Citation
The Florida agriculturist

Material Information

Title:
The Florida agriculturist
Uniform Title:
Florida agriculturist (De Land, Fla.)
Place of Publication:
DeLand Fla
Publisher:
Kilkoff & Dean
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Monthly[1908-June 1911]
Weekly[ FORMER 1878-1907]
monthly
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ;

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agriculture -- Florida ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- De Land (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Volusia County (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Jacksonville (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Duval County (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Genre:
newspaper ( marcgt )
newspaper ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Florida -- Volusia -- DeLand
Coordinates:
29.02889 x -81.30055 ( Place of Publication )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1, no. 1 (May 15, 1878)-v. 38, no. 6 (June 1911).
Numbering Peculiarities:
Numbering is irregular.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Some issues for 1911 also called "New series."
General Note:
Publisher: E.O. Painter, <1887>.
General Note:
Editor: C. Codrington, 1878- .
General Note:
"A journal devoted to state interests."
General Note:
Published at Jacksonville and De Land, <1902>-1907; at Jacksonville, 1907- .
Funding:
Funded by NEH in support of the National Digital Newspaper Project (NDNP), NEH Award Number: Project #00110855

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item.
Resource Identifier:
000941425 ( ALEPH )
01376795 ( OCLC )
AEQ2997 ( NOTIS )
sn 96027724 ( LCCN )

Related Items

Preceded by:
Volusia County herald (De Land, Fla.)

Full Text
Only Paper East of Rocky Mountains Making a Specialty of Tropical and Semi-Tropical Agriculture

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Six Per Cent Real Estate Loans
To Buy, Build or Lift Mortgages
v gpir
Own Your Home. Stop Paying Rent.
Our Plan Is the Key
Do you want to save your money? Do you want to own your home?
Do you want to become independent? Do you want to own your business
Do you want to accumulate property? house?
The SI,OOO Guaranteed Investment Do you want to stop paying rent?
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sure insure and profitable returns. dependent of your landlord.
If interested cut out this coupon and mail it today to William C. Furse, General Agent.
SOUTHERN STATES TRUST CO, Inc., 18 Blum Building, Jacksonville, Fla.
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SOUTHERN STATES TRUST CO.
FLORIDA BRANCH OFFICE
18 BLUM BUILDING, = = JACKSONVILLE FLA.



A FEW FINE REAL ESTATE OPPORTUNITIES
Orange Groves, Vegetable Lands, Farms and Homes
Suggested by the many inquiries received daily regarding Florida and its opportunities
for homes and investments, the Agriculturist some time ago published the following :
If you have more land than you really need sell some of it at a reasonable price and
surround yourself with good neighbors, and thus let us fill up the State with industrious
people who will make homes here and add to the general prosperity. The Agricultur st
receives letters almost every day asking about homes in Florida, mostly small places worth
SI,OOO to SIO,OOO, already planted, or suita le for planting, to oranges, pineapples, peaches
or pecans, and on which they can grow truck or raise poultry profitably until their trees
come into bearing. If any of our readers have such property that they will sell cheap, and
will furnish us a full description and location of same, with price and terms, we may be
able to put them in communication with a purchaser.
In response to this we have received descriptions of a number of properties, of which
the following is a partial list:

No. 11. Nice farm two miles from
Orlando; 40 acres, all fenced; 400
orange, tangerine and grapefruit trees,
more than half bearing; seven room
house, new packing house and other
buildings; horse, wagon, farm imple implements,
ments, implements, chickens, etc. Price for the
whole, $2,000.
No. 12. Twenty-six and one-half
acres, one and one-half miles from
Leesburg; house of eight rooms, finely
finished in native woods, stables, etc.;
500 orange trees and small fruits; clear
water lake on the tract; fine place for
chicken ranch. Price SI,BOO.
No. 14. Ten acres four miles from
Sorrento, Lake county; four room house
and small barn; 120 orange and grape grapefruit
fruit grapefruit trees, 40 pear trees, mostly bear bearing;
ing; bearing; 30 peach trees; nice front yard
set with flowers and evergreens; good
well of water. Price $750.
No. 15. Thirty acres good truck
land, three miles from Sorrento; ten
acres cleared and in cultivation; good
ordinary six room house, barn and oth other
er other buildings; about twenty peach
trees. Ten acres is good round timber,
and remaining ten acres has some small
timber on it. Price $750.
No. 17. About one-fourth mile from
No. 25, tract of 25 acres, from which
timber has mostly been cut off. Good
fruit and vegetable land. Price $lO
per acre.
No. 20. Fifty-acre farm one and one onequarter
quarter onequarter miles from Eustis; 15 acres
cleared, balance pine timber; 500 bud budded
ded budded orange trees, half bearing; 600
bearing peach trees; six room cottage
in good condition, newly painted; barn,
etc. This place is worth $3,500, but for
a quick sale is priced at $2,000.
No. 21. Fifty acres fine muck land
in Lake county, good for trucking or
alfalfa; no irrigation or fertilizer need needed.
ed. needed. Price SSO acre.
No. 22. Fine two-story eight room
house and five acres of land all plant planted
ed planted to orange and grapefruit trees, sixty
of them bearing. One mile from Punta
Gorda. Price $4,000.
No. 23. Forty-acre farm in Lake
county, 20 acres in oranges and grape grapefruit,
fruit, grapefruit, fifteen years old; figs, peaches
and other fruits; three room house,
small barn and other outbuildings; near
railroad station and in good neighbor neighborhood.
hood. neighborhood. A bargain at $1,800; terms.
No. 30. Twenty acres near Winter
Park; good six room house and barn;
small orange grove. Price $2,600;
terms.

If you are interested and do not find anything to suit you in the above list write us
your wants, inclosing stamp for reply, and we may be able to locate it for you.
Address all communications on this subject to
REAL ESTATE DEPARTMENT, FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST,
Board of Trade Building, Jacksonville, Fla.

No. 26. Eleven acres three miles
south of Sanford, with nearly new two twostory,
story, twostory, eight room house; close to rail railroad
road railroad and postoffice; ideal winter home
in healthy location. Price only SI,OOO.
No. 28. Ten acres of first class pine pineapple
apple pineapple land and 10 acres fine muck
land suitable for tomatoes and all
kinds of vegetables; near East Coast
Railroad, the Hillsboro river, East
Coast Canal, and on good hard road,
between West Palm Beach and Miami;
one of the best bargains in Florida.
Full description and price on request.
No. 29. Fine 10-acre orange grove
in Manatee county, containing 550 old
bearing orange and grapefruit trees,
and four acres just beginning to bear;
crop last year 3,500 boxes. Also six
acres rich hammock, sub-irrigated and
especially suited to lettuce, celery, etc.
Newly installed irrigating plant for
both grove and truck farm; fine ship shipping
ping shipping facilities, both rail and water.
Will make liberal terms or trade for
good Jacksonville property. Price
$15,000.
No. 31. Twenty acres good hammock
land, one mile from Leesburg, on hard
clay road and near railroad and fine
large lake; first class gardening, farm farming
ing farming or orange land; 250 bearing sour
orange trees and some sweet seed seedlings
lings seedlings on property. Situated in school
district.
No. 32. Fine 30-acre farm two and
one-half miles from Eustis; 10 1-2
acres of choice budded oranges, tan tangerines,
gerines, tangerines, grapefruit and lemons, besides
peaches, pears, plums, guavas, pecans
and bananas; good water protection;
grove is in high state of culti cultivation
vation cultivation and should have over 2,000 boxes
fruit the coming year; 10 room house,
two-story barn, good well, etc.; ship shipping
ping shipping station on place. Will bear clos closest
est closest inspection. Price $5,000.
No. 33. One hundred acres pine and
hammock land, 7 miles from Ocala, on
hard road; 60 acres cleared and fenced;
5 acres in peaches, 3 years old; small
two room house, large two-story steel steelroof
roof steelroof barn; horse, wagon and imple implements.
ments. implements. Price for immediate sale,
$1,350.
No. 34. Cheapest small good orange
grove and home in Orange county; must
sell, leaving the State.
No. 36. A very pleasant home place
situated on Manatee river, near Tampa
Bay; 360 acres of land with grove and
improvements; steamboat landing near
the place.

No. 3S. Seventy acres orange, veg vegetable
etable vegetable and pineapple land near Ft.
Pierce; two small houses; three acres
in pineapples; fourteen acres in
oranges, part bearing.
No 30. Eighty acres good high land
between Indian river and ocean, near
the Narrows.
No. 42. Three hundred acres ham hammock
mock hammock land near Gainesville; good for
trucking and farming; timber is worth
the price. Cheap for cash.
No. 43. Five acres near Punta Gor Gorda;
da; Gorda; excellent for celery and other veg vegetables.
etables. vegetables.
No. 44. Ten acres first class veget vegetable
able vegetable land, fenced and in cultivation,
three miles from Bradentown.
No. 47. A 120-acre farm near Jen*
sen; 10 acres hammock in oranges; 35
acres in pineapples; good dwelling and
outbuildings; railway shipping station
at premises.
No. 48. Farm and grove near Plant
City, on good road; 25 acres in cultiva cultivation;
tion; cultivation; 80 acres in tract; splendid for
poultry or vegetables.
No. 4ft. 146 acres good pineapple
land, near Aberdeen station on East
Coast Railway; unimproved. Will sell
for sls per acre.
No. 50. 120 acres two miles from
Homestead, part hammock; four room
house; fifteen acres cleared; over 300
fruit trees, half of them bearing. For
a quick sale will take SI,OOO.
No. 51. Eight acres near Eustis, on
hard road; six room house; 100 orange
trees; half acre guavas in bearing.
Price $1,200, half cash, balance $25 per
month.
No. 52. Twenty acres, fronting over
600 feet on Indian river; 300 bearing
orange and pomelo trees, and hundreds
of guavas, limes and other fruits; two twostory
story twostory house and other buildings; estab established
lished established guava jelly business, with all
paraphernalia. Price for the whole
property only $6,000; part cash.
No. 53 Fifteen acres pineapple land
near Stuart; seven acres planted and
bearing; five acres shedded. Also, 70
acres, with one and a half planted and
bearing. Will sacrifice either or both
properties for immediate sale.
No. 54 Homestead of 160 acres,
within one mile of L. & N. depot in
West Florida; five-room house, fine
spring water, fruits and berries; good
fruit and truck land; 30 acres cleared,
balance pasture land with running
water. Price $1,500; terms.



If You Want a Home or an investment
IN
JACKSONVILLE OR SUBURBS
And are interested in any of the property listed below we
will be pleased to put you in communication with the own owner
er owner or agent if you will call at
205 Main Street, Board of Trade Building.

No. 41D.Finest home in the city at
the price. Eight rooms, reception halls
and third-story attic full size of house;
two baths and lavatory, tiled, with
finest fixtures obtainable; halls, closets,
etc.; furnace, steam heat, electric lights
and gas; plate glass windows, with in inside
side inside blinds and screens, conveniently
arranged and elegantly finished
throughout. Was not built to sell, but
for a permanent home. Fronts east on
Hogan street.
No. 42D.One of the most elegant
homes in the burnt district; contains
seven rooms, well arranged and nicely
finished, with large closets and all con conveniences.
veniences. conveniences. Modern in every respect.
South front on East Duval street.
No. 53D.One of the finest apartment
houses in Jacksonville, situated on
Duval street. Always rented at good
price.
No. 54E.Nice cottage home on
Laura street in burnt district, the only
one so close in that can be bought.
No. 55E. Seven-room house on West
Ashley street within two blocks of
Main. Well finished, conveniently ar arranged
ranged arranged and a nice home.

It You Have Property You Want to Sell
Call at the Agriculturist office, 205 Main Street, and let us
arrange to advertise it for you. Terms reasonable.

No. 24C. Seven-room house on Main
street, close in; splendid location, and a
bargain at the price.
No. SlE.Business block on Bay
street, in good location, always rented,
and yielding a fair return on invest investment
ment investment at the price asked.
No. 52E. Good business property on
Main street, one of only two or three
pieces of improved property that can
be bought at a reasonable figure.
No. 71G. Lot on West Forsyth street,
opposite new depot; fine location for
business.
No. 65F.- New house, seven rooms,
on lonia street; full lot, facing east.
Terms. SSOO cash, balance at 7 per cent.
No. 22C. Large, well built and nicely
finished residence on Church street;
south and east exposure; in splendid
neighborhood.
No. 23C. -Two-story, eight-room
house on Second street, near Walnut:
large deep lot, south front and a nice
home.
No. 5A.- Extra fine corner lot in
West Springfield; faces south and east;
high and has some fine oak trees; best
location left close in. Cheap and on
terms.

If You Don't See What You Want Here
Call at 205 Main Street. We have had other lists placed
with us, covering almost everything desirable in the city.

No. lA.Nine room house on First
street; large deep lot; fine neighbor neighborhood.
hood. neighborhood. Price $5,000; easy terms; low
interest.
No. 2A. Nice home on Walnut street,
facing east, seven rooms, all modern
conveniences; fine shade. Price $4,200;
terms.
No. 3A. Lot 100x100, corner Eighth
street; splendid site for store. Price
$2,850.
No. 4A. -Lot 72x203, on First, near
Walnut; very high; only one of its
kind in Springfield. Terms.
No. 11B.Large house on Walnut,
near First; room on lot for two more
houses; good location.
No. 12B.Six room, two-story house;
only two blocks from car line; deep
lot; a bargain. Price $1,600; terms.
No. 43D. The finest suburban home
site anywhere near the city; nearly
half a mile water front, with dock on
premises; forty-five acres, well im improved
proved improved and suited for trucking or any
other purpose; on good hard roads. Can
be made an elegant place.

No. 44B.Fine trucking land close in
at $250 per acre in tracts to suit.
No. 25C Acreage adjoining the city
suitable for vegetables or poultry at
varying prices.
No. 44D.-Twenty acres near Manda Mandarin;
rin; Mandarin; fine for fruit and vegetables; river
front; 225 orange trees, pecans, etc.;
two-story frame house a little out of
repair; driven well, etc. Less than 15
miles from Jacksonville, and can be
bought for $1,500.
No. 63F. Eight acres in South Jack Jacksonville;
sonville; Jacksonville; nice home site, near shell
road; 60 orange trees and other fruit.
Will sell at big sacrifice.
No. 64F. One and a half acres, with
two cottages, only two blocks from
Talleyrand avenue. Worth $2,500, but
for a quick sale will take $1,600.
No. 72G>Tract of nearly 400 acres
on river within ten miles of Jackson Jacksonville;
ville; Jacksonville; 150 acres fine for sugar cane or
vegetables. Price, slo.per acre.
No. 62F. Fine investment property
at Pablo- Beach, paying good percent percentage
age percentage and well located.
No. 61F. Desirable ocean front lot at
Pablo Beach. Such lots are becoming
very scarce.

Classified Advertising
Advertisements inserted in this col column
umn column at the rate of 2 cents per word
each insertion. No advertisement taken
for less than 25 cents.
SEND for the practical typewriter,
only $2. NELSON & CO., Box 271,
Jacksonville, Fla.
CUT-AWAY HARROWS and repairs.
E. S. HUBBARD, Agent, Federal
Point, Fla.
WANTED Grapefruit seed. Also sour
orange seed. Give price per gallon.
D. TURNER, Phoenix, Arizona.
FOR SALE Half interest in good real
estate business in Jacksonville. Want
party with experience. PARTNER,
care Agriculturist.
MANNS SALT SICK CURE Salt sick
cured for $1 or money refunded.
EDWARD L. MANN, Mannville, Put Putnam
nam Putnam county, Fla.
BOYS AND GIRLS Sell 24 pieces of
jewelry for us; send us $1.65 and
keep 75c commission. NELSON &
CO., Box 271, Jacksonville, Fla.
BROTHER, I have found a root that
Will surely cure that tobacco habit
and indigestion, let me write you
about it. C. H. STOKES, Mohawk,
Fla.
FOR SALE Banana plants. The
Banana will produce more nourish nourishing
ing nourishing food to the acre year by year
than any food grown. BEARHEAD
FARM, Orlando, Fla.
WANTEDParty with $2,500 to join
me in buiving a tract of fine land
that will double in value within two
years; river frontage and part of it
well timbered. Give editor Agricul Agriculturist
turist Agriculturist as reference. Address BAR BARGAIN,
GAIN, BARGAIN, care Agriculturist.
PROPERTY WANTED I have been
very successful in selling Florida
property; possibly can sell yours; it
wont cost you anything if I dont.
Send full description of any property
you want to sell and give lowest
cash price you are willing to sell for.
C. H. STOKES. Mohawk, Fla.
We can put you onto
A Fine Timber Tract.
It's worth investigating.
t
A Splendid Hotel of Resort Site.
No. 21C.One of the most beautiful
sites in Florida for a tourist and health
resort. Consists of 120 acres, within six
miles of Tampa Bay Hotel; S. A. L.
runs through property and is only half
,a mile from A. C. L. Ry. Contains a
flowing well and five springs, the
largest flowing a four-inch stream, all
mineral and medicinal. Small creek
borders tract large enough for small
boats, furnishing splendid boating or
water transportation to Tampa. Scenery
beautiful. Will sell at a fair price or
make favorable terms to party who
will develop the property.



FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST

Vol. XXXVII, No. 3

[This is a story with a motive to show what
can be and is being- done by industry and in intelii.ent
telii.ent intelii.ent effort in Florida. To term it tietion
Would be a misnomer for it deals with the
practical side of the life *f a fnmilv wh made
their Qume in this favored State, and tells how
they made their great success.]
Chapter I.
LOOKING BACKWARD.
Someone has said, someone who knows
or ought to know, that the story of how
I came to Florida, and of what I did and
how 1 did it after I got there, would be
a help to others situated today as I was
twenty-five years ago. Well, it may be
so, for certain it is that the experiences
of other men as told in the Florida Ag Agriculturist
riculturist Agriculturist all those long years ago,
had everything to do with my final re resolve
solve resolve to pull up stakes out of frozen
ground and drive them firmly into the
warm soil of Florida.
And so, if my story of haps and mis mishaps,
haps, mishaps, of encouragements and discourage discouragements,
ments, discouragements, of successes and failures, of good
fortune and ill, and of all that I learned
thereby, can be of use to anyone, why.
I am ready to tell all about it. Fortu Fortunately
nately Fortunately I can do this with needful ac accuracy,
curacy, accuracy, tracing my course from day to
day; because at the instance of my wise
little wife, I kept a full recoid of all my
experiences and experiments and theii
results; of all the family happenings
too, setting down every night the doings
of the day just past. And an excellent
thing this is for every man to do whu

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HARVESTING PEACHES BY THE GRIFFING FLORIDA ORCHARD COMPANY
Two hundred acres of this orchard produced thirty-two carloads of peaches within eighteen months from lime of planting, netting from $350.00 to $700.00 per car.
At thirty monihs from p'anting it bore over ninety c t rloads.
In March. 19j 6it wts full of peaches from *4 to % inch n diameter when struck bsr the freeze that so nearly destroyed peach orchards throughout ihe United States
The orchard was dam ired, yet it produced about ten carloads in i906 and 19j7, netting nearly SIOOO.OO per cur. The orchard is now in condition to produce a fine crop
of fruit for Summer 19u9.

FROM FROZEN NORTH TO SUNNY SOUTH
Or Twenty Years in Florida.
By HELEN HARCOURT
Author of Florida Fruits and How to Raise Them, Home Life in Florida,
Southern Stories For Little Readers, Etc.

Jacksonville, Fla., March, 1909

wishes to know just what he is doing all
the while, and where his mistakes oc occurred,
curred, occurred, and now, likewise, his successes.
I was born and brought up in what
has now become one of our greatest
Northwestern cities, where warmth
reigns but little more than four months
out of the twelve, with bitter cold and
snow and ice and death-dealing bliz blizzards
zards blizzards claiming the other eight months
as their own. It is a fertile country,
famous for its immense fields of wheat,
loved by some rugged natures for its
very bleakness, but never by me. Yet
the force of habit and environment made
me, like many another grumbler, slow
to wake up to the fact that there was a
more genial climate to which I might
tiee if only I could make up my mind
to sever old customs and familiar land landmarks
marks landmarks from out my daily life; not an
easy or pleasant task, I admit, but often
the wisest course to pursue.
I inherited a goodly fortune-from my
parents, who both died young, done to
death by the bleak climate in which
their lot was cast. My father left me a
well established business, which, how however,
ever, however, was not as prosperous as it had
once been. From my mother came min
ing stocks and bonds which had until
recently paid high dividends, though not
so high as when her father had invested
some forty thousand dollars in them.
When twenty years old f married the
sweetest little woman in the world, at

least I thought so then, and I think so
now. She has never succeeded in dis disenchanting
enchanting disenchanting me, though she says she has
tried all her life. But she didnt go the
right way to work, I suppose. By the
time I was twenty-four, my business,
owing to heavy losses through the failure
of several creditors, and depressed com commercial
mercial commercial conditions, had reached a stage
in which the only safety from utter ruin
lay in closing it out. This I did, and
invested the three thousand dollars which
remained to me after all my debts were
paid, in a small cattle ranch some few
miles out of the city. I had always
loved the country, and so had my wife,
therefore it was without regret that we
bade farewell to our city home and
moved out on our own land, on which
there was no rent to pay over into the
hands of a landlord. That was a clear
saving of three hundred dollars a year,
whereat we rejoiced. As my Mol lie
said, we had paid fifteen hundred dol dolars
ars dolars in five years for a mere roof over
our heads, and might have kept on for
twenty years more, and then would not
have owned a brick in the chimney or a
plank in the floors.
We moved out on the ranch in the
late spring when nature wa3 beginning
to wake up from her long, frozen sleep,
and vegetation was beginning to look as
if it had some life left in it. Through
the brief summer and the comparatively
mild autumn days, we were as joyous

Established 1873



4

and happy as two children out on a lark.
Our little folks, the blessed twins, waxed
fat and strong as they had never been
before in their cramped city home. My
dear wife, always delicate, likewise felt
the tonic effects of the free country life,
plenty of rich milk and cream, fresh
vegetables and fruit, to say nothing of
the new home interests. For every land landowner
owner landowner knows that it makes one feel proud
and contented to sit down under ones
own vine and fig tree, and to know
that no other fellow has the power to
turn him out, and that all the fixing up
and improvements are not for the benefit
of someone else. Thats the way my
wife and I felt about living in our own
home, and the work we did, and the work
we planned for the future was some something
thing something wonderful to us, and to our
friends. We knew the latter folks were
having their fun out of our enthusiasm,
but little we cared for that.
The bulk of my stocks was in one
silver mine, the bonds those of a certain
railroad. All at once the mine shut
down. The silver lode had come to an
abrupt end; it had been worked for
years, paying less and less, until all at
once its stock owners found their stock
not worth the paper it was written on.
That was a fearful blow to me, my in income
come income reduced one-half. But we consoled
ourselves as best we might by the thought
of the railroad bonds and the sale of our
cattle and sheep in the spring. How could
we dream that, the railroad was so heav heavily
ily heavily involved in debt that it would be
put in the hands of a receiver, and
found utterly insolvent ? Or that a
terrible blizzard and continuous snow
on the ground would freeze and starve
to death all our cattle and sheep? Yet
that is what happened. Our income was
gone and gone beyond the hope of recov recovery.
ery. recovery. The one thing left which could be
converted into money was our little
ranch, our home.'
Did we sit down in despair? No.
Left to myself, I might have done so,
being a mere man, but I had a better
half, you see, and she had a womans
moral courage, which, nine times out of
ten, is greater than a mans.
Harry, said she, when we had real realized
ized realized the last stroke of our misfortunes,
the loss of our live stock, we must
sell this place.
Our home! I exclaimed. And
where shall we go? Dont forget that I
have no money left to go into business
again. The best I could do would be to
get a clerkship and rent a small house
in town.
Oh, what a dear old goose you are!
exclaimed the plucky little woman, her
big brown eyes fairly sparkling, dont
you see what we can do when we have
sold this ranch and have shaken off the
lase of the fetters that have chained us
fast to this bleak spot?
She flourished the last copy of the good
old Florida Agriculturist over my head.
We had taken the paper for years, for,
by the way, we had always looked long longingly
ingly longingly towards a home in that sunny
land, but had never seen our way to
raise our anchor from its old moorings.
But now the cable had been cut for us
most effectually, once for all.
Now, dont you see what we can do
at last? asked my Mollie.
Go to I stammered.
Florida? Yes, go to Florida, and dig
our living out of the soil of our own

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

Southern home. Go to Florida, put the
little we have left in the warm sand
where it will grow big. Go to Florida,
and snap our fingers at stocks and
bonds and business risks and clerkships
and blizzards and all the other horrid
things that have tried to down us.
Lets do it! cried I, catching her
hopeful spirit, and her hands. And then
we laughed like a couple of children,
who were planning a little frolic.
And after all we were not much more,
for I was only twenty-five and Mollie
twenty-three, but then we still had each
other and the twins, and plenty of pluck,
and over all this the good Lord to take
care of us, as we never doubted He
would.
Now, Henry Crawford, said my wife,
putting her hand on my shoulders, and
shaking me to and fro by way of em emphasis,
phasis, emphasis, I want you to listen to my
words and make a note of them. All
these losses are a blessing in disguise.
Some day you will see it, and then dont
forget that I, even little I, predicted it.
1 shall remember and say. I told you
so. Only for this upset, we would have
sat still and growled and grumbled at
the cold and the blizzards instead of
turning our backs on them forever, and
our faces to sunny Florida. Dame For Fortune
tune Fortune has given us the Irish hint we
needed, to go hence and be happy in the
sunshine instead of supinely staying here
to freeze. Just think how happy the
children will be playing out doors all the
year round instead of being shut up in
the house more than half the time. And
I mean to get well and strong too.
Dont you worry, my boy, we are coming
out on top yet.
And so it was settled, of course. It
was Mollie who said so, and was she not
the ruler of all of us, big and little?
Accordingly I offered my land for sale,
and as it was located conveniently to the
city, with a good house, barn and out outbuildings,
buildings, outbuildings, it soon found a purchaser, who
took over everything, furniture, farm farming
ing farming implements, horse and vehicles. When
everything was settled up, I drew a sigh
of relief. At last I was free of busi business
ness business cares and losses, and of worthless
stocks and bonds. Land was the only
kind of property that I had realiy re relied
lied relied onas lasting, provided that no mort mortgage
gage mortgage were put on it to sink it under its
nominal owners feet. And, as you see,
it was my own little piece of land that
saved me from adsolute ruin. At is was,
I had a clear two thousand dollars to
the good, and owed no man a dollar.
I had friends, who urged me to remain
among them, and several positions as
clerk, bookkeeper or salesman were of offered.
fered. offered. But I gratefully declined them
all. My wife and I had thought deeply
over our future course. We had not come
lightly to our decision, but had carefully
weighed the pros and cons from every
point of view. Setting aside the question
of climate altogether, important as it
was, we felt that there was always a
dangerous surplus of clerks, bookkeepers
and salesmen, with a dozen applicants
for every vacant position, with the ever
present possibility of the successful ap applicant
plicant applicant eventually being thrown out,
because of the risks and vicissitudes of
business life. At the best, the clerk,
bookkeeper and salesman are likely to
remain such all their lives, living from
hand to mouth, paying out a goodly por portion
tion portion of their hard earned salary for a

mere shelter, and able to lay by little or
nothing towards the rainy day sure to
come to every toiler sooner or later.
Then, on the other hand, those who
become producers from the soil in any
of the many lines open to the country
dweller, may reasonably expect to gather
about them pleasant possessions of their
very own, gradually rising from proverty
to competence, and living meanwhile in
comfort and plenty, free from the ruin ruinous
ous ruinous fluctuations of trade or commerce.
The difference in the two conditions is
based on the fact that the immense class
of non-producing consumers is entirely
dependent on the producing class, while
the latter is almost entirely independ independent
ent independent of the non-producers. The one pays
money for the roof over his head, and
for everything he eats. The other owns
his home and raises almost everything
found on his table, and in lavish abund abundance,
ance, abundance, while that which he does not raise
he can obtain in exchange for that which
he does. The thrifty farmer has little
need of actual cash for household ex expenses.
penses. expenses. It is the tiller of the soil who
administers t.o the needs of the other
men, and in doing so becomes free and
happy in his pure, healthful every-day
life.
This being true even of the producer
of the frozen North Avho has short grow growing
ing growing seasons and late and early frost to
contend with, how rncuh more is it true
of genial Florida, with her sunny skies,
warm soil and her growing season of all
the year round? All the year round, for
there is no season, not a single month,
in which something is not living and
growing from one end of the State to
the other. As I have already said, Mollie
and I had been looking longingly to towards
wards towards the Land of Flowers for several
years past, and had been studying it up
in all of its moods and tenses from
the honest pages of its leading farming
paper, the Florida Agriculturist, so
that we were fairly posted as to what
could and could not be raised there to
profit. And now that we had at last
overcome our old-time inertia, or had
it knocked out of us, more correctly
speaking, I wrote for advice to its then
owner and editor, Colonel Codrington,
asking his opinion as to the best loca location.
tion. location. Herewith is the courteous answer.
I received:
If you are willing to work, Florida
bolds out rare inducements and hearty
encouragement. If you are not indus industrious
trious industrious and persevering, dont come here
at all. We want grave and thrifty pio pioneer
neer- pioneer spirits, conquerors of the forest and
tillers of the soil and growers of fruit,
for Floridas splendid climate makes her
essentially an agricultural State. Her
wealth lies hidden in her soil.
Men who are not afraid of work, who
do not expect to sit down and see gold
dropping into their laps, will win a
competence, and live in peace and com comfort
fort comfort while working up to it. Floridas
soils (there are many varieties here),
are wondefully responsive to proper
treatment; her climate is kindly, and the
intelligent worker will be repaid in exact
measui e with the faithfulness and wis wisdom
dom wisdom of his work.
The shiftless and the sluggard will
fail here as elsewhere; energy and in industry
dustry industry will be richly rewarded. It is
here as everywhere, only conditions are
more favorable to ultimate success and
the reward in the end is richer, while



the path to that end is smooth and pleas pleasant,
ant, pleasant, though subject to some ups and
downs. Otherwise it would not be a
human pathway.
AS to location, that depends on the
special crops you propose to cultivate.
Also on the amount of money you have
to invest. You can find good properties
for sale near growing towns at reason reasonable
able reasonable figures, or you can go further out
and enter a homestead, which latter will
give you one hundred and sixty acres of
good land at a merely nominal cost.
There are today many such subject to
entry, but the number is rapidly growing growingless.
less. growingless. The country is still sparsely set settled,
tled, settled, and there are hundreds of money moneymaking
making moneymaking openings here for the right man,
where there is but one in the densely
populated centers. Fruit growing, farm farming,
ing, farming, vegetable raising, poultry and stock
breeding, sheep herding, bee-keeping,
dairy farming if near a growing town,
and a long list of like pursuits offer here
unusual inducements, both in pleasure
and profit to those who enter upon them
with intelligence and determination to
persevere to success. Faith, courage and
persistence are essentials, even in genial
Florida, as they are the world over. It
is their absence which leads to defeat
and disaster.
Now, Mr. Crawford, if you are one of
the industrious, staying sort, with a love
of country life and the true pioneer
spirit, as I judge you to be, come with without
out without fear as to the ultimate result. You
Avill be assured of a comfortable home
from the very start, no more blizzards to
destroy vour substance, and an event eventual
ual eventual competence, if nothing more. But
surely that is enough for happiness. But
do not fix upon any particular location,
buy land or enter a homestead, until
you have been over the ground yourself.
Do not depend on hearsay evidence or the
report of an interested party. Come
and go over that part of our beautiful
land which is accessible, keep your eyes
open, have a well defined idea of what
vou want, and look about till you find
it. And do not trust the man who runs
down his neighbors land; dont even
settle next door to him, for he will not
make you a desirable neighbor. If in
any way I can be of service to you. dont
hesitate to write again.
Well, my frisky little wife fairly
danced for joy when she read that letter.
She says she didnt, but I ought to
when she whirled me around with her,
and when I set it all down in black and
white at the very time, at her own re request
quest request too. Not, to be sure, that she
asked to have the dance part put down,
but she did ask me to begin a daily jour journal
nal journal of all our happenings, and to keep it
up. So I began right there with her im impromptu
promptu impromptu dance, and thats where the
joke comes in here and in divers other
places during the twenty years that
followed that first Florida waltz. Mollie
is more sedate now, you see, and the
heavy task of keeping me and her other
children in order has sobered her down
a bit, but only a wee little bit, between
you and me.
If any stray doubts remained in our
minds as to the wisdom of our decision,
(we were not conscious of any, though),
this plain, straightforward letter of Col Colonel
onel Colonel Codringtons put them to flight. It
was just such a letter as I had expected
to receive from the genial editor. It was
early ip the year 1885 when we turned

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

over our ranch to its purchaser. My wife
and our two little folks went to her
mothers to remain while I completed our
preparations for the flitting to the Sunny
South. And just at this point came our
only indecision. Should or should not
my dear ones remain behind while I went
V
on alone to select our home site? I
shrank from leaving them; I shrank from
taking them, fearful of the hardships
that might be encountered before the
home was ready.
I was resolved to do nothing hastily,
and not to make a selection of which I
would repent at leisure. Of course Mol Mollie
lie Mollie Avas anxious to accompany me, yet
feared undue exposure both for herself
and the children, noAv just four years
old. Nor did she or I like the idea of
her traveling alone to join me.
Our perplexity Avas ended in an unex unexpected
pected unexpected manner. My Avifes brother, aaAio
lived Avitli their AvidoAved mother, had,
like myself, become tired of the constant
fights and discomforts incident to a
bleak climate, and uoav suddenly deter determined
mined determined to folloAv my example, and seek a
neAV home in the Land of Flowers, his
mother of course, accompanying him. It
Avas therefore arranged that Mollie
should remain at her old home until I
had prepared the neAV, and that then
she and the children Avith her mother and
brother should travel southAvard togeth together.
er. together. This important point settled, my
preparations for departure were quickly
concluded.
Noav, Harry, said my Mollie,
her arms about my neck as I stood on
the doorstep, You are not to Avorry
about us at all. Take plenty of time
to make a good selection. The more
haste the less speed, you knoAV. And
dont get doAvn, you dear boy.
No, said I grimly, Im up!
And then I clasped her to my heart,
and rushed for the station, not that there
Avas any such hurry, but because there
Avas a lump in my throat, and I did not
Avant mv Avife to see me choke to death
right before her eyes. That was aaTiv I
ran, and that AA r as lioav my journey to towards
wards towards the neAV home commenced.
(To be continued.)
MAGNOLIA FIG GROWING.
Bv W. A. Stockwell.
We have been growing the fig in the
AlA r in country for market for sixteen
years and have found that there is only
a limited demand for the fruit in the
fresh state, and this, in connection Avith
the poor keeping quality, makes it an
uncertain fruit to grow, unless you have
a preserving plant to take care of it.
I consider a nicely ripened fig as fine a
fruit as the world can show, but it is
not widely knoAvn by the public, and may
never be, as during the hot season, Avhen
it attains its greatest perfection, it will
stand for only a feAV hours, and
then become sour and worthless. If
gathered green enough to stand shipping,
it will never ripen up Avith its natural
flavor. It can be handled by refriger refrigerator
ator refrigerator express, but is so little knoAvn, and
the demand is so uncertain, that there
is great danger of loss by shipping in
this manner. I belieA r e that a market
can be made or deA T eloped for the fresh
fruit, by persistent shipping of high
grade fruit by refrigerator express to
some select markets in the North, but
it Avill take several unprofitable seasons

to develop this market and few growers
can afford this.
Asa preserved fruit it has already at attained
tained attained first rank and is the highest priced
and most esteemed delicacy on the mar market.
ket. market.
To those who contemplate the plant planting
ing planting of fig orchards, I will say that we
have found the magnolia fig to he the
only commercial fig yet tried in this
section of real value. It has the
best qualities of all the other varie varieties,
ties, varieties, being hardy, prolific, well flavored,
an early bearer, and the fruit of a desir desirable
able desirable color for preserving. But there is
no use to plant except in sufficient quan quantities
tities quantities to justify the erection of a pre preserving
serving preserving plant. If this is done and your
orchards properly cared for, you will be begin
gin begin to receive a revenue the second year,
and it will be from S2OO to S3OO per acre
after the third year. It is a sure crop;
no failure during the past fifteen years.
There are few enemies to the fig trees,
as they are attacked by none of the
scales now known, and while fungus dis diseases
eases diseases are sometimes present, they have
done little damage and are easily con controlled,
trolled, controlled, disappearing in a few weeks
without doing much damage.
The growing of an orchard requires an
intimate knowledge of the habits of the
tree, together with thorough and scien scientific
tific scientific cultivation. No haphazard or in indifferent
different indifferent work will succeed. The habits
of the tree are different from all others,
and a knowledge of orcharding in other
lines will be of little value in growing
your fig orchard. Not only is thorough
cultivation necessary, but careful prun pruning
ing pruning is absolutely essential to obtain good
yields of high grade fruit. While prun pruning
ing pruning is practiced by all good orchardists,
there is no other fruit grown, not even
the grape, where prunning is of so vital
importance as the fig tree. This pruning
is usually done late in February and is
dangerous if done sooner.
Cultivating Cantaloupes.
A thorough preparation of the soil be before
fore before it is planted to cantaloupes will very
much lessen the necessity for so much
cultivating afterwards, but a great deal
depends on frequent and thorough culti cultivation
vation cultivation during the early stages in the
growth of cantaloupes; at first it should
be deep and thorough, but not close
enough to disturb the plants; the culti cultivations
vations cultivations should be more shallow and fur further
ther further from the hills as the plants develop.
The grower who cultivates deep and close
to the hill because the vines do not pre prevent
vent prevent him is cutting off one source of
early cantaloupes. He should study the
growth of the roots, for thev form the
counterpart of the vines on the surface,
only they ramify the soil more thorough thoroughly
ly thoroughly and to a greater distance than the
length of the vines.
To Utilize Meat Scraps.
Those using canned meats will find
corned beef hash browned in the pan
an appetizing dish. Take half as much
Irish potato as corned beef and mix it
with an egg. Mould and fry brown in
fat. It can also be served with poached
eggs laid on top. The scrappy meat
from a can of tongue can be prepared
the same way. Julia.

5



6

THE MANGO
A Fruit That Succeeds Well in Some Sections of Florida
and Is Growing in Popularity.

Mr. J. F. Bergen has furnished the
Porto Rico Horticultural News with the
following letter from Mr. D. Fairchild,
plant explorer for the Agricultural De Department,
partment, Department, on the future of the mango:
Of all the new fruits which are win winning
ning winning places for themselves on our table*,
the most promising is the tropical man
go. This might be called the peach o 1
the torrid zone, and there are as man\
varieties of mangoes as there are o.
peaches. In form and color mangoes an
almost as varied as any fruits of the
temperate zone and in taste they seem
to combine the rich flavors of apricot*
and pineapples.
The time has now come when we an
to have on our tables the delicious-flav
ored, fiberless mangoes of the Orient
The profitable cultivation of this fruh
is attracting the attention of the Florid,
and Porto Rico fruit growers, and tli<
remarkable growth in this country of th.
demand for those other tropical fruits
the banana and the pomelo, warrant*
the prediction that the time is not fai
distant when the hotels of our bij
cities will be as regularly supplied with
the mango as they are now with th
grapefruit, which in 1886 was less knowi.
than the mango is today.
With the propagation of these, am'
their spread will come, it is believed,
development of the mango industry, com
parable in a measure to that of the raph
growth of the orange industry in Cali
fornia or the grapefruit industry ii
Florida, will surely result.
Like most tropical, or subtropical
fruits, the mango does best when growi
in orchard form and given good clean
tillage.
The area in Florida, suitable for man mango
go mango culture, cannot hope to supply the
growing demands of the American mar market
ket market and the opening up of mango plan plantations
tations plantations in Porto Rico, especially in the
drier southern part, and in the dry vol volcanic
canic volcanic soil of Hawaii, Is practically a
certainty, as the taste for this delicious
fruit increases and the knowledge of the
varieties introduced by the Department
becomes greater.
Although a perishable fruit, decaying
easily when bruised, its shipping qual qualities
ities qualities are good. Successful shipments have
been made from Bombay to London,
twenty days journey by boat, and like
the Bartlett pear, it ripens best off the
tree, which is an important point in its
favor. In India the fruit is picked by
hand while still green and ripened in a
fruit room between layers of dry grass.
As soon as the orchards of Florida
Mulgoba mangos, which are repidly in increasing,
creasing, increasing, are extensive enough to insure
a constant supply, fruits from these or orchards
chards orchards will begin to crowd the worthless
seedlings from the New York fruit stalls
and to attract the attention of the pub public,
lic, public, who until this time have remained in
ignorance of one of the most delicious
table fruits in the world.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

Eating Mangoes.
Mr. Bergen also furnishes the fol following
lowing following description of the comical experi experience
ence experience of a man eating his first native or
jommon mango, clipped from the Chica Chicago
go Chicago News:
One day I was asked to dine at the
louse of a Mexican gentleman, said a
young man lately returned from Mexico.
When I arrived at the home of mv
%
host I found him, his wife, married
laughter and grown son and an Ameri American
can American guest. We went into the dining
oom. Everything passed off well until
>ve came to the dessert. Then a dish of
uangoes was brought in. Did you ever
cat a mango? No? Then your educa educaion
ion educaion is still defective.
In shape it is much like a pear which
'.as been sat upon. But notwithstanding
ts mild appearance the mango is a most
leceitful fruit.
With a mango I was given a fork
vith three tines, the middle one about
twiee as long as the other two. Don
Jarlos, my host, told me how to pierce
he fruit at one end so that the long
ine would penetrate the seed at the
me point where it can be pierced. Then
vlien the fruit is thus impaled it is peel peel'd.
'd. peel'd. I drove the tine of mv fork seem seem'
' seem' */
ngly to the vital spot, then tried to re renove
nove renove the skin, as I saw the others do.
ust as I was gathering speed the mango
lew off the fork, caromed against the
ideboard and landed in the gray silk
ap of the senora, my hostess.
I apologized profusely and the mango
vas restored to me. During my second
ittempt the thing struck the American
n the right eye and then made a para parabolic
bolic parabolic curve and fell Into the patio. I
darted with another mango and this
ime finished the peeling successfully.
About me the others were eating
their mangoes in dignified ease, the
fruit poised gracefully on the forks,
while they nibbled about the shrubs of
the pit. I prepared to do likewise. 1
closed my teeth firmly on the yellow
meat. It had a pleasant turpentiny fla flavor,
vor, flavor, but when I tried to disengage my
bite from the surrounding pulp I found
that the fruit was held together by
hundreds of fibers. In my mad efforts
to these threads with my teeth
my face became glazed with a thin coat coating
ing coating of mango. My second bite was a
repetition of the first, and this time botli
ears were filled with the pulp and one
eye was entirely closed. I wondered if
one could absorb his mango through the
pores of the skin, but I attacked the
fruit for the third time. On this occa occasion
sion occasion there was a general breaking loose of
the pulp from the seed. The juice dripped
from my chin in rivulets and sparkled
on my shirt bosom like so many topazes.
I threw away my fork and took the
mango resolutely in both hands. I was
oblivious of everything but the deter determination
mination determination to conquer that mango. The
sticky juice ran up my sleeves as 1
gnawed at the pit as a dog gnaws at a
bone.
I finished the mango amid a pro profound
found profound silence. Then as I looked up, all

adrip and shining with mango juice, my
Mexican friends began talking in a po polite
lite polite but feverish way. But the American
kicked me under the table and said in a
stage whisper: Now excuse yourself and
take a bath/
If you ever go where there are man mangoes
goes mangoes begin in private by eating half a
bushel of them. Put on a mackintosh,
a pair of rubber boots and goggles. Then
get a clamp to hold the mango to the ta table
ble table while you gnaw.
For Beginners with Bees
A few suggestions may be helpful to
the beginner in bee keeping and enable
him to make his first years work a
marked success.
1. Shade your hives, if possible with
trees carrying heavy foliage. Swarms
should be shaded from nine a. m. to five
p. m. during the hottest season of the
year.
2. Get a super of honey from the hive
wintered over by putting a super con containing
taining containing sections with full sheets of foun foundation
dation foundation or a super containing extracting
frames on the hive as soon as there is a
good working force.
3. When the swarm issues remove the
super from the old and place it upon the
new stand. Your new swam will not
leave their hive and will be quite likely
to continue working in the super.
4. Arrange a wind-break to prevent
loaded bees from being dashed against
the hive fronts by the prevailing strong
winds.
5. Provide supports for the hives
which will lift them a foot or more from
the ground. Ants and insect-eating ani animals
mals animals may give trouble if the hives are on
the ground.
6. Get your extra hives and supers
set up for use several weeks before any
swarms are expeeted or the honey flow
may be half over before you are ready to
take care of it.
7. Keep all comb-honey in moth proof
cases and examine frequently.
8. Set the hive with the front of the
bottom board a half-inch lower than the
back, but it should be level sidewise or
combs will be built at an angle with the
frames or sections.
9. Do not attempt to handle bees on
cold damp days but while they are work working
ing working in the field.
10. If bees are found hanging in chains
in a super do not smoke them down,
thinking they are idlers, for they are
probably secreting wax.
11. Prevent much swarming by remov removing
ing removing extra queen cells and by giving plenty
of space at the bottom. Strong swarms
produce surplus honey.
12. Grow with your business by read reading
ing reading a bee journal, a bee book, or both.
The Hawaiian Sugar Planters* Associa Association
tion Association has for some time been carrying on
experiments with seedling sugarcanes,
and recent reports state that valuable
results have been achieved. Over five
thousand seedlings have been tested, but
o win or to the large number rejected, the
actual number under trial at present has
been reduced to 355. It is confidently
expected that the work will result in the
production of canes superior to any hith hitherto
erto hitherto grown in the islands.



PEACHES IN FLORIDA
The South China Strain Is Recommended as the Most Re Reliable
liable Reliable and Profitable for This State.
By C. M. Griffing.

When peaches are mentioned, most
people in Florida, as well as elsewhere,
have in mind only the big, yellow flesh,
red cheeked E berta the peach that has
made Georgia famous as a peach growing
State a variety standing at the head of
the list for its season, wherever adapted
In Florida, aside from the northern bor
der of the western portion, the Elberta
is a failure. Other portions of the State
are not, however, without a strain of
peaches adapted to our peculiar semi semitropical
tropical semitropical climate.
From the seedlings of the Peen-to, the
flat peach of China, and the Honey, two
varieties introduced into the State about
twenty-five years ago, which have been

Jewel Peach Orchard 18 Months Old
Twenty trees in this Orchard producing twelve crates of peaches
eighteen months from planting, nearly forty crates in thirty months.
It was fine fruit, ripeaingisrMay, and sold from $2 to $2.50 per crate.

crossed and recrossed, between them themselves
selves themselves and with the Spanish or so-called
native peaches of Florida, there has ande 1
veloped what are now termed the South
China type or strain. This strain of
peaches, with parentage indigenous to ?
countries with climatic conditions so sim-
ilar to Florida, enable one to understand [
why they succeed so well, while peaches
of the North China and Persian type
The South China strain comprises sev several
eral several most excellent varieties that have
been developed in and are adapted to the
immediate Gulf coast section, Central
and South Florida. The fruit, white
somewhat smaller than the Elberta, and
most of the varieties has a clear creamy
white flesh, skin shading to. yellow and
highly colored with red, with a flavor
peculiar to itself and quality unexcelled
by any other strain or type of peaches
The season of ripening is from the last
of April and first of May for the earliest
varieties to the first of July for the later
sorts, the latest ripening about the time
the first good Elbertas in Georgia com compaence
paence compaence to mature.
A majority of the people living in.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

and who are interested in Florida know
little of these peaches, either for the
home or from a commercial standpoint.
They are not aware of the extensive com commercial
mercial commercial orchards in several sections of
the State, and that from seventy-five to
one hundred carloads of these peaches
have been shipped in a single season,
averaging the growers better returns
than peaches grown in any other section
of the country. The season of ripening
for this strain is over before peaches of
good quality from any other section is
on the market.
Land adapted to peach culture is
cheap and easily cleared (virgin soil
or new land, is best), the cultivation and

care of the trees is simple. Good tree?
can be -secured at a low price and art
easy to transplant. The trees in orchard
make a r emarkable growth and come int(
bearing at an early agea small crop ai
eighteen months and a big crop in thirt;
months from time of planting. Barrim

Peach 'Ffee 30 Months From Planting

extreme drouth and late frosta, a heavy
annual crop is assured.
There is some variation in the varie varieties
ties varieties adapted to the several sections of
the State. In the extreme southern por portion
tion portion the Jewell, Howard, Bidwell Early,
and Suber are the leading and best sorts.
In the central portion a somewhat wider
range in variety will succeed, the Jewell,
Howard, Bidwell Early, Bidwell Late,
Angel, Suber, Griffings No. 4, and Waldo
being best. In the more northern portion
and along the Gulf coast, the Angel, Im Imperial,
perial, Imperial, Florida Gem. Griffings No. 4,
Marguerite and Waldo are best and
surest.
Aside from the South China strain we
have for home use and local market va varieties
rieties varieties ranging in maturity from early
May until in October, including several
varieties of Spanish strain or native
peaches. For commercial planting on an
extensive scale only the early ripening
sorts are likely to prove profitable, un unless
less unless canned or for local markets.
The accompanying illustrations are pic picfures
fures picfures taken in the orchards of The Grif Griffing
fing Griffing Florida Orchard Company. They
show what has been, and can be done
with peaches in Florida.
Jacksonville, Fla.
Preventing Scabby Potatoes.
Scab on potatoes can be very effect effectually
ually effectually controlled by soaking the seed pota potatoes
toes potatoes in a solution of corrosive sublimate,
iissolving two ounces of the powdered
article in two gallons of hot water, in a
Aooden or earthenware vessel.
When thoroughly dissolved add it to
thirteen gallons of water in a clean bar barrel,
rel, barrel, allowing it to stand two or three
lours with frequent stirring in order to
have the solution uniform.
Either before or after cutting up the
seed, place it in bags and dip it in the
corrosive sublimate solution and allow
it to stand therein for an hour and a
half, when it should be taken out and
another sack of seed similarly treated, as
long as as the water holds out.
If this seed is sown on land reason reasonably
ably reasonably free from scab the crop will seldom
be seriously injured. However, land in infested
fested infested with the germs of potato scab -will
oroduce a more or less scabby crop, no
matter how clean or smooth the seed
or how free from fungus it may
be.

7



8

CASTOR OIL PLANT
Its Culture in South Florida Where It Is Seldom Injured by
Cold Should Be Quite Profitable
By Prof. P. J. Wester.

The castor oil plant (Rieinus com comnmnis)
nmnis) comnmnis) is probably indigenous ot Abys Abyssinia,
sinia, Abyssinia, Kordofan and, perhaps, Arabia,
from where it has spread to most tropical
countries and become naturalized. It
Mas early cultivated in India, and, ac according
cording according to Herodotus, Pliny, etc., grown
extensively by the ancient Egpytians,
in the tombs of which the seed has been
found. The rapidity with which the plant
grows and the similarity between the
Hebrew and Egyptian names for it have
caused the suggestion that the castor oil
plant was the Gourd of Jonah.
The castor oil plant belongs to the
large family Euphorbiaceae and is thus
related to many important economic
plants, chiefly tropical, cultivated for
many different products obtained from
different parts of the plant: Of these
are the otaheite gooseberry (Cicca disti disticha)
cha) disticha) grown for its fruit; the cassava
(Manihot utilissima) for starch produc production
tion production from its large subterranean tubers;
Hevea braziliensis and Manihot glasiovit
both yield rubber; from the seeds of the
wood oil nut trees (Aleurites spp.) valu valuable
able valuable oils are obtained. Some of our
showiest ornamentals are likewise related
plants; for instance, the poinsettia
(Euphorbia pulcherrima); Acalypha spp.
and Phyllanthus nivosus, rosea pictus.
In the tropics the castor oil plant is a
perennial but becomes in the tropical
zone an annual grown for the oil ob obtained
tained obtained from the seed, or as an -orna -ornamental.
mental. -ornamental.
The plant is cultivated to a greater or
less extent in China, Africa, Italy, Cen Central
tral Central and South America and the West
Indies. It has also been grown commer commercially
cially commercially in some parts of the United States,
as in Kansas and Oklahoma, but is most
extensively cultivated in the East In Indies,
dies, Indies, where, it is stated that 330,000 acres
were devoted to its culture in 1890.
The plant is chiefly cultivated for the
oil derived from the beans, from which,
at the same time, a valuable by-product
in the form of castor oil pomace is ob obtained
tained obtained that is used in the manufacture
of commercial fertilizers, chiefly valu valuable
able valuable for its nitrogen content, analyzing
5V 2 to 7 per cent ammonia and 2 to 3
per cent phosphoric acid. The stems are
said to make good paper pulp.
The seeds yield on the average from
46 to 53 per cent of oil, with occasional
records of 60 per cent and, aside from
its employment in medicine, is said to be
unexcelled in dressing leather. It is
also used for lubricating and illuminat illuminating
ing illuminating purposes.
The latitudes where the cultivated
plant is treated as an annual, the seed
is naturally planted more closely, as the
plants do not grow so large. In India
they are planted in rows three feet apart,
but in South Florida, where the plants,
if cultivated on a large scale, would be
grown as a perennial, the distance at
which to plant should be greater. In
Hawaii the seed are planted 15 to 20
feet apart. Their soil, however, is more
fertile than that in South Florida, and

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

10 by 15 feet would perhaps be the more
desirable distance to use here. Three or
four seeds should be dropped in each hill
to insure a good stand; where more than
one seed germinates, the plants should
be destroyed when they are about a foot
tall, so as to leave one plant, the most
thrifty, to each hill. At the same time
the remaining plant should be topped to
induce branching aud dwarf the plant
in order to facilitate harvesting the
beans.
Until the plants are large enough to
shade the ground well they should be cul cultivated
tivated cultivated to keep down weeds and the
growth encouraged by applications of
commercial fertilizer or stable manure.
As far as the writer is aware, fertilizer
experiments with this crop in Florida
have not been made. It is very proba probable
ble probable that certain fertilizers would prove
more favorable to the development of the
plant and production of beans than oth others,
ers, others, and those who are investing capital
in the production of castor beans would
unquestionably find it advantageous to
set aside part of the field for fertilizer fertilizertesting
testing fertilizertesting purposes at the outset. It would
seem that once established the plants
would require only a small amount of
fertilizer per year for /,he production of
seed, if the plant is treated as a peren perennial
nial perennial and the stems not removed from the
field, as the leaves arid stems would de decay
cay decay on the spot and the nutritive ele elements
ments elements be again taken up into the system
of the plant.
The beans mature in about ten months
from planting the seed and should be
gathered as soon as the pods turn gray grayish
ish grayish or brownish. Threshing out the seed
is not necessary, as the pods split open
and throw out the seed when the pods
dry up. After picking, the pods may be
placed on large drying trays, the bot bottoms
toms bottoms of which are made of galvanized
wire netting the meshing of which is just
close enough to permit the seed to fall
through in troughs beneath as the pods
dry, leaving the large hulls, after which
the beans are easily cleaned from smaller
impurities.
The yield per acre is stated to be in
the United States twelve bushels; in
Madras, India, 400 to 500 pounds, and in
Honolulu, 2,500 to 3,000 pounds. One
hundred pounds of dry pods yield about
55 pounds of beans. The dry pods less
the beans are said to be more than equal
in fertilizing value the same weight of
wood ashes worth SIO.OO per ton.
There is considerable variation in the
oil content, productivity and habit of
the plants, and prospective growers
should, if possible, at the outset ascer ascertain
tain ascertain the oil content, by analysis, of some
of the seed of the varieties they are go going
ing going to plant, and as far as possible plant
seed secured from productive plants only.
The harvesting from dwarf and bushy
plants will be found less expensive as
compared with the tall varieties, and this
feature should be kept in mind also.
Subtropical Laboratory, Miami, Fla.,
January 19, 1900.

Fruit Culture in Porto Rico.
The fruit industry of Porto Rico, which
in its present stage, is an important and
promising one, and which will undoubt undoubtedly
edly undoubtedly undergo considerable development
with the provision of better facilities of
transportation, etc., formed the subject
of a paper read at the first annual meet meeting
ing meeting of the Cuban Horticultural Society,
held in May of last year.
Fruit lands in Porto Rico, it is stated,
are yearly increasing in value. Land
which, a few years ago, could be bought
at $lO and S2O per acre now costs SSO
and SIOO. Pineapples do so well that
soils suitable for this crop command
very high prices. Much of the E land best
suited for citrus fruit growth, however,
has not yet been planted, as the districts
in which it exists have not yet been
opened up by roads.
The citrus fruit districts of Porto Rico
are almost entirely confined to the north
side of the island, and comprise an area
of 7,000 or 8,000 acres. About 70 per
cent of this is planted with oranges, 25
per cent with grapefruit, and 5 per cent
with lemons.
The oranges grown include a consider considerable
able considerable number of Florida varieties. The
early and the late kinds are expected to
give more profitable results than varie varieties
ties varieties ripening in mid-season. The Wash Washington
ington Washington Havel orange is cultivated, and
appears to do much better in Porto Rico
than in Florida. Some of the native va varieties
rieties varieties of oranges, however, are reported
to do better than any imported kinds.
Great numbers of orange trees grow
wild in the mountainous district. The
fruit is stated to be of excellent quality,
and would ship well if properly handled.
It grows, however, too far from the
railway or from passable roads to be a
source of profit to any of the inhabitants.
It is estimated that 100,000 boxes of or oranges
anges oranges are annually lost in Porto Rico on
this account.
Artificial manures are used on a fair fairly
ly fairly considerable scale in the cultivation
of both' oranges and pineapples.
Sweet Potato Investigations.
Extensive investigations dealing with
the sweet potato crop are being under undertaken
taken undertaken by the United States Department
of Agriculture. Experiments are in prog progress
ress progress at several centers, and include a
study of the kinds most suitable for the
several potato-growing districts. Re Research
search Research is being made in regard to meth methods
ods methods of growing and their comparative
cost, and methods of harvesting, storing,
packing and shippin gthe crop. The ques question
tion question of storage, it is stated, is receiving
special attention, in order to determine
the best means of curing, the most suit suitable
able suitable temperatures to be maintained in the
storage house, and the amount of shrink shrinkage
age shrinkage that takes place under those condi conditions.
tions. conditions. Attention is also being given to
the uses and possibilities of sweet pota potatoes
toes potatoes as food for stock, as weU as to the
dessication and canning of the product
for human consumption.
Arrangements are about perfected for
the Dade County Fair, which is to be held
at Miami from March 9th to 13th. The
indications are that it will be the most
successful fair yet held in that county,
and they have given some very fine ones
in past years.



JAPANESE PERSIMMONS
The Propagation and General Management of a Fruit That
Succeeds Well in Semi-Tropical Latitudes.
By F. H. BURNETT

The Japanese persimmons were intro introduced
duced introduced into this country by the United
States Department of Agriculture, large largely
ly largely through the efforts of Prof. H. E. Van
Deman, while he was in charge of the
pomological work of that department.
They were grown in various sections,
but it was soon found that they would
not thrive well very far north of the
36th degree of latitude, hence they have
been grown to some extent, more as a
curiosity or novelty than as a commercial
product. A zero temperature is very in injurious
jurious injurious to themin many cases fatal.
In Japan, as a fruit, they have the
same standing that apples possess in the
Northern United States, Hence are' of
great economic importance. They are
grown in great abundance, and' are pujt
to many and varied uses. The Japanese
methods of treatment to correct the 1 as astringent
tringent astringent qualities of the unripe fruit are
not fully understood in America, but in investigations
vestigations investigations now in progress will deter determine
mine determine the steps that are necessary to ac accomplish
complish accomplish this object, and one of the
greatest drawbacks to the growing of the
fruit will thus be eliminated.
Being so very prolific, easily grown,
and having such excellent qualities for
transportation, there should be nothing
to hinder the extension of their culture
for the Northern markets as well as for
local consumption.
It is confidently believed, that easy
and successful treatment will be brought
out, that will correct the astringency of
the fruit before softening, and thus pre present
sent present a fruit that is healthy and luscious
and capable of being put to a large num number
ber number of uses.
Ordinarily, the Japanese persimmon
does not grow to be a large tree. Occa Occasionally,
sionally, Occasionally, however, a good-sized tree may
be seen. Being such abundant bearers,
the drain upon the tree serves to curtail
the growth, and some of the varieties are
little better than dwarfs. The foliage is
generally a dark myrtle green and gives
the tree value as an ornamental.
The fruit varies in size, color, earliness
of maturity, astringency, flavor and tex texture.
ture. texture. Some are flat, others long, others
round. Some are yellow fleshed, others
orange, others tending to dark red with
brown streaks. Some are edible when
yet green, others are slightly astringent,
others very astringent. Some ripen early
in September, while others hang on the
tree almost to January. No fruit is
more variable in all of these points, and
up to the present there has been no class classification
ification classification of the fruit that is perfectly
satisfactory.
Methods of Propagation.
The universal practice in the propaga propagation
tion propagation of Japanese persimmons now, is to
use seedlings of our native species for
stock. At first they were grown on their
own roots, but the abundance of native,
hardy stock was taken advantage of, and
is now used. It is said that in Japan,
the Chinese persimmon is often used, be being
ing being hardier than the Japanese. The
persimmons work readily upon

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

our native stock, and as the latter is so
abundant, hardy, and rapid in growth,
it leaves little to be desired as a stock.

The common method of propagation is
to whip graft upon the whole root, about
two inches below the surface of the
ground. This is practically the only
method used on a large commercial scale
in persimmon nurseries. This is done
very early in the season before growth
starts, usually in January, sometimes
later. Some growers do not wax the
graft, only using common twine to tie,
in order to hold the parts in close con contact
tact contact and adjustment, the twine decay decaying
ing decaying by the time that a union is establish established.
ed. established. In fact, any method of underground
grafting may be used with success.
The persimmons do not take very kind kindly
ly kindly to methods of budding. It is true
that some propagators bud and are quite
successful with them, but it requires
every care and attention, with many
risks to run and dangers to overcome.
Planting and Care.
Plenty of room should always be
given, usually twenty to twenty-five feet
apart.
There are a few points in the care of
the Japanese persimmon tree that need
emphasizing. They should be set young,
and great care should be exercised that
the setting be given closest attention.
Being a pronounced tap-rooted plant, the
necessity of great care in setting is ap apparent.
parent. apparent. The roots should never be al allowed
lowed allowed to become exposed to the air and
sun, and in setting, the mellow moist
earth should be well firmed around them.
Too much emphasis cannot be placed
upon the need of setting young trees,
and not resetting them, unless the neces necessity
sity necessity for doing so is beyond adjusting.
Good clean culture is all that is re required,
quired, required, the same that is given in any
well-cared for fruit orchard. Any good
complete manure may be used. A good
crop of cow peas turned under every
two or three years will be highly bene beneficial.
ficial. beneficial. No experiments have been under undertaken
taken undertaken to find out the exact fertilizer re requirements,
quirements, requirements, but it is believed a well wellbalanced
balanced wellbalanced fertilizer, suitable for orchard
purposes, should be the one used.
During the first three years the growth
of the tree should bt? watched, in order
to build a systematical, upright tree.
This is not easy, for some of the varie varieties
ties varieties spread too much, and the leading up upright
right upright branches are often overloaded and
become broken easily, or are headed
back by careless removal of fruit. Ordi Ordinarily,
narily, Ordinarily, after they begin to bear, there
is little need of pruning. The tendency
to overbear is so strong, that new wood
is not produced in abundance, and the
tree becomes dwarf-like. Systematic
thinning of the fruit is necessary to con control
trol control this, as it will not do to leave the
thinning to natural causes, and depend
upon the tree to throw off all the fruit
that it can not well take care of. The
weakened condition from overbearing re results
sults results in a sickly tree, wliich readily be becomes
comes becomes an easy prey to diseases and in insects,

sects, insects, and it requires a careful observer
to train his tree and thin the fruit to
the proper amount.
The Fruit and Its Treatment.

As some of the varieties are edible be before
fore before becoming soft, that is, they are
not astringent, it follows that in the
event of a Northern market, these vari varieties
eties varieties would be the most desirable to
grow. To one not acquainted with per persimmons,
simmons, persimmons, a single effort to eat an un unripe
ripe unripe specimen would be sufficient to pre prevent
vent prevent any expansion of the market. Tt
has been found that in Japan the as astringent
tringent astringent varieties are subjected to a
method of treatment, by which the hard
unripened fruit is confined in sealed re receptacles
ceptacles receptacles for certain periods of time,
after which upon removal, it is found
that their astringency nas disappeared.
It has been found, too, that subjecting
the astringent fruit to the fumes of cer
tain chemicals will accomplish the same
purpose.
The treatment of the astringent fruit
in order to correct the astringency is a
problem that will be successfully solved
in the very near future, thus removing
the greatest hindrance to the growing of
Japanese persimmons, and the further
expansion of an excellent market for
them.
Asa fruit they are rich in sugar, the
different chemical analyses showing an
average of about 16 per cent for the
cultivated varieties. While this is slight slightly
ly slightly less than the percentage of sugar in
our native varieties, it is much greater
than the amount found in apples, which
average less than 8 per cent. An alco alcoholic
holic alcoholic beverage is made from them in
Japan. j£ nem jes and Diseases.
There are comparatively few enemies
and diseases of a very serious nature
that attack the Japanese persimmon.
There are several leaf diseases which
nearly defoliate the trees late in the
season. As this occurs really about the
time the leaves begin to fall little dam damage
age damage is done. Some varieties are much
more resistant to fungus diseases than
others. The seasons also vary, and some
years the diseased leaves are hardly no noticeable.
ticeable. noticeable. In the event of serious trouble
from leaf-destroying diseases, there is
always a remedy at hand in the Bor Bordeaux
deaux Bordeaux Mixture, which is universally used
for the purpose of preventing or check checking
ing checking them.
Among the insect pests, the Twig Gir Girdler
dler Girdler (Oncideres cingulatus) is the one
most frequently heard from. The fe female
male female beetle, which is about one-half an
inch long, and of a dark gray-brown
color, deposits her eggs near the end of
the young twigs, and girdles the twig
below them.
In due time the twig dies, breaks off
and the young hatch and come out. The
remedy is to gather the twigs and burn
them, not a very difficult task to do,
and if the fallen leaves and broken twigs
be raked and burned from each tree,
not only will the Twig Girdler be under
control, but the leaf diseases also will
be held in check.
By far the most serious pest with us
has been the mocking bird. At the time
the Japanese persimmons are beginning
to mature, there is a scarcity of food for
them and they injure a great many.
Some years this becomes a serious
matter. To cover the trees with gauze
is out of the question. No one would
think of shooting the mocking bird as a

9



10

pest, outside of the fact that it has legal
protection. The remedy will come with
the future treatment of the persimmon
for market. Gathered while still hard,
treated for astringency and put on the
market while still solid but edible, the
fruit will be cared for and put before
the consumer before the mocking birds
make any serious attacks upon them
While there are other birds which are
troublesome, the one mentioned is the
chief offender.
Market.
The Northern people love tropical and
semi-tropical fruits. Our own people
love a variety of fruits. The first Japan Japanese
ese Japanese persimmons put upon the markets
in the South and the North were received
with caution, yet when well ripened,
were easily disposed of. The present
sources of supply of these fruits are
Florida, California and Louisiana, with
California leading. While in our South Southern
ern Southern markets they are found in bulk, the
Californians pack and ship in neat
crates. The California crate is similar
to an egg crate, with capacity for 50,
36 or 32, according to the size of the
fruit. The fruit is unwrapped and
through the slats of the crates it makes
a very good appearance, and the pros prospective
pective prospective buyer can readily see the size,
color and quality without breaking the
package.
Uses.
While we are not fully acquainted
with all the uses to which Japanese per persimmons
simmons persimmons are put in their native country,
it is quite probable that their use is as
varied as is the case with apples in the
Northern States. Its general use at
the present time, however, is as a fresh
fruit. When fully ripe it may readily be
eaten out of hand, but as some varieties
are quite soft, the use of a spoon will
facilitate matters greatly. Some prefer
them served with cream. The non-as non-astringent
tringent non-astringent varieties may be peeled and
eaten as a dessert fruit, or sliced and
served as a salad. Their characteris characteristic
tic characteristic flavor, varying in the different va varieties,
rieties, varieties, is found to be delicious by a
great majority of people. Methods of
preserving or evaporation have not been
ascertained, but the latter is a common
practice in Japan.
Care of Flower Pots.
Where plants are kept in the house,
they need an occasional washing and the
pots must also be cleaned, but this task
should not be left till the general sweep sweeping
ing sweeping day, for then so much will be crowd crowded
ed crowded into the working hours that either
some part of the work will be slighted
or the housekeeper will be too tired.
Select some day when other work is not
too pressing and carry the pots all out.
a few at a time. Put them in a tub,
and pour in water to the tops of the
pots, that the roots may have a thorough
soaking. Then with a sponge wash the
leaves and stems, and this is a good time
to give them special attention, if they
are troubled with insects. Scrub the pots
and lift them out to drain, while you
wash the jardinieres and plant shelves.
By this time the plants will have drain drained
ed drained and may be put back in place again.
Then when you clean the room, the
plants can be lifted out with the other
ornaments and kept free from dust. A
tray may be used for the smaller pots in
carrying them back and forth.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

INFORMATION FOR SPORTSMEN
A Summary of the Laws of Florida for the Protection of
Birds, Their Nests and Eggs.

Sunday. Whoever uses fire arms by
hunting game or firing at targets upon
Sunday shall be punished by imprison imprisonment
ment imprisonment not exceeding twenty days, or by
a fine not exceeding twenty-five dollars.
Plume Birds. It shall be unlawful for
any person to kill in this State, for the
purpose of sale or commercial traffic,
any of the following plume birds: Crane,
egret, ibis, curlew, or heron. It shall be
unlawful for any person to purchase,
trade, or traffic in any of the plumed
birds of the State. Penalty for viola violation
tion violation of these laws, a fine not exceeding
three hundred dollars or imprisonment in
the county jail not exceeding six months.
Wild Birds. No person shall within
the State of Florida, kill or catch or
have in his or her possession, living or
dead, any wild bird other than a game
bird, nor shall purchase, offer, or expose
for sale any such wild bird after it has
been killed or caught. No part of the
plumage, skin, or body of any bird pro protected
tected protected by this section shall be sold or
had in possession for sale.
Nests and Eggs. No person shall
within the State of Florida, take or
needlessly destroy the nest or the eggs of
anv wild bird nor shall have such nest
/
or eggs in his or her possession.
The law protects, gulls, terns, plume
and all other wild birds, also their nests
and eggs, at all times, but do not include
game birds in their season. The English
sparrow, sharp-shinned hawk, Coopers
hawk, great horned owl, crow, jackdaw,
and butcher-bird are not protected by
these laws..
Penalty for violation of above laws.
Any person destroying wild birds, or
their nests, or taking their eggs shall be
guilty of a misdemeanor, and when con convicted
victed convicted therefor, shall be fined five dollars
for each offense, and an additional five
dollars for each bird, living or dead, or
part of bird, or nest or eggs possessed in
violation of this section, or to impris imprisonment
onment imprisonment for ten days or both, at the dis discretion
cretion discretion of the court. This does not ap apply
ply apply to any person holding a proper cer certificate
tificate certificate permitting the holder thereof to
take birds and their nests and eggs for
scientific purposes only.
Game Birds. No person or persons
shall have in his or her or their posses possession,
sion, possession, or shall hunt or kill, any wild tur turkey,
key, turkey, quail, or partridge in any part of the
State, save only from the first day of
November until the first day of March
of any year. No person shall kill more
than four wild turkeys, or more than
twenty-five quail, and no party of two
or more persons shall kill more than six
wild turkeys or more than fifty quail in
one day. And no person or persons, firm,
corporation, association, or company shall
sell, or expose for sale, or have in his,
her. or their possession for sale in this
State any wild turkey, quail, or part partridge.
ridge. partridge. It shall be unlawful for any per person
son person to entrap any quail except on his own
inclosed, cultivated premises. For any
violation of this law the penalty is a
fine of not less than twenty-five dollars
or more than one hundred dollars, or
imprisonment in the county jail not ex-

ceeding sixty days or less than thirty
days. Any person or persons, firm or
corporation who shall ship any wild tur turkeys,
keys, turkeys, quail or partridges beyond the lim limits
its limits of the county in which the same were
killed shall be fined not more than one
hundred dollars or less than twenty-five
dollars or be imprisoned in the county
jail not more than six months or less
than three months. The same penalty
will be imposed upon any common car carrier,
rier, carrier, or any agent or employee of any
such common carrier who shall receive
for carriage or permit carriage of any
such wild turkey, quail or partridge
across any county line in this State.
Provided: Hunters or hunting parties
may take their game home with them in
this State, but not for sale. It is unlaw unlawful
ful unlawful to kill wild ducks between April 1
and October 1. Fine not to exceed fifty
dollars or imprisonment not more than
thirty days, or both. The game birds of
the State are: Swans, geese, brant, ducks,
rails, coot, mudhens, gallinules, plovers,
snipe, woodcock, sandpipers, tatlers, cur curlews,
lews, curlews, wild turkeys, partridges or quail,
turtle doves, and robins.
To enter upon the inclosed lands of
another that are posted, to hunt or fish,
fine twenty-five dollars.
Law for Non-residents of Florida.
All non-residents before hunting wild
game in this State, shall apply to the
clerk of the Circuit Court of the county
the said non-resident proposes to hunt
in, for a permit to hunt in said county.
Fee ten dollars. This permit expires on
the first day of March following the date
of its issue, and is not transferable. Pen Penalty
alty Penalty for violation of this law: a fine of
not more than one hundred dollars or
imprisonment in the county jail not ex exceeding
ceeding exceeding ninety days. Provided: that the
provisions of this act shall not-apply to
counties having special game laws.
Rubber Planting in Hawaii.
The Ceara tree (Manihot Glaziovii) is
the favorite variety of rubber among
planters in Hawaii. In a recent bulletin
issued by the Hawaiian Agricultural Ex Experiment
periment Experiment Station, it is stated that up to
the beginning of the present year 400,-
000 rubber trees had been planted in the
islands, of which about 90 per cent were
of the Ceara variety, the remainder con consisting
sisting consisting of Castilloa elastica and Hevea
brasiliensis in about equal proportions.
There are now five large rubber planta plantations
tions plantations in operation, and rubber yielding
trees are being planted on a small scale
by numbers of planters. It was intended
to make a first tapping, on a commer commercial
cial commercial scale, of some of the trees in the old oldest
est oldest plantation during the present year,
or as soon as they have reached a cir circumference
cumference circumference of 20 inches.
If growers would only remember that
the transportation charges on first qual quality
ity quality fruit carefully packed in attractive
packages, are no higher than on inferior
ungraded stuff, there would be fewer in instances
stances instances of the returns not equaling the
shipping expenses.



MARCH IN FLORIDA.
Work That Should Be Done During This Month on the
Farm and in the Grove, Orchard and Garden.
By W. H. Haskell

[This schedule of work is prepared more
especially for the benefit of the inexperienced
and those who have recently come to the
State, and is intended to apply in a general
way to the latitude of 27 to 23 degrees, but is
adapted in some measure to like crops in the
entire State of Florida.]
In the farm work bear in mind that
early crops of forage are cured better
than mid-summercrops, on account of the
rainy season. Plan for feed for the
cow, the horse and the poultry. A good
corn crop is the main standby for all
stock. Therefore plan well for a good
crop of corn. March is the month for
planting the main crop. Plant mostly
Florida corn, as it has been proven, and
avoid the too common error of planting
too thickly or rows too close together.
Single stalks two or three feet apart will
usually be found to be about right, as the
feeding roots are better distributed, thus
affording a greater allowance to each
plant.
In this as well as other farm crops do
not practice exclusively Northern or
Western methods, but combine your own
experience with what you can learn from
your present neighbors.
Cassava will also be found desirable
if you have stock. Plant this about
three and a half by three feet, and do not
put the canes too deep. Four or six
inches is about right. Use some fertil fertilizer
izer fertilizer after planting.
Cowpeas is another excellent plant for
stock feed, especially if the season should
be dry. Aside from its general value
for renovating and enriching the soil it
produces a class of fodder which is of
great service at a time when succulent
feed is sometimes scarce. We know its
power to thrive on poor soils under the
most adverse circumstances, and it is one
of those crops which takes the place of
a fallow, with a distinct gain to the soil,
between two main crops.
Plant cat tail millet, Kaffir corn and
sorghum, and try pop-corn for the poul poultry.
try. poultry. Also sow some beggarweed seed
for summer and fall feed.
Plant Japanese cane, and if you have
not already done so plant the ordinary
sugar cane for making the most delicious
syrup you ever ate.
In the Grove and Orchard.
The latter part of March and the early
part of April, when growth on the or orange
ange orange has fully begun, is the best time to'
do what pruning is necessary that is to
cut out dead wood and remove water watersprouts.
sprouts. watersprouts.
The principle in pruning, as I see it,
is this: Remove live branches only near
the time for the sap to flow, so as to be
healed over in the quickest time, as oth otherwise,
erwise, otherwise, a dry stub remains, and may
never be covered with new growth. This
principle applies to dry branches also, as
they should be cut off in the green wood.
Now, as to the application of this to
the orange. If these trees were pruned
in January a wound was made that can cannot
not cannot heal over till growth in the spring.
If done in the fall, a tender spot is made
which is almost sure to be injured by cold

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

and to cause die-back spots. Therefore
the best time is after growth starts.
Dont trim up any fruit tree for the
purpose of working under it with the
horse, rather let the branches grow low
enough to shade the body of the tree,
especially on the south and west sides.
If this is not done, and the tree is
trimmed up, it is liable to become sun sunscalded
scalded sunscalded and stunted. Young trees require
a little pruning, but old bearing trees
need but little attention in this line.
The amount of fertilizer that should
be applied to a tree depends on the kind
of fruit, size of the tree and whether a
crop of fruit is expected. If for a young,
growing tree, a less quantity and of dif different
ferent different ingredients is needed than for a
fruit crop. Much more ammonia, and a
fertilizer of a lower grade is required for
a tree to make Avood growth only. Con Consult
sult Consult the State chemists monthly report,
and the fertilizer manufacturers cata catalogues
logues catalogues for information along these lines.
A fruiting pear or persimmon tree re requires
quires requires less fertilizer than a larger fruit fruiting
ing fruiting orange tree. From twenty to twenty twentyfive
five twentyfive pounds or more during the season can
be used to advantage for such orange
trees. One-third that amount would do
for the other trees. Fertilize the pecan
trees about as you would the orange.
Harrow in the fertilizer with a spading
harrow, or a cutaway, or if the ground
is clean with an Acme, but do not under
any circumstances plow it in. No large
fruiting tree should have its roots dis disturbed,
turbed, disturbed, much less torn to pieces and out
of the ground by the plow, or any other
tool. It causes blight in the pear, too
much and too tender growth and coarse
fruit on the orange. Work the fertilizer
in with the prong hoe where the harrow
cannot go. Spread the fertilizer over all
the ground between the rows and among
large orange trees.
Look over the peach orchard and re remove
move remove dead wood and look for borers in
the stem and roots. Dig them out with
an old knife and a wire.
This is the month to top graft any
trees you may wish to change to other
varieties. It is well to have some late
nears, and graft all wild persimmon trees
to the best kinds. Especially, graft all
hickory and undesirable pecan trees to
choice kinds.
Cleft graft all large stocks. If more
than two or three inches in diameter
treat the stock, after sawing off, as
though you were going to square it, that
is make small clefts around the sides of
the stock, and not through the center.
Well-matured cions about as thick as
your little finger are about the size to
use. See that the bark of stock and coin
unite and cover with wax and shade with
a newspaper till thev start to grow.
In the Garden.
Continue to plant radishes, lettuce, tur turnips
nips turnips and beets for a succession, and add
to your plantings of February the more
tender vegetables, such as snap beans,
sweet corn, cucumbers, squash, okra, egg eggplant,
plant, eggplant, etc.

The main crop of watermelons and
muskmelons or cantaloupes, is planted
this month. These crops are mostly for
home use and nearby markets. Use most mostly
ly mostly commercial fertilizer for the melon
crop. Plant only Southern melons; the
Northern varieties are not as good.
Plant out a bed of sweet potatoes for
draws and plants. Do not fail to make
a crop of sweet potatoes. They always
sell well, and no other crop comes any anywhere
where anywhere near it in value for home sup supplies.
plies. supplies. Plant a variety that is known to
do well in your particular locality.
Horse manure is very good for a sweet
potato crop.
If not already planted put in Irish po potatoes
tatoes potatoes the first of this month. A moist,
rich spot is best for this crop. Plant the
rows about three feet apart, and twenty
inches in the row. A good compost of
cow and horse manure is good, but a reg regular
ular regular potato fertilizer of the commercial
article is hard to beat, especially for qual quality
ity quality of tubers. As to kinds that are best,
make inquiry in your neighborhood. The
Early Ohio and Beauty of Hebron are
good kinds. Dont plant the late kinds,
as they will come in during the hot, dry
weather of June. Cut the seed to about
two eyes to a piece. Plant in furrows
about ten inches deep and cover six
inches. Try to keep the rows a little be below
low below level, so that the rains will run to
the plants, rather than from them.
Continue to thin the onions, turnips,
beets, etc. The onion and beet plants
can be transplanted. Fertilize the onion
crop again, and keep them growing.
Set out tomato plants after the middle
of this month. Prepare the ground about
as for Irish potatoes, only plant wider
both as to rows and also in the rows,
say about three by four feet for the
larger-growing kinds. The Dwarf Cham Champion
pion Champion may stand closer in the row.
Sweet corn requires richer ground, or
more fertilizer, than common field corn.
The best sweet corn for the pine woods
land is the Country Gentleman. The
small extra earlv varieties do not amount
/
to much here.
Cost of Sugar Production in Cuba.
Some details as to the cost of sugar
production in Cuba are included in the
latest report of the Secretary of Agricul Agriculture
ture Agriculture for the island. On the average of
five years which includes the plant cane
crop and four ratoon crops following
the average cost of preparation of the
land, planting and cultivating each year
is about $15.00 per acre. Over the same
period the average yield of cane is 23
tons per acre per annum. The annual
expense of reaping and transportation of
the cane to the factories amounts to
about $22.00, so that the total cost of
planting, cultivating and reaping works
out at $37.00 per acre, or very approxi approximately
mately approximately $1.70 per ton of cane. The aver average
age average return from one ton of cane is stated
to be 263 pounds of sugar of 96 per cent
test.
Cuban Limes.
The Tahiti or Persian Seedless has
been reported on as the chief variety of
lime grown in Cuba. This is described as
a prolific variety, the fruit containing a
having good keeping properties. There
are, too, a considerable number of native
varieties of limes -grown in Cuba, and
growers of these report that the produce
is of excellent quality.

11



12

FRENCH GARDENING
Practical Methods for Amateur Gardening* Showing How
Large Sums Are Realized by Close Culture
By Catherine Mahon

[ln the mild climate ol Florida much of the
instruction contained in this article are not
hecessar.y but our cultivators may well con consider
sider consider the great profits that may be secured by
intensive methods. To our Northern readers
the paper should be invaluable.]
French gardening has come to stay
>vith us, so a few simply written instruc instructions
tions instructions containing information to help the
would-be gardener on French lines, will
no doubt be welcome. First and fore foremost
most foremost let me tell you that avery large
French garden is a mistake. So much
care and attention are required that a
large one would not be a success, there therefore
fore therefore these instructions are meant to help
the owners of small gardens and those
having charge of small market gardens.
The main object is to have vegetables
plentifully at out of the way times. Sup Supposing
posing Supposing the amateur gardener has one or
two glass lights only, and that he wishes
to have some succulent lettuce, radishes,
etc., during the winter. In September
he will order in one load of fresh horse
manure, and he will make this into a
small heap, leaving it until all the rank
steam has evaporated. A fortnight be before
fore before he wishes to make his French gar garden,
den, garden, that is, about the month of De December,
cember, December, he will get another load of fresh
manure in, and will leave it in a heap
for a fortnight until some of the rank
steam escapes.
After this, early in January, he will
mix the load which he had in Septem September
ber September half and half with the new which
he has just had in. This will give him
two loads of manure in all. He will then
spread this to a depth of 18 inches in the
particular corner of the garden in which
he wishes to make his first attempt at
French gardening. It must be made on
the side of the garden which faces
directly south, or southwest, and where
there will be no trees or fence to over overshadow
shadow overshadow it.
The secret of a successful French gar garden,
den, garden, however small, is without doubt the
use of compartively large quantities of
horse manure year after year. The re result
sult result of such an accumulation for ten
years produces a rich black soil which is
entirely composed of decomposed ma manure,
nure, manure, and in this time it will be not less
than 1% feet in thickness. Every bit of
this soil, even in the smallest French
garden, must be religiously kept, as it is
the most fertile soil that lettuces and
early salads can be grown in, even when
grown without any glass lights. Sup Supposing
posing Supposing the beginner has two glass lights,
made each about four feet square (the
French size), or even if he has two of
the old-fashioned English lights, six feet
by four feet, he can utilize them for his
purpose, but in making his bed he must
not make the mistake of thinking that
high and sloping boxes which are usually
made for the English and American
frames will be of any use for French
gardening.
They must not have the sharp tilt
which these old-fashioned frames have.
They must have only one inch gradient

THE FLORIDA AGRlCtlLTtlttlST.

from back to front.
It would be much better, instead of
ultilizing the old boxes, to get one-inch
boards, 12 feet long and 10 inches wide,
and cut them up to the required lengths
and make new boxes or sides for his
glass lights.
It really does not matter how roughly
these sides are made, and they do not
require to be painted. Each box should
have in each corner a square piece of
quartering about four inches square, to
which to nail the sides so that they are
quite firm.
When the amateur gardener has finish finished
ed finished his frame, or adapted his old frame,
as already directed, he will spread his
manure over the ground to a depth of
18 inches. On this he will place his
frame, and will then fill with 6 inches
of rich sifted light soil, leaving a space
of about 4 inches between the top of
the soil and the glass. Over this, in the
first week of January, he will sow very
thinly some early French breakfast rad radish.
ish. radish. It must be the short leaved forcing
variety, otherwise the leaves will get
drawn. At the same time he will sow
some very early carrots, also very thin thinly,
ly, thinly, and will cover the seed with about
half an inch of very fine soil.
After he has finished doing this he will
plant some strong little cabbage lettuce
plants out in the frame, planting 30
plants to each glass light of the French
size, and 45 of the English or American
size. Then if he likes, he can spend some
more money in buying six to twelve
cloches, which he will put on the end
of the bed he has made. The size of
the cloches which are required for this
purpose are 18 inches in diameter, and
they cost in England fifty cents each.
He must sow the lettuce seed as early in
October as possible. He will make a
small bed in one corner of his garden,
the sunniest, raking the soil nice and
smooth but not using any manure, and
on this he will put his cloches or bell
glasses. He must press them down so
that the rims leave an impression on the
soil, and in the circles impressed he will
sow very thinly lettuce seed, both Cos
and Cabbage, and cover with a little
very fine soil and put on the cloches.
Tn four or five days the seeds will begin
to appear, and as soon as they get their
rough leaf, eight or ten days after, trans transplant
plant transplant them out under one, two or more
cloches according to the quantity of
plants wanted. The plants must on no
account be left to get drawn. If he has
the French size of frame, he will only
want 30 plants for each frame but if he
has the English or American style, he
will want about 45 to each, and there therefore,
fore, therefore, he will want two cloches with 25
Mtuces pricked out under each, and
these should be left to grow under the
cloches until they are wanted to plant
out in January in the frames, when they
wOl be hardy, sturdy little plants the
size of a silver dollar.
The same precisely must be done with

the cos lettuce as with the cabbage, but
25 would be as many as he would re require
quire require of the latter. If he has a cloche,
or even half a cloche,, filled with th£
small plarits it would be ample, as he
will only be able to plant one under
each cloche, and one close to the cloche
in the open, so that when the one under
the cloche is cut, he will be able to put
the cloche over the other. He must also
plant four cabbage lettuces under each
cloche, the cos being planted in the
middle.
Lettuce, as all growers are aware, re require
quire require rich ground to grow in, and also
plenty cf water, a fact the French peo people
ple people have understood for years. With
one frame and six cloches, anyone with
a very tiny garden will be able to experi experiment
ment experiment and succeed with French Garderl Garderling
ing Garderling in a small w r ay, and will have the
pleasure of being able to ctit iettufieSj
and pull radishes Out of their dwii ghiS
den m March.
English people owe a deep debt of grat gratitude
itude gratitude to Mr. Charles D. McKay, F. It.
H. S. London, who introduced the system
of French Gardening into England and
who, after great trouble and expense,
discovered the botanical secrets so long
hidden by the Paris market gardeners.
Although it is only three years since Mr.
McKay got the first practical trial made
in England, authentic accounts h ave
appeared in the London papers from time
to time, showing how last year, from
$2,500 to $4,000 were made off one
acre of land by the French method of
close cultivation. Even the first year
showed splendid results.
It is interesting to know that the
reformatory schools in England are
using the system for purposes of in instruction,
struction, instruction, and some of the county coun councils
cils councils are following their lead. Even the
cottagers in many villages are experi experimenting
menting experimenting with a frame or two and some
bell glasses.
The Egyptian Cotton Crop.
The general conditions and prospects
of the Egyptian cotton crop for this year
are reported by the Alexandria General
Produce Association as follows:
In general, the weather in October
was cool and unfavorable to cotton, and
a little more warmth was only reported
in the latter half of the month. This
caused delay in the normal development
of the plant and in the opening of some
of the bolls of the second picking, which
is taking place in general even later than
was thought probable. Both the first and
the second pickings seemed below the
estimates that were hoped for. The con conditions
ditions conditions for the third picking are poor, and
unless the heat continues the result will
probably be indifferent. Ginning outturn
is also very irregular, varying from 1 to
2 pei cent below up to 1 to 2 per cent
above last year. This months reports
from Upper Egypt are worse than last
months, as the fogs and dews seem to
have caused fresh damage, and our cor cori
i cori espondents are unanimous in making a
considerable decrease on their former es estimates.
timates. estimates. Taking all the reports into con consideration,
sideration, consideration, the crop seems to be consid considerably
erably considerably below last years, and we estimate
our present crop at 6,250,000 to 6,500,000
cantars.
A cantar is equivalent to 99.05 pounds*



CELERY CULTURE
How This Vegetable Is Grown at Sanford, the Greatest
Celery Producing Section of the United States.
By Henry H. Deane.

The freeze of February, 1895, which
brought disaster to the orange industry
in many sections of our State, is now
generally admitted to have been a bless blessing
ing blessing in disguise.
In the fruit belt it was universally
accepted as the proper thing to own an
orange grove. The planting of vegeta vegetables
bles vegetables by the orange grower was done in
a careless way, with no thought of profit,
other than possibly a small return from
the commission man, or local grocer, and
the increased variety of his own menu,
the good wife ofttimes giving the garden

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"Wf i .. *PS Tl# *'% '"MWf t 1 1 ¥ *' J \, m'liWlikJl rLJ 1 1 4 I'lWiMMMWWffiy'l H'mW mW 1 '"i i i'll

the only attention and care it received.
The solar plexus administered by the
freeze seemed a knock-out, but, before
the referees count was finished, the
grower was on his feet and it was de declared
clared declared a draw. The Frost King skipped
off to the North, and the erstwhile fruit
grower went into training as a vege vegetarian.
tarian. vegetarian.
It is not strange that outsiders are
ignorant of our vegetable industry when
we see the woeful lack of knowledge
along this line upon the part of our own
people.
Iff the lead, among the many profit profityielding
yielding profityielding vegetables, we find celery, until
of late years an unknown quantity
among Florida products.
The Origin of Florida Celery.
To Sanford the thanks of the State
and nation are due for the introduction
and development of the celery industry.
To the State she has added another
bright gem in its glittering circlet of
industries and brought millions of money
into its coffers.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

To the nation she has brought a lux luxury,
ury, luxury, crisp and fresh, at a season when
the epicure must needs content himself
with a stale, kept-over produce from
another State, or do without.
The successful methods of growing and
marketing celery are the result of years
of careful study and costly experiment
upon the part of public-spirited Sanford Sanfordites,
ites, Sanfordites, who are now ready to give the
homeseeker freely of what has cost them
so much.
The successful growing of celery re requires
quires requires intelligent care and heavy fertiliz fertilizseeds

ing, entailing the highest expense per
acre of any of our products. The won wonderful
derful wonderful profits obtained, however, are
ample compensation for the extra care
and expense incurred.
Seeding and Transplanting to Beds.
Early in August the seed bed should
be made ready. Select a well drained
spot, thoroughly pulverizing the ground,
breaking up all clods; make the bed
very rich, mixing in liberal quantities of
well rotted stable manure and commer commercial
cial commercial fertilizer; allow the land now pre prepared
pared prepared to become well seasoned to pre prevent
vent prevent burning of the delicate seed. After
planting the seed cover with coarse tow
sacks, keeping them damp with water,
ground; then remove the sacks, culti cultivate
vate cultivate carefully and often, watering regu regularly
larly regularly every night. When plants are two
inches high, carefully transplant into an another
other another thoroughly prepared bed, assorting
the plants into two sizes, and cultivate
these frequently until they are four or
five inches high. To avoid damage from
the midsummer sun it is best to cover

seeds fertilizseeds beds with slatted frames or seed
applied with a sprinkler, until the seeds
have germinated and are out of the
bed cloth. Seed bed cloth may also be
used with profit over the little plants
when first transplanted into the plant
bed.
Planting in the Field.
The field should be put in first-class
condition, plowing and harrowing thor thoroughly.
oughly. thoroughly. This should be done in October,
except in cases where lettuce or other
early crops are planted, and late plant plantings
ings plantings made of celery in December or Jan January
uary January after the early crops have been
marketed. An application is made in
the drill of commercial fertilizer, a half
ton to the acre. This should be thor thoroughly
oughly thoroughly mixed in the soil and allowed to
season two weeks before planting. Flat
beds are laid off, thirty inches apart, and
the rows made true and straight and
equidistant by the use of a home-made
drag maker. A revolving wooden rol roller,
ler, roller, on which, 3y 2 inches apart, strips of

square molding have been tackled, is now
rolled down the long marked rows, leav leaving
ing leaving an indentation every 3 y 2 inches along
the full length of the row. This en enables
ables enables the dropper to drop rapidly the ex exact
act exact number of plants, and the setter
to set them with great rapidity and ex exactness.
actness. exactness. The plants should be removed
with great care from the plant bed,
assorting in two sizes, (they should now
be four to five inches high).
The two sizes should be planted in al alternate
ternate alternate rows, with the land made thor thoroughly
oughly thoroughly damp. Immediately after set setting
ting setting the plants should be watered so as
to settle the dirt about the roots.
Planting may be done any time from No November
vember November to January. The early settings
prove the more profitable. Using the dis distances
tances distances suggested will give about 60,000
plants to the acre.
Cultivating, Bleaching and Marketing.
The soil between the rows should be
cultivated shallow and often. Additional
applications of fertilizer may be made
every two weeks, beginning by barring
off about five inches distant from the

13



14

plants, applying in the drill 400 pounds
per acre of fertilizer, then covering, re repeating
peating repeating the application further away
from the plant each time. The latest
applications should be made in the mid middles
dles middles and lightly raked in. Asa final,
finishing, stimulating dose, 350 pounds
to the acre cast in the middles. Some
apply four to five tons of commercial fer fertilizer
tilizer fertilizer to the acre. This is considered
by good authorities as excessive and
wasteful.
In the West bleaching is accomplished
by drawing the dirt about the stalks.
This mode if practiced here, cause dam damage
age damage from rust. Florida celery is bleached
with boards. The txact time for bleach bleaching
ing bleaching is determined by the size of the
plants, generally about ninety days from
time of setting. And now the wisdom of
assorting the plants in two sizes is ap apparent,
parent, apparent, as the boards may be used for
bleaching alternate rows of the different
size plants, economizing with half the
expense that would otherwise be in incurred.
curred. incurred.
When sufficiently bleached the celery
is harvested, taken to the packing tables,
assorted as to size, and neatly packed
into crates of three, four, and five dozen.
Some small shipments are made by ex express,
press, express, but, the main crop is forwarded
in iced freight cars. The journey only
adds to the beauty and crispness, and
the celery reaches the market in fine con condition.
dition. condition.
Where Celery May Be Grown.
Mary experiments have been made,
with varying success, to grown celery at
different points in the State. Extensive
preparations are now under way in Du Duval
val Duval county, in this line of experiment.
The growers at Sanford, where suc success
cess success is now almost universal, claim that
the climatic conditions there, together
with soil, artesian well sub-irrigation,
and thorough tile drainage, give them
the pre-eminence in successful celery
growing. The fact is cited that one of
their most successful growers, made a
dismal failure trying to grow celery on
the opposite side of Lake Monroe.
They view with complacence all experi experimental
mental experimental attempts to wrest from them the
title of the Celery City.
Can Celery Growing Be Overdone?
The shipments of celery from Sanford
increased from 1,100 crates in 1899 to
190,250 in 1908. The present crop for
1909 is estimated at 600 cars. There is
no apparent danger of overdoing this
business. An expanding market and un unappropriated
appropriated unappropriated seasons encourage the be belief
lief belief that many times the present acreage
will not glut the markets. Florida cel celery
ery celery yields from SI,OOO to $2,000 an acre.
California is satisfied with a net profit
of $l5O an acre. Some of their growers
have discarded celery and substituted
hops.
Keep a Few Sheep.
Sheep produce the richest manure of all
domestic animals, and they distribute it
in such a way that it does the most good
to pastures and fields. The droppings of
horses and cattle do considerable damage
to grass. The feed sheep pick up is just
like finding money. No man would pass
a piece of money on the ground and not
pick it up. Why not get an animal that
will pick up more money in a month than
you will ever find in a lifetime?

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

PRUNING THE ORANGE TREE
A Method That Is Practiced in California But Not Gener Generally
ally Generally Followed in Florida.
By T. R. Wallace.

Pruning is a phase of orange culture
which receives meager attention by the
grower, and yet it is one of the im important
portant important details. It is usually discussed
in a very general way and with a sort
of tacit acceptance of the theory that
evergreen trees do not need pruning ex except
cept except to remove accumulations of dead
wood. The writers study of the subject
has been through direct experiment and
in closely observing the experiments of
others, and the object of the study is to
find what methods of culture must go
hand in hand with the use of fertilizers
to obtain the most desired results with
reasonable certainty. The direct issues
in mind were quantity and quality of
fruit, and the striking fact that, in the
attempt to produce quantity by direct
fertilizing, an abundance of fruit wood
was evolved which went dead instead of
producing fruit. This dead wood being
invariablv found inside the tree, the in investigations
vestigations investigations naturally led to the study
of that part.
Presuming that in a suitable soil and
climate we have an orange orchard on
healthy root, and that the trees are
kept healthy by proper soil fertiliza fertilization
tion fertilization (which simply means correct farm farming,)
ing,) farming,) and we are feeding the trees with
useful fertilizers to insure steady and
desirable fruiting, can we by pruning en enhance
hance enhance the value of our crops? I answer
that we can.
The inclination of the citrus trees after
a few years is to grown top, and the top
usually forms like a pyramid over the
center of the tree, shutting out the light
and air from the center or inside of the
tree. This deprives the tree of consid considerable
erable considerable bearing surface inside and the
crop is borne mostly on the outside. As
this becomes habitual, even though we
fertilize ever so cleverly to produce fruit
wood, the interior fruit wood dies from
simple inanition, and practically the
bearing of inside fruit stops. This can cannot
not cannot be corrected by simply cleaning out
the interior of the tree nor by thinning
out fruit wood from the side. The let letting
ting letting in of light and air through the sides
of the tree is of no important value, and
indeed the denser foliage of the sides
the better protection the outside fruit
will have from winds and severe climatic
changes.
Practically the pruning of the or orange
ange orange tree consists in removing the branch
reaching up and enclosing the center-top
and the opening out of the center so
that the air and light can freely descend
upon and into the cup-top thus pro produced.
duced. produced. This permits the tree to prepare
and nourish an inside rim or surface of
fruiting wood, and to bear fruit on it.
Practically that provides two fruiting
surfaces, an outside and inside. The tak taking
ing taking out of the top allows more strength
to concentrate in the lower sides and
they become rich and strong to the
ground, so that they not only produce
more fruit, but afford their crop more
protection by dense side foliage. Thus
an increase in both quantity and quality

of fruit is effected. But this is still fur further
ther further augmented by the crop grown inside.
This inside crop is as well very superior
fruit for packing, as it is protected from
the wind, and as well there is always a
sufficient thin foliage swinging over the
inside rim of the cup to protect from sun sunburn.
burn. sunburn.
In such pruning only the saw is
required, and care must be exercised to
cut all limbs fully back to the eye, and
no limb should be nipped or cut on any
part of its length or between buds, as
in such case it will either die back or
sprout like a broom. This method of
pruning is not expensive, and can be
done very quickly by anyone who can
handle a saw properly. It cannot be
done periodically every few years, but
each year the trees should be gone over.
The first year it will be found that but
one, two or three limbs can be profitably
and safely removed.
The next year another limb or two can
be removed, until the proper inside shape
and healthy fruiting wood is produced.
The increase both in quantity and qual quality
ity quality of the crop will more than offset the
seeming loss of crop suggested by re removing
moving removing the central limbs reaching up
into the top.
Fruit Growing in Jamaica.
Some interesting details in regard to
what is evidently a prosperous fruit--
growing concern in Jamaica were lately
published in the Jamaica Times. The
property referred to is the Hartlands
plantation, consisting of some 2,300 acres
of rich, level, clayey land, which is un under
der under irrigation. Pines and bananas were
grown for a time on part of the planta plantation,
tion, plantation, but neither of these crops gave sat satisfactory
isfactory satisfactory returns, and were abandoned.
Ordinary pen work is carried out on a
considerable scale and large numbers of
cattle are reared. Citrus fruit cultiva cultivation
tion cultivation was started some six or seven years
ago, however, and promises to be a very
profitable undertaking. About 120 acres
have been planted with oranges, and 75
acres with grapefruit. The fruit trees
are planted 22 yards apart and there
are now over 15,000 trees on the property.
Tenches have been dug across the beds
by means of which the orange trees are
irrigated when water is required. The
fruit gathering season begins in Septem September,
ber, September, and there is always a ready market
for the grapefruit. During the year
1907-8, there were exported from the
plantation 4,000 boxes of oranges, and
12,000 boxes of grapefruit.
Castilloa rubber trees appear to do well
in Cuba, although their value does not
seem to be recognized by many planters
on whose estates the young trees grow
wild. The chief of the Botanical De Department
partment Department at the Agricultural Experiment
Station has recommended that Castilloa
trees be grown as shade for tobacco
plants in place of many worthless trees
that are now used for this purpose.



CUBAN TOBACCO
The Culture, Harvesting and Preparation of the Weed
From Which the Fragrant Havana Is Made.
By Carrie S. Betton

The average man as he leisurely draws
from his pocket his cigar case, and take&
from within a choice Habana, seldom
stops to consider through how many pro processes,
cesses, processes, and how many hands, the little
roll of tobacco has passed.
It takes him but a few minutes to
smoke his cigar, yet its preparation has
required many days of labor. The fol following
lowing following is the usual process:
A wooded low land is chosen for the
seed-bed, the trees cut and burned, and
the ground well fertilized. The best va variety
riety variety of tobacco comes from the province
of Pinar del Rio, Cuba.
The time of planting is usually about
the 12th of August. When the plants
are forty-five days old, they are trans transplanted
planted transplanted into very richly fertilized soil,
one foot apart. After the transplanting
it is necessary to water the tobacco
night and day, and often many me* are
kept busy removing the Cachazuda ve veguero,
guero, veguero, a small green worm, the tobac tobaccos
cos tobaccos worst enemy. In forty days from
the transplanting, the top of each plant
is cut off; this is to prevent the tobacco
from growing high, and to keep the lower
leaves large. When twenty days more
have passed, if the weather is good, the
tobacco is ready to be cut. This is done
so that two leaves are on a stalk and is
called a mallas. The mallas or twin
leaves are next hung on cujes or long
poles; each cujes holding 210 mallas
or 420 leaves. If the weather is fine,
the cujes are left in the air for two or
three days, but if damp, they are put
immediately into the house of tobacco.
This house is divided into compartments,
called aposentos. The next process
after the tobacco has remained for about
two months in the casa or house, is,
when the weather is good, and the wind
from the south, to have the useless or bad
leaves removed, and the remaining per perfect
fect perfect ones tied together with a piece of
dried palm leaf, two hundred and ten
leaves in each matule or bundle.
Avery dry place has been prepared
previously of banana and palm leaves,
raised a short distance from the ground,
and into this are packed, one upon anoth another
er another the matules, and over all its put a
thick layer of many more dried leaves.
This is done to keep the tobacco perfect perfectly
ly perfectly dry. For twenty days the tobacco is
kept in this pilon, where it undergoes
a fever, and during this time it cannot be
opened or in any way exposed to the
air. The vega or first part of the
work has now been completed;
The escojida or choosing and select selecting,
ing, selecting, according to color, quality, size, etc.,
is the second part of the business.
Govillas, or bundles are made, each
according to its different selection, and
these are tied with a fibrous plant called
majaqua. Four ga villas form a
manajos, and it requires ninety ma manajos
najos manajos to make a tercio.
In twenty days these tercios or
very large bundles, are sent to the man manufacturer.
ufacturer. manufacturer. Here the tercios are opened
and sprinkled with water, and the central

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

vein removed for each leaf. This opera operation
tion operation is called despalillar, meaning to
disjoint or separate. This work is usu usually
ally usually done by women.
After the tobacco has been pressed for
twenty-four hours, it is ready to go to
the cigar maker.
or experts drawing a
salary of $125.00 a month, separate the
cigars, according to size, color, etc.
Then women again take up the work, by
putting around each cigar the little paper
bands.
Now that the cigar has passed through
more than twenty hands, it is ready to
be packed in boxes containing twenty twentyfive
five twentyfive or fifty each, and shipped to all
parts of the country even to your little
cigar case.
From the imperfect leaves and clippings
from the cigars, is made the picadura,
which is used to make cigarettes.
RURAL TELEPHONES.
By J. A. Starkweather.
Good roads, rural free delivery and the
rural telephone as benefits to the farmer,
can hardly in equity be compared as they
are not in competition with each other.
Good roads have always been a benefit.
Rural free delivery, from its start in
1897, has been a great help to the farm farmers,
ers, farmers, and in eleven years, according to the
report of the auditor for the post-office,
has grown to a total of 40,000 carriers.
But the rural telephone, starting since
that time is already outstripping both of
these in the number of farmers it is
reaching and the ways in which it is
benefiting them.
The rural free delivery carriers route
rarely exceeds twenty-four miles in
length and serves on an average about
seventy farms. A rural telephone will
operate as far as forty miles, with as
many as thirty or forty telephones on
the line. Of course in the well settled
States the farmers have both, but in the
vast sections of open country, it is ob obvious
vious obvious that it will be some time before
rural free delivery can reach as many
farms as the rural telephone.
The low first cost of the rural tele telephone
phone telephone puts it within the reach of all.
On lines less than twelve miles long the
cost is not more than $5 per mile, not in including
cluding including polesthe latter to be cut and
furnished by the farmer himself. On lines
over twelve miles long the cost is but
$7 per mile; same arrangements about
the poles. In either case, the cost of his
telephone set complete is $13.00.
The above figures represent standard
ground one-wire construction and long
distance telephones. It is a simple mat matter
ter matter to build the line, and no operator is
required. The annual maintenance ex expense
pense expense is not over 75 cents the renewal of
the dry batteries in the farmers tele telephone.
phone. telephone. In addition the farmer can run
the line to a neighboring town and there
connect with the town exchange and
long distance service to the rest of the
country.

The rural telephone, in sickness or
emergency, enables the farmer to sum summon
mon summon immediate aid. It enables him to
learn the latest market prices and so get
more money for his products. It removes
the isolation of country life; it im improves
proves improves the conditions surrounding the
farmers wife. During the day and even evening
ing evening it is used a great deal for social in intercourse,
tercourse, intercourse, everybody being able to get
in on the line at the same time if they
desire.
Down South it is the white womans
protection in the country districts. In
many sections of the United States where
rural telephone lines exist, it is custom customary
ary customary to furnish weather bureau reports
over them each morning. For instance,
at 9 oclock in the morning the telephone
company in town will give three long
rings over each rural line entering its
exchange and those who desire may, on
taking the receiver off the hook, hear the
operator read the weather bureau re report.
port. report. The companies often also give
out at the same time, the prevailing
market quotations.
The rural telephone certainly is the
farmers greatest servant. In using it
to do errands, it saves him time. In
dry seasons, he may be promptly notified
of the approach of forest fires, of not in infrequent
frequent infrequent occurrence if his farm adjoins
a railroad, or in case of fire in his own
home he can summon aid without leav leaving
ing leaving the farm himself. It is hard to say
in what way it helps him the most on
the various things mentioned above.
Wherever, he is, ask him if he would be
willing to do without it and his answer
is No!
In the vast sections of open country
away from schools, churches and other
conditions improving country life, the
rural telephone is fast reaching out and
removing one of the greatest disadvan disadvantages
tages disadvantages of living in the country; namely,
that one must travel a considerable dis distance
tance distance to reach a market or talk with a
neighbor.
It is estimated that there are about
seven million farmers families in the
United States today, taking the word
farmer in its broadest sense and includ including
ing including all families living in the open coun country.
try. country. Of those it is estimated that in
the few years since the rural telephone
has been considered seriously, more than
two millions have adopted it and it is
rapidly being extended.
The rural telephone, born of necessity,
and of vital benefits to the farmer, has as
its further recommendation, its accessi accessibility
bility accessibility to the entire population of farm farmers,
ers, farmers, many of whom cannot be reached by
rural free delivery or good roads for
generations to come.
The Morton Citrange.
One might be led to believe from press
accounts that this new hybrid was par
excellence the fruit of all fruits in the
citrus family. The fact is, that it is a
very poor but very hardy variety pro produced
duced produced by hybridization. 1
Its one quality which is deserving of
public attention, is its hardiness. It will
stand a lower temperature than most
other oranges. The fruit is small ill illshapen,
shapen, illshapen, poorly flavored, and will never
find favor m any section where the stand standaid
aid standaid varieties can be produced, so that its
extensive cultivation could never, even in
a slight degree, affect either the Califor California
nia California or Florida orange trade.

15



16

Florida Agriculturist.
Published monthly by the
AGRICULTURIST PUBLISHING CO.
Walter Connelly, Manager.
office:
Board of Trade Bnilding
205 Main Street
SUBSCRIPTION RATES
In the United States, Canada, Mexico, Por Porto
to Porto Rico, Philippine Islands, Hawaiian Islands
and Cuba (includingpostage )
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year, 75c.
NET ADVERTISING RATES
Rate SI.OO per inch, regular newspaper col column
umn column measure, each insertion.
Preferred positions.Outside cover pages 25
per cent, additional; inside cover pages, and
preferred positions, 15 per cent, additional.
Classified advertisements, set in uniform tpye
with no display nor cuts, under appropriate
headings will be published at two cents per
word, minimum charge twenty-fire cents
Important.Advertisements to insure inser insertion
tion insertion must be in the hands of the printer not
later than the 20th of the month preceeding
date of issue.
Money should be sent by Draft, Postoffice
Money Order on Jacksonville, or Registered
Letter, otherwise the publishers will not be
responsible in case of loss. When personal
checks are used, exchange must be added.
Only 1 and2 cent stamps taken when change
cannot be had.
MARCH, 1909.
ONE HUNDRED LETTERS WANTED.
The Agriculturist wants one hundred
or more practical articles during the year,
written by people who have acquired their
knowledge from practical experience in
Florida, telling how and when they plant,
cultivate, fertilize and market the crops
they have been most successful with, to together
gether together with the yield obtained and the
returns therefrom. We do not want
fairy tales, but plain, practical direc directions
tions directions that will enable other intelligent,
industrious men to do likewise. It is our
desire to cover every money crop grown
in Florida if possible.
In addition to the products of the soil
we want directions for the proper man management
agement management of cattle, sheep, hogs, poultry
and any other industry for which the
State is adapted. Also experiences in
irrigation, clearing and preparing new
land for cultivation, ornamenting and
beautifying the home and home grounds
and many other subjects that will sug suggest
gest suggest themselves to Agriculturist readers.
New settlers are locating in Florida in
increasing numbers every year, and the
seasons and conditions here are so differ different
ent different from those of other sections of the
country that our people who are able to
do so, and have the interest of the State
at heart, should cheerfully assist the
newcomers that they may succeed in
their new environment. Then it is possi possible
ble possible that we might all profit by an inter interchange
change interchange of experiences.
It is not at all necessary that you

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

should be a ready writer or a college
graduate. If you have a knowledge of
the subject on which you write and can
make yourself understood even in the
crudest language we will try to put it in
readable shape. Practical information
and not rhetoric is the thing desired.
Will you contribute your share?
We also want good photographs of
growing crops, farm scenes and views of
attractive places, from which we can
make illustrations for the Agriculturist.
If you have a kodak please give us a few
specimens of your skill in picture mak makand,
and, makand, and do it today.
GROW VEGETABLES.
Whatever field is occupied in the agri agricultural
cultural agricultural and horticultural life, careful
attention should be given to the garden.
The farm, the grove, the pinery, the vine vineyard,
yard, vineyard, all need this useful adjunct. Aside
from the well defined satisfaction derived
from the eating of vegetables, tender and
fresh from an individual garden, many
dollars will accrue to the good house housewife
wife housewife from the sale of vegetables to neigh neighbors
bors neighbors and the corner store.
The enormous profits derived from
early Florida vegetables, grown for mar market,
ket, market, is so well known that no enlarge enlargement
ment enlargement upon that is needed.
All bargaining and trading has some something
thing something of the element of chance, as to
small or large profits, or possible loss. In
some sections of our State there is a dan danger
ger danger of frost, the last expiring effort of
the 20-below-zero blizzards from the
Northwest. Should the tender vegetables
at any time be nipped, a prompt replant replanting
ing replanting brings the crop in ahead of any other
section of our country, so that it is only
the loss of seed and a little time.
Whether for market or your own table
do not fail to plant a garden.
FRUIT GROWERS MEAN BUSINESS.
Two events of great importance to the
fruit and vegetable growers of Florida oc occurred
curred occurred during the last week in February.
One was the presentation of testimony
before Commissioner Prouty, of the In Interstate
terstate Interstate Commerce Commission, which it
is believed will result in a material re reduction
duction reduction of freight rates on Florida prod products.
ucts. products.
The other was a meeting at Tampa of
a large number of orange growers to con consider
sider consider plans for organization and a better
method of marketing Florida fruit. Sev Several
eral Several interesting addresses were delivered;
a temporary organization was effected,
and a committee appointed to visit Cali California,
fornia, California, for the purpose of investigating
the organization and methods of the fruit
growers of that State.

The committee consists of Dr. F. W.
Inman, of Florence Villa; L. B. Skinner,
of Duval; J. W. Sample, of Polk; L. W.
Tilden, of Orange; H. E. Heitman, of
Fort Myers; J. J. Head, of Arcadia; W.
B. Gray, of Tampa, and they are to re report
port report to an adjourned meeting to be held
June Ist.
A SUCCESSION OF CROPS.
Florida offers to her industrious farm farmers
ers farmers two, yes, three or four, opportuni opportunitie
ties opportunitie money crops at a time when her
products bring the best prices, and food
and forage crops later in the season.
The principal money crops may be
planted and grown mostly in the winter
and shipped to Northern markets; then
after they are harvested vegetables for
family use and feed for the stock may be
grown.
It is not uncommon in this State to
follow one vegetable crop after another,
beginning in the early fall, until three or
four have been grown in succession, and
then take off a good forage crop for the
stock. But we will confine ourselves to
a two-crop system which is the least that
that is considered here at all.
After the strawberry season is over
and shipments cease to be profitable
which covers several months usually usuallyupland
upland usuallyupland rice may be drilled in every other
space and a crop of fifteen or twenty
bushels secured. Even though there be
no rice mill near to clean it, this grain
in the rough is excellent feed for stock
and poultry.
After Irish potatoes and other early
vegetables have been removed the land
they have occupied may be plowed again
and planted in sweet potatoes or cas cassava.
sava. cassava. The former may easily be made
to produce 150 to 200 bushels per acre
and the latter 250, worth at least 25
cents a bushel as feed for cows or other
stock, and much more if marketed.
Either of these succulent roots will add
greatly to the production of milk and
will supplement the winter pasture.
Then an especially successful summer
crop is the cowpea, which is one of the
sheet anchors of Florida farming, not
only for feed but for its great benefit to
the soil.' While nearly all other vege vegetables
tables vegetables may succumb in midsummer this
old standby flourishes and will yield for
the table a most palatable dish of string
or shelled beans.
Other rotative crops might be men mentioned,
tioned, mentioned, but these are probably sufficient
for the present writing. Asa matter of
fact there is scarcely a day in the year
when something of value may not be
growing in our Florida sand.



ADVANTAGES OF CO-OPERATION.
The farmers of the Pacific Coast are
leaders in the co-operative marketing of
their products. While the fruit and truck
growers of the South and East are gen generally
erally generally unorganized and employing anti antiquated,
quated, antiquated, demoralizing marketing methods
which is costing them in the aggregate
millions of dollars every year, the West Westenr
enr Westenr growers are well organized and con controlling
trolling controlling the fancy trade in the worlds
markets. As an illustration the follow following
ing following is credited to an official concerning
the organization last year of a poultry
and egg marketing association at Pela Pelatonia,
tonia, Pelatonia, C'al., and its results:
Starting in business without a cent of
capital on March 2, 1908, in two months
time we built up a business of $5,000 a
day. We are now the largest wholesale
egg house on the Pacific coast. We make
the price of eggs in San Francisco. With
our output of about 600 cases per day we
can smash the San Francisco market any
time. We can also stiffen up prices by
diverting a few carloads to some other
market. In this association only the
actual cost of selling the goods is de deducted
ducted deducted from the receipts. In the old
way of selling, your produce paid the
selling expenses, the interest on capital
invested and a good profit besides profit
to buy automobiles, play the races, etc.
The West is prosperous and successful
largely because everybody co-operates in
doing things, while we of this section
allow our petty jealousies and narrow narrowmided
mided narrowmided prejudices to govern our actions
and prevent successful co-operation. In
consequence we fail to realize as much
for our products as we might. Why not
profit by the experience of others and
abandon our demoralizing marketing
methods ?
STATE FAIR AND EXPOSITION.
According to published reports the
State Fair at Tampa and the Exposition-
Fair at Jacksonville, which are now in
progress, are proving more successful
this year than heretofore, both in the
character of the exhibits and in the at attendance.
tendance. attendance. It is somewhat unfortunate
that they are being held at the same
time, and it is to be hoped that this will
not occur again.
Neither is as complete and attractive
as if held at different times, for many
of the counties that would like to be
represented at both are not able to pre prepare
pare prepare two sets of exhibits. Then the at attendance
tendance attendance would be better if held at dif different
ferent different times.
It is our purpose to print what our
readers want to know. If we do not
please call our attention to the fact, and
if you have had any experience that
might be of interest please tell us about
it.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

FROM
Frozen North
TO
Sunny South
or Twenty Years in Florida
By HELEN HARCOURT
AUTHOR OF
Florida Fruits and How to Grow Them,
Home Life in Florida, Etc.
Special attention is called to the serial with the above
title, which staits with this number of the Agriculturist,
and will run through several months.
To term it fiction, would be a misnomer, for it will
deal with the practical side of life in the Land of Flowers,
as the practical man, the man of intelligence and industry,
has ever found it in the past, and will find it today, to tomorrow,
morrow, tomorrow, and for all time.
Interwoven with the actual and detailed experiences
of such-a man, will be the home life of his family, the
lights and shadows, the haps and mishaps, that go to
make up the sum total of the passing years.
Born and brought up in the blizzard-swept regions of
the Northwest, inheriting a moderate fortune in stocks and
bonds, the narrator goes into business, meets with heavy
losses and finally finds himself on the verge of ruin, with
a delicate wife and two children to support.
But one piece of property remained from the wreck,
a small cattle ranch, on which he had been accustomed
to spend the summers. Here also disaster had overtaken
him, a blizzard having frozen his live stock, and a late
freeze destroyed his wheat crop. But the land was left
and this he sold, determining with the proceeds, to seek
anew home in a more genial climate, that of sunny Flor Florida,
ida, Florida, in the double hope of renewed health for his wife, and
of rebuilding his lost fortunes on a surer foundation than
that of stocks, bonds, and the perils of the business world.
The story has a motiveto show, not what may be
done, but what has been done, and can be done again by
the right man in the right place, which means the indus industrious
trious industrious man, in fair Florida. What Henry Crawford (a
type of thousands of should-be citizens of Florida), found
in his new home, what he did and how he did it, he tells
the intending settler in such plain language that he who
reads may runto Florida, if he be wise.

17



18

THE WHITEFLY
A Description of This Pest of the Orange Grower, With
Suggestions for Preventing Its Futher Spread.
By Prof. John Belling

The whitefly is still spreading through
the orange groves of Florida. This
winged pest conies out about March,
April, or May, from the greenish-looking
scales on the under side of orange leaves.
The little insects flutter about, and soon
lay their eggs, like fine dust, on the under
side of young leaves. In a few days the
six-legged wingless young, like small flat
lice, break out of the eggs, crawl about
on the leaves for a short time, and then
sink their sucking beaks through the
skin, to remain fixed there by the beak
until at last they change into the winged
whiteflies. The little scale-like insect can
be barely seen on the under side of the
leaf. It sucks in the sap which should
have gone to make orange leaves and
fruit, and grows longer and broader,
though it remains quite flat. It splits
of its skin several times, growing in
size after each molt. The excess of sap,
from which no doubt it has taken much
of the foodstuffs, it throws out as tiny
drops of honeydew, which fall on the
leaves below. The sooty mold grows in
this honeydew, and cuts off the light
from the leaves. As the orange leaves
can only form sugar and starch from the
air in a good light, the sooty mold may
rob the trees in a grove of more food
than the whiteflies do, though it has been
calculated that a million young white whiteflies
flies whiteflies would bleed an orange tree to the
extent of about fifteen pounds of honey honeydew
dew honeydew a month. In June or July the scales
break open, and the winged whiteflies
come slowly out, spreading their
packed-up wings, and flit away to lay a
new batch of eggs. These eggs in time
produce the autumn swarms of white whiteflies
flies whiteflies which come out from August to Oc October,
tober, October, and the young from the eggs laid
by these pass through the winter as
scales on the leaves of oranges and other
citrus trees.
There are two kinds of whitefly on the
orange trees of Florida: one with pure
white wings, and another with a emoky
spot on each fore-wing. There are sev several
eral several other differences between them. The
smoky whitefly has been found at Bar Bartow,
tow, Bartow, Bayview, Clearwater, Geneva, Lar Largo,
go, Largo, Maitland, Mims, Orlando, Ozona.
Riverview, Sutherland, Titusville and
Winter Park.
In groves where the whitefly has not
yet appeared care should be taken to
admit only defoliated and fumigated
nursery stock, and to exclude or fumi fumigate
gate fumigate pickers implements and vehicles
from whitefly districts.
The food-plants of the whitefly out outside
side outside of citrus groves are responsible for
much damage. All chinaberry and um umbrella
brella umbrella trees especially, which are any anywhere
where anywhere near the orange grove, should be
cut down; for the whiteflies leave them
in the autumn and go in search of orange
trees on which to lay their eggs. The
two former trees are the worst enemies
of the orange-grower. Hedges of privet,
cape jasmine shrubs, and prickly ash
trees, also breed so many whiteflies that
it would pay well to cut them down.
The same is of course true of any aban*

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

doned trees of the orange kind. After a
freeze has taken most of the leaves from
the orange trees it would probably pay
to remove all fallen leaves and all that
are left on the trees, before growth
starts, and burn them, since the whitefly
has been found to survive on damp fallen
leaves.
Spraying with insecticides is useful,
especially for small trees in isolated
groves, and the best time to spray is in
the winter months. Fumigation with
hydrocyanic acid gas in winter is more
efficacious than spraying. But both these
methods are more or less difficult and
expensive, while applying the fungus dis diseases
eases diseases of the whitefly is easy and cheap.
Seven fungi are now know which kill the
whiteflies and feed on their bodies. Three
of these are common and can be easily
seen and recognized; one is rarer; an another
other another is scarce on the whitefly, though
abundant on scales; and two cannot
easily be recognized without a micro microscope.
scope. microscope. The first three fungi live only on
the bodies of the young whiteflies. When
they have killed the whiteflies on the
leaves and consumed their bodies, they
may form millions of invisible spores,
which take the place of seeds. These
spores are washed away, or carried on
insects, and if one of them comes against
a whitefly it may grow into its body and
soon kill it. The best way to apply the
fungi seems to be to stir leaves covered
with them in water, at the rate of two
leaves or more to a quart, and spray the
water, which now contains millions of in invisible
visible invisible spores, on the young scale-like
whiteflies in the trees, with a galvanized
iron compressed-air sprayer kept for that
special purpose. Some of the spores will
fall on young whiteflies, will grow in
and kill them, and the spores produced
by these when ripe, will infect and kill
other whiteflies, and so on. The best
time to spray with spores seems to be
from April to September, the earlier the
better.
The red fungus of the whitefly forms
red spots on the under side of a leaf,
each spot over the dead body of a young
whitefly, from which it has taken its
food. These red spots are much broader
than the little red outgrowths formed by
the red-headed scale fungus. The red
fungus seems to attack both kinds of
whitefly, and is a most useful fungus,
as it is easily seen and produces plenty
of spores. The brown fungus of the
whitefly forms dark-brown spots over
the dead bodies of the young whiteflies,
which may be mistaken for the Florida
red scale of the orange. It is most use useful,
ful, useful, because after finishing one larva, it
spreads to others, until it may kill all
the whiteflies on a leaf. It infects both
kinds of whitefly, and though it seems
rarely to form spores, yet it can be used,
especially, during July and August, by
scouring it off the leaves, and applying
the mixture of fungus particles and
water as a spray. The yellow fungus
forms yellow spots like those of the red
fungus. It infects mostly the smoky
whitefly.

The white fringe fungus cannot be
readily recognized without a lens, and
seems to be also most useful against the
smoky whitefly. The cinnamon fungus
resembles the brown fungus, but has a
powdery look and produces abundant
spores. It is less c ommon than the
brown fungus. Another fungus, which
cannot well be recognized withouta mi microscope,
croscope, microscope, has been found to kill both the
winged and the young scale-like white whiteflies.
flies. whiteflies. It has not yet been used for spray spraying.
ing. spraying.
A bulletin giving complete details on
the use of fungi for combating whitefly
may be had free by applying to the Ex Experiment
periment Experiment Station at Gainesville, Fla.
The Avocado or Alligator Pear.
By C. P. Taft.
This remarkable fruit comes to us
primarily from Mexico or Central Ameri America.
ca. America. Indeed, it is quite within the limits
of legitimate speculation to assume
that its original home may have been
the lost continent of Atlantis; that it
has come to us by way of Yucatan or
Guatemala, and that in Atlantis it was
brought to such a high state of perfection
that after thousands of years of com comparative
parative comparative neglect it still retains quali qualities
ties qualities of wonderful interest.
In the opinion of very many people the
Avocado is the best of all fruits. I know
of none whose votaries are more enthu enthusiastic.
siastic. enthusiastic. It makes the best of all salads,
as it stands midway in its composition
between fruits and nuts, embracing many
of the attractive qualities of both. There
seems to be a fascination in its flavor
which lingers on the palate, and to those
who know its taste, the price, like that
of champagne, is a secondary considera consideration.
tion. consideration. Hence we find fruits imported from
Mexico, Hawaii and other countries sell selling
ing selling at $2 and more per dozen wholesale,
and the demand constantly growing.
It is hardly probable that here in this
country we can ever produce fruit quite
equal in size to the largest from the trop tropics,
ics, tropics, but there are smaller and hardier
varieties which are no whit inferior, but
rather better in flavor and richness, which
have been found to do well. These are
from local or Mexican seeds whose an ancestors
cestors ancestors for many generations-have grown
in a climate much like our own.
As there are uncommonly great varia variation
tion variation in the time of blooming anl also in
the period required for the fruit of dif different
ferent different types of trees to come to matur maturity,
ity, maturity, an orchard may be obtained by selec selection
tion selection which will bear continuously. This
is, of course, very desirable to the con consumer
sumer consumer and material to the market grow grower,
er, grower, as there is plenty of demand at all
times.
To conclude with just a word of
prophecy, or query rather. The next
craze will be about the Avocado?
To Waterproof Cloth for Hot-Beds.
Linseed oil, one quart; acetate of lead,
(sugar of lead) one ounce; rosin, pul pulverized,
verized, pulverized, one ounce. Dissolve thoroughly
in iron kettle over a gentle fire. With
flat brush apply hot, to yard wide mus muslin
lin muslin tacked to 3x6 frames. The mixture
renders the muslin airtight and nearly
transparent. The cost is about one oneeighth
eighth oneeighth as much as glass and the loss
under such covering is never serious.
R. M. Field.



TYPES OF COTTON SEED
The Advantages of Careful Seed Selection for the Produc Production
tion Production of a Fine Grade of Sea Island Cotton

The high quality of Sea Island cotton
today is due to the careful seed selection
that has long been practiced by the
successful groAvers. Through several
generations the planters have selected
seed from the earliest, most compact and
most productive plants, with the longest
and finest staple, until the character of
the plant has been greatly improved.
There has developed on the Sea Islands
a well-defined and uniform system of
selection. It is based on the correct idea
that of discovering the best individual
plant and preserving its offspring. A
number of superior plants are marked
and carefully compared in the field, then
picked separately, and the seed-cotton is
critically examined. The best plants are
retained and the seeds planted in a plot
by themselves, one or two in a hill, mak making
ing making perhaps 500 plants in all. If this
plot retains the good qualities of the
parent plant the cotton is picked and
the seeds are again planted separately,
making a 5-acre plot the third year. The
fourth year there will be seed enough to
plant the whole crop, all descended from
the single stalk first chosen. Anew in individual
dividual individual plant is selected every year, so
that a fresh supply of seeds is always
being grown.
A writer in the Agricultural News in
commenting on this subject, says:
These variations have been noticeable
in the general growth of the plants, in
the character of the leaves, in the shape
and surface markings of the bolls, in the
length, fineness and strength of the lint,
and in the presence or absence of fuzz on
the seeds.
Three distinct types of seeds can be
separated, as illustrated by the follow following
ing following figures:
a)
(1) A clean, black type, usually hav having
ing having a short seed stalk, which has the
appearance of a sharp spine, attached at
the narrow end.
(2) A type with a small amount of
fuzz at both ends.
(3) A type of seed entirely covered
with fuzz.
The figures of these types of seeds
given above will assist in making clear
what is meant by such terms as clean,
black seeds, fuzzy seeds, etc. The
drawings of the seeds are twice the ac actual
tual actual size.
Each type of seed is produced on a sep separate
arate separate plant, but slight modifications may
occur on the same plant.
The seeds have a broad and a narrow
end, the narrow end being that part
which is attached to the special tissue in
the boll called the placenta, and the
broad end is free in the cavity of the

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

boll. The narrow end of the seed by
which it is attached is the base, and the
broad, free end the apex.
The quality of the cotton produced on
these types of seeds is not the same, for
it has been repeatedly found that the
quality of that produced on the seed with
a small amount of fuzz at both ends is
the best.
The lint from the clean seeds is also
inferior, being weaker and more wasty
than that obtained from the tufted seeds.
During the coming season, it would be
well to continue the same method of gen general
eral general seed selection, viz., discarding the
naked, black seeds with the spine, which
produce a cotton of an inferior quality,
and keeping only the seeds with the
fuzz at both ends. The latter, if other otherwise
wise otherwise plump and fully are like likely
ly likely to produce a larger percentage of lint
to seed, as well as a higher quality of
lint.
APPLICATION OF FERTILIZER.
Placing It on or Near the Surface Waste Wasteful
ful Wasteful and Injurious.
By W. C. Steele.
Probably more than one-half of the
commercial fertilizer which is used for
farm and garden crops and for fruit trees
and vines is applied on the surface.
Sometimes it is harrowed or raked in,
but frequently it is left for the rain to
carry down. I believe this to be a waste wasteful
ful wasteful and injurious practice.
Many years ago, when writing for an
agricultural paper, I made the asser assertion
tion assertion that I believed that more fruit
trees, vines and plants die from the ap application
plication application of fertilizer on the surface than
from all other causes combined. Fur Further
ther Further observation has only confirmed that
opinion. The roots of all plants tend
towards the best supply of food for the
plant; if that is found in the first inch of
soil all the roots will come to the sur surface.
face. surface. So long as there is an abundance
of rain everything will be satisfactory,
but when a drouth comes the top of the
soil becomes so dry that the roots die
for lack of moisture. It is much safer
and more satisfactory to put the fer fertilizer
tilizer fertilizer down where the roots will be in
no danger of drying up. This is no un untried
tried untried experiment. The first that I ever
heard of it was at a fair held at Orlan Orlando
do Orlando more than twenty years ago. A gen genlteman,
lteman, genlteman, connected with the Agricultural
Department, who owned an orange grove
in Orange county, said that he had found
that the best way to apply fertilizer to
an orange grove was by plowing out a
deep furrow in the middle between every
two rows of trees and putting the fer fertilizer
tilizer fertilizer in the bottom of that furrow and
then plowing back the soil. The next
year, make the furrows the other way of
the grove, crossing that which was put in
the year before. The third year, go back
to the first furrows and plow them out
again. I have tested the plan of putting
the fertilizer below tlie plants when set setting
ting setting strawberry plants, grape vines and
other fruit plants, and also in planting

vegetables, and the result has always
been more satisfactory than surface fer fertilizing.
tilizing. fertilizing.
It has long been a common belief that
fertilizers washed down very rapidly and
for that reason should be applied on the
surface so that the plants might have a
better chance to absorb them before they
disappear in the lower soil. From per personal
sonal personal observation and experiment I feel
sure that probably a large percentage is
lost by being burned up from the heat of
the sun when the soil gets dry.
The fact that fertilizer does not sink
as rapidly as is supposed is shown by
the experience of Prof. J. T. Crawley,
director of one of the Government Ex Experiment
periment Experiment Stations in Cuba.
By experiment he had found that when
a liberal application of soluble phos phosphates
phates phosphates was applied to the soil on which
he was making the test, and followed at
once by a heavy irrigation, more than
half of the phosphoric acid remained in
the first inch of soil, more than nine ninetenths
tenths ninetenths in the first three inches and prac practically
tically practically all of it within the first six
inches. When an interval of fifteen hours
intervened between the application of
the fertilizer and the irrigation, more
than nine-tenths was held in the first
inch and practically all of it in the first
three inches. With sulphate of am-,
monia applied in like manner, followed
by irrigation, one-half was retained by
the first inch and practically all by the
first six inches of soil. Potash was fixed
rather more quickly than ammonia, 70
per cent, being held by the first inch and
practically all by six inches. Both pot potash
ash potash and sulphate of ammonia were
washed by repeated irrigations, 19 per
cent, of the potash passing off with the
water by eight consecutive irrigations.
On very sandy soil it was washed out
more rapidly, which emphasizes the need
of keeping the soil well filled with humus
which will hold the fertilizer. Nitrate
of soda is an exception to the rule, being
very soluble and passing off rapidly with
the water.
How to Examine a Sick Animal.
First take the temperature of the ani animal
mal animal by placing a fever thermometer into
the rectum, allowing it to remain there
from three to five minutes. The normal
temperature of a cow is 101 degrees
(Fahrenheit). The normal temperature of
a horse is 100 degrees, sheep 101 degrees.
Second, take the pulse of the animal,
which can be found at the angle of the
lower jaw bone. The normal beats of a
cows pulse is from forty to fifty per
minute and that of a horse from thirty thirtythree
three thirtythree to forty per minute.
Third, count the respiration of the ani animal,
mal, animal, or number of times it breathes by
watching the sides of flanks, or by
pressing the ear to the side. The nor normal
mal normal respiration of the cow is from fif fifteen
teen fifteen to twenty per minute and that of
a horse is from twelve to fifteen per
minute while resting. If the tempera temperature,
ture, temperature, pulse or respirations are found to
be higher or faster than above described,
you will know that the animal is ailing.
David Roberts.
Teach the children to raise flowers.
The child who loves flowers rarely fails
to make a useful man or woman. The
child who can see beauty in the blooming
plant can see the beautiful in all nature
can see the bright side of life.

19



20

HOUSEHOLD DEPARTMENT
By Mrs. E. J. Russell

An Earnest Request.
It is the sincere desire of the manage management
ment management that the readers of this depart department
ment department contribute to it from their own
store of knowledge and experience in
household matters, thus making it mu mutually
tually mutually helpful and interesting. If you
have a good recipe or a particularly
good way of performing some household
duty, or have learned, either by experi experience
ence experience or otherwise, something that has
been helpful to you, oass it on to others
through this department. Your name
need not appear in the article if you
prefer not, but as we would like to
know as many as possible of our read readers
ers readers by name, please write your name
and address plainly and be sure and send
a contribution right away. Wb are will willing
ing willing to have you all speak at once. Ad Address
dress Address
Editor Household Department:
What to Do With Faded Dresses.
- \
In looking over my summer dresses I
came across several pink and blue linen
and gingham dresses that I could not
wear because the colors had faded un uneveniy.
eveniy. uneveniy. I wanted some white dresses,
so I began to think of how I could bleach
these faded dresses white. Here is my
recipe which bleached all my colored
dresses white and proved very satisfac satisfactory.
tory. satisfactory. Although the dresses wont stand
very much wear afterward, still they
will come out like new. Boil the dresses
in a solution of one ounce of chloride
of lime, a teaspoonful of baking soda
and a couple of gallons of water; rinse
very thoroughly in pure water and dry
in the sun. The dresses should not re remain
main remain in the solution long and it should
be renewed as the dve colors the water.
K. D. M.
To Thread Needle Easily.
Cut the thread on the bias with scis scissors;
sors; scissors; this does away with the aggravat aggravating
ing aggravating small fuzzy strand which you have
to contend with when the thread is bro broken
ken broken or bitten off.
This also holds good with darning cot cotton,
ton, cotton, tape, etc. Try it; its magical and
saves not only time, but patience.
Mrs. T. T.
To Remove Mildew.
The best method to remove mildew
from white goods is to wring the cloth
out of strong soap-suds and lay on the
grass in the sun. If when dry the mil mildew
dew mildew is not entirely removed, repeat this
method. A black and white shirt waist
which seemed to be ruined has been
made to look like new by doing this, and
the black did not fade. Mrs. CL F. M.
To Make a Centerpiece.
A pretty and easily made centerpiece
or lunch cloth can be made by stitching
lace onto linen with the sewing machine.
The cost of course depends on the qual-

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

ity of the material. A friend has a
round lunch cloth made of imitation
cluny and linen. The insertion 1 is placed
about its width from the edge and the
linen cut out after it is stitched, the lace
being sewed on the outer edge. Be sure
and shrink both lace and linen before
making up as she had to make hers all
over because the lace shrunk more than
the linen, causing it to puff. E.
Health and Beauty Notes.
To harden the system and to prevent
taking cold easily bathe the throat and
chest every morning with cold water.
Dash it on plentifully and then rub vig vigorously
orously vigorously with a bath towel to bring the
blood to the chest.
During the winter months the tips of
the fingers are likely to give much
trouble, and sometimes they become so
chapped that they cracs and leave deep
seams. To remedy this the hands must
be kept out of water as much as possi possible,
ble, possible, and the fingers should be soaked
every night for ten minutes in a little
warmed olive oil or oil of almonds. Wipe
them and paint the cracks with collo collodion
dion collodion to keep out water. Repeat the
treatment till they are healed.
A sharp instrument should never be
used in removing dirt from beneath the
finger nails. Take a toothpick, or bet better,
ter, better, use an orange wood stick with a
dull point. If the dirt is obstinate,
dip the point of the stick in cold cream
and insert under the nail. Let the cream
remain for a few minutes to soften the
accumulations, and then soak the hands
in warm water for a few minutes be before
fore before attempting to finish them.
A raw apple is one of the best sweet sweeteners
eners sweeteners of the breath.
After eating onions or other odorous
vegetables, a small piece of charcoal
chewed well and swallowed will absorb
the flavor and act as a cathartic as
well.
A cup of black coffee without sugar
is an excellent aid to digestion, if taken
at the close of dinner.
A cup of hot water sipped a half hour
before breakfast is a great aid in curing
indigestion, and where one is suffering
from an attack, one should drink as
much of it and just as hot as can be
borne.
After brushing the teeth, wash the
brush well with cold water and hang up
where it will dry. At least once a week
the brush should be thoroughly washed
with pure soap and water. A piece of
soap should be kept for that purpose
alone.
Use glycerine and lemon juice in equal
proportions to whiten the hands.
Pretty Calendars.
Make the calendars on black card cardboard
board cardboard matting and outline a stencil of
Dutch children with white ink at the top
of the card and the lower edge. Place
the calendar leaves at the left side and
write 1909 in ornamental numerals at
the right side.

A Good and Inexpensive Cake.
Cream together two-thirds of a cup of
sugar and two heaping tablespoonfuls
of butter. Add flavor to taste, and
two-thirds cupful of sweet milk or wa water.
ter. water. Have ready two cupfuls of flour
into which has been sifted a heaping
teaspoonful of baking powder and a level
teaspoonful of salt. Stir in half of the
flour and then add two well beaten eggs
and the rest of the flour. This may
be baked in a plain loaf, in layers to
which are added jelly, frosting or any
other filling preferred, in patty-pans for
tea cakes, or it is equally good as a
foundation for a quick fruit cake which
is made by adding any suitable kind
of fruit to the batter. By adding choco chocolate
late chocolate to one-tliird of the dough and drop dropping
ping dropping spoonfuls of it into the pan when
filling with the white portion, a pretty
marble cake can be made.
To make a good boiled frosting use
one cupful of sugar to one-half cupful
of water and let it boil until it threads
from the spoon, or will form a soft ball
when a little is dropped in a glass of
very cold water and then rolled in the
fingers. Have the white of one egg
beaten stiff and pour the hot syrup into
it slowly while an attendant beats it
with the egg-beater. Rub a little flour
over the top of the cake to keep the
frosting from running, and spread the
warm frosting on the cold cake. Any
flavor preferred may be added after the
syrup is beaten into the egg. This makes
a very reliable frosting and will not
crackle when the cake is cut unless the
sugar is boiled too long. Some flour
swells more than others so a little vari variation
ation variation may be needed in the amount of
flour needed for the cake. If the cake
seems too dry there is too much flour
in it and less should be used next time.
It is well to put a tin of water on the
grate over the cake when it is first put
in the oven, as the steam from the hot
water will keep a crust from forming
before the cake has risen enough, and so
prevent the top cracking open. This
may not be necessary in an oven that
can be perfectly regulated but is a wise
precaution in the average stove. A pa paper
per paper cut to fit the bottom and sides of the
cake pan, and long enough to crease
down over the sides, will prevent scorch scorching
ing scorching and help in taking the cake from the
tin. R. E. Merryman.
To Prepare a Quick Breakfast.
The day before prepare a cereal in a
double boiler or other porcelain lined
vessel and let remain so all night. In
the morning heat the cereal, make some
toast and cook some eggs. This, with
fresh fruit is sufficient for a good meal.
Another time for a change cook hominy
just a little soft, the night before, and
in the morning broil a steak.
Put the coffee in the coffee pot and
set the table, and there will be little
to do. A handy cook can in this way
get breakfast in twenty minutes.
M. I. M.
For Scorched Spots.
In case of scorching dampen a little
starch and cover the scorched place, then
place the dress or material in the sun
and in less than two hours the scorched
spot will he hard ot find. Mrs. F. J. R.



Making Pies.
To prevent piecrust from becoming
soaked and heavy rub the bottom crust
With a spoonful of flour over every part
up to the edges. Alter the filling is put
in, sprinkle a spoonful of flour over.it.
Wet the edges of the under crust slight slightly,
ly, slightly, put on the top crust and press the
edges together. When making a lemon
pie, bake the crust first, being sure to
prick the paste about every half-inch to
prevent blistering. After it is baked
rub it over with flour before putting in
the filling which has been previously
cooked. If prepared in this way they
can stand three or four days without
becoming soggy. As the grated rind
often gives a bitter taste use a little
extract instead. R. E. J,
Orange Marmalade.
Early in the fall I bought a doz£n
Oranges which were too sour to be pala palatable
table palatable and I decided to make them irito
marmalade. Not finding a recipe that
just suited me I experimented, the result
being so satisfactory that I will give it
to you;
After making the drflflges flice arid
clean I quartered the rind and removed
it. This I put into a kettle of water
and boiled a few minutes, poured this
water off and put on a second time, then
a third and then a fourth, in which I
cooked them till tender. In the mean meantime
time meantime I sliced the oranges into another
kettle, having removed the seeds and
core, and cooked until tender, which
only required a few minutes. I then
rubbed both through a coarse wire veg vegetable
etable vegetable strainer or frying basket. Then
I measured the mixture and put an equal
quantity of sugar and cooked it until
thick. It was delicious and every one
who tasted it pronounced it the best
ever. I made it again a few days ago,
this time putting the rinds through a
Rollman food chooper, which I find
quicker and easier, but they could be
shredded or minced fine. Mrs. R.
Household Notes.
A little sugar added to oatmeal when
it is cooking, instead of putting it all
on at the table, improves the flavor
greatly.
When sewing on buttons, insert a pin
between the goods and the button; this
allows for shrinkage of the thread, and
the button is not so likely to be torn
off.
Prick each potato with a fork aim .c
will prevent bursting when baking.
When you are pressed for time, set a
small dish of hot water in the oven and
the potatoes will bake much faster.
The short ends of candles, melted and
mixed with equal parts of turpentine,
make a fine polish for floors and oilcloth.
When frying oysters, wipe them with
a clean cloth, then dip in mayonnaise
and then in cracker crumbs, and fry in
hot fat. The dressing gives them anew
and piquant flavor.
It is said that bedsores would be un unknown
known unknown if the back of the invalid were
frequently lathered with castile soap.
When soot has fallen on carpet or
furniture from the stove or a smoking
lamp, Sprinkle thickly with cornmeal,
let stand a few minutes, then brush up
carefully. If there are stains on the

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

wall-paper from the stove-pipe, wipe
carefully with a cloth on which meal has
been sprinkled.
SOME RELISH DISHES.
It is in the spring of the year that the
appetite is riiOSt capricious and must be
coaxed, arid that the system, clogged
with the heavy diet Oi wiritei'* demands
a change of food, something Which will
impart tone to the sluggish blood. If
this fact were more generally recognized,
there would be less need for so-called
spring tonics, which are so much used
at that season.
The enterprising farmer cannot only
make this revolution of diet possible, but
easy; and the housewife who does not
serve some relishing dish which has a dis distinctly
tinctly distinctly spring-like flavor each day is neg neglectful
lectful neglectful of her duty in culinary matters.
A few suggestive recipes are appended:
Poached Greeri Ortioris. Remove the
tops, wash eieari, and cook fifteen min minutes
utes minutes in boilirig Salted water; then pour
ove- the onions one CUp rich milk, or
chuken broth; return to the fire; let boil
up, then thickeri With one tablespooriful
of chopped parsley. Simmer five min minutes,
utes, minutes, season with salt arid white pepper,
and arrarige for individual serving on
rounds of buttered toast.-
Spinach with Egg. Look over the spin spinach
ach spinach and wash in several waters; put on
to cook in a closely covered stew-kettle,
without water; boll thirty minutes,
drain, chop fine, return to the stew-ket stew-kettle,
tle, stew-kettle, add a large spoonful of butter, one
teaspoonful of sugar, a dash of grated
nutmeg, and salt and pepper to season.
Beat until hot and smooth; turn into a
hot serving dish, and cover with a dress dressing
ing dressing made of the yolks of four hard-boiled
eggs rubbed to a paste, with one tea teaspoonful
spoonful teaspoonful each of melted butter, cream
and lemon juice. Garnish with a border
of the chopped whites of the eggs.
Spinach Salad. Prepare and cook
spinach as directed in the preceding
recipe; drain and chop fine; add the
chopped White of a hard-boiled egg and
marinate with French dressing. Place
a slice of hard-boiled egg in the bottom
of individual charlotte russe molds; fill
up with the prepared spinach and stand
on ice, or in a very cold place, until firm;
then unmold, garnish with crisp let lettuce,
tuce, lettuce, and dress with mayonnaise.
New Beets with Butter Sauce. Select
new beets of uniform size; wash and dry
them, being careful neither to break the
skin nor to sever the tiny rootlets, which
would set free the juices, thereby rob robbing
bing robbing the vegetables of its wholesome
properties as well as its color. Cover
with boiling water and boil forty-five
minutes; drain, remove skins, cut first
into slices, and then into strips. Season
melted butter with salt, pepper and vine vinegar.
gar. vinegar. Pour hot over the beets and serve
at once.
Spring Radishes. Select the small red
breakfast radishes, wash clean and cut
away all but an inch of the stems; cut
the skin and turn half way back. Serve
on a bed of cracked ice with a garnish of
water-cress.
Changing work is the best way to
shift burdens.

STRAWBERRY RECIPES,
Difficult as it may be for the house'
wife to solve the dessert problem during
some seasons of the year, the coming
of the strawberry puts a temporary end
to her troubles.
The most common way to serve them',
of course, is with sugar and cream, or
some other appropriate sauce, but the
cook will make a great mistake if she
contents herself with these methods, for
the strawberry may be served in many
ways and cooked in countless fashions.
Strawberry Dumplings. Everybody
has eaten strawberry shortcake, of
course, but how many have eaten straw strawberry
berry strawberry dumplings? Little known though
they may be, it is impossible to eat them
without feeling that this is a dessert
that would well bear repetition. To make
them, take one egg, a eup of sweet milk,
a tablespoonful of melted butter, a heap heaping
ing heaping teaspoonful of baking powder, and
flour enough to make a batter that will
be a trifle thicker tnan that which is
commonly used for griddle-cakes. Pour
a little of this butter into buttered
tins, or porcelain cups; place a num number
ber number of well-sweetened berries in the
center and cover them with more batter;
then steam for about half an hour. Serve
with a sauce made by mashing some
strawberries and incorporating them into
an ordinary hard butter and sugar sauce.
Strawberry Pudding. First convert
your strawberries into pulp, being sure
that you have about a quart of the ber berries
ries berries and juice when you are done. Then
crumble enough stale cake to give you a
pint of crumbs; add the yolks of four
well-beaten eggs, mixing a tablespoonful
of sugar into them as you are beating
them; add, also, about two tablespoon tablespoonfuls
fuls tablespoonfuls of Madeira wine, a teaspoonful of
vanilla, or some other extract, and, final finally,
ly, finally, the strawberry pulp. When these
ingredients have become thoroughly
blended, whip the whites of the eggs to
a stiff froth and fold them in; then put
the mixture into a buttered pudding
mold; cover the top with a layer of dry
cake crumbs; set the mold in a pan of
hot water, and bake in a moderate oven
for about half an hour. Serve a combi combination
nation combination of whipped cream and well-sweet well-sweetened
ened well-sweetened strawberry pulp as a sauce.
Strawberry Salad. First, cut the
strawberries into halves; add just as
much sugar as you think they will stand,
and afterwards to each quart of berries,
add a wineglassful of brandy and one
tablespoonful of lemon juice. Chill by
packing in ice, and serve with whipped
cream.
Strawberry PunchThis is easily pre prepared,
pared, prepared, and the result will be so delecta delectable
ble delectable that you will be certain to repeat
the operation. Out some strawberries in into
to into slices and put enough of these into
individual punch glasses to fill each one onethird
third onethird full. Fill the glasses with strained
orange juice, and add powdered sugar to
taste. Then, either put them on the ice
to become thoroughly chilled, or add
enough chipped ice to make them suffi sufficiently
ciently sufficiently cold.
To utilize all food products to the best
advantage, the by-products as well as
the others require a variety of stock.

21



22

THE CARE OF HOUSE PLANTS.
There are no hard and fast rules that
ean be given for the care of house plants
in general, so I will try to treat a
few of the most desirable plants, giving
as nearly as possible directions that will
bring success to the amateur.
The Geranium is seen in almost every
collection of house plants and is one of
the most desirable, probably, because it
requires the least care to make it live. It
also responds quickly to systematic care
and will return in bloom all attention
given it. The geranium cutting can be
rooted by putting it in a small pot, say
not over two and a half inches. Let the
cutting nearly fill the pot with roots be before
fore before disturbing it, then repot into three
or four in a pot. After the plant is
well established in this pot it is best to
make a cutting from the top of the plant,
which will cause same to branch and
make a shapely plant.
The soil used for the rooting should
be very sandy. Two parts black sand, one
part old rotted cow fertilizer with a
very light dusting of clay will be good.
For the second potting use one part clay,
two parts best sandy loam, one part
old cow fertilizer, with a generous
sprinkling of bone meal. After the pot
is full of roots liquid cow fertilizer and
light applications of bone meal will give
the plants a healthy growth with lots
of bloom. It must be remembered that
geraniums bloom more and better when
the pots are full of roots and a little bit
on the dry side. A good plan for water watering
ing watering is to give a good soaking and then
not water until the soil looks dry again.
Pots full of roots will require watering
oftener than those not so.
There are so many, hundreds of varie varieties,
ties, varieties, most of them good, that I will only
enumerate a few of the most satisfactory
kinds for pot plants: La Favorite is one
of the bery best double white, and LAube
single white. S. A. Nutt is the standard
deep scarlet, shade maroon. Miss F. Per Perkins,
kins, Perkins, a charming shade of pink ifrith
white throat. General Grant has been a
favorite for yearscolor bright Vermil Vermillion
lion Vermillion scarlet. Beaute Poitirine clear sal salmon.
mon. salmon. In a later article I shall treat oth others
ers others blooming plants adapted to house cul culture.
ture. culture.
Another plant usually seen in the
house is Asparagus in both varieties, As Asparagus
paragus Asparagus Plumossus nanus and Aspara Asparagus
gus Asparagus Sprengerii. A. Plumosa, more often
known as asparagus fern, is one of the
easiest plants for house culture. It re requires
quires requires a sandy loam soil with a little
clay and a generous amount of well rot rotted
ted rotted fertilized; water with moderation and
keep in the shade. A. Sprengerii is well
known as Emerald Feather, needs a soil
similar to A. Plumosa, but will take far
more water and will stand the full sun
well, although under a half-shade it
gives a better color. Keep watch of this
fern, and if it developes a great many
tubers about the main crown cut them
off, as they will burst the pot if allowed
to grow. The more tubers the less foli foliage
age foliage you will have. Large plants will

FLORICULTURE
By H. L. Sawyer

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

stand and appreciate almost ariy amount
of fertilizer, and also is hardy enough to
stand almost any kind of treatment,
thus making it well adapted to amateur
culture.
There are several ferns of the Nephro Nephrolepis
lepis Nephrolepis type that are seen in most collec collections
tions collections of house plants, namely Nephrole Nephrolelis
lis Nephrolelis Bostoniensis, known as the Boston
fern. Nep. Piersonii, known as the
Pierson fern. Nep. Whitmanii, the im improved
proved improved Ostrich Plume fern.
Although there are many others of this
type, some of which are deserving of
more attention than they receive, these
three are most seen.
The Boston fern, the most common of
the three, is very graceful when well wellgrown,
grown, wellgrown, fronds sometimes attaining a
length of six or seven feet. Chip off all
runners from the Boston fern and allow
but three or four crowns to a pot. If al allowed
lowed allowed to make more than this (nad it
will do so if not watched) the pot will
soon become full of crowns, greatly to
the detriment of the plant and foliage.
Nep Piersonii, the first of the Ostrich
Plume varieties, is a very strong, rapid
grower, similar to its parent, the Boston
fern, and should be treated in a like
manner. The Pierson fern when growing
strongly often reverts to the original
type, throwing some fronds complete completely
ly completely Boston, white other fronds will
be only partially Boston. This mix mixture
ture mixture is greatly admired by some
people, but if it is not wanted the fronds
that revert may be picked off, leaving
only those of the true Ostrich Plume.
These fronds often reach a width of
twelve and fifteen inches.
Nep. Whitmanii is truly the im improved
proved improved Ostrich Plume and does not often
attain the size of the Pierson fern. Al Although
though Although it makes a much more, compact
growth, and when well grown makes one
of the prettiest of all pot plants, this
fern rarely reverts to the parent type,
although it does sometimes, and these
fronds should be cut off. Three crowns
are all that should ever be allowed to
grow in one pot.
The best soil to grow all of these three
ferns in will be a mixture composed of
one part leaf mold, one part best black
sandy loam, one part well rotted cow
fertilizer and clay. Good drainage should
be given to guard against the danger of
over watering. If your plants are large
and pot bound an application of bone
meal will be very beneficial. Use about
a teasponful to an eight-inch pot about
once in thirty days, treating other size
pots in like proportion.
In a future article I will treat other
varieties of ferns adapted to house cul culture
ture culture and also will write of the insects
that are enemies of the ferns and how
to destroy them.
The Out-door Garden.
Although it is a little too early to
plant out of doors, it is time to prepare
the beds for planting. The fertilizer and
clay (if procurable) may be spaded into
the beds not very deep at this time, as

the next spading at planting time will
attend to that.
There are some seed that may be
sown now, such as Sweet Alyssum for the
border. Poppies should be sown at once.
These must be sown in the beds they are
to bloom iri, as they will not stand trans transplanting.
planting. transplanting.
Nasturtiums may be sown, although a
hard frost will kill them, but if given
a little protection on cold nights they
can be saved and you can be cutting
blooms when most other plants are being
set out.
Beautify the Yard.
Flowers are not only beautiful to look
upon, but their influence is wholely re refining,
fining, refining, the cost of a few seeds is trifling
and the labor involved becomes not la labor
bor labor but a keen and health-giving pleas pleasure.
ure. pleasure. There is no good excuse why every
householder with a yard should not
beautify it, not necessarily with costly
flowers like orchids and some others, but
according to their means, if with but a
few violets, pinks, geraniums and nastur nasturtiums.
tiums. nasturtiums. A town is judged by strangers
by the appearance it presents. If, in
passing through the predominating
streets he notes dirty alleys, heaps of
refuse and tin cans and ill-kept yards,
he judges the town and its people ac accordingly.
cordingly. accordingly. If on the other hand, he
finds cleanliness, nicely kept laWtls and
gardens gay with flowers he is impressed
with it as a prosperous, inviting town,
peopled by wideawake, progressive, cul cultured
tured cultured inhabitants. Impressions count
for a great deal.
The same applies to the home ranch.
It reveals the character of the owners.
Go out and walk past your own home
and read your own character. Does it
look good to you?
Lawns for the Farms.
Why should not farm houses be sur surrounded
rounded surrounded by w T ell-kept lawns? Of late
years farmers are taking more interest
in their home surroundings than they
did a decade or two ago. Many a farm
house nowadays is adorned by a neatly
kept lawn and the only fault that can be
found is that there are not more attract attractive
ive attractive farm homes. It was until recently*
the practice to have barns for the care
of live stock much more comfortable andt
attractive than the dwelling house of the*
family. In order to have a nice lawn it;
is not necessary to attempt extensive extensivelandscape
landscape extensivelandscape gardening. The life of a lawm
is the mower, and the lawn must be bemowed
mowed bemowed because it kills out the weeds andl
stimulates the growth of the grass. Iff
there are not already old forest trees om
the home place, some variety of trees;
should be set out, the kind depending
upon the latitude and climatic condi conditions.
tions. conditions. Fruit trees may be advantageous*
ly raised on the country lawn, and they
will serve two purposes, as they furnish
both shade and fruit. The lawn should
have a few walks with flower beds and
shrubs to make it more attactive. There
are many kinds of roses and shrubs that
can be grown almost anywhere. During
the winter months plans may be made
for the laying out of the lawn and for
the planting of the flowers.
i
In some classes of farm products over overproduction
production overproduction has not so much to do with
the depression of prices as has poor qual quality.
ity. quality.



VINES IN SOUTHERN FLORIDA*
M. A. Adow.
A vine makes an extreme appeal to iny
sense of the artistic in plant-life, and
being a plant-lover and more or less of
a grower, you would expect to find vines
among my plant-treasures, and you would
not be mistaken. Art inventory taken
three years ago, recorded sixty-seven
varieties on my grounds of less than an
acre in extent. I may have more and
I may have less just now, but of the
most thrifty and beautiful ones I shall
write you, in the hope to enthuse my
readers sufficiently to experiment with
some of them, and thus add to their own
pleasure as well as that of all those who
may pass their way.
Loves Chain clambers over two or
three hundred feet of my fences and up
into two oak trees, transforming them
from sturdy warriors to flower-bedecked
beauties. The cattle are so fond of its
leaves that they keep it nipped off short,
as high up as they can reach on the out outside
side outside of the fence, but on the inside it
hangs to the ground, a rich drapery of
green and rose. It grows in the poorest
kind of sand, and though no doubt it ap appreciates
preciates appreciates a good fertilizer, it does very
well without. It produces an exceeding exceedingly
ly exceedingly large number of seeds, and these I
gather and toss from my motor car as
I ride through the wilds of DeSoto coun county,
ty, county, but I imagine that the cattle that
roam these wilds, wont give this luscious
vine much of a chance to grow.
Next to this vine in luxuriance of
is Agdestis or False Clematis,
although why it should have received the
Matter Mine I cannot guess, for it bears
no very close resemblance to any cle clematis
matis clematis I know, bearing a small white
Agdestis makes me think of our
white lilacs up in Michigan, but the indi individual
vidual individual flowerets are larger. Many of the
sprays are eight to twelve inches long,
and are fine for cut-flowers, because of
their keeping qualities. They have a
very individual odor, that is offensive to
some persons and pleasing to others. The
odor of its tubers is distinctly offensive.
My vine was two years old last summer,
and it has grown so rampantly that it
was smothering a choice Bignonia, and
T had to move it, which proved a most
sickening task. I dug out fully two
bushels of tubers from around the one
root that was set out in 1905. There is a
strange peculiarity about the blossom of
this vine. When it grows old, instead of
wilting and dying, the petals gradually
turn green and hard like those of the
Hydrangea, and in course of time they
finally dry up. It remains in blossom for
two months in the fall down here in
Punt a Gorda.
Another enchanting climber, with a
white flower, is Porana. Its leaves are
beart-shaped but much larger than those
-of the first two, which are also of the
same shape. They are of a rather pale
shade of green, and hoary. The blossom
sprays are from two to five feet long,
broad at the base and tapering to the
tips, with the most exquisitely scented
flowers, which in appearance somewhat
resemble the small flowerets of helio heliotrope.
trope. heliotrope. At a distance you think of sea seafoam
foam seafoam dashed over the green vines. One
spray will make a large bouquet, and
when I have them in the house they al always
ways always arouse the most enthusiastic ad admiration
miration admiration from visitors. It remains in

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

blossom through October and November,
just a little later than Agdestis.
To me, a blue flower is the crowning
triumph of the plant-world, and anyone
who does not agree with me when he
sees Clitoria uvaria in full bloom is but
a hopeless clod. There are not many
such blues in nature. A cockatoo of this
wonderful color has recently been added
to the Zoological Gardens in New York,
and he is labeled as an exceedingly great
rarity. Lapis-lazuli in the mineral
world has this color and you might find
it in some other instances. Up in Mich Michigan,
igan, Michigan, I have a blue garden that has some
exquisite blues in it, but when you are
looking for a clear, pure blue, there arent
many like Clitoria. It comes in a deep
blue shade and from that on down
through tints that are deeply suffused
with white.
The Trumpet Creeper, a Bignonia, is a
charming creeper that blooms for a long
time in the summer. I have three varie varieties
ties varieties of this plant, the flowers of which
range from dark red suffused with or orange,
ange, orange, to clear orange. Bignonia venusta
is a clambering shrub that is seldom out
of blossom. I planted my two specimens
ten years ago, and I doubt if there has
been a single day since that time when
a few blossoms could not be found on it.
The leaves are compound, of a rich shade
of green, and the flowers a clear orange orangered.
red. orangered. Last summer I saw a member of
this family, called Bignonia McKennii, in
a garden in Arcadia, Fla., and I added a
specimen to my collection as soon as I
could obtain one. The sprays of pink
flowers stood up on stiff stems that
were long enough to make them most
desirable for vases.
A vine with a beautifully cut leaf, is
called Geranium Vine down here, be because
cause because of its resemblance in leaf to the
Rose Geranium, I suppose. Its flower is
much like a white Morning Glory with a
purple throat. Two beautiful woody
vines that I find some difficulty in rais raising
ing raising are Clerodendron Balfouri, and deli delicatum.
catum. delicatum. The white one, Balfouri, is a
royal beauty with its combination of
creamy white and rich crimson. An
English Ivy, a slip of which I brought
from Kenilworth Castle in England, is
a fine, sturdy vine on the north side of
my studio. Jasminum humile is a yel yellow
low yellow flowered clambering shrub, sweet

CATALOGUE
Our Catalogue of Palms, Ferns, Bedding and House
Plants will be issued in a few days. It will interest you
WRITE FOR. IT. FREE
Jacksonville Floral Cos.
JAS. H. PAYNE. H L. SAWYER,
President. Vice-President.
20 LAURA STREET

scented and its compound leaves of dull
green.
I have two varieties of a beautiful
climbing Asparagus, and a climbing
Fern, and various vines that have not
blossomed for me yet, and which I shall
not enthuse over until my chickens are
hatched, but over which I am living in
happy anticipation.
A temperature of 28 degrees has often
cut my vines to the ground, but they al always
ways always regain themselves with amazing
rapidity when the warm days of March
arrive. Most of them grow in poor
sandy soil that has been built up with
decayed leaves, and a good fruit and vine
fertilizer and some barnyard manure.
This year I shall feed them with nitrate
of soda, bone meal, acid phosphate, and
potash in their unmixed forms, but I
would not advise the novice to do this.
Helenium grandicephalum Striatum.
Editor Floral Department:
This is a composite whose common
name is sneezeweed an unlucky term
for a flowering plant, but you can call it
Helenium. Gray says of one of its con congeners:
geners: congeners: Range from Illinois to Taxes.
You are not to look for the majestic
beauty of the Lillium auratun in it, but
it is a good and useful plant of easy cul culture
ture culture and good for summer hedges, etc.,
besides a place in the flower borders. A
hardy perennial propagated by division
of the root. Dont know whether it will
seed with me or not didnt seem to last
year. There is a much branched bush
three feet or more high, with long nar narrow
row narrow leaves. The umber-brown disc is a
globe with an equator of orange and
crimson ray florets each ray cuts into
teeth; the flowers are 1y 2 inches across.
Like the Heliopsis vebesina and some
other composites, the flowers last a long
time, all summer almost, and as more are
coming out all the time there are finally
a lot of them. The plant cares nothing
for frosts, remaining bright long after
most flowers are gone. I set a mailing
plant last spring, the first of its kind I
ever saw, which did finely, considering
how dry and unfavorable the season was,
and a strong root will make a good dis disply,
ply, disply, I am thinking. E. S. Gilbert.

23



24

THE POULTRY YARD

The Future of This Department.
Beginning with the next number the
Poultry Department will be edited by
Mr. C. H. Lane, one of the best informed
and most successful poultrymCn in Flor Florida.
ida. Florida. We are sure this announcement will
be hailed with pleasure by our readers,
who will in future find this one of the
best features of the Agriculturist. As an
indication of what may be expected we
quite a sentence or two from one of his
letters while he had the matter under
consideration.
The proposition is a large one to me,
for I am a very busy man, and the labor
involved would be considerable. If I un undertook
dertook undertook it I would want to do it right,
giving good, readable, reliable matter,
with sufficient ginger in it to make it
of interest to all.
With his conception of the work, and
his experience as a practical poultry
breeder in Florida, we feel that we are
to be congratulated upon having secured
his services.
INCUBATOR HATCHING.
Defective Construction of Most of the
Machines on the Market.
By C. W. Leonard.
I have been endeavoring for some years
past to overcome the many losses com common
mon common to poultry raising. Starting with
the egg, we all known how seldom it
is that a satisfactory number of pullets
can be saved from the vicissitudes com common
mon common to incubators, and brooding.
Incubator manufacturers tell us that
their machines hatch every fertile, strong
germ, and that such eggs as do not
hatch are weak germed; from hens lack lacking
ing lacking in vitality.
Experiments with the machines have
proven, however, that this is not wholly
true. The really clear eggs tested out
would of course not hatch even beneath
the hen, but there are often tested out
many eggs which have a germ. These
eggs were fertile, and beneath the hen
would have hatched. Due to improper
heat, moisture, ventilation, or to all
three causes, these germs become dessi dessicated
cated dessicated and stuck to the shell. They are
classed as non-fertile, and the percent percentage
age percentage of hatch figured on the eggs left in
the machine after two testings out.
Now, if all the conditions of artificial
hatching were as perfect as the manu manufacturers
facturers manufacturers would have us believe, we
should hatch every egg in the machine.
It has shown a twelve days develop development,
ment, development, and the hen would bring the
chicks safely forth if artificial condi conditions
tions conditions had not already injured it.
To determine the truth of the matter,
and to locate the cause of the fairly
constant percentage of dead in shell,

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST*

I have constructed many hatchers on
principles differing widely from those
hitherto practiced, and have copied the
natural nest methods to the minutest de detail
tail detail possible. The results attained have
proven, as I at first suspected, that
there are a few things besides heat at
103 degrees and the so-called ventilation
of the present style machines, necessary.
Heat at 103 degrees is necessary;
but the manner of its application is more
so.
Ventilation is absolutely necessary,
but it must be correctly applied, as lfi
the nest.
Moisture may be ignored provided that
heat and ventilation are supplied in the
natural way.
And yet, for some thirty years past,
we see machines constructed on the same
principle, differing in details only, look looking
ing looking as much alike as two peas, and yet
claiming superiority each over the other.
There are supposed to be two hatching
methods hot water and hot airyet a
study of these show them to be either
radiating or non-radiating. In all cases
they are stratified air machines.
There is one machine wherein the heat
does not exceed 103 anywhere. We may
call this a cool air machine.
The electric machines retain the same
old principle of high initial heat and
stratified air.
Now if any of these variations really
made any gain in percentage hatched, de decreased
creased decreased stuck germs, or dead in shell,
we should have their performance adver advertised
tised advertised in figures and not in meaningless
words.
I call my method the Cold Air Sys System,
tem, System, just as the natural nest is a cold
air system. I have never constructed
any large sized machine, the ones I now
use hatching but 20 eggs; but as my ob object
ject object was to prove that there should be
no stuck germs, and no dead in shell,
and as I can hatch every egg not abso absolutely
lutely absolutely clear, I have proven my suspicions
correct that it has been the machine and
not the hen which was at fault. It an anges
ges anges me to see manufacturers claiming
perfection for machines they know
average only 65 per cent of eggs set,
when they also know the hen commonly
hatches 90 per cent.
I follow the following plan: Set eggs
freshthat is daily as laid. Do not
test or handle during hatch. Brood
chicks in same machine, under same con conditions
ditions conditions of heat from 6 to 9 weeks.
Adopt hopper feeding methods as soon
as possible. Adopt automatic scratch scratching
ing scratching (grain scattering) methods as soon
as possible. Use small colony houses.
Use trap nests. Eliminate all undesira undesirable,
ble, undesirable, unfertile stock. Colonize but few
fowls, not over 10; only 5 preferred. Set
but few fresh eggs; not over 50; 25 pre preferred.
ferred. preferred. Brood few chicks, not over 25
together. Separate sick chicks, and
never return them. Have bottomless col colony
ony colony house, small enough to move. Have
no wooden floor; nothing but ground.
Keep clean; exercise; feed more green
than grain food. Build up from trap
nest, hatcher and brooder records. Num Number
ber Number and pedigree every egg and every
chick as hatched.

POULTRY TROUBLES.
The Experience of a 15-Year-Old Girl
With Non-Setting Hens.
When I first began to raise chickens
I had the common mixed breed, and I
had pretty good success with them, for
they were both good setters and good
mothers, But I exchanged them for
White Wyandottes and then I began to
have troubie in setting therm The hens
were willing enough id Sei, at thli
after a few days they grew tired of £etj
ting and would desert their nests and
let their eggs grow cold, or else they
would set until within a week of the
time the eggs were expected to hatch,
and then would leave. Sometimes there
were others wanting to set. If there were,
I would take the hen which had been set setting
ting setting and put her out and then {hit the
other on the nest, but if there were rid
hens wanting to set, I would place a box
over the hen, so that she could not get
up very well, and keep it on for some
time, only taking it off for her to eat and
drink, then covering her up again. Some Sometimes
times Sometimes this plan would work, but more
often it would not. The hen would
manage to got the box up, and then
leave or break the eggs and ruin them.
I have lost a good many eggs in this
way. If I do not lose all at a setting, I
often lose half of them or more. t
For instance, one time I set a hen with
twelve eggs. She sat for about tett days,
then left the nest, and let the eggs grow
cold. I put a box over her, but it did
no good, for as soon as I took it (fS she
left her nest, and would not go back riff'
til I made her. Fortunately, howetr>
there was another hen wanting to set, so'
I put her on instead, and she sat fairly
well for the remaining time, but I did not
get more than six chickens out of all
the eggs that were set.
Now, I do not mean to say that com common
mon common chickens set well all of the time, for,
on the contrary, I set two common hens.
They set for a few days, and then delib deliberately
erately deliberately deserted their nests, and I dont
believe they left three eggs out of the
whole lot. But on the average, the com common
mon common mixed breed sets better than the
White Wyandottes. Although the latter 1
are good layers and fairly good moth mothers,
ers, mothers, I cannot recommend them as good*
setters. A Reader.
THE GUINEA HEN.
A Plea for a Much Neglected But Useful.
Fowl.
In the line of poultry production, why 7
should not Florida housewives pay more*
attention to guinea hens? Their eggs;
are but a trifle, if any, smaller than those-:
of the hen, are just as good eating and!
for use in cooking, while the meat has a agamey
gamey agamey flavor that closely resembles that
of our natural game birds, now so rapid rapidly
ly rapidly disappearing from our forests and
woodlands.
Our squawking friend is thought to
have come originally fromAAfrica
country from whose dark interior we are
getting a good many .excellent things in
the way of foods both animal and plant.
Like the turkey, they are a wandering
race; like the Arab, they like to be let
alone, to wander, only tentless, at will
in field and garden, foraging for their
daily food. If given a wide range their



cost of maintenance is small, compared
with the more domestic kind. The
mother instinct is small, perhaps owing
to this cause and the hatch comes out
best when a hen sits upon it, with the
proverbial patience of Job. When young
they are somewhat wild and require to
be confined within close wire netted
fences with a wide board at the bottom.
Once on squawking terms with their
step-mothers and becoming familiar with
hen talk, they are said to become very
much attached to her, never leaving her
day or night even after they are grown
up.
As to their laying they are quite pro prolific
lific prolific in this respect, but, like the turkey,
they will hide their nests unless they
have become domesticated by having the
run of the house lot inclosure. If
hatched by hens they are apt to do as
hens do and will lay their eggs in the
same nests.
The common pearl guinea has darker
flesh than the white variety, which is
unknown in its native country, the loss
of color being an accident of domestica domestication
tion domestication which has been taken advantage of
to breed anew variety.
To distinguish between the sexes is
easy for those familiar with this fowl,
but the beginner may, for a time, be
misled. The male has a bass voiceif
one may be allowed the term for so un unmusical
musical unmusical a creature while the female has
a tenor one. She is the noisy one of
the species, and alone buckwheats the
air. the male never using it.
Poultry, from which the forego foregoing
ing foregoing facts are condensed, says: As
night watches a few guineas are a

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be surprised what your little flock in your backyard will do for you with a little of THOMAa w LILIE-riir L
EGG MAKER given them. Dont think it is expensive to use ; the extra egg of one hen alone a month pays tor
all the trouble and expense. T -a.
Thomas Egg Producer is quite different from some so-called egg makers, It is not a stimulant; it brings about
a natural increase and a steady one. Keeps your poultry free from disease, and will make them lay almost continu continuously.
ously. continuously. Just think what a, few chickens will do in helping to defray your expenses. Then, if you are running poultry
on a larger scale, for profit, why not increase the yield of eggs, and have the same number of hens do w a wou
under ordinary care, take twice as many hens to do the work. If yeu live out of town, just mail us your order at once
for one or a half dozen pockages. One package COSTS YOH 25c, but by taking six package* you get them or sl,
which makes the freight cost you nothing, as we make a reduction of 50c on six packages. ,
We are selling this EGG PRODUCER, in the State as fast as we can prepare it, but we want everybody in
Florida or elsewhere to learn of THOMAS WONDERFUL EGG PRODUCER; therefore we have equipped
ourselves with everything necessary to handle the*volume of business promptly. Mail us your order todaydon t
wait. Let your hens get to laying, and keep them at it, for once you use Thomas Egg Producer you will never be
without it.
ThomasEgg Producer, 25c how are your
package, 6 for SS.OO Cows, Hogs or
Makes hens lay in winter Horse' 7
as well as summer.
Write us about your Roup, Sorehead, Gaps, cholera and other remedies for sick chickens. We can. supply you with any of these and
save your chickens. They should always be kept on hand for emergencies. The PK.ICIS IS 25c A BOTTLE, and three or four doses will
generally set your chickens right.
Write us about oar CONDITION POWDERS for yous stock; how to increase the milk yield of your cows; how to fatten up your
hogs so as to bring better prices and make more solid flesh, and to prevent and cure cholera among them; also diseases of your stock,
Thomas Pharmacy
MADISON AND ADAMS STREETS RHONE 535
Out of Town Orders Shipped Immediately

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

perfect defense. They know a stranger
at any time and will set up their clat clatter
ter clatter day or night, and he is a bold chicken
thief who can withstand their discordant
screeching when he invades a poultry
house where guineas are kept.
Guineas should not be hatched until
continuous warm weather has come, say,
the last of May and during June. The
female guinea usually does not sit un until
til until later than this. A small flock is
profitable and interesting. Wf. E. P.
Why I Keep Black Minorcas.
By Chas. F. Hiley.
I will not begin by saying that Black
Minorcas are the only breed of any merit,
but I will give a few reasons why they
suit me for Florida conditions.
In the first place, rightly or wrongly,
I have made up my mind that with the
high price of feed in Florida, and the
prices of eggs and poultry considered,
that there is more money in raising eggs
for the winter market at 40 and 50 cents
per dozen than in raising broilers at
current prices. Having come to that
conclusion, I naturally turned to one of
the Mediterranean breeds. That gave me
the Leghorns and Minorcas to choose
from, both of which breeds are notori notoriously
ously notoriously good layers.
Having arrived at that point there are
three reasons that decided me in favor
of the Minorcas as being especially
adapted to my conditions. The principal
one is that they lay the largest and
finest eggs of any breed (by actual test),
consequently they are especially adapted
to capture the custom of the most fas-

tidious people, at prices slightly in ad advance
vance advance of the ordinary market prices.
This also means a ready market for my
eggs when ordinary eggs are almost a
drug in the market.
The second reason is that we wanted a
bird that was large enough to eat when
occasion demanded. Many people think
the Minorca is a small bird, as they have
been used to seeing birds of run down
stocks, whereas the Minorcas weight is
half a pound greater than that of the
Wyandotte, though owing to the closer
feathering they do not look as large. I
had one cock at the Orlando show that
weighed 9y 2 pounds and three others
weighing 9 pounds.
The third reason is that they are more
easily confined than the Leghorns, which
I have always found to be terrible flyers.
The Minorca is a breed that has sur survived
vived survived on its merits. It has never been
bred on account of its fancy featuring,
and is the same today that it was 100
years ago, whereas many breeds in that
time have been created only to die out
in a few years because they could not
stand the test of time. Any breed that
has not got really valuable economic
qualities will drop out after a few years.
It is an easy matter to get the pullets
laying by the time eggs begin to fetch
top prices, and a dozen eggs in the win winter
ter winter are worth three dozen in the early
summer. To me a glossy, greenish-black
Minorca is the most beautiful of all
fowls, but tastes differ and I should
never advise anyone to try a breed that
does not appeal to them, as it is bound
to prove unsatisfactory.
Orlando, Fla.

25



26

POULTRY NOTES.
Winter is nearly past and it is high
time to prepare now to get off your
hatches.
It is a pretty sight indeed to any
lover of Nature to see the beautiful little
chicks as they run about with their
mother.
Very interesting indeed it is to watch
a lot of incubator chicks as they come
out of the brooder in the morning as
the weather warms and feeding time
comes.
Large breeders have their yards filled
With chicks now ,and these next few
months more chicks will perhaps be
hatched than in all the rest of the year.
What about the resolutions that have
been made for 1008?
Have they all been carried out so far,
Vi

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PAUL DE KOL, OWNED BY THE FLORIDA EXPERIMENTALISTATION Ir'Y-

or nave some been cracked like eggs
do?
It is never too late to start in right
in the poultry line.
If you have never kept a record of the
number of eggs your fowls laid during a
certain length of time, do it now.
Charcoal, grit and oyster shells are
as essential to yarded fowls to keep
them in condition as feed is necessary to
keep them from starving. It is best to
keep a supply before them all the time,
and it should not be mixed with their
feeds.
Practically all specialty breeders are
now adopting the use of trap nests. Trap
nests tell which hen lays and which does
not, also giving accurate credit to the
hen that laid, every day, and for several
reasons are to be recommended.
That the South can and does produce
as good and even better grades of fowls
as' the North, can readily be noted by
looking over the winnigs of Southern
breeders at the National Poultry Show,
held at Jamestown Exposition last fall.
Over 80 solid carloads and several
thousand single shipments of incubators
and brooders in the past 12 months is
the actual amount of business done by
one firm. Yet there are perhaps over a
hundred other concerns manufacturing
and selling incubators on nearly as large
a scale, and it is hardly possible for the
average person to comprehend how many
incubators are really sold in a year.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

Poultry Feeding.
Feeding poultry for profit is one of
the important parts to be considered in
the poultry business. In ord?r to get the
best results you must stud/ your birds
and feed them according to their sur surrounding
rounding surrounding conditions. 1 believe that as
a rule hopper feeding will give the best
results. 1 did not at first think that this
method would give as good results as
other ways of feeding, but have tried it
thoroughly and know it is the best way
for raising all young stock and laying
birds. lor growing birds, after I put
them on free range, I feed equal parts
wheat, oats and cracked corn in hoppers.
They have beef scraps, grit, oyster shell
and charcoal in hoppers before them at
all times. All growing stock should be
kept in colony houses that are extra

v "i*-* wiianami
clean and free from lice. Give all your
stock free range if possible and plenty of
shade.
For breeding and laying birds, I feed
a scratching feed morning and night,
composed of equal parts wheat, oats and
cracked corn. When I can get it I feed
some barley, buckwheat and kaffir corn

SINGLE COMB
Rhode Island Reds
EXCLUSIVELY
Lakemont Poultry Farms
WINTER. PARK. FLA.
C. Fred. Ward and C. H. Lane, Propiietors
MEMBERS:. American Poutry Assn., Fl*. State Poultry Assn.. Rhode
Island Red Club of America, S. C. Rhode Island Red Club.
===== WRITE FOR CIRCULAR ~
We have the goods and can please you if you desire the best in
Reds, Our yards contain more High Scoring Reds and Prize Win Winners
ners Winners any other farm in the south.
O'ders booked and filled promptly for Eggs, $2.00, $3.00 and
$5.00 *>er setting. Incubator Egg s SB.OO per li-O.
W* are also agents for the Modil Brooders and incubators, also
Hardings celebrated Poultry Feeds and Remedies.

for variety. This feed is fed in deep litter
morning and night, feeding twice as
much at night as I do in the morning.
The evening feed should be fed early
enough to give them a chance to work
for it before going to roost. In hoppers
kept before the birds at all times I
feed a mash of coarsely ground grains,
composed of one part beef scrap, one part
alfalfa, eight parts wheat, four parts
oats and six parts corn. Beef scraps,
charcoal* oyster shell and grit are kept
in hoppers before the birds at all times.
Be sure that the fowls are always sup*
plied with pure water and that then 4
drinking vessels-are washed frequently.
Green food should be fed several times
each week. I use rape, alfalfa and man mangels.
gels. mangels. N. V. Fogg.

Raising Poultry.
No other farm industry is making such
rapid strides forward as poultry hus*
bandry. From everywhere come reports
that farmers, in fact, all country and
suburban residents, are giving increased
attention to poultry. And With this ad l
vance movement in poultry popularity
has come an enlarged demand fOr pure purebred
bred purebred fowls. There is not a ClOud irt the
sky of the progressive poultry
future.
Poultry for Women.
Almos aily Wdm&ii can go into the
poultry business if she fedliy Wfttfta t 0;
It requires a very small capital id begiil
with and it usually is better to eofflififcri6
in a very small way. It is a business
that seems to grow better from a small
beginning. A village lot with a piano
box in one corner will do very well for
a starter, and there is waste enough from
almost any kitchen to keep half a dozen
hens. Next year the plant may be en enlarged
larged enlarged to three times its size with very
little extra outlay* and by that time the
woman will know how to get the money
back by the sale of eggs and breeding
stock. No business can be started easier
than the poultry business and nothing
pats better according to the amount of
money invested*
.. .. ..'T?
It is now getting so that every farmer
is about figuring on needing a hatching
machine as much as a churn.



HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN CAf f LEk
By John M. Scott.
This famous breed of dairy cattle has
been known in the past by several differ differeftt
eftt differeftt riames, such as Holland Cattle, North
Dcfllaiiders, Dutch Cattle* Holsteins
Dutch Friesian, Netherland Cattle, and
Holstein Friesian. The last name was
adopted about twenty-five years ago.
Like many other breeds they derived
their name from their home land. His History
tory History records that before the Christian
era two tribes were located on the shores
of the North Sea, one possessing a black,
and the other a white race of cattle.
These two races of cattle became amal amalgamated,
gamated, amalgamated, the result of which has given
us the well known back and white cat cattle
tle cattle of north Holland, now known as
Holstein Friesians.
For a thousand years or more these
Cattle have been noted as heavy milk pro producers.
ducers. producers. As time went on they not only
maintained their pest record, but are
to-day oiir heaviest milkers. Imagine a
cow producing iii one year more than
twenty times her own weight in milk
and more than her own weight in but butter!
ter! butter! Such is the record of the Holstein
cow Colantha 4th*s Johanna.
Just when the first Of these catth
Were brought tO AmOriCa is not definite
|y kftOwri, biit the records show thaf
there Were some three or four importa
t foils before 1850. \bout 1860 impor
tations were made to Massachusetts.
Since that time the offspring from these
has been kept pure.
Sizes. In size the Holstein Friesians
are the largest of the dairy breeds, in
fact they almost rank in size with the
beef breeds. The cows weigh from 1,000
to 1,500, with an average of about 1.250
pounds, while the Hills weigh 1,800 to
2,500 pounds, some individuals weighing
nearly 3.000 pounds. The large size of
these animals is due mostly to the care
selection and good treatment they have
received in their native home. They are
w*ell fed and well cared for, from birth
until they are sold for beef. The cows
as a rule are retained for milk produc production
tion production in their native land until seven or
weight years old. At about this age they
are supposed to have passed the preiod
are fattened and sold for beef. tliei r
place in the dairy herd being filled by
younger animals.
Color.The Holstein Friesian cattle
must have no other color than black and
white to be eligible to register. On
some animals the black predominates,
on others the white is in excess. The
two colors are not intermixed, the lines
of demarcation being very clean-cut and
distinct.
Milk. In milk production the Hol Holsteins
steins Holsteins have long noted. To-day
they rank first in quantity, but not in
quality (richness), though now and then
individual cows are found that produce
milk fairly rich in butter fat. At the
present time a Holstein cow, Calantha
,iths Johanna, holds the worlds record

LIVE STOCK

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

for milk and butter, having produced in
twelve months 27,432.6 pounds of milk
with an average of 3.64 per cent, of fat,
or a total of 988.26 pounds of fat, equiv equivalent
alent equivalent to 1,165 pounds of butter. Some
Holstein cows have a yearly record of
16,000 to 18,000 pounds of milk. Where
the aim is to produce milk for city con consumption
sumption consumption the Holstein is no doubt the
most economical producer, but for yield
of butter there are other breeds that sur surpass
pass surpass it.
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.
Selecting a Herd for Beef.
By Dr. David Roberts.
In building up a herd for beef pro production,
duction, production, select cows with a broad, deep
and square body, cows with a good coat coating
ing coating of flesh, for these, if bred to the right
kind of bull, will produce calves that

CKETIA £., OWNED BY FLORIDA EXPERIMENTAL STATION

will prove profitable feeders.
Now for the bull. The bull is half
the herd. He stamps his qualities on
all the calves, not simply on one calf a
vear, as with the cow. Get a registered
bull of the breed you want, even if you
have only grade cows, as then you are
sure you are getting a beef breed from
beef ancestors. Select a bull that is of
good size, with a proud masculine bear-
; ng, a good intelligent head, broad and
full between the eyes, yet with a quiet
expression, as a nervous, excitable ani animal
mal animal will never fatten to good advan advantage.
tage. advantage. He should be broad and straight
across the back, with smooth, even hips.
He should have well sprung ribs, heav heavily
ily heavily covered with flesh.
Spring is the natural season for cows
to drop their calves, and the cows should
be bred so as to drop their calves in the
early spring, and then when the cows
are turned to pasture in the spring the
calves are old enough to go with them
and thus have advantages for making
rapid growth and require very little at attention
tention attention during the busy summer months.
When the calves are a few weeks old
they should be castrated and the wound

washed with some good germ killer, so
it heals rapidly. In the fall the calves
should be weaned and fed on good nu nutritious
tritious nutritious food.
The age at which steers should be
marketed depends largely on the mar market
ket market prices, but as a rule well fed steers
sell best at fourteen to sixteen months
old.
If you do not wish to dispose of your
product as beef, then you must choose
one of the dairy instead of beef breeds
of cattle.
Never Drench Cattle.
By Dr. David Roberts.
More cattle die from the effects of be*
ing drenched than from tuberculosis.
Perhaps the best way of demonstrating
the danger of drenching cattle is to ad J
vise the reader to throw back his head
as far as possible and attempt to swal swallow.
low. swallow. This you will find to be a difficult
task and you will find it much more diffi difficult
cult difficult and almost impossible to swallow
with mouth open. It is for this reason

that drenching cattle is a dangerous
practice. Therefore, if a cows head be
raised as high as possible and her mouth
kept open, by the drenching bottle or
horn, a portion of the liquid is very apt
to pass down the wind-pipe into the
lungs, sometimes causing instant death
by smothering. At other times causing
rleath to follow in a few days from con congestion
gestion congestion or inflammation of the lungs.
We are constantly receiving letters at
this office describing the sudden death
of animals that were ailing with such
minor ailments as constipation or loss of
appetite, and upon investigation find that
they had been drenched and the cause
of their death was due to same. This
is oftentimes proved by sending out
one of our assistant veterinarians to
hold post-mortem upon such animals,
mily to find that a portion of the drench
was still in the lungs; other cases where
leath had been prolonged and later the
'nimal had died of mechanical pneu pneumonia.
monia. pneumonia.
I do not feel that the stock raisers of
his country realize the danger in drench drenching
ing drenching cattle and the enormous financial
loss brought about by same.

27



28

FAIR FLORIDA
The State With the Brightest Prospects of All the
Southland
Copyright by Win. T. Blaine, Publication Committee, Jacksonville Board of Trade.

For fifty years, or since the war of 61,
tlie movement of population has been
largely, up to this time, westward, un until
til until the country west of the Alleghenies,
across the great Mississippi valley, has
been thickly populated. The desirable
lands have been all taken and values
have increased until to get holdings in a
settled community, for farming and ag agricultural
ricultural agricultural pursuits, even to the far Pa Pacific
cific Pacific seaboard, requires a considerable
amount of cash for the initial land in investment,
vestment, investment, aside from its preparation for
tillage, necessary buildings, equipment,
stock, etc.
The Souths Opportunities.
This situation is now being universally
recognized, and are looking south southward
ward southward for opportunities upon the soil,
new commercial and industrial enter enterprises
prises enterprises in the upbuilding of communities,
the building of towns and cities. Intel Intelligence,
ligence, Intelligence, wealth and enterprise are coming
hand in hand with great rapidity into
this marvelously rich section of the
United States. In the pressing westward
over the vast and wide territory, from
the Alleghenies to the Pacific, the very
substantial material interests of the
South have been somewhat overlooked.
It has grown steadily, however, and to today
day today it has the attention of the nation as
a place of future opportunities for money
making, the building of homes and all
that can be desired in business and social
life and relations.
Florida.
Unique among the States of the South
and containing a variety of attractions,
advantages and charms that are pecu peculiarly
liarly peculiarly and exclusively her own, is the
State of Florida. It is the oldest section
of the United States, and rich in history,
legend and story. It is the most roman romantic
tic romantic State of the nation, in its beauty
of climate and sunshine, its semi-tropic semi-tropical
al semi-tropical foliage, the grandeur of its blending
of landscape and water, it is first in the
South as a place to be desired as a place
of business and residence. The peninsu peninsula
la peninsula of Florida is the most misunderstood
place in the United States. While filled
during the winter with tourists and
pleasure-seekers who enjoy the delights
of its unsurpassable winter climate, it
is generally imagined that Florida being
so comparatively warm in the winter is
intolerably hot in the summer, when the
fact is, it has one of the most delightful
summer climates in the world. The
peninsula of Florida extends about 500
miles from the southward. On
the east is the Atlantic ocean, on the
west the Gulf of Mexico. During the en entire
tire entire summer, the peninsula is swept by
cooling breezes and the nights are uni uniformly
formly uniformly cool. Compared with the general
Northern climate, the summer climate of
Honda is as delightful as that of the
winter.
Jacksonville.
The city of Jacksonville is now known
as the Queen City of the South. It is
beautifully situated on the St. Johns
river, 27 miles from its mouth. It has
enjoyed a remarkable growth and de-

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

velopment during the past seven years.
In 1901 the population of Jacksonville
was 28,000, and in 1909 it is 65,000.
it is the cleanest, handsomest and
fastest growing city of the South.
The New York of the South.
There is a remarkable similarity hi the
geographical location of Jacksonville and
New York, and these same relations,
with their land and water transportation,
are bound to do for Jacksonville in the
South, what they have done for New
York in the North. Jacksonville is the
New York of the South. They are
both on the great Atlantic seaboard, with
its ocean highways direct to the vast
trade of Great Britain and continental
Europe. But Jacksonville has the ad advantage
vantage advantage of lying near the entrance of the
Panama canal, the gateway between the
Atlantic and Pacific, placing Jacksonville
over 1,000 miles nearer the vast trade of
Mexico and the wealthy and prosperous
countries of South America, Australia
and the Orient, than New York. This
new world situation is destined to make
Jacksonville the great central storehouse
and distributing point for all staple
food stuffs, industrial products and man manufactured
ufactured manufactured articles of the world, for dis distribution
tribution distribution by ocean traffic to the east
coast of South America and the splendid
islands of the West Atlantic, through
the Panama canal to the entire western
coast of the Western Hemisphere and
across the Pacific to all the Orient and
Australia. "When the Panama canal has
been completed, uniting the Atlantic and
Pacific oceans, Jacksonville will at once
come in touch with the Orient and the
tremendous populations'therein, and will
profit more than any other city in the
world by the vast commercial develop developments
ments developments that must ensue. The Panama
canal is the most remarkable develop development
ment development of the worlds history, in relation
to the worlds commerce. It will largely
affect the routes of the many thousands
of ships and vessels employed in interna international
tional international shipping, and give the United
States absolute mastery in the worlds
naval strategy and movements, both in
times of peace and war. This is destined
to make Florida and Jacksonville take
anew and most important place in na national
tional national and international affairs. More Moreover.
over. Moreover. the Hudson river runs from New
York north to Albany, about 150 miles,
while the broad and placid St. Johns ex extends
tends extends from Jacksonville south to San Sanford,
ford, Sanford, about 200 miles, with regular
steamer service, and the upper St. Johns
continues southeast to Bockledge, on
the east coast, about eighty miles far farther.
ther. farther. This upper river is navigable to
lighter craft. So Jacksonville, as New
York, rests upon the proper inland situ situation
ation situation of a majestic river, a great world
port, and splendid river harbor in touch
with the commerce of all the world, the
queen city of the South, without a rival
*n a broad domain of our national and
international trade, by right of her nat natual
ual natual position, exclusively her own.

Queen City of the South.
: f ;
Jacksonville is well supplied with
churches of all denominations. Its edu educational
cational educational facilities are of the highest or order.
der. order. It has a magnificent public library.
It is a great fraternal and secret society
town, and has a large number of splendid
social clubs. It has first-class amuse amusements
ments amusements and is visited by the best plays
and attractions. Its ocean beaches are
close at hand, easily accessible and splen splendid
did splendid for bathing. It has an enviable rep reputation
utation reputation for its hotels and boarding
houses. It takes the best Care of visit visitors
ors visitors and strangers, and its transfer arid
hack service are reasonable and first firstclass.
class. firstclass. Its street car system of about 35
miles, is under one management, with
transfers, good connections and modern
service. The city has a splendid supply
of purest water. The waterworks are
owned by the city, as is also its electric
light plant, which furnishes service at a
very low rate. It has an up-to-date gas
plant, and an excellent system of telg telgphone
phone telgphone service is operated by the South Southern
ern Southern Bell Telephone and Telegraph Com Company.
pany. Company. It has nine splendid banking in institutions
stitutions institutions and a large wholesale business.
Its retail stores are of the best class and
furnish everything to be desired by a
good class of trade. The St. Johns is a
wide and magnificent rivCr that adds
greatly to the beauty of the City arid
has a 24-foot channel from Jacksonville
to the sea. Few cities in America, of the
size of Jacksonville, has as splendid and
as good transportation facilities. Jack Jacksonville
sonville Jacksonville is the gateway to the Florida
peninsula, and from 200,000 to 250,000
people pass through the city going North
and South during the five months of the
winter season. This great trackage to all
sections of the country gives it unequal
shipping and freight facilities. It is rap rapidly
idly rapidly becoming a great manufacturing cen center.
ter. center. Upon the completion of the Pana Panama
ma Panama canal, it will be the greatest interna international
tional international distributing point in the South.
Florida has a sea coast of over 1,200
miles, with several important deep-water
ocean ports. The fisheries of the State
do an immense annual business and sup supply
ply supply constantly train loads of fish to many
sections of the Northern markets. Jack Jacksonville
sonville Jacksonville is a ship-building city, and is
now prepared to do repairs to sail or
steam vessels of almost any size. It has.
the largest dry dock south of Newport
News. Several large concerns locatedl
here are prepared with splendidly equip equipped
ped equipped plants to build ships, ocean-going
barges, scows and other boats and craft..
The lumber industry gives a heavy an annual
nual annual business to the state. The number numberof
of numberof feet now being shipped from the port
of Jacksonville annually exceeds 500,000,-
000 and is valued at $7,500,000. Numer Numerous
ous Numerous and very large saw mills surround
the city, conveniently located on river
and rail transportation, which cut hun hundreds
dreds hundreds of thousands of feet per day.
Florida produces over fifty per cent of
the worlds supply of naval stores, that
is, turpentine and rosins. Sea Island cot cotton
ton cotton is grown in several counties of north northern
ern northern Florida, and promises to develop into
a great industry. One of the large in industries
dustries industries of the State, of Florida is phos phosphate
phate phosphate rock, which is used as a fertilizer
in many sections of the world. Heavy
shipments are made to Germany and
other nations abroad, and this line of



business is assuming tremendous propor proportions.
tions. proportions.
Agriculture.
When one considers all these great and
varied material interests and resources,
the development of which has only been
fairly started, one can realize how Jack Jacksonville,
sonville, Jacksonville, the metropolis of such a mag magnificent
nificent magnificent State, is groAving so rapidly, and
yet it is probable that Floridas greatest
source of future wealth and prosperity
is in agriculture. The State is blessed
with climate and soil especially adapted
to the raising of citrus fruits, and many
farm products and garden truck, at a time
of the year when they can be produced no nowhere
where nowhere else. The lands in and about Jack Jacksonville,
sonville, Jacksonville, as well as over the entire State,
are reasonable in price and are suscep susceptible
tible susceptible of both intensified and diversified
farming. Here there is no long season
of cold and ice to stop the work upon the
soil, and crop after crop can be raised in
quick succession each one yielding a
handsome return. Less shelter and no
more care is needed for live stock, such
as horses, hogs, sheep, cattle, poultry,
etc., than in the Northern States. It is
an almost regular thing for an energetic
and intelligent farmer to make from
$500.00 to SI,OOO an acre from close at attention
tention attention to his crops, in a single season,
of from four to five months. Florida is
the winter garden for about 65,000,000
people of the United States between
Kansas City, Omaha and St. Paul on
the west, and Montreal, Boston and New
York on the east. There is but one other
section of the United States (that is the
lower portion of California) that offers
even the possibility of raising similar
crops at the same time of the year as
Florida, and when one remembers that
California is three times as far from
Chicago, and four times as far from Bos Boston
ton Boston and New York as Florida is, it is
easy to see that all the advantages are
with Florida, both in the economy of
time and expense and in the freshness
and fitness of all her products for being
set upon the table for use.
One of the most important movements
just inaugurated in Florida is the Duval
Farm and Land Company. This company
is capitalized for $25,000 and will put
under cultivation this year a considera considerable
ble considerable tract of land near Jacksonville in a
variety of staple crops, showing the
method of intensive and up-to-date farm farming
ing farming in this section. It will be an object
lesson of just how to handle and prepare
the lands for truck farming and crops
in the most advanced and profitable man manner
ner manner and how to cultivate and manage the
tilling of the soil. The work and results
of this undertaking will be open to the
inspection and help of others who engage
in farming and trucking in Duval county
and Florida, and will demonstrate the
splendid opportunities here upon the soil.
Advantage and opportunity meet for
those who secure lands and homes in
Florida and engage in business in this
State. It is rapidly growing in every
way, and it will be only a few years un until
til until those settling here at this time will
have both their land values and business
opportunities greatly increased by the
growth of the State. Jacksonville is the
county seat of Duval county, and Duval
county has a large amount of vacant
land that can be now bough at low
prices, upon which splendid returns can
be made. The rapidly increasing popula population
tion population of Jacksonville makes a large and

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

growing local market for all products of
the soil, as well as live stock, poultry
and all that comes from the farming in industry.
dustry. industry. The Jacksonville Board of Trade
has a membership of over 600 of the lead leading
ing leading citizens of Jacksonville, and owns its
own splendid building and auditorium.
Fullest information will be given anyone
desiring a further knowledge of this city
and State, if they will address H. 11.
Richardson, Secretary of the Jacksonville
Board of Trade, Department A,
A Get Rich Quick Scheme.
Mr. M. W. Ulmer, who is a natural
born financier, finds that in no enterprise
in which he can engage can he realize
better results than from the culture of
cane and the manufacture of syrup. He
says it beats cotton growing far and
away, and he knows, for he has tried
both.. Here is what he did on one acre
this year: He made 36 barrels of syrup,
33 gallons to the barrel, making a total
of 1,188. At 50 cents a gallon, which is
a low estimate, this would make $594.00
off of one acre alone.
For a money making investment we
would join Mr. Ulmer in commending
syrup as the most profitableClearwater
Press.
The Sanford Herald tells of two celery
growers, who raising a crop together, ex expected
pected expected to load four cars last week from
which they would realize $3,000 for the
first week. Some of the growers will not
begin cutting until the latter part of this
month and many of the largest growers
will be shipping celery well into April,
the Herald says.
From the Homestead country there
comes the most encouraging reports, as

FRUIT TREES AND ORNAMENTALS FOR
FLORIDA AND THE TROPICS
A specialty of Tropical Fruit Trees, especially East Indian
** Mangoes, etc. Also Citrus stock. Then Palms, Bamboos,
Flowering Plants and Shrubs, etc. in fact the greatest variety
in the South. Send for catalog. Establish everything for a
complete Florida home,place at reasonable prices. r
Reasoner Bros., V oneco, fia.

ARE YOU INTERESTED IN FRUIT AND
TRUCK FARMING?
If so, then come to Florida, where
more money can be made than
any other place in the country
and where land can be bought at
reasonable prices. The editor of
this paper will gladly answer any
inquiry.
Address
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST
Board of Trade Building Jacksonville, Fla.

to the condition of the vegetable crops.
In one day recently Arch Creek and
Homestead, there were twenty full cars
of vegetables and grapefruit sent to the
Northern markets.
Gary, a lively little town situated in
a fertile farming district near Tampa,
has shipped seventy carloads of celery,
of an aggregate value of over $31,000,
this season.
A New Watermelon
ALEXANDER WATSON
Pronounced by Those WHO KNOW THE BEST
Combination Melon introduced in Many Years
We Offer Only Richmond and Columbia County
Georgia Grown Seed
Selected From TRUE TYPE Melons Grown
ONLY for the SEED,
From Massachusetts to Florida, Texas and
California it has given the best resu.ts for home
use and shipping.
Experiment Farm, Massachusetts, Jan.
1909 We are delighted with the seeds we got
from you last year. ALEXANDERS WAT WATSON
SON WATSON Melon especially, is all that you claim for
it. and the strain of AUGUSTA RATTLE RATTLESNAKE
SNAKE RATTLESNAKE is the best we ever grew; we ripened
both nicely up here last season.J. R. L.
For over a third of a century we have sold
good seeds to our town folks, and have a satis satisfactory
factory satisfactory and growing demand everywhere for
our Strictly Pure, Select Melon Seeds which
we have given especial attention during these
33 years, having introduced many new and
popular varieties. Among them, our WAT WATSON
SON WATSON Melon now ranks first in our estimation,
and with our many customers as shown by their
letters from every State. If you would like to
test it, w r e shall be pleased to send, free on re request,
quest, request, sample packet and catalogue.
(Established 1873)
Box 66 AUGUSTA, GEORGIA

29



30

DESOTO COUNTY
Took Sweepstakes Prize at State FairStill Has Much
Good Land Open to Entry.

Homestead land is becoming more
scarce every year; and what is left at
the present date that is desirable, is so
far from railroad or water transportation
that it must be considered prohibitory,
until railroads branch out more freely
looking for traffic.
Settlers who have contemplated the
pre-emption of land only to learn that
nothing remains for the homesteader but
isolated tracts too far from civilization
to be considered for a moment, may be
surprised to learn that DeSoto county.
Florida, has over 34,000 acres of fine land
that is open for homesteaders. For the
benefit of those persons who do not know
the steps required for taking up land, 1
will state that an application is made
out describing the desired piece of land
and this is sent to the Government Land
Office in Gainesville, Florida. Certain
papers are then made out and sent to him
to be signed before a notary; and in
compliance with the laws regulating the
homesteading of land, the settler agrees
to erect a habitation thereon, clear a
certain amount of land, cultivate it, and
live on it for five consecutive years, when
he will prove up his claim and receive a
title to it; or, he may live on it accord
ing to certain regulations for fourteen
months and then buy the tract of ICO
acres for $1.25 per acre. This informa information
tion information may be superfluous to the average
man; but, as women seldom acquaint
themselves with legal technicalities, 1
give it for their benefit, for women have
already taken up homesteads in this thistract
tract thistract and there is no reason why many
more might not.
This body of land was surveyed in 1859
and the survey turned in to the Confed
erate government in Richmond. The acts
of that government never having official
recognition from the United States gov govenrment,
enrment, govenrment, this survey was shelved and
the land was never opened up until three
years ago, when anew survey was made,
all of which very plainly accounts foi
the fact that so large a body of desira desirable
ble desirable land was not appropriated long ago.
This is a brief statement of the leading
facts relative to this great opportunity
that is put in the reach of two hundred
settlers.
The main body of this tract, a complete
township, is located on a natural water watershed
shed watershed whose streams drain off to the Ca Caloosahatchee
loosahatchee Caloosahatchee on one side and to Cliarlotte
Harbor on the other. The western edge of
the township line is exactly eighteen miles
from Punta Gorda, but, notwithstanding
its distance from the nearest railroad sta station,
tion, station, there are already nineteen families
settled out there. When a sufficient num number
ber number of settlers will go into fruit raising
and trucking to warrant the expenditure,
a branch railroad could be built to tap
the A. C. L. Down here in Southern
Florida, scarcely any grading is needed
for light trains. Nearly all of the log logging
ging logging roads for hauling out timber to the
mills have the ties laid on just cleared
ground.
Somewhere nearer Punta Gorda, twelve
miles east of us in fact, lies a lesser

TTIE FLOIHDA AGRICULTURIST.

body of land containing 11,000 acres.
Many homesteads in this tract are not
more than two and a half miles from
the railroad. The character of all this
land is much the same as that of San Sanford,
ford, Sanford, where from $250,000 to $300,000
worth of celery is raised on 250 acres of
land. The map shows much of it as
prairie land, but some parts are well
timbered, so that one or two little mills
would turn out all the lumber necessary
for houses, barns and fence posts.
A more desirable location could hardly
he imagined for a colony of thrifty set settlers,
tlers, settlers, to whom the vicissitudes of emi emigration
gration emigration and home-building prove but in incentives
centives incentives for the combativeness that Na Nature
ture Nature has endowed a goodly proportion of
her children with for just such purposes
as such trials entail, that the earth may
be made one vast garden and be peopled
thereof.
The climate is much like that of
famed Italy, with the exception of a
"ainy season during the summer months.
What is called the dry season has oc occasional
casional occasional showers that, as a rule, meed,
the needs of vegetation during the wiijt-

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clog the nozzle, has a pleasant odo", and is harmless to face or eyes. Money
; promptly refunded if results are not satisfactory. Try it.
J. SGHNARR & CO., manufacturer Orlando, Fin.

FARMING and TRUCKING
Nowhere in Florida can
Farm and Vegetable crops
be grown with the same
success as at
HASTINGS
known as the great Early
Potato section of the United
States. Fine soil, artesian
well irrigation, paying crops.
We have improved farms, and unimproved
lands, $25.00 and up. Call on or write to
H. H. Deane, Hastings, Fla.

ter. The practice of dry-culture which
is becoming such a vogue in the North,
can be utilized to better advantage by
the farmer in Florida than anywhere
else in the United States, because of
the light character of the soil, and the
heavy dews that fall in the night. A
Northern farmer would be amazed to see
the way in which garden truck will with withstand
stand withstand the long drougths in Florida,
where the same length of dry weather
in a Northern State would reduce the
land to almost a desert.
This land will raise all kinds of gar garden
den garden truck, tropical fruits, tobacco, cane,
potatoes and no doubt cotton, for an
everblooming wild variety is found in
our vicinity.
The growing of agave rigida or sisal
hemp, the Spanish bayonet, and san sanseviera,
seviera, sanseviera, all fiber-bearing plants which
grow with little attention and no fer fertilizer,
tilizer, fertilizer, wherever, they can get a slight
footing, would seem to hold out bright
prospects to the pioneer in this venture.
Another new field for the pioneer is
the growing of medicinal plants. Hun Hundreds
dreds Hundreds of them grow wild in the State;
and where certain cultivated ones like
the castor bean and pawpaw have been
tested, the yield ha* been everything
that could be desired. The Department
of Agriculture is authority for the state statement
ment statement that $18,000,000 worth of medicinal
plants are imported into this country
every year. Over 700.000 pounds of
golden seal, which is regarded as a very



troublesome weed by the farmer in the
North, is used in drugs every year, and
from 95 cents to $1.25 per pound is paid
for it. The common burdock, another
wayside weed, is imported in large quan quantities.
tities. quantities.
Immense amounts of cordage of all
kinds, as well as manila paper, are
brought to this country every year, mil millions
lions millions of dollars worth; and the plant
that supplies the fiber for it grows
wherever it can get the slightest foot foothold
hold foothold in this part of the State, and it has
never been known to be injured by such
cold as we have in the winter down
here. The leaves of another plant, san sanseviera,
seviera, sanseviera, furnish a fiber that can be used
for the heaviest rope or a dress fabric
as fine as silk. These last two plants
do not need even ordinary attention;
only plant them and they take care of
themselves. If there is a drouth, they
look green and happy; if there is a flood
they look only greener and happier.
Nothing grows mo~e luxuriantly down
here than all kinds of bamboo. We im import
port import $2,000,000 worth of bamboo from
China and Japan every year. This is
another plant that "eeds nothing in the
way of cultivation, although no doubt
it would profit thereby.
So many are the useful plants that
would grow most profitably down here
that the list would swell this article to
most unseemly proportions, but the
interested investigator can get all the
information he wants by applying to the
Board of Trade for it.
Plants and trees that produce the milk
that makes rubber can be testified to by growers of tropi
cal shrubbery in various parts of oui
country.
No one has yet made a specialty of
growing mangoes and avocado pears for
the Northern markets. The latter makes
a delicious salad served up in the same
manner as lettuce. Recently I saw in
Fort Myers an avocado pear tree that
was four years old from the seed, and
it must have been fifteen or twenty feet
high and loaded with fruit. There are
many trees of this delicate vegetable vegetablefruit
fruit vegetablefruit grown in that charming town, by
private citizens; and when it gets into
the market, it is seldom they can be
bought for less than ten cents each.
This gives some idea of the profit there
should be in growing this rare fruit.
Pineapple plants bear fruit in from
twelve to eighteen months from plant planting;
ing; planting; and with the new method of cover covering
ing covering them with swampgrass to prevent
sunburn, there is no reason why many
acres of this luscious fruit might not
pay handsomely.
These are a, few of the inducements
held out to settlers on our homestead
lands. There are many more, but time
and space forbid a continuance of this
subject; but enough has been said to
serve as pointers, and investigation and
experiment will prove that the half has
not been told.
Agricultural Industries of Cuba.
The U. S. Consular service in Cuba has
prepared an interesting and complete re
port on the agricultural and industrial
conditions which at present obtain in the
island. The following forms a summary
of the particulars given in reference to
the agriculture of Cuba:
Although nearly every portion of the
island is suited to cane growing, it is es estimated

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

jife an(
hotne, for preserving, /
I Vlil B W Kill for canning, for local I A
I anjl distant markets if II
jl farm should have some. JWe have the right IK
\m varieties, the right trees. They Grow! They Bear! U
I] They are Griffings Qyality! They are Good! TheyH
J\ are TRUE to NAME!! of PEACHES and M
II other Fruit, Nut and Ornamental Trees free.
Fla j

timated estimated that not more than 2,000,000
acres (about one-loovteenth of the entire
cOtal acreage) is under cane cultivation.
The opportunities for a profitable devel development
opment development of this industry are great. We
aave only to consider the millions oi
acres adapted to such cultivation to real
ize the incalculable wealth of the island.
Cuban tobacco, as is well known, is ol
superior grade. Pinar del Kio, the ex extreme
treme extreme western province, is the home oi
the highest grade of leaf grown, amt
nearly three-iourths of the total tobacco
acreage of the island is contained in this
province. The tobacco industry gives em employment
ployment employment to about 100,000 persons. The
cigarmakers wage varies, an expert in
making selected sizes sometimes earning
SSO a week; a person employed in mak
ing the highest grade cigars receives foi
the work 15c to 20c each; others are paiu
from $lO to sls per week.
In 1906, tobacco and manufactures oi
tobacco were valued at $30,702,580, an
increase of $7,280,024 over the previous
year.
The possibilities of the cultivation of
citrus fruits in Cuba are great. The es
timated cost of establishing a 10-acre or orange
ange orange grove on land valued at SSO an acre
is as follows: Land, $500; clearing, $250;
planting, $150; 900 trees, $225; care fot
five years, $1,500; total, $2,025. Some
fruit may be expected the third year.
Varieties of orange which have proved
most satisfactory for cultivation in Cuba
are the Pineapple and Valencia, the first
an early, and the second a later variety.
In regard to grapefruit, Marshs seedless
and Duncan are the two varieties favor favored
ed favored for planting.
The pineapple is indigenous to the
island. The first shipment of pines*
from Cuba was made to New York in
1870, and the industry is now an impor important
tant important and profitable one. The demands of
the market are large. Sucker plants are
worth S2O to $25 per 1,000, and an acre
of pineapples yields sufficient plants to
stock from three to five additional acres.

Plant Woods Seeds
For The
Garden 6 Farm.
Thirty years in business, with
a steadily increasing trade every
yearuntil we have to-day one
of the largest businesses in seeds
in this countryis the best of
evidence as to
The Superior Quality
of Woods Seeds.
We are headquarters for
Grass and Clover Seeds,
Seed Potatoes, Seed Oats,
Cow Peas, Soja Beans and
all Farm Seeds.
Woods Descriptive Catalog
the most useful and valuable of
Garden and Farm seed Catalogs
mailed free on request.
T. W. WOOD & SONS,
Seedsmen, Richmond, Va.

As per Salzers Catalog page 129.
Largest growers of seed potatoes and early
vegetables in the world. Big catalog free: or,
send 16c in stamps and receive catalog and
1000 kernels each of onions, carrots, celery,
radishes, 1500 lettuce, rutabaga, turnips, 100
parsley, 100 tomatoes, 100 melons, 1200
charming flower seeds, in all 10,000 kernels,
easily wortla SI.OO of any mans money. Or,
send ZOc and we add one pkg. of Earliest
Peep O Day Sweet Corn.
THE SALZER SEED CO., Lacrosse, Wis.

31



32

ST. JOHNS COUNTY.
Something About the Section Famous
for Growing Irish Potatoes.
The Florida East Coast section is now
attracting world-wide attention as a re result
sult result of the approaching completion of
Henry M. Flaglers wonderful engineer engineering
ing engineering feat, a railroad constructed over
many miles of sea to Key West, a fitting
climax to the work of this great de developer.
veloper. developer.
This section of our State is a contin continuous
uous continuous exposition of the marvelous possi possibilities
bilities possibilities of Florida as exemplified in the
growing of tropical and semi-tropical
fruits, and the many tender succulent
vegetables for a high priced early mar market.
ket. market.
No settlement on the line of the Flor Florida
ida Florida East Coast Railway arouses keener
interest in the farmer and trucker than
does Hastings, 54 miles south of Jack Jacksonville
sonville Jacksonville and 17 miles below St. Augus Augustine.
tine. Augustine.
Here splendid artesian flowing wells
may be had. The land is a dark sandy
loam with clay subsoil. While the soil
is adapted to the successful growth of all
the different vegetable crops, Hastings
has become known far and wide as the
great center for early Irish potatoes.
Some 4,000 or more acres are planted in
this staple crop. The seed is put in dur during
ing during January, and the crop is dug and
marketed in April. For some six miles
the beautiful farms, with handsome well
kept homes, stretch on either side of a
fine sample of good roads. Many or orange
ange orange trees are to be seen loaded with
fruit.
The planting and cultivation of crops
here is carried on with the latest im improved
proved improved appliances, two and three crops
being grown in one season. Sweet pota potatoes,
toes, potatoes, corn, melons, hay, are some of the
favorite auxiliary crops.
The development of this section of our
State is in its infancy, a wonderful
future is in prospect. With prevailing
climatic conditions, abundant irrigation,
quick and cheap transportation to the
great markets of the nation the possi possibilities
bilities possibilities are unlimited.
This point should become in the near
future noted for its fine cattle, hogs, and
poultry. The ease with which grain and
forage may be produced, and the cer certainty
tainty certainty of a profitable local cattle market
will surely bring about this end.
A prominent planter of Hastings as asserts
serts asserts that, should the settlement be
walled in, without leaving open any ave avenue
nue avenue of communication with the outside
world, the people could live in comfort
and luxury, as it would be possible to
grow almost everything needed for the
inner and outer man.
Floridians visiting in the far North Northwest
west Northwest meet the query do you know where
Hastings is? The prospective plant plantings
ings plantings of many of the popular, profitable
vegetables for which Florida is famous,
will broaden the reputation of this fine
section, now so widely known for its
great success in the one crop, Irish po potatoes.
tatoes. potatoes. D. H. H.
When you write to advertisers wont
you kindly mention the Agriculturist ?
It will be but little trouble to you and
will be of great benefit to us.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

POTASH
an average crop of cabbage removes from
Use from i,ooo to 2,000 pounds per acre of a 4-7-9
tilizeror to ir crease the Potash g% add 22 pounds of
Muriate of Potash to each 100 pounds of fertilizer.

CLARK'S 44 REVERSIBLE COTVOH aid CORN CUimi HARROW
Ffl Rlfi P RHPR Ttlis harrow was especially designed for putting in tMM V/l ]
I Ull tJso UllUiO small grain, preparing land for Cotton, Corn, etc..
bedding up the land, barring off the rows in first working, and then for m
throwing the soil from the plant. A labor saver. A money maker. MvIFMaAI^
Gangs can be placed 4, 6. or 8 inches apart as desired. In this shape it
can be usee for arring off corn or cotton, cut cut#
# cut# I ting up the trash, clods, etc., thoroughly pul pul-1S
1S pul-1S verizing the soil in the middle of rows,
making it the most efficient cultiva cultiva_
_ cultiva_ iorused. Made in sizes to cut three and xour feet
a j 'vide, with 16 inch, 18 inch and 20 inch disks.
Send today for Free booklet and special prices.
CUTAWAY HARROW CO.
894 MAIN ST. HIGGANUM. CONN.

Army Auction Ba rgains
Tents 51.90 lip Old Pistols J $.50 up
Shoes 1.25 Officers Swords!, new 1.75
ARMY SADDLES 3.00 Cavalry Sabres - 1.50
Bridles 1.00 UNIFORMS 1.25 up
Leggins. pr. .15 7 Shot Carbine 350 A l7n
XT. S. SPRINGFIELD B-L RIFLES sl/11
Blank or Ball Cartridge, 35 cents box of 20. "It:
1907 MILITARY CATALOGUE 260 large pages, thou thousands
sands thousands of beautiful illustrations with 1909 supplement
wholesale and retail prices. Mailed for 15 cents (stamps'
, 15 ACRES GOVT. AUCTION GOODS.
FRANCIS BANNERMAN, 501 Broadway, NEW YORK.
John E. Frampton
BICYCLES and REPAIRING
35 E. Adams St. Jacksonville, Fla.
TELEPHONE 837
Experiments carried out by the Direc Director
tor Director of Agriculture, Madagascar, to test
the most favorable position in which co cocoanuts
coanuts cocoanuts should be planted in order to
ensure germination, showed that the best
results were obtained when the nuts were
planted horizontally, or with the pointed
end turned slightly downwards. The
most unsuccessful results were given
when the nuts were planted vertically
with the points either upwards or down downwards.
wards. downwards.

Illlils
FIREARMS I
insure results equal to guns of I
much higher price. B
Stevens rifles hold the worlds M
records for target scores. H
Stevens Single or Double M
Barrelled Shotguns p
are equally good for field or trap m
shooting. Special steel barrels I
choke bored for any standard shell
Send for 160-page catalog giving details I
of construction cf Stevens shotguns and |f
rifles for men and boys. Full of informa- B
It ion every gunman should have. Sent free tjS
for 6c. postage.
If your dealer cant supply you with B
genuine Stevens, we will ship direct on fl
receipt of catalog price.
J. ARMS Jb TOOL CO. I!
135 > Front Street
Chicopee Falls, Mass., U. 8. 1



FLORIDA ALMANAC
FOR
';' ]'' jj'7'.V* .*
If you want to know when
the Sun rises and sets, or any
other Astronomical informa information
tion information for Florida, send for a
copy of AT AT AT
PAINTERS FLORIDA ALMANAC
This is the first Almanac ever publish published
ed published in which the calculations were
made especially for Floridac The
pamphlet also contains much other
available information. Send at once
before the edition is exhausted
E. 0. PAINTER FERTILIZER CO.
Jacksonville, : : : : : Florida.



FLORIDA
FARMS, TIMBER LANDS
AND
ORANGE GROVES
For twenty I have been handling
the best propositions, and refer to any bank
in the city.
Here are a few special bargains in Orange
Groves:
No. IOn1 On a beautiful bluff overlooking the river, 12 miles
from Jacksonville; has 100 bearing trees; a comfortable 2-
story, 7-room house needing some repairs; shaded by grand
old oaks; 25 acres for $1,800; terms.
No. 2 lo acres on paved road near a lovely town of 10,000
people; contains 2 1-2 acres of young grove just coming in; good
4-room house; barn, outhouse, etc.; 3 1-2 acres in> farm crops;
price $1,450; terms.
10-ekcre truck farms around Jackson Jacksonville
ville Jacksonville and 640 acre tracts in this county.
EDWIN BROBSTON
Headquarters for Land
ReeJty Building Jacksonville, Fla.
Refer to the Editor of this paper.