ot l ropical and Soffit Ifopicat Agriculture
: VOL. XXXV Ne. 2.
Possibilities of the Cactus.
The people of this state will be some somewhat
what somewhat interested in the results of ex experiments
periments experiments with the prickly pear, which
are about to be undertaken by Mr. W.
N. Mason, of the Agricultural Depart Department,
ment, Department, on the Federal Experimental
Farm, at San Antonio, Texas. Should
the experiments prove successful, this
hitherto worthless plant may prove to
be a valuable asset and the waste land
suited to its growth become immensely
Mr. Mason believes that the prickly
pear is excellently suited for the manu manufacture
facture manufacture of a certain quality of fibrous
pulp, which can be used in making
water buckets, kitchen utensils and a
great variety of useful articles.
His idea is not anew one, and he
has experimented with great success
on the Federal reservations in Arizo Arizona
na Arizona The officials of the Agricultural
Department are so impressed with his
plan and the undoubted value ot his
work, that he has been permitted to
abandon'all other work in order to
carry on his experiments.
Mr. Mason claims that he has
demonstrated that the prickly pear is
the l most valuable plant in the world
for the manufacture of pulp articles
and coarse, tough paper. The only
question remaining to be solved is the
economical method of handling the pear
leaves in order that they may be turned
into the manufactured articles at little
His discovery is of two-fold value,
as he claims that the green pulp left
after the fiber is extracted is the
finest stock food obtainable. The hills,
dales and plains of Southwest Texas,
now covered by vast fields of cactus,
will become as valuable as good farm farming
ing farming land. Rocky hills and land where
crops can not be grown can be utilized
as prickly pear pastures, where the
fibrous plant may be grown for the
It "is Mr. Mason's plan for the farm farmefs
efs farmefs tb scorch the plants with gasoline
torches, thus removing the thorns, and
then pack the leaves in bales and ship
them to the factory.
The cactus has been used by the
Mexicans for many years in making a
superior- quality of candy, greatly re resembling,
sembling, resembling, in taste and appearance,
candied pineapples, and # it is also
to make excellent preserves.
Prices of Oranges.
The fruit trade papers seem to be
standing 'in with the commission men
in their efforts to depress the prices
of oranges by publishing very dis discouraging
couraging discouraging reports concerning the
markets. Growers should note the
fact that these papers get most of their
patronage from commission merchants
advertising and not rely too much on
these discouraging reports. B. W.
FEBRUARY IN FLORIDA.
Calendar of Work for the Month of February on the Farm, in
the Grove, Orchard and Garden.
By W. H* HaskelL
[This schedule of work is prepared more
especially for the benefit of the inexperi inexperienced
enced inexperienced and those who have recently come to
the state, and is intended to apply in a
general way to the latitude of 27 or 28 de degrees,
grees, degrees, but is adapted in some measure to
like crops in the entire state of Florida.]
In farm work, continue the direc directions
tions directions given for January, as to plowing,
fertilizing and otherwise preparing lor
the coming crops. I would suggest as
an experiment in preparing for corn in
light Florida soil, the plan followed by
some good farmers who contend that
a better crop can be raised by plowing
the ground as late as possible, say, the
first of April, and planting it the ;ame
day. The time to begin planting corn
in this latitude is usually about Feb February
ruary February 15th. Of course farther south
it may be well to plant earlier. Say,
' * *' -'' M
* Jjfflfijj! Ji.b ''' | L ** iz ~ jSmfmL-' t. 5?
Kudzu Vine 3 feet deep in June on C. E. Pleas farm, Chipley, Fla. In the fore foreground
ground foreground is a 12-foot pole that was covered as shown in this picture, in 30 days from
time the vines first touched the pole.
Jacksonville, Fla., February 1908.
at least three varieties White Florida
Flint, or Poor Land corn, also one of
the many-eared varieties, and one oi
the yellow-grained kinds. Plant about
three by four feet, one stalk to a hill.
Or you might plant in wide rows, and
thicker in the row, to be followed later
with a row of peas between these wide
If you have stock, plant some cas cassava.
sava. cassava. Plant this about three and one onehalf
half onehalf by three feet. Dont plant the
canes too deep, four to six inches is
about the right depth. Use some fer fertilizer,
tilizer, fertilizer, after planting.
Plant also some Japanese cane, and
put in some of the other kind for the
children to chew, and for making the
best syrup you ever ate. It is almost
equal to genuine Ohio maple,
when well made. The Japanese cane
(Continued on page 6.)
The Camphor Industry*
By Geo. H. Wright.
I have read in several periodicals
I within the past year, that the Govern Govern!
! Govern! ment of Japan controls the manufac manufac|
| manufac| ture and output of camphor gum, as
well as fixing the price for the same,
which may possibly be true. While
the territory under the Japanese control
is the principal producer of the gum
now the day is not far distant when
the Americans will produce the greater
part of what they use, and the supply
i from the Island of Formosa will be
very materially reduced. The method
of cutting down the trees to secure the
wood and leaves for distillation, with without
out without regard to the growing season, is
fast depleting the native groves of that
island, and were it not for the other
territory that is giving the subject
serious attention there would soon be
a dearth of wood for the production of
camphor. More than fifty years ago.
I saw tAat the groves of Formosa
being slaughtered without a!ny regap;i
to the future supply, as a tree cut dur during
ing during the growing season very seldom
puts out suckers, and hence becomes
a waste, and as the Island of Formosa
is so far south that the growing season
is much longer than in more northern
latitudes the loss is much greater.
Hence if it were not for the islands of
Sumatra and Borneo and the mainland
of some parts of China, and latterly
in a small way in America, the supply
would ultimately be exhausted.
There are two varieties of the cam camphor
phor camphor tree that produce the gumthe
one that is produced by the distilling
of the chips, roots and leaves of tlie
tree above mentioned, and another tree
that the gum is procured from by
splitting the bodies into small portions
and taking out the gum from pockets
and crevices. This tree is found be between
tween between the equator and three degrees
north, and grows to an immense size,
often attaining one hundred feet in
height and six and seven feet in diam diameter,
eter, diameter, and one authority said trees had
been found that measured fifty feet in
circumference. Some of these trees
have been known to produce as mucn
as twenty pounds of gum, but none of
this is sold outside of China. The
Chinese seem to place a very high
value on this gum, as they do on Gin Ginseng,
seng, Ginseng, and they pay enormous prices
for it, as- high as SI,OOO to $1,200 per
picul, (133 pounds).
Why worry or lose sleep over the
destruction of the camphor groves of
the Asiatic islands, when we have here
in Florida, so much available land that
will produce as fine trees and as good
gum as any land beneath the sun?* It 1
has been thoroughly demonstrated thatJ
the south half of Florida has as goo
land for this purpose and at as che:.
prices as can be found anywhere,
the time to grow trees of
to begin the distilling of the
so short that but a small capital
quired to start in the business.
fore the man or men that
will be the first to win.
THE JAPANESE KUDZU VINE.
Most Promising Forage Plant Worthy of [ rial Throug Througout
out Througout the South.
By C. E. Pleas.
The accompanying illustrations are
from photographs of anew forage
plant, the Japanese Kudzu Vine, which,
when introduced, will mark anew era
in stock raising in the South.
I say new forage plant. It is an old
plant, introduced by the Japanese at
Americas first centennial, but it is new
to America as a forage plant, having
been used only as an ornamental vine
for buildings, trellises, etc. Our hrst
experience with it was eight years ago,
when we planted a few seed about a
Japanese Kudzu Vine in June, 1901. C. E. Pleas Farm, Chipley, Fla.
This patch, 50x80 feet came from three roots set around an old brush pile in
the spring of 1904. It has never been cultivated nor fertilized, and has had to fight
way with innumerable weeds and briars and has had the ground covered*. as
this picture for the past three years. Thirty pounds of dry was cut from space
15x15 feet in July, 1907.
summer house on the front lawn.
When established we simply could not
confine it to the summer house, and
after clipping the lawn the dead leaves
looked so bad that we grubbed them
out and my wife planted three roots
about an old brush pile, hoping that it
might hide it from view. This was in
the spring of 1904. In 1905 it had
reached a partition fence on the south;
the barn and lot on the west; the drive
to the barn on the north and the
garden on the east.
It was then that I began to suspect
its value, as my horse never let it get
through the fence. He even got down
on his knees and reached out under the
bars for every new leaf that appeared.
I wrote to the Agricultural Depart Department
ment Department at Washington, about it. The re reply
ply reply came that it had no poisonous
properties that they knew of,* and
it might be of some value as feed if
stock would only eat it.* The latter
question, my horse had already settled,
and as to there being poisonous proper properties,
ties, properties, I soon learned to have no tears,
and now consider it the most wonder wonderful
ful wonderful and most valuable acquisition that
could be put on any farm, in the South.
Just how far north it will succeed as
it does here, remains to be tried, but
it is hardy in Philadelphia.
Being a perennial, it needs to be
planted but once, and only cultivated
tthe first year, and when established,
luvhich is in two to three years, it
Brakes as big a growth by the middle ot
gray as the velvet bean makes in a
hay it may be cut two or three
a year, and cures very quickly,
%jj|Srainnr a bright green in color and
HBB.fclelicious fragrance. I cut 30
cured hay from a space
Sf l liare m Jly. ailf l in two
nearly knee high again.
is yet to be told about
its true value as a forage
plant, I sent a small bale of it to the
Commissioner of Agriculture for analy analysis,
sis, analysis, and here is what the State Chemist.
Cant. R. E. Rose, says about it:
The analysis shows a little better
than cow pea or velvet bean, but not
quite good as beggar weed, and is
Protein. Starch&Sugar. Fiber. Fat.
Cow Pea IG.G 42.20 20.1 2.2
Velvet Bean 14.7 41.00 29.7 1.70
Beggar Weed 21.7 20.20 24.7 2.30
Kudzu 16.59 32.51 40.09 1.6S
But the greatest value to be derived
from the Kudzu vine is not as hay but
as a permanent pasture, the new
growth being ready for grazing by
April Ist, in this section, and by hav having
ing having a field divided into three or four
lots, turning from one to another when
grazed down, it would be possible to
pasture many more head of stock on
the same area than if they were allowed
to range over the whole field.
Stock do not kill the vines by tramp trampling
ling trampling on them as is the case with velvet
beans or cow peas, and if they should
injure them they quickly sprout up
from the rooted joints.
Young shoots or trailers sometimes
make the enormous igrowth of two
feet a day, and I have measured one
Rooted Joint of the Japanese Kudzu Vine.
About M natural size, showing its great
value as a nitrogen gatherer or soil re renovator.
novator. renovator. Similar root systems are produced
at each leaf-joint touching the ground and
reach to a depth of one to three feet in
one year. The above photo is of a three threemonths
months threemonths old root from the vine of an old
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
28 feet long, with half a dozen side
branches, that was less tnan three
weeks old. If allowed to grow the en entire
tire entire season, these trailers make a
growth of 75 feet or more by frost.
As explained above, the vine is a
perennial but not evergreen, and takes
root wherever a joint touches the bare
ground, the leaves and tender ends be being
ing being killed by heavy frosts and freezing.
So far as known, the Kudzu vine
never seeds in America, but is propa propagated
gated propagated by planting rooted joints some somewhat
what somewhat in the manner of sweet potato
vines, but on level ground instead ot
ridges, and farther apart, say m every
other corn row and five feet apart in
the rows, or even a greater distance
It was while digging these rooted
vines that I discovered what a great
number of nitrogen nodules their root rootlets
lets rootlets produce, illustrated in one of the
accompanying pictures. Of the other
photos one shows the patch (50x80
feet), March 5, 1907, with all previous
years growth cleaned off and anew
growth of runners 16 feet long. An Another
other Another is a view of the same patch taken
in June, looking down the five foot
poultry netting fence (shown in other
picture), and illustrating, on the left,
how well the neighbors horses like it,
while beyond and back of the man,
the vines stand three feet above the
1 1 exhibited two bales of this hay at
the Gulf Coast and Florida State fairs
last year, and this year they were ex exhibited
hibited exhibited at Jamestown, by the Atlantic
Coast Line Railroad, and they have
attracted much interest wherever
In manner of growth, the Kudzu
vine so closely resembles the velvet
bean as to be mistaken for it by most
people who see it, the chief difference
being that the leaflets of the velvet
bean leaf are entire while the middle
leaflet of the Kudzu is three-lobed and
the side leaflets are unequally two twolobed,
lobed, twolobed, as may be seen in picture No. 3.
The flowers are a beautiful purple,
borne in crowded racemes, similar to
the wistarias, and fill the air with their
So far as I know there is none of this
vine in Florida or in the South, outside
of Chipley, except what I have sent
out for trial in the past year.
The fully matured vines become
woody and produce a fibre very tough
in its nature, which may prove most
valuable as an article of manufacture.
In conclusion, allow me to predict a
future for the Kudzu vine, equal to that
of cotton, as a matter of importance to
the Southern farmer and stock raiser.
ORANGE BOXES COMPLETE
With Birch Hoops and the Famous Lock Joint Panel
End Heads. The Best on the Market.
We can Print either the Sides or Heads.
All Kinds of fruit and Vegetable Crates.
W. A. MERRYDAY CO. Palatka, Fla.
Japanese Kudzu Vine.
Showing new Growth, 16 feet long on March sth, 1907.
Advertising in Agriculturist Pays.
The Florida Agriculturist.
Please discontinue my ad. (Lakemont Poultry
Farm) for the present as 1 am completely cleaned
out on every thing that I had to offer.
I have found your paper a good medium and
will want to take moie space with you in the
Send me my bill for service to date, and I will
send you a check for same.
Yours very truly,
C. FRED VVAkD.
Vegetable and Fruit Growers
The National League of Commission Mer Merchants
chants Merchants formed of reputable, reliable and hon honest
est honest commission merchants in twenty-nine of
the leading cities, invites your shipments.
An inquiry addressed to the secretary will
bring you the names of league members in
Make your shipments to members of the
league, and be assured of highest market
prices, fair and honorable treatment.
A. WARREN PATCH, Secretary,
17 North Market Street,
East Indian Varieties
ALL POT GROWN
Also Citrus Stock. Send for catalogue to
JOHN B. BEACH, West Palm Beach,Fla.
Learn the Art of Canning.
FREE TO HOME CANNERS
The most helpful Paper published for
Canners and Fruit Growers, sent on trial
for six months absolutely free. Write
HOME CANNERS REVIEW,
A BARREL OF APPLES.
XXXX Selects t large, smooth and handsome, per
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XXX Choice fruit, though not as pretty as
XX Fair to good grade, and good value for $3.25.
X Seconds, good cooking, some nice to eat. Show
insect stings and wormy cores more numerous,
but cheap at $2.50.
Cash with order. I pay freight to your nearest
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Remit by bank draft or money order.
H. F. MARKLE, Gerrardstown. W. Va.
AGENTS $103.50 per month
OA gelling these wonderful Scissors. V. C.
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THE IRRIGATION PROBLEM.
Another Interesting I aper on a Subject of Supreme Impor Importance
tance Importance to Florida Fruit and Truck Growers
By B. M. Hampton*
A few more words and I am done
with the irrigation subject for this time.
It does seem almost useless 10 write
any more on irrigation at present, with
rain in over-abundance. In about two
hours recently 2 3-8 inches of water fell
at Winter Haven, with the ground
already soaked and lakes higher than
they were last summer at any time.
But what about April, May and June?
An overabundance now may mean a
dearth of moisture then. So I, for one,
shall go ahead with my irrigation
schemes just the same, and some day
I shall want them and want them bad badly,
ly, badly, as I have almost every season that
I have been in Florida. As I said in
the beginning of these articles, there
have been long periods of dry seasons
in Florida in the past and likely will be
in the future; one never knows. But
it is well to be prepared to meet them.
In my last article I endeavored to
show that irrigation paid well in
Colorado in sections where it was
thought not to be needed at all, yet
it paid and paid big, and it will here,
too, more so than there. For instance,
I am setting out anew grove on new
land; in other words, am starting a
new home in Florida, as the saying is,
from the stump up.
Now, under the old hap-hazard way
of catch as catch can, I set the trees
from 25x25 to 25x30 feet apart and
then they suffered for lack of moisture
almost every season. Early in the
spring, oftentimes too much fruit drop dropped,
ped, dropped, thus giving but a light crop, where
a full crop was promised early in the
season before the long dry spell got in
its work. The Red Spider and other
1 indred friends, probably greatly aided,
and presentlv your profits vanished like
the mist before the summer sun. But
the work had to go on. Fertilizer must
be paid for, let the crop be large 01
Then, again, you can all call to mind
seasons that were too dry during the
month of August, thus causing the
fruit to about half-way mature, trie
rind beginning to show color, although
not fully grown, followed by a prolong prolonged
ed prolonged wet spell and there was a shrinkage
again in your prospective yield, cause 1
bv the tree taking up an overabundance
of sap; more than was needed, at
least more than the toughened rind
could ensure, and your fruit split
galore. Once more your prospective
income shrunk, and this time too late
for the trees to set anew crop, so in instead
stead instead of having 1,000 boxes, as appear appearances
ances appearances indicated in the spring, the
quantity was to only 500 boxes
in the fall. The difference in the one
crop alone would have paid for a small
But it is not only once in a while
that such things happen, but year after
year, and I shall try to show that it
does not take such a great amount of
water or such a big plant to prevent
all this shrinkage in your prospective
Of course you have gotten along
after a fashion, just as I have, and find,
as they did in Colorado, in the early
days, that in order to do so without j
irrigation, you must give your trees ;
plenty of room. To enable you to j
put out as manv trees as you wished, it ;
was often the case that you had to
have cheap land, and to get this, found
it necessary to go back from transpor transportation
tation transportation ten to twenty miles, or more,
thus laying up trouble and expense for
yourself in the future.
But you wanted a grove of, say, 600
trees, which required ten acres of
land to set them on under the no-irri no-irrigation
gation no-irrigation rule, this land must be
cleared, fenced and cultivated. For the
same money, you could have bought
five acres right near a station on the
railroad, on which you could have put
your 600 trees, and the difference in
clearing, fencing, cultivating, etc.,
would have put in a small watering
plant. By this plan you would have
had year after year, more and better
fruit, right at the station, from your
five acre-grove, with its 600 trees and
its little watering plant, than from your
ten-acre grove without water, and with
a long haul always before you.
As I have already said, I am starting
anew home once more in Florida, and
I am starting it right. First, I bought
good land, close to a railroad stat.on,
on a large lake. I had this land clear cleared,
ed, cleared, stumped, plowed and fenced, and
a watering plant installed before I set
out a single tree. So you see I am
practicing what I preach. Now I have
the trees out, only twelve feet apart in
the row, but twenty-five feet between
the rows, thus having as many or more
trees on five acres with water as I
formerly had on ten acres without it.
I certainly would not advise this close
planting without water. Thus you see,
the watering plant has saved me clear clearing
ing clearing and fencing five acres of land, be besides
sides besides half the cost of cultivating every
year (and this means much in the end),
and 1 will get more and better and
brighter fruit from the five-acre grove
than I would from the ten-acre grove.
I have intimated that we do not need
so much water after all, at least not at
one time. I have seen much harm
done to a growing crop by too much
water at one time, on the strong lands
of the west, and if so there, how much
more can it be overdone in the light,
porous soils of Florida?
Did any or you ever stop to think
what amount of water you were pour pouring
ing pouring on your grove in a day, with a 10
01 20 horse power engine? From 15,-
000 to 20,000 gallons of water, or more,
an hour, and this means about 80 tons
of water, and in ten hours it means 800
tons of water or 200,000 gallons. A
plant like this would cover an acre of
land about one and one-fourth inches
deep if distributed evenly, and this is
as much as our soil ever needs at one
time. In fact, half an inch would be
better at a time. Little and often
should be the rule in Florida in water watering
ing watering our groves, and yet, you often see
a powerful plant pumping tens of
thousands of gallons of water on a
medium sized grove for a week or
more at a time. Did you ever stop to
think where your costly fertilizer is
going under such circumstances? To
the thoughtful it is most hard to give a
shrewd guess. As I said in a former
article, I have seen lower lands ruined
by the seepage from higher lands de depositing
positing depositing too great an amount of the
various salts contained in the upper
or higher lands. Now if the various
salts could be washed out of those
heavy soils of the west with an over oversupply
supply oversupply of water, what would over irri irrigation
gation irrigation do for the sandy soils of Flori Florida?
da? Florida? Not hard to imagine, neither would
it be guess work, for it is clearly
shown by a series of tests made at the
Florida Experiment Station, on various
soils. We find by a actual test made
upon what would be good average
orange soil containing quite an amoun.
of humus that in some instances over
90 per cent, of the potash was leadie
Jout by an excessive amount of water
'over 60 per cent, of the phosphoric acu
land some 60 per cent, of the ammonia.
'ln the case of the phosphoric acid,
there was used in the test the equiva equivalent
lent equivalent of but three inches of rain, while
in the case of the potash there was
used about the equivalent of ten inches
of rainfall. So you see you can wash
out about all of the plant food that
has cost you so much money, and
though you may have given other trees
or crops a liberal supply of the three
elements required, you may by ocer
irrigation wash these ingredients be belyond
lyond belyond the reach of the roots of plants
or trees, so that your crops may be
actually starving for the food you have
really given them in liberal quantities,
simply by an excessive supply of water.
Yet, had the same amount of water
been applied to the land in small doses,
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
as the soil seemed to require it, say
from half an inch to one inch (the
former as a rule would be the better
amount), or in round numbers, from
8,000 or 9,000 to 17,000 gallons per acre
at one application, good would have
been the result instead of harm. The
quantity mentioned is enough, about
all the soil will contain to advantage
and at the same time conserve the costly
fertilizer and hold it within reach, at
least for a time, of the roots of th*
But I must close this long article lest
I tire you. Now the gist of what I
have written is that we need to irri irrigate
gate irrigate more or less in Florida, every
year, but to do so intelligently and
he more sparing of our water than we
are of our fertilizers. Use enough of
1 oth, to be sure, but dont go to excess
with either. I
! As I said in the start, this irrigation
rues'.ion is a big one, and I feel I
have only just begun when it is time
to close. Thanks for your indulgence.
Winter Haven, Fla.
GAR DP N AND FOREST.
Headquarters in L T S. for EUCALYPTUS
SLED, 12 packages, leading varieties for
SI.OO post paid.
CAMPHOR SEED 85c. per lb. post paid.
WANTED Seed of sour orangesPlease
MORRIS Snow, Seed Growers,
555 South Main Street
LOS ANGELES, CALIF.
Early Cabbage Plants 51.25 per IOCO;
5000, $5.00; Foot tall Bermuda Onior
Plants and Eclipse Red Beet Plants $1
per IOCO; $4 for 5000.
Is one of the most important subjects in Florida. iBvmIIVI
The cost of making arid lands produce is so small com- TBUfll
pared to the great results that irrigation plants are within iHj||
Let us know how many acres of arid land you have, and we will
V furnish plans embodying the necessary requirements for making your
land productive. We have the exact plant you need, and we believe
an estimate from us will save you money.
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THE TARO OF HAWAII
A valued subscriber sends us an
interesting article prepared by Dr.
Charles B. Cooper, of Hawaii, re regarding
garding regarding a plant which is quite com common
mon common in Florida, from which the fol following
lowing following is extracted, the entire paper
'being a little too professional for
Taro, botanically known as colo colocasia,
casia, colocasia, antiquorum esculentum, is a
perennial plant from one to three feet
high, with heart-shaped peltate leaves
and large fleshy rootstocks.
From remote antiquity taro has
furnished an important item of the
food supply of the nations of south southern
ern southern India, Australia, portions of Afri Africa
ca Africa and many of the islands of the
Pacific, and is today one of the plants
most commonly cultivated through throughout
out throughout the Tropics The taro cultivated
for food may be one of a number of
the genus colocasia, there being no
less than forty-five separate strains
known to the Hawaiian people.
Chinese literature makes mention of
this plant as far back as ioo B. C.
The chief food of the native Ha Hawaiian
waiian Hawaiian is still, as it has been from
time immemorial, poi, a fermented
paste prepared from the farinaceous
tubers of the taro.
Foreign residents also make exten extensive
sive extensive use of the taro root and it can
be prepared in a great variety of
ways to make most appetizing and
nutritious dishes for the daily bill of
fare. The leaves of the young plant
when cooked as spinach are very de delicious,
licious, delicious, rivalling that palatable dish.
The dry-land taros of which there
are many varieties, generally require
two years to reach maturity; while
the wet-land varieties mature in
twelve or fourteen months and are
depended on chiefly for the poi sup supp]y-,
Taro is cultivated in patches of
varying sizes. Each patch is sur surrounded
rounded surrounded by a dyke containing open openings
ings openings admitting water and allowing its
exit. These patches are extremely
irregular and depend on the contour
k of the land both as to size and shape.
A valley containing one or two
square miles will have, perhaps, two
hundred taro patches or fields, and
hardly two of them will be alike in
size or shape. Before planting the
taro the water is allowed to drain
off the fields; the ground is then
dug up or plowed up and fertilized.
The taro plant feeds heavily on
phosphoric acid and potash, and re removes
moves removes a large amount of these ele elements
ments elements from the soil. It is essential
to add lime to the soil from time
to time and this dressing is applied
after the removal of the crop, when
the. soil.: should then be thoroughly
mixed and left bare for several weeks.
The taro plant does not absorb fer fertilizers
tilizers fertilizers from the water except through
its roots, and as its roots are in the
soil beneath the main body of water,
even though a large amount of solu soluble
ble soluble fertilizer is added to the irriga irrigation
tion irrigation water only a comparatively small
portion will be absorbed by the mud
at the bottom of the patch and in
turn be taken up by the roots. Land
taro or taro grown without irrigation
makes excellent poi, and does not
seem as readily affected with the root
rot as that grown under irrigation.
The land suitable for the cultiva cultivation
tion cultivation of the water taro, the variety
which is principally grown, is a rich,
deep, muck soil, bordering the
streams, or occupying the lowest por portion
tion portion of the valleys extending back
into the mountains. Land to be
capable of growing taro must have
an abundant supply of running water,
and it also needs to be very rich.
Taro is propagated by means of
topping the crown of the plant with
its accompanying leaf stalks. The
upper portion of the root is cut off,
then the leaves themselves are cut
to within six inches of the crown of
the root. These tops, called hides,
are either planted in a circle around
a mound of dirt or in rows across the
field and the hules are placed about
a foot apart. As soon as a field is
planted, enough water is turned on
to keep the hules moist until the
roots start, and after that takes place
the field is periodically flooded. Little
cultivation is needed except to keep
the weeds out-
Taro commends itself as a staple
article of diet for the same reasons
that commend the potato, rice and
other cereals; namely the large pro proportion
portion proportion of carbohydrates.
A perfect and complete food for
any living food must necessarily con contain
tain contain all the elements of which its
tissues and all the solids and fluids
of its body are composed.
Handling a Balky Horse.
As the opening sentence of an article
in Successful Farming says, a balky
horse is a very exasperating tiling to
deal with. General experience has
shown that the only really successful
means of dealing with such an animal
is by the waiting method as detailed in
the following item:
A balky horse that lies down when
you want him to pull is about the most
exasperating animal in creation.
What would you do in a case of that
kind? Whipping does no good. Try
all the tricks of the jockey and some
horses refuse to move. Would you be
cruel to a beast that' has a bad trick
simply because some senseless driver
has overloaded or abused the poor ani animal?
mal? animal? No, friends, dont be mean just
because the animal is.
Sometimes a balky horse is started
by diverting his attention a moment by
picking up a foot or adjusting the col collaranything
laranything collaranything that makes him forget
that he has a grudge against you.
Sometimes the load is too heavy or
stuck in a chuck hole. Rest the team
a moment, fuss around the balky horse
a bit, swing the team to right or left
quickly, and have someone give a lift at
the wheel. Dont teach a good horse to
balk just at that critical moment by
whipping him when hes doing all he
can. If he refuses to go thenwell, the
David Harum method never fails. Tie
the horse right there and wait till he is
ready to go. Wait all night, next day
too, if necessary. Try him now and
thenif the load is not actually stuck
so no horse can start itand so long
as he refuses to start again, tie him and
let him stay alone. Take the other
horse to the barn, of course. If where
no one will interfere out in tne held
or timber then you dont need to stay
and watch. But if some humane per person
son person is liable to come along and upset
your cure, then you had better stay
around where you can explain the
situation. One good lesson usually
cures a most persistent balker.
An Immigration Convention.
Gov. Broward has issued a call for
an immigration convention, to be held
at Tampa on February 12th. The
governors and immigration commis commissioners
sioners commissioners of the various Southern states
are expected to be present, and each
commercial body and labor organiza organization
tion organization within this territory is urged to
send at feast three delegates. The im immigration
migration immigration question is one of the most
important now interesting the South,
and it is hoped that the attendance
may be large, and that some practical
plan may be decided for bringing into
our borders a large number of desir desirable
able desirable agriculturists to assist in develop developing
ing developing our rich resources, and who would
find such splendid opportunities for
eaning the benefits of their industry.
Thrip Juice No. IFor Scale on Oranges
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
s==S U I T
MADE TO ORDER
$15.00 to $52.50.
John B. Stetson Hats
$4.00 to $7.50.
Stacy, Adams* Shoes
$5.00, $6.00, 7.00.
We have everything in Mens Wear. Mail Orders will have careful
and personal attention.
Cheatham Aldeeman Company,
437-439 West Bay St., JACKSONVILLE, FLA.
GO AT ONCE
INVEST IN A LIVE PROPOSITION
WITH CAPITAL AND LIVE MEN BEHIND IT
Highway Development Cos.
President Cecil Wilcox. AttorneyPred T. Barnett.
Ist Vice-President Duncan U. Fletcher. SecretaryCharles T. Baxon.
2d Vice-President David Warrington. Treasurer Walter C. Warrington.
Directors Cecil Willcox, David Warrington, Duncan U. Fletcher, Fred T. Barnett,
W. C. Warrington, J. Denham Bird.
The Greatest Opportunity in Jacksonville
The Highway Development Cos., incorporated under the laws of Florida, capital'
ized at $250,000 $125,000 common and $125,000 preferred stock, and now offers $50,000
of the preferred stock to the public, drawing 10 per cent, per annum, or more. The
Companys plan, evolved after much careful study is PRACTICAL CO-OPERATION,
the investor receiving his 10 per cent, or mare and the borrower paying 3 per cent,
less than the prevailing interest rates now being charged. EXAMPLEThe Com Company
pany Company may loan up to 66 2-3 per cent, of the value of improved real estate, and take
back $1,500 for every SI,OOO loaned on 10 years time, in monthly payments of $12.50
SI,OOO at 5 per cent, for 10 years, interest SSOO
One hundred and twenty monthly payments of $12.50 each. For further
information apply at once to
W. C. WARRINGTON & CO.
ioB West Forsyth Street, - Jacksonville, Florida
Bread is the staff of Life and Bread and BUTTER is a gold headed cane.
Make Your BUTTER with the Lightning
BOW AND STRING CHURN.
Write for information and prices to
B. H. DUTTON, Tavares, Fla., Agent Lake Cos.
Also sells the celebrated Asbestos Lamp Wicks, all sizes,
Crown and Puritan Brands. Florida
Oranges, Lemons and Grape Fruit.
Boardman, Florida, December 19, 1904.
H. B. Marsh. Esq., Live Oak, Florida
Dear Sir: We answer yours of the 15th
We depend on Thrip Juice to keep the
Scale In control. It does the work and at
far less expense than anything else I know
of. Yours truly, F. G. SAMPSON.
FROM DADE COUNTY.
Keeps the Trees Clean, and Note What is
Said about Old Trees.
Cocoanut Grove, Florida, July 21, 1906.
Mr. H. B. Marsh, Live Oak, Florida.
Dear Sir: I have been using Hammonds
Thrip Juice for the past fifteen years.
Asa scale destroyer it has no equal. It
keeps citrus trees perfectly clean and
leaves no bad effect when used according
to directions. Yours truly, John P. Toms.
P. S. I find I can use two dippers full
instead of one to the barrel, on old trees,
H. B. Marsh, General Agent, Live Oak, Fla.
E. O. PAINTER FERTILIZER CO., Jack Jacksonville,
sonville, Jacksonville, and other Seed Dealers carry our
goods, which have been used in Florida
2 6 years. For pamphlets worth having ad address.
HAMMONDS SLUG-SHOT WORKS,
Fitdiklil-on-Hadson, hi. Y.
No Savings Bank
Is Equal to
Good Real Estate.
A Big Boost for Florida.
It is surprising to me that Ameri Americans
cans Americans do not boom Florida as the ideal
winter resort of the world, said Sir
Thomas Dewar, who is at the Hotel
What Florida needs is a corps of
competent publicity men of Europe.
English people are getting tired of
their aged winter resorts, but they
have not yet learned about the beau beauties
ties beauties of Florida.
I think if you get the English peo people
ple people to take up Florida, all America
would dock there in February and
March. You should have first of all
a line of steamships to make a circuit
from London to Florida, and return returning
ing returning via the West Indies. Then send
your agents to England and to the
continent and let them spread the
wonders of Florida broadcast. When
a man has been there once he will tell
his friends about it and he will go
I am on my way to Florida now,
and after a few weeks of tarpon fish fishing
ing fishing I shall go over to Jamaica, and
when I get back to England I will be
anew man. Palm Beach is my choice
of winter resorts today. I am sick of
Monte Carlo and the Nile is poison
to me. I am sure thousands of people
in Europe feel the same way but they
keep on going to Riveria and other
places they are familiar with. If you
can once turn the tide toward Florida
it will become world famous in a very
short while. New York Telegram.
A. H. Green, one of Starkes suburb suburban
an suburban farmers, believes in confining his
efforts to a small acreage and getting
out of the land the best there is in it.
During the past season he planted on only
ly only three and three-quarter acres to cot cotton,
ton, cotton, but he sold 4,069 pounds of the
fleecy staple, or an average of 1,085
pounds to the acre. His cotton was
thoroughly cultivated and carefully
picked and he got the top market price
for it. Mr. Green is just now supply supplying
ing supplying the local market with garden truck.
His turnips are especially fine this
season. In a lot brought in by him
Wednesday, there was one that weigh weighed
ed weighed six pounds, and another seven
V. E. Sapp, of New River, is another
farmer who knows how to produce
something to eat at home. Half a doz dozen
en dozen turnips brought to town Wednes Wednesday
day Wednesday by him weighed twenty-seven
pounds, or an average of 4 1-2 pounds
each. These turnips were planted on
October Ist on land that had already
yielded since last spring a crop of
corn, melons, beans and other food
Florida farming cannot be equaled
anywhere in the universe.Bradford
Money in Half-Cropping.
Ben Rowe told The Standard man
the other day, that the man who
couldnt make a good living and money
half-cropping ought to be imported to
a warmer climate, and gives as an ex example
ample example what Mr. Aaron Byrd has done
on one of his places this year, to prove
it. A few days ago Mr. Byrd killed a
hog a year and ten months old that
weighed when dressed, 266 pounds.
He also has a well filled corn crib,
plenty of sweet potatoes, meat in the
smoke house, lots of the very best
syrup and has also made a good crop
of cotton, and bought a good horse.
This is only one of many instances
showing that when a man has the git gitup
up gitup and git in him he can make some something
thing something whether farming for himself 01
half-crooping. Heres to the hustling
and thrifty farmer, who is the backbone
of the country.Macclenny Standard.
Fine Vegetable Crops.
The strawberry season is now in full
blast at Riverland in this countv. That
community has just, passed through a
prosperous cucumber season. They
shipped many carloads of to.,
market. Their strawberry shipments
REAL ESTATE DEPARTMENT.
will be good. After strawberries,
spring vegetables will come in; then
summer fruits, vegetables and pota potatoes;
toes; potatoes; then the harvesting of hay, oats
and corn; and then fall vegetables of
all kinds. They can and do have as
many money crops as there are sea seasons.
sons. seasons. And all of Hernando county can
have the same. Southern Argus.
L. B. Belk, who has again taken up
trucking, is keeping up his reputation
as a successful grower of vegetables,
and especially tomatoes. One bunch
from his place now on exhibition at A.
S. Watsons real estate office shows
sixteen well developed beauties, which
weigh nine pounds. Mr. Belk told the
writer some weeks ago, of the wonder wonderful
ful wonderful productiveness of the vines of anew
variety which he had discovered, but
we had no idea of ever seeing such a
marvelous lot of full grown fruit. Mr.
Belk reports eighty crates from thefirst
picking from a one-acre patch.Bra patch.Bradentown
dentown patch.Bradentown Journal.
It is estimated by a good authority
that about a quarter of a million boxes
of oranges have been shipped from
Lake county up to date, this season,
and there is still a large quantity re remaining
maining remaining on the trees. Prices have been
good, averaging from SI.BO to $2.00 per
box f. o. b., and with this amount of
money in the county, we ought to be
able to stave off any money stringency
until melon time. Leesburg Courier.
Before the civil war laid its wither withering
ing withering hand upon the South, the growing
of tobacco in the counties bordering
the Apalachicola river, was a profitable
industry, and the day is not distant
when the industry will be revived.
While the tobacco grown in those days
was not equal to the demands of the
present age, the lands that produced
them can be made to produce again,
and produce a finer grade of leaf under
the shaded method. Apalaclrcola
W. L. Stalvey, of Haines City, for formerly
merly formerly of this county, made us a call
this week. He is in the cattle busi business
ness business in Polk county and is much
pleased with his prospects. Cattle are
doing finely and he told us of an eight eightmonths
months eightmonths wood-raised Devon calf that
dressed 206 pounds and netted him
$16.75. Come to Florida, you frozen
Yankee, and raise cattle. Plant City
The great Northwest is sending num numbers
bers numbers of her good citizens to settle in
northern Florida. Those people will
wake up the old settlers to a realization
of the opportunities they have been
dozing alongside of for many years.
The growers all report their straw strawberry
berry strawberry plants in a fine condition. This
four hundred thousand dollar crop will
begin to mature in about ninety days.
Bradford Cos. Telegraph.
Strangers to the Ancient City oft ofttimes
times ofttimes express surprise at the abun abundance
dance abundance of oysters to be found at our
very doors. They seem to think that
the natural advantages of the oldest
city in the U. S. would have been pret pretty
ty pretty well used up in these near 400 years.
And when our Matanzas oysters and
North River oysters are sampled they
marvel again and aver that the Ches Chesapeake
apeake Chesapeake oyster has no advantage.St.
BRANCHS GENUINE RATTLESNAKE
=WATERMELON SEED =
ONLY PURE STRAIN Carefully selected; Kept burs
IN UNITED STATES forty years. No other'variety
T l grown on plantation of 1500 acres.
Pure seed Impossible'where, different kinds are
grown, 10z.15c-20z.25c 4bz.30c7--ilb.6oclib i
SI.OO-6 lbs. $4.60-10 lbs. $8.60 delivered;
Remit registered letter or money order. Stend foiTJ
orders. M.!. BRANCH, Barzella, Columbia Cos., Georgia.
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
SOME GENUINE BARGAINS IN FLORIDA PROPERTY.
No. 4. Nine room house In DeLand, on
Boulevard, two blocks from University and
postoffice; completely furnished; sanitary
plumbing, electric lights and water. Price
No. 5. Two-story seven room house in
Orlando; bath room and pantry; hot and
cold water and electric lights, finely fur furnished;
nished; furnished; barn 16x24; lot Â£4x190. Price $3,000.
No. 6. A fine residence property in the heart
of the city of Jacksonville. Corner lot 52%x1u5
feet. East frontage, nice lawn, tile sidewalks.
House has nine large rooms, two baths and lava lavatory
tory lavatory tiled, large closets, trunk room, pantry,
piazzas, basement and attic. Hot water, heating
system, electric bells, gas and electric lights.
Built less than a year and modern in every par particular.
ticular. particular. Price and terms on request.
No. 8. Pour acre celery farm, with two twostory
story twostory seven room house and good barn, on
Celery avenue, Sanford. Price $6,000.
No. 11. Pine opportunity on Indian river.
Any quantity of land desired at sls to $75
per acre; oranges, grapefruit, guavas, etc., on
property; splendid land for trucking. Also
tract of 12 acres under cultivation, near
railroad station, express office, postoffice,
store, hotel, school and churches; seven room
house, six out-buildings, hogs, chickens, etc.
Will sell reasonable, l-ent or let on shares
to right party on liberal terms.
No. 14. Fine 10-acre orange grove in
Manatee county, containing 550 old bearing
orange and grapefruit trees, and four acres
just beginning to bear; crop last year
3,500 boxes. Also six acres rich hammock,
sub-irrigated and especially suited to let lettuce,
tuce, lettuce, celery, etc., which netted last year
$2,000; newly installed irrigating plant for
both grove and truck farm; fine shipping
facilities, both rail and water. Will make
liberal terms or trade for good Jacksonville
property. Price $15,000.
No. 15. Forty acres best quality pine land
in DeSoto county; nine acres cleared and
planted this fall to oranges and grape grapefruit;
fruit; grapefruit; small houee; near school, churches
and postoffice; nursery of 25.000 orange and
grapefruit trees, which ought to pay for
place in two years. Price $2,000.
No. 16. Twenty acres good hammock
land, one mile from Leesnurg, on hard clay
road and near railroad and fine large lake;
first class gardening, farming or orange
land. 250 bearing sour orange trees and some
sweet seedlings on property. Situated in school
district. A great bargain at $1,500.
No. 17. Thirty acres in Lake county, two
miles from Eustis; fifteen acres in grove,
balance suited to any purpose. Price $4,000.
No. 18. Small place 1 1-4 mile3 from Or Orlando;
lando; Orlando; 10 acres in tract five in clear wa water
ter water lake and balance fine trucking land;
small one-story house, driven well and other
improvements. Price $1,250.
No. 20. Twelve acres good hammock land,
with six-room house, all furnished. Good
barn, hog proof fence, with orange and
grapefruit trees. In fine grazing section of
Lake county. Price SSOO.
No. 22. Nice farm two miles from Orlando;
40 acres, all fenced; 400 orange, tangerine
and grapefruit trees, more than half bear bearing*;
ing*; bearing*; seven room house, new packing house
and other buildings; horse, wagon, farm
implements, chickens, etc. Price for the
No. 23. Twenty-six and one-half acres,
one and one-half miles from Leesburg; house
of eight rooms, finely finished in native
woods, stables, etc.; 500 orange trees and
small fruits; clear water lake on the tract;
fine place for chicken ranch. Price SI,BOO.
No. 24. Ten acres four miles from Sor Sorrento.
rento. Sorrento. Lake county; four room house and
small barn; 120 orange and grapefruit trees,
40 pear trees, mostly bearing; 30 peach
trees; nice front yard set with flowers and
evergreens; good well of water. Price $750.
No. 25. Thirty acres good truck land,
three miles from Sorrento; ten acres clear cleared
ed cleared and in cultivation; good ordinary six
room house, barn and other buildings: about
twenty peach trees. Ten acres is good
round timber, and remaining ten acres has
some good small timber on it. Price $750.
No. 26. About one-fourth mile from No.
25. tract of 25 acres, from which timber
has mostly been cut off. Good fruit and
vegetable land. Price $lO per acre.
No. 31 Yen Abe fruit and truck farm
near Palatka; 45 acres, mostly under culti cultivation;
vation; cultivation; four acres sub-irrigated and pro produces
duces produces fine lettuce, celery, etc., several hun hundred
dred hundred old bearing orange and grapefruit
trees, and 100 pecans just coming into
bearing: house, packing house and other
buildings modern and up to date; fine ship shipping
ping shipping facilities, being located near two rail railroads
roads railroads and St. Johns river. Price $13,500.
No. 32. Forty acres five miles from Pa Palatka;
latka; Palatka; 5 acres two miles from Palatka; 50
acres eight miles from Palatka; 10 acres
and two town lots at Silver Springs
Park: all good land for general farming
purposes. Detailed description of each will
be furnished on request. Price for the whole
No. 38. Ten acres of first-class pineapple
land and 10 acres fine muck land suitable
for tomatoes and all kinds of vegetables:
near Fast Toast "Railroad, the Hillsboro
river. Fast Coast Canal, and on good hard
road, between West Palm Beach and Miami:
one of the best bargains in Florida. Full
description and price on reqiiest.
No. 41. Thirty acres, about one mile from Cut Cutler.
ler. Cutler. in Dade county.' Is situated near railroad,
close to two shinning -stations. Good house and
outbuildings and three wells on the place; eleven
In addition to above we have had referred to ns a nnmber of fine timber tracts In
wire from 10.000 to 50.000 acres, located In different sections of the State, inquiries coa-
T*ernj'njr which" we Wili ; promptly forward to their respective owners. -
y i*i ease direct all correspondence connected with this department to
REAL ESTATE DEPARTMENT, FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST, Jacksonville, Fla.
Before Everybody Sees It Is
The Time to
Make a Wise Investment.
acres planted to mangoes, avocados, irnes, sapo sapodillos
dillos sapodillos and other trooicai fruits, and is all good
trucking land-'" Would be a good investment at
S6,UUU. Price $3.6U0.
No. 44. Forty-four acres within three miles of Str
Augustine; unimproved, but suited to trucking
and fruit growing. Price $ >OO.
No. 4 5. Thirty-eight acres near No. 44 and also
well adapted to growing peaches, pecans, water
melons and truck of all kinds. Price SOOO.
No. 46. Twenty-five acres wild land near fore foregoing
going foregoing tracts. Price S3OO. A trolley line to run
close to these lands is contemplated in the near
No. 48.-. Eighty-five acres in West Florida; 51
acres in pine grove, balance cleared and under
cultivation; 6 room house, barn and other build buildings;
ings; buildings; 55 acres pears, 30 acres bearing, from which
fruit past year netted $800; 25 acres will begin
bearing next year; plums, figs, Japan persim persimmons,
mons, persimmons, berries, &c., for family use. This place
will keep a family, pay for itself in three years
and be worth 50 per cent, more than price asked.
For quick sale $4,000.
No. 49. Forty acres, 38 miles from Orlando,
near railroad station; twelve acres rich hammock
and muck land, six acres of which is in cultiva cultivation;
tion; cultivation; balance fine grazing land; 50 large seedling
orange trees, with over 100 boxes of fruit; location
and soil good for lettuce, celery or other vegeta vegetable
ble vegetable crops. Price, if sold soon, SBOO.
No. 50. Ten acres, fenced, in edge of small
town in Lake county, on two railroads: tw.>-story
house with seven rooms, hall, porches, &c., over overlooking
looking overlooking three lakes; some outbuildings, fruit
trees and flowers; healthy location. Price S6OO.
No. 51. Twenty-three acres rich hammock
land on Gulf coast; 5 acres lenced and two acres
in cultivation with 70 orange and grapefruit trees
one year planted: good 4 room house and out outbuildings;
buildings; outbuildings; in center of new and promising colony
and 11 acres surveyed for building lots. Price
$2,300. Also, 40 acres unimproved hammock half
a mile from above. Price $750. Owner will ex exchange
change exchange for small bearing grove or merchandise
business in southern part of state and give or
No. 52. Twenty acres high pine land one mile
from railroad station in Putnam county; 18 acres
under cultivation, with all stumps removed and
inclosed with hog proof fence; over 200 fruit
trees, pears, oranges, plums, peaches, &c.; house,
barn, stable and goat sheds. Will also include
with the above one good gentle mare, two nice
cows. 200 head of goats and 35 hogs; also farm ng
implements and all feed stuff on hand, such as
corn, hay, potatoes,cassava and six acres of velvet
beans. For an immediate sale will take for the
whole business SI,OU(J.
No. 57One hundred acres pine and ham hammock
mock hammock land, 7 miles from Ocala, on hard
road; 60 acres cleared and fenced; 5 acres
in peaches, 3 years old; small two-room
house, large two-story steel-roof barn;
horse, wagon and implements. Price for
immediate sale, $1,350.
No. 58 Orange grove 11 miles from Tam Tampa;
pa; Tampa; four acres in grove, six acres un unimproved;
improved; unimproved; 220 bearing trees, 103 budded
orange, 89 seedling orange, and 28 budded
grapefruit. Grove in fine condition ; no
buildings. Price $2,200.
No. 59 Eight acres adjoining city of
Sanford; two acres tiled for celery; house,
well, etc., surrounded by orange and other
trees. Price on application.
No. 60 Well located business property in
Sanford; good store building w>th living
rooms above; room on lot for another build building.
ing. building. Will also include stock of merchan merchandise
dise merchandise if desired. Price on request.
No. 62 Good 7-room house on a half halfacre
acre halfacre lot, well located, in Orlando, hen
house, wood shed, etc. Price $1,250. Will
trade for good Sanford property.
No. 63 Fine 30-acre farm 2% miles from
Eustis; 10% acres of choice budded oranges,
tangerines, grapefruit and lemons, besides
peaches, pears, plums, graves, guavas, pe pecans
cans pecans and bananas; good water protection;
grove is in high state of cultivation and
should have over 2,000 boxes fruit the
coming year; 10-room house, two-story barn,
good well, etc.; shipping station on place.
Will bear closest inspection. Price $5,000.
No. 64 Thirty-eight acres well-timbered
pine land in DeSoto county, bordering
right of way of C. H. & N. R. R., four
mlies from Arcadia; 15 acres excellent or orange
ange orange land, balance suitable for trucking or
poultrv. If sold in 60 days can be bought
No. 67 Fifty-acre farm 1% miles from
Eustis; 15 acres cleared, balance pine tim timber;
ber; timber; 500 budded orange trees, half bearing:
600 bearing peach trees; six-room cottage
in good condition, newly painted ; barn,
etc. This place is worth $3,500, but for a
quick is priced at $2,000.
No. 68 Fifty acres fine muck land In
Lake county, good for trucking or alfalfa;
no irrigation or fertilizer needed. Price SSO
No. 69 Fine two-story eight-room house
and five acres of land all planted to orange
and grapefruit trees, sixty of them bearing.
One mile from Punta Gorda. Price $4,000.
No. 70 Forty-acre farm in Lake county,
20 acres in oranges and grapefruit, fifty fiftythree
three fiftythree years old; figs, peaches and other
fruits; three-room house, small barn and
other outbuildings; near railroad station and
in good neighborhood. A bargain at $2,600 ;
No. 71 Eleven acres three miles south oi
Sanford, with nearby new two-story eightr.
room house; close to railroad and post postoffice;
office; postoffice; ideal winter home in healthy loca>
I tion. Price only SI,OOO.
February in Florida,
(Continued from 1 page)
is for green feed for cows, hogs, horses,
etc. It also makes a fair syrup.
Be sure to prepare the summers
wood now, as it is no fun to saw or
chop stove wood in July. There is
fencing, ditching, and grubbing to do
on some farms, and this is the time
of year for such heavy work.
It would be well to put out some
c,xass for pastures, etc., this montn.
The Para, Guinea and St. Lucie are
well suited to all sections of Florida,
and are reliable pasture, and for parks
and lawns, the St. Lucie cannot be ex excelled.
celled. excelled. Guinea and St. Lucie will make
good hay, also. Plant St. Lucie three
by three feet, and Guinea wider apart
Keep the weeds down and use some
cow or horse manure about it.
In the Orchard.
This is the month to plant, or to
continue planting. Plant a few orange
and grapefruit trees, after the 20th of
this month, as it is usually considered
that the coldest weather has passed by
this time. Here is why I recommended
to plant some Sweet Seedlings. If
there was no fear of freezes cutting
them down, I would always plant bud budded
ded budded and known varieties, but as the
orange tree has been, and is liable any
winter to be cut down by low tempera temperatures,
tures, temperatures, if the stock is sour or wild
lemon, one has to begin all over
again, then the cutting back when a tree
is budded, makes it tender and subject
to be killed by the next real cold spell.
On the other hand, the sweet orange,
planted as such, with a view of bring bringing
ing bringing it right along without constant cut cutting
ting cutting back, is hardier and the fruit is
just as fine and of the best quality.
Besides, if a large tree is killed to the
ground, it will grow large enough in
two or three years to bear fruit, much
sooner than a budded tree, when you
begin at the ground. If you can pro protect
tect protect them, plant some budded orange
trees, so as to have early, medium and
some late fruit.
This is the month, as also March,
in which to graft. If you have any
hickory trees or small scrubs, save
them all and graft them to pecan.
Such hickories will make fruiting trees
in two or three years. Use the cleft
graft, as in grafting apple, etc. If you
put the grafts under ground, vou can
put them in this month; if above
ground, put in just as the sap is rising.
Bank up those in the ground to the
top of the cion, protect the graft above
ground by wrapping them with news newspaper.
In planting trees, if you have the
courage to follow the methods laid
down by Stringfellow, of Texas, it will
save you more than one-half the labor
I have tried this method and succeeded
with it. Get his book, The New
Plant some Japanese persimmons and
some figs, also guavas. If south of 27
degrees, plant some mangoes and avo avocados
cados avocados or alligator pears. It may pay
well to plant a fair sized orchard to
these fruits, for there is already a brisk
market for the improved varieties.
Plant some ornamentals also, such
as the Jasmine vine, the wistaria, and
the honeysuckles. Plant some roses
the Jacoueminot, Marechal Neil, Lam Lamart',
art', Lamart', and others. Put out a diamond of
phlox and some yellow daisies.
Besides the above mentioned flow flowers.
ers. flowers. plant some bulbs, such as lilies,
cannas. tube roses, etc.
Continue to prune anv and all trees
except the orange. Wait until all clan clanger
ger clanger of cold is past, say April Ist, to
prune citrus trees.
In the Garden.
Plant turnips, mustard and radishes
as often as every mondi until May.
The best greens we have found is the
curled mustard, but young bee's are.
also fine. Add to the list recommended
for last month, Irish potatoes, sweet
co r m melons and tomatoes.
Thin out to a proper stand such
crops as onions, turnips, beets, etc.;
onions to about four inches aoart, the
others to six inches. The onions yon
remove can be transolanted and your
area thus increased if you wish. Fer Fertilize
tilize Fertilize often and L**ep up a vigorous
growth, as vegetables so grown, are of
a much better quality than those grown
slowly. Scuffle hoc the garden as often
as once a week, and be careful to hoe
very shallow so as not to interfere with
the roots of onions and other small
If your rows are wide enough (ana
if your garden is large, they should be),
use horse cultivation, but let it be sucli
as will not injure your crops, by work working
ing working too near.
The Commercial Garden.
Now as to what we consider our
shipping or commercial crops. To
onions we may add, especially in the
southern half of the peninsula, snap
beans, tomatoes, potatoes, melons and
Potatoes need rather moist, rich soil.
Lot manure or compost in the furrows
is good, but if this cannot be had, use
a regular potato fertilizer, about three threefourths
fourths threefourths of a ton to the acre. Plant six
irwbes deep and two feet apart in the
row, and rows three to three and a
half feet apart. Do not plant in trie
northern part of the state until near
the close of the month so as to avoid
Snap beans are a paying crop.
Learn locally as to the amount and kind
of fertilizer to use, also as to whether
your market requires wax or green
Plant melons after the middle of this
month. Prepare as for corn, that is
flat. Plow the land to be used, and lay
it off in squares about eight by eight
feet, put a peck of compost or lot
manure in the checks, to be followed
with a good dressing of a special melon
fertilizer. Plant in the same hills
every two weeks, so that if the first
should be killed by a frost, more will be
coming on. You might T r Y putting a
handful of pine straw over the plants,
in case of threatened cold. Consult
those who have made a success of
growing melons for market, as to the
Tomatoes, egg plant and peppers
require about the same preparation and
fertilizing as Irish potatoes, though
possibly the proportion of phosphate,
potash and nitrogen required by these
crops may not be the same as for Irish
potatoes. In growing the best crop ot
tomatoes I ever saw in Florida, the
ground was prepared the same as for
potatoes, the same amount of rich com compost,
post, compost, with plenty of potash in it, was
used, and a perfect wilderness of vines
covered with fine tomatoes was the re result.
sult. result. You can hardly overdo it in
preparation and abundant feri!H n g.
One of the best varieties for commer commercial
cial commercial purposes is the "nuke of York.
Value of the Honey Bee.
A correspondent of the Indiana
Farmer tells of his experience with
bees and some of the value ascribed
to them by scientists. In this state
they are much more profitable, as
they are in no danger of winter-kill winter-killing
ing winter-killing and the honey season is very
much longer. They should be much
wore generally kept than they are.
They cost nothing for food, and the
care needed is but little compared
with that required by any other stock
on the farm. Most people relish ho honey
ney honey and it is a very wholesome sweet.
The article referred to is as follows:
Soon after I had concluded to
break up an old colony and stnrt a
new one, I began to look around for
a oueen. I found a queen that was
waiting to join me in starting anew
colony; but not a sinsrle worker bee
was willing to join us in that new
venture. They were more inclined
to st'irt n colony of their own and
they did later. I soon got a colony
of the bees which attend to business.
If you infringe upon their rights,
they soon let you know where they
are and who they are. Now this
f rhtwg instinct has some value to
De farmer. After he had one or
two battles with the honey bee, he
is on the lookout for some unseen
Many things or all things the bee
Poes are due to instinct, yet man can
reason and build from his instinct
to his betterment. The bees indus industry
try- industry is a great lesson to humanity.
They toil from daylight to dark, then
to their hive they go for recupera recuperafion:
fion: recuperafion: not like many men who de debauch
bauch debauch half the night and are unfit
for duty next day. Bees are very
economical. They lose no time when
there is any honey in sight and the
weather is permitting, neither do they
allow any loafers about their pre premises.
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
mises. premises. I cannot say so much for
their honesty. The bees are all
thieves, robbers and murderers. They
will take the last drop of honey their
neighbor has, and fight to the death
to get it.
Probably the greatest value of the
honey bee to man is in the distribu distribution
tion distribution of pollen from flower to flower;
for it appears that in the wisdom of
the great Creative Power that there
should be a law for the perpetuation
of the beautiful and useful species of
fruits and flowers. So we hive the
pollen. Someone will ask why do
not our grasses, grains and fruits be become
come become mixed, until we have no special
varieties? Here comes another law
of that creative wisdom, that the pol pollen
len pollen of one species cannot act upon
another spec : es to make them pro produce
duce produce fruit or seed. Our hogs, sheep,
cattle and horses have run in the
same pasture for generations untold
and they are a distinct species. Yet
another fact in fruit and vegetation;
they do come into bloom at the same
You mix your strawberry plants in
the row or alternate the rows so as
to have them perfectly fertilized, yet
you must have two varieties that
bloom at the same time or no berries.
Man can aid Nature very much in
very many things by studying the
laws of Nature.
The bee dives into a clover bloom
with the one object of getting honey
His feet and legs become covered
with the pollen. He dives into the
next bloom scattering that pollen in
the various blooms he visits.
Some have declared that we would
have no clover seed if we had no
In 1856 I bought my first colony
of bees, and as thev increased I gave
them box hives, about three feet long
no endwise and Imbow logs
for their homes and without much
cire was not out of bees or honev unti 1
1803, when I quit farming. In the
spring of tBBo I had eighteen co 1
onies which went into winter quar quarters.
ters. quarters. By the next winter I had
thirty-five colon : es and had cleared
over S3OO in cash.
There are some drawbacks to bees,
but what business is that his
no failures? The following spring
I had not a single live bee, but gal gallons
lons gallons of dead bees. I stocked up again,
so I had bees for forty years, so 1 d
many dollars worth of bees and ho honev
nev honev and ate hundreds of dollars
worth. A good dish of honey set be before
fore before the wife and children has a verv
conciliatory effect upon them. The
husband sometimes needs it. Try it.
Bees do not like loud words or
loud actions. The first warning is a
quiet buzz about the ear, the next
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M. D. JOHNSON, President.
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Policies the best. Rates the lowest.
OVER TWO MILLION DOLLARS
in insurance written last year.
Do not insure before investigating our policy contracts
and getting our rates.
Home Office, Jacksonville, Fla.
one is a thrust of that little hypo hypodermic
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formic acid nature has provided them
with for self-defense.
PICTURES ENLARGED IN
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Write for catalogue of other styles; also
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Waterman Jewelry Cos.
133 West Bay Street
HISTORY OF PLANT PATHOLOGY
A Paper Read Before the Athenaeum Club, Gainesville,
Fla., October 4, 1907, by H. S. Fawcett.
The literature on the history of Plant
Pathology was found to be very much
scattered, so that it has not been easy
to get at the necessary facts for this
paper. For most of the facts and his history,
tory, history, however, between 1880 and 1900,
I have drawn largely on B. T. Gallo Galloways
ways Galloways paper, Twenty Years of Pro Progress
gress Progress in Plant Pathology, published
The systematic study and treatment
of plant diseases dates back scarcely
more than twenty-five years. Its de development
velopment development has been almost coincident
with the development of bacteriology,
with which it has much in common.
The plant doctor, therefore, does not
have the two centuries or more of ex experience
perience experience and pains-taking labor to
guide him, as does the medical man.
Much progress, however, has been
made in this short period of a quarter
of a century. The foundations have
been laid for a much more rapid de development
velopment development in the future. Although the
subject as such begins perhaps no
earlier than 1880, yet the basic facts
and principles for it were very slowly
accumulating ever since the invention
of the microscope, over two hundred
Purpose of the Paper.lt will be the
purpose of the paper to review very
briefly these preparation periods, and
then touch some of the more important
developments since the year 1880. In
treating of the subject, the history in
relation to insect diseases will be omit omitted,
ted, omitted, since the work of the plant patholo pathologist
gist pathologist as now carried on is usually con confined
fined confined to the diseases due to parasitic
fungi, bacteria, and in some cases (as
root knot), those caused by microscopic
The Fungi, as is well known, are
lower forms of plant life, ranging from
species so small that you can see them
only by means of a compound micro microscope,
scope, microscope, to the large mushrooms and
shelf fungi, the largest of which grow
to a weight of scores of pounds. The
entire group lack the green matter
(chlorophyll) so necessary to the life
of green plants. These forms repro reproduce
duce reproduce themselves, not by seeds, as in the
case of flowering plants, but by minute
bodies called spores, that are carried
invisibly, through the air, on the bodies
of insects, by water, or by other means.
It is difficult to realize the extreme
smallness of these sporesthese in invisible
visible invisible carriers of life. A spore was
being measured under microscope the
other day, that was only three micro micromillimeters,
millimeters, micromillimeters, or 3.25,000 of an inch long.
Fifty of these spores could easily move
abreast through the eye of a fine
needle. Eight thousand placed end to
end would reach only an inch. If one
were enlarged to the size of a pea, an
ordinary man would have to grow about
12,000 feet, or twice the height of Mt.
Washington, to maintain his dignified
position in the life of the world. These
spores are often produced in countless
numbers. It has been estimated that
a single grain of smutted wffieat may
contain as many as 7,000,000 snores.
The Bacteria, some of which are
responsible for plant diseases, dre
unicellular organisms usually much
smaller than the fungi. These are gen generally
erally generally treated of in a class by them themselves.
selves. themselves. They are so minute that 1,000,-
000 individuals can easily be suspended
in a drop of water. It is with the
parasitic forms of both fungi and bac bacteria
teria bacteria that the plant pathologist concerns
Plant Pathology Before 1850.
Records of Plant Diseases in Early
Times. In very early times we have a
few records of plant diseases. There
is mention of mildews and blights in
the older books of the Bible, and Aris Aristotle
totle Aristotle as early as 350 B. C, writes of
wheat rust. Later in history, Shake Shakespeare
speare Shakespeare seems to have had knowledge of
plant diseases, for in King Lear, Act
111, the fool says, Here comes a walk walking
ing walking fire. Edgar replies, This is the
foul fiend Flibbertigibbet, * * he
makes the hairlip, mildews the white
wheat, and hurts the poor creatures of
earth. Later, King Lear asks Edgar:
What is your study? to which he re replies,
plies, replies, How to prevent the fiend and
kill the vermin. Judging from this,
Edgar must have combined the offices
of plant pathologist and entomologist.
The Microscope.The discovery of
bacteria and the study into the nature
of fungi were first made possible by
Leeuwenhoek, a Dutch lens grinder,
who perfected the first simple micro microscope.
scope. microscope. As early as 1675 he published an
article describing different forms of
animalcules that he had found in well wellwater,
water, wellwater, decaying vegetation, infusions of
hay, and the excreta of man and ani animals.
mals. animals. Nicholas Andry in 1701, classed
these organisms with the worms. Lin Linneus,
neus, Linneus, the first great botanist, put them
in an order by themselves which he
called Chaos. In 1762, almost one
hundred years afterwards, Plenciz, of
Vienna, put forth his germ tneorv,
which among the guesses of the period,
happened to accord so accurately with
facts that it was later proven to be cor correct
rect correct in almost every detail. Then fol followed
lowed followed nearly one hundred years more
of chance discovery and disconnected
investigation. The spontaneous gene generation
ration generation theory so long maintained was
finally disproved in the early 3o's by
the investigations of Tyndall and of
Period Between 1850 and 1880.
Discoveries and Principles.With
about 1850 a second period begins.
Almost two hundred years had passed
since the invention of the microscope,
and little had been learned except a
number of isolated facts. Principles
were now needed as a basis for future
investigation. As Professor Armby, of
the Pennsylvania State College, said
recently, One principle is worth a
thousand facts, because it includes them
all. The period between 1850 and 1880
is one of rapid discovery and includes
the working out of principles which
prepared the way more fully for recent
work. The names of Pasteur of
France, and De Bary of Germany, will
ever stand out prominently at the be beginning
ginning beginning of this period; the former iot
his bacteriological investigations, and
the latter for his masterful on the
fungi. It is gratifying to the investi investigator,
gator, investigator, as v r ell as indicative of the
change of thought of the people of our
day, that at a recent vote of the French
people, as to the greatest Frenchman Frenchmannot
not Frenchmannot a great military hero -who had
caused many thousands of lives to be
lost, but an investigator whose dis discoveries
coveries discoveries had led to the saving of many
times that number, Louis Pasteur, re received
ceived received the greatest number of votes.
If I mav presume to venture an opin opinion
ion opinion in this connection, I believe that
the men of the future to whom real
greatness is to be accorded, will be
those with the sincere spirit of research
and investigation in v-hatever depart department
ment department of learning, wffio blaze out new
paths, establish principles, and really
do something in a constructive way to
advance the onw T ard inarch of the race
toward its higher ideals.
De Barv. While Pasteur w r as
demonstrating the relation of bacteria
to animal disease, De Bary was doing
enuallv masterful work in showing the
true relation of fungi to plant disease.
De Rarvs great book. Comparative
Morphology and Physiology of Fungi,
published in 1866, cleared up many dark
points in connection with this lower
class of plants, and proved clearly that
fungi w r ere not only capable of living
on dead organic matter, but could also
live in live tissue, and cause manv
kinds of disease. This, together with
the later work of the systematic my mycologists,
cologists, mycologists, paved the way for the more
definite and practical work that to
follow 7 in the period beginning about
Dr. Tekvl and Mr. Hvde Fungi.lt
was discovered early in this period
started bv De Barv, that certain fungi
had. in their life history, two or three
stages, each oi ;whieh was quite differ different
ent different from the other; that is to say, a
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
for Many Purposes
JWMmjaEam Oranges, Lemons and Grape Fruit for tropical
planting; Peaches, Plums and Pears especially wP/ vj|VYA
adapted to the South; Persimmons, Pecans, Hardy W VS
Roses, Shade Trees, Hedge Plants, Flowering Shrubs, etc.
Tabers Trees Thrive
because they are of the choicest varieties and have been grown from superior stock,
in an ideal location and under the care of expert nurserymen. Booklet, "Past,
Present and Future, and complete catalogue, free.
GLEN SAINT MARY NURSERIES COMPANY
G. L. TABER, Pres. & Treas. Box 25. GLEN SAINT MARY, FLA. H. HAROLD HUME. Secy.
l u 1 11 !! mu 11 111 ! 11 imwfnmnT
From Our Southern Division Nurseries in St. Lucie
and Dade Counties
ARE FREE FROM WHITE FLY
and Safe From Frost
We can book your order In advance, reserve the trees, and ship freahly-dug
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We ofter a complete line of all lead'ng varieties Orange, Grapefruit, and othsr
Citrus Fruits on Sour or Rough Lemon Stock. Illustrated catalogue free. Address.
The Griffing Bros. Cos.
Jacksonville, or Little River, Fla.
-i - r rr=rr-.r =.
CHASE & CO., Proprietors J. W. HOARD, Manager
Citrus Trees of all Leading Varieties
Budded en three-year-old rough lemmon and sour orange roots. Guaranteed absolutely free from
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YVrite for prices to
J. W. HOARD, Gotha, Florida
ROYAL-PALM NURSERIES. est K
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the Tropics; fruit-bearing, useful and ornamental. Send for large
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Horticulturist and plant-lover. We ship direct to purchaser (no
agent) in all part* of the World SAFELY. A specialty made of
long distance shipping, by mail, or express and freight. (Notlcs
the unsolicited test'monials in the catalogue.)
REASONER BROS.. ONECO, FLA.
I TXTE offer you for immediate delivery, specially fine Orange tl
and Grape Fruit Trees on sour orange and lemon roots, gj/|S
% clean and healthy; also budded Pecan?, Fruit Trees, Shade
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j Our Nurseries are managed by rren of long experience,
and our employees are all skilled WHITE MEN (no negroes jp
if 'WSW employed). All orders handled by capable, responsible men,
I THE BARBER-FRINK CO. Inc. i j|| 1
I jp|Â§i turkey CREEK NURSERIES Box i MacClenny, Fla. I
Buy Pineapple Trees which will return
you $6.00 per box or twice what you
can get lor other kinds
I have a limited quantity First CIOSS
StOCk all sizes for sale, Also Tan Tangerines
gerines Tangerines and Grapefruit
Get my prices.
ISLAND GROVE* FLA.
One Acre Tweve Trees
Grafted trees, two to three feet
FREIGHT PREPA'D J- J JREFERENCES
REFERENCES JREFERENCES IF NEEDED
W. H. HASKELL, DeLand, Fla.
Entered at the postoffice at Jacksonville. Flori Florida,
da, Florida, as second-class matter.
Published monthly by the
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' ~~~ :rm:
Some of our subscribers seem to
have overlooked the announcement in
the last issue of the change of the Agri Agriculturist
culturist Agriculturist from a weekly to a monthly.
We regret the disappointment these
parties expressed, but at the same time
appreciate their anxiety to get the pa paper
per paper regularly.
Since tfee beginning of the New Year,
Mr. W. E. Pabor has been engaged as
editor of the semi-weekly editions of
the Times-Union. Mr. Pabor is an old,
experienced newspaper man, and well
known as an agricultural writer of
edibility. The improvements he has
made in the paper are already manifest.
To Our Old Subscribers.
On account of a pressure of other
duties, we have not been able to extend
the date of expiration of all our sub subscribers
scribers subscribers consequent upon changing the
Agriculturist to a monthly. We ask
the indulgence of those who find the
same old date on this number, and
assure them that this work will be com completed
pleted completed before another issue. Those
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July Ist will be extended an equal num number
ber number of months beyond their old date,
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time for SI.OO.
Friday, February 7th, has been desig designated
nated designated as Arbor Day, and all the public
schools throughout the state are urged
to observe it by planting trees and
otherwise ornamenting the school
grounds. This is a beautiful custom,
and is coming to be national in its ob observance,
servance, observance, but why confine it to the
pupils of the schools and the improve improvement
ment improvement of school grounds? Why not ex extend
tend extend it until it shall include every per person
son person who owns an acre of land, or even
a single town lot?
The state is being so rapidly depleted
of its timber that unless some steps arc
taken to reforest the lands it is only
a question of a few years when our
supply will be entirely exhausted. If
every land owner would devote only
one day in each year, with all of his
available help, to the planting of quick
growing timber trees, he would find
it one of the most profitable invest investments
ments investments he could make for himself and
in addition he would be a greater pub public
lic public benefactor than the man who makes
two blades of grass grow where only
one grew before.
New Seeds and Plants.
The United States Agricultural De Department
partment Department keeps a large force of agents
constantly in the various foreign coun countries
tries countries prospecting for plants and trees
that may be profitably adapted to some
sections of the United States. Among
the thousands of seeds and plants that
were secured last year may be men mentioned
tioned mentioned forty-six varieties of rice, the
most valuable of which probably are
the 100-day rice-early sorts, which in
Japan give crops when ordinary kinds
fail. Anew variety of alfalfa was also
discovered, which will grow through throughout
out throughout the winter in the Southern states.
These explorers also secured large
quantities of young oriental and Egyp Egyptian
tian Egyptian matting plantkinds that are es essential
sential essential to the success of the matting
industry in this country.
It is believed that all of the above
will be found well adapted to the South,
and if so, will prove a valuable addition
to our already long list of profitable
Is It a Conspiracy?
We do not make the charge, positive positively,
ly, positively, but some things which are happen happening
ing happening have very much the appearance of
an organized effort to break down the
market price of Florida oranges. The
tremendous rush of green fruit early
in the season demoralized the market
to such an extent that many buyers
have lost considerable money. Have
they combined to recoup themselves
by breaking the market to such an
extent that they may be able to buy
up the remaining crop at figures which
will allow them to recover their losses
when they sell on the rise which is
sure to come? There are many cir circumstances
cumstances circumstances which give color to the sug suggestion.
gestion. suggestion. We have heard a report that
Florida oranges have been sold in New
York for as low as 40 cents a box.
If so, it must have been that the fruit
was not in good condition. One of
the trade papers reports that one lot
of Florida oranges, containing 250
boxes, was in such bad condition that
ii: had to be repacked and the result
was that only 100 boxes of fruit were
left and that by no means first class.
Such decay can only be accounted for
on the belief that the fruit was not
properly handled. There is no doubt
that oranges can be picked, packed and
shipped without serious loss from de decay.
The trade papers report that many
Florida oranges are selling at prices
which do not leave the grower any anything
thing anything after paying for picking, pack packing,
ing, packing, boxes, wrapping paper, freight and
commission. If this is the case, why
not hold the fruit, regardless ot danger
from frost? If it is frozen, the growers
are not out anything, and if not frozen
the late market is sure to be better.
Buyers and commission men in this
state are sending word to the papers
that there are still a million or more
boxes of oranges in Florida. We be believe
lieve believe that this is an exaggeration,
whether willful to influence the market
or not. we, of course, do not know.
But the effect is the spe and we fee-i
justified in advising all who have go'od
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
oranges to hold them for better prices.
One of the trade papers, comment commenting
ing commenting on the report that there are still
so many oranges in this state, wonders
what will be done with them, saying
that the California fruit is now so good
that Florida fruit will not sell well in
competition with it. If this is true it
is the fault of those who ruined the
market with their green fruit. If it
hurt no one but themselves it would
not matter much, but every one who
has fruit to sell suffers. Buyers who
have been bitten with green fruit give
that kind the go by as long as possible,
and will buy only at very low prices.
There is only one remedy which
seems practicable, that is the organiza organization
tion organization of an association which will take
in enough of the growers to control
the situation. One or two efforts have
been made in this direction, but owing
to local jealousy none have as yet suc succeeded
ceeded succeeded in accomplishing very much for
the good of the cause. Two or three
such organizations are almost worse
than none, the rivalry between them
will seriously interfere with the good
which they ought to accomplish.
It has always seemed a great pity, to
us, that the old Florida Fruit Exchange
could not have been revived. It had
its enemies; no organization could
possibly expect to satisfy every cus customer,
tomer, customer, and as the managers were hu human,
man, human, they no doubt made mistakes,
but we have always believed that they
honestly tried to work for the good of
the orange growers. In fact it would
have been very foolish for them to
have done otherwise as they could only
prosper when their customers were al also
so also doing well. Is it not possible to
organize an association which should
have its headquarters at Jacksonville
and thus be so situated that it could
not be accused of favoring one section
more than another?
Oranges on Poor Land.
Editor Florida Agriculturist:
This being my first season in Florida,
I would like some information. I have
a piece of high pine sand land that
seems to be very thin, orange trees
having been set on it but did not do
well. I would be glad to have some
information as to what to plant on
the land to bring it up to where the
trees will thrive.
Would velvet beans be all right? If
not what would? Also, how shall the
ground be prepared; what time ought
they be planted, and what the mode of
cultivation? How much should be
planted per acre, and how should they
be harvested to best advantage?
D. F. R.
Answer Orange trees set out on
thin pine land, that were not cultivated
and fertilized, would be very apt to die.
Some of the best groves in the state
are on high pine land, but they have to
be fertilized. Possibly if the trees you
refer to had been properly fertilized
and taken care of they would have been
alive now. Without this, I do not
think you will ever be able to make a
grove, although you can build up your
soil to a great extent bv planting vel velvet
vet velvet beans and in the fall turning them
under, in this way adding humus to the
Plant your velvet beans during
March, in rows four feet apart and
three feet in the row, two beans to the
hill. If your soil is very poor, the
velvet beans will be slow to start, but
will increase in growth as the foliage
increases. The only cultivation needed
will be to keep the weeds away trom
them until they start to run and then
they will soon cover the ground. The
only harvesting to do if. you want to
enrich your soil, is to pick, the beans
and allow the vines to lie on the
ground to be broken up with a cut cutaway
away cutaway harrow and turned under with a
plow when they are ripe. It will take
vou a long time to build up your soil
in this -way, to make it so you can
raise an orange grove. You will find
k quicker and easier in the end to set
vour trees and give them a little fer fertilizer
tilizer fertilizer to keep them going and let them
get whatever benefit' they can ffom the
velvet' Kea'tfs.. X. O. F.
To Prevent Orange Rust.
Editor Florida Agriculturist:
A correspondent asks for a preven preventive
tive preventive of orange rot. I believe that
practically the whole of it. could be
prevented by proper drying (not
"sweating) of the fruit and the use of
a germicide when the fruit is picked
wet. When the big freeze came, I had
complete plans for a packing house,
provided with hot water boiler and hot
water pipes under the grating on which
the picking boxes were to be set when
they came in from the grove, intending
that warm (and hence necessarily dry)
air at about 90 degrees should circu circulate
late circulate through the fruit all night. That
would do away with all sweating on
warm mornings after cold nights and
all the little scratches received in pick picking
ing picking would be dry and calloused. The
fruit would cool to the temperature of
the room while being sized and packed.
As to the germicide, I can give actual
experience. Two years ago, I had to
wash all my tangerines on account of
the sooty mold. They were scrubbed
with scrubbing brushes and gold-dust
washing powder and then rinsed in a
washtub of water in which about a
heaping teaspoonful of salicylic acid had
been dissolved. The salicylic acid is
soluble with difficulty in water, so it
was dissolved first in alcohol and the
solution poured into the tub. The
tangerines carried in perfect condition
and a large number of culls were
dumped dripping wet back into pick picking
ing picking boxes and stayed wet for nve days
with almost no decay at all. When
hey were wined dry and shipped, they
also carried well.
Theodore L. Mead.
The suggestions given below were
condensed from an address given by
Hon. John Parr before a Louisiana
State Horticultural Association meet meeting:
Beets, turnips, parsley, shallots,
mustard and spinach packed for ship shipment,
ment, shipment, should be placed in sugar bar barrels
rels barrels and iced with from seventy-five to
one hundred pounds of ice. Packed in
f his wav they can be shipped trom
Vpw Orleans to Chicago or New
York with practically no loss. Let Lettuce.
tuce. Lettuce. endives and escarolle should also
ke shioped in sugar barrels and iced
with about twenty-five nounds of ice.
Cucumbers can be shipped in barrels
or small crates, but if barrels are used
Tie same should have ventilation and
be lightly iced with about twenty-five
nounds of ice. The first cucumbers of
the season carry better when wrapped
in brown paper and shipped in small
Fgg plants should be shinned the
nme as cucumbers, while small crates,
hamoers and boxes may be used for
Ship green corn in sugar barrels,
well ventilated and well iced.
Musk melons should be shipped in
barrels or small crates; watermelons
Shin snap beans in bushel and half halfbushel
bushel halfbushel hamners. or in two-thirds bush bushel
el bushel and one-biwhel boxes. Do not ice.
White eelerv should be shipned in
barrels containinsr to 2K bunches to
a barrel and should be well iced.
Okra should be shipped the same as
beans and no ice used, except when
nacked in barrels and it is best then to
use whole' blocks of ire, standing the
rakes tin in the middle of the barrel
and packing the okra around them.
Potatoes may be shipned in barrels,
sacks or hampers. Thev are the
easiest of all vegetables to shin, as they
do not rot so quickly as other vege vegetables.
When it is possible, vegetables
should be shipped by freight, prefer preferably,
ably, preferably, of course, in refrigerator cars.
Fxpress rates are usually too high to
leave much of a profit for the grower,
after an allowance has been made for
shrinkage, loss and commission- charg charges.
es. charges. -
It should be borne in mind that a
well-packed package and one that is
as attractive as it can be made will al always
ways always .command a larger price than %
pteorly pwdctfd, unattraefctye fVaclcagfe.
The Agriculturist as a Monthly.
When we decided to make the Agri Agriculturist
culturist Agriculturist a monthly it was with sonic
misgivings as to how the change would
be received, but we are gratified at the
unanimity of our friends in recognizing
the conditions which made it advisable.
We do not as a rule, publish the com complimentary
plimentary complimentary letters which we receive
from time to time, but feel that we are
justified under present circumstances
in giving a few of the many that have
come to ns during the past month:
R. C. J., Holguni, Cuba: I think
the change you have made in the paper
will be all right. Inclosed tind 50 cents
for another year.
Mrs. G. W. L., Hastings, Fla.: In Inclosed
closed Inclosed find check for sl, for two years
subscription. Im sorry it is going to
be a monthly; Id rather pay more and
have a weekly, and hope you will make
it a weekly again another year.
G. W. 8., Osprey, Fla.: Inclosed
find 50 cents for another year, although
I regret it can't come weekly.
D. T. PI., /vripeka, Fia.: I regret regretvery
very regretvery much that your paper L to be
monthly instead of weekly. 1 am prac practically
tically practically a novice in Florida and receive
a great deal of useful information
through your columns. Can you not
giVe it to us semi-monthly? I would
rather pav more and have it so.
W. S. H., Hawks Park, Fla.: I am
greatly pleased with the return of the
Agriculturist to its old-time vigor yon
are making it what it has Deen and
should always be, the one live agri agricultural
cultural agricultural and horticultural paper of the
state. Keep it up to the standard ol
the past year and it will win its way
back to a profitable basis and become
a safe reliance for many, both old and
new, tillers of Floridas varying soils.
G. A. P., Wellesley, Mass.: Your
January number is received. I like the
change to a monthly, there is such a
plethora of reading matter now-a now-a-days.
M. A. M., Punta Gorda, Fla.: I can
imagine the difficulty you labored under
in getting out four times a month, a
magazine that compared well with any
of the monthlies in the country, that
are farming journals, exclusively.
It has often occurred to me that you
had a tremendously big job on your
hands, getting out four issues a month.
I do not know much about journalism,
but it seems to me it required a mighty
lot of hustling to scratch together
enough matter every seven days to
make up the kind of journal you pub published.
There is no doubt but your readers
would prefer a weekly, but in order to
publish a weekly it would necessitate a
continuous and never-ceasing contribu contribution
tion contribution of letters and articles pertaining to
farming and fruit growing, from those
same readers, and this supply would
probably he of such an intermittent
character that it could not be depended
on, and then you would have to resort
to clippings from magazines from other
states, whose agricultural conditions
are entirely different from ours, and
whose experience would not count for
much to the agriculturist in Florida.
The personal articles are the ones that
I always enjoy- most, and get the most
benefit from, and no doubt the majority
of your readers will say the same thing,
but to get that character of reading
matter and have it as varied as possible
is hardlv within the possibilities o F
yourself and your associates until our
state is better settled and a more
general altruistic feeling prompts men
to share wffh their fellowmen, the
knowledge that experience bestows
TTrffil that time comes, it will probablv
be best for vou to edit a monthly, and
you may depend upon me to give you
the benefit of my little light, whenever
T r*n find the time to pass it along to
you. M. A. McAdow.
Punta Gorda, Fla.
The German Iris
Has anyone in central or South
Florida been successful in growing the
German iris? I have had the Floren Florentine
tine Florentine iris and iris Dalmatica (members
of this group) growing at Ormond lor
t-he .past two years. They are barelv
alive and have never bloomed, though
grown in half shade, in good soil and
well watered. It is said the Japanese
iris does quite well in Florida. Can
any of your readers gpfve an actual ex experien'ce
perien'ce experien'ce With it? G. A. P.
Short Letters From Correspondents.
Alfalfa, Artichokes, Etc.
Would you please ask some of your
correspondents who have had experi experience
ence experience with alfalfa, artichokes or Canadi Canadian
an Canadian field peas in Florida, to give their
experience with those crofis through
your columns? C. F. H.
Write G. F. Burrell, Oxford, Florida.
Can you tell me where I can buy
White Holland turkeys at a reasonable
price, or get eggs to set? D. J. R.
Somebody Should Advertise.
Please give me address of someone
who has strawberry plants for sale.
There are none advertising in* your pa paper
per paper now. D. F. H.
Inquiries Regarding Sisal Hemp.
I am in search of information re regarding
garding regarding sisal hemp, its cultivation,
method of planting, soil required and
estimate of market value. Is there any
raised in quantities in this state, and
what nurseries furnish plants? I would
like to plant it if sure of returns and
market. From what I learn here, it
should be of value. H. C. E.
Cottonseed Meal as Feed.
A correspondent mentions substituting
cottonseed meal for linseed in a poultry
ration. Raw cottonseed meal is quite
poisonous to both poultry and hogs.
When fed in any considerable quantity
to hens, it not only purges them but
causes the eggs to be foul in smell
and with greenish yolks. Even the
moderate quantity contained in ready
mixed cooked cow feed proved to be
injurious to my chickens and they re refused
fused refused to cat of it even when very hun hungry.
gry. hungry. Cooked cottonseed meal is said
to be harmless to hogs.
Theodore L. Mead.
A Recipe Wanted.
Will some of your readers please
give a recipe for making vinegar from
sweet oranges? L. C. S.
Thanks for the Correction.
In the Florida Agriculturist for De December
cember December 4th, you speak of the National
Plant Introduction Garden at Chico,
Southern California. Chico is over 803
miles east of Los Angeles, with a small
south line of California. Chico is 4=
cmiles east of Los Angeles, with a small
state experiment station, but Chico is
186 miles north of San Francisco. H.
The Carob Once More
Editor Florida Agriculturist:
In your issue of December 18th art artsome
some artsome interesting notes on the carob, by
The Ormond tree mentioned, was
die sole survivor of several others, all
raised from seed of St. Johns Breed,
purchased at a foreign drug store, and
killed in the winter of 1894-5. It, how however,
ever, however, does set fruit every year, which
hangs on and grows for quite a long
time, the pods attaining a length of
four or five inches with what appear
to be perfect seeds, though we have
never tried to make them germinate.
The green pulp is sweet and astringent,
but never hardens to the dry edible
condition of Mediterranean fruit, and
gradually decays. Possibly under
stress of circumstances this specimen
may produce male and female flowers
on the same tree. Tt would be inter interesting
esting interesting to know if the immature nods of
the Miami trees were really edible.
I recently arrived in Ormond from
the North and have examined that
carob tree, the only one in vicinity. It
has two trunks but both sets of branch branches
es branches are set with young fruit, which bar baring
ing baring severe freezes judging by the fruit,
wiil attain a length of four to five inches
then decay in the same way the dates
do in this locality. Certainly this indi individual
vidual individual tree is not dioecious. G. A. P.
The Mid-Winter Exposition.
The Mid-Winter Exposition was
formally opened in Jacksonville on the
25th of January, as promised, with ex exercises
ercises exercises of a very interesting characiei
and with a large attendance. Although
not complete in every detail, its magni magnitude
tude magnitude and the great work that had been
accomplished in so short a time was. a
matter of great surprise to everv visit visitor.
or. visitor. By the time this prapfer rteafcnfes fts
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
readers everything will probably be in
good shape, and all. who attend will be
well repaid for the time and expense.
One of the most attractive features
of the entire exposition probably will
be the exhibitions of the Beachey air airships,
ships, airships, which are scheduled to take
place daily during the first half of Feb February.
Low rates have been made by all
the railroads entering Jacksonville,
which will enable all who desire to at attend
tend attend at a reasonable cost, and special
days have been arranged covering al almost
most almost the entire term of the exposition.
Following is a list of those which will
likely be of most interest to Agricul Agriculturist
turist Agriculturist readers during February:
Saturdav. Ilntroduction1 Introduction of Beach Beachey
ey Beachey Air Ship, and Air Ship Racing.
Student help Day.
Wednesday 5 Opening and continu continuing
ing continuing for four days, Pet Stock Show, Cat
Show, Bird Show.
Saturday BPalatka Day.'
Monday 10 Nassau County Day.
Tuesday ti Fernandina Day.
Tuesday 18 Wholesale Grocers
Day. State Merchants Association
Day. Sanford Day. St. Augustine Day.
Wednesday 19 Leon County Day.
Tallahassee Day. Levy County Day.
Friday 21 Confederate Veterans
Day. Daughters of Confederacy Day.^
Saturdav 22George Washingtons
Birthday Celebration.. Military Day.
Daughters of Revolution Day.
Monday 24 G. A. R. Day. Wo Womans
mans Womans Relief Corps.
Tuesday 25 Federation of Laborers.
Central Union Day.
Wednesday 26Duval County Day.
Thursday 27Volusia County. Bre Brevard
vard Brevard County.
Farmers* Institute at Gainesville.
A farmers institute is to be held at
Gainesville beginning February sth,
and continuing for three days. Several
speakers of national prominence are
scheduled for addresses, and these
meetings ought to be largely attended,
not only by the farmers of Alachua
county, but by those of the adjoining
counties as well. Following is the pro programme:
Wednesday, February sth, 7 P-
Address of welcome, W. R. Thomas,
mayor of Gainesville. Agriculture in
the University. Dr. Andrew Sledd,
of the University. The
Florida Live Stock Association, S. TT.
Gaitskill, president of association. Mc-
Intosh. The Florida Farmer, Prof.
F. G. Schell, secretarv of the Cotton
Growers association, Lake Butler.
Thursday, February 6th, 9 a. m. Ex-
hibition Exhibition of cattle to be slaughtered, Dr.
C. A. Cary, superintendent Alabama
Farmers Institutes. The Herefords
iv. Florida, N. A. Callison, Spring
Park Stock Farm. The Herefords on
the Range, C. R. Thomas, secretary
and representative of the Hereford as association.
Noon Barbecue, citizens of Gaines Gainesville.
February 6th, 2 p. m. Stock Rais Raising
ing Raising in Florida, S. TL Gaitskill. Cat Cattle
tle Cattle Raising in the South. Col. W. A.
Harris, representing the Shorthorn as association.
February 6th, 7 P- m Address by
Col. W. R. Goodwin, Breeders Ga Gazette.
zette. Gazette. Chicago. Stereopticon lecture,
Dr. Andrew M. Soule, president Geor Georgia
gia Georgia Agricultural College, Athens. Ad Address
dress Address to farmers. Governor Broward.
Friday, February 7th, 9 a. m. The
Cotton Growers Association. Judge
B. TU Palmer, Lake City. The Farm Farmers
ers Farmers Union, G. N. Trawick. president,
Mayo. Exhibition of slaughtered cat cattle,
tle, cattle, showing good and poor points, Dr.
C. A. Cary. Tick Fever and Its Erad Eradication,
ication, Eradication, Dr. E. P. Guerrant, Ocala.
Florida Agriculture, the Hon. B. E.
McLin. Commissioner of Agriculture.
Awards at Jamestown.
As is generally known, Florida was
one of the few Southern s f ates that had
r>o general exhibit at the Jamestown
Exposition last year. However, some
of our progressive furnished ar articles
ticles articles of various kinds for exhibition
bv the Atlamic Coast Line, and Sea Seaboard.
board. Seaboard. Air Line Railroads, and it is
gratifying to know that they recer ed
a larger percentage of awards than
any of their competitors from other
states. Mr. Wilbur McCoy, the enter enterprising
prising enterprising industrial agent of the Atlantic
Co'ast Line, furnishes the following list
of medals awarded to Floridians
through his exhibit:
Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, dis display
play display of tropical and semi-tropical fruits
Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, fruits
and vegetables in liquid.
John K. Cheyney, Tarpon Springs,
Fla., unbleached sponges.
E. V. Blackman, Miami, Fla., ava avacadoes.
S. H. Pollock, Miami, Fla., avo avocadoes.
E. J. Blount, Alva, Lee county, Fla.,
Chase & Cos., oranges and grape grapefruit.
Punta Gorda Pinery, Gorda,
E. J. Egbert, Kissimmee, Fla., pine pineapples.
D. D. Swartlev, Green Cove Springs,
Fla., Japan persimmons.
Griffing Bros. Cos., Jacksonville, Fla.,
pecans, seventeen varieties.
Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, col collective
lective collective tobacco exhibit.
Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, col collective
lective collective exhibit of wood grown on line
W. W. Gordon & Cos., sea island
Mrs. C. W. Jacocks, Orlando, Fla.,
F. W. Inman, Florence Villa, Fla.,
storage Valencia oranges.
E. H. Youngs, Lakeland, Fla.,
Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, col colle'tive
le'tive colle'tive exhibit of cotton.
Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, col collective
lective collective exhibit of guava jelly.
W. D. Stark, Jacksonville, Fla.,
W. L. Van Duzor, Kissimmee, Fla.,
T. A. Collins, Miami, Fla., mangoes.
R. B. Leak, Ft. Myers, Fla., guavas.
O HF-AP COLUMN
Twenty wodrs or more. 2% cents per
word. No advertisement taken for less than
EXPERIENCED GROWER of nearly all
kinds of truck and fruit cropslooking
up a location in the South, wants posi position
tion position as working foreman. Onion growing
on large scale a specialty. Have helped
to put hundreds of carloads on the mar market.
ket. market. Will operate on salary, shaves, or
a combination of the two. This ad. will
appear but once. If interested retain for
reference. Can cite investors to good
opportunities. Address S. STIERS, Jack Jacksonville,
sonville, Jacksonville, Fla. Genl delivery.
PEACH TREES THAT WIRE NOT ROOT ROOTKNOT
KNOT. ROOTKNOT We have on hand peach trees
that are now, and will remain after set setting,
ting, setting, absolutely free from root-knot under
any and all conditions. Address all cor correspondence
respondence correspondence to STEPHEN SOAR, Prop.
WANTED A number of honest young men
from this vicinity interested to read our
convincing catalogue. (Free.) TAMPA
BUSINESS COLLEGE (the college with
a home for its students), Tampa, Fla.;
L. M. Hatton, President.
FOR SALEI have a few choice one or tw
year old orange and grapefruit buds, on strong
thrifty stock, which T will sell at low prices.
Address. R. KAHLE, Apopka. Fla.
CARP AGE PLANTS readv now E. Summer
F. Dutch. All Head L Wakefield. E. Wake Wakefield.
field. Wakefield. Price $1.25 per 1.000. or 5.000 for Â£>. White
Bermuda Onion plants $1 per 1.000. Catalogue
free. T. K. Godhey, Waldo. Fla.
NOW is the time to set Cabbage plants and
Buists Florida Header Is tbe kind. T sell
the plants at $1
AMTDON. Pinecastle. Fla.
WHITE HOLLAND Turkeys; trio. Ten dol dollars
lars dollars F. O. B. G. H. Burrell. Oxford. Flor Florida.
THOROUGHBRED Barred Plymouth Rock
Cockerels for sale. $2.00 to $5.00 each.
Write for prices on hens. Jno. A. Jef Jeffervs.
fervs. Jeffervs. Specialist. Box 24, Lake Helen. Fla.
THE FUNGI is natures own and sure
remedy for Whiteily. Infected leaves
and trees for sale. C. A. BOONE,
ARE YOU going to plant a fall crop of vege vegetables?
tables? vegetables? Tf so you had better let us send
you our seed price list. Kennerlys Seed
Store. Palatka, Fla.
FOR SALE A four acre celery farm with
two-story seven room house, good barn,
on Celery avenue, Sanford, for 000.
Address C. B. H.. care Florida Agricul Agriculturist.
CUT-AWAY HARROWS and repairs. E. S.
HUBBARD. Agent. Federal^ Point. Fla.
FOR SALE Banana plants. The Bananas
will produce more nourishing food to the
acre vear by vear than any food grown.
BEARHEAD FARM. Orlando. Florida.
BROTHER. I have found a root that will
surely cure that tobacco habit and in indigestion.
digestion. indigestion. let me write you about it. C. H.
STOKES. Mohawk. Florida.
ORAFTED PECAN TREES "As good as
the best as cheap as the cheapest our
motto. Try us. BEARS PECAN NUR NURSERIES.
SERIES. NURSERIES. Palatka. Fla.
Selection of a Breed.
By Charles F. Hiley.
In answer to your kind invitation, I
will try to write a little in regard to
selecting a breed of chickens, which
will probably be in season as just now
many are dissatisfied with the chickens
they have, and are determined to
branch out anew. Now, I know this is
a very ticklish question, and is general generally
ly generally got over by saying that all breeds
are equally good, and so they may be
A pointer dog and a bull pup are
probably equally good, but if you took
the bull pup bird hunting, you would
not do much business, and vice versa.
And so it is with chickens. Make up
your mind what you want chickens for
and then buy accordingly. Some
breeds are stronger on one point, some
on another. Make up your mind
whether you want eggs to be your
long suit, or broilers. If you want
fancy table fowls choose one of the
American varieties; if you want eggs
to be your strong suit, choose one of
the Mediterranean or non-sitting va varieties.
rieties. varieties. One mistake made in Florida,
by many people, is to look for some something
thing something that will mature very early and
lav at four or five months. Well, that
is probablv desirable in the North,
where hatching is started late, but what
is the consequence here, where we
start early so as to get growth before
the hot weather begins? Tt means
that your early maturing pullet is lay laying
ing laying by July or August, and stopping
her growth and weakening her consti constitution
tution constitution to produce eggs that are worth
probably 20 cents a dozen, while a
slower maturing bird is building up a
constitution to lay for a longer period
in November, and the winter months
when eggs are worth two and one-half
times as much.
Another mistake often made is tn cut
the feed when the chickens slack up.
One farmer will say. Oh, feed is so
high that T cant afford to feed like
you do. Well, what is the conse
quence? He is probably keeping hi hillock
llock hillock of chickens at perhaps $3 a week
and getting no eggs, while his neigh neighbor
bor neighbor is keeping the same-sized flock for
$5 and getting sufficient eggs to pay
for the feed. I have seen this very
clearly illustrated in feeding hogs.
Two farmers having practically the
same amount of corn and hogs, one
will say, Oh feed is so high in Flori
da, T cant afford to feed much corn.
So he will dole out about two pounds
a day per head in order tb n t his corn
will last a long time. The conse consealienee
alienee consealienee is, at the end of a period, he
still has his hogs the same weight as
before, but has fed his corn. Whereas
the man who will feed his corn out
euicklv, will get from twelve to fifteen
pounds gain for every bushel, by the
slow-feeding method he would make
no gain per bushel; in fact, his hogs
mav lose a little.
Now to close. I will sav if you are
not satisfied with what chickens you
have, try some other varietvthis spring,
and start by buying the best eggs ot
chickens yon can get. There are good
breeders of all varieties in the state
now, who have spared no expense in
getting the best. Good stock is almost
sure to get a little better attention than
scrubby stuff, especiallv when your
neighbors begin to notice what nice
chickens you have, and this little extra
attention will at once begin to bring
better returns. Then you will try to
do a little more for your birds as they
are doing so well for you, and when
you get to that stage, look out. for
first thing you know vou will be a chick chicken
en chicken fancier, and nothing but the besj_
will be good enough for you. Nutt
Green Food for Poultry.
People do not know the value of
wheat, rye. wheat screenings and oats.
They all feed them, but how? The ma-*
ioritv of the poultrymen feed those
grai n s drv. It is all right for the litter
to make hens scratch, but those grains
ran p e fed to more value and of more
benefit and success, to the men and
fowls both. We poultrymen all believe
that fowls need green food as well in
winter as in summer. For this I be believe
lieve believe grain is the best for green food;
but how? This question can be easily
solved. Good grain as named above,
if soaked in a wash tub with very warm
water for 18 to 24 hours, and then the
water taken off and the grain left in
moist condition for five to seven days,
will soon germinate and begin to
sprout. The quantity of grain you pur
to soak will swell to four times its
bulk; that means you will have four
times as much as if fed dry, so it is a
saving for the poultryman. After 24
hours the water should be taken off
and the feed put into a shallow box
with holes in the bottom. It should be
kept moist and turned twice a day, so
ii will sprout evenly. This sprout is
the best green food for all kinds of
fowls, especially for chickens in close
confinement. It will act as the best
green food and will brighten the comb
and plumage and start them to lay
much earlier than if fed without; it
will make the eggs more fertile. The
best time to feed this is at noon.
From 2 to 4 oclock feed mixed dry
grain in the litter; that will keep them
busy and healthy. One peck of grain
like wheat, buckwheat, oats, wheat
screenings will cost 25 cents as the
price of feed is now. This will save
vou the price of one bushel or more.
A good plan is to keep always on hand
and prepare new before the other is
gone. This I consider the best and
dieapest food, as well as green food
for winter, when others cannot be had.
Runt?, in the Flock.
As the chicks develop, now and then
in a brood will be seen one or two that
do not grow like the others, lack
proper feathering or have an abnormal
development of wing. These chicks
receive the same care and attention as
the rest of the flock, yet they are ab abnormal
normal abnormal in their growth. As these
runts and imperfectly developed chicks
seem to occur more frequently among
those hatched in incubators and reared
in brooders and in early broods it
would seem to point to the fact that
owing to lack of the proper tempera temperature
ture temperature the chick received a shock while
in the shell or a setback while young
from lack of proner heat or from cold
winds or rains. Therefore, by watching
the setting hens more closely and also
seeing that the chicks are properly
cared for runts are less likely to ap appear.
Another important point is to see
that by no chance one of these runts
is allowed to reach maturity and mingle
with the rest of the fowls. Sometimes
a runt, while never attaining its right
size, will still develop later on so that
its under size is not noticeable; then,
if carelessness occurs and this fowl is
allowed to remain with the others,
there may be other runts bred from it.
The clucks which feather so slowly
as to sometimes become sunburned,
generally reach maturity and turn out
fairly well; still, it would seem best
not to make use of them as breeders.
For Droopy Poultry.
Save all the strong bacon grease, es especially
pecially especially the grease from fried bacon,
when your fowls sit around picking
themselves and looking droopy and
shabby, get a large deep can or bucket;
from its shape a large candy bucket is
best; fill it nearly full of warm water;
on this pour melted grease until it
forms a thick scum over the water;
catch your fowls, take them one by one
by their wings and with the head held
straight up, dip them down, pretty hard,
two or three times into the water; let
the head go completely under once; do
this quickly to avoid strangling the
fowl: then turn it loose.
After waiting a few hours for the
water to drip from the feathers, drive
them into the shelter, so they will not
chill. For a short time they will be a
sorry looking set of fowls.
This treatment causes the feathers to
fall apart, so the body of the fowls is
cooled; the water softens the skin; the
grease laden feathers fall out easily,
and the new ones push their way
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
through the skin and grow in masses
instead of one or two in a place; the
time of moulting is shortened; the fatty
grease kills all vermin on the fowls,
while the grease saturated feathers are
i death traps to any vermin that may get
on the fowls.
Keep bucket filled with water
and pour more grease on the water
from time to time.
The fowls should be dipped early in
the morning and made to roost under
shelter for several nights.
Hens and Incubators.
During the first few days that the
eggs are in the incubator they evapor evaporate
ate evaporate a large amount of moisture, the air
bubbles increasing in size until this ex excessive
cessive excessive moisture has been expelled.
Later on they may absorb moisture,
but for the first seven or eight days, j
if the air is too damp, this evaporation
in the egg cannot take place. The ;
amount of moisture contained in the j
outside air affects the air on the inside i
of the incubator, so the amount sup supplied
plied supplied in the incubator must be varied
Experiments in using eggs under
hens and incubators show that when
eggs were put under the hen eight
days, and then placed in an incubator,
they almost invariably all hatched, in indicating
dicating indicating that the great fault was in the
conditions the first week. The failure
of hens at times to bring off broods
may be traced to the same source, as
some hens do not realize the rise in
temperature in the nest, and remain on
the eggs when they should leave their
nest for a short while. It is very sel seldom.
dom. seldom. however, that the natural instinct
of the mother will not compel her to
do the things necessary for the welfare
of her oncoming brood. i
Pullets and 2-year-old hens are the
Too much exercise makes the meat
tough and stringy.
Keep for maturity only the best of
the whole lot of pullets.
If your chickens fly from you and
make a vigorous effort to get out ot
vonr way every time you enter the
pens, there is something wrong with
your handling of them and vou will not
get the results you would otherwise.
HACKETTS GAPE CURE!
SIMPLE. SAFE. SURE.
Dust it over the Chic Ks. The Chicks inhale the Dust.
Goes right to the Spot. Kills the Worm as well as the Germ.
I ADVERTISE IN RELIABLE FARM AND POULTRY JOURNALS SUCH AS
FARM JOURNAL, Philadelphia, Pa., RURAL NEW YORKER,
POULTRY SUCCESS and FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
That means a Square Deal I
TESTIMONIALS FROM 22 STATES.
Amoney mak er for Dealers and Agents. For 25-cent and 50 cent samples by mail
T. C. IIACKETT, Hillsboro, Md.
For Sale by E. 0. PAINTER FERTILIZER CO.
Special Poultry Supplies
E. O. Painter Fertilizer Company
JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA, March 10, 1907
BEEF SCRAP, per pound 3 1-2 cts SNUFF TOBACCO DUST (Insecti-
MEAT MEAL, per pound 3 cts cide), per 100 pounds $1.21
POULTRY BLOOD, per pound .. 3 ct. CHLORO NAPXHO LEUM. for all
COARSE CRACKED BONE, extra > A
! quality, per pound 2 1-2 cts Poultry diseases; pint, 50c; quart.
MICA GRIT (Crushed Granite), | 65c: gallon sl-60
per pound 1 ct I g PANISH pink, for lice, per pound 25 cts
, CRUSHED OYSTER SHELL, fine 1 A e T A AA
quantity, no dirt, per 100 pounds 76 cts GAS LIME ; or fleas, per 100 pounds SI.OO
All prices f. o. b. Jacksonville, Fla. Net cash. On orders amounting to over $4,
accompanied by cash, we allow 5 per cent, discount.
Send for our booklet, "How We Came to Make Fertilizers, and our new price list
of Fertilizer Materials and Insecticides. Get a Gould booklet, containing all the latest
formulae for both liquid and dry spraying.
Advertitements will be Inserted In this col column
umn column at the rate of 2 cents per word,each
THE Maitland Squab Farm, Maitland, Fla.
Breeders of Homer and Carneaux Pigeons. The
Champion Squab Breeders. Two thousand
mated pair in our lofts at all times. We make
a specialty of fat white meat squabs. Three
times as large as a quail, and for which there is
a great and increasing demand.
EGGSRose comb Brown Leghorns. Every
premium at three large western shows; large
size, standa. and color, great layers. Circular free.
Oakland Farms, Box 35, Pomona, Mo.
ROCKS, Rhode Island Reds, Leghorns, Buff
Orpingtons, Wyandottes. Hampton Poultry
Cos., Hampton. la.
WHITE Plymouth Rock cockerels and pullets.
Bargains. Write Wm. Brumme, Cooksville.
HOMER PIGEONS, fancy" J. W. Love.
FORTY varieties standard bred poultry, geese,
ducks, turkeys, chickens, guinea hens, pea peafowls
fowls peafowls and pigeons. 40 page catalog 4c. F. J.
Damann, Farmington. Minn.
LAYING HENS-Buff and White Wyandottes.
Barred Rock pullets. Elmer Goud, Quebec,
v-.: 1 j 1
WINGS WHITE MINORGAS.
Eggs that will hatch little beauties. All
full blooded stock.
S. C. White Minorcas, S. C. Rhode Island Reds,
S. C. White Plymouth Rocks. Eggs $1.50 per 15;
$6.00 per 100. Mammoth Bronze Turkey
Mggs in season.
WINGS POULTRY FARM, Webster, Fla.
For the last three years my birds
have practically won everything at
State Fair and Florida Poultry As Associations
sociations Associations shows. I have six pens
mated, all headed by prize-winners.
The two pens I exhibited in Decem December
ber December were the two highest scoring pens
in the show, all breeds included. My
cock birds are all up to nine pounds
or over. Eggs $2 per sitting. A few
cockerels for sale, no females. I also
have Duroc Jersey pigs from first
prize boar at State Fair, and sows
that have won in Florida and North Northern
ern Northern States.
Chas. F. Hiley,
Orlando, Fla., R. D. 1.
A LILY BED.
By Georgina S. Townsend.
There is not much one can do in the
dower .garden just now, but it is a
splendid time to plan on paper the
changes one wants to make when plant planting
ing planting begins. I have lilies scattered all
over the place, and have just decided
that the big center bed in the drive,
which has been given up to red gerani geraniums
ums geraniums will be just the place for certain
lilies which need resetting. The
geraniums are growing too big and
coarse so that they may be reegated
wi hout compunction to the rear, then
the bed shall be well fertilized and
spaded. Tt does not need any drain drainage,
age, drainage, as the ground slopes somewhat,
and there is never any danger anyway
of too much wet in this climate even
for lilies. The big clump of Agapan Agapanthus
thus Agapanthus which is not doing well on the
west side because the umbrella tree
has grown so huge in the last three
years that it shades it, shall have the
place of honor in the center of the bed.
Il throws out its delicate blue umbels
from the last of June through August.
It is well to know the months that
lilies bloom, and to keep a memory of
them, so that in making a lily bed one
may have a constant succession o
bloom, and also one must use discrimi discrimination
nation discrimination in the choice of colors. In
August the delicate shell pink Bellado Bellado-11a
11a Bellado-11a is in bloom, and as the Agapanthus
is blooming at the same time.' the two
colors blend exquisitely, so I shall have
a row of Belladctfia around the clump
of Agapanthus, The white Spider
Lily blooms at tins time also, but as it
is a lower growing lily than the
Crinums. I shah put a row of Oinums
around the Belladonas. Some of the
Omums are pure white, and some are
white banded pink. Thev begin 1 loom looming
ing looming as soon as the rains begin, and
bloom at intervals until Tulv. After
them shall come the white Sn'der Lilies
which bloom in August. The out'He
mw shall be the roval red ArmnTis.
The huge bed will take all mv big fat
bulbs, but what a gorgeous display ihev
will make earlv in the spring for a
couple of months. The border of the
bed shall have the pink, yelow and
white Zephvr Lilies, some of whim
bloom in June, others in August, the
white especially. And for the very
earliest of blooms. I shah have a row
of crocuses for the outside hor l er.
Tint will finish the bed of mv Noi est
lilies. I have an idea chat I shall fill
in spaces with mv delicate pink and
slate-colored Gladioli, which are as
beautiful as anv of the lilies.
But this leaves me with the gorgeous
orange-colored lilies which need a
place to themselves where they will
not ouarrel with the surroundings and
f-v.pjr beautv will be at the Twst.
There is a in front of the Uooal
corner. where thev vouH be efLctLe.
T l w bacl-ground is composed ot the
fea herv g r een of the Panvnt', the
deeper green of the Umbrella plant
the white and green of the Amu do
Ponnx, and the strined white and green
of the Fulalia. while behind thm all
is the glossy green of a vonng Pepper
tree. The for a bed here is no r
very large. but vdll be snfrH 'mt I be believe.
lieve. believe. The double Tiger Likes shall
have the center, and there are enough
of the Sunerbum to make row around
them. Then *he three vnrUkes o f
Montbretia whHh Hoorn at intervals
from early spring until Seotember. and
are various shades of vellow and or orange.
ange. orange. will fill in the rest of the bed.
and for a border I will put in Frresias.
This corner wdl he a study in shades
of orange and green, and will, I am
sure, be a satisfactorv arrangement. I
have had it in my mind now for several
This leaves all of the very choicest
lilies to be considered. There is the
white Funkia. and the variegated
Funbia, and the Soeciosums and the
Au.ratums. They all need the coolest
place in the garden. Some of them
have been in the lathe house where
thev have not done verv well. Some
have teen on the east side of the house
where they have not done as well, and
some have been on the north side of
the house where they have done better,
so that I think the cool north side of
the house will be the best place I can
give them, and this bed shall be pre prepared
pared prepared with good drainage and fertilizer,
and the lilies put in there along with
the ferns which love this cool situation.
When this is all accomplished which
will take some time to do, as 1 do not
trust, the transplanting to other hands
than my own, my lily beds will be in
shape for another three years, and in
satisfactory shape at that, I am certain.
The big Calla bed on the north side
of the summer house has done so well
that it needs no resetting.
The Nasturtium is one of the best of
annuals, both for bedding and for cut
flowers. For bedding the fohage and
flowers are attractive, and if the latter
are cut regularly, both foliage and
flowers are seen at all times. If al allowed
lowed allowed to go to seed they do not bloom
well. It is best to cut the flowers
every evening, and if beds are large
this is cuke a big task, but it keeps the
beds gay all the season.
This, unlike most plants, flowers best
in rather poor soil. When the soil is
very rFh there will be more leaves
Do not be stingy with the seeds, bu 1
plant where there is a place for them;
have them in large beds, but do not
plant in the shade.
It is a good idea to plant a numbe 1
of seeds in the vegetable garden for
cut flowers. There is nothing prettier
than a large bowl of the Nasturtiums;
then, they are such a cheerful flower.
It is best to plant them in beds on
the level with the surrounding sunace,
as the raised beds dry out so quickly,
and I fund best, unless one Pas some
special provision for watering them, to
fnve them where so much moisture
will not be required.
Asparagus or Lace Fern.
This is the name often given to As Asparagus
paragus Asparagus nlumosus. When the plants
seem inclined to make one long vine
rather than a. bushy growth, nip out
the centre when the shoots attain t'ie
height of a foot or eighteen inches
Sprouts will then appear from the
on the nodes of the stem. If h
plant fails to grow satisfactorilv shift
it into a larger pot. and add porous
f k r os kmn for the new roo's to oene oenetrate.
trate. oenetrate. The great beautv of this ex exemjsite
emjsite exemjsite foliage plant warrants ah tin
nnre that ran be bestowed upon t. L
is reallv one of the most eharmiug o c
fob'ap-e house plants, and should be one
of the first ehosen. Tt has no enemies;
ks culture is sunnle, and its nronaga nronagation
tion nronagation is rcadilv affected bv seeds, vhHb
come up with ccrtaintv after thev have
keen in the ground for from three to
Grafted Roser. in Florida.
T plant stoW nettings of the Manetti
Rose. whHh will all g r ow if Hie soil is
kept wet. These I bud as soon as larg'
enoncrh, with buds of fine and
mimh sooner than if grown from rut
turns. I have a fine rose bush witn
native roots, which will stand the ex extremes
tremes extremes of wet and drouth, to which
we are subieot in this tropical cimate
T have had much greater success with
this plan, than trving to grow North
ern Roses 011 their own roots. Mrs
G. W. Avery in Parks Floral Maga Magazine.
7'he Chinese Hydrangea when well
grown is elegant as a specimen, and
makes a fine show in a tub on the lawn
Ir thrives either in sun or partial shade,
and likes an abundance of water while
growing and blooming. If you want
pink flowers apply once a week mocer moceratelv
atelv moceratelv strong manure-water. If you pre prefer
fer prefer blue flowers strictly avoid manure manurewater
water manurewater and use instead applications of
alum-water, and stir some iron filings
into the soil. Remove any suckers that
appear "bile the clusters are develop developing.
ing. developing. After the flowers become shabby
cut (he stem close to the ground, and
new shoots will soon spring up. Win
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
ter in a frost-proof place, watering
sparingly. In spring cut the shoots
back to an eye, and the growth will be
shorter and develop much larger
clusters of flowers.
A Remarkable Pecan Tree.
A pecan grove is generally con considered
sidered considered as being a probably profitable
investment, but we do not think that
the possibilities of pecan trees are well
understood- The following, from the
American Nut Journal, will give one
instance of the remarkable product productiveness
iveness productiveness of these trees in favorable
While it is never safe to draw gen general
eral general conclusions from a single tree
or a single specimen, yet an individ individual
ual individual pecan or any other fruit or nut
tree of remarkable productivity is al always
ways always interesting.
We generally associate heavy pe pecan
can pecan crops from individual trees with
the alluvial bottom lands of Texas
or Louisiana or somewhere else in
the lower South. But we have in
mind a pecan tree in Raleigh, N. C.,
growing on the Piedmont clay with
perhaps a little sand mixed with it-
At any rate the land is very different
from river bottom land, and in fact
is in general very much like the soil
on wh ; ch a large number of pecan
orchards have been planted west of
the Mississippi River.
The tree in question stands on the
mopertv of of Cant- B. P. William Williamson.
son. Williamson. treasurer of Wake county, Ra Raleigh,
leigh, Raleigh, N. C., just behind his resi residence.
dence. residence. Tt was grown from a put
obtained in Texas and planted by tbe
late Tames F- Taylor- The tree is
nrobably thirty-five years or so old.
Tt commenced to bear when twelve
vpprs old from the seed and has not
Tailed to produce a crop every year
cinre. Tn the fn l l of TOO3. when the
editor pbo f ographed the tree, the c~od
was a little over 300 pounds. Tlr's
season the crop will go about 400
nonnds. Tll re o to the pr l ce ob obt-q-norl.
t-q-norl. obt-q-norl. Cant- Williamson writes:
We sell all we cui snare at twen twenty-five
ty-five twenty-five rents per pound- 400 pounds
t cent will bring Stop, or to p p r
cent, on st.ooo, or 3 per cent, on
S2 coo. Tt is interesting to note how
a business man regards his pecan
The nuts are small in size, ovate,
ntid of vr' T fine cmalitv. and tin
is a well-developed and exceedingy
handsome specimen- There are a
number of ve r v fine pecan trees in
City of Oa I 's, but Ads H the
Lrgect. \ pecan tree like this is
Vegetables at Hastings.
Mr. C. A. Dupont, one of Hast Hastings
ings Hastings most progressive and prosperous
farmers, was in the city during the
neck and gave a glowing description
of the truck outlook in the great spud
nroduring section of St. Johns county.
Mr. Dunont stated that a New York
r ommiscion man asserted that the
r mesl lettuce received in the market of
die Morons metropolis is being grown
m Hastings, and that he is confident,
from the present outlook, that the
"milHon-er and celery will rank with
f he finest grown. Mr. Dupont further
stated that the fall crop of Irish po potatoes.
tatoes. potatoes. at Hastings, was fine, and be
was particularly elated over the fine
appearance of the strawberry patches.
St. Augustine Meteor.
Now is a Good Time to Spray
The only guaranteed insecticide on the market.
Kills the White Fly in all its stages, removes sooty
mold, cleans the trees of all scale insects and mites, and
does not injure fruit tree or foliage. Mixes readily in
water and is safe, effective and cheap.
DirectionsUse one gallon insecticide to thirty-nine gallons water.
Price 50 cents per gallon; less than barrel lots, cans extra.
J. SCHNARR & CO., Manufacturers, Orlando, Fla.
Pure Stock Best Varieties
TOMATO, EGG PLANT
Burrells Gem and Rockyford Musk
All kinds of Field and Garden Seeds
WRITE FOR PRICES
L. CAMERON, Jacksonville, Fla.
is one of our specialties, our prices are
right and our seeds are the best, they
ire all grown from the very best stocks,
not saved from catsup and canning
factories as many offered seed are.
We can supply you with the best seed
of any kind. Catalogue Free.
THE EVANS SEED CO.
FOR SAI.E Twelve acres of good hammock
land with a six room cottage all furnished.
Good barn, hog proof fence, with orange
and grapefruit trees. In I.ake county In
fine grazing country. All in good condi condition
tion condition for SSOO. Address H Florida Agricul Agricult
t Agricult nri st
PI irl JClslr Forfresh-
Pl ness,purity and reli relim
m relim r ability, Ferry sSeeds
<3 | are in a class by them them
them selves. Farmers
r in them because
vilEbCwifiioHr Ferrys Seed Annua
'imp for I Address
D M.FERRr&Co..DETROiT : Micii.
If you want eggs during the win winter,
ter, winter, you must feed Animal Foods,
to take the place of the insects,
worms, etc., which poultry get in
summer. OYSTER SHELLS and
GRIT are also prime necessities..
Write for Prices and Catalogue tell telling
ing telling what to use for Success and Profit
T.W Wood & Sons, Seedsmen,
We carry complete stocks of Cyphers
Incubators and Brooders, Poultry
Foods, Egg Producers. Lice and
Insect Powders, Poultry
Helpful Catalogue mailed free.
We would like to receive, for publication in this department, any good Recipe
or item of general interest to Farmers* Wives.
Look Your Best
One of the great secrets of looking
ones best is to understand ones own
individuality. This can be cultivated in
many ways, the mere wearing of appro appropriate
priate appropriate and suggestive garments is only
one out of a multitude; but I cannot
avoid emphasizing the question of rai raiment
ment raiment now and again, because we are so
powerfully affected by our clothing.
Every woman knows and, I think, I
might say every man too how much of
their sedateness, aloofness, dignity and
self-respect is put away on Sunday
night with their best clothes, and how
Monday mornings work-a-day attire
seems to bring with it a fresh attitude
of mind. Clothes exercise a powerful
and stimulating effect upon the imagi imagination;
nation; imagination; we are such highly complex
creatures, compounded of so infinite a
number of moods and tenses, yet able
to be dominated by the style and cut
of a coat.
Because of this effect of clothing up upon
on upon temperature it is most important for
those who are desirous of looking their
best to carefully determine what par particular
ticular particular traits in their they
wish to cultivate and which they would
Having settled what outward sem semblance
blance semblance your personality is to wear, that
is to say, whether you will be a slightly
frivolous person, a sedate and soullul
person, a learned blue-stocking person,
or merely an ultra-fashionable person,
you plan your clothing accordingly.
Rest a Minute.
The wise woman will not fail to take a
few minutes for rest several times dur during
ing during even the busiest and most taxing
day. Indeed, it is on just such days
that she most needs to practice the
sweet and beneficent gospel of relax relaxation.
ation. relaxation. To relaxto let go the nerve,
brain and muscle strain for even sixty
seconds is a positive gain to the whole
system. Complete relaxation and thor thorough
ough thorough rest is most easily by ly lying
ing lying down and unreservedly yielding
the support of the body to the couch.
Thus to spend five or ten minutes in
the middle of each day would enable
many a worn and weary house-worker
to accomplish more with less fatigue
than is otherwise possible. The fore foregoing
going foregoing suggestion is so remote from
what many an industrious woman con considers
siders considers her duty to her family, as to
seem to her like theoretical nonsense.
Nevertheless it is body-and-brain-sav body-and-brain-saving,
ing, body-and-brain-saving, good common sense. Duty to
oneself should lead a woman to take
measures to save health and strength
while there is still a fund to draw upon.
For those who would feel that to he
down in the daytime when they were
not sick, would be to brand themselves
as shiftless, a few simple one-minute
exercises for relieving the strain of
routine work are given.
How to Instruct Children.
Teach the very little ones to always
sav Please and Thank you; also
Good nightand Good morning.
These are the first lessons in courtesy
at home. Every infant is born with a
conscience, with an instinct for God
and a desire for good. We must begin
early and strive to catch hold of that
wonderful religious instinct which is
ir. every heart. If you wish to get a
child to do its best, encourage rather
than discourage him. Discouragement
acts like a wet blanket and puts out
the fire of ambition most effectually in
the childish nature. Children ought to
be trained to be self-helpful, to know
how to do for themselves. It is a mis mistake
take mistake to think that they must be watch watched
ed watched every moment and have a nurse
stand over them from morning to
night. A healthy child is the better
for being alone a portion of each day.
Fitting Shoes for Comfort.
People would find less difficulty with
ready made shoes, says an experienced
salesman, if they would stand up to
fit them on ..instead 0f... sitting down.
Nine persons out of te'n, particularly
women, want a comfortable chair
while they are fitting a shoe, and it is
with the greatest difficulty that you
can get them to stand for a few min minutes,
utes, minutes, even when the shoe is fitted.
Then when they begin walking about
they wonder why the shoes are not
so comfortable as they were at the
first trial. A womans foot is con considerably
siderably considerably smaller when she sits in a
chair than when she works about.
To Clean Matting
To clean matting, sweep it twice
first with a stiff broom, working along
the grain of the straw, then cross-wise
with a soft broom dipped In warm wa water,
ter, water, and shaken very dry. Dissolve a
handful of salt in a big pail of tepid
water, and wash the matting quickly
with it, rinsing with clean water. This
brightens all sorts of colored matting,
and also saves it in a measure from
Very light matting is best washed
after sweeping, with weak borax-wa borax-water,
ter, borax-water, or, rather, with cloths wrung out
of it. Anything whatever slopped upon
a matted floor makes the last estate of
it much worse than the first. Dust in invariably
variably invariably collects underneath, and, once
wet, shows through in ugly dark
splotches. Cover grease spots thickly
with prepared chalk wet with turpen turpentine,
tine, turpentine, let the mixture remain for two
days, then brush off with a stiff
brush. If the spot is very big and
very greasy, put one-eighth as much
washing-soda as chalk, and mix with
water to the thickness of putty.
Little-used matting, as in spare
chambers, or upper summer rooms,
should be swept very clean, then
wiped with a cloth wrung out of sweet
milk. Do this once a year; it keeps
the straw live, and to a degree pliant.
If the milk-wash is used in a living livingroom,
room, livingroom, or on a piazza, follow it by a
wiping with very hot clear water, to
keep the floor from drawing flies.
Rusty Nail Wound Remedy.
Every little while we read in the
papers that someone ran a rusty nail in
his foot or other portion of his body
and lockjaw resulted therefrom and
the patient died. If every person was
aware of a perfect remedy for such
wounds and would apply it, then such
reports would cease. The remedy if
simple, always at hand, can be applied
by anyone what is better, it is infal infallible.
lible. infallible. It is simply to smoke the wound
or any wound that is bruised or inflam inflammed,
med, inflammed, with a woolen cloth. Twen Twenty
ty Twenty minutes in the smoke will take the
pain out of the worst case of inflamma inflammation
tion inflammation arising from such a wound. Peo People
ple People may sneer at this remedy as much
as they please, but when they are af afflicted
flicted afflicted with such wounds let them try it.
To Save Clippings.
A dozen large manila envelopes,
bound together along the lower edge
and provided with a cord to tie tliem
together, makes the best sort of a re receptacle
ceptacle receptacle for the preservation of clip clippings.
pings. clippings. An outside cover of paste pasteboard
board pasteboard neatly covered with linen or
plain colored cotton cloth makes the
book more attractive, and if each en envelope
velope envelope is labeled it is more convenient.
The labels may be Poetry. Art, Person Personal,
al, Personal, Travels. Book-notes, Receipts. Mis Miscellaneous,
cellaneous, Miscellaneous, etc.,
Pineapple Pie. One quart shredded
pineapple, one cup sugar, being careffil
not to get too sweet, one teaspoonful
butter, flour enough to thicken, beaten
volks of three eggs. Cook this filbng
before baking. Bake in one crust.
Use whites of eggs as a meringue. To
shred pineapple, cut it lengthwise with without
out without peeling, take out the core, take an
iron spoon that has a sharp edge, and
scrape toward the center from both
Preserves. Peel, quarter and take
out core, cut fine as one likes. Put in
agate vessel, never cook nor put pine pineapple
apple pineapple in tin or iron vessel. Add one
pound nineapple to one-half pound su sugar.
gar. sugar. Do not cook too long as it be be.
. be. comes too .sw.eet.
Shortcake.Use any shortcake reci recipe
pe recipe and. when the cake is warm, sep'ar-
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
rate and blitter. Put sweetened shred shredded
ded shredded pineapple on top and between and
serve at once.
Fried Pineapple.Peel and pick out
eyes from pines, then slice crosswise
and fry same as sweet potatoes. When
brown, put on platter and sweeten to
suit taste. Do not use ripe pines, only
half ripe and not very juicy.Punta
To Bake a Ham.
If it is an old ham it will be improved
by soaking for 24 hours, changing the
water once. Then scrape and wash and
put it into a roasting pan with the skin
side downward. Pour over it a pint ot
vinegar or cider, a tablespoon of mus mustard
tard mustard and one of mixed spices. Bake
until it is tender and then take off the
skin. Cover with grated crumbs and
sprinkle with brown sugar. Bake an
To Know When Fat is Hot Enough.
For deep frying put in a thin slice of
bread, and if it browns while you can
count sixty the fat is hot enough for
raw materials. If it browns while you
count forty it is right for food pre prepared
pared prepared from cooked fish or meat, such
as croquettes. Use plenty of fat and
always strain it carefully before putting
away for future use.
Make Your Purchases at....
We carry Womens and Childrens ready made garments exclusively.
You can save 25 to 50 per cent, on your purchases by trading with us. We
always have the latest styles in Coats, Suits, Furs, Waists. Skirts and fine
Millinery, and show a complete stock at all times.
We solicit your patronage.
Mail Orders T" 1 TT tT Correspondence
Promptly Filled Ail il
Frank E. Wood Company
Millinery, Clothing, Hats and Shoes.
I Retail Dry Goods, Wholesale Dry Goods
; 323=325 West Bay St. 324=326 West J-orsyih St.
\ JACKSONVILLE, FLA.
Our Plan will save you M.oney. We employ no Canvassers.
Weaver, Haines Bros.
Miller, Weaver, Needham
New Home, White
And many other makes and styles of
PIANOS, ORGANS AND SEWING MACHINES
At Cot Prices and on Terms to Suit Purchasers.
FRANK O. MILLER, 419 W. Bay, Jacksonville, Fla.
T t-v "C OAT F\ SEWING MA chines
J. E> VICIvALyU, PIANOS and ORGANS
204 ZACK STREET, TAMP A,FLORIDA
Cut Prices. Easy Payments. Write for Prices. Mention This
The daintiest hat pin holder imag imaginable
inable imaginable can be made from a bottle, a
yard of pink satin ribbon and a
ladies embroidered edge handker handkerchief.
chief. handkerchief. Use a small round bottle not
over five inches high and an incu in
diameter; set it in the exact center
of the handkerchief, gather the edges
up about the neck, which with the
corners form a deep flower-like
flounce, and tie just below the mouth
with a bow of the ribbon,. attaching
the remainder, one end at either side,
for the loop with which to hang it.
Hung by a dresser the bottle is. most
convenient to drop hat pins t in as
removed and select from when want wanted
ed. wanted Maine Farmer.
To Peel Oranges Easily.
If you will pour scalding water over
oranges and let them stand five min minutes
utes minutes you will save time in peeling them.
The thick white inner skin, usually so
hard to get off, will adhere to the peel
and come off with it, leaving the fruit
beautifully clean and ready to slice.
V/. D. JONES,
PRESCRIPTION SPECIALIST and
TO7 East Bay Street,
JACKSONVILLE, : : FLORIDA
BY-PRODUCTS WITH THE BARK ON.
It was the first fried chicken I had
eaten since I had left home, three
years before; and I passed my plate to
Mother for another half. My Father
pushed his plate away from him. Ye
beat me! he said. If thats a Boston
appetite I aint wonderin that produce
fetches sech prices as you say it does.
Whats this bout yer not goin back?
Aint lost yer job, hev ye?
Not much! I replied. But the
jobs going to lose me. Im figuring
on going into business here.
Both the old folks looked at me in
surprise, and I went on: If you
slice up a carrot diagonallyon the
bias, you know, Mother, you get oval
slices, dont you?
What ye meanderin about now?
Ive got a contract to deliver a
hundred thousand of such slices, in
Boston; only, instead of being cut out
of carrots, theyre to be cut out of
oak boughs, or beech or birch.
Fer the lands sake! exclaimed
In the shop where Ive been work working,
ing, working, I continued, we used to get out
a lot of woodwork for Dietz & Sib Sibley.
ley. Sibley. They made fancy articles, toys,
picture frames, and such like. Now,
theyre using these oval sections for
inkstands and match-safes and photo photograph
graph photograph frames. They are cut a half halfinch
inch halfinch thick, and anywhere from three
to six inches wide. The baric is left
on and they smooth them up and pol polish
ish polish them, and then fit them up for
anything they want.
Whatll them city folks git at next!
exclaimed Dad, with a chuckle. Cut Cuttin
tin Cuttin up slivers of cord-wood ter hang
in their parlors! Dye spose ye kin
git a price for sections of them old
hoss-blankets, Henry? Mebbe ye kin
turn them old ox-bows into merchant merchantable
able merchantable product! Mrs. Huckins sold lier
old spinnin-wheel fer fifteen dollars.
Pears as if ox-bows oughter fetch as
Ill pull in more than fifteen dob
lars on this job, Dad! I can get $4.50
a thousand for these sections; that
makes $450 for the lot.
He looked at me dubiously. The
whole matter seemed a little beyond
his comprehension. Howre ye goin
ter git em out? he asked. That
old buck-saw aint in very good shape,
an, moreover an likewise, I remem remember
ber remember ye didnt take kindly to buck-saws
afore ye went away.
We learn how to do things easier,
in the city, Dad. Ill rig up a gasoline
engine and a circular saw.
Meanin one of them puffy things
that runs them autos?
Yes, one of that kind. I can get
one thats been used in a boat, six
horse. Its a good one, too, but the
fellow wants to put in a bigger one.
I get this for about half price.
Six horse, eh? Spose ye kin rig
it on to the axle of that big wagon?
Ole Blazeface is gettin purty stiff!
Guess hed be glad ter have six horse
power back of him, over these pesky
hills. Seems as if t would be a purty
easy matter to rig. Ye wouldnt need
no steerin gear. Jest hitch Blazeface
in an let him do the steerin while the
engine does the work? Well, Ill go
an lock up.
Henry, my dear, said Mother,
when Dad had gone. What does it
all mean? We want you back, my
boyits been pretty lonely; but youll
be throwing your life away! This is
fio place for a young man, drudging
away among these stones and rocks,
barely making a living, never getting
a dollar ahead. Oh, my boy! I cant
bear to think of it. Theres no pros prospect
pect prospect here; no soil to raise stuff, no
prices for the stuff if you do raise it.
Everything is going to ruin, Henry.
Theres no money to buy anything
But its old New Hampshire,
Mother, and I love it! Im going to
see what I can do. Theres many a
good thing can be learned in the city.
There are lectures and books for any anyone
one anyone who cares for them, and the big biggest
gest biggest thing Ive learned is, that theres
some money to be made almost any anywhere,
where, anywhere, even in these rocky hills, if a
man only finds out how to go about
it. Im going to try it for a year, any anyhow.
I was out at daybreak, next morn morning
ing morning drinking in the glorious fresh air,
as crazy with delight as the noisy rob robins
ins robins who were in the orchard. I went
through the pasture to the shore of
the big lake. Everywhere I saw sharp sharply
ly sharply rising hills, thickly covered with
foliage, broken at infrequent intervals
by rocky pasture, or perhaps a plowed
field, whose rugged stone walls bore
grievous testimony to the toil which
had preceded the plow. I knew every
foot of all the woodland around me.
Of heavy timber, merchantable timber,
there was none. It had long since
been cut off. What I saw was second
growth, small oak and birches, with
here and there a grove of spruce or
pine, which might be worth some something
thing something in another twenty or thirty years.
I came back to the house and noted
the dilapidated barns and sheds. Well,
I knew how scarce dollars had always
been on the old farm two hundred
acres of rock and scrub, with scarcely
a dozen acres which could be plowed
with comfort. My father came across
the yard, and I could not help com comparing
paring comparing his stooping shoulders and
heavy footsteps with those of Mr.
Ressler, my city boss. Ressler was
older than Dad, but he was straight,
active and alert; and it came to my
mind that it was success, the right j
kind of success, which made the ciif- i
ference in the men.
Dad! I said, as I came up to him.
I've got to go back to Boston in a
few days and stay with Ressler two
weeks longer. Then ill be back here. :
Do you suppose that you can sort out |
the boughs and tops from that pile of I
He laughed. I calclate youve for- i
gotten bout there bein' sech things 1
as spring and fall, Henryseedtime i
an harvest! Dont hev them things i
up to Boston, I guess. Ive got ter
haul out that dressin, an git ter plow- j
in, at once.
How much are you going to turn
That ten acre lot, same as usual,
And is that all the dressing you
have for it, Dad?
Yes. Aint no use tryin ter keep i
any stock out here, even if I had
feed. Cant haul milk twelve miles
down ter the village over these roads.
Cant sell nothin!
Dad, how much cash did you take
in last year, all told?
Bout $80; calclated ter hev hauled
down that twenty cord of wood, but
they aint been no good sleddin, this
winter. Taint hardly worth haulin,
nohow. Only fetches $2.25 down ter
Lapsfields. Thank God! I aint got
no debts; managed ter keep clear of
Im glad you didnt haul the wood,
I said. Its dry and we can do better
with it here. Now, Dad, Ive a busi business
ness business proposition to make to you. Ill
buy this years crop, and pay you SBO
now for it. Ive saved a little over
$300; but Ill want you to run things
the way I say, for this year.
Meanin thet you want ter boss the
No, I dont mean it just that way,
but I want you to help me. You are
not making anything at farming. Lets
see what we can do at manufacturing.
Thats all right, my boy! lid jest
as lief ye should hold the lines awhile.
Well, thats settled, Dad. Now sup suppose
pose suppose you put all that dressing on one
acre and work that. It will give 11s
all the garden truck we want for our ourselves.
Big farmin! he said, with a chuc chuckle.
kle. chuckle. One acre, one ole hoss, one ole
cow, an one ole man!
Its plenty! I said. If you get
the land ready before Im back, dont
plant anything. Ill bring some seeds
Its a big contract, Henry! Guess
by strivin an wrastlin, an workin
overtime, I kin git thet one acre turn turned
ed turned over in time. Shd think yed be
ashamed ter work yer ole Dad to
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
kinds can be made a
source of big and sure returns
to the grower who will take the
* trouble to look into the vital
YSL-SSSfesubject of scientific fertilizing
and va ] ue 0 f
which insures full-sized, highly-colored and finely finelyflavored
flavored finelyflavored fruit.
Send for valuable book, free. Prepared by experts. Should
be in the library of every farmer and planter for ready reference.
Send for it to-day. Address
GERMAN KALI WORKS
New York93 Nassau Street ChicagoMonadnock Building
Atlanta, Ga.1224 Candler Building
PinA7\ THE LG WILSON FRI)IT AND VEGETABLE CANNER CANNERf
f CANNERf 1 JYV/7 Patented April 25, 1899.
Saves time, fuel and labor. Needs neither cook stove or
-HZmi furnace. Can be used within doors or out under trees. A
% P| postal card will bring you circular and price-list. Address
jgj THE WILSON CANNER COMPANY,
Cecil ran, Ga.
As to soil, climate and productions
in the nations garden spot along the
line of the Atlantic Coast Line Rail Railroad
road Railroad in Virginia, North and South
Carolina, Georgia, Alabama and Flor Florida,
ida, Florida, write to
Agricultural and Immigration Agent,
death, that way! One acre! and he
Three weeks later I was back on
the farm, with a gasoline engine and a
couple of boxes containing a good as assortment
sortment assortment of tools, and some pieces of
machinery which I had picked up
second hand. Dad looked the engine
over with the greatest interest.
Got a propeller there, aint yer,
Henry? Spose when we rig up thet
farm wagon, we kin run thet propeller
out front, an waft the flies offen old
It went with the engine, Dad. I
thought I might as well bring it along.
Here, Mother! take care of this; its a
setting of Brahma eggs, good stock.
"Oh, Henry! Just what Ive wanted
so much! No one around here has
anything but common barnyard fowls.
Dad had his jokes ready tor the
seeds I brought! Th prolific, long,
green-podded, solid, tender, patent bush bushbean
bean bushbean First in spring, first in fall, first
in th stummicks of its countrymen,
But he did not scoff at the little en engine.
gine. engine. His interest in that was hearty,
and he sturdily helped me to clear oui
the old carriage shed and set up my
work-bench, and bolt the motor on to
TARGET BRAND WHITE FLV DESTROYER
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Whale-Oil Soap and other Insecticides For b s y ale
E. 0. PAINTER FERTILIZER CO., Jacksonville, Fla.
a solid bed-plate. Its merry spit-spit,
was delight to him. It seemed to bring
a dash and energy into the atmosphere
of this sleepy old farm, and put new
life into everyone. The first jobT did
with it was to saw up a cord of wood
into stove lengths. I saw Dad sneak
round back of the barn with the old
buck-saw and vindictively pitch it out
into the pasture. Then he came back
and chuckled, while the pile of wood
grew larger. His heart was won com completely.
Calc'late itll cost ye about all yell
git outen these sections, ter pay the
freight, he remarked, as he was sort sorting
ing sorting out the little disks which I was
Ill ship them all together, I re replied.
plied. replied. Therell be enough to make
a big carload. Itll only cost twenty twentysix
six twentysix dollars to Boston.
Howre ye goin ter git them ter
Lapsfield? Theyll make about fifteen
load or more fer old Blazeface, I cal calclate.
Ive been thinking of that, Dad.
Its the biggest proposition of all.
Cant haul moren a ton over these
pesky hills, an cant make a round
trip in a day. Yell hev to take two
days an pay hotel board, Henry/ 1
Come over here. Dad. Now, how
long do you think it would take to
disconnect that engine from the bed bedplate?
Bout an hour, I judge.
Less than that! Now, as soon as
we are through cutting this stuff, I'm
going to build a big dory, and set that
engine in it. I've got the propeller
and fittings. We won't use tin Blaze Blazeface
face Blazeface in any such work. Well take
this stuff over by water. Its only
The pile of sections grew rapidly.
I cant imagine, said Mother, who
often came out to the noisy shop,
what they will do with them all!
Citv people are crazy about wood woodsy
sy woodsy things, I replied. They are us using
ing using these sections now, as stands in
store windows. They set shoes on
them, and lots of little things like that.
You see, when a metal foot is nut un under
der under them, and they are polished up.
they make good looking stands. 1
handed her one of the sections which
I had polished, and in which I had cut
an opening for a photographthe
rough, old bark being left in its natural
Theres a big sale for such things
just now, I said, and for lots of
other contrivances which we can make
here. Dietz & Sibley told me that, if
any man would put up neat little boxes
containing a lot of birch sticks with the
bark on. and notched at the ends, so as
to build tin into tov log-houses and
fences, and so on. they could sel any
quantity. Im going to look into that
as soon as this job is off. There s
plentv of small spruce that will do
the boxes and theres b'rch enough
around here to make millions of toy
Cant yer do suthin with the rocks,
too, Henry? inquired Father. How and
a few carloads of old New Hamwslrre
bowlders go, tied roun with ribbons,
or strung into necklaces? I hear they
use bugs from Florida fer ncckla eu
whats the matter with usin rocks from
Dont know abo ll t that! I laughed,
but theres birch bnr u enough here
to nab thousands and thousands of
picture-frames, and they rind good
It was midsummer when the dory
was finished. She was twenty-two
feet long and five feet beam, and, al although
though although drawing but little water, would
carry three tons safely. I hustled
along the freightage of the sections to
Lapsfield. I felt anxious to get this
first operation cleaned up, and have
something tangible to show against the
doubting sarcasms and jibes of the
neighbors. They had no confidence in
new things like this, and when that car
was switched on to the main track, 1
saw on it, in big chalk letters, Row Rowleys
leys Rowleys Folly.
I followed it to Boston a week or
two afterwards, and when I returned
I joyfully threw down a roll of bills.
Four hundred and twenty, after pay paying
ing paying the freight! I exclaimed. Flows
that for Rowleys Folly?
Dad looked at the bills with a doubt doubtful,
ful, doubtful, puzzled air. This conclusive proof
that a few cords of poor firewood had
been transformed into as much solid
w r ealth as the entire proceeds of his
chopping and hoeing for the previous
five years, confused him. lie
leaned over, and said, earnestly:
Say, Henry! Did ye buy any more
Not this trip, Dad. Ive got some something
thing something else to do first. Wait a min minute.
ute. minute. I went out to the work-shop
and brought back a big chip of gnarled
and twisted oak. One side of it I had
dressed and polished. Father gazed at
it curiously, giving a little grunt of
admiration. The exquisite windings
and twistings of the knurly grain were
shown up in all their beauty of mark marking
ing marking and color.
I took a slab like that to Boson
with me, I said, and showed it to
Hamilton & Bent. They make veneers,
and they say that they can use a let
of that stuff if it holds markings as
good as that.
Whered ye git it, Henry?
Down among those old oaks on
the point. Theres a lot of big knurls
and crotches that, I think, will pan
out as good as this.
Sho! Dont see how they ken ever
saw through sech stuff.
They dont saw it; they cut it.
The big knurls are put into a box,
closed up tight, and steam forced into
every cell and fibre. Then they are
bolted on to a heavy machine and
sliced up with a great knife. They cut
it as thin as paper. But Ive got to
take chances on it. Mr. Bent says they
can't put a value on it until they see
how it cuts up. But Im going to ship
them a carload as soon as I can get it
out. Therell be something in it, sure.
Pent says theyve paid as high as three
hundred dollars for one big mahogany
1 rmrl; and oak is in big demand now.
Late in the fall, I got off a carload
of these rough oak chunks. It was no
easy work. The tree had to be felled
and the crotch or knurl, sawed out oi
it and trimmed up. I told my father
that T intended to go to Boston and
see how it cut up. He chewed a straw
for some moments, and then said,
Takes a heap of money, Henry.
Seven dollars to Boston, board whilst
yer there, an seven dollars ter git
Its all education, Dad! I replied,
1 riont know anything about those
conches, nor about veneers. If Im
there when theyre sliced up, I'll know
what to select in the future, supposing
they want any more. Here's what
Pent says about it, and I handed him
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
You kin tell me bout it, Henry.
Them city fellers write so as I could couldn't
n't couldn't tell whether theyre wantin ter
buy oak knots, er sell anew breed of
hogs warranted to grow fat or lean
by alternate feedin.
Bent says that theyll let me know
when the stuffs unloaded, and if Im
there I can see it put through the ma machines.
chines. machines. He says that he thinks I ought
to do so.
Weil, you know best, Flenry. Any Anythin
thin Anythin else?
Yes! I w r ant to take Mother up
Coin' ter sell her fer a souvenir,
er somethin? Better take old Blaze Blazeface,
face, Blazeface, too. Old Blazeface orter make
a unique sorter hat-rack fer some fel fellers
lers fellers big hall. What with yer gasoline
engine, an yer gasoline ferry-boat,
ther aint nuthin much left for him
I want Mother to spend SSO on
herself, for once. Dad; and I want her
to spend it in Boston.
I aint savin nuthin, Henry. Go
011 with yer riotous livin. Convey yer
old Mother into the realms 01 gayety
an' the frivolities of fashion, ef yer
When Mother and I returned, two
weeks later, he walked around, sur surveying
veying surveying her critically. Yer like the
rest of them by-products triet Henrys
handlin'. Ye go ter Boston with the
bark on, an they put a polish on ye, j
said he. But I could see tnat ne was
I've something that will interest you
more,. Dad!" I said hurriedly, as I
noted my dear old Mothers pretty
confusion. Three hundred and forty
dollars for that car of oak knots!
I'll give up, boy! Ill swear by the
by-products, after this!
There are some nice new little
machines coming out, Dad, and shin shingles
gles shingles for the house, and paint.
Seven hundred and sixty odd dol dollars
lars dollars fer six months work, an all out
er nuthin! said he wonderingly.
I don't know about that, Father.
The crop's been planted for a good
many years, but I guess we didnt
know just how to harvest it.George
Carling in American Agriculturist.
MACY WAGON CO., - Orlando, Fla.
The Geo. H. Fernald Hardware Cos.
Headquarters for farm- and garden tools. Acme harrows, Planet Jr.
tools, Woods mowing machines and rakes. Irrigation a specialty. Fair Fairbanks
banks Fairbanks & Morse gasolene engines. Pumps, boilers, pipe-fitting, plumbing,
steam and gas fitting. Write for circulars and prices.
Don't appear anxious, however great
Dont he unmindful of yourself if you
are in the responsible position of nurse,
j To do faithful work you must have pro proper
per proper food and stated hours of rest.
Dont forget that kindness and ten tenderness
derness tenderness are needful to successful nurs nursing.
ing. nursing. 'Human nature longs to be sooth-
j ed and comforted on all occasions when
: it is out of tune.
Dont permit currents of air to blow
upon the patient. An open fireplace is
;an excellent means of ventilation. The
current may be tested by burning a
piece of paper in front.
Beef-tea will not prove so monoton monoton!
! monoton! ous a diet to an invalid if a different
I flavoring is used each day, such as
! clove, bay leaf or celery.
THE mi lifiyiiEHT
OR PASH KILLER FOR THE HUMAN BODY
IT HAS MO EQUAL I
Eis penetrat-1 I I
* wf iu^.soothing ami I I Perfectly Safe
healing, a.id lor alloldj Â§ 2nd
Sill*. Soios, Bruises,oil i M
SiSS Wounds, Felons .js Remedy j
n 8 Corns and j Â§ for
q joIuST^VuLSAMha B s| 8 S ** e Thr a
r SLT jj chest Cold
*1 j -j fj Dackache j j
1 we wcrCt! say to ci dlf Neuralgia iif
j who bdy i* that it den: a B _.
xa liat contain a pariic.'r | u bprains
| )iioisonans substance! H
1 3nd therefore no harm I j
s lean result from its ex- Lymbag
[ij llernal use. Persistent,3
lsj 1 thorough use will cure j t-yjphthei'ia H
PI 6 massy e'd or chronic i |
S | aihusnis and it can be Lungs |S
Sused on any enss that Rheuntatism
an outwaref j
!|a P plica tic a with ~
2 pus feet safety. 3*! Stiaf Joints
REMOVES TSIE SDRENESS-STuESGTSIEIJS MJSCLES I
Cornhill, Tex."One Bottle Cnustic Balsam did I
mv rheumatism more good than, si JO.OO paid in 1
doctors bills." OTTO A. BEYKR.
Pi ice S I .50 per Bottle. Sold by druggists, or sent I
by us express prepaid. Write for Booklet R.
certain species of fungus played the
parts of Dr. Jekyl and Mr. Hyde, and
what before had been considered two
or three totally different species on
different host plants, were found to
be two or more stages of the same
fungus. This was first worked out for
the wheat rust. Farmers had noticed
for many years that the wheat rust was
much worse in the vicinity of barberry
hedges than where these were absent.
Before any reason was known for this
phenomenon, laws were passed forbid forbidding
ding forbidding the planting of barberry hedges.
It remained for the man with the
microscope to demonstrate that the
fungus causing the wheat rust had one
stage on the barberry, and two totally
different stages on the wheat plant.
This now led to a more intelligent un understanding
derstanding understanding as a basis for further treat treatment.
ment. treatment. Life histories of many other
fungi as strange as this one, have since
been worked out. There are no doubt
many Dr. Jekyls, among the
Pcnown disease-producing fungi, the dis discovery
covery discovery of whose Mr. Hyde will make
more easy the effective treatment of
the disease which they produce.
Early Mycologists.ln England one
of the pioneers in the systematic study
of fungi was Rev. M. J. Berkeley. He
is said to have described over six thou thousand
sand thousand species of fungi. About 1850 he
became much interested in plant path pathology
ology pathology and was probably the first to
recognize the importance of a thorough
knowledge of plant physiology as a
basis for successful treatment of plant
diseases. Another early worker was
Dr. George Engelman, of St. Louis,
Missouri, who as early as 1861 publish published
ed published a pamphlet on the diseases of
grapes, and later one on the diseases
of the oak. In 1873, Prof. T. J. Burrill,
of the University of Illinois, began a
series of papers on plant pathology, and
about the same time Dr. W. G. Farlow,
of Harvard, began a series of papers
on Diseases of Plants.
Period Following 1880.
It was not until the last period
spoken of that following 1880 that
anything like a systematic study and
treatment of plant diseases was taken
up. Up to this time only two or three
states had founded Experiment Sta- x
states had founded experiment sta stations,
tions, stations, and these had not taken up any
systematic work on plant diseases.
8 I || LJ 111 i\
"F Lvi\,tL/f l^
Midwinter International Exposition
TO BE HELD IIS
From January 15th to April 15th, 1908.
An exhibition of Products of the Soil, of the Factory, and of Liberal Arts,
heldat the Gateway of Florida, the land of sunshine and flowers, the
mecca of the tourist and of the homeseeker. Everybody invited to
meet everybody else at this marvelous exhibition during the
time of the continuance of the Midwinter Exposition.
This line of plant investigation had its
first recognition in New York state
in 1884, when J. C. Arthur was ap appointed
pointed appointed Botanist of the Experiment
Station. He at once took up work in
plant diseases, and aroused consider considerable
able considerable interest by showing that practical
results could be obtained by making
use of critical study in the laboratory.
Arthur substantiated beyond a doubt
the findings of Professor Burrill, who
was the first to show, in his work on
pear blight, the relation of bacteria to
plant disease. The next year, TBBS, the
Section of Mycology under the U. S
Department of Agriculture at Wash Washington,
ington, Washington, was established, with Professor
Scribner in charge. About this time
the work instituted by B. T. Galloway,
Chief of the Bureau of Plant Industry,
did much to bring this subject to the
attention of the country.
Experiment Stations Organized.ln
the spring of 1888 most of the State
Experiment Stations were organized.
Botanists and Plant Pathologists were
appointed in a number of these Sta Stations.
tions. Stations. Those who expected an imme immediate
diate immediate panacea for all plant diseases
were of course disappointed, and vvere
soon ready to oppose the expenditure
of money for such work. There are a
few such men today, but they are
among those who having heard of some
of the mistakes, are yet ignorant of
the work as a whole, and of the results
in black and white that the Experiment
Stations are able to show. During the
first ten years of the life of the Stations,
spraying as a means of controlling
fungus and insect-pests received a tre tremendous
mendous tremendous impulse. There sprang up
all over the country a great demand for
accurate information in regard to
practical methods of spraying.
Spraying.Sulphur had been used as
a spray in combating grape mildew
some years previous to this, in Europe
and California. Various powders were
' tried, but none proved of much value.
By a mere accident, a solution was
discovered that was to prove one of the
most effective fungicides yet known.
This was Bordeaux mixture.
The Discovery of Bordeaux Mixture,
is interestingly told by Loderman* in
his book on Spraying Plants.
*Loderman, E. G., The Spraying of
Plants, p. 25. The Macmillan Cos., 1899.
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
Spraying Methods Developed.The
liquid fungicides were first applied witn
a broom made of straw or a whisk made
of heath. Later they were applied by
means of sprinkling cans. Ordinary
pumps then in common use were tried,
but these proved to be unsatisfactory,
as they were not adapted to the work.
The knapsack sprayer came into use
about 1890, and soon after, a number
of spraying machines were perfected
and rapidly came into general use by
large growers. The powder sprays
were put on in various ways; by scat scattering
tering scattering with the fingers; by tying a bag
to the end of a stick and shaking this
up and down over the plants; by using
tin cans with nail-holes punched in tne
bottom; and later by powder guns,
that worked by means of a bellows or
a crank. Powder sprays, while they
have been of value against insects, have
not been as effective for combating fun fungus
gus fungus disease as the liquid sprays.
Literature. To indicate the interest
that sprung up in this line of work,
there are, according to Galloway, over
two thousand articles 011 plant diseases
by the Experiment Stations alone, in
the twelve years between ISBB and 1000.
Information that up to that time had
been known only to a few, now became
the common knowledge of the masses
of the people, largely through the medi medium
um medium of the experiment stations, aided by
agricultural papers. Many of the peo people
ple people did not know, and do not now
know, that much of the knowledge in
these matters came to them directly or
indirectly through the Stations, but the
leaven has worked nevertheless.
Investigators.lt would take too
long even to name over all the promi prominent
nent prominent workers in the field in this short
period of nineteen years, since 1888. A
few of the most prominent men, who
were leaders in the period, are Profes Professor
sor Professor Bessey, of Nebraska; Halstead, o
New 7 Jersey; Burrill, of Illinois;
Trelease, of Missouri; Peck, of New
York; Pammel, of Iowa; Galloway, now
Chief of the Department of Plant In Industry.
dustry. Industry. Washington. D. C.; and Erwin
F. Smith, Plant Pathologist in the
same department, whose recent publi publication
cation publication on Bacteria in Relation to
Plant Disease is invaluable to the
worker in Plant Pathology.
The Outlook. Investigation in plant
pathology is in its infancy. Many
things have been cleared up, but the
outlook for future development is
broad, and seems to call for unlimited
work. There are many diseases, the
cause for which we do not yet know.
Immunization against the attack of
organisms, so well developed for ani animals,
mals, animals, is an unworked field as regards
plants. The development of disease diseaseresistant
resistant diseaseresistant varieties by selection has just
io sum up, history shows a long
period of two hundred years from the
invention of the microscope until the
nature of bacteria and fungi dawned
upon the scientist. Then came a period
of about thirty years of more rapid dis discovery
covery discovery and the establishment of princi principles,
ples, principles, led by Pasteur for bacteria, anci
De Bary for fungi; this was followed
by the recent period of the application
of these principles in the actual treat treatment
ment treatment of disease, together with a critical
laboratory study of the organisms caus causing
ing causing them. With this foundation on
which to build, the present pathologist
ought in the coming years to accom accomplish
plish accomplish much towards alleviating the
troubles of poor, suffering vegetation,
and at the same time help to fill the
cavernous void existing in so many
Fowls in Confinement.
Fowls kept in confined runs should
have an ample supply of animal tood.
This is not only necessary in order that
they may lay a number of eggs, but
also to .prevent egg eating and feather
pulling. These depraved habits are us usually
ually usually indulged in by -fowls which are
confined and fed on too carbonaceous
a diet. In such conditions they have
an insatiable craving for animal food,
or in other words for more protein and
they strive to satisfy the desire by
eating their own eggs and plucking
out and swallowing the feathers from
each other's bodies.
Do not undertake to keep too many
hens at a time. A few well-cared for
is better than a large number left to
look out for themselves.
FORTY ORANGE GROVESMust be sold
quick for cash. These groves are in good loca locations
tions locations and splendid condition. Will be sold at
bargains, ehh aat wholesale or retail. Write to
M. F. ROBINSON. Sanford, Fla., for descrip descriptive
tive descriptive catalogue and prices.
Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 29, xgo6.
E. 0. Painter Fertilizer Company,
Gentlemen:Our foreman says there is a very great difference
in the grove in favor of your fertilizer over the He has
kept a correct record, and unless seen can hardly he realized, as
he applied the fertilizers side by side in equal proportions. Where
your fertilizers were used the trees have a good, healthy color and
have a nice crop of fruit on. Where the was used there
was but little fruit and the trees are poor in color, and look as
if there had been no fertilizer used at all. I am,
, Very truly yours,
(Signed) E. R. Redfleld.
HAD TO PROP TREES.
Grasmere, Fla., July 28, 1906.
E. 0. Painter Fertilizer Company,
Gentlemen:l wanted to tell you about my orange grove. I have
been using Simon Pure No. 1 on it now for three years, and it gets
more compliments than any grove. Nearly everybody that sees it
talks about the trees looking so well, and I have had to prop some
of them already. They are so full of oranges they look like they
would break. I will bring you other customers, I think.
(Signed) E. M. Strong.
THINKS THEY ARE THE BEST FERTILIZERS.
Lakemont, Fla., Dec. 4, 1905.
E. 0. Painter Fertilizer Company,
Gentlemen: Simon Pure No. 1 and Simon Pure No. 2 are the
BEST FERTILIZERS in Florida, and I shall always do all I can to
introduce them. Respectfully,
(Signed) B. M. Hampton.
NONE MORE SATISFACTORY.
E. 0. Painter Fertilizer Company,
Gentlemen: Your favor of the Ist received and noted. In reply
would say that I have never done business with any house that
has been more satisfactory than the business I have done with you.
You have often acceeded to what I have thought, and I shall cer certainly
tainly certainly do all I can for your house. Yours truly,
(Signed) C. W. Johnson.
CAN RECOMMEND IT.
E. 0. Painter Fertilizer Company, Ft. Pierce, Fla.
Gentlemen: I have been well pleased with the fertilizer I got
from you and have recommended your firm to every one that wanted
fertilizer, and shall continue to do so.
Yours very truly,
(Signed) R. E. Blanchard.
Hand=Screened Selected Stock
Write for our bookletllSH POTATOES, on Soil, Seed, Planting, Cultivation, Effect of
Fertilizing, Digging and Shipping.
Wilson & Toomer Fertilizer Company
MANUFACTURERS OF F A I FERTILIZERS
JACKSONVILLE, .... FLORIDA
THOSE SATISFIED CUSTOMERS.
WE FIND THAT OUR BEST DRUMMERS AND BUSINESS BUILDERS ARE CUSTOMERS THAT ARE
WELL PLEASED WITH OUR GOODS. HERE IS WHAT A FEW OF OUR PLEASED CUSTOMERS SAY:
OUR BRANDS ARE ALL STANDARDS.
We Make a Specialty of Special Mixtures Suited for Special Crops. Our Formulas are Backed by 30 YEARS
Experience in Florida. If you want anything in the FERTILIZER OR INSECTICIDE LINE write to US for our
booklet and price list.
E.O. PAINTER FERTILIZER C 'O.
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
E. 0. Painter Fertilizer Company,
Gentlemen:Yours of the ist just at hand. I certainly have
no cause of complaint, on the contrary do not see how I could ask
for better treatment. You will certainly find me again on your
list of well pleased customers. Yours truly,
(Signed) A. R. Gerber.
ALL THAT WAS CLAIMED.
E. 0. Painter Fertilizer Company, #
Gentlemen: All of your fertilizer which I have used has done
all that was claimed for it, and I am glad to so state.
(Signed) W. Lacy Body.
TOOK FIVE PRIZES.
Punta Gorda, Fla., April 27th, 1907.
E. 0. Painter Fertilizer Company,
Gentlemen: Our success at the Expositions and Fairs is due to
your fertilizer. I have used nothing but your Gem Pineapple
on my pines for three years, and it enabled me to grow pines which
last year captured every prize for shedded pines at the State Fair
at Tampa. These five prizes aggregated $315.00. I consider it the
best pineapple fertilizer I know of.
Yours very truly,
(Signed) J. M. Weeks, Mgr.
Punta Gorda Pinery Company.
SUCH A CROP.
Fruitville, Fla., Dec. 24, 1906.
E. 0. Painter Fertilizer Company,
Gentlemen: Please send me price list of your fertilizers, espe especially
cially especially your fertilizers for early tomatoes, and also yours for bearing
orange trees. The man who rented from me last spring used your
tomato fertilizer and I never saw such a crop of tomatoes.
Please let me hear from you at once. Time to order now.
(Signed) F. H. Tucker.
DeFuniak Springs, May 31, 1906.
E. 0. Painter Fertilizer Company,
Gentlemen: The corn I fertilized with the Painter corn fertilizer
is the finest I have ever seen grown on this sand; it is lots higher
than my head now, nearly black it is so green, did not fire when
the dry weather hit it. I dont expect to ever use any other make
as long as you keep the standard up. Yours, etc.,
(Signed) B. F. Noyes.