.
nitely. indefinitely.
To separate readily from the pith
there should be a wide groove in the
back of the kernel.
Shape A round pecan is preferable to
a long one, though I know the popular
taste is for one of the latter shape. My
reasons are practical and mathematical.
Take two varieties of pecans of equal
numbers to the pound and equal thinness
of shell, one round and the other long.
Then apply mathematics to the test and
it will be shown that it takes less cover covering
ing covering for the same quantity of kernel in a
globular form than it does in a cylin cylindrical
drical cylindrical form. Hence there will be less
shell and more kernel in a pound of
round pecans than there will be in a
pound of long ones equal in other quali qualities.
ties. qualities.
Size To the consumer, size cannot be
too large. But under prevailing condi conditions
tions conditions of natures laws it makes a differ difference
ence difference to the producer, for it is at present
a law, which may possibly be overcome
by a Burbank, that the larger the nut
the fewer of them; so if a tree, exhaust exhausted
ed exhausted of its vitality, produces a few pecans
as large as cocoanuts, it would not pay
as well as a tree bearing a few bushels
of nuts weighing fifty to the pound.
Many of the large pecans are now sell selling
ing selling solely on their size, but when the
public becomes better educated the meaty

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

medium sized ones will sell for a higher
price than the mammoth hollow shells.
My ideal nut is one weighing sixty to
the pound, round in shape, the shell a
mere film which can be easily cleaned
and of the sweetest flavor, nut of brown
color with dashes of black at the apex.
To be prolific a tree should bear a full
crop every year, barring the insects. It
should produce many catkins or male
blooms. These should be numerously
present among only the leaves and female
blooms, but hanging leaves grow. On
every tip of new growth there should be
a cluster of seven or more female
blooms. Most all of the very large va varieties
rieties varieties have only three to five female
blooms in a cluster and the catkins are
so scarce that only partial pollenization
takes place. I have a tree so prolific
that a photo of it shows five clusters of
seven nuts each and the clusters are so
close together that they all may be cov covered
ered covered by the span of the hand. This tree
has bloomed and set twenty-one con consecutive
secutive consecutive crops and if it had not been for
the insects would have matured them
while all the others in the same orchard
of about 500 trees have failed to bloom
or set nuts except about every other
year and some trees only once in every
three or four years.
It adds much to the value of the tree
if it is a rapid grower, precocious and
tenacious of life. The bud growth is
precocious as it never fails to produce
nuts the second year after insertion. It
is tenacious of life, for any bud on the
twig from base to the tip will grow al almost
most almost as readily as the other and they
will live in any species of the carya
family.
FRUTA DE BOMBA.
A Fruit That Is Worthy of Attention
in Florida.
Botanically known as Carica papa papaya,
ya, papaya, this is one of the many neglected
tropical fruits of great value and prom promise
ise promise which should be better known. It
can be grown without trouble where
there is no frost and farther north by
giving protection during the winter.
It is grown to some extent in Cuba
for the local markets and home use but
is not exported.
The Experiment Station of Hawaii
has made a successful shipment of this
fruit, under refrigeration, as far as Chi Chicago,
cago, Chicago, showing that with proper care it
will bear shipping long distances and
arrive in good condition.
The trees are easily grown and usually
begin to bear fruit in less than a year
from seed. They reach a height of from
six to twelve feet but: seldom branch.
While they de will on almost any good
land, they respond readily to rich soil
and good care.
There are many varieties and many
different shapes and sizes of fruits, va varying
rying varying from small, round ones not over
three inches in diameter to large ones,
six to eight inches in diameter and six sixteen
teen sixteen to eighteen inches long.
Little has been done as yet to sepa separate

rate separate and classify the horticultural va varieties.
rieties. varieties. The ripe fruit of the best va varieties
rieties varieties have a flavor that reminds one
of a nice ripe canteloupe, and like that
fruit makes a delicious breakfast dish
that most people become very fond of.
The green fruits of all varieties are used
in making preserves. These have no
very decided flavor of their own, but by
the addition of spices and flavors or a
small quantity of a strongly flavored
fruit, are made into a delicious dulces.
The seed for planting should be taken
from thoroughly ripe fruits of good
quality and size, the pulpy covering re removed
moved removed from the seed, which are planted
about three-fourths of an inch deep in
a prepared bed where the young plants
can be given good care. When large
enough, say eight to twelve inches high,
they should be transplanted to the field.
Six feet apart each way will give plenty
of room for most varieties.
Sometimes the seed are planted where
the tree is wanted, but this method is
not recommended.
While the pistillate flowered bear the
fruit, some staminate flowered ones
should be left for pollenization. It is
even said that the sex of the staminate
flowered ones can be changed so that
they will bear some fruit by cutting and
beating and otherwise abusing the trees.
A valuable side product is obtained
by making incisions in the skins of the
green fruits while on the tree from
which a milky juice exudes, which when
dried and prepared is a powerful digest digestive
ive digestive agent and brings a high price.
E. W. HALSTEAD.
Redhot Poker Plant.
This member of the lily family comes
from South America. Various names are
given to it, such as torch lily, flame
flower, etc. It is one of the showiest
plants for decorative service in summer
and autumn on the lawn, in border and
among shrubbery.
The red-hot poker plant, once seen,
will not be forgotten. The leaves are
sword-shaped, two or three feet long, of
a dark, shiny green. On a stem varying
from eighteen inches to six feet in
length, according to variety, is borne a
crowded cylindrical spike of perhaps a
hundred drooping blossoms, tubular, an
inch or more in length of fiery red, tipped
with orange or green.
Of the hardy varieties the best known
and most extensively cultivated is Kni Kniphofia
phofia Kniphofia aloides. The leaves are long, nar narrow
row narrow and toothed. Numerous variations
of this are in cultivation, grandiflora be being
ing being tall, with more showy green leaves
and longer flower spikes. Saundersil
often has spikes ten inches long.
K. Pfitzeri is an excellent variety,
blooming freely and early. Triumph
has very large spikes of saffron yellow,
shaded with orange, while in tri-color
the flowers change to sulphur white.
These plants may be propagated by
taking off the rooted suckers thrown
up from the roots. This should be done
about once in three years, shifting and
dividing the roots and fertilizing the
soil. They prefer a light, sandy soil, to
which may be added a dressing of well
rotted manure.



PROPAGATING THE AVOCADO
Directions for Planting, Budding, Transplanting and After
Care of This Delicious Tropical Fruit.
By J. P. Wester.

The avocado is one of our most recent
fruits and, while still largely unknown
in the North, the demand for this fruit
is increasing stedily as the people be become
come become acustomed to its peculiar qualities
which for culinary purposes place it in
the vegetable department. Until the last
five or six years it was thought that the
avocado came true to seed, and attempts
to propagate good varieties asexually
were wanting or had failed. Great credit
is due Professor P. H. Rolfs, now of Lake
City, and Mr. George B. Cellon, Miami,
Florida, who did the pioneer work in
budding the avocado.
As in the early days of the orange
industry the budding of citrus fruits
was thought to be very difficult, so the
budding of the avocado was at first con considered
sidered considered a complicated operation, but the
difficulties are rapidly being cleared
away as experience is accumulated, and
in our experiments at the subtropical
Laboratory, I have frequently succeed succeeded
ed succeeded in getting an average of 75 per cent
of buds to develop into trees. The gen general
eral general impression is that the avocado is
difficult to transplant, and, budded trees
being expensive, parties buying trees
prefer to purchase them established in
boxes or pots. To meet this demand,
the seed is planted in the pot and al allowed
lowed allowed to develop until it is ready to bud
the. next spring; or the seed is planted
in a nursery in rows three and one-half
to four and one-half feet apart, six to
eight inches apart in the row, where the
trees grow until they are budded and
ready for the market when they are
taken out of the nursery and planted in
pots from four to six weeks. Boxes
5x5x12, or 6x6x12 are more suitable than
pots, being less liable to breakage in
transit; also because plants grown in
pots are not so well braced against the
winds after being set out.
The method of budding is the same as
that employed in the budding of the cit citrus
rus citrus fruits. Many complaints have come
to my notice that the buds do not take
or that they do not start readily. This
is due, not to an inherent difficulty in
the avocado to be budded but rather to
the inexperience of the performer, either
in budding, or, more frequently, in the
selection of bud wood. Only large, well welldeveloped
developed welldeveloped buds should be inserted, and
rather larger than citrus budscertain budscertainly
ly budscertainly not less than three-fourths of an inch
in length and preferably one inch, as
small buds are frequently grown over
where the stock is in vigorous condition
as it should be. In our experiments at
the Sub-tropical Laboratory, I have
found that tender wood is preferable to
older wood, and have used even the soft
and tender tops, inserted as spring buds,
with perfect success. Where' old and
hardened wood is employed, the buds
frequently drop, making a blind bud.
For wrapping the buds, wax cloth is
preferable to string, as it affords the bud
better protection from injury and wa water.
ter. water. The buds should be inserted during
the spring and early summer and not
later than August Ist. Two weeks from

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST

the date of budding the buds have taken
and the tree ready to lop. The trees
should now be gone over every two
weeks, the wild sprouts rubbed off, and
when the buds have made a growth of
eight to twelve inches, the stock may be
trimmed back to the bud. It frequently
occurs at this period that a fungus (Col (Colletotrichum
letotrichum (Colletotrichum sp., enters the wound and
kills the buds. A satisfactory remedy
for this evil has not been found. The
loss of buds may be diminished by cov covering
ering covering the cut with grafting wax to pre prevent
vent prevent the entrance of the fungus.
The discovery of the feasibility of
budding the avocado being very recent
only a few varieties have been distrib distributed.
uted. distributed. Of these the best known are Trapp,
a round fruit holding its fruit until
Christmas, and commanding a fancy price
because of its lateness, The Pollack, a
pear-shaped fruit, is known mainly for
its size, having been recorded as weigh weighing
ing weighing four pounds, and of fine flavor.
Any one in possession of large, un unproductive
productive unproductive avocadoes can easily convert
them into paying trees by cutting them
down about three or four feet above the
ground and budding the sprouts which
soon make a start. For home use, any
fruit of good quality will answer the pur purpose.
pose. purpose. In budding for a commercial or orchard,
chard, orchard, it should be kept in mind that the
very early and late varieties command
the highest prices. Other desirable
points are:
1. Prolificness.
2. Skin smooth, thick and leathery.
3. A fruit of good keeping qualities.
4. The seed filling the cavity, as a
loose seed pounds the walls in transit,
causing early decay.
5. Small seed.
The best material for grafting or bud budding
ding budding tape is cheap cotton cloth which
will tear easily. Rip up the cloth in
strips of desired widths, say six or seven
inches, and roll these tightly on stout
iron wire as long as the width of the
cotton strips. Several strips may be
rolled on until the roll is one inch in
diameter; tie a string around the roll
at each end to prevent unrolling while
being boiled in the wax. A good wax is
made by boiling together two pounds of
beeswax, two pounds of rosin and one onehalf
half onehalf pound of good lard; when in boiling
state put in the rolls of cloth and let
them remain for fifteen minutes when
they are taken out and cooled off before
being stored away. The iron wire is
more desirable than sticks of wood, as
the weight of the wire keeps the roll be below
low below the surface of the boiling mass.
Another advantage in using the wire is
that if the wooden sticks are not quite
dry the water as it is converted into
steam will cause the contents to boil
over.
Parties possessing avocadoes that they
consider of special merit are cordially in invited
vited invited to communicate with the Sub Subtropical
tropical Subtropical Laboratory, Miami, Florida, with
a view of testing their qualities and
propagating such as are deemed worthy
of dissemination.

Some General Bee Talk.
If the honey bee were better under understood
stood understood there would be more swarms kept
on the farm, which would mean more
licney produced, and that in turn more
and better sweets for the children and
grown folks.
This is not a notion of the writers,
but the knowledge of those who have
made a life study of honey, finding that
it is a pre-digested food product which
cannot be imitated and, under the Pure
Food Law, must not be adulterated. All
sugar that is taken into the body must
be converted into grape sugar before it
can be digested, making it a tax on the
digestive system, but honey is one of the
purest forms of inverted sugar and will
consequently yield more nourishing ele elements
ments elements than cane or beet sugar.
Bees can be handled as safely as chick chickens
ens chickens if only due precautions will be taken.
The first of these is to secure a gentle
strain, as the Italians. The much vaunt vaunted
ed vaunted Caucasians are very desirable on ac account
count account of extreme docility, but there is
nothing else to recommend them to the
bee-keeper. They will not gather more
honey than Italians, the queens are hard harder
er harder to find, they put large masses of prop propolis,
olis, propolis, or bee glue about the entrance of
the hive and cap the combs no whiter
than do their larger sisters, and, if I am
not mistaken after four years spent
with them, they will not repel the wax
moth as well as do the Italians.
Having secured a swarm of nice yellow
Italians,' do not get the notion that you
will display your skill in handling bees
to a fearful and admiring friend, but buy
a bee veil and wear it also, at firist, and
until you become accustomed to a few
punctures of your epidermis, wear a pair
of gloves with long cloth gauntlets. Add
to these a pair of bicycle clips, and you
can defy any swarm of bees on earth.
The women folks will, of course, have to
wear bloomers.
Hives.
The question of hives is one which
has engaged the attention of bee men
since the dawn of history, but it was
not until the hive with movable frames
was invented that bee-keeping became a
commercial possibility.
The body of the hive, that part con containing
taining containing the frames, was what made the
trouble, for there is no trouble about
bottom boards and covers. In a pinch
any old thing will do so that the cover
fits tightly and there are not too many
holes in the bottom board. But the hive
proper must be built according to certain
well defined rules, principal of which is
that the frames must hang closely to
1y 2 inches apart, from center to center,
and there must be a space of at least
bees may hunt out and destroy the lar larvae
vae larvae of the wax moth.
As to the depth of frames (hive) all
will depend on the bee-keeper, and if he
is going to produce comb or extracted
honey, or if he is in a locality where the
season is short and heavy or long and
light. The beginner will gradually find
out for himself his needs and necessities,
and will be better able to judge than
any one else can what kind of a hive to
buy.
Coleus in red, brown or yellow lend a
color relief, and they can be kept cut
down to any desired size. The coleus
does best in full sunshine.

ELEVEN



TWELVE

CLOTH GREENHOUSE SYSTEM
How Tender Vegetables and Fruits May Be Grown for
Early Markets Without Glass.

Our readers are more or less familiar
with the glass greenhouse systems in
use in and around the large cities of this
and other countries, by means of which
fine vegetables classed as hot house
products are raised and sold during the
winter at extremely high prices. Com Comparatively
paratively Comparatively few, however, have a knowl knowledge
edge knowledge of a system that has been originated
and put into use here in Florida, during
the past few years, in which cotton cloth
is substituted for glass, and the place of
the elaborate and expensive heating de devices
vices devices used in the Northern glass green greenhouses
houses greenhouses is taken by simpler and far less
expensive, though quite as efficient meth methods
ods methods of heating, considering that nine ninetenths
tenths ninetenths of the time we have the natural

warmth and sunshine of Florida to in induce
duce induce growth.
Our representative has lately visited
several of these cloth greenhouses and
we herewith reproduce photographs show showing
ing showing the new form of construction and
various crops raised by means of it.
The principal advantages that green greenhouses
houses greenhouses of this character have over
glass houses are,' first, the abso absolutely
lutely absolutely natural conditions that surround
the plants during their entire period of
growthuninterrupted sunshine, air, rain
and dew (as the cloth curtains of top
and sides are all brailed back and never
cover or shade the plants save during
the hours needed for protection against
frosts or freezes) ; second the immunity
from fungus diseases and other pests
that exist under the glass greenhouse
saving in cost of construction and main maintenance.
tenance. maintenance. A well equipped glass green-

A Seven-foot Cloth Greenhouse for Vegetables at Sanford, Showing the General Construction.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

! house costs from ten thousand to fifteen
system; and last, but not least, the great
thousand dollars per acre, whereas the
cloth greenhouse costs in the neighbor neighborhood
hood neighborhood of but one thousand dollars per
acre. From two to four crops per year
are grown under this system on the same
ground.
Mr. C. M. Berry, of Orlando, has the
management of several of these proper properties,
ties, properties, and the information, figures and
photographs furnished by him, in con conjunction
junction conjunction with the result of the investiga investigation
tion investigation of our representative are here given.
Mr. Berry usually grows egg plants, pep peppers,
pers, peppers, tomatoes, cucumbers, beans and
strawberries. Besides these there is
a fine budded grapsfruit grove now

four years old (and beginning to
bear fruit) that has been proedueed un under
der under this system, tine vegetables and ber berries
ries berries having been grown between the rows
of trees for the past four years. At least
one more crop of vegetables will be pro produced
duced produced on this ground and then the cloth
greenhouse will be devoted entirely to
the grapefruit trees, insuring them from
being frozen, protecting each years
bloom from damage, and enabling the
grower to hold the fruit on the trees
without danger from freeze throughout
the winter until such a time as the ex extremely
tremely extremely high prices that prevail after
the general crop of out-of-door grown
grapefruit is gone, justifies the market marketing
ing marketing of the protected fruit.
The usual height of the cloth green greenhouse
house greenhouse for the growing of vegetables alone
in seven feet admitting of horse-culti horse-cultivationbut
vationbut horse-cultivationbut one for grapefruit or other

trees, as in the above instance, is from
seventeen to twenty feet in height. In
case of cold weather it takes two men
one hour to close this cloth greenhouse
of one acre, as the construction is con conveniently
veniently conveniently arranged and planned so that
large acreages may be practically han handled.
dled. handled. Brick furnices with sheet-iron tops
and long stove pipes conducting all of
the smoke and gases outside, are dis distributed
tributed distributed at the rate of twelve to the acre.
The fuel used is wood, and no more than
eight of these furnaces have been light lighted
ed lighted at one time in order to raise the tem temperature
perature temperature sufficiently to overcome any
freeze that has visited Florida within
the past ten years, though more can be
readily added if found needful. The
cloth is chemically treated, and some of
it now in use has been used for the past
nine years, though not on the present
form of framework, as that has been
adopted during the past six years.
The success of the growers using this
system of cloth green house proves its
value and assures its future adoption by
growers of fine fruits and vegetables, as

one good crop saved from freeze will pay
for the greenhouse.
The refrigerating of ears of fruits and
vegetables shipped to our Northern mar'
kets now insures their arrival in tirst tirstelass
elass tirstelass condition and, considering the great
difference in cost of production, the prod products
ucts products from our cloth greenhouses are des destined
tined destined to compete successfully with the
glass greenhouse products of the North.
Sheep return more fertility to the
soil than any other animal, and when you
consider that they distribute the fer fertilizer
tilizer fertilizer without additional cost vou can
t /
give the sheep an extra credit mark.
The farmer who is always finding
fault with the weather has a most un uncomfortable
comfortable uncomfortable time of it, and it doesnt
help him in the least in overeomiing the
coditions.



. vf r > ssSaiwiHMK&iStf J c itf*-* v .. *' '' rr :\~.*>.-./-.. *.? .-. <&* Jyafe- :.<& jg jg;
; jg; ..... Y ;/ ''ry* "'T4 D! Jf

Section of Cloth Greenhouse 17 ft. high, planted to Grapefruit trees with Eggplants between.

OCTOBER IN FLORIDA
Work That May Be Profitably Done During This Month
Especially in the Vegetable Garden.
By W. F. Hawley

A green garden during tlie entire win winter
ter winter is the privilege, and we might say,
the duty of every resident of Florida. In
order to secure this a succession of sow sowings
ings sowings is necessary, and the fact that we
are so near the end of the year will not
prevent our planting nearly all the hardy
or semi-hardy vegetables.
Of course it is apparent to all that
the great diversity of climate in .our
State will preclude any cast-iron set of
rules, but we will offer a few suggestions
applicable to the latitude of Jacksonville
and they may be modified to suit the
various localities.
Most of the vegetables grown in quan quantities
tities quantities for market, and especially those
susceptible to any considerable degree of
cold, should have been planted last month
or earlier. But it will pay to run the
risk of early frosts and make small
plantings for home use of nearly all the
staple vegetables, and if one is near a
good local market, provide for a small
surplus to sell.
Beans, of the bush varieties, may still
be planted in small patches that are
somewhat protected.
' Beets will do well and on ground
adapted to their culture Avill amply re repay
pay repay the gardener, for we can eat them,
tops and all.
Cabbage may still be sown in beds
for a succession, using several varieties
that mature at different periods. Plants
from previous sowings may also be set
out during the entire month.
Carrots and collards, the good old
Georgia stand-by for greens, may be
planted with safety.
Celery for later crop may still be sown
and plants set out in the open ground
where they are to mature. If you have
neglected to make earlier sowings, you
can buy plants usually at very reason reasonable
able reasonable prices.
Lettuce may be sown all through this
month, and plants from previous sow sowings
ings sowings set out where they are to perfect

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

their growth. If you are growing for
market, be sure to consult your cus customers
tomers customers as to the varieties preferred, as
different sections have tastes peculiar
to themselves, though the heading va varieties
rieties varieties are most commonly grown.
Mustard for greens can always be de depended
pended depended on, and a small bed should be
planted.
Onion seed may still be sown until the
10th of this month. Where one has good
strong soil reasonably free from weeds,
the onion, and particularly the Bermuda
varieties, may be grown profitably. The
green sets should be planted out in rows
sixteen to eighteen inches apart and four
to six inches in the row.
Peas, the'dwarf or semi-dwarf varie varieties,
ties, varieties, may be planted on good, rich soil.
Radishes. Some like the round, others
prefer the long. At any rate, plant some
every week, and eat them for break breakfast
fast breakfast and supper. They aid digestion and
keep you good-natured.
Spinach adds to the variety of greens,
and for the settler from- the North a bed
of salsify may be planted.
Turnips.Plant plenty of them. If
the folks dont eat them, the cattle will.
Sow every ten days or plant a variety
at once. The Rutabaga does well here
and pleases some people better than the
white turnips.
The above will keep the table well sup supsupplied,
supplied, supsupplied, but let us not forget the item
of feed for the stock. For field crops,
sow Oats, Rye, Hairy Vetch and Corn
for fodder. If you have not received the
Experiment Station bulletin on Rape,
send to Prof. P. H. Rolfs, the director at
Gainesville, at once and get a copy. Any
land that will grow turnips will pro produce
duce produce a fine crop of rape, which will be
relished by all kinds of stock, as it fur furnishes
nishes furnishes green feed during the winter.
Chickens wont look at anything else in
the garden, if they can get at rape, and
even on a pinch when the succulent

leaves are boiled and served with a piece
of bacon, the owner of the stock will
take to it kindly also.
Plant something that will keep down
the expensive feed bill.
A New Remedy for Red Spider.
.Having long believed that the red
spider exists in some form in the soil
as does the small fly, and some other
insect pests before it makes its appear appearance
ance appearance on the plants as the tenacious and
destructive little creature with which we
all, alas! are so familiar, I have been
searching for it. and although I have not
yet discovered what it is, the experi experiments
ments experiments 1 have made, and the results thus
far, go toward strengthening my belief.
1 usually winter from eighty to ninety
potted plants, in bay and other windows
in sitting room and parlor heated by a
coal stove, and until last winter have al always
ways always had a great deal of trouble in
keeping the red spider down, and there
has been rarely a winter when I have not
lost in spite of care, two or three val valuable
uable valuable plants. I have Cyclamens, Palms,
Heliotropes, Acacias, Roses, Fuchsias,
and others dear to the palate of the red
spider, but with the exception of one
rose which was overlooked and so escaped
treatment, there isnt a sign of a spider
on any one of them.
What did I do? I merely sprinkled
the surface of the soil with dry and
powdered smoking tobacco, not to cover
the soil but merely a good sprinkling,
when the plants were brought in, in the
fall, renewing it about a month later.
There are no white worms in the soil, no
little black flies around the pots, no oth other
er other worms or aphides, and no red spiders,
and I am rejoicing with exceeding great
joy-
A spice box with a perforated top
makes theapplication of the tobacco but
little trouble, and it requires but a few
moments of time to treat a considerable
number of plants.
Berth Day, Wis.
Keeping Powers of Ripe Mangos.
Some experiments were lately carried
out in British Guiana under the auspices
of the Department of Science and Agri Agriculture
culture Agriculture to test the effect of immersion
for a short time in a 3 per cent, solution
of formalin (a treatment which is known
to have a preservative influence in the
case of many soft-skinned fruits) upon
the keeping power of mangos. The tests
were made with 260 mangos, belinging to
twenty-three different varieties. The
fruits were, in every case, gathered two
at a time, one being immersed for ten
minutes in the formalin solution, and
the other, which was not treated with
formalin, being kept under precisely sim similar
ilar similar conditions for control purposes. The
mangos were handled with every care,
and examined dailv.
/
Instead of exercising a preservative in influence
fluence influence on the fruits, it was found in
practically all cases, that the use of for formalin
malin formalin tended to lessen the number of
days which elapsed .before the mangos
became unfit for eating purposes. Inci Incidentally,
dentally, Incidentally, the experiment has shown that,
with careful, handling, mangos will, on
the average, keep for ten or twelve days
in British Guiana, and it is expected
that in cold storage their keeping pow powers
ers powers would be much increased.

THIRTEEN



FORUTEEN

TRUCK GROWING IN CUBA
General Directions for Growing and Preparing for Market
the Principal Vegetables Raised on the Island.
By E. W. Halstead.

During the past three years we have
given special attention to the growing
of garden vegetables, testing nearly all
the different types and a great many
different varieties of those types. Our
aim has been to see just what can and
cannot be done with them, both for the
home garden and for commercial produc production.
tion. production.
Our results from growing vegetables
for the home garden have been very
good, and we see no reason why every
person with a small piece of ground
should not have a fine selection of the
choicest vegetables from November until
May. Our observation has been that
the farmers of Cuba pay too little at attention
tention attention to the home garden and we be believe
lieve believe this to be a very serious mistake,
for a good vegetable garden is a profit profitable
able profitable addition to any home, both finan financially
cially financially and in relation to the health and
welfare of the family. It is surprising
how much can be grown on a very small
piece of land, and anyone, either in town
or country, will be well paid for the care
and trouble of a garden by having the
choicest of vegetables for his own table.
We have given a good deal of attention
also to the commercial side of vegetable
growing, not only for the export trade
but for the local markets.
Co-operative work has been taken up
too and we have been able to plant a
very large list of the commercial types
of Vegetables upon the loamy soils of
Pinar del Rio Province. The work was
done in the vicinity of Candelaria and
while the season was so dry as very
much to curtail the result, we were able
to make a good deal of progress, and we
hope to continue and to extend this line
of work.
One point which has been brought out
very strongly during the past three years
of our work, both here at the Station
and in the sandy soils, is the necessity
for some form of irrigation. We have
found that this is absolutely essential
upon the heavy lands, and our experience
and observation of the loamy lands is
that there also some form of irrigation
must be provided in order to put the bus business
iness business of winter vegetable growing upon
a firm basis.
The preparation of the soil is one of
the most important parts of the work of
vegetable growing, and yet we have ob observed
served observed that it is one of the most neg neglected
lected neglected by the average grower. Too much
pains cannot be taken to make the
ground smooth so that plants of all kinds
when set in the field can be quickly and
easily cultivated and hoed. Less nitrate
of soda and less water and more cultiva cultivation
tion cultivation and hoeing will usually improve the
quality of a crop of vegetables. If the
ground is properly prepared before plant planting
ing planting it will require less hand work, as
more of the cultivation can be done with
horse cultivators. The workings should
be frequent and shallow, so as to leave
the ground as nearly smooth as possible.
The more the ridges, the greater the
surface for evaporation, and in this
country with an average season, we
must keep the moisture in the soil if we

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

are to have a profitable crop. A careful
cultivation should follow every rain or
irrigation, just as soon as the ground can
be worked, and during dry spells, there
should be three or four cultivations a
week, particularly in loamy soils; fre frequent
quent frequent and careful cultivation will do
much to preserve the moisture.
Our observation has been that the av average
erage average vegetable grower gives very little
attention to the question of seed-beds
for growing plants. We believe that this
is a mistake and that it will pay to give
more care to seed-beds in order to have
stocky, vigorous plants to set in the
field.
We have noticed that most people
make their seed-beds by ridging up the
soil into beds three or four feet wide
and of any desired length, and sowing
the seed in narrow rows or broadcast
over the bed and leaving the plants until
the larger ones are big enough to pull
out and set in the field. By this method,
long, spindling weak plants are produced
which require a great deal of care if they
are to live and do well.
Some people, instead of making seed seedbeds,
beds, seedbeds, sow the seed in the field where the
plants are to grow. This method some sometimes
times sometimes succeeds, but it is very uncertain,
for a short drought or very heavy rains
will utterly ruin the stand of plants and
experience has taught the farmers of
practically every trucking section that
with tomatoes, eggplant, peppers, etc., it
pays to sow the seed in carefully pre prepared
pared prepared beds where the soil is very fine,
mellow, loose and fairly rich. If fertili fertilizer
zer fertilizer is necessary, well rotted stable ma manure
nure manure that has been sifted through a
one-half inch mesh is the best. A dress dressing
ing dressing of one inch of this screened manure
thoroughly worked into the soil will give
one crop of plants. In very heavy clay
soil, add one-fourth part of sand to the
beds. Sow the seed in narrow rows and,
as soon as the young plants can be han handled,
dled, handled, transplant them into another bed.
setting them at a distance of three to
four inches each way. When the plants
are first set out, cover with some form
of screen for a few days until they have
taken root. Water only when necessary
to keep the plants growing and then give
a good soaking. Keep the surface of the
ground loose and mellow by frequent
stirrings.
We have found a board frame eight
inches high and five feet wide very con convenient
venient convenient for inclosing the beds. They
can be made as long as needed. The
frame prevents the soil from washing
away during heavy rains.
For setting in the field the young
plants should be taken carefully from
the seed-beds and not pulled up care carelessly
lessly carelessly so as to break off all the roots. In
setting, the soil should be made very
firm round the roots of each plant. If
the weather is dry, water the plants well
and give them frequent hoeings, for
nothing starts a young plant to growing
so well as stirring the ground around it.
The market for Cubas winter grown
vegetables is a long way off and, as the
trucking interest increases here and its

products become generally known in the
Northern cities, a good many of our far farmers
mers farmers will have to give more attention to
the picking, grading and packing of their
products, or the end of the season will
find them on the wrong side of the ac account.
count. account. It will not pay to ship to distant
markets a poor class of vegetables that
are not properly graded and packed. We
must remember that winter-grown vege vegetables
tables vegetables are not necessities but luxuries iti
the North, and in furnishirig them we
cater to a high-priced trade. The prod product
uct product must be of fine quality and present
a neat and attractive appearance in order
to attract the buyer.
At present there is too much mixing
of grades by putting choice and ordinary
vegetables of one kind in the same
crate. This is a poor method, for there
is no profit in mixing the grades of
any product. A crate of vegetables
should have the same quality from top to
bottom. Select a good, responsible com commission
mission commission merchant, become acquainted
with him, and ship only first-class, high highgrade
grade highgrade truck. Whenever it is possible, let
your selling agent know beforehand
about how much you have to ship and
the general grade of the shipment, for
then he can handle it to greater advan advantage.
tage. advantage. Always be very sure that your
vegetables are at the proper stage of
ripeness and carefully picked, graded and
packed. All poor material should be
kept at home, as it will not bring enough
to pay for the shipping.
Tomatoes should be packed in the
standard Florida six-basket carrier.
Okra should be packed in the same
style, but never wrapped as in the case
of tomatoes.
Eggplant is packed in the Standard
Florida eggplant crate, which in cubic
dimensions is about one-half a barrel.
Eggplant is packed in the standard
Havana white wood crate, containing
about one bushel.
Potatoes should be graded number ls
and 2s and anything inferior or not
good enough to go in the second grade
should be kept at home. The first grade
should be packed as follows:
Select some of the best, then clean
out the barrel, pour in of these
about one-half a bushel, then the rest cf
the No. ls until the barrel is full; put
the head in under press, reverse the bar barrel
rel barrel and what was the bottom stencil,
which when opened here will show up
the goods to advantage. The same for formula
mula formula should be followed in regard to the
No. 2s.
Peppers should be packed in the stand standard
ard standard six basket tomato crate, never
wrapped.
White squash should be packed in the
same crate as eggplant; they should
always be wrapped.
Beets should be bunched, generally
putting from three to five, mainly five,
to the bunch, tops on. and shipped in the
half barrel conical basket, such as is
used in Florida, or in a half barrel crate,
and under refrigeration.
Parsley should be bunched and shipped
under refrigeration; the same with car carrots.
rots. carrots.
The duty on tomatoes, carrots, pep peppers,
pers, peppers, eggplant, okra and parsley is about
10 cents per package, on onions. 40 cents
per bushel, less 20 per cent reciprocity;
eggplant, net about 14 cents per crate,
ptoatoes, 25 cents per bushel, less 20 per
cent reciprocity.
Estacion Central Agronomica, Cuba.



THE TEN ACRE FARM
T >
How a Successful Lake County Man Would Plant and
Cultivate Siifch a Tract in Florida.
By John Heaton.

To a Northern or Westerii farmer a
ten-acre farm seems very small; but
after a few years of experimenting, he is
compelled to admit that it is quite suf sufficient,
ficient, sufficient, in Florida. Whether one starves
to death on such a farm or makes a good
profit depends largely on the quality of
the land as well as on the use of good
judgment, A stranger to conditions here
WOuld do Weii to consult with his neigh neighbors,
bors, neighbors, and follow the advice of success successful
ful successful farmers wild are acquainted with the
Soil, climate and general conditions,
tf a farm is selected where one can
have good hammock or muck land, with
artesian water fof irrigation, or, better
still, land that requires lid irrigation,
and goes about it in the right Way, he
Stands a pretty good chance to succeed.
As we haye no laW in this State re requiring
quiring requiring stockmen to take care of their
stock, the first thing necessary is to have
your land surrounded with a good strong
fence. Now build an inexpensive house,
or a better one if you can afford ft, and
clear up an acre or two of your land.
Some of the best garden land in Florida
is covered with a dense growth of alder,
which can be removed at a cost of about
sls per acre.
Make haste slowly, and do a lot of
experimenting the first year in a small
way. Plant a garden any time from
September to March, so as to have plenty
of vegetables for home use. Devote a
sufficient area to a home orchard, with
a variety of fruits, covering as long a
time as possible. When you have learned
the adaptability of the soil to certain
crops, grow them in succession, keeping
something always in the ground, as it
costs no more to grow crops than weeds.
On my little 10-acre farm, I start my
seed beds early in September and have
lettuce, celery and cabbage ready for set setting
ting setting early in November. This is all out
of the way by February, except the cel celery.
ery. celery. In January plant Irish potatoes
between the rows of cabbage and as the
cabbage is taken out the potatoes are
worked, so but little special cultivation
is necessary.
Plant corn between potatoes not later
than April 1. By May 1 the potatoes
are dug; the corn is worked and requires
little more attention. The fourth crop
on this land is Irish potatoes, planted
about September 1, when the corn is
gathered. I husk the corn from the stalk
throwing it into the wagon, and it is all
out of the way with one handling.
I have made many mistakes, but am
beginning to succeed, having this year
harvested a potato crop of over 100
bushels per acre. On this I used about 150
pounds of fertilizer per acre. There is
no use trying to ignore the fertilizer
question; it must be met. But on this
Apopka muck land very little is required,
a larger quantity being rather harmful
than otherwise.
The question of marketing our produce
is of no less importance than that of
growing it. There is little use in every
small farmer shipping his two or three
crates of beans, and half dozen of cab cabbage
bage cabbage or peas by express or freight. As

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

a rule, he gets only freight bills, or at
best the returns will barely cover the
cost of picking and packing. I am now
arranging with several other farmers
near by to plant enough of one variety
to ship in car lots, and get what advan advantage
tage advantage may come from lower rates and
quicker service. When we have not
enough of one vegetable to fill a car, we
can make up a mixed car.
On a part of the land we sow cowpeas
or beggarweed in June, to furnish a sup supply
ply supply of hav instead of pulling fodder from
the corn, as the value of the fodder is
less than the injury to the corn.
T do not claim that this is an ideal plan
for managing a small farm, but I am
satisfied that by studying conditions,
watching results carefully, and keeping
a succession of crops, one can make from
is a large body of good land near mine
for sale at reasonable price, and a little
of this sub-irrigated muck can be had at
from $35 to SSO per acre. Some of this
land produces celery equal to that grown
on the SSOO land at Sanford, and the sea season
son season can be extended into May and even
June.
W r e want more neighbors, and I will
be glad to give any further information
to parties really interested.
FIG CULTURE.
Manner of Planting, Packing and Ship Shipping
pingMost Shipping Popular Varieties.
By a Texan Grower.
For many years the Southern farmer
has cultivated figs in a limited way
has cultivated fige in a limited way
around door yards; in fact, many grow growers
ers growers believe that figs cannot be success successfully
fully successfully grown in orchards. As an old
farmer remarked recently, The fig tree
has got to smell your breath to do well.
This, however, is all erroneous. Figs are
now successfully grown, in large orchards
in Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas with
good results. The fig tree is a ravenous
feeder and delights more in liberal appli application
cation application of all kinds of manures than fre frequent
quent frequent cultivation, in fact, deep cultiva cultivation
tion cultivation around the trees is rather more
harmful than good. The demand for
figs is steadily increasing, as the fruit
is gradually introduced in Northern mar markets;
kets; markets; its peculiar sweetness and laxative
properties make it a healthy, desirable
fruit to all who once have acquired a
taste for figs.
Besides being a delicious fruit in its
ripe stage, it is peculiarly adapted for
preserving, and there is hardly any pre preserve
serve preserve higher in price or more in demand
than preserved figs, when properly
treated.
PlantingFigs do best on sandy, well
drained loam; the figs can be easily and
cheaply propagated from cuttings, and
it is not unusual to see ciuttngs planted
in the spring mature figs in a limited
way the same year. Fig suttings, or
trees, should be planted fifteen feet
apart each way, or they may be planted
in rows fifteen feet apart and, eight feet

in the row; it is not a bad idea to plant
figs along fences, outhouses, barns and
chicken yards. Chickens do well under
fig trees and so do the trees in conse consequence.
quence. consequence.
Varieties There are many excellent
varieties, such as:
Celeste or Sugar Fig, the best for all
purposes.
White Adriatic, very large juicy fruit,
very thin skinned, good bearer.
Brown Turkey, medium size, color
browil, very prolific.
Large Blue Ischia, dark blue, very
large and of fine taste.
Lemon Fig, a peculiar lemon flavored
fig.
In the coast country there is a ldcaT
fig called the Magnolia Fig, which is ;
very desirable on account of its size,
sweetness and prolific bearing qualities.
It can be procured from any coast coun country
try country nursery or grower. Fig trees have
been known to yield 1,000 pounds of fruit
to the tree in one season.
Fertilizers A heavy application of
good strong barnyard manure each year
is desirable; Even liquid manures are
keenly appreciated by fig trees. "Where
barriyard manure is not available in suf sufficient
ficient sufficient quantities, we would advise to
use monthly on small trees three pounds
of fertilizer containing: Nitrogen, 5 per
cent; actual potash 9 per cent; available
phosphoric acid, 9 per cent for each tree
When the trees are young cultivation
should be frequent and very shallow,
especially close to the tree. Other light
crops may be grown between the rows.
As the orchard grows larger very little,
if any, cultivation is required, or just
sufficient to keep down excessive weeds
and grass and assist in applying fertil fertilizers.
izers. fertilizers.
It is quite frequent that fig trees,
during January, put on an early growth
and ?. late freeze in February and March
kills all of the tops. This is, however,
not very serious, as the roots are seldom
killed, and the figs, being such spontan spontaneous
eous spontaneous growers, will re-establish them-*
selves in short order, even bearing a good
crop during the following summer.
Packing and shippingDuring the rip ripening
ening ripening season figs must be picked every
day; as soon as one shows a large in increased
creased increased size and color, it must be picked
and packed for market. Figs thoulcl be
carefully and nicely packed in straw strawberry
berry strawberry boxes and in crates holding twen twenty-four
ty-four twenty-four of the quart boxes.
Tobacco Experiments in Bermuda.
Hopes have been entertained of estab establishing
lishing establishing a tobacco industry in the Ber Bermudas,
mudas, Bermudas, but as will be seen from the ac accompanying
companying accompanying extract from a report on
the colony for the immediate prospects
are not very hopeful:
During the vear the Legislature placed
a sum of £7OO at the disposal of. the
Board of Agriculture to enable the latter
bodv to continue the experiments in the
cultivation of Sumatra wrapper tobacco
on a larger scale than in the previous
year. Owing to an unusually long
drought the experiment had to be aban abandoned
doned abandoned after more than half the amount
had been expended.
There is little doubt that wrapper to tobacco
bacco tobacco can be grown in Bermuda, and
cured successfully, but unless the process
of curing it undertaken by a syndicate
with sufficient capital, and the tobacco
leaf be purchased by the syndicate, from
the growers, there is small chance of es establishing
tablishing establishing an industry in this produce.

FIFTEEN



SIXTEEN

Florida Agriculturist.
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THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

Five and Ten-Acre Farms.
It is estimated that at least twenty twentyfive
five twentyfive thousand people in other sections of
the country have during the past year
bought five and ten-acre tracts of land
in Florida. No doubt many of them have
made these purchases purely as an in investment,
vestment, investment, but a very large percentage
have bought with the intention of mak making
ing making their homes on this land in the near
future.
A great many of these people have
never had any experience whatever in
farming and very few of those who have
been successful in other States are fa familiar
miliar familiar with the climate, soil and other
conditions peculiar to Florida.
Under these conditions we feel that
it is the duty of every one who is inter interested
ested interested in the future prosperity and wel welfare
fare welfare of the State to render all the as assistance
sistance assistance possible to these newcomers in
order that they may succeed here.
With the desire to make the Agricul Agriculturist
turist Agriculturist more helpful to this class of read readers,
ers, readers, of which we have a large number,
it is our purpose to publish one or more
articles each month from people of ex experience
perience experience in the different counties, tell telling
ing telling how they would manage a five or
ten-acre tract of unimproved land in
Florida how they would prepare the
ground, what they would grow, how and
when they would plant, cultivate, fer fertilize
tilize fertilize and market, with such other in information
formation information as might be helpful to the in inexperienced.
experienced. inexperienced.
It is not our purpose to depend en entirely
tirely entirely upon gratuitous contributions
along this line, but to pay as liberally
as we can afford for acceptable matter.
Therefore if you have had any experi experience
ence experience in tilling the soil of Florida write
it out and submit it for approval, or
communicate with us on the subject be beforehand.
forehand. beforehand.
Exercise Sound Judgment.
The Agriculturist receives letters al almost
most almost daily from people in other sections
inquiring about the possibilities in Flor Florida,
ida, Florida, the value of real estate here, and
the character of the lands being offered
by the various colonization companies in
this State. To one and all we give sub substantially
stantially substantially the same reply:
If you have a little money that you
can afford to lose without serious incon-
Aenience in case your investment turns
out badly, of course you can take any
sort of chances. But if you contemplate
buying a place for a home do not under
any circumstances make the investment
without a personal investigation before
doing so. Buying for speculation and
for a home are two very different propo propositions.
sitions. propositions. What one man might consider
an ideal location another would not ac accept
cept accept as a gift, jj,nd the selection of a site

for a home is too serious a matter to
make without careful consideration.
While the combination of soil, climate
and other conditions make most of our
lands extremely productive there are
thousands of acres absolutely worthless
for purposes of cultivation.
We do not believe there is a State in
the Union where an industrious man can
make a living easier and acquire a corn cornpretence
pretence cornpretence with less effort than in Florida,
and we extend a most cordial invitation
to people everywhere to come and share
our opportunities. But we urge them
to exercise ordinary business judgment,
and not come here expecting to find ev everything
erything everything perfect, with no drawbacks or
inconveniences. We believe Florida is
the best and most promising place to be
found anywhere, but people who come
here need some capital and a fair amount
of intelligence and industry if they
would succeed.
The Japanese Persimmon.
Editor Florida Agriculturist:
Your correspondent who recently
wrote on the subject is certainly mis mistaken
taken mistaken in crediting the introduction of the
Japanese Persimmon, although his arti article
cle article is otherwise a good one.
I think it was first heard from in
both this country and Europe through
P. J. Berckmans, of Georgia. As long
ago as 1883 lm had tried it long enough
to say from uie chair of the American
Pomological Society that it would prob probably
ably probably prove itself to be the most impor important
tant important foreign fruit yet introduced into the
United States, I remember the state statement
ment statement well. He was presiding as vice
president, at the Philadelphia meeting
in September of that year, and he was
afterward president of the society for a
long time after the death of President
Marshall P. Wilder, of Boston. Mr. Van
Deman came into the Department of Ag Agriculture
riculture Agriculture at Washington, as pomologist a
long time afterward. Mr. Berckmans
is still living, a very old man, but still
president of the Georgia Horticultural
Sovietv and member of several State
/
boards in Georgia. His address is Au Augusta.
gusta. Augusta. If you publish this and send him
a marked copy with the article referred
to 1 presume he will be glad to tell you
something of what he knows of tliis
fruit, which, being the principal fruit
of Japan, is slowly making its way into
prominence in the United States. It
consists of manv varieties in color, size,
t tquality
quality tquality and season, and has a wide range
of adaptation. It does especially well
here in South Central Florida. I have
on my place ten or twelve varieties just
coming into bearing, and wish I had two
carloads of the fruit in sight this year
to get into the Minneapolis and St.
Paul markets with to educate these
markets to them, and get the children
in these twin cities all crying for some something
thing something better to eat than their famous
Wealthy apple. Oliver Gibbs.



How to Clear Land.
The Agriculturist for November will
contain one or more articles describing
some of the methods practiced in clear clearing
ing clearing land in Florida and preparing it
for cultivation. We invite correspond correspondence
ence correspondence on this subject, and will be glad to
hear from any one who has had experi experience
ence experience in such work.
It is gratifying to note the growing
sentiment being manifested throughout
the South, and especially in Florida, in
favor of better roads. The farmers
more than any other class will be bene benefited
fited benefited by such improvement, for with
good roads they are enabled to market
their crops more cheaply and with less
labor, to say nothing of the pleasure
they will enjoy in driving over them.
Then the making of good roads is al almost
most almost invariably followed by free mail
delivery and other conveniences that
cannot be had without.
Budding Fruit Trees.
At what time should trees be budded,
is a common question a nurseryman is
asked. There can only be answers given
in a general way, because the date de depends
pends depends on the growth of stocks, and
growth depends on climate. In a gen general
eral general way it may be said budding may be
done whenever the bark can be opened
to receive the bud. This must be at
some time while the shoot is still grow growing,
ing, growing, for when growth of the stock
ceases the bark tightens and cannot be
lifted to receive the bud. But besides
that it has been found that, as a rule,
buds take better in the later stages of
the growth than they do in the earlier
ones. Hence nurserymen prefer to bud
when they see the stocks are nearing the
end of their growth, a surer taking
of the buds resulting from work done
then. It will be seen from this that no
set date for budding can be named. In
the same nursery a block of stocks may
be in a low situation, another in a high higher
er higher one. In this case the stock on higher
ground would be in condition for bud budding
ding budding some time before the other.
As these notes will show, budding de depending
pending depending on the growth, the months for
the work are likely to be August and
September.
Budding of roses is not followed here
to the extent it is in England, but where
it "is the same rules apply as for fruits.
But it should be said that English peri periodicals
odicals periodicals advise the budding of roses early
rather than late. Further, they insist
on the extraction of the little piece of
wood from the buds, something never
practiced here.
Practically all fruits are increased
mainly by budding, if we except apples.
Apples graft so easily on roots that bud budding
ding budding them is rarely thought of.
The eighth annual convention of the
National Nut Growers Association will
be held at Albany, Ga., October 12th.
13th and 14th.
Can Some One Answer?
Editor Florida Agriculturist:
Dou you know of any individual mer merchant
chant merchant or mill that has fresh ground corn cornmeal
meal cornmeal that I could buy as needed. The
kind that is made at country mills.
U. S. P.

THE FLORIDA AGRICL LTURIST.

FROM
Frozen North
X o
Sunny South
or Twenty Years in Florida
By HELEN HARCOURT
AUTHOR OF
Florida Fruits and How to Grow Them,
Home Life in Florida, Etc.
Special attention is called to the serial with the above
title, which is now running in the Agriculturist, and will
continue through several months.
To term it fiction, would be a misnomer, for it will
deal with the practical side of life in the Land of Flowers,
as the practical man, the man of intelligence and industry,
has ever found it in the past, and will find it today, to tomorrow,
morrow, tomorrow, and for all time.
Interwoven with the actual and detailed experiences
of such a man, will be the home life of his family, the
lights and shadows, the haps and mishaps, that go to
make up the sum total of the passing years.
Born and brought up in the blizzard-swept regions of
the Northwest, inheriting a moderate fortune in stocks
and bonds, the narrator goes into business, meets with
heavy losses and finally finds himself on the verge of ruin,
with a delicate wife and two children to support.
But one piece of property remained from the wreck,
r small cattle ranch, on which he had been accustomed to
spend the summers. Here also disaster had overtaken
him, a blizzard having frozen his live stock, and a late
freeze destroyed his wheat crop. But the land was left
and this he sold, determining with the proceeds, to seek
anew home in a more genial climate, that of sunny Flor Florida,
ida, Florida, in the double hope of renewed health for his wife, and
of rebuilding his lost fortunes on a surer foundation than
that of stocks, bonds, and the perils of the business world.
The story has a motiveto show, not what may be
done, but what has been done, and can be done again by
the right man in the right place, which means the indus industrious
trious industrious man, in fair Florida. What Henry Crawford (a
type of thousands of should-be citizens of Florida), found
ill his new home, what he did and how he did it, he tells
the intending settler in such plain language that he who
reads may runto Florida, if he be wise.

SEVENTEEN



EIGHTEEN

FERNDALE FARM NOTES
By A. T. Cuzner, M. D.

One thing has very much impressed
me in viewing southern farming opera operations.
tions. operations. It is the profitless way in which
such operations are carried on, or the
small profits derived from such opera operations.
tions. operations. The cause for this is not hard to
perceive and be recognized.
In the first place, the farmer gets the
worst of it both coming and going.
When he buys he pays the top price.
When he sells he gets the lowest.
Then again he pays too much for his
fertilizers. Often his bill for such ab absorbs
sorbs absorbs the great bulk of what he receives
for his crop. Yet without fertilizing he
realizes little or nothing for seed and
labor. Now on Ferndale Farm this year
we have not expended one cent for com commercial
mercial commercial fertilizer, yet our crops turn out
as good as our neighbors who use such
extensively.
Realizing, as we do, that there is no
vegetable we know of that does not ob obtain
tain obtain a certain portion of its nitrogen
from the air, we save and compost all
the weeds and grasses we obtain as a re result
sult result of cultivation of our crops, adding
to such chamber lye and dejecta from
the closet. In addition, all the ashes
we obtain from the burning of such ref refuse
use refuse vegetable material as we cannot
compost.
Few have any idea of the vast amount
of water removed from the earth by
evaporation. Few realize the large re reserve
serve reserve of water located in the earth and
not far from the surface.
Again, by capillary attraction, water
from the lower moist earth is continual continually
ly continually traveling upward to the dry surface.
Asa toll it brings with it the soluble
mineral elements. In the rainless re regions
gions regions of North and South America we
have as a consequence alkaline surface
soil. The evaporated moisture on quit quitting
ting quitting the earth leaves behind as a legacy
the mineral elements it has carried up
from below.
Let anyone place a common board or
a piece of oilcloth on the dry surface of
the earth in his garden. After a short
time (though no rainfall) the surface
under these will become moist.
Again, pile a heap of weeds and grass
and it will be found that under such
pile, in a short time, the earth will be
much moister than the surrounding soil,
and more mellow.
Hence during dry weather frequent
though shallow cultivation, by rendering
the soil more porous, greatly aids the
ascent of moisture from below.
The dry earth of the surface performs
the same service as the board, oilcloth
or heap of litter.
Charles Brockden Brown, the earliest
American novelist, says in Wieland,
that an alliance commonly subsists be between
tween between ignorance and the practice of agri agriculture,
culture, agriculture, and speculated as to the influ influence
ence influence of progressive knowledge in dis dissolving
solving dissolving this alliance and embodying the
dream of the poets. He further asks
why agriculture might not be. made
conducive to, or at least consistent with,
the acquisition of wisdom.
Had Brown lived in Florida during the
past twenty years he would not have
put the last query. We will in our writ-

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST;

ings assume that we are addressing ag agriculturists
riculturists agriculturists of* more than iiitel iiitelligence
ligence iiitelligence and eduCatiofl.
The possibilities of agriculture in Flor Florida
ida Florida are great. Not in any one particu particular
lar particular phase or product. The belief in one
product or industry has been the cause
of shipwreck to so many in the past.
Cotton used to be kind in the South
generally, and the oranges, queen, in
Florida in particular. But kings and
queens are liable to dethronement, if not
death.
There is one industry that inquires
no large capital, that all can engage in,
whether male or female, young or old.
Even the semi-invalid from the frozen
North can carry on this business with
success all the year rOurid, Without fear
of overdoing it. t allude to the poultry
business. Then we have the strawberry
business, which is quite a profitable one,
and did we have proper transportation
facilities this, as well as many other ag agricultural
ricultural agricultural occupations, Would flourish
beyond all precedent.
One ot ray fellow agriculturists, W.
F. Hawley, submits the following re regarding
garding regarding
Free Fertilizer.
A penny saved is two pence earned
seems to have found no place in the creed
of the average farmer in the South.
Take the matter of fertilizer. We go
into debt in the spring, give notes to the
fertilizer men and when we make set settlement
tlement settlement after crops are marketed have
very little cash left. In the meantime
we are rejecting the offer of some of
the very best fertilizer knownhuman
excrement.
Go through the country and note the
farm privy. Usually there is no provis provision
ion provision made to save this richest of all nat natural
ural natural fertilizer, and worse still in many
cases the chickens have access to this
filth which they are supposed to trans transform
form transform into healthful (?) meat and eggs.
At our place a bucket is placed under
the seat; into this is thrown from time
to time dried muck or rotted leaves.
When the bucket is filled we empty it
on a bed of dried grass or leaves which
absorbs the liquid part. This is covered
with a layer of earth or sods and in a
few weeks the whole pile is cut over
with a hoe and the result is a large
wheelbarrow load of rich compost. Does
it make things grow? Well you should
see the snap beans and other garden
stuff which we produce with it. Try it,
Brother Farmer, and see if vou dont
save money. On our farm, on a certain
portion from which we took a crop of
tine West India Yams the fall before we
planted last spring another crop of Irish
potatoes.
As we are not very partial to commer commercial
cial commercial fertilizers, and as we could not ex expect
pect expect two successive crops of tubers from
the same ground without additional fer fertilizing,
tilizing, fertilizing, we concluded we would use a
liquid manure in the shape of dissolved
cow manure and human urine. New
potash to properly develop. In this com combination
bination combination there is a large percentage of
potash, phosphorus and nitrogen,in the
shape of ammonia, These potatoes are

now in blossom and look exceedingly
well.
In view of these facts our farmers
should be more particular in the disposal
of fertilizing material from the family
closet. The article from Mi*. Hawley
strikes the right
While on the subject of fertilizers t
would like to say a few words on the
use of Mossbunkers, or Menhaden or
Bonys, as they are called on the St.
Johns. They are a complete fertilizer,
as are all kinds of fish. However, they
should be composted before using, or be
treated with potash, and the fat turned
into soap. The fat acts as an obstruct
ant to absorption of the nitrogenous por portion.
tion. portion. The farmers On the south snore
of Long Island depend largely on these
fish for fertilizing material.
Cost and Profit in Oranges.
Tiler lids been much discussion over
the State as to the profit in orange
growing. A comparison is being made
as to the cost of producing a box of or oranges
anges oranges and the price realized.
The Arcadia Champion bites thfc faijt
that one man iri North Florida says it
costs him $1.75 on the trees to raise or oranges
anges oranges for market and unless he gets
that much he will go into a hole.
The Champion opines that the esti estimate
mate estimate would vary in different localities.
We cannot see how such estimates
published broadcast without qualifica qualification
tion qualification as to the conditions under which ex expensive
pensive expensive oranges are grown is going to
help the State or the orange business.
It may easily be that $1.76 or more
may be the cost under some conditions.
We happen to know of a grove, trees of
all sorts and conditions from a small
sprout to a mature seedling, scattered
over a large area where all must be cul cultivated
tivated cultivated just the same as if the trees
were all of uniform bearing size and oc occupying
cupying occupying the entire space, and we can
easily guess thatf it costs even $2.75 to
grow a box under such conditions.
But under proper conditions we know
men who grow fine oranges at from 25
to 40 cents per box and in conversation
with a well informed Orange county
grower, who goes all over the State, it
was stated by him that there are places
where the cost is less than 25 cents.
But that low figure would be as un unwise
wise unwise to quote as a basis as is $1.75. The
fact is, orange growing is much the same
as other lines. Some men starve to
death raising grain and others grow
prosperous; some men contrive to put so
much time into the manufacture of a
wagon that they lose money in the sale
at actual value where another manu manufacturer
facturer manufacturer would make a handsome profit.
There are orange growers, even at
the usual prices, who make the goods
and catch the markets at an opportune
time who do succeed in spite of adverse
conditions, green fruit shipments and
panies, and they contend that the orange
business is profitable.Orlando Report Reporter-Star.
er-Star. Reporter-Star.
Visitors from Europe who are here
when our Magnolia conspicua and M.
Soulangeana are in flower become en enthusiastic
thusiastic enthusiastic in their praise. Lerge trees
studded with large white flowers such
as the M. conspicua presents, when in
blossom, is something no other country
can show but our own.



WHEN TO SPRAY FOR WHITE FLY
By E. W. Berger

This bulletin lias been written to meet
the requirements of those who prefer to
spray with insecticides, and for those
who find it necessary td usfc spraying
solutions when fungus is difficult to de detain,
tain, detain, or during periods of protracted dry
weather when the fungi spread but lit little.
tle. little.
The young of the citrus whitefly
(sometimes incorrectly called eggs), are
scale-like, and pass through five stages
of development, increasing from about
one-eightieth of an inch to about one oneeigliteenth
eigliteenth oneeigliteenth df an inch in length. The
first four stages are spoken of by num numbers
bers numbers (first, second, third, arid fourth
larval stages); but the fifth, the trans transformation
formation transformation stage from which the Winged
whitefly emerges, is called the pupa. The
best time to spray with contact insecti insecticides
cides insecticides is when these insects are mostly in
file first three iarval stages, or the thin
flat fourth stage. Those in the thick
fourth, or in the pupal stage, are less
easily killed, and require a strOrigef in insecticide.
secticide. insecticide. The eggs of the whitefly can cannot
not cannot be destroyed by ordinary insecti insecticides,
cides, insecticides, and it is useless to spray the
winged adults.
There are two principal periods when
flic whitefly is in the younger stages.
T he first period is in April or May, and
begins about two weeks after the winged
whiteflies have ceased swarming and
have disappeared. The advantages of
spraving at this time may be summed up
as follows: (1) The whiteflies are in the
voung larval stages and are easily killed:
(?) they are mainly on the new growth
and more easilv sprayed; (3) the larvae
are destroyed before sapping the strength
of the new growth, and before much
soot.v mold has developed: (4) there is
little vain to interfere with the sprav spraving.
ing. spraving.
Spraving may also be carried on anv
Hrip during the summer after the second
Urood of adult whiteflies has been out
for several weeks; but since during this
+sme the whiteflv develops irregularlv.
fhevo being all stages present in consid considerable
erable considerable numbers at all times, and since
vains are generallv abundant. spraying
at this time is not advised, except when
the trees are suffering greatly.
The second best period for spraying is
ip October or November, or soon after
the adult whiteflies have wholly or near nearlv
lv nearlv disappeared, and after the last laving
of eg.es are hatched. Groves snraved in
the earlv part of last November with a
pfaving mixture whose principal ingre ingredients
dients ingredients was whale-oil soap (about 1
nourd to 10 gallons of water), showed
that about 09 ner cent, of the larvae had
boon killed. The advantages of fall
pnraving may be summed un as follows:
H) The ronnsr larvae are abundant and
easilv killed: (2) thev are killed before
thev wax fat on the trees; (3) there are
few rains to interfere with spraying.
Since spraving for the young white whitefly
fly whitefly larvae must be done in spring, sum summer.
mer. summer. or fall, when either tender leaves or
fruit are on the trees, it is evident tha+
o spraying solution must be employed
which will not iniure the foliage or
fruit. Any good contact insecticide can
be employed, provided it is sufficiently
K diluted.

'THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

It has been found that soap solutions
of 1 pound of soap to 6 gallons of water,
destroyed all the larvae in the first three
stages, and most of those of the fourth
and pupal stages. Thorough spraying
resulted in destroying between 90 and 96
per cent ot all the larvae on the leaves.
Soap solutions of 1 phund of soap to 9
gallons of water destroyed about 90 per
cent Goods potash whale-oil soap No. 3
was used, and also Gctogon soap. It is
probable that any kind of soap will be
effective against these young larvae. In
winter it would probably be necessary to
use the soap stronger, say 1 pound to 4
gallons of water; but a weak solution
when used in spring, summer, or fall,
will give better results than the strong
solution in winter.
Golddust was also rised On young
larvae at the rate of 1 pound to 4 gal gallons
lons gallons of water, and 90 to 95 per cent were
killed. Preliminary chemical examina examination
tion examination of Golddust showed that it consist consisted
ed consisted of about 25 per cent of soap, 62 per
cent of washing soda, and about 13 per
cent of water. Golddust is an expensive
mixture to use for spraying. One part
of whale-oil soap with three parts of
washing soda gave practically the same
result as Golddust, when each was used
in the proportion of 1 pound to 4 gallons
of water. One pound of whale-oil soap
to 9 gallons of water gave practically the
same results as the whale-oil soap and
soda mixture, at about the same cost,
which was a little less than half a cent
per gallon. Whale-oil soap is therefore
a cheaper material to use for spraying
than Golddust. A mixture equally as
good as Golddust can be made from
whale-oil soap and washing soda, at
about one-half the cost.
FRUIT IN HAWAII.
Results of Reoent Experiments by the
Government Horticulturist.
Tn the report of the horticulturist at
the Hawaiian Agricultural Experiment
Station, reference is made to the excel excellent
lent excellent quality of the fruit grown in those
islands. The citrus fruits produced
oranges, limes and lemons are mention mentioned
ed mentioned as being specially good.
The mango is largely grown in Hawaii,
and. in the oninion of the writer of the
report referred to, is destined to become
one of the most important tropical fruits
of the American market in the future.
The possibility of shipping the mango in
cold storage has already been demon demonstrated.
strated. demonstrated. and while an effort should be
made by producers in the West Indies
to supplv the markets of the Eastern
States. Hawaii hopes to produce all that
is required in the West.
The mango weevil (Cryptorhynchus
mangiferae) is reported as being a source
of great trouble in Hawaii, and its pres presence
ence presence is a serious hindrance to the prog progress
ress progress of the industry.
The Experiment Station is making a
collection of all the finest varieties. of
mango trees available, with the intention
of propagating them on seedling stocks.
The Bluefields variety of banana, which
possesses a thick skin that does not easi easily
ly easily discolor, and several other qualities

that make it by far the best shipping
banana there is has received great at attention
tention attention in Hawaii during the past two
years, and latterly suckers have been
generally distributed throughout the is islands.
lands. islands. These suckers have been distrib distributed
uted distributed in lots from two or three to fifty,
to growers who undertake to cultivate
them in an experimental way, furnish furnishing
ing furnishing periodic reports on their growth and
production. This banana was introduced
into Hawaii on account of the advan advantages
tages advantages it holds as a commercial product,
and because it is the variety best known
on the American markets.
The report states,too, that experiments
have been made during the past few
years with the roselle (Hibiscus sabda sabdariffa),
riffa), sabdariffa), a plant known in the West Indies
as the red sorrel. The tree appears to
do well, and to give good results in Ha Hawaii.
waii. Hawaii. As is well known in these islands,
excellent jams and jellies are made from
the fleshy calyx of this fruit, and from
the seed pods, while they are young and
tender, and the Hawaiian experiments
were undertaken with a view to testing
the suitability of the fruit for preserv preserving.
ing. preserving. It is stated that when grown as a
crop, from 6,000 to 7.000 pounds of fruit
per acre can be obtained under average
conditions. Although the roselle tree
will do fairly well in a dry climate, it
yields more heavily on the application of
water. The seeds of these plants are
sown about March, and the plants are
set out in the field when about 6 or 8
inches high, at distances of about 4 feet
by 5 feet if the rainfall is abundant,
while in dry localities they are set a lit little
tle little closer 4 feet by 4 feet.
URUGUAYAN TABLE FRUIT.
The Guayba Suggested for Growing on
American Soil.
Growing plentifully in all parts of
Urusruav, Consul Frederick W. Goding,
of Montivideo, says, is a plant locally
called guayba sellowiana),
which he thinks might be grown in the
United States and which he describes:
In a general way the plant resembles
a cactus. The bright red flowers form
at the edge of the thick, fleshy leaves,
nt the base of which flowers the fruit is
formed. The fruit resembles. and is
about the size of a fig, some being round
and others olive shaped, green, red, or
blue in color, and covered with fine,
sharp, irritating nettles which disappear
under cultivation. The outer skin of the
fruit is similar to that of the fig, but
firmer. The interior is filled with a most
luscious red, white, or blue sweet pulp,
the flavor resembling that of a musk muskmelon.
melon. muskmelon. while an odor enamantes from the
unbroken fruit like that of a fresh annle.
The plant grows well, but must be
nrotected from violent winds. Plants
feet high sell for 83 cents each, the
*eeds about 35 cents per ounce, postage
extra. A list of Montevideo dealers is
on file at the bureau of manufactures.
Were this delicious fruit introduced into
the United States it would be a valu valuable
able valuable addition to the list of table fruits
used there. (The Uruguayan fruit in
question is now being tested near Los
Angeles, Cal. It is of a tropical nature,
enduring only small degrees of frost,
similar to the guava, and could also
urobably be successfully grown in South Southern
ern Southern Florida, Porto Rico, Hawaii and the
Philippines. Consular and Trade Re Reports,
ports, Reports,

NINETEEN



TWENTY

FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Investigations That Show the Great Value of This
Institution to the People of the State.

In the Chemical Laboratory of the Ex Experiment
periment Experiment Station Prof. A. W. Blair, with
the assistance of Mr. It. N. Wilson, has
been continuing the pineapple experi experiments.
ments. experiments. which are now in the ninth or
tenth year of their duration, and will
shortly be finished. No such study of
the pineapple has ever been made in any
other pine-growing region of the world.
A hundred or so analyses have just been
completed of whole pineapple plants with
roots, stems, leaves, and suckers, taken
from the differently fertilized plots of
the experimental field at Jensen. In
each, the amount of nitrogen, phospho phosphorus,
rus, phosphorus, calcium, potassium and magnesium
were determined; these being the impor important
tant important plant food elements. This will give
us valuable information as to what use
the pineapple plant makes of the fertil fertilizers
izers fertilizers which are given it. Three hun hundred
dred hundred or more samples of soils from the
pineapple experimental plots have lately
been analyzed with regard to their total
nitrogen and the amount of nitrogen as
nitrate. The purpose of this is to de determine
termine determine the conditions of nitrification
and leaching, with regard to the seasons
of the year and the fertilizers given.
Anew experimental orange grove of
480 trees has been set out in Lake coun county,
ty, county, near Lake Harris, where it will be
fairly safe from freezes. The Experi Experiment
ment Experiment Station is co-operating with the
Woodlea Company and its manager, Mr.
G. M. Wakelin, in the matter of this ex experimental
perimental experimental grove. The experiments are
to run for ten years. Thermographs
have been installed to record the tem temperatures
peratures temperatures of the air and soil, together
with maximum and minimum thermome thermometers,
ters, thermometers, rain gauge and barometer. A large
number of combinations of fertilizers
will be tried on different groups of trees,
and the soil will be analyzed with regard
to plant food, while the roots, branches,
leaves and fruit of the orange trees will
also be analyzed. No such complete fer fertilizer
tilizer fertilizer experiments with oranges have
ever been reported from any part of the
world. The trees are also to be careful carefully
ly carefully studied with regard to the physiolog physiological
ical physiological effects of the different fertilizers.
The Chemical department has also
made miscellaneous experiments of Flor Florida
ida Florida soils especially to determine their
acidity. At the request of the chemist,
the Florida Lime Company of Ocala, has
agreed to supply finely ground limestone
at a reasonable rate for use in the cor correction
rection correction of acid soils.
*
The Plant Pathologist. Prof. H. S. Faw Fawcett,
cett, Fawcett, has been studying the scaly bark
of the orange, on the West Coast of
Ilorida. and has deAised remedies. Hs
has discoAered a microscopic fungus
which he considers as probably the cause
of the disease. With regard to the scab
of the sour orange, and lemon, he has
scientifically proAmd by culture and in infection
fection infection experiments trat a certain fun fungus
gus fungus is alone responsible for the disease,
and he is noAV working to discover the
life-history of this fungus, especially
with regard to how it lives over from
one year to the next. More Avork has
been done on the gum disease of citrus,

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

and the black spotting of the orange and
grapefruit, and also the shark-skin of
the grapefruit are being investigated.
The camphor being a promising tree
for planting in Florida, the pathologist
has been investigating the fungus Avhich
causes young camphor seedlings to damp
off Another line of Avork has been com commenced,
menced, commenced, namely the study of the fungus
diseases of the peach in Florida. The
twig blight of the pecan, whose nature
is not yet understood, is also being
worked out.
One new fungus Avhich kills whitefly
has been found, together Avith two, or
perhaps three, more fungi which kill
scale insects, that are apparently neAV to
Florida. Many specimens of fungus dis diseases
eases diseases of vegetables, etc., have been sent
bv farmers or fruit-groAvers, and these
have been identified and the proper rem remedies
edies remedies recommended.
35* Sc vfr
In the laboratory for Plant Physiol Physiology,
ogy, Physiology, Mr. B. F. Floyd has been making a
microscopical study of the roots, stems
and of healthy orange trees and
comparing such healthy tissues Avith
those of orange trees diseased with die dieback,
back, dieback, trenching, melanose and velloAV velloAVspotting.
spotting. velloAVspotting. He has identified four enzymes
in the branches of healthy orange trees,
and has made a study of the nature of
the gums which appear in such diseases
as die-back, yelloAv-spotting and melan melanose.
ose. melanose. The fact that no such thorough and
exact studies have been made heretofore,
probably accounts for the lack of prog progress
ress progress in the practical prevention and cur curing
ing curing of these diseases. The physiologist
is also ascertaining the maximum
amount of fertilizers that orange trees
will stand without injury. The disease
of cassava which causes a loss of leaf leafcolor
color leafcolor and a dropping of leaves, popularly
known as trenching, has been ascertain ascertained
ed ascertained to be due to a fungus (Fusarium).
bitty large orange trees diseased Avith
die-back been inoculated with cop copper
per copper sulphate (bluestone) under the bark,
and the results so far, show a slight in injury
jury injury but no benefit.
Jr -Jr X*
The Animal Industrialist. Prof John
M. Scott, has been carrying on a feeding
test Avith Florida-grown feeds, using
grade steers, to determine the cost of
producing beef in Florida. The ration
used is composed of corn. Aelvet beans,
sweet potatoes, and Japanese cane, Avhich
giA es satisfactory results. An experi experiment
ment experiment has also been made to determine
the comparative Aalue of Aehet beans
and cottonseed meal for milk production.
The A'elvet beans and cottonseed meal
are fed along with Avheat bran and sor sorghum
ghum sorghum silage. This forms a continuation
of the dairy tests made during 1007 and
1008.
In co-operation with. Mr. A. L. Jack Jackson
son Jackson of GainesA T ille, an experiment is in
progress in grading up native cattle, and
testing the Shorthorn and Hereford
breeds in improving the native Florida
stock. Forage crops are being tested to
determine the amounts that can be
raised, and their cost for maintaining an animals.
imals. animals. The following are grown this

year: Japanese cane, sorghum, Natal
grass, Guinea grass, Para grass, Lyon
bean. Velvet bean, beggarweed, soy bean,
Kudzu vine, cowpeas, sweet potatoes,
cassava and rape. The Lyon bean has
been found about equal in yield to the
velvet bean, but feeding tests of it have
not yet been made. The Kudzu vine
from the chemical analysis appears to
have a better feeding value than cowpea
hay.
-is-
Dr. E. W. Berger, the entomologist,
with the assistance of Ml E'. P. Green,
has prepared a large number of dishes,
bottles and tubes, containing sterilized
sweet potato, on which a plentiful sup supply
ply supply of the red fungus of the whiteflv
(red Asehersonia) is growing, from
spores sown there. It is intended to use
this artificially grown fungus for spore
spraying. The study of the whitefly dur during
ing during the past year has shown that
there are two different species which are
differently affected by the different fungi,
so that it is important for each orange
grower to know which species he has in
his grove. At Titusville, for instance,
the yellow fungus has been found very
destructive of the smoky whitefiy.
The entomologist tried the spore sporespraying
spraying sporespraying method last September and
October with fair success; and has
traveled about 3,500 miles, and experi experimentally
mentally experimentally sprayed fungi in many orange
groves during the past year.
* *
In the Botanical Department, Mr. R.
Y. Winters has been making a thorough
botanical study of the velvet bean, the
Lyon bean, and fourteen other related
beans, many of which are unknown in
the markets, but may be found useful
in Florida. They have been grown in
the field and studied as to their botan botanical
ical botanical characters, and by cross breeding.
Selections were also made from the Sala Salamander
mander Salamander Improved Lettuce, to obtain a.
new strain resistant to lettuce drop
(damping off).
Fifty-five varieties of tomatoes and
eight varieties of egg-plants were tested
in tbe horticultural grounds, and pigeon
peas and several varieties of English
{)eas also given a trial.
Irrigation Swindles in the West.
The people of the West seem to be
going crazy over irrigation schemes. In
some instances companies are organized
to sell water for hundreds of thousands
of acres where the supply cannot be relied
upon for hundreds. Here is what an
engineer says touching one scheme that
came under his observation: Why, I
know of one scheme in particular which
purports to provide water for reclaiming
30,000 acres of land, which has not be behind
hind behind it more than 10.000 acre feet of
water. The supply must come from a
draw which will not hold water enough
to drown a cat. And the promoter of
this project has sold his stock to preach preachers
ers preachers and school teachers and the like by
the score and perhaps by the hundred.
And where will the preacher and the
school teacher get off at? I am telling
you that they wont get off at all, but
will keep on holding their noses to the
grindstone, when they expected to get
rich from their investment. A draw is
a sort of dry arroya or depression, where
seepage water from higher canals gath gathers,
ers, gathers, and that also get the rains that
sometimes occur in the hill country
above them.



SCHOOL GARDEN
A Review of the Educational Works of Great Britain in
Some of Her Insular Possessions.

The last session of the Florida Legis Legislature
lature Legislature having very wisely provided for
teaching agriculture in the public
schools of the State, the following from
the Agricultural News (Barbados) may
be interesting, and helpful to teachers
in their new work:
In dealing with the subject of Agricul Agricultural
tural Agricultural Education at the recent Conference
special attention was drawn to the pro progress
gress progress made in establishing School Gar Gardens
dens Gardens in connection with elementary
schools in the West Indies and British
Guiana. It was mentioned that at Ja Jamaica,
maica, Jamaica, fair progress was being made in
this direction. In 1900, only six schools
received special grants amounting to
£32. In 1906, the number of schools
had increased to ninety-two, and the
special grants to £227.
At British Guiana, three government
school gardens had been established at
Georgetown. In addition, it was report reported
ed reported that the management and teachers of
over fifty schools had started small gar gardens
dens gardens in the country districts. These
latter are stated to be earning SO per
cent of the small grant offered under
the code regulations.
In Trinidad during last year, 203
schools were examined in practical ag agriculture.
riculture. agriculture. Steady progress is reported
from all parts of the island. The
formation of school gardens is stated to
be hindered by the want of suitable land,
and by other difficulties. Five horticul horticultural
tural horticultural school-shows are annually held in
Trinidad and Tobago.
At Grenada, agricultural education in
(dementary schools appears to have de declined
clined declined during the last two years and
nothing worth mentioning is being done
at present with school gardens. Mat Matters
ters Matters are practically at a standstill also
in the elementary schools at St. Vincent.
Moderate progress is reported from St.
Lucia.
At Barbados, forty-one boys schools
and three girls schools presented chil children
dren children at the annual examinations in ob object
ject object lessons. About one-third of these
had school gardens or showed plants un under
der under cultivation in pots or boxes. It is
stated that the school gardens are de decidedly
cidedly decidedly better managed than before and
the number has increased to twenty-one.
The school exhibits at the Peasant Ex Exhibitions
hibitions Exhibitions reached a higher standard.
At Montserrat, five school gardens
have been started, and it is reported
that very good results have been obtain obtained
ed obtained in the cultivation of various kinds of
vegetables. Theoretical instruction is
also given in school hours.
At Antigua, efforts have been fairly
successful in introducing and encourag encouraging
ing encouraging the teaching of agriculture and the
formation of school gardens. So far,
school gardens have not been successful
at St. Ivitts. On the other hand, at
Nevis, they have had greater success,
and at the Agricultural Shows the
schools have always been well repre represented.
sented. represented.
The Education Committee of the Con Conference
ference Conference reported that the evidence avail available
able available from the different colonies testified
that opposition on the part of the par-

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

ents to their children working in gar garden
den garden plots has now practically died out.
Lack of interest in agricultural teach teaching
ing teaching oil the part of the teachers in some
of the colonies is probably accounted
for by the smallness of the grant al allotted
lotted allotted to this subject.
With a view of assisting in the work
of establishing gardens for teaching
purposes, a special pamphlet, entitled
Hints for School Gardens, was issued
by the Imperial Department of Agricul Agriculture
ture Agriculture in 1901, and a revised edition publish published
ed published in 1907. In this the hopewas expressed
that the time was not far distant when
every primary school in the West In Indies
dies Indies would include elementary agricul agriculture
ture agriculture in its curriculum, and that to all
such schools a small garden should be
attached where the pupils might learn
by actual practice the best way to carry
on the more important details of gar gardening
dening gardening work. This, it was considered,
would afford a valuable opportunity of
training the powers of observation of
the pupils in a way not attainable by
mere book learning, or even by watching
the work done by the teacher.
9'
In cases where a suitable area for a
school garden was not available, it was
recommended that the cultivation of
plants in pots and boxes might be adopt adopted
ed adopted as likely to supply, in part, the train trainin
in trainin obtained from school gardens.
In the introduction to the revised edi
tion, it is stated that instruction in
school gardens is not given merely for
the purpose of showing how to grow veg vegetables,
etables, vegetables, any more than the ordinary
teaching in schools has for its object
the winning of prizes. It derives its
value from its usefulness in training the
intellectual faculties, especially those of
observation and correct inference, and
its power to do this is the best indica indication
tion indication of its true worth. Knowledge use useful
ful useful to the agriculturist is gained inci incidentally,
dentally, incidentally, and the material profit arising
from the produce of the soil may be an
incentive to painstaking efforts on the
part of the learner.
Pupils should be put through a good
course of box and pot culture, and should
thoroughly master the principles under underlying
lying underlying it before they are allowed to pro proceed
ceed proceed to the cultivation of plants in plots.
The latter is a repetition of the element elementary
ary elementary work on a larger scale, but does not
serve so well as a means of imparting
knowledge connected with plant life, as
its processes are not under such immedi immediate
ate immediate control. Its main object is to show
how the methods adopted in practice
naturally have their foundation in ideas
derived from careful and accurate ob observation,
servation, observation, and to provide exercises in
actual agricultural procedure. At all
stages, the teacher should seize every
opportunity of demonstrating the pro process
cess process of nature so that the course of in instruction
struction instruction may include also facts con concerning
cerning concerning animal life, especially that of
insects.
In the revised edition yf the pamphlet,
considerable attention is devoted to pot
and box cultivation, and details are
given in regard to the preparation of
boxes and pots, the manner in which

seeds are germinated, the necessity of
water, air and shade for young seed seedlings,
lings, seedlings, the effect of the age of seeds on
their germination, the use of plant food
in the seed to the growing seedling, and
the best means for raising plants from
leaves and cuttings, the care of orna ornamental
mental ornamental pot plants, and the treatment
of plants with the object of producing
flowers and fruit.
With regard to garden plots, full par particulars
ticulars particulars are given as to selecting the site,
preparing the ground, planting hedges,
laying out plots, and the successive op operations
erations operations necessary to establish a well wellequipped
equipped wellequipped and successful school garden.
MONEY MADE IN HOME CANNING.
It is strange that the value of com commercial
mercial commercial home canning has never oc occurred
curred occurred to many men and women who
have raised garden produce all their
lives.
The majority have thought it neces necessary
sary necessary to raise garden foods during the
season, but the idea of keeping them
fresh, clean and pure as when first pick pickednot
ednot pickednot only for the use of the family
table in winter, but to assist in purchas purchasing
ing purchasing general supplies had never entered
their minds. They have had to learn
by paying an exorbitant tuition to the
clear-headed schemer of the city.
The grower has always been shy,
wanting the other fellow to take the
initiative risk. If the investor did not
lose money, then Mr. Farmer would en endeavor
deavor endeavor to follow suit. Such was the
case with commercial home canning.
Some years ago it was suggested by
a person who had enjoyed a very suc successful
cessful successful experience that I try home can canning
ning canning as a commercial proposition.
The public has been taught to live
from the package. All the work of edu education
cation education has been done by large canning
factories, but not at the expense of the
canning factory management, as the
grower has thought, but at the expense
of the grower himself. The grower rais raised
ed raised all the goods and sold them to the
factory at a small price, made by the
canning factory man.
The farmer will always do the grow growing.
ing. growing. Then why let the products pass
from his hands at less than a living
price, when he and his family can pack
a better quality of goods than can possi possibly
bly possibly be put up by a factory? Yes, he
will have to provide a convenient and
well made equipment, but these are not
expensive and can be purchased from re reliable
liable reliable manufacturers, who usually lend
every effort toward assisting the pur purchaser
chaser purchaser in securing valuable instructions.
Many may think (as I did) that they
know all about canning, but I am sure
many points would be brought out
which would aid in improving the quali quality
ty quality of the products canned.
Since I have been canning I have not
been able to supply the demand for the
goods. The canner I use is not large,
but it is built on the right principles,
and everything connected with it is easy
to operate.
I believe the time is near when all
fruit and vegetables growers will have
their own home canners. Its a money moneymaking
making moneymaking business.
Good tillage not only increases the
available supply of food of the soil, but
it conserves the moisture.

TWENTY-ONE



TWENTY-TWO

HOUSEHOLD DEPARTMENT
By Mrs. E. J. Russell

A Personal Appeal.
We thank all those who have respond responded
ed responded to our request for contributions but
we want still others to join in the good
work of making this department inter interesting
esting interesting and helpful. We hope every wo woman
man woman who reads this will consider it a
personal appeal to send us a favorite
recipe or tell how she performs some
household duty or something she has
seen or heard that has interested or
helped her. Even if it seems easy, sim simple
ple simple and insignificant to you it may be
just the thing someone else needs and
you will get more out of the Department
yourself if you give something to it.
So send us something at once. Mark it
for the Household Department.
VEGETABLES AS MEDICINE
Watercress is an excellent blood puri purifier.
fier. purifier.
Tomatoes are good for a torpid liver,
but should be avoided by gouty people.
Lettuce has a soothing effect on the
nerves, and is excellent for sufferer*
from insomnia. It also acts as a seda sedative
tive sedative upon the human frame, owing to the
opium it contains.
Celery is a nerve tonic; so are onions.
Spinach has great aperient qualities
and is far better than medicine for suf sufferers
ferers sufferers from constipation.
Beets are fattening, and good for peo people
ple people who want to put on flesh; so are
potatoes. Asparagus stimulates the kid kidneys.
neys. kidneys.
Bananas are good for sufferers from
chest complaints.
Cranberries are astringent, and correct
the liver when it is suffering from inac inaction
tion inaction caused by overeating.
Cabbage is good for pulmonary com complaints.
plaints. complaints.
Dates are exceedingly nourishing, and
also prevent constipation.
Danger of Over-Eating.
The process of digestion continues
from four to five hours; by the end of
that time the stomach is empty. This
gives us a very useful hint as to the
length of time that must elapse between
meals. If a fresh meal is introduced
into the stomach before it has had time
to empty itself, the process of digestion
is started afresh, and the stomach is
robbed of the necessary rest between
two periods of activity. The perfectly
healthy women should never take any anything
thing anything between meals.
Asa rule, three meals a day has been
found to be the best arrangement, and
there should be an interval of about five
hours between the meals. If possible,
dinner, which is the principal meal of
the day, should be taken after the days
work is over, so that comparative repose
may be enjoyed after it. The meals
must be served at the same hour every
day.
Gentle exercise may aid digestion.
The whole problem is one of blood-sup blood-supply.
ply. blood-supply. Severe exercise, by diverting a
great deal of the blood and nervous
energy to the muscles, would have an

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

adverse effect. Sleep immediately after
a hearty meal is injurious because of
the depression of the circulation. The
best employment after eating heartily
is frivolous conversation, which keeps
the heart alive, without making too
great demands on the brain.
Prevention Versus Cure.
I have taught my children, a care careful
ful careful mother was heard to say, to come
to me immediately for even a pin
scratch. I do not mean to exaggerate
little pains, but my father, who was a
physician, taught me how easy was pre precaution
caution precaution beside cure. I always keep on
hand two good antiseptics, listerine and
boracic acid in solution. Every fresh
wound or scratch is bathed cleanly and
wrapped in sterilized cheesecloth before
a particle of dirt can enter it. One so
often finds children with stubborn sores
cn their hands or feet, which take for forever
ever forever to heal. They were probably caus caused
ed caused by a rusty nail, by the dirty sort of
knife one finds in a boys pocket or by a
broken bottle which may have held any anything.
thing. anything. The ugliest wound of this sort,
if cared for promptly, will heal im immediately.
mediately. immediately.
When a cut will not heal, saturate a
piece of absorbent cotton with coal oil
and bind on.
For the teeth nothing is better than
five drops of lemon juice in a glass of
water. It will remove the tartar and
sweeten the breath.
A hot bath up to the neck may save
the life of a child in convulsions if given
at once. If you have no thermometer
at hand, test the heat of the water
with the elbow.
Dates contain 75 per cent of nourish nourishment.
ment. nourishment.
A paste of sweet almonds and benzoin
is a harmless skin whitener.
Thirst is more quickly relieved by sip*
ping fluids than by swallowing them
hastily.
Raw eggs are nourishing and health healthful
ful healthful and have proved beneficial in cases
of nervousness. They may be taken in
a glass of milk, or with grape juice.
Beat them up thoroughly before mixing
the drink.
Most persons drink too little water.
It is one of the principal constituents
of the human body and aids largely in
the important changes which take place
in our daily life and growth. It is more
necessary to life than food, as has been
proved by the fasting stunts of morbid
enthusiasts, who have lived forty days
without eating, while forty-eight hours
is given as the average length of life
of travelers crossing the deserts without
water supply.

The Most Nutritive Meats.
Fresh meats are highly nutritious;
but if they are cooked too long some of
the nutritive properties will be lost.
Fresh beef, mutton and breast of
chicken are among the most easily di digested
gested digested of the solid foods. Rare meats
are more easily digested than well done
meats. Veal, pork and all fried foods
are very difficult to digest. Steak should
be broiled; never fried.
A roast should be done in a quick
oven, so that all albumen will rapidly
coagulate on the surface and prevent the
escape of the nutritive juices. Or if the
meat is boiled, it should, for the same
reason, be plunged into boiling water.
To Keep Away Moths.
A bottle of camphor or oil of cedar
with the cork left out, if hung on a
hook in the closet, will keep away
moths without imparting a disagreeable
odor to the clothing. When balls of cot cotton
ton cotton are dipped in oil of cedar and placed
in boxes they become a good moth pre preventive,
ventive, preventive, and unlike the detestable moth mothballs,
balls, mothballs, they impart a delightfully clean
and fresh odor.
To Remove Mud Stains from Cloth.
Rub the cloth with a slice of raw po potato
tato potato if the stains are difficult to re remove,
move, remove, and they will immediately dis disappear.
appear. disappear.
To Clean Soiled Velvet.
First brush or shake out all the dust
and remove any grease stains from the
velvet with benzine. If it needs fresh freshening
ening freshening pass the wrong side first over a
bowl of boiling water and then over a
hot iron. If it is badly crushed brush
it carefully with a soft brush.
The Care of Clothes.
An important thing to remember
about clothes is that the wardrobe or
closet in which they are hung should be
kept clean and in perfect order. On a
sunny day everything should be taken
out of the closet and aired, the door left
open and the fresh air allowed to circu circulate
late circulate freely through the closet itself.
Care of Clothing.
On taking off a gown do not hang or
lay it away until it has been properly
aired, cleansed and repaired. Place the
bodice across the back of a chair in a
current of air; pull the shields out with
the sleeves, and leave the garment thus
until there is no longer a hint of the
dampness or ordor of perspiration. Also
air the skirt thoroughly, and the next
morning give it a good beating, shaking
and brushing to drive out every particle
of dust. This cleansing will be more
beneficial if done as soon as the skirt
is taken off, but it is generally more
convenient to postpone it until morning,
especially when the gown is removed
just before retiring. After the gown
has been aired and dusted, any spot that
may have been incurred should be at attended
tended attended to, and loose buttons or hooks
and eyes should be reinforced and miss missing
ing missing ones replaced.



CONTRIBUTED.
To Cook Rice Properly.
In the North where I was raised rice
was used only as a dessert and was
cooked until soft and pasty, so when
I came South, where it is eaten as a
vegetable, I tried to learn to like it but
with rather poor success until I got an
old-time South Carolina colored woman
to cook for me and the rice came ont<£
the table tender and white but every
grain whole and separate. I am as fond
of rice ever since as a native Southerner,,
Igot her to teach me to cook it and
this is her way: Wash the rice thorough thoroughly
ly thoroughly until all the loose starch is removed,
of the peach and plum, fruit rot, and
ajqnop u jo aaddn aqq. opii }i
boiler in plenty of cold water to which
salt has been added. Place over the fire
and boil gently, using a fork with which
to stir it. When the grains are barely
tender drain off the water as dry as
possible and place in the under boiler
of hot water to steam and keep hot until
ready to place on the table. Twenty to
thirty minutes is ample time to cook
it.M.
To Pan-Broil Steak.
It is not always convenient to use a
broiler to cook steak but it can be made
almost if not quite as good pan-broiled.
Place the frying pan over a hot fire
and grease it well, when it throws off
a blue smoke lay on the steak and as
soon as brown turn over and brown the
other ,side. If to be rare sprinkle with
salt and pepper and lay on a hot platter,
but if to be medium or well done turn
frequently until sufficiently cooked. In
turning always put the fork in the fat
or gristle and never in the juicy part of
the steak and never use salt while broil broiling,
ing, broiling, as it extracts the juice while cook cooking.
ing. cooking. A steel pan is best but any kind
can be used. J. E. C.
A Preventive of Ants.
Mix equal parts of tartar emetic and
sugar, and put it on individual butter
plates or other small dishes; slightly
moisten it and put it where the ants
mostly congregate, and they will disap disappear.
pear. disappear. If they should return after a
short interval repeat the direction and
you will have no further trouble to keep
clear of them. Mrs. I. S. K.
To Wash Glassware.
Much of the imitation cut glassware
may be made to look almost like the
genuine article if washed in the follow following
ing following manner:
Make a strong suds of Ivory soap and
immerse the pieces of glassware in it.
Rub vigorously with a soft brush, dip
up and down in the suds, do not dry but
drain. This will give a beautiful spar sparkleM.
kleM. sparkleM. I. McG.
To Pulverize Powdered Sugar
Powdered sugar is always lumpy and
I have tried many ways to pulverize it
The best way is to measure out what is
needed for use and put it into the flour
sifter and sift same as flour. This re removes
moves removes all the lumps quickly and easily.
J. S.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

To Clean Windows
1 have found this a comparatively
quick and easy way to clean windows.
With a brush or whisk broom remove
all the loose dust or sand. Take a soft
cloth, moisten with kerosene and rub
over the panes of glass several times;
then with a cloth which is free from
lint, rub the glass until it is bright and
the oil entirely disappears. Your win windows
dows windows will be clear and bright with only
half the work required for the ordinary
way of cleaning. The odor from the oil
disappears quickly, especially if the win windows
dows windows are left open for a few minutes in
such a way as to insure a direct draft.
L. E. M.
To Remove Coffee Stains.
The most difficult of all stains to
take out are those made by coffee. Most
everyone thinks that the garment is
hopelessly ruined if a drop of that stim stimulating
ulating stimulating beverage is spilled on it. But
with care the spot can be easily removed
from the most delicate silk or woolen
fabric, even if there is cream mixed
with the coffee.
Rub the spot gently with pure glyc glycerine,
erine, glycerine, rinse in lukewarm water and
press on the wrong side until quite dry.
The glycerine absorbs both the stain
and the grease.
To remove the shine from a dark
wool material sponge it with a solution
of common washing blue and water and
press it, while still damp, under a thin
cloth. This is said to be a very effica efficacious
cious efficacious treatment.
To Clean Straw Hats.
If the last years straw hat is not
broken and still retains its shape it
may be made to do duty a while longer
by being cleaned. For each hat take the
juice of two lemons; add enough sul sulphur
phur sulphur to make a thin paste. Apply with
a small brush, being careful to cover
every part. Then put in the sun and
when thorouhgly dry brush off all the
sulphur and the hat will be clean and
bleached as good as new. Mrs. Y.
To Remove Wrinkles from Clothes.
Hang the garment in the bathroom
over the tub. Close tho windows and
turn on the hot water. In two or three
hours they will be thoroughly steamed,
after which they should be hung in the
fresh air.
How to Shrink Cloth.
In making cloth suits, or skirts of
any kind it is well to shrink the goods
before cutting. Leave it folded with
selvage edges meeting, but roll smoothly
in dampened sheets and lay away for
twenty-four hours, or until the sheets
become dry. This saves a great deal of
future trouble, and also acts as a spong sponging
ing sponging process, making goods of smooth
surface, proof against rain spots, as
well as shrinking.
As every chick hatched carries the
blood of the male, it is important that
great care be taken in selecting the head
of the flock.

The Cultivation of Ferns.
The nature of a fern generally suggests
whether it should be grown in a pot, on
a tree stem, or in a basket. Those kinds
with creeping rhizomes do best in bas baskets,
kets, baskets, as a rule, whilst those which suit suitcrowns
crowns suitcrowns and fibrous roots are most suit suitable
able suitable for pot culture. One of the most
effective ways of growing many ferns is
on the stem of trees, palms, etc.
Although it frequently happens that
the conditions under which plants grow
spontaneously cannot be artificially pro produced,
duced, produced, the knowledge of the positions in
which they grow naturally aids materi materially
ally materially in their successful cultivation. It
may be safely stated that the majority
of ferns require shade and moisture.
Most gardens possess one or more spots
of this nature, under trees generally, and
in those situations ferns luxuriate if rea reasonable
sonable reasonable care be taken in their cultiva cultivation.
tion. cultivation. did
Ferns grown in pots require fresh pot potting
ting potting more or less frequently according
to their rate of growth; but it is advis advisable
able advisable to avoid over potting. Those plants
generally grow best whose roots are in
contact with the inside of the pots. Care
must be given to watering, as ferns re resent
sent resent over watering as quickly as any
other plant if the soil is in any way
water-logged or sour; on the other hand,
care must also be taken that the roots
do not become too dry. In the tropics,
ferns may be repotted almost at any
time without ill results. Pots should be
clean and dry when used, and new pots
should be thoroughly soaked in water
and then dried before using. The ques question
tion question of drainage is an important one,
especially where the rainfall is heavy.
When potting ferns, it should be borne
in mind that the majority of them grow
naturally in partly decayed vegetable
matter, usually of a soft nature; they
should therefore be made firm in their
pots, but on no account potted hard. A
compost of an open sandy nature through
which the water will pass readily should
be used; a mixture of two parts of fib fibrous
rous fibrous material, and one part of coarse
sand will be found to suit most ferns.
Basket ferns should be planted in fib fibrous
rous fibrous material mixed with lumps of peat
and pieces of sandstone and charcoal.
These composts may be given as pos possessing
sessing possessing all the qualities required by the
majority of ferns usually cultivated in
gardens. Many of the more delicate
ferns, such as some Adiantums, resent
too much water over head. A position
under a shady veranda suits these best.
It is only by experience and constant
observation that the best position can
be found for the more fastidious ferns.
Very often a move of only a few yards
makes all the difference between a good
and a bad specimen. Windy positions
should be avoided and care taken that no
manure enters into the potting compost.
An occasional application of liquid or
artificial manure is beneficial when
growth and root action are vigorous.
Pans of broken brick and coral rock
are very suitable for raising fern spores.
The pans should be kept damp, and if
moss or the minute algae which appear
on damp spots are growing on the rock,
so much the better. The fruiting fronds
should be taken before the spores are
blown away, about the time that the
sori become brown, and shaken or left
lying on the pan, which is then covered
with a glass plate. Agricultural Bulle Bulletin
tin Bulletin of Federated Malay States.

TWENTY-THREE



TWENTY-FOUR

THE CATTLE TICK.
How to Get Rid of This Parasite That
Breeds Texas Fever.
(By Dr. R. P. Steddom.)
The destruction of ticks which are on
cattle and premises is the first step in
procuring a free cattle traffic. The fol following
lowing following suggestions are therefore made
for the purpose of assisting owners of
small numbers of ticky cattle to get rid
of the fever ticks.
The term tick as here used is espe especially
cially especially applied to the fever tick (Marga (Margaropus
ropus (Margaropus annulatus). These ticks are the
more abundant in the latter part of
summer and fall, the other kinds being
rarely present after the month of July.
All ticks are harmful, however, and
should be destroyed.
The term cattle" should be under understood
stood understood to include all cows, steers, bulls,
heifers, yearlings, calves, and oxen.
Tick-free premises are those in which
there have been no ticky animals for
nine months previously.
Cattle and premises may be freed
from ticks by hand picking the cattle
even though they are allowed to run on
ticky premises, provided they are con controlled
trolled controlled and no other animals are permit permitted
ted permitted on the premises. The method of
hand picking and greasing is most suit suitable
able suitable in cases where there are but few
animals or for small herds where the
conditions for grazing cannot be chang changed.
ed. changed. The method consists in carefully
examining all the cattle daily and pick picking
ing picking or scraping off the ticks. In this
connection it must be remembered that
horses and mules sometimes carry ticks,
and therefore these animals must also
be thoroughly and frequently examined
and the ticks removed. The greatest
care must be exercised to collect and
destroy all of the ticks removed. It
is true that while this process is going
on the animals will get more ticks on
them if the premises are ticky, but by
diligently destroying all the larger ticks
the supply finally gives out on account
of the seed ticks having perished.
Arrange to examine all the cattle and
pick the ticks at least every other day.
All parts of the animals, especially the
insides and back parts of the thighs,
should be examined for ticks. If any of
the cattle are difficult to handle, they
should be driven into a chute or narrow
pen made for the purpose and where
good light is afforded. Ticks can be
seen best in sunlight. Ticks must not
be thrown on the ground, but should be
placed in tin cans or other convenient
vessels and carried to a suitable place
and burned or otherwise totally destroy destroyed,
ed, destroyed, or they will lay eggs, and seed ticks
will hatch in countless numbers. Begin
now to pick ticks and be sure that not
a single Tick matures on your cattle
after September 1. Asa result of your
trouble in observing the precautions
herein indicated during the summer and
fall, the cattle and premises should be
free from ticks by April 1.
To assist in preventing ticks from
getting on cattle the cattle may be
greased at the time of picking or as
often as may seem to be necessary. The
greasy solution is obnoxious to the

LIVE STOCK

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

ticks, and if the legs and sides of the
animals are treated in this manner, the
ticks will be less apt to crawl on them.
In greasing cattle, use Beaumont
crude petroleum or any crude oil, cot cotton-seed
ton-seed cotton-seed oil, fish oil or lard. The follow following
ing following mixture will be found useful for
this purpose: One gallon of kerosene,
one gallon of cotton-seed oil, and one
should be a hog wallow near by, the milk
pound of flowers of sulphur. Any of
the above may be applied with a sponge,
swab or brush, and should be thoroughly
rubbed on all the lower parts of the cat cattle
tle cattle and at least halfway up their bodies.
This method is practicable where
there are only a few head of cattle. It
consists merely in picketing the cattle
out on tick-free pasturage. The cattle
must be occasionally moved and the
places where they have been must be
carefully avoided for some nine months
thereafter.
On or before September 11 remove all
cattle (including young stock and calves)
from the pasture or range where they
are to be kept after March 15 of the fol following
lowing following year. Do not permit any cattle,
horses or mules on such pasture or range
during the period indicated. If the
premises in which the cattle are placed
during this period adjoin the pasture or
range where they are to be kept after
March 15 it will be necessary to set the
dividing fence over some ten or twenty
feet on the pasture at the time of chang changing
ing changing the cattle in March. Be sure to ex examine
amine examine every head of cattle carefully for
ticks before changing them in March. If
ticks are present on the cattle at this
time and are not destroyed the pasture
will become infected and the work will
have to be done over again. If the ticks
are frequently removed by picking :/id
the cattle are greased immediately after
they are taken from the pasture in Sep September,
tember, September, the danger of future infection
will be greatly lessened.
Any of the above methods may be
followed from midsummer until the fol following
lowing following April.
Select the method best suited to your
conditions and carry it out vigorously.
Help your neighbor to do the same.
Be sure that no other cattle pass over
the premises where cattle go unless
the other cattle are kept free of ticks.
Do not let a single tick mature after
September 1.
If everyone will do his part in getting
rid of ticks the cattle quarantine will be
removed.
Should you desire to Know more about
cattle ticks you may obtain Farmers
Bulletins 258 and 261 on the subject by
addressing the United States Department
of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
Hard Milkers.
(By Dr. David Roberts.)
This trouble is due to an abnormal
contraction of the sphincter muscles at
the teat and oftentimes reduces the
value of what might have otherwise been
a valuable cow as no one wishes to pur purchase
chase purchase or own what is termed as a hard
milker but if stock owrners knew how
easily this trouble could be overcome
they would never think of disposing of

a hard milker at a sacrifice, as is .now
being done by many.
The mere fact that a cow is a hard
milker does not indicate that she is not
a good milker, but owing to the fact that
she is a hard milker she is oftentimes
neglected at milking time by a disgust disgusted
ed disgusted milker who leaves a large quantity
of the milk in her udder that should
have been drawn out.
Stockmen who know how to handle
such cases oftentimes buy valuable cows
owing to the fact that they are hard
milkers and by the use of a teat plug
and a few treatments for hard milking,
cause them to become splendid, easy
milkers, thereby increasing their value
many more times than the cost of the
treatment. A milking tube should
never be used in such cases, as there
is too much danger of infection and the
results are not as good as from the use
of the teat plug.
Valuable Brood Sows.
An Indiana correspondent of Indiana
Farmer gives the following account of
the brood sows of one of his neighbors:
A farmer living south of Fountain
City, Wayne County, has six Duroc
sows which have farrowed and raised
135 pigs in fourteen months. In that
time lie sold ninety-two of them for the
sum of $1,378, still having forty-three
shoats on hand. These figures show
that the pigs sold* at an average of
$14.62; and if sold as pork they would
have averaged at least 200 pounds to
bring this sum. If the sows each had
pigs twice in the fourteen months they
averaged over eleven pigs at each far farrowing.
rowing. farrowing. Few men have sows that do as
well as that, but that is the .kind to
breed for.
Azoturia in Horses.
(By Dr. David Roberts.)
This is a disease which comes on sud suddenly
denly suddenly and is due to an acid in the blood.
It sometimes affects the front parts as
well as the hind parts, and the animal
may come out of the barn feeling fine,
ambitious, willing to go, and often goes
faster than usual, but before it has
gone very far it begins to lose its speed,
hangs back, sweats profusely, breathes
hard, and begins to knuckle over behind,
gets lame in one or both hind limbs and
in a short time is unable to go any fur further
ther further and often falls helpless on the road
in a paralyzed condition.
The proper thing to do is to place him
on a stone boat and haul him into the
nearest barn, place him in a large, well
bedded box stall or a barn floor where
he can be turned over often until he is
able to get up. Medicines should be
given of a laxative nature and that will
allay pain and counteract the acid con condition
dition condition of the blood. An injection of
warm water should be given to unload
the rectum of its faeces so that the ani animal
mal animal can if possible urinate. If unable
to do so, the urine should be drawn. A
stimulating liniment or a mustard plas plaster
ter plaster should be placed over the hips and
the body should be kept comfortably
warm. The animal should have plenty
of drinking water with the chill taken
from it, a very little, if any feed should
be given before he gets up, and he should
be fed on bran mashes and a very little
hay after he is up until a full recovery
has been brought about.



TWENTY-SIX

THE POULTRY YARD

Green Feed for Poultry.
We "have convinced ourselves oif one
thing, if no more, in the last few years
that we have been in the poultry busi business,
ness, business, and that is the value of plenty of
green stuff both for the breeding pens
and also for the baby chicks.
There is no doubt in our mind that
the prime cause for the lac kof fertility
in eggs that come from the North, so
early in the season, is the fact that it is
impossible for the breeders to get any
green food, and although the prepared
foods such as alfalfa and cut clover, help
out to a great extent, they do not begin
to be as good as fresh lettuce, mustard,
turnip tops, etc.
W'e always plan to plant early in the
fall a few rows of mustard, and then
when the early chicks begin to come in
December and January, we have some
nice tender greens for them.
At first we thin out the rows in gath gathering
ering gathering the greens, but later we simply
break off the leaves, and the plants keep
growing just like collards.
We also make it a point to give all the
breeding pens a good feed of these leaves
once a day at least, and the way they
go for it, proves that their system
needs the green food.
The result of this food, is a third
more eggs in number and a quite a per
cent higher fertility.
We had last winter one machine that
tested at 8 days better than 99 per cent
fertile eggs. In this case the machine
had 202 eggs in to start with, and we
only tested out two clear ones.
We also plant quite a number of yards
to winter rye, in the fall, and as soon as
the chicks get up to broiler size and
time to leave the brooders, we put them
in these yards and they help themselves
to the greens.
Later on in the spring when the Ber Bermuda
muda Bermuda grass has come up green, they go
on into still larger yards, which are
well sodded to this, the best grass for
poultry in the South.
So from the very start, up to maturity
the chickens have plenty of green stuff
at all times. C. FRED WARD.
Rhode Island Reds in South Florida.
I am a fruit and truck grower away
down in the southern end of the east
coast of Florida, but Ive got the Red
fever, and got it bad. I dont believe any
other breed or any chicken disease can
cure it. Its chronic and catching, too,
for I have already started four people
with the famous Rhode Island Reds.
The first Reds I ever saw were at the
Dade County Fair, Miami, Fla., two years
ago. I did not like their looks very well,
hut was persuaded by several friends to
try them, claiming they did better in
this climate than any other breed. I
claim so too, now, and like their looks
now.
I had been trying several different
breeds, with fairly good success, but
sold off everything resembling a chicken
and bought some thoroughbred Single
Comb Rhode Island Reds. I sent to three
different places for my start and got

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

the best utility hens I could and sold
off the least desirable of these when they
arrived, keeping the others for breeders.
I got the very best cockhtfels t could hear
about; got three before I found one that
suited llie, then sold the other two. The
one I kept was certainly a bird, admired
by all who saw him , fine shape and color,
large, vigorous and very broad breasted.
I have raised some fine stock from him
and he heads my pen of fine pullets riOWj
some of which are his dftiighters,
The Reds seem to just fit in here and
grow faster and lay better here in this
climate than any breed I have tried Or
seen tried, I have raised young chicks
on free range, Without trying to force or
fatten them, that weighed two pounds
and one-half at 10 weeks old and pullets
full standard weight at five months old,
and they start to lay at that hge.
The cockerel I raised for irly breeding
pen of hens weighed six pounds and one onelialf
lialf onelialf the day he was five months old.
He is a beauty and better than bis
daddy.
I have seen other full blood breeds go
back here under good care, but my Reds
and those of everyone around here that
I have seen, have made a big improve improvement
ment improvement over the parent stock, in size, shape
and color.
The Reds lay better here than any
others, Leghorns not excepted. A friend
across the road from me has Leghorns,
Plymouth Rocks, crosses and Reds in
separate pens, all treated alike, and the
Reds lay the best, especially in winter.
He told me that on account of the Reds
laying better and growing faster than
the others, and because he liked their
quiet, gentle disposition, he was going to
the Reds he could. Several other friends
of jnine have told me they, too, were go going
ing going to eat or sell everything else and
keep only Reds. I have never heard
anyone say they would get rid of their
Reds. They all want more Reds and bet better
ter better ones.
The Reds seem to lay their best here,
when most other birds are resting and
eggs are highest. They lay large, brown
eggs that are good to look at, good to
eat and good to hatch large, strong
chicks that grow rapidly from the time
they leave the shell.
I have proved to my satisfaction that
the Reds will respond freely to good
treatment. I did not take any care of
mine except to throw them scratch feed
and give them water, during the summer
when eggs were cheap, and they laid fair fairly
ly fairly well all summer. In the fall I started
to take care of them right, but did not
force them, for I wanted eggs for hatch hatching.
ing. hatching. Tnside of ten days of good care
they had doubled the egg yield. Then
I found they were lousy, and I mixed im
some tobacco dust, sulphur and insect
powder and dusted each bird all over
thoroughly, rubbing it in the feathers to
the skin, once a week for three times,
and thev made another increase in lay laying,
ing, laying, and have laid just fine ever since
and are still at it, while most flocks of
other breeds have been loafing.Frank
Zumwalt in Poultry Success,

Go Slow at the 'Beginning.

Aihbrig other items of interest to the
poultry World there appears in a recent
farm paper, a letter from Mr. M, B. Tay Taylor,
lor, Taylor, of Chestnut Poultry Yards. This
plant started in a small wgy in tlifc
spring of 1007, met with moderate suc success
cess success the first year; and thereupon in increased
creased increased the business to huge proportions.
The outlay, SI,OOO, was even less than
the running expenses for the year 1908.,
Mr. Taylor cites that from 26,000 eggs,
they hatched 10,000 chicks and of these
only ten per cent, or 1,000 chicks were
raised. The figures speak for them themselves,
selves, themselves, and show the futility of
ing in an unknown husinfess on a lafgd
scale. As weii may a carpenter, before
he learns his trade, undertake to build
a mansion, or a machinist, without prop;
er training} ertdeUvch tb construct ft
steam engiiie. The resiiit, in ali cases;
is bound to be failure.
I do not mean by this that poultry
raising is an intricate business. It is
quite a simple matter for a beginner to
set a few hens, feed the chicks, watch
them grow, and care for them; that is,
if he has good hehs and clean, roomy
quarters; indeed, it ali seems so eftsV
that many a sensible man is seduced
into large investments of incubators,
brooders, chick houses and yards, before
he realizes what the business is, and
leaves the small details which mean suc success
cess success or failure to the poultrvman. He
figures thus: If five hens bring in sea season
son season fifty broilers, with a minimum ex--
pense, why should not twenty incubators
and brooders make a fortune? He never
counts the eggs that will not hatch; the
chicks that will die, nor other accidents
that persist in happening, especially on
a large farm. Alas! that is why there
are so many today denouncing poultry
raising as a delusion and a snare; that is
the reason so many large plants are
short-lived, leaving their owners with
sore hearts, empty pockets and bitter
words for the poultry business. And
vet. if properly managed, I believe there
is no occupation in which there is
more profit than raising poultry on a
small scale. Begin slow; dont tackle
more than you can personally attend to,
and as you become familiar with the
work, increase very gradually your bus business.
iness. business. Let all vou do be thoroughly
done; never overcrowd in any manner,
nor plan more work than you can easily
attend to, and you can make a sure suc success
cess success in a work that has baffled the wise wiseskill
skill wiseskill of many a business man.
First, never hatch more than you are areready
ready areready for. both in brooder room and
comfortable, warm houses and yards.
Secondly. 7iever crowd vour brooders or
#/
houses. It is sometimes possible, under
favorable conditions, to raise fifty chicks
in one drove to two weeks, but to divide
them is far safer and better.
Thirdly, never overfeed, but rather
give plenty of litter and room for the
little ones to play in.
Fourthly, never let them mingle with
grown or hatched chicks or lice will be
the result. Keep incubator chicks to
themselves. Have green runs for the lit little
tle little ones, and they will well repay you for
your time and care, if carried out prop properly.
erly. properly. There is no branch of business in
which there is more pleasure, and on the
whole, more profitable; I mean on a
small scale. There is no surer way to
lose money than to start a larger busi business
ness business than can be rightly managed; I



Cleanliness in the Dairy.
By John M. Scott.
V
To be able to supply good clean dairy
products the following conditions are es essential:
sential: essential: Healthy cows, wTiolesome feed
and pure water, clean barns, clean barn barnyards,
yards, barnyards, clean cows, clean milkers, and
clean utensils. The period when the ut utmost
most utmost care is necessary to enable the thedairyman
dairyman thedairyman to produce good-fiavored and
wholesome milk is at the time of milk milking
ing milking and the first hour after. If at this
time a few essentials should be neglect neglected,
ed, neglected, any after treatment will make little
difference; for milk once contaminated
can only be made wholesome by boiling,
and this is objectionable to many, as it
destroys the pleasant taste.
r lhe herd should always have access to
cool pure water. If the herd while in
pasture should be compelled to drink wa water
ter water from dirty stagnant ponds or lakes,
it ought not to be expected that cows
under such conditions should produce
wholesome milk. The feed, as well as
the water, has a controlling influence on
the quality of the milk produced. That
is, if the feeds are sour or old, with a
musty odor or taste, they will impart
the same flavor to the milk. This is not
the only bad effect that may result from
using feeds of poor quality, as they will
also have a bad influence on the health
of the animals.
The stable or shed in which the dairy
herd is kept is of great importance, for
with a dirty, untidy bar it is impossible
to obtain clean, wholesome milk. The
barn should be kept clean at all times.
If the cows are kept in the barn the
greater part of the day, the droppings
should be removed at frequent and regu reguslar
slar reguslar intervals. If the cows are only in
the barn while being milked, the stalls
should be thoroughly cleaned as soon as
the cows are turned out. Dry or dusty
feed should not be given just before
milking. In fact a number of our best
dairymen do not feed until after milking.
In hot dry weather the floors should be
sprinkled just before milking, to settle
the dust.
When the cows are milked in the open
lot, the chances of the milk becoming
contaminated are greater during most of
the year. The wind carries all kinds of
germs with the dust, and in this way the
milk is soon alive with all sorts of or organisms.
ganisms. organisms.
The manure should not be allowed to
accumulate near the dairy barn, as It is
a breeder of flies, gnats and bacteria.
Fresh, warm milk very quickly takes the
odor from the manure pile; or if there
should be a hog wallow near by. The
milk while being drawn from the udder
will absorb the odor.
The vessels in which the milk is drawn
must be kept clean and sweet. Those
that are rough and rusty should be dis discarded,
carded, discarded, as it is impossible to cleanse
them properly.
All of these necessary precautions
may have been taken and yet a very im impure
pure impure milk may be obtained. This is due to
carelessness on the part of the milker.
Just before milking, the udder and teats
of each cow should be washed or wiped
with a damp cloth or sponge, so as to
remove dust and loose hairs which would
otherwise fall into the pail while milk milking.
ing. milking. The milker himself must be neat
and clean. His hands should be clean
and he should wear a clean suit and cap;
or is not a suit, at least a milking apron.
One should never milk with wet hands.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

All milk that is any way questianble
should be discarded. The milker him himself
self himself should be free from any disease.
Xo one should be allowed to do the milk milking
ing milking who has been taking care of the sick
or who has in any other way been ex exposed
posed exposed to a contagious disease. There is
no other food product in which disease
germs will live and multiply so readily
as milk.
There is nothing that detracts from
the value of dairy products so much as
dirt. Even if the milk sold is itself
scrupulously clean, yet if delivered in
bottles or cans that are besmeared with
dirt on the outside, the milk is naturally
condemned on sight. Or if butter is sent
(he market in untidy and dirty looking
packages the value of the product is
of course greatly reduced. Those who
buy milk are as much entitled to receive
wholesome milk, free from all injurious
germs and organisms, as if they were
buying any other food product.
The Jerseys are a dairy breed of cattle
whose home is the island of Jersey.
Jersey is the largest of a group of small
islands off the coast of France. The isl island
and island is only some ten or twelve miles
long by five or six miles in width, and
has the shape of an irregular rectangle.
This island was known in early times as
Cesarea, and it is supposed that the
name Jersey is a corruption of this word.
It is fairly well agreed that the origi original
nal original stock from which this famous breed
was slowly developed came from Nor Normandy
mandy Normandy and Brittany. The Jersey cattle
as a breed have been bred pure for a
longer period than almost any other cat cattle.
tle. cattle. Early in the eighteenth century
plans were formulated to prevent the
importation of any live cattle into the
island. About 1779 a law was passed
and has since been kept in force, pro prohibiting
hibiting prohibiting under heavy penalties the land landing
ing landing upon the island of any live animals
of the bovine race. The climate of the
island is in many respects very much
like that of a large part of Florida, the
mean temperature of the year being
about 51 degrees F. and the average rain rainfall
fall rainfall about 30 inches. The soil is very
fertile, and the land rents for SSO to SIOO
per acre. The farms are all quite small,
varying from three to thirty acres. The
land being so valuable, large pastures are
the exception, and the custom has been
to tether all animals. This of course
necessitates their being moved several
times each day. The climate being mild,
the cattle remain in the fields the greater
part of the time. Their feed is grass and
hav, supplemented by root crops.
Introduction of Jersey Cattle. Within
the last fifty years thousands of Jerseys
have been brought to the United States.
Most of them, perhaps, have been taken
to the New England Statts, but their
distribution has been far and wide, from
ocean to ocean, and from Canada to Cen Central
tral Central America, Cuba and even Japan.
From this wide range of distribution we
must conclude that they are a breed
easily acclimated to the conditions of
the different sections of this and other
countries.
Size. The Jersey is the smallest of
the dairy breeds, the cows weighing from
700 to 1,000, and the bulls from 1,100 to
1,800 pounds. This small size is due in
part, no doubt, to the continual selection
for heavy milk and butter producers
without regard to size. Within the past
few years a number of Jersey breeders
have been selecting for larger-framed

animals, and in this way hope to increase
the size of the breed.
Color. Unlike almost any other breed
of cattle the Jerseys have no set color.
They may be any color or mixture of
colors, such as white and black, red and
white, fawn and white, pale red, fawn,
white, black, or even brindled. At one
time and even yet in some sections there
is a craze for solid-colored animals.
Many people have the idea that no pure purebred
bred purebred Jersey has white upon it. This is
certainly erroneous; nearly all of the
earliest importations were broken in
color, and by a little careful study we
may find that a number of our most
noted cows are broken in color. At the
present time few breeders object to the
white markings, if high dairy -quality is
maintained. A careful examination of
the foundation stock on the island of
Jersey shows that but one cow in ten is
of solid color. The color, however, makes
no difference in the value of the cow so
far as milk and butter production is con concerned.
cerned. concerned. In the case of a breed which has
already a definite color or definite color colormarkings,
markings, colormarkings, these may serve to indicate
more or less accurately the purity of
breed of any particular animal. But the
expensive process of bringing up a breed
which has no definite color system to a
uniform color pattern is one for the rich
fancier, rather than for the farmer who
wants only the best milk-producing ma machine,
chine, machine, and perfers not to spend solid dol dollars
lars dollars on mere outward show.
Conformation. The Jersey cow being
a typical dairy animal, differs widely
from any of the beef breeds. From a
general view one would size her up as
follows: thin in flesh, or of a rather bony
appearance, the hook and pin bones being
quite prominent. The head is small,
short, broad, lean and generally dished.
Black nose, and muzzle generally fringed
with a fillet of light skin and hair. The
eyes are large, bright and prominent.
The horns small and waxy, often black blacktipped
tipped blacktipped and much crumpled. Neck small,
clean and fine; legs, the same and rather
short. Body well rounded, with good ca capacity
pacity capacity for food and breeding. Thin, light,
hind quarters, set well apart, giving
plenty of room for a large, well-formed
udder, with teats evenly placed. The
Jerseys as a rule may be classed as hav having
ing having a very nervous temperament, but
when properly treated and handled are
remarkably placid and docile.
Milk. Asa breed the Jerseys are not
noted for heavy milk production, but
rather for producing milk very rich in
butter fat, and so yielding a. large
amount of butter. Jersey herds averag averaging
ing averaging 7,000 to 9,000 pounds of milk per cow
per year are considered quite good, while
individual cows have often yielded double
that amount. Asa rule the milk tests
4 or 5 per cent of fat, and often indi individual
vidual individual cows test higher.
Edible nuts are becoming an impor important
tant important part of the food of the United
Slates. There has been a great increase
in the consumption of all kinds of im imported
ported imported nuts during the past few years..
In 1900 there was brought into the
country nuts to the value of $3,484,699
and in 1908 it had increased to $9,563,-
742.
Treat the surplus runners on the
strawberry vines as weeds. Dont for forget
get forget to cultivate.

TWENTY-FIVE



TWENTY-EIGHT

FLORIDA LANDS.
A Brief Description of the Different Kinds of Land found in
this State.

Commissioner of Agriculture B. E.
McLin incorporated in liis last quarter quarterly
ly quarterly report a brief description of the
lands of Florida, from which the fol following
lowing following extracts are taken. Want of
room prevents publication of the entire
paper, but the additional classifications
will appear in the November number of
the Agriculturist:
The average soil of Florida is sandy,
mixed with more or less clay, lime and
organic matter. The greater portion of
the lands may be designated as pine
lands, because of the pine timber which
predominates. There are lands on which
the timber is a mixture of pine, white
oak, red oak, water oak, live oak, gum,
bay, hickory, magnolia, cabbage pal palmetto,
metto, palmetto, etc.; these lands are termed
mixed hammock lands.
The general classification of soils is
in the following order: First, second
and third rate pine lands, and high
hammock, low hammock and swampy
lands.
The pine lands cover much the larger
portion of the State and the soil is ap apparently
parently apparently all sand, but not so; over a
greater portion of the State this sand is
thoroughly mixed with small particles
of shells which contain carbonate of
lime, other minerals and decomposed,
finely granulated vegetable matter. It
is true that Florida has her proportion
of poor lands, just as have all other
States and countries, but compared with
some other States, the ratio is very
small. With the exception of a very
small area of supposedly irreclaim irreclaimable
able irreclaimable swamp lands, there is scarcely
an acre in the entire State which
cannot be made, under the won wonderful
derful wonderful influence of her tropical
climate, to pay tribute to mans energy.
Lands, which in a more northerly
climate would be utterly worthless,
will, in Florida, for the reasons above
stated, yield valuable productions.
First Class pine Lands.
First class pine land in Florida is
wholly unlike anything found in any
other State. Its surface is usually cov covered
ered covered for several inches deep with a
dark vegetable mould, beneath which
to the depth of several feet, is a choco chocolate
late chocolate colored sandy loam, mixed for the
most part with limestone pebbles and
resting upon a substratum of marl, clay
or limestone rock. The fertility and
durability of this character of land may
be estimated from the well known fact
that in the older settled districts this
kind of soil has been cultivated for as
many as twenty years successfully in
corn or cotton without a pound of any
sort of fertilizer, and are still as pro productive
ductive productive as ever; practically, then, these
lands are indestructible. It is on this
class of lands that both truck and fruit
growing is most successful, and which
produces the finest quality of sea island
cotton. It is also fine farming land
and yields good crops under ordinary
methods of cultivation. By the grow growing
ing growing of leguminous plants these soils
and all other pine lands can be contin continually
ually continually kept in a high state of fertility.
Second Clnss Pine Lands.
The second class pine lands, which
make up the largest portion of lands,
are practically all productive. They
are not hilly, but for the most part un undulating
dulating undulating in their surface. In some
places, however, these elevations
amount to hills. Some of these hills
in Hernando county are regarded
among the highest points in the State.
Underlying the surface is clay, marl,
lime rock and sand. These lands, from

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

their accessibility and productiveness,
11 1 e facility of fertilizing with cattle
penning and the impression of their
greater healthfulness than hammock
lands, have induced their inclosure and
tillage, when the richer hammock lands
were near by, but more difficult to pre prepare
pare prepare for cultivation.
Some of these lands have no regular
compact clay under them, or, at least,
not in reach of plant roots. This fact
is taken frequently as an evidence
against them, since the popular preju prejudice
dice prejudice is decidedly in favor of a clay sub subsoil.
soil. subsoil. This objection, if it really be one,
is taken for more than it is worth, for
clay propei-, or alluminum, as the chem chemists
ists chemists call it, is not food for plants. Its
uses to the plant are purely mechanical.
It serves as a reservoir for the storage
of moisture in times of drouth as well
as to hold fimly the roots of the grow growing
ing growing trunk, but not to feed the hungry
or thirsty plant.
But light, sandy soils, though they
may produce freely at first, soon give
way, and this fact, for frequently it is
a fact, is regarded as conclusive as
against loose and porous subsoils,
whereas it only proves that these light
soils were not sufficiently supplied
with humus and the limited supply soon
became exhausted. Such lands can
easily be restored to their original fer fertility
tility fertility by the. use of leguminous plants,
r *otation of crops and careful cultiva cultivation;
tion; cultivation; in fact, by such means they can
be vastly improved over their original
condition.
Third Class pine Lands.
Even the lands of the third rate, or
most inferior class, are, by no means,
worthless under the climate of Florida.
This class of lands may be divided into
two orders; the one comprising high,
rolling sandy districts, which are
sparsely covered with a stunted growth
of black jack and pine, and near the
lower east coast, scrub hickory and
gaulberry shrubs. It is also on much
similar soils along the east coast that
the finest pineapples are produced. The
other embraces low, flat, swamp re regions,
gions, regions, which are frequently studded
with bay gauls, and are occasionally
inundated, but which are covered with
luxuriant vegetation, and very general generally
ly generally with considerable quantities of val valuable
uable valuable timber. The former of these, it
is now ascertained, is also well adapted
to the growth of sisal hemp, which is a
valuable tropical production. This
plant (the Agave Sisaliana), and the
Agave Mexicana, also known as Ma Maguey.
guey. Maguey. the Pulque Plant, the Century
Plant, etc., have both been introduced
into Florida, and they have both grown
in great perfection on the poorest lands
of the country. As these plants derive
their chief support from the atmos atmosphere.
phere. atmosphere. they will, like the* common air
plant, preserve their vitality for many
months when left out of the ground.
The second order of the third rate pine
lands are not entirely worthless, as
these lands afford fine cattle ranges,
and in some localities large tracts of
timber adapted to the manufacture of
naval stores and milling purposes.
Low Hammocks.
Low hammocks, which are practically
swamp lands, are not inferior to swamp
lands proper in fertility, but are con considered
sidered considered not quite so desirable. They
are mostly level, or nearly so, and have
a soil of greater tenacity than that of
the big hammocks. Some ditching is
necessary in many of them. The soil
in them is always deep. These lands

are also extremely well adapted to the
growth of cane, corn and, in fact, all
vegetable crops, nor are these soils as
subject to the effects of prolonged
drouth as higher lands. There is not
nearly so large a proportion of low
hammock as there is of swamp lands*
High Hammocks.
High hammocks are the lands in
greatest favor in Florida. These differ
from low hammocks in occupying higher
ground, and in generally presenting an
undulating surface. They are formed
of a fine vegetable mould, mixed with
a sandy loam, in many places several
feet deep, and resting in most cases on
a substratum of clay, marl or lime limestone.
stone. limestone. It will be readily understood by
anyone at all acquainted with agricul agriculture
ture agriculture that such a soil, in such a climate
as Florida, must be extremely produc productive.
tive. productive. The soil scarcely ever suffers
from too much wet; nor does drouth
affect if in the same degree as other
lands, owing to its clay subsoil. High
hammock lands produce with but little
labor of cultivation all the crops of the
coitntry in an eminent degree. Such
lands have no tendency to break up in
heavy masses, nor are they infested
with weeds.
To sum up its advantages, it requires
no other preparation than clearing and
plowing to fit it at once for the great greatest
est greatest possible production of any kind of
crop adapted to the climate. In unfa unfavorable
vorable unfavorable seasons it is much more certain
to produce a good crop than any other
kind of land, from the fact that it is
less affected by exclusively dry or wet
weather. It can be cultivated with
much less labor than any other lands,
being remarkably mellow, and its
vicinity is generally high and healthy.
These reasons are sufficient to entitle
it to the estimation in which it is held
over all other lands.
The first rate pine, oak and hickory
lands are found in pretty extensive
bodies in many parts of the State. From
the fact that these lands can be cleared
at much less expenses than the swamp
and hammock lands, they have gener generally
ally generally been preferred by the small farm farmers
ers farmers and have proved remarkably pro productive.
ductive. productive.
Ease of Cultivation.
Perhaps the most attractive feature
peculiar to the soils of Florida is the
ease with which they can be cultivated
as compared with stiff heavy soils of
other States, while quite as fertile. An Another
other Another is that the greater part of the
farm labor and tillage can be, and
much of it is, performed during those
months of the year when the ground
further north is frozen. Still another
pecularity is, that fertilizers can be ap applied
plied applied to greater advantage, because the
fertilizing material will remain in the
soil until the stimulating chemical in ingredients
gredients ingredients are assimilated and absorbed
into the earth, and are not carried away
by washing rains as they are in broken
or moutainous countries, and also be because
cause because the porosity of the soil enables
tlie atmosphere, through oxidization,
more readily to aid the fertilizers in
the work of decomposing the minerals
of the soil, thus setting free the food
elements they contain for the use of the
growing crops.
Squab Raising.
The most successful squab raisers are
those who have begun in a very small
way, and increased their sftocw and
equipment as the business grew. The
work is not particularly exacting or ar arduous
duous arduous and an extensive plant is unneces unnecessary.
sary. unnecessary. Common pigeons should uot be
considered. Homers or Homer crosses
probably are the best for the amateur.
Pigeons always go in pairs, and if there
is one extra male in the pen, he will
constantly cause trouble by disturbing
the mater pairs.



Meaii give it ydur persoriai fitteiltioii.
Dont start with a large or several
large incubators, and a hatch every three
weeks, until you can properly attend to
every hatch, and this means a lot of hard
work and attention. But just take what
you can attend to properly and you will
make .a success and enjoy it. The sum
of the text is: Begin Small.
MBS. C. V. W.
Maxton, IST. C.
General Poultry Management,
To have chicks thrive and gfdw with without
out without Check Or setback from downy puff puffhalls
halls puffhalls into iieaithy, hUstiirig, stout-legged
youngsters* we must catet to their eoni eonifort
fort eonifort arid wants, by not only feeding right
hut also in providing shade. It is front
the well-raised chicks only wO may fex fexhect
hect fexhect our most dfesirable layers, hreedets
and show birds.
In Florida one can hatch and raise
Oliicks successfully every month of the
year, but the late hatched ones must
have extra care if best results are to be
expected.
Wlifete blit a few are raised there is
usually ample shade at hand. I would
advise early hatching, as most satisfac satisfactory
tory satisfactory and profitable, where large numbers
are raised. Last year, with a total of
thirteen hundred, March 15th saw my
incubators put out of commission for
the season. This year the incubator
work was continued through April, as we
bad a larger yard capacity, provided
with shade and running water in each
yard, A few years ago shade in my
pens was a serious problem, and I plant planted
ed planted peaches, wild cherry, mulberry and
Umbrella trees; also the scuppernong
grape. All are q.uick-growing and drop
their foliage in winter when sun i& most
needed, and T would add right here, that
I afterwards had many a bushel of
peaches and grapes each season from
them. If the peach is planted, I would
suggest placing a wire guard at base of
trees, as the young stock may get busy
and girdle them.
There is very little danger of over overfeeding
feeding overfeeding chicks during their colony house
life. Their capacity for eating seems
unlimited, and it pays to feed well. Fur Furnish
nish Furnish what green food you can and sup supply
ply supply fresh water, grit and beef scraps.
This, with shade and clean quarters
should give well-raised youngsters that
you will be proud of later. The neglect neglected
ed neglected half-raised chicks are of but little
value, a disappointment for any pur purpose.
pose. purpose.
One glance at a flock of broiler-size
'chicks is sufficient to show if their owner
is doing bis part or has been neglectful
of the little details so necessarv for suc success.
cess. success. It is the little things, left undone,
that cause so many vexations, losses and
troubles later on. Few people realize the
importance of the little details, but in insignificant
significant insignificant as they may seem, if taken in
time. will, to a great extent eliminate the
troubles and losses in the poultry busi business.
ness. business. Tf you would have clear, easy
sailing. remember the ounce of preven prevention
tion prevention is everything. It really is a sim simple
ple simple matter to grow chicks right. There
are some who would be greatly surprised
if told their troubles, such as sorehead,
roivp, jiggers, et<;., may be traced back to
uncleaned house* or filthv water in foun fountains
tains fountains coated witfch a thick, green slime.
T often receive Jetters asking what can
be done for si
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

one eye closed s or what to do to cure
sore hettdbut oftener comes the query:
How can I get rid of the jigger fleas V
I must confess t kridw very little
about doctoring chickens. My remedy
would be the ax and buried deep.
There is very little necessity of having
siek birds or jiggers. If you notice your
fowls have a slight watery discharge
at nostrils immediately use a roup cure
in drinking water. It is but a cold which
if not attended to at once, will develop
into roup. Everyone should keep on
hand a box of the roup cure. The cold
may conic from various causes, but gen general
eral general iy from flithy houses or bad water.
It is spoil over with if taken in time, but
to wait until you cail send for the rem remedy
edy remedy often it develops into roup.
Sore head is a blood disease usually
appearing in late summer and fall. Sores
breaking out on head and face, scabs of
a fungus growth. This is also an un unsightly
sightly unsightly disease and doubtless due to mote
dirty water, sloppy feed artd Urtcieart
quarters. The chances are the drink drinking
ing drinking fountains were seldom if ever emp emptied,
tied, emptied, and cleaned, just a little more pour poured
ed poured insOme days, when not forgotten.
Here is where the Otirice of preven prevention
tion prevention comes in.
Scald the fountains occasionally. Dur During
ing During the six years on my former place,
with hundreds of birds, I had neither
roup, soreheads nor jiggers in my yards.
If those evils, especially jiggers, were
necessary, T certainly would quit the
poultry business. The jiggers are a
fierce proposition when once started.
They make their appearance usually in
long dry spells. They breed from the
droppings in dry sandy places, especially
in houses that have only dirt floor. They
can make life a burden to everything and
everybody on the farm if well started.
The long dry winter two years ago
brought complaints from all sides about
jiggers, many failed absolutely in rais raising
ing raising chicks. That we were fortunate in
having none was doubtless due to the
daily cleaning of all the houses, and
weekly oiling of roosts. A neighbor of
mine who left his houses uncleaned until
the spirit moved, and that wasnt
often had several million or more of the
nests to contend with. None of his
family would venture in to gather the
eggs, and when he did he was always
careful to pull on a pair of rubber boots.
They are very difficult to get rid of. If
thev fasten to chicks heads, sulphur and
lard applied will kill them, hut the only
way to rid the hen houses and yards
is to remove the fowls for about ten
days, clean and spray with some solu solution
tion solution or crude carbolic acid, and they will
disappear.
By using the ounce of prevention, it
is a simple matter to grow chicks right
and keep them in the pink of condi condition
tion condition from start to finish. We have an
ideal climate, good prices prevail for
stock and eggs, and by close attention
to the detail work, the business can he
made pleasant and profitable.
C. H. LANE.
Winter Park, Fla,,
Poultry Notes.
Examine the sleepy chicks for lice.
It is an advantage to raise turkeys,
not only for swelling your bank account
hut also for the deadly insects they de destroy.
stroy. destroy.
I There is not much profit in raising

turkeys around the house, They need
wide range,
It is all wrong to feed yotmg duck#
too concentrated a ration. They need
plenty of green stuff.
What Is prettier than a bunch of
thrifty chicks, all of one color and breed,
and as much alike as so many peas?
Young poultry delight in sunshine, but
the late-hatched chicks and turkeys must
have protection from the intense heat in
summer.
Insect powder has little effect on
mites. They must be fought by spray spraying
ing spraying coops and house with whitewash, or
some good liquid lice killer. Another
handy remedy that will cause mites to
take to the woods is strong salt wa water
ter water applied thoroughly while boiling hot.
We reap what we sow. The fruit orf
careful feeding and housing is young
stock ready for market while prices are
good, Fowls intended for early market
should be kept in close quarters just
light enough so they can see to eat. For
a fattening ration we like corn meal and
ground oats best.
A fowl house should not be a foul
house. Wake up and clean up. Lice and
disease germs thrive in filth. When
cleaning up look in the cracks and crev crevices
ices crevices about the avails and roosts for mites.
These pests do not stay on the birds ex except
cept except when hunting for blood.
The louse is a night hawk. It reposes
in some crack or crevice of the house
during the day, and sucks the blood of
the fowls at night. This fact makes it
easier for the poultryman to wage a suc successful
cessful successful war.
Now is the time to put in our best
licks against lice. Cant afford to let
them get too numerous.
Dont get too busy to empty and refill
drinking vessels with fresh water. A
drink out of the northwest corner of
the well on a hot day tastes as good to
the hen as it does to the human family.
Lack of business brings on liver com complaint
plaint complaint in hens, just as it does in men.
Poultry brings returns as quickly as
anv investment that can be made.
/
Asparagus or Lace Fern.
This is the name often given to As Asparagus
paragus Asparagus plumosus. When the plants
seem inclined to make one long vine
rather than a, bushy growth, nip out the
center when the shoots attain the height
of a foot or eighteen inches. Sprouts
will then appear from the roots or nodes
of the stem. If a plant fails to grow
satisfactorily shift it into a larger pot,
and add porous, fibrous loam for the new
roots to penetrate. The great beauty
of this exquisite foliage plant warrants
all the care that can be bestowed upon
it. Tt is really one of the most charming
of foliage house plants, and should be
one of the first chosen. It has no ene enemies:
mies: enemies: its culture is simple, and its prop propagation
agation propagation is readily effected by seeds,
which come up with certainty after they
have been in the ground for from three
to four weeks.
The cultivation of the eucalyptus tree
in Florida is receiving some attention
now. and it has been proposed that ex extensive
tensive extensive plantings in the lower part of
the State might become as profitable to
the investor as it has proved in Califor California.
nia. California. where the tree thrives and grows
with unusual vigor.

TWENTY-SEVEN



THE CITRUS EXCHANGE.
An Explanation of Its Method of Handling Fruit and Mak Making
ing Making Settlement With Shippers.

The recently organized Citrus Ex Exchange
change Exchange has issued the following bulle bulletin
tin bulletin (No. 3) explaining the manner in
which the fruit of its members will be
marketed and settlement made there therefor,
for, therefor, together with the charges which
have been fixed for this service:
For instance: A delivers 100 boxes
at the packing house; B delivers 100
boxes, and so on; each lot of fruit when
received is given a number, and the
foreman gives the driver a receipt for
the number of field boxes delivered.
The fruit of A is graded, sized and
packed; it turns out, we will say, 45
boxes Fancy Brights, 40 boxes Brights,
12 boxes Russets and 3 boxes Culls.
The next lot of 100 boxes turns out
10 boxes Fancy Brights, 60 boxes
Brights, 25 boxes Russets and 5 boxes
of Culls.
Each lot of fruit is packed separate separately,
ly, separately, so that there is no possible chance
of making a mistake. After the fruit
is packed, the foreman enters on his
book exactly the number of boxes of
the different grades which came from
each lot of boxes delivered at the pack pack
- pack ing house, and the grower is given
credit for exactly what is packed.
The car is loaded and the different
grades of fruit are sold on the market;
and when the returns come in, A,
for example, is credited with price re received
ceived received for each grade, and the others
are credited likewise.
In this way, if a grower delivers fancy
fruit, it is not mixed with other fruit
as seems to have been the opinion of a
good many; but each lot is packed by
itself, giving the grower the benefit of
the exact grade of fruit he delivers.
There seems also to be some misun misunderstanding
derstanding misunderstanding in regard to how the money
received for these shipments is distrib distributed;
uted; distributed; and we find that buyers are busy
circulating reports that it is frequently
several months before the grower gets
his money; also that the exchange is
liable, under its contract with the
grower, to assess him every dollar his
fruit brings, to pay the expenses of
marketing.
When a car of fruit is loaded, it is
forwarded and handled as expeditious expeditiously
ly expeditiously as possible. Our agents, who are un under
der under bond, are not allowed to do business
on credit. They are always required to
remit the results of sales within 24
hours after the same are made. The
checks are received at this office, de deposited,
posited, deposited, and our check for the amount
is forwarded to the manager of the
sub-exchange through which the ship shipment
ment shipment is made. The central office has
estimated the amount of money that
will be required to pay the salaries of
our agents in the different markets,
and the running expenses of the cen central
tral central office. Let us say the estimate is
10 cents per box, the board of direc directors
tors directors of the sub-exchange, which board
is composed of members from each
local association has estimated the
amount which will be required to pay
the expenses of the sub-exchange. (In
California it amounts to about 1%
cents per box). The manager of the
sub-exchange, on receipt of this check
for the car of oranges, will deduct
therefrom, we will say 12 cents per
box, remitting a check for the balance
to the manager of the local associa association.
tion. association. The board of directors of your
local association have fixed an amount
to be deducted for the cost of packing
material and packing house expenses expenseswe
we expenseswe will say, 40 cents per boxconse boxconsequently
quently boxconsequently there will have been deducted

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

from the proceeds of this car, 52 cents
per box, and the balance will be dis distributed
tributed distributed among the growers who fur furnished
nished furnished the fruit comprising this car carload.
load. carload.
This entire transaction, after the
fruit was sold, ought not to require
more than six or eight days at the out outside,
side, outside, and we think compares favorably
with the three or four weeks which
commission men frequently take in
which to make their settlements.
Among the Sub-Exchanges.
Reports indicate that about eighty
sub-exchanges of the Florida Citrus
Exchange have been organized in the
State.
Dr. F. W. Inman, of Florence Villa,
president of the Florida Citrus Ex Exchange,
change, Exchange, expects a total citrus fruit
crop of 6,000,000 boxes this season, and
says the quality will be unusually
good.
Titusville has recently organized a
branch of the Florida Citrus Exchange.
E. J. Devane, J. J. Bradford and A.
W. Carlton are directors of the Plant
City branch of the Florida Citrus Ex Exchange.
change. Exchange. Frank Devane was appointed
secretary and treasurer.
The Ozona branch of the Florida Cit Citrus
rus Citrus Exchange has arranged to pur purchase
chase purchase the large packing house there.
W. A. Lanier, W. L. Almand and T.
E. Fielder are directors of the Gardner
branch of the Florida Citrus Exchange.
A. G. Smith, F. M. Pringle and J. L.
Sauls are directors of the Waucliula
branch of the Florida Citrus Exchange.
At Eagle Lake W. E. Thornhill, T. A.
Curry and L. O. Feagin are directors of
the local branch of the Florida Citrus
Exchange.
The Arcadia directors of the branch
there of the Florida Citrus Exchange
are Dr. R. L. Cline, W. L. Carlton and
Dr. D. E. McSwain.
The orange growers at Gardner, who
recently organized a branch of the
Florida Citrus Exchange, are prepar preparing
ing preparing to build a packing house.
The directors of the sub-exchange cf
the Florida Citrus Exchange at Lees Leesburg
burg Leesburg are F. A. Perry, R. F. E. Cook,
of Fruitland Park, and F. B. D. Vaughn,
of Esmeralda.
The Ocoee branch of the Florida Cit Citrus
rus Citrus Exchange will have two packing
houses this season, it is announced.
At Oakland orange growers are ar arranging
ranging arranging to pool their fruit, which is
to be marketed by the Florida Citrus
Exchange.
Albert N. Rigby, C. A. Rollins and
W. S. OBrien are directors of the Tho Thonotosassa
notosassa Thonotosassa branch of the Florida Citrus
Exhange.
At Keysville R. P. Raulerson, K. B.
Carlton and N. J. Carpenter are direc directors
tors directors of the local branch of the Florida
Citrus Exchange.
At Bartow recent estimates place the
citrus crops of Polk cou?ity at about
300,000 boxes. H. C. Conner will be
manager of the Bartow branch of the
Florida Citrus Exchange.
At Brooksville J. M. Carter has been
employed by the local citrus exchange
to operate the packing house.
The Waucliula Citrus Growers Asso Association
ciation Association has appointed W. W. Bateman
as general manager at a salary of SIOO
per month.
A packing house is to be erected by
the local branch of the Florida Citrus

Exchange convenient to the growers
at Crescent City.
M. G. Carlton, W. O. Skipper and J.
H. Carlton are the directors of the
Zolfo branch of the Florida Citrus Ex Exchange.
change. Exchange. J. I. Roberts is general man manager.
ager. manager.
The Florida Citrus Exchange has re recently
cently recently employed Charles G. Harness,!
formerly of Los Angeles, Cal.* to look
after the bookkeeping department. He
has been connected with California
citrus exchanges for some time past
and is familiar with the work.
At Auburndale the local branch of
the Florida Citrus Exchange has
elected the following officers: W. A.
Sands, president; Dr. L. A. Simmons,
vice president; A. Gartner, secretary;
the Polk County National Bank, treas treasurer,
urer, treasurer, and the above officers and A. E.
Hines and W. C. Edminston, directors.
O. W. Sadler, Jr., has been chosen
temporary manager of the Highland
Citrus Sub-Exchange, a branch of the
Florida Fruit Exchange, the head headquarters
quarters headquarters of which will be at Eustis. J.
B. Booth, D. F. McDonald and T. A.
Smith are the temporary directors.
At Sarasota the local branch of the
Florida Citrus Exchange has been or organized
ganized organized with the following directors:
F. H. Tucker, P. A. Albritton, A.
Brown, L. L. Reeves and A. B. Ed Edwards.
wards. Edwards. C. L. Reeves is president ani
J. B. Chaplin secretary and treasurer
of the local branch.
At Avon Park a branch of the Flor Florida
ida Florida Citrus Exchange has been organ organized.
ized. organized.
At Bowling Green Irving Keck has
been elected president of the local
branch of the Florida Citrus Exchange.
It is reported that growers in DeSoto
county are getting well organized in
this movement.
J. H. Harp, A. P. DeWolfe and David
Dawes are directors of the Crescent
City branch of the Florida Citrus Ex Exchange.
change. Exchange. The orange crop in the Cres Crescent
cent Crescent City district is said to be unusu unusually
ally unusually fine this season.
Beautifying the Rural Home.
It is to be regretted that many coun country
try country homes, with their ample space and
unsurpassed opportunity for the cultiva cultivation
tion cultivation of choice trees, shrubs and plants,
present a dull, dreary, and uninviting
appearance. The farmer, occupied with
a multitude of duties and accustomed
to look at matters from a purely utili utilitarian
tarian utilitarian standpoint, may feel that he has
little time for beautifying his home. Yet
it is a fact, from the entirely practical
and financial point of view, that a small
sum judiciously invested in fine trees
and shrubs, with a little care and time
for their growth, will return many times
their cost, while their elevating and re refining
fining refining influence upon the inmates of the
home, and especially upon the minds of
growing children, is incalculable. To
surround ones dwelling with a collection
of rare trees and beautiful flowers, re reposing
posing reposing upon a well-kept lawn, is to cre create
ate create in sons and daughters an interest in
plant craft, a sense of pride in home and
an ardent love for all that pertains to
both.
Better lighted farm houses, music and
inviting reading matter on the sitting
room table have done much to solve the
problem of keeping the boys on the
farm. Make home attractive, and dont
crowd the work too hard.
Give your neighbor a lift when you
find a good chance, and you will find he
will be glad to help you out sometime.

TWENTY-NINE



THIRTY

INDUSTRIAL NEWS.
Short, Interesting Paragraphs Culled from Our Exchanges
Indicating the Prosperous Conditions in Florida.

At San Mateo F. A. Bailey is ship shipping
ping shipping grapefruit.
Jaudon Bros., of Miami, are prepar preparing
ing preparing to build a large packing house.
In the vicinity of DeLand a fair
yield of pecans is expected this year.
The lettuce crop at Bushnell is re reported
ported reported as doing unusually well this
season.
At many points the fall planting of
beans is said to be large, with the crop
making a good start.
At Pensacola Armour & Cos., the Chi Chicago
cago Chicago meat packers, are preparing to
erect a cold storage plant.
At Lakeland the Rev. Mr. Sparkman
is reported to have sold his orange
crop for $7,000 on the trees.
A large acreage of cabbage is to be
grown at Coleman this fall. The
growers already have their plants well
started.
The largest orange crop since 1894
is expected at City Point, on the Indian
river, this season. The yield is expected
to amount to 30,000 boxes.
With the preliminary arrangements
about completed, it is expected that
actual work on the Hastings drainage
canal will commence shortly.
In the vicinity of St. Petersburg
active work in the matter of improving
the country roads is being done. Good
roads are urgently needed by the fruit
and vegetable growers to facilitate the
hauling of these commodities for ship shipment.
ment. shipment.
W. H. Mcride is one of the largest
operators in oranges at Seville. He
will have a good crop from his own
groves and in addition will look after
the marketing of the crop of several
non-residents.
Owing to the favorable season the
strawberry acreage in the Lakeland
district has been increased this year.
Last season about 300,000 quarts were
shipped from that section, and some
estimates are being made now that this
seasons shipments will exceed that fig figure.
ure. figure. The orange crop in that district
is also very promising.
The Putnam county crop of citrus
fruits this season is expected to be
about 400,000 boxes. Prior to the big
freeze Putnam county was one of the
leading orange counties of the State
and is rapidly assuming that position
again. Only about 8,000 acres of the
countys total area of 490,000 are being
cultivated at present, which leaves
room for a large expansion of fruit and
vegetable growing.
An option on a large tract of land
near Largo has been secured by R. F.
Filcher, of Chicago, from Capt. M. W.
Ulmer. The deal involves about $20,000.
Wednesday of last week the direc directors
tors directors of the Florida Citrus Exchange
met at Tampa to discuss marketing
plants. At this meeting it was an announced
nounced announced that the exchange would han handle
dle handle about 2,500,000 boxes of citrus
fruits.
The American Pomological Society,
which met recently at St. Catherines,
Ontario, Canada, voted to meet next
year at Jacksonville, Fla. G. L. Taber,
of Florida, was elected a member of
the executive committee.
W. M. Keller, of Stamford, Conn., re reoently
oently reoently purchased eighty acres of celery
land, and in connection with A. P. Con Connolly,
nolly, Connolly, S. O. Chase and F. B. Forster,
also purchased a twenty-acre orange
grove at Orange Ridge, a suburb of
Sanford. A. M. Coburn, of Detroit, also

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

recently purchased fifty acres of Jack
Mitchell. The last sale was made at
$7,500. Mr. Coburn has been at Sanford
some time improving the property.
T. K. Wilson, of St. Petersburg, after
a tour of the Manatee river orange
section, estimates that the crop this
year will be about 30 per cent larger
than last year. The Manavista grove,
which had about 53,000 boxes of fruit
last year, is expected to yield 100,000
boxes this season. Some small ship shipments
ments shipments of grapefruit have been made
from that district.
At Ocala a branch of the Farmers
Union has been organized.
At Ocala the Ocala Fertilizer Com Company
pany Company is to build a fertilizer factory.
J. Webster expects to have five acres
in tomatoes at Dania the coming sea season.
son. season.
The orange crop at Leesburg is re reported
ported reported to be about 30 per cent larger
than a year ago.
J. H. Bratley, of Wichita, Kan., has
been investigating east coast lands
with a view of making purchases.
The Shanibarger banana farm, near
Taft, is expected to produce about 20,-
000 bunches of bananas this season.
H. A. Curtis, of St. Petersburg, is in
receipt of an order from California for
1,000 Avacado pear seeds for planting.
T. W. Jessett, a well known truck
grower of Jacksonville, has moved to
Sanford and will raise a crop of vege vegetables
tables vegetables this fall.
W. C. Temple is erecting an orange
packing house at Winter Park, which
is expected to be one of the finest in
that part of the State.
A crop of 20,000 boxes of oranges, it
is estimated, will be gathered from the
100-acre grove owned by Mr. Collins,
at Umatilla.
Edward and Cleveland Partin, of
Conway, will raise celery at Sanford
this season, operating in connection
with Mr. Cameron, one of the leading
Sanford growers.
At Tampa F. R. Moffitt, of Pensacola,
is planning to erect a factory to manu manufacture
facture manufacture vinegar from products of the
soil raised in that vicinity.
At Stuart O. O. Poppleton has this
season produced fifteen tons of honey
and is credited with being the leading
honey producer in the State.
Recent statistics show that about
20,000 acres of land are in cultivation
in Levy county, out of a total of more
than 700,000 acres in the county.
At Lake Fairview Davis & McNeil
will plant a crop of celery on their
sub-irrigated farm. They are leading
truck growers in that part of the State.
Arcadia is claiming to be the banner
orange point this season, estimates at
present indicating that about 400,000
boxes will be handled there.
At Citra fall truck crops are making
a good start and the orange groves
are in fine condition. Citra claims some
of the finest truck land in the State.
The growing of watermelons solely
for the purpose of securing the seeds is
being given considerable attention by
Jefferson county farmers in the vicin vicinity
ity vicinity of Waukeenah.
In the vicinity of St. Petersburg a
good crop of guavas is reported this
year.
At Dania, J. W. Osteen is arranging
to grow a fall and spring crop of veg vegetables.
etables. vegetables.
Crops in the vicinity of Clearwater
are reported satisfactory by T. J.

Spivey, who is a leading grower there.
S. B. Hill, of Maitland, says growers
in that district will make a special
effort to put up a fancy pack of fruit
this season.
At Orange City William Martin is
meeting with success in raising
bananas and will have a fair quantity
to market this season.
At Orlando the Orlando Farm and
Truck Company is arranging to drain
twenty-five acres of fine celery land
by means of a drainage well.
At Deerfield J. F. Saxon & Cos. have
planted a crop of Irish potatoes and J.
M. Cromer will raise tomatoes. Pep Peppers
pers Peppers and eggplant are also being grown
extensively there.
R. W. Crockett, of Jeffersonville, Ind.,
recently purchased from L. H. Ingram,
of Shingle Creek, near Kissimmee,
twenty acres of land which will be set
to citrus fruits: this fall.
The Kissimmee Gazette is authority
for the statement that the vegetable
acreage in that district has increased
about 1,000 per cent this year, com compared
pared compared with last years acreage.
At Frost Proof there are about 800
acres in orange groves, many of which
are not yet in full bearing. Within a
few years the annual shipments are ex expected
pected expected to amount to 75,000 to 100,000
boxes.
In the Dade City district the fall
crop of eggplant is reported as being
in very thrifty condition. Offers of
$1 per crate, if is reported, have been
refused by the growers. Dr. Griffin is
a leading grower there.
George B. Gardner, Andrew Fros Froscher
cher Froscher and Henry Carlile, of LaGrange,
and George M. Robbins and Frank H.
Boye, of Titusville, are the incorpora incorporators
tors incorporators of the Titusville-Indian River Cit Citrus
rus Citrus Growers Association.
The Arcadia Board of Trade has been
sending much literature to Northern
States, advertising that section as a
producer of fruits and vegetables. Re Recently
cently Recently many responses have been re received,
ceived, received, and as a result many Northern
people are expected to settle in that
district.
Many new settlers are reported ar arriving
riving arriving in Volusia county, and a good
many of them are devoting their at attention
tention attention to fruits and vegetables. The
recent heavy rains have put tne or orange
ange orange groves in excellent condition, and
a busy season is looked for. In nearly
all instances the orange trees are well
loaded.
A large acreage of Irish potatoes is
being planted near Lake Louise, in the
Seville district. The spring crop of
Irish potatoes was a profitable one and
more attention will be paid to potatoes
hereafter. The present crop will make
the third one grown on this land this
season.
According to Fred S. Morse, of Mi Miami,
ami, Miami, who has recently been assisting
in the surveying of Everglades lands,
it will be ten or fifteen years before
the present drainage project is com completed.
pleted. completed. In the meantime, however, he
expects large tracts of land to be put
in condition to be used for growing
fruits and vegetables.
In the Oak Hill district good crops
of oranges and vegetables are expected
this season. A. J. White has been
making a specialty of growing vege vegetables
tables vegetables out of season, and recently
picked some late melons, and may
possibly nave some later in, the fall.
Mr. Evendeck has made preparations
to set out a five-acre orange grove
there.
On the west coast in the vicinity of
Clearwater, Sutherland, Tarpon Springs
and St. Petersburg a considerably
larger crop of oranges than last year
is expected. The trees are in fine con-



dition, the weather recently having
been favorable.
The Prosper Colony, between Kis Kissimmee
simmee Kissimmee and Orlando, on the Atlantic
Coast Line Railway, and also on the
Florida Midland Railway, which con consists
sists consists of 60,000 acres, is attracting con considerable
siderable considerable attention from growers, and
the colony is being rapidly settled up.
At Seville the Blue Lake Celery Com Company
pany Company is cutting a canal connecting
Blue Lake with Lake Talmage, which
will materially increase the truck in industry
dustry industry in that section. Celery, Irish
potatoes and beans will be given spe special
cial special attention by growers in that dis district.
trict. district.
A. C. Sill, secretary of the St. Pe Petersburg
tersburg Petersburg Fruit and Truck Growers and
Shippers Association, has been at Rus Ruskin
kin Ruskin for some time superintending the
work on the Ruskln Development
Companys land, which is an associa association
tion association of colonists, who are developing
truck lands there.
At Lake Harris quite a number of
orange groves have been purchased re recently,
cently, recently, including one of sixty-two
acres, thirty-two acres of which are in
orange groves, for $7,000. F. Quarter Quartermain,
main, Quartermain, who purchased an orange grove
recently, will make English one
of his principal crops.
In the vicinity of St. Petersburg the
rainfall so far this season has amount amounted
ed amounted to forty-three inches, or ten inches
more than fell all of last year. During
the past eight years the heaviest rain rainfall
fall rainfall in that vicinity has been sixty sixtythree
three sixtythree inches and the lightest thirty
two inches.
W. E. Warren, of Wauchula, has put
up more than 5,000 cans of vegetables
since spring with a small home canner,
for which he is finding an appreciative
home market.
At Fernandina an artesian well is to
be developed on the land of the Nas Nassau
sau Nassau Truck and Farm Company, and
this is expected to result in increased
attention being devoted to truck grow growing.
ing. growing.
C. H. Tedder, of Hillsborough county,
recently issued statistics showing that
the average production per acre of land
in Florida is $142.90, or about the high highest
est highest of any State in the Union.
A Palatka man has devised a plow
for clearing land of scrub palmetto. It
is drawn by four mules and clears two
acres a day, reducing the cost of clear clearing
ing clearing such land from S6O to sls an acre.
On the south side of the Manatee
river, at Manatee, according to the
Manatee Record, 500 cars of celery will
be produced the coming season. The
celery industry is growing rapidly in
that section.
In the vicinity of Arcadia some of
the best orange groves in the State are
said to be located. Some of the grow growers
ers growers in that district include W. L. Carl Carlton,
ton, Carlton, C. Y. Crawford and P. R. Reid, the
latter being located at Bunker.
Walter Waldin, of Miami, recently
returned from a .trip to many of the
cities in the Central West and reports
much interest among Northern people
in Florida truck land. Mr. Waldin is
a leading truck grower in the Miami
district.
The orange crop in the vicinity of
Lakeland is said to be one-third larger
tha"h last year. The fruit is maturing
rapidly and is expected to be of uni uniform
form uniform size. One of the biggest crops
ever gathered is expected to be shipped
from there this fall.
If you want to keep the boy on the
faim, make it a point to enlist his in interest.
terest. interest. Ask his advice, talk things over
and make him feel that he is an active
factor in the responsibilities of the farm
and a sharer in the profits and benefits.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

f TOP WORKING THE ORANGE.
Some Successful Experiments in Budding
Large Trees.
By C. R. Ross.
Six years ago last July, I began clear clearing
ing clearing land for a citrus grove. In this por portion
tion portion of the State, nearly everyone has a
small nursery, sufficient for his own
planting and usually large enough to
supply a few trees to newcomers who
are anxious to get a quick start. Many
even plant the seed in the field where
the trees are to stand, bud the seedlings
and afterwards thin to the strongest and
best tree. This method of small nur nurseries
series nurseries is a good one. The trees stand
transplanting much better than to ship
from a distance, as there are no soil and
climatic differences to be taken into con consideration.
sideration. consideration. The possibility of introduc
ing insect pests is lessened and the ex
pense for trees is reduced to a minimum.
I had had no experience at that time
and was anxious to get out a few trees
at once so patronized one of the small
home nurseries. I bought two dozen or orange
ange orange and grapefruit trees and my neigj
bor very kindly threw in for good meas measure
ure measure two lime trees which I had admired.
These trees were two years old at the
time and while they had been neglected,
they had a good top growth and looked
very fine to my inexperienced eyes. I
trimmed them back to a bushy top and
planted them near the house for orna ornamentals.
mentals. ornamentals. By care in planting and liberal
watering, the trees lived and did not
even drop their leaves.
For a time they grew very thriftily,
but finally the scale attacked them and
in its wake came the red spider and
the mealy bug. I used kerosene emul emulsion
sion emulsion and sulphur for their various
troubles and succeeded in freeing them
from insect pests, but they seemed to
have received a set-back and it required
constant watchfulness to keep them
clean. The thick top of a lime tree in invites
vites invites scale and will harbor insects under
the most favorable conditions.
After three years, I had acquired some
knowledge of citrus trees and budding,
and decided to change these trees to
something more profitable. I was unable
to get a bud to take near the base of the
first tree, as the bark was hard and
thick, so determined to top-work the
tree something uncommon in the citrus
business, in this section at least. The
first tree, I trimmed up to three main
branches and put in two grapefruit buds
and one orange bud, five feet above
the ground, using the ordinary method of
budding, i. e., a slit in the bark up and
down the branch, one across and a bud
cut from one year wood inserted and cov covered
ered covered with wax cloth.
The operation is not difficult, and a lit little
tle little experimenting will make perfect.
The second tree was not as large and
the bark was more tender, so I tried two
kumquat buds, one below the other and
about two feet from base of tree. Ordi Ordinarily
narily Ordinarily these are harder to put in than
either grapefruit or orange buds, but in
this case I was successful and all five of
my buds grew off nicely.
For some time it was necessary to cut
off the sprouts from the old tree which
would put out below the buds, but as
the new top began to get some size, it
seemed able to take all the nourishment

that the roots could furnish and the
sprouts ceased to come.
These buds were put in in May. One
year from that time, the first tree
bloomed and set a cluster of eight grape grapefruit,
fruit, grapefruit, which matured heavy j smooth fruit.
The kumquat tree also bore a crop of
the little spicy fruits. In the spring of
the following year, two years from the
time the buds were put in, both trees
bore a full crop, grapefruit and oranges
Delray, Fla.
Flowering of Wistarias.
It is quite common for those who have
Chinese wistaria vines to wonder why
it is that the vines are so long coming
into a flowering condition, and sometimes
it is surmised that there may be more
than one variety of it. As nearly all
the vines of it sold are seedlings it is not
unlikely there may be some variation in
their character, but the fact is that this
vine takes a half dozen or more years
before it begins to bear, often longer,
and, too, its flowering largely depends on
where it is planted. If in a position fa favorable
vorable favorable to extensive growth there will
be more years passed before flowering
than there would be were the position
one where growth was hampered in the
way of supports for a lengthy growth.
Tied to a stake or grown as a bush it
flowers much sooner than if set to reach
the top of a three-story building. While
there is work to do in the way of grow growing,
ing, growing, there is little disposition to flower,
and the differences displayed in time of
flowering that so many notice is more
likely to come from the causes named
than from any variation In the species.
When flowers are preferred to exten extensive
sive extensive growth, it is very likely that root
pruning a vine would cause the flowers
to appear if the vine is of some age and
apparently of a size that it would
flower.
Mentioning variations, it seems un unquestioned
questioned unquestioned that seedlings are often of a
lighter color than their parepts. In Instances
stances Instances of seedlings almost white have
been noticed, and thus there is one va variety
riety variety quite white, in cultivation, and
presumably it is a seedling.
When wistarias are transplanted they
should be cut back severely. They rare rarely
ly rarely fail to grow then. When poorly
rooted and carrying a heavy top they
are very slow in breaking afresh, yet
rarely die outright. Many cases have
been noted where large plants remained
dormant a whole season after trans transplanting,
planting, transplanting, pushing their growth a year
later, then thriving well.
Effect of Good and Bad Roads.
In issuing a call for a .State good
roads meeting that was held at Louis Louisville
ville Louisville last fall Governor Augustus E.
Willson, of Kentucky, said:
There is nothing which hurts the
people more or costs the people more or
keeps them back more than bad roads.
They make it hard to leave home, hard
to gel back, hard to haul, hard to visit,
hard to get to heaven sometimes, there
is nothing that a man can think of that
will do more to help the people than
good roads, which make it easy to travel,
easy to bring goods home, easy to haul
your produce and manufactures to mar market,
ket, market, easy to go to school and church and
easy to avoid many bitter thoughts that
bad roads cause.

THIRTY-ONE



THIRTY-TWO

Cheap Protection from Lightning.
As from 700 to 800 people are killed,
twice as many injured, and an immense
amount of property destroyed by light lightning
ning lightning every year, Professor Henry, of the
Weather Bureau, thinks more attention
should be given to protection from light lightning.
ning. lightning. The professor has recently pre prepared
pared prepared a paper on this subject, and it has
been published as Farmers Bulletin No.
367 of the United States Department of
Agriculture. In explaining what light lightning
ning lightning is and how to prevent buildings
from being struck, he gives an instruc instructive
tive instructive elementary discussion of electricity,
conductors and non-conductors, positive
and negative electrification, and elec electricity
tricity electricity in thunder storms.
It is the practical part of this paper,
however, which will appeal most strong strongly
ly strongly to the farmers of the country. Pro Professor
fessor Professor Henrv shows how lightning rods
that are inexpensive yet effective may
be put up by anybody. The following
is his list of the necessarv materials:
Enough galvanized iron telegraph wire
to serve for the rod, a pound of galvan galvanized
ized galvanized iron staples to hold the wire in
place, a few connecting trees, and a
pound of aluminum paint. He says:
While iron is not so good a conductor as
copper, it is less likely to cause danger dangerous
ous dangerous side flashes, and it also dissipates
the energy of the lightning flash more
effectively than does the copper.
The methods of putting up the rods is
explained and illustrated. This bulletin
is for free distribution.
. Corn in Texas
Early this year there was held a
Texas Corn Exhibit at Sherman, at
which all parts of the state were repre represented,
sented, represented, and Prof. Saunders of the United
States Department of Agriculture, acted
as judge of the show.
In the finer points of corn production,
Prof. Saunders stated that the ears, gen generally,
erally, generally, lacked the finish which comes
from long and careful breeding, but that
this did not come from soil or climate,
but was owing to lack of sufficient study
on the part of the corn growers. The
white corn was better selected than the
yellow. This show recorded more ex exhibits
hibits exhibits than any other show in the South Southwest
west Southwest in the past, showed a superior
quality of corn, denoted a great enthu enthusiasm
siasm enthusiasm in the growing of Texas corn for
1909, and was a practical school of in instruction
struction instruction for all who attended.
Which leads us to ask if a special
Florida Corn Show could be planned for
the next State Fair?
.A National Highway Association
The organization of a National High Highway
way Highway Association having in view legisla legislative
tive legislative action by Congress and by States to toward
ward toward the construction of a highway from
Maine to Florida, from New York by
way of the Middle West to Seattle and
thence down the coast to Los Angeles,
is worthy of consideration and ample
support. But why stop at Los Angeles?
Why not cross the Arizona country into
Texas and through the Gulf States to
converge with the Florida end ? The
Association has been incorporated under
the laws of Florida, with John A. Stew Stewart
art Stewart of New York as President, J. E. In Ingraham
graham Ingraham of Florida as Treasurer and
Editor Harry L. Brown of the St. Au Augustine
gustine Augustine Record as Secretary.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

If your neighbor seems to get along
better than you do; if his farm, which is
right alongside yours and ought to be no
better soil than yours, raises better
crops than yours does; if he seems to
get along easier than you do, watch him,
study his methods. There is a reason for
it. and you can learn from him if you
will.
A tired horse just in from the hard
work of the field is in no condition to
fill up on grain. Water, and rub down,
and let stand for a while before feeding.
In this way the digestive organs will be
ready to begin their work with vigor,
and the rest and the feed during the
night, will put him in vigorous condition
for the work of the next day.

Jacksonville, Florida I
Hmental, Shade Trees, Hedges and I
Shrubbery too. Write for catalog of the I
in 69 BEST ROSES EaulAsl

FINELY-FINISHED, HAND-MADE
I. X. L. Picture Puzzles
HAVE YOU SOLVED ANY YET?
If not, why not? Try one, you will try more-
Fascinating for Shut-Ins, for Leisure Hours, for
Puzzle-Parties, favors for Germans, for Prizes, for
Children for Every Body, all the Time.
Colored or Black and White: Ready-made or Made
to Order from Your Own Pictures or Photographs
Prices range from 50c to several DoHars, ac according
cording according to Size and Number of Pieces in Puzzle
For reliability, refer to the Editor of this paper
and to Miss Helen Harcourt, Leesburg, Florida
Send your order for I. X. L. pictures to
H. G. WARNER,

SLUG-SHOT
USED FROM OCEAN TO OCEAN FOR 27 YEARS.
Nt *" ** Saves Currants, Potatoes, Cabbage, Melons, Flowers,
Trees and Shrubs from Insects. Put up in popular pack packages
ages packages at popular prices. Write for free pamphlet on Bugs,
TRADE MARK B HAMMOND, Fishkill-on-Hudson, New York.

Animal for animal, mules bring a
higher price than horses. Why not raise
a few ?
A good cultivation during the dry spell
is as good as a rain storm, for it puts a
mulch upon the top which keeps the
moisture in the soil from evaporating
and makes it more available for the
plants.
John E. Frampton
BICYCLES and REPAIRING
35 E. Adams St. Jacks nville, Fla.
TELEHONE 837



nl S. OCEAN ST.
Walton Seed Cos.
We make a Specialty of
Burpees Seeds. Also sell
Poultry Supplies, Insect Insecticides,
icides, Insecticides, Etc.
7 South Ocean Street
JACKSONVILLE, FLA.

Jacksonville
Floral Cos.
Flowering
BULBS
HYACINTHS
NARCISSUS
FREESIAS
ETC x
Violet a.nd
Pansy Plants
at the
Flower Shop
Phone 3296 20 Laura St.
Greenhouses and Nursery
Evergreen Cemetery

i Woods Descriptive 1
Fall Seed Catalog
now ready, gives the fullest
information about all
Seeds for the
Farm and Garden,
Grasses and Clovers,
Vetches, Alfalfa,
Seed Wheat, Oats.
Rye, Barley, etc.
Also tells all about
Vegetable & Flower Seeds
that can be planted in the fall to
advantage and profit, and about
Hyacinths, Tulips and other
Flowering Bulbs, Vegetable and
Strawberry Plants, Poultry
Supplies and Fertilizers.
Every Farmer and Gardener should
have this catalog. It is invaluable in
its helpfulness and suggestive ideas for
a profitable and satisfactory Farm or
Garden. Catalogue mailed free on
request. Write for it.
T. W. WOOD & SONS,
i Seedsmen, Richmond, Va. I

It Is the Day After the Accident
THAT YOU NEED AN
ACCIDENT POLICY
Then you need a good one, in a good .Company. The
Florida Life Insurance Company isja good Company. It
issues good policies policies that cover every accident and
every illness

When you are disabled by accident or
sickness, our policies will pay you from
$20.00 to $200.00 per month. The cost
is low lower than you pay for fire
insurance.

We would like for you to know more about them. You
may never have needed one before But you may need one
tomorrow.
BETTER GET IT TO DA Y

Special ISotice!
To the first 100 men who fill out and return
the coupon below, we will send postpaid, free of
charge, a useful souvenir.
Address
Florida Life Insurance Cos.
Jacksonville Fla

To The Florida Life Insurance Company,
Jacksonville, Florida.
Gentlemen:
Please send me free of cost, the useful souvenir adver advertised
tised advertised above. Yours very truly,
Name
P. 0. Address
My Age is Years.
My occupation is



Are You Weary of the Struggle?
DO YOU WANT A HOME?
Five Acre Tracts
IN THE BEST AGRICULTURAL
LANDS OF FLORIDA.
Only 49 Miles from Jacksonville.
TEN YEARS TIME,
ONLY SIX PER CENT.
r 1 ;.51 )
Nothing to Be Paid on Principal for Ten
Years Unless You Choose.
Lumber for a Home on Same Easy Terms.
County is shown by statistics to be Healthiest Section in the World.
Only 1 7-10 deaths per thousand per annum
as shown by statistics.
Write for full particulars to
Ideal American Corporation
JOHNSTOWN, BRADFORD CO., FLA.
O R
409 Masonic Temple, Jacksonville, Fla Please Mention Florida Agriculturist