Citation
The Florida agriculturist

Material Information

Title:
The Florida agriculturist
Uniform Title:
Florida agriculturist (De Land, Fla.)
Place of Publication:
DeLand Fla
Publisher:
Kilkoff & Dean
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Monthly[1908-June 1911]
Weekly[ FORMER 1878-1907]
monthly
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ;

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agriculture -- Florida ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- De Land (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Volusia County (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Jacksonville (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Duval County (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Genre:
newspaper ( marcgt )
newspaper ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Florida -- Volusia -- DeLand
Coordinates:
29.02889 x -81.30055 ( Place of Publication )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1, no. 1 (May 15, 1878)-v. 38, no. 6 (June 1911).
Numbering Peculiarities:
Numbering is irregular.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Some issues for 1911 also called "New series."
General Note:
Publisher: E.O. Painter, <1887>.
General Note:
Editor: C. Codrington, 1878- .
General Note:
"A journal devoted to state interests."
General Note:
Published at Jacksonville and De Land, <1902>-1907; at Jacksonville, 1907- .
Funding:
Funded by NEH in support of the National Digital Newspaper Project (NDNP), NEH Award Number: Project #00110855

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item.
Resource Identifier:
000941425 ( ALEPH )
01376795 ( OCLC )
AEQ2997 ( NOTIS )
sn 96027724 ( LCCN )

Related Items

Preceded by:
Volusia County herald (De Land, Fla.)

Full Text
.1 m m m fif/, i~t MT

VOL. XXXIV No. 45.

ROSELLE MILDEW.
By H. S. Fawcett.
Roselle or Jamaica Sorrel (Hibiscus
Sabdariffa) was severely attacked last
year by Mildew. It was noticed about
the first of November. Those who
have planted roselle this year should
keep on the lookout for it. The
mildew is characterized as follows:
The leaves, petioles, stems and some sometimes
times sometimes the entire plant assume a white
powdery appearance as if they had
been lightly dusted over with flour
or lime. The appearance comes on
quite suddenly. It usually follows the
cool, moist nights that occur about
this time of the year. The vitality
of the plant is probably weakened
by the drop in the temperature, and
this renders it more susceptibe to the
attack of the mildew. Leaves attack attacked
ed attacked by the mildew soon begin to look

unhealthy, and turn slight slightly
ly slightly yellow.
The disease is caused by
a white mould-like fungus,
known scientifically as a
species of Microsphaera.
By means of a hand lens
one can observe the net network
work network of > very minute white
mycelial threads on which
there are borne upright
chains of small spherical
spores. These spores may
be carried by the wind or
insects from one plant to
another, and in this way
spread the disease rapidly
to great distances in a short
time. In the course of sev several
eral several weeks, if the fungus
is not killed,, the powdery
appearance disappears, and
Dn the threads are seen
minute black specks. These
contain the spores that are
able, like seeds, to live
through the winter months
md reproduce the mildew
;he following year.

The treatment recommended for
:his disease is to spray the plants as
;oon as the white appearance is notic noticid
id noticid with potassium sulphide (liver of
sulphur), using one ounce to two
gallons of water. Dissolve the pot potissium
issium potissium sulphide in water just before
ising, and in case any of the solution
s to be kept for later spraying, put
t in a tightly corked glass bottle.
Vs an additional preventive for the
ollowing year, all dead plants should
>e burned up after the fruit is picked,
n order to kill the resistant spores
hat would otherwise live over winter
>n the dead leaves and stems and in inest
est inest the next years crop.

Oranges are now bringing a good
rice in the markets, but it is likely
hat the shipping of so much green
ruit will have a depressing effect later
n. The cool weather of the past week,
owever, will ripen the fruit rapidly.

Your paper of October 9th contain contained
ed contained a question by Mrs. E. W. Snyder
as to the best size of citrus trees
to plant in a grove, and your answer
is well put, and is a good general
answer.
I feel much pleased with your en encouraging
couraging encouraging remarks about people ask asking
ing asking questions. It shows the proper
spirit on your part, and every effort
possible should be put forth to en encourage
courage encourage the asking of questions. A
good questioner is very, very hard
to find. On the other hand there
are plenty who are not only qualified
from their own experience, but are
ready and willing to answer questions
but are not good questioners. There Therefore,
fore, Therefore, Mr. Editor, I hold, on these

& -is bx'\T / ' V T** '-. ''O' : v ,/-!' ;W-
JhEh I^H| ii *lj JbPh^^S]Kb Sf tf
i f w, *Sm H

grounds, that one who asks a ques question
tion question in a public way is of more im importance
portance importance than one who can answer
them. It shows a thinking spirit, a
progressive spirit, one that is desirous
of learning.
This question of size of trees is
a large one, larger than it at first
appears. It is a question about which
there appears to be quite a diversity
of opinions. I have tried to arrive
at some facts, for my own personal
information, and accordingly I have
talked the matter over with a great
many people who have had experi experience;
ence; experience; I have even gone so far as
to put the question before the Horti Horticultural
cultural Horticultural Society. Here, as everywhere
else, I met a diversity of opinions.
So with what I have learned from
them and my personal experience I
shall state the conclusions I have ar arrived
rived arrived at. They have at least the
merit of being honest, if nothing

Jacksonville, Fla., Wednesday, November 6, 1907.

Large vs. Small Trees.
By N. O. Penny.

more, and I do not wish to set them
forth as positive facts.
In considering the size of the trees
we will assume that all are per perfectly
fectly perfectly healthy and in most thrifty
condition. This is the first essential
for the planting and the success of
any tree, and too much stress can cannot
not cannot be put upon this fact. Much de depends
pends depends on the person himself, the size
of his pocket-book, and the results
he wishes to attain, the land, weather
conditions, etc.
On the first, if there is plenty of
money and quick results are wanted,
large trees are best. If the land is
dry and the weather dry, generally
a large, well-hardened tree will do
best. Take low land that is moist

a smaller tree will meet a large one
on high, dry land; *a small tree in
the hands of an expert will meet a
much larger one that is not as well
cared for on the same land. There Therefore
fore Therefore it appears that under the same
conditions a small tree will. do as
well as a larger one with indifferent
care, and that a small tree can b
more economically used on low, moist
land than on dry, thirsty, soil. But
that has nothing to do with a large
tree being better than the small tree
on the low, moist land.
Personally, as I make my living
out of my groves and expect to do
so, barring accidents, the balance, of
my days, and as I am still setting
new groves, and wish to do it as
economically as possible, and to ob obtain
tain obtain the very best results the quickest,
I have accordingly thought about the
size of trees, and so forth, a good
(Continued on page 6.)

FERTILIZING WITH BRAINS.
By W. P. Neeld.
I get so madno, I just get dis disgusted,
gusted, disgusted, aggravated at the ignorance
and presumption of well, other peo people!
ple! people! Thirty years of experience and
observation in fertilizing orange trees
and groves has taught me but little.
It cost us fellows from two or three
hundred to thousands to well, I was
going to say fertilize, but I guess Id
better say kill our no, your groves,
for that dont include me, and I be believe
lieve believe that foot rot and other tree ills
are traceable to feeding. I know thats
largely whats the matter with people.
I am going to side-track here and
say that there is not one in a thou thousand
sand thousand who knows how td breathe, nor
how to eat, or what to eat under
certain conditions. Do you,do you?
Just say! As to yourself, if you dont

know that, how is it that you
know so much about what
a tree should have, and
when ? Do you take any
account, even, of the land
its on, or the seasons, as to
crops, or no crops, etc. ? I
once had a fine orange grove,
it had no foot rot to. speak
of, it was fine; it did not
bear twenty boxes to the
tree, or even ten,, though
many oeople said it ought
too. The fruit it bore was
mighty nice golden russet.
I held them late, not being
over-stimulated the trees did
not throw em off, and I
have got big money for
em, which is always the case
for late, full ripe Florida or oranges.
anges. oranges. So if my trees did
not bear double crops that
had to be marketed early, I
got double the money, and
I am tiot in the business for
fruit but for lucre.
Oranges that are not so full
of sap and water are better

to eat and to ship, and will bring
more. An over-crop will break the
limbs, will over-draw on the vitality
of the tree and be followed by an
under-crop almost invariably. Heavy
fertilizing I think a
of foot rot; and as to gum disease,
I think I know this. The fruit is
not so good or fine, though there
may be lots of it. One can easily
spoil his fruitand I dont know but
thirty-three per cent, of our crop
is annually spoiled, damaged by too
muc h of something,generally too
much nitrogen. Why dont I know
as to the other elements? As to the
phosphoric acid I believe I do, but
I dont know as to potash; but I am
after tryingsimply tryingto learn.
I have keot my trees in fine vigor
and color with nitrogen, backed up
with 42 per cent, potash. I wanted
to find out what it is that, makes fruit.
The parrot talkers said, give em

Established 1874.



2

potash. I have reason and science
to tell me that phosphoric is the life
stimulantt h e reproductive stim stimulant.
ulant. stimulant. I am trying to see if I can
catch on by way of results, I am
running the gauntlet of starvation
and bankruptcy and at the same time
loing something and saying a whole
lot. IVe saved $300.00 on fertilizer
this year, and it would cost me $3,000
to make a mistake. I dose em heavi heavily
ly heavily in the fall now with phosphate
and little potash. Where beggar weed
v heavy no nitrogen, other places
three-fourths to one per cent. Dont
plow till June, but run cutaway har harrow
row harrow four times now, this fall once
before and once after fertilizing. I
turn the cattle in on all this grass
and beggar weed after seed matures
they tramp and fertilize and fairly
cultivate the land, and give me al almost
most almost a light cow-penning. If the
grove sets a fine crop, I fertilize just
according to well, I cant tell you
all that; you do as you pleaseand
thats anarchy!freedom, see? Libertv
freedom to cut my own or some somebody
body somebody elses throat! Thats anarchy,
without law. The anarchist says, the
less government the better govern government,
ment, government, and that has led up to cor corporation
poration corporation or capitalist government
but this is too dry a subject for
work people; let em work it out!
They cant think.
J ++
Camphor Cultivation and Produc Production.
tion. Production.
The cultivation and production of
camphor, though up to the present al almost
most almost entirely confined to the island of
Formosa, where the industry is practi practically
cally practically a monopoly of the Government
of Japan, have lately been receiving at attention
tention attention in other countries, notably Cey Ceylon,
lon, Ceylon, Malaya, and the United States.
A good deal, too, has recently been
heard of synthetic or artificial camphor,
and Dr. Hempel, of Leipzig, writing in
the Chemiker Zeitug, states that it is
being manufactured in large quantities
at one factory in Germany. He points
out, however, that its profitable pro production
duction production depends on a high price being
maintained for camphor, as turpentine
oil, from which the artificial product
is made, is an expensive article. It is
said that Japan is regulating the sup supply
ply supply from the Formosan forests so as
to keep up the price, and that she could
at any time, without loss to herself,
largely augment the output so as to
lower prices, if the synthetic article be became
came became a serious competitor on the mar market.
ket. market. Such a step would make the com commercial
mercial commercial production of camphor from
dear turpentine oil quite impossible.
Though there is a considerable de demand
mand demand for camphor in the manufacture
of smokeless gun-powder and celluloid,
yet as pointed out by the Tropical
Agriculturist, if a country such as
Ceylon were to plant 25,000 acres of
camphor, it would meet the entire de demand
mand demand for this product. In view of
the planting activity mentioned above,
therefore, it is hardly likely that a
great future lies in front of the cam camphor
phor camphor manufacturing industry.
The Hawaiian Forester and Agricul Agriculturist
turist Agriculturist reprints a lengthy paper on The
Camphor Industry, which was read
before the Farmers Institute of Hawaii
with the view of bringing the possibili possibilities
ties possibilities of camphor cultivation before
Hawaiian planters. This paper gives
detailed information as to sources of
supply, present supply and demand, the
history, properties, and use of cam camphor,
phor, camphor, its cultivation, cost of planting,
etc., methods of refining, and estimat estimated
ed estimated yield that might be obtained.
It was calculated that the annual
yield of camphor per acre should reach
750 pounds, which, taking the present
price of camphor (65c. per lb.), would
give a gross return of $375. Estimating
the cost of planting, weeding, distilla distillation
tion distillation and fuel at $75, camphor cultiva cultivation
tion cultivation would give a net return per acre
of S3OO. The most moderate estimate
would put the net return that might be
expected at $l5O per acre. The paper
concludes by strongly advising Hawaii Hawaiian
an Hawaiian planters possessing land not suited
to rubber, tobacco, sisal, or citrus
fruits, or holding more land than thev
care to put under the above crops, to
experiment in camphor.Agricultural
News, Barbados.

Cotton Wilt.
Character and Distribution of the Disease With Methods of
Prevention and Control.

The following extracts are taken
from a bulletin recently issued by the
Louisiana Experiment Station, regard regarding
ing regarding a diisease of the cotton plant, which
is becoming quite severe west of the
Mississippi River:
Wilt, blackheart or black-root is a
disease of cotton caused by a fungus
(Neocosmospora vasinfecta (Atk.)
Erw. Sm.) which lives in the soil of in infected
fected infected fields, and enters the cotton
plant through one or more of its small
roots. After gaining an entrance, the
minute threads of the fungus grow up upward
ward upward in the water-carrying ducts of the
plant, filling them and choking off the
proper supply of water and food ele elements
ments elements from the soil. This causes the
leaves to wilt, turn yellow and drop off
one indication of the wilt disease.
The fungus also produces a discolora discoloration
tion discoloration of the walls of the water vessels,
so that the wood of the diseased plant
is seen to be dark brown when the root
or stem is cut across. This appearance
is characteristic of this disease and
gives it the names black-root and black blackheart,
heart, blackheart, by which it is commonly known
in some localities.
The brown color of the wood serves
to distinguish cotton wilt from cotton
rust, an entirely different disease which
is sometimes confused with the wilt.
Rust is not caused primarily by any
fungus, but is due to bad drainage, lack
of vegetable humus in the soil, deficien deficiency
cy deficiency of potash, or to some other unfavor unfavorable
able unfavorable condition of the soil.
Cotton wilt may attack a single plant
here and there in a field, or the majori majority
ty majority of the plants in a rather extensive
area. The fungus spreads from root
to root by the growth of its micro microscopic
scopic microscopic threads through the soil, where
they feed upon decaying vegetable mat matter.
ter. matter. Injuries to the roots of cotton,
such as might be caused by deep culti
vation, by the attacks of root-worms,
etc., enable the fungus to make an
easy entrance, and occasion a larger
amount of loss from wilt than would
otherwise occur. The fungus also pro produces
duces produces in the soil, and more especially
upon the dead cotton stalks, numerous
spores which are microscopic in size
and have an office similar to that of the
seed of higher plants in multiplying
and spreading the fungus, which is it itself
self itself a plant of a very low order. Dur During
ing During damp weather a pinkish coating
made up of millions of these dust-like
spores may be seen on the surface of
dead cotton stalks; these become dry.
and the wind scatters them far and
wide. The spores may be easily car carried
ried carried on the lint and seed, and it is pos possible
sible possible that infection may be spread to
distant localities in this way, although
it has not been established that this
is a usual mode of transmission. Arti Artificially,
ficially, Artificially, the fungus may be spread b>
means of dirt carried from an infected
field on the feet of workmen, of stock,
or on farming implements.
Besides cotton the fungus is known
to attack only one plant, okra. It cer certainly
tainly certainly does not attack other common
crop plants, such as corn, cowpeas,
velvet beans, oats, grasses, etc. Cow Cowpeas
peas Cowpeas are, however, subject to a similar
wilt disease which,is caused by a fun fungus
gus fungus very closely related to the one
causing cotton wilt. But the cotton
tungus can not affect cowpeas, and the
cowpea fungus can not affect cotton.
ow ever, it is possible for both fungi
o exist side by side in a particular
f bth cotton and cowpea will,
iiife C c o teri S f;nd eVe 0P " SUCh dOUWy

Nnrfh r W r ls known to occur in
Sa Fl£T £ OUth Carolina, Geor Georkansfs
kansfs Georkansfs TV* A a a T a Mississippi, Ar Arkansas,
kansas, Arkansas, Texas and Louisiana.
gardimr tti' 13 *V S a^ been said re-
Hie h-it'f e nature of the disease, and
could nnt K t le caus ,i ,ve organism, it
cotilrt not be expected that the snrav
wo M C - tton plants w'th fungicides
would give relief. It might bf sun
to'the soii e w r iH hat funici(l applied
Structinn Of r u and accom Plish the de destruction
struction destruction of the fungus. Extensive ex-

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

periments in which various fungicides
were used in quantities so great as to
prohibit their use in farm practice,
either on account of the expense, or
the injurious effect on the cotton itself,
have demonstrated the utter impractic impracticability
ability impracticability of this method. It could not be
seen that any fungicide reduced the
amount of wilt appreciably.
Every affected plant is a source of
infection for other plants. Especially
is this true of plants dying early in the
season. An inspection of any wilt-sick
field will show striking instances of the
spread of the disease from plant to
plant in a row, and from row to row in
a larger area. Moreover, left over cot cotton
ton cotton stalks, with their decaying roots
all full of the wilt fungus, are the best
imaginable nurseries for it during the
winter. It is the part of wisdom to re remove
move remove stalks completely and destroy
them by burning as soon as the first
signs of wilt appear. This is especial especially
ly especially important early in the season and on
lands in which the "wilt is just beginning
to gain a foothold; in such cases the
practice is more feasible. The removal
of stalks at the end of the season ac accomplishes
complishes accomplishes a double purpose when the
cotton grower is contending with wilt
and weevils at the same time.
While the keeping of cotton off in infected
fected infected fields for even a long term of
years does not completely stamp out
the wilt disease, a rotation that rests
the land from cotton has a most bene beneficial
ficial beneficial effect in checking the disease.
The lands that have the most wilt are
as a rule, the ones that have been in
cotton without a break for a long term
of vears. The usual three year rotation
including oats, cowpeas, cotton, and
corn and cowoeas, is an excellent one
for the present puroose. If the land
happens to be doubly infected with
cotton wilt and cowpea wilt, cowpeas
must be omitted, or the Iron cowpea,
which is highly resistant to wilt, used.
A further complication may arise
from the presence in sandy lands of the
root-worm, which causes enlargements,
known as the root-knot, on the roots
of cotton, cowpeas, and a large number
of. other crop plants, but does not at attack
tack attack oats, corn, velvet beans, or most
grasses. Iron cowpeas are strongly
resistant to root-knot as well as to wilt.
Root-knot, like wilt, can be held in
check bv a rotation which brings in the
susceptible crop, cotton, once in three
years; and it differs from wilt in that
it can be completely eradicated i,n a
comparatively short time by keeping
all susceptible plants off the land.
The condition of the soil has another
indirect bearing on the wilt problem
growing out of the important part the
soil plays in the production of vigor vigorous
ous vigorous cotton plants that can ward off
disease. Along this line it has been
shown that the use of stable manure
on wilt-infested land results in a very
marked decrease in the loss from wilt
as well as in the increase in the pro productiveness

HACKETTS GAPE CURE!
SIMPLE. SAFE. SURE.
Dust it over the Chicks. The Chicks inhale the Dust.
Goes right to the Spot. Kills the Worm as well as the Germ.
I ADVERTISE IN RELIABLE FARM AND POULTRY JOURNALS SUCH AS
FARM JOURNAL, Philadelphia, Pa., RURAL NEW YORKER,
POULTRY SUCCESS and FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
That means a Square Deal!
TESTIMONIALS FROM 22 STATES.
A fnon y maker for Dealers and Agents. For 25-cent and 50 cent samples by mail
address
. C. HACKETT, Hillsboro. Md.
or Sale by E. 0. PAINTER FERTILIZER CO.
STATE AGENTS.

ductiveness productiveness of the stalks generally:-. In
our own tests, the average loss
wilt at the present writing, on an un unmanured
manured unmanured plot, is just twice as great
as on a comparable lot which has re received
ceived received stable manure at the rate of
thirty loads per acre. Moreover, the
wilt is increasing more rapidly on the
former plot than on the latter, and the
end of the season bids fair to show a
proportion of four or five to one. The
plowing under of cowpeas and other
leguminous crops has a similar though
less marked beneficial effect another
reason for adopting a system of rota rotation
tion rotation of crops on wilt-sick land.
With reference to stable manure,
the caution must be given that the wilt
fungus will grow luxuriantly in a barn barnyard
yard barnyard when once it has gained entrance,
and infected manure may be the means
of spreading the disease to a previous previously
ly previously healthy field.
The procedure to be followed in
breeding cotton for wilt resistance is
about as follows: The first season se selection
lection selection is made in a badly wilted area
of, say, ten stalks that give indications
of high resistance, and are in other
ways satisfactory. These stalks are
conspicuously marked with white
cloths, and are tagged with consecutive
numbers. The cotton from each is
picked in a separate bag kept for the
particular stalk, and numbered to cor correspond
respond correspond with it. For planting these
small lots of seed, select a piece of
land large enough for the purpose and
having the wilt abundantly and evenly
distributed through it, as indicated by
the effect on this seasons crop. This
may be called the progeny plot.
Thoroughly prepare the land, and plant
the seed from each stalk in a single
row, in hills, three or four seed to the
hill, and one hundred or more hills to
the row. The seed may be planted in
the lint if it is only lightly covered.
During this second season the amount
of wilt must be noted in each row, and
the row showing greatest freedom from
disease marked for further selections.
In this row mark, number and pick
separately the ten best plants, and test
these ten lots of seed the next, or
third, season by the stalk-row meth method
od method in a progeny plot. The seed from
the remaining ninety or more stalks of
this best row is to be gathered in one
lot, ginned without mixing with other
seed, and planted by ordinary methods
the third season in what may be term termed
ed termed an increase plot, from which seed
may be had fo.* general planting the
next pr fourth sv'ason. The seed from
thenine rows otlnr than the single best
row of the second season is probably
better than that taken indiscrimately
from the field, and may be used for
general planting the third season.
This method appears somewhat com complicated
plicated complicated and slow; but the result ob obtained
tained obtained by its use make it a far better
one than that of merely selecting hap haphazard
hazard haphazard from the general crop. The
plan is one of general application in
plant breeding, and has showed its
worth with many crops besides cotton.
Tt will well repay the care required in
its execution.
Subscribe for the Agriculturist ten
weeks ten cents.



The County High School of the Future.

We* have tried at various times to
show the need of a change in the
present methods of education in the
country. We have printed various ar articles
ticles articles on .the subject, all showing that
the trend of opinion is towards more
of an agricultural education for country
boys and girls. The following article,
from the American Agriculturist, is on
the same line. The incident of the help
given the dairy farmer by the high
school boys, is an illustration of what
might be done in other lines of agricul agricultural
tural agricultural work by educated students.
Recently there was held at the Massa Massachusetts
chusetts Massachusetts agricultural college a most
important conference on rural progress.
For four days the various phases of
rural life were discussed by leaders
along various lines bearing on this
problem. But of all the topics dis discussed,
cussed, discussed, and they were many, none
were of greater interest, or more vital
in their bearing on rural life in the
future, than those bearing on the
educational problems as relating to ru rural
ral rural districts.
Dr. K. C. Davis, dean of the state
school of agriculture, St. Lawrence
university, Canton, N. Y., reviewed in
a most interesting way the work be being
ing being done by the agricultural high
schools which have been established in
various parts of the country. The agri agricultural
cultural agricultural high school in certain states
has passed the experimental stage.
What its possibilities are was shown
in a most iluminating way by Dr.
Davis. That such a high school can
be and is made of practical bene lit, not
only to the pupils themselves, but
to the farmers who are paying the
taxes for its support, was most conclu conclusively
sively conclusively shown.
As an instance of the practic il good
such a school can do he qtoted a
case of a dairy farmer who was milk milking
ing milking 36 cows good dairy cows he
called them. The boys from the school
went out to this farm and tested each
cow. The farmer was shown how to
follow up these tests. In something
over a year this farmer was milking
12 cows instead of 36, and his cream
checks were as large as they had been
when he had the 36 cows. Fie was sav saving
ing saving more than 50 per cent, in feed, he
was saving quite 50 per cent, in labor.
In view of the fact that the labov? prob problem
lem problem was, as it is in many parts of the
country, the most serious problem of
the day, this farmer felt that the direct
aid he had received from this school
was not to be easily estimated.
The practical nature of the .work
done in these schools was shown
through the medium of lantern slides.
In one view half a dozen boys were
setting up the model of a barn on a
scale of an inch to a foot. Since
those boys graduated three of them
have put up full size barns on their own
farms. This is but one example of
how the boys who have graduated
from these schools are applying the
information received.
Dr. Davis emphasized how needful
it is that each school should deal
with the conditions of its immediate
locality; in other words, the boys of
a given district should be educated to
grapple with the specific conditions of
that district. That such a school is less
cultural than the usual high schools
Dr. Davis denies. He insists that
there is quite as much culture in the
study of agriculture as in any other
subject.
There is food for thought in such
testimony as was brought out at this
rural conference. Such conferences
should be held often all over this
broad country. This subject of a prac practical
tical practical school for the farm boys, a school
which shall fit them to compete in their
chosen calling with the men of other
callings, is one which should be given
the thoughtful consideration of every
rural community. It will go a long
way toward, solving the problem of
keeping the boys at home. Later, in
these columns, more specific details of
what the agricultural high schools are
accomplishing will be published, from
time to time.

Live Stock on the Farm.
A Florida correspondent of the
Southern Cultivator writes as follows:
In my last letter I said that sheep
were the most profitable for the farm farmer,
er, farmer, with the exception of Angora
goats, Berkshire hogs, if location and
soils are suitable; these may pay bet better,
ter, better, but think I should have included
turkeys and chickens also.
Sheep will thrivd 8 on all dry soils,
the richest and that nearly barren
under proper management and care.
English and Irish farmers find they
pay the best, and the surest standby
j for their rents and on lands that
! would readily sell for SSOO to SI,OOO
per acre, they also find that by the
use of sheep they can bring up the
fertility of mountain soils worth from
S4O to S6O per acre to the value for
four to five hundred dollars per acre,
and while growing these crops an'
enriching this soil, get good returns
for those crops and labor besides.
It is therefore no wonder that the
number of sheen in Great Britain is
yearly increasing and that a strong
competition exists between those flock
owners to have the best and carry
off the prizes so liberally given for
sheep by all the Agricultural Societies
in those countries; this includes Eng England,
land, England, Ireland and Scotland. The
English and Irish owners have no
fear of competition the world over,
Merinos excepted, as I have never
known of this breed there. I will
now. show in part of how sheep pay.
Their wool is always ready cash com coming
ing coming in. from the middle of April to
the middle of May, and worth at a
low average on e dollar and seventy seventyfive
five seventyfive cents per head, and only for the
average flocks kept there. Next we
should have fat lambs in the market
from the first of June to the middle
of August \yorth from $6 to $8 per
head. I have known men to buy a
small flock of good ewes in the fall
and from their lambs pay for all
moneys invested, and feed, and have
the ewes and wool clear profit, and
this accomplished in ten months. The
feed of twelve ewes is considered
equal to that of a dairy cow. I am
a great friend of the dairv cow, but
T will take the twelve ewes any time,
feed them and care for them, for their
returns. Therefore I believe T cnn
sa.v that there is. no investement that
will give as quick returns, as great
nrofit, and as free from loss as that
from sheep. Thev are gleaners and
scavengers, and if given the run of
the stubbles and other places after
harvest while weeds are short and
tender, will clean up and free those
fields from weeds as no other animal
will,, and see how they grow and fat fatten
ten fatten in such places. The sheep indus industry
try industry is in its infancy in this country,
vet T find the American people onlv
now forming a taste for mutton, and
where it could not be sold a few
vears back there is now a fair de demand
mand demand for this most nutritious and
healthful of all meats. Tt now re remains
mains remains for the farmers to encourage
this taste by supplying the markets
with good, palatable mutton and not
stick to those dirtv, greasv-fleshed
srm s that 73 per cent, of them keep
Tn my previous letter T showed that
tne Shropshire downs were the lead'
crs of all the black and tan-faced
breeds as a wool and mutton sheep
fombined They must hustle, though,
if thev compare with the white breeds
in this line.
First. I must say that all the black blackfaced
faced blackfaced breeds are classed as short
wools, and all of the white sheep as
lone- wools, so that in further refer reference
ence reference this mav be understood. Of the
lone- wools there are several distinct
breeds, each claiming some particular
T will name four as worthy
f n te and comparison with their
short wool neighbors.
The Lincolns, the largest breed; the
Ootswolds: the American improved
Merino or Rambouilets, and the Bor Border
der Border Leicesters. last, though not least
in my estimation of this most beauti beautiful
ful beautiful breed.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

MRDS
Rhode Island Reds
Choice Utility, Breeding and Exhibition Stock
for sale at reasonable prices. Eggs for hatching
$2.00 per setting. Free circular.
Lvkkmo.nt poultry farm
C. FRED WARD, Prop., Winter Park, Fla.
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Total .*..51,500
One hundred and twenty monthly payments of $12.50 each.
For further information apply at once to
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FISCAL AGENTS.
108 West Forsyth Street, - Jacksonville, Florida

I must now conclude, but hope, to
be able soon to send my next, giving
the methods used and the.crops grown
on this poor mountain soil for mutton
and fertility, and also compare the
merits of the short and long wool
sheep.
Manures and Soils.
The importance of studying your soil
and its needs is emphasized in the
following from the Farmers Review:
One of the first things the farmer
must learn, says Farmers Review, is
that soils differ greatly as to the kinds
and quantities of the plant foods they
contain. This seems to be one of the
hardest things to impress upon the
farmer. Over and over again.the mis mistake
take mistake is made of buying a fertilizer be because
cause because it has given good results when
applied to certain farms. In fact many
of the fertilizer sellers put out literature
that has for its base the testimonials of
growers showing how many potatoes
were grown, or how much of other
things were grown, as a result of the.
use of the fertilizer.
There are many brands of fertilizers
on the market that purport to be
special for potato growing, for
wheat growing, for cabbage grow growing,
ing, growing, and the like. The fact that these
brands are sold on their names and
claims shows how dense is the ignor ignorance
ance ignorance of some of our people on the
questions of soil and fertilizers. Soils
differ so radically that it is impossible
to make a fertilizer mixtuie that will
be suited to the production of a cer certain
tain certain crop in all places. The supposi supposition
tion supposition that such is possible is a delusion
and a snare.
Every farmer should try to read the
reports of the investigations of soils,
that he may be able to form a true
conception of the needs of his soil. To
show how enormously soils differ we

have but to journey to different parts
of the state of Illinois or to any state
where a soil survey has been made
and experiments undertaken. Go down
into the Kankakee marshes that have
been drained and brought into cultiva cultivation.
tion. cultivation. They have soil so rich in nitro nitrogen
gen nitrogen that it is a loss of time to put on
nitrogenous fertilizers, and S4O of blood
per acre gave no results. But a little
potassium made the soil bring forth
tenfold. Just the opposite may be
found in another county where the
land lacks nitrogen and has enough
potassium. There the application of
potassium had no effect, while a little
blood accomplished wonders.
Many soils have both potassium and
nitrogen, but lack phospnorus. This
has to be supplied before they will give
returns of any consequence. As long
as men buy fertilizers because they do
well in some places, so long will they
throw away a large part of their money.
Soils differ in different counties, and
they differ sometimes on the same farm.
Frequently one part of a farm is of one
geological formation and another part
of another geological formation. One
may have been created a million years
before the other was created. One
may be the product of the grindings of
the glaciers, while another may be the
result of the slow action of water de depositing
positing depositing its silt little by little. One
part of a mans farm may be rich in
nitrogen, while another is starving for
it. A man must know his land and
what is in it.
If the unavoidable hitches in the
domestic machinery occur, console
yourself with the thought that, although
the turkey was underdone, the pumpkin
pie was beyond reproach and that if the
cook forgot the celery she remembered
the salad dressing which you had for forgotten.
gotten. forgotten.

3



4

The San Jose Scale.
When this scale gets a good foot foothold,
hold, foothold, it is easy to recognize by the
damage done. The last number of the
Agricultural Student contained an arti article
cle article describing the scale very carefully
and telling how to recognize it when
there are only a few on the trees.
Although the San Jose scale has been
in Ohio for over ten years now, there
are comparatively few people outside of
the regular entomologists who can rec recognize
ognize recognize it before it has become so num numerous
erous numerous on a tree or shrub as to make
its destruction necessary. Even among
nurserymen, who would be supposed
to be familiar with it, there is a sur surprising
prising surprising lack of knowledge as to the
scale, and not one in ten can recognize
it. In order to effectively control the
scale, the infected tree must be treated
before the scale has become so numer numerous
ous numerous as to completely cover the tree. If
left until this stage has been reached
the ax and a hot fire are the only reme remedies.
dies. remedies. With this fact in mind the writer
of this article intends to give a few
hints as to how to search for it, so that
the orchardist or owner of a few trees
can detect it in time to apply a remedy
and save his fruit trees.
The first essential is to provide a
hand lens or magnifying glass of some
kind. One can be purchased for a
dollar which will answer the purpose
very well. It is well for the inexperi inexperienced
enced inexperienced man not to get a glass that mag magnifies
nifies magnifies too highly as this will mean a
close focus making the glass difficult to
use.
Choose a bright day along in August
or the first part of September as the
scale is easiest to find at this time.
They are in all stages of maturity and
the different stages show characteristics
which makes it easy to distinguish the
scale.
Choose the peach trees first if you
have any. San Jose scale almost in invariably
variably invariably will appear first on old peach
trees. They are especially subject to its
attacks and thev apparently thrive
better on the peach and reproduce more
rapidly than on any other variety of
fruit trees. The peach is also very
susceptible to its attacks and alrwir it
becomes infested, will live but a few
years. Look for the young scale first
on the peach as the old scale are hard
to see, being so nearly the color of
the bark. The young will appear as
very minute yellow points, almost too
small to be seen with the naked eye.
Focus vour glass upon them and they
can be plainly distinguished as almost
circular in shape and of a bright yellow
color. Some of them which have just
been born, will be seen to be slowly
crawling around, hunting a place to
settle. Thev move around but for a
very brief time, but during this time
all the spread of the insect Is accom accomplished.
plished. accomplished. They are so small that the
wind will blow them around like dust;
birds and insects will carry them on
their bodies or legs, and in fact they
can most easily be scattered.
As said above, the insect crawls
around for a few hours and finding a
place to it pushes its sucking
tubes through the bark, commences to
secrete a scale and loses its legs and
consequently all power of locomotion.
After noticing the newlv born young,
look around next for those that nave
recentlv settled. The young scale is at
first almost wlrte. gradually assuming
a darker ashy color as it approaches
maturity. The scale is nearly circular
in outline, about the size of a pinneacr
when full grown and in the center of
the scale is a yellowish spot surround surrounded
ed surrounded by a ring or depression. This can
be easilv seen with the aid of the
glass and it is a sure indication that
the is the injurious San Jose.
The vellowish color of the nipple is not
so apparent on the older, fully devel develor>ed
or>ed develor>ed scale or those which have winter wintered
ed wintered over. The above description applies
to the female. The male is much
smaller and the scale darker. If von
have found the voung scale, or think
you have, look for the old ones. Take
a knife and scrape over the bark on the
lirnb; ijf the old scale are there the
scale will be scraped off and the vellow vellowish
ish vellowish insect itself will be seen. It is al almost
most almost djsc-shaped and jelly-like, withoui

appendages of any kind and about the
size of a small pinhead.
If you wish to look for scale in the
winter time on peach, a good indication
is the small white spots on the bark
where the old scale have fallen off. If
these are seen the scale can be found
by scraping the bark as explained be before.
fore. before.
After the peach look to the young
apple trees. Here the old scale is
easily seen on account of the lighter
color of the bark and because of a red
discoloration of the bark where the
scale has settled on the younger twigs.
I f the scale are few these red spots
furnish a good method of detection.
After they become thick they are
easily told on anything.
If none are found on the peach or
j oung apple, there is not likely to be
any found on the older apple trees.
They increase but slowly on old apple
trees and in fact are seldom found on
them unless they are very bad in the
community.
Certain varieties of shrubbery should
be examined, notably the Japanese
quince and lilac. Look also over the
Mountain Ash carefully as it is ver>
liable to become infested.
The careful orchardist or fruit grow grower
er grower will make a thorough examination
of his orchard every year. The scale
is getting widely spread over the coun country
try country and it behove? the owner of trees
to be on his guard and be prepared to
fight it as soon os it appears.
In case of do,ibt the Division Or Orchard
chard Orchard and Nuireyv Inspection snotml
be consulted. If application is made
they will send a man who will examine
the orchard free of charge. However,
the scale is g<-ing to be with us and all
fruit growers should be able to detect
it and know how to fight it.
4
Profits of Alfalfa.
A man down in the Arkansas valley this
season took off five bushels of alfalfa
seed to the acre from one cutting. The
sixtv bushels of seed from twelve acres
sold for $5lO. Besides this he harvest harvested
ed harvested forty tons of hay from the other two
cuttings which sold for $240. The total
received from the three cuttings was
$62.50 an acre. Allowing $lO an acre
for cost of handling he has a clear
profit of $52.50 an acre or over fifty per
cent, on land which is valued at stoo
an acre. This beats the sugar beet
business and most all other kinds of
farming in this country. We might
say in justification of these figures that
the ground was well covered last fall
with a winter dressing of sheep manure
from a near-by corral.Denver Field
I
Alfalfa Among Peach Trees.
I have planted my patch of alfalfa,
t is up from Ii to 3 inches, and bar barring
ring barring the dry weather is doing well. It
is on old ground rich from an old
garden, and I will cover it with fine
stable manure later.
I am seeking to demonstrate a
theory which is 'that a swath 6 Jo 8
feet wide between my peach rows
will not only give me a hay crop,
but the excess of nitrogen drawn from
the air will prove of advantage to the
roots of the 4and 5-year-old peach
trees, planted 18 feet apart. It is too
big a subject to go into in detail, but, if
I prove my theory I will have doubled
the valu: M the ground.Progressive
Money in Sugar Cane.
The Punta Gorda Herald tells of a
Mr. Wringate a few miles east of-that
olace, who from one acre of green cane
last year sold 1,000 stalks in Wauchula
and Zolfo, saved seed for this year
and made 600 gallons of syrup which
he sold for S3OO. This is just ordinary
effort, nothing to brag of, and yet
how few even do this. You always
pay 5 cents for a stalk of cane and
there is always a demand; but syrup
has not sold in this market for less
than 50 cents per gallon and now
often 75 cents. This man made 300
gallons to one acre, after selling 1,000
stalks.. Take 5 acres, work it well and
make it vour business to tend and look
out for it alone, and on the basis of
this mans work you would make
sT.coo to $2,000. Who will make the
start in this part of Florida? Plentv of
good land in this section and Umatilla
for cane. Fustis Lake Region.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

ISLEWORTH NURSERIES
CHASE & CO., Proprietors J. W. HOARD, Manager
Citrus Trees of all Leading Varieties
Budded on three-year-old rough lemmon and sour orange roots. Guaranteed absolutely free from
WHITE FLY or any other insect pest, and safe from frost, not a leaf injured last winter. We are
making a specialty of VALINCIA LATE BUDS direct from best beariug trees in California.
Write for prices to
j J. W. HOARD, Gotha, Florida
Trees for Many Purposes
Oranges, Lemons and Grape Fruit for tropical
planting; Peaches, Plums and Pears especially W/ w
adapted to the South; Persimmons, Pecans, Hardy Vd
Roses, Shade Trees, Hedge Plants, Flowering Shrubs, etc. vj
Tabers Trees Thrive
because they are of the choicest varieties and have been grown from superior stock,
in an ideal location and under the care of expert nurserymen. Booklet, "Past,
Present and Future, and complete catalogue, free.
GLEN SAINT MARY NURSERIES COMPANY
G. L. TABER, Pres. & Treas. Box 25. GLEN SAINT MARY, FLA. H. HAROLD HUME, Secy.
NURSERY TREES.
Right now is the proper time to set fruit trees and ornamental plantsthe
sooner the better.
We have first-class trees of Budded Pecans, Peaches, Pears, Pl*is, Or Oranges
anges Oranges and other fruits; also Roses, Privet Hedge plants, Arborvitae, Shade Trees,
and other ornamentals and Strawberry plants. Write for catalogue.
TURKEY CREEK NURSERIES, BOX I, Macclenny, Florida.
C. F. BARBER. AUBREY FRINK.
Note my change of address, and send us your ordersthey will have my
personal attention. AUBREY FRINK.
ROYAL-PALM NURSERIES. J*
Hundreds of kinds of Trees and plants for Florida, th# South, and tha Tri Triples;
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plant-lover We ship direct to purchaser (no agent) in all parts ef the
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Write today Address,
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ORANGE TREES
From Our Southern Division Nurseries in St. Lucie
and Dade Counties
ARE FREE FROM WHITE FLY
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We can book your order in advance, reserve the trees, and ship freshly-du*
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We offer a complete line of all leading varietiesOrange, Grapefruit, and
other Citrus Fruits on Sour or Rough Lemon Stock. Illustrated catalogue free.
Address
The Griffing Bros. Cos.
Jacksonville, or Little River, Fla.

Subjects for Study.
Prof. C. W. Burkett says: There
is just as much knowledge, just as
much thought, just as much inspira inspiration
tion inspiration from the study of soils, plants
and animals as there is in the study
of foreign rivers, countries' and for foreign
eign foreign activities. What makes education
so distasteful to so many boys and
girls is the fact that it is altogether out
of the limit of their experience and
knowledge. I have no objection to
my boy or girl knowing something
about King Charles and King Henry,
but I want them to know something
about King Corn and King Alfalfa as
well. I am willing they should know
something of the laws of the ancient
dead, but I am determined that they
shall know something about plant and
animal growth.lnland Farmer.
It was a trying position that of
President Roosevelt during the seem seeming
ing seeming financial crisis in Wall street the
other day. On the one hand he would
not have this panic credited to him,
as some men of wealth mostly affected
by Roosevelts policies would have us
believe; and on the other hand he
is bound, by repeated public utter utterances,
ances, utterances, to keep up his warfare on the
unlawful combinations.

FOR THE PECAN ORCHARD
You want not only genuine budded or grafted
stock, but such varieties as have proven of
merit. We grow such. Send for our Catalog;
its cultural helps and suggestions will be worth
something to you.
GAINESVILLE NURSERIES,
H. S. GRAVES, Propr, GAINESVILLE, FLA.
Choice Paper=Shell Pecan Trees
NUT TREES, HARDY CITRUS, AND ROSES.
0 4 R SPECIALTY.
By means of up-to-date, scientific methods we
strive to produce stock of highest quality and
guarantee satisfaction. Send for our free catalog.
SUMMIT NURSERIES,
Box 370. MONTICELLO, FLA.
Mango Trees
East Indian Varieties
ALL POT GROWN.
Also Citrus Stock. Send for eatalogus to
JOHN B. BEACH.
West Palm Florida.



Cottonseed Meal as Horse and Mule
Feed.
The writer of an article, in Farm and
Ranch, wishes to be put on oath to tell
the truth,, the whole truth and nothing
but the truth. Yet he is guilty of gross
exaggeration in speaking of the mule as
found in the cotton' belt. No doubt
many of them are smaller than is desir desirable,
able, desirable, but we do not think that he ever
saw one smaller than an Angora goat.
Still we have no doubt that he is cor correct
rect correct in what he says as to the value of
cottonseed meal as food for working
stock. The article is as follows:
Asa contribution to this, as yet
undeveloped mine of wealth, I would
like to go on the witness stand, after
being put under oath to tell the truth,
the whole truth, and nothing but the
truth, that I may testify to the value,
from actual experience of cottonseed
meal as a horse and mule feed. I have
some experience on this line as a cattle
feeder, having fed as many as live hun hundred
dred hundred head one season; but the use of
cottonseed meal for feeding cattle has
passed so far beyond the experiment experimental
al experimental stage, and has been so fully dis discussed
cussed discussed and is so well understood,
as not to warrant, at this time, any
reference to it. To be sure, the feed feeding
ing feeding of some form of oil meal to horses
is not by any means a novelty. The
experiment station reports, and lead leading
ing leading text books on the subject, all give
a high place to oil meal as a part of a
complete horse ration. Notwithstand Notwithstanding,
ing, Notwithstanding, here in the South where there is
greater need of oil meal as a part of a
horses feed, less of it is given than in
any other country in the world. The
Southern farmer who buys frost bitten,
kiln uried corn from lowa at S3O per
ton, would throw a fit if you advised
him to give his old weathered mule a
pound or so a day of bright, rich, gold golden
en golden cottonseed meal that came oft hjs
own sandy farm. Yet if the old mules
150 feet of digestive tract could be
lubricated daily with this delicious, let
us call it mayonnaise dressing, on his
otherwise dry, dusty ration, his muscles
would be strengthened, his nerve
steadied and he would run on and on
for years and yearsat least, if he
did not run, he would step fast, and
die old and honorably. Asa rule,
throughout the cotton belt the mule
is not as big as an Angora goat, and
couldn t pull a scooter plow through
molasses. On the awful dry feed he
moults away, and as the
say: He jist natchilly dies.*
All that corn, oats, hay and fodder
lack as feeds is supplied by cottonseed
meal. In combination with them it
makes a perfection feed. I admit that
every horse and mule will not show
a fondness for cotonseed meal to begin
with, but every horse and mule that
ever lived will eat it, will come to like
it, and will thrive on it.
I believe any animal of the horse
kind from a shaved tail mule to Lou
Dillon, will be benefited and improved
by the addition of cottonseed meal to
its daily ration.
As for its not being a natural feed
for the horse, neither is corn, or oats.
A horse is a grass eater and he never
saw a grain until he met up with a man
on the plains of Damascus 7000 years
ago and he got his first taste of bar barley.
ley. barley. A horse can worry along on a
general bill of fare. In Afghanistan
he is fed on balls of mutton fat; while
in India he eats dried fish.
It is not a hurtful admission in this
discussion to acknowledge that cotton cottonseed
seed cottonseed meal cannot be fed in large quan quantities.
tities. quantities. This only goes to show its high
quality as a feed. A man does not at
one setting eat a pat of butter, or
drink a jug of molasses, or gulp a bowl
of gravy. He does not pour out vine vinegar
gar vinegar by the cruet full, or eat salt and
pepper by the spoonful. These are
tidbits. So cottonseed meal makes the
dry ration of the domestic horse go
down, and not only down, but what is
more important, go through. If farm
animals in the South could be fed daily
on a ration, having a minimum of one
pound of cottonseed meal, this land
would be a richer and a happier one.
While this would be in actual amount
only about ten per cent of the concen concentrated
trated concentrated portion of the feed, its mechani mechanical
cal mechanical and nutritive value would be at
least double that.

Several years ago, when I was a
cottonseed crusher, on a small scale,
(I am not now even remotely connect connected
ed connected with that worthy calling), it was at
certain times better to do anything
with meal than to sell it. There came
into my family unexpectedly, two colts.
Just like a baby is never wanted until
it comes, and then immediately the
household goes crazy over it; just so I
took on about my colts. At that time
oats were about $36 per ton, and corn
about $26. I began feeding my mares
on these expensive grains, ground,
with a little cottonseed meal dusted in.
They took to it all right, and before the
colts were six weeks old, they were
nibbling at their mothers' feed. Since,
more colts have come. The oldest
are now five years old, and none of
them have ever passed a day in their
iives without eating some cottonseed
meal. They have never been out of
fix. The oldest ones weigh 1100
pounds, and are 16 hands highde highdecidedly
cidedly highdecidedly larger than dams or sire. They
have carried me fifty miles a day with without
out without breathing deep.
Here is a clean cut decisive example
of cottonseed meal as a component
part of a horse's ration.
I will simply add to the above testi testimony
mony testimony that lor the past five years my
stabfe has consisted of ten pleasure
aim worx animalsone a**mule that
coufd pull a lion out of his den and
everyone 01 tliem has been fed daily
wun one pound or more of cottonseed
meal, i nave never seen a sick one in
mat time, or one that was not ready lor
worx. 1 nave had the good fortune to
win some Diue ribbons and sifver cups,
and i may be pardoned 10r adding, and
i no so 111 the interest of truth only,
uiat wnen i drive up to the cliurcn
grounds the peopfe look up and say:
who comes r"
Feeding Dairy Cows.
By Dr. David Roberts.
Dairy cows require different feed
than beet cattle.
Â¥ ou should not feed much fat-form fat-forming
ing fat-forming foods, as your cows would lay
on fat instead of producing milk. Feed
more silage or roots in the winter
season.
Daily feed for a iooo-pound cow:
40 pounds of silage, 7 pounds clover
nay, 8 pounds of gram.
ihe cows that are soon to calve
should be fed on succulent feed, such
as silage or roots, bran, linseed meal
with a little oats. Keep the bowels
open and do not feed very heavy on
grains just before or after calving.
After calving give bran mash and
warm the drinking water for a few
days. Allow the calf to suck for about
two days and then feed his mothers
milk from a pail for about two weeks,*
about three quarts twice a day; after
that reduce it with skim milk or warm
water, so that at the end of the fourth
week the calf will be getting all skim
milk or half whole milk and half warm
water with some reliable stock tonic
to aid digestion. Keep a supply of
good clover or alfalfa hay within
reach, and also some ground oats with
a little linseed meal mixed with it.
After the calf eats the ground feed,
gradually get him used to eating
whole oats, as this is the best feed
for him up to six months old. ihe
heifers should not be bred until about
hfteen or eighteen months old.
Club Koot of Cauliflower aud
Cabbage.
Growers should attend carefully to
the condition of their young plants be beiore
iore beiore planting them out. No plants
snoulu be put in that have lumps on
their roots.
This is a serious root disease of
many crucilerous plants, both cultivat cultivated
ed cultivated and wild. The reproductive bodies
are distributed in the soil in enormous
quantities when an attacked root de decays.
cays. decays. Where the plants come to no nothing
thing nothing they should be examined, and if
swellings at the base of the stem are
detected they should be pulled and
burnt. Do not throw them aside or
into the manure pit for that only as assists
sists assists to spread the trouble.
Lime is a remedy, and may be freety
used with advantage.
Any plants, except of the cross
family, can be grown in rotation, and
it would be well not to grow cabbage,

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

Flavored Fruit
A large yield can be counted on if the I
orchard or vineyard has been properly fertilized. I
One thousand pounds per acre of a fertilizer I
containing io per cent, of Potash is standard. I
Our practical books on successful fertilizing I
are sent on request, free of any cost or obliga- I
tion, to any farmer who will write for them. I
GERMAN KALI WORKS
Candler Building, Atlanta, Qa.

IRRIGATION
MUST BE DONE RIGHT IN
ORDER TO GET RESULTS.
OPERATES BIMPLE
ON GASOLINE *, - RELIABLE
OR KEROSENE DURABLE
WITH EQUAL jj) ECONOMICAL
SATISFACTION ]J IB ct,tre WHAT MORE
AND ECONOMY CAN YOU ASK.
IRRIGATION IS Riff
Write For Free Catalogue and Information.
FLORIDA GAS ENGINE & SUPPLY CO.,
TAMPA, FLA. BOX 837

cauliflower, or turnips on infected
ground for three or four years. New
South Wales Agricultural Gazette.

A Pottery Needed in Florida.
Writing to the Times-Union, Mr. E.
N. Reasoner says:
There is a real need for a home pot pottery
tery pottery in Florida that can turn out stan standard
dard standard flower pots. The demand is such
that a pottery ought to make a tidy
sum yearly. The nearest point that we
can buy pots is Milledgeville, Ga., and
the freight rates are more from there
than from Boston, Mass. The cheapest
places to buy pots now are Philadelphia
and Boston; the freight rates are al almost
most almost equal to the first cost of pots
from these places also! Let a manu manufacturer
facturer manufacturer look into the demand for pots
both for the nursery trade and for the
retail stores in Florida and he will find
it requires a lot of goods to fill orders.
Such a plant ought to be established
near one of the main lines of railroad
where freight rates can be gotten low
to all points.
TOMATO SEED
is one of our specialties, our prices are
right and our- seeds are the best, they
ire all grown from the very best stocks,
not saved from catsup and canning
factories as many offered seed are.
We can supply you with the best seed
of any kind. Catalogue Free.
THE EVANS SEED CO.
GAINESVILLE. FLORIDA.

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Among these are: ELLA WHEELER WIL WILCOX,
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Eighth Are., New Yerk City.

5



6

With far less rainfall between May
and October than the normal quan quantity,
tity, quantity, October has passed with so little
moisture that the fear is beginning
to enter the minds of our rural pop population,
ulation, population, that a second season of drouth
has set in. If so, it will be more
injurious to their interests than that
of last season by reason of the sum summer
mer summer scarcity.
* *
Phillip Isaac's withdrawal from
editorial work at Fort Myers has a
far wider and deeper meaning than
that connected with his town. He
was ever active at State Fair ex exploitation
ploitation exploitation for Lee county, and here
he will be greatly missed. But, suc success
cess success to our letter friend in his new
vocation in the state where he was
born and to which he returns.
* *
Potatoes to plant in Colorado that
were grown in Florida would seem
to be a case of carrying coals to
Newcastle/' but I see a statement
m one of the Denver papers of a man
at Greeley purchasing in June last
fifty pounds of our early potatoes
which came from Florida and sold
in Greeley for four cents a pound.
They were about the size of peaches,
smooth, but quite green. White
planted them on a patch of inferior
ground and today dug 13 sacks, or
1,560 pounds, from the seed. He has
refused $2.50 per hundredweight for
his crop and will plant the entire crop
on fertile ground next season. Now,
one is curious to know just what place
in Florida these potatoes were raised,
and the name of them. Thirty to one
is a pretty good return as to yield,
and $37.50 from an expenditure of $2
makes a pretty good showing.
*
Peanut eaters and they number
millionswill be shocked to hear that
the Board of Health of Aurora, 111.,
attributed a recent death in that town
to peanuts; and they were not canned
goods in the shape of butter either.
But no less a person than the presi president
dent president of a college in that town is a
disbeliever and is going to test it,
by living on a diet of peanuts for
sixty days. But alas! he will not live
on goobers pure and simple; he will
mix the ground peanuts with the nut
part of wheat in the portion of two twothirds
thirds twothirds peanut and one-third wheat.
If he lives or if he dies, which will
get the credit, the peanut or the
wheat?
* *
The October general crop condi condition
tion condition report of the Bureau of Statistics
at Washington shows a marked fall falling
ing falling off in per cent, from last year,
and the estimates of the yield of the
season in the staples are given as
follows:
Crop. 1906 1907
Winter Wheat, bu. .492,888,000 409,500,000
Spring Wheat, bu... 242,374,000 216,067,000
Oats, bu 964,905,000 741,521,000
Barley, bu 178,916*000 147,192,000
Rye, bu 33,375,000 31,566,000
Hay, tons 57,146,000 60,766,000
So up goes flour for the family,
feed for the horse, and there will be
more iroth on the beer in the stein.
* *
In the Press Bulletin of the Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station the
mildew on Queensland Roselle is dis discussed,
cussed, discussed, and as this prevailed heavily
last year, those raising it this season
are cautioned to be on the lookout
for it in November. The mildew is
characterued as follows: The leaves,
petioles, stems and sometimes the
entire plant assume a powdery ap appearance
pearance appearance a* if they had been lightly
dusted ovet with flour or lime. The
appearance comes on quite suddenly.
It usually follows the cool, moist
nights that are likely to occur about
this time of the year. The vitality

TIMELY TOPICS.
Alfalfa and Guinea Grass
Edited by W* E* Pabor*

of the plant is probably weakened by
the drop in tlm temperature, and this
renders it more susceptible to the at attack
tack attack of the mildew. Leaves attacked
by the mildew soon begin to look
unhealthy, and turn slightly yellow.
The disease, says the Bulletin, is
caused by a white, mould-like fungus,
and the treatment recommened is to
spray with potassium sulphide, one
ounce to two gallons of water. As
an additional preventive for the fol following
lowing following year all dead plants should
be burned up after the fruit is picked,
in order to kill the resistant spores
that would otherwise live over winter
on the dead leaves and stems and
infest the next years crop.
* *
Forestry Progress in 1906.
The paper on this subject, printed
in the Tear B >ok of the United Sta
Department of Agriculture, has been
issued in bulletin form and conveys
a great deal af information concern concerning
ing concerning forest reserves as established by
the Government, as well as alarming
facts connected with the deforesting
of the wooded areas of the country
and the consequent rise in price of
lumber. The advance is well shown
in a map whose zig-zag lines show
the yearly per cent, of advance from
the year 1894 to that of 1906. The
hemlock of Pennsylvania from $11.50
per thousand feet brings $22.25 now;
sot them yellow pine from $16.50 gone
up to $29.30; cottonwood from $24 to
$44; yellow poplar $32 to $53, while
white pine that in 1894 commanded
$47 now brings, wholesale, at Buffalo,
N. Y., $92.
These figures show clearly what lies
in the future for the lumber interests
of a growing nation, and even Prof.
Burbanks new cement invention,
while it may check, in time, the use
of lumber for building houses, is still
in such an experimental stage as to
cut no figure in the premises.
The Government is doing a very
good work in establishing Forest Re Reserves
serves Reserves and maintaining them at a de deficit
ficit deficit of hundreds of thousands of
dollars. In 1902 the area was 59,960,-
000 acres; gross revenue therefrom
$25,491.87; expenditure $325,000, leav leaving
ing leaving a deficit of nearly $230,000. In In-1906
-1906 In-1906 the area had increased to 106,-
999,138 acres; revenue $767,219; ex expenditure
penditure expenditure $979,519.00 deficit s2i2 r
200. These areas, of course, do not
! include reservations made by various
| states. Thej are also altogether in
! the country west of the Mississippi
where Government lands were yet ex extensive
tensive extensive enough to be able to furnish
large areas in sections where wood woodlands
lands woodlands were still virgin forests. In
the tropic possessions both on Ha Hawaiian
waiian Hawaiian and Philippine islands nearly
120,000 acres have been set apart.

Nine states have forestry reserva reservations;
tions; reservations; these are Connecticut, Indiana,
Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, New
Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, and
Wisconsin. The areas range from
1300 in the Nutmeg state (I wonder
if for nutmeg industry?) to nearly
a million and a half in New York;
Pennsylvania being second in place
with over 825,000 acres. The State
Forestry associations, however, num number
ber number twenty, but Florida does not ap appear
pear appear in the list, and it is time for
its arboriculturists to get together and
start one; Georgia has the honor of
being the only southern state named
in the report with Alfred Akerman,
of Athens, as its secretary, maintain maintained,
ed, maintained, however, by the State University.
As yet, but few Schools of Forestry
have been established. Yale, at New
Haven, has one; another is at Bilt Biltmore,
more, Biltmore, N. C.; another at the Univer University
sity University of Michigan, being a part of the
Department of Literature, Science and
Arts. Harvard, at Cambridge, main maintains
tains maintains a four years undergraduate

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

course in connection with the Law Lawrence
rence Lawrence Scientific School; Pennsylvania
has a Forest School at its State Col College.
lege. College. Aside from these, in many agri agricultural
cultural agricultural colleges courses in forestry
are regularly given.
So the good work goes on. What
said Oliver Wendell Holmes? When
we plant a tree we are doing whit
we can to make our planet a more
wholesome and happier dwelling place
for those who corne after us. And
did not Bryant affirm that the groves
were Gods first temples? Man
mutilates them in vain effort at artistic
architecture, and so the temples dis disappear.
appear. disappear.
Saving the Liquid Manure.
We do not remember the exact fig figures,
ures, figures, but do know that many writers
make the claim that the liquid manure
from stock is nearly, if not quite, as
valuable as the solid. Yet on most
farms the greater part of it is entirely
wasted, only so much as is taken up by
the bedding used, being saved. The
Journal of Agriculture tells how one
farmer has arranged to prevent this
waste, by saving all the liquid from his
stock, when in the barn.
A Missouri farmer is building a barn
and is pr liquid manure. The floor is made of
oak planks, so laid that there is an
inch space between each one. This al allows
lows allows all the liquid manure to pass
through the floor. Under this is a
drain made of cement, which carried
all of the liquid manure to a pit at one
end of the barn. Occasionally this
drain is washed out with the hose from
the force pump to insure cleanliness
and prevent smelling. The drain cost
less than sls and the farmer figures
that he will save more than this much
manure in a single year. Besides, it
keeps the bedding perfectly clean and
prevents many of the foot ills of
horses which have to stand in the filth.
A greater percentage of plant food ele elements
ments elements are in liquid manure than in
the solids and this is usually lost if
special effort is not made to preserve it.
++
Recipes for Cooking Cassava.
Editor Household Department:
Will you kindly ask your readers to
send in as soon as possible, recipes for
cooking cassava. I had a number but
have mislaid them, and would ap appreciate
preciate appreciate having others. A Reader.

MACY WAGON CO., - Orlando, Fla.
The Geo. H. Fernald Hardware Cos.
Headquarters for farm and gar den tools. Acme harrows, Planet Jr.
tools, Woods mowing machines and rakes. Irrigation a specialty. Fair Fairbanks
banks Fairbanks & Morse gasolene engines. Pumps, boilers, pipe-fitting, plumbing,
steam and gas fitting. Write for cir culars and prices.
SANFORD, FLORIDA.
Galvanized Steel Tanks
APOLLO BLOOM
MADE TO DIMENSION
AERMOTOR WINDMILLS
W. R. FRARY, Eustis, Florida

Large vs- Small Trees.
(Continued from page 1.)
deal. My plan in setting trees is first
to prepare my land thoroughly and
get it free from all stumps, roots,
etc., properly bedded and in a thor thoroughly
oughly thoroughly mellow condition. Then I
buy the very largest buds I can get.
I figure the largest buds niust be the
most vigorous and thrifty. They are
then carefully pruned, and set, and
well watered, and the ground well
settled around the roots. The trees
are then left until they begin to start,
when I fertilize them, and from that
time on I force them as hard as 1
can until they obtain a good bearing
size. I contend that this is the most
economical way to set trees and
groves. It may not be the cheapest
in the beginning, but it certainly is
in the end, for the trees come into
bearing sooner, and the gain you
make at this end more than com compensates
pensates compensates for the extra cost at the be beginning.
ginning. beginning. Final results are what we
are after, and the sooner we get them
at a reasonable cost, jthe more eco economical
nomical economical the investment proves to be.

Warranted to Give Satlafaatlmn.
GombauWa
Caustic Balsam
HI ~. .v Wwk
v : i W m if
FTP : : =
''''W
Has Imitators But Ho Compotitors.
A Safe, Speeay and Positive Cure for
Curb, Splint. Sweeny, Capped leak,
Strained Tendons, Founder, Wind
Puffa, and all lameneaa from Spavin,
Ringbone and ether bony turners.
Curea all akin diaeaaea er Paraaitea,
Thrush, Diphtheria. Remove* ell
Bunches from Horses or Cattlo.
Asa Human Remedy for Rheumatism,
Sprains, Sore Throat, eto., it le Invaluable.
Every bottle of Caustie Balsam oold is
Warranted to give satisfaction. Price $1,50
per bottle. Sold by druggists, or sent by ex*
press, charges paid, with full directions for
its use. CVS end for descriptive circulars,
testimonlale, etc. Address \
The L*wr*nc*-Wllllam* Cos., Cleveland, 0.



TARGET BRAND WHITE FLY DESTROYER
Flour and Flowers of Sulphur

Whale-Oil Soap and other Insecticides For b^ ale
E. 0. PAINTER FERTILIZER CO., Jacksonville, Fla.

BETTER UTILIZATION OF
YELLOW PINE.
Wise Utilization of Whole Tree Will
Forestall Shortage in Southern
Yellow Pine.
The following, issued by the United
States Forest Service, will be inter interesting
esting interesting in connection with Mr. Pabors
note on Forest Reserves, in this
weeks Timely Topics.
In fifteen or twenty years, at the
present rate of cutting, the supply
of the long-leaf yellow pine of the
South, one of Americas most useful
forest trees, will be nearly exhaust exhausted,
ed, exhausted, say the experts of the United
States Forest Service. If these pin;
forests are wiped out, one of the
Souths important industries will die
the production of the so-called naval
stores.
The lumber of the Southern yellow
pine brings sls to $35 per thousand
feet, its turpentine 56 cents per gallon,
its rosin from $4.35 to $6.95 per 280
pounds, and its pitch $3.25 per 280
pounds. All of these prices are grad gradually
ually gradually becoming higher on account of
the increased demand and the scarcity
of the products. Formerly, turpentine
could be purchased for 30 cents a
gallon. Now 56 cents must be paid
at wholesale, and the consumer of
gallon lots will pay at times as high
as SI.OO.
In the face of these fast increasing
prices, people are still found who say
that there is yet an inexhaustible sup supply
ply supply of yellow pine in the South, and
that all talk about a famine is un unwarranted.
warranted. unwarranted. Such statements are not
justified by conditions, and the yel yellow
low yellow pine lumbering industry will soon
be in the face of a serious shortage
unless decided changes are made in
the present methods, and unless
valuable products now going to waste
are utilized. The long-leaf pine is a
slow-growing tree and does not make
timber with anywhere near the vapid vapidity
ity vapidity that it is being cut. The situation
calls for making the very best use
of the present supply.
There are at present in the woods
of the South vast quantities of pine
logs and tall stumps left as a result
of caresless lumbering in the past.
This material is rich in turpentine
and could be made to yield from ten
to fifteen gallons of refined spirits per
cord. Besides this, there is a great
waste at the sawmills in the form of
slabs, but at present is, for the most
part, simply burned to get it out of
the way. In fact, not more than 50
per cent of the tree as it stands in
the forest comes to the market in
the form of valuable materials.
In the year 1906 the reported cut
of southern yellow pine was some
twelve million board feet. A con conservative
servative conservative estimate of the actual
amount of turpentine alone, to say
nothing of wood fiber ?nd other ma materials,
terials, materials, which could be produced from
the wastewood of this one year, would
place the amount at not less than 30
million gallons. This is a surprising
figure when it is remembered that it
represents an amount almost equal to
the present annual production of gum
spirits in this country. If this pro product
duct product were extracted from the wood
and sold at even the current price of
good wood turpentine, the gross
saving would be easily $14,400,000.
Men have realized for some time
that an enormous waste of valuable
substances is going on, and a few

have succeeded in extracting the tur turpentine
pentine turpentine and placing on the market a
material of fairly good quality. In
the majority of cases, however, the
article has been of an inferior grade,
due generally to the fact that the
technical methods used have been
faulty. Asa result of this, wood
turpentine is at present often con considered
sidered considered as an adulterated material, or
at best as a poor substitute for gum
spirits. It is true that in some cases
those opinions were well founded, but
inferior products have put an un unnecessary
necessary unnecessary damper on the whole in industry.
dustry. industry.
The Section of Wood Chemistry of
the Forest Service has lately been
investigating this subject, and some
valuable results have been obtained.
It has been found that for the re recovery
covery recovery of turpentine from wastewood
the steam distillation process is far
superior to that of distilling the wood
destructively. The crude turpentine
is in all cases more uniform, and the
final refined materials are as a rule
of better grade and can demand a
higher price. When properly made
and refined, experiments have shown
that the steam turpentines are in
many cases even more uniform in
composition than the gum turpentines,
and for all practical purposes contains
the identical substances. The odor
often can not be distinguished from
that of gum spirits, but even if it
could, this is a small matter in many
cases, as infinitesimal and undetecta undetectable
ble undetectable amounts of certain impurities
in the refined product as the result
of the methods of production can
produce this slight difference in odor,
and the wood turpentine should not
be condemned for practical purposes
on this account. This becomes still
more evident when it is known that
the sweet odor of the gum turpentine
is not characteristic of itself, but is
due to an impurity produced by the
chemical action of air upon it.
These are important discoveries and
are well worthy of consideration. If
they are true, then refined steam tur turpentine,
pentine, turpentine, properly prepared, should
bring at least an equal price in this
country with th e gum turpentine. In Indeed,
deed, Indeed, abroad this is often the case,
and instances are on record where the
refined steam turpentine has, by virtue
of its more uniform composition,
brought five cents a gallon more than
the gum spirits, and is in much great greater
er greater demand. Further investigations
along these lines will be pushed vigor vigorously
ously vigorously by the Forest Service.
*
A Fine Forage Plant.
Within the last week we found an
item in one of our exchanges calling
attention to the fact that Guinea grass
was being exploited as a new forage
plant, but that it was tried years
ago in Alachua county, and that while
it made % wonderful growth the first
year and was relished by stock, it
was so tender that it all winter-killed
the first winter, and was entirely too
tender for most sections of Florida.
The following from the Gainesville
Sun seems to indicate that it has stood
one winter in this state. It is a ques question,
tion, question, however, whether the grass
grown on this farm is the true Guinea
grass. Our reasons for doubting it
willl be found on the editorial page.
The Sun article is as follows:
Attorney B. A. Thrasher, who is
a great admirer of stock and who
owns a nice farm a short distance

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

THE
SEABOARD..
Has made every effort to place before the
people of the United States convincing
facts of : : : : : :
FLORIDAS ATTRACTIVENESS
*
This work will be continued on a Larger
and Broader Scale and we would like
each reader of this paper to send us the
names of : : : : :
..RELATIVES, FRIENDS AND ACQUAINTANCES..
That we may supply them with literature
HENRY CURTIS, .1. W. WHITE,
Asst. General Industrial Agent, Genl Industrial Agent,
Jacksonville, Fla. Portsmouth, Va.

to the west of Gainesville, believes
he has solved the problem of feed
for cattTe in Florida. Col. Thrasher
has been experimenting with this
forage for the past year, and he de declares
clares declares it to be the best thing for the
Florida stockman that has ever been
discovered.
The forage referred to by Col.
Thrasher is an original product of
Cuba, and is known as Guinea grass.
It is very prolific and, says Col.
Thrasher, planted on fairly good land
in this state, will grow thick and heavy
and will reach a height of from seven
to ten feet, if permitted to grow un unmolested.
molested. unmolested. Col. Thrasher, through a
friend, heard of this wonderful grass
in the spring of last year and ordered
from Cuba a small quantity for an
experiment. He planted the seed,
which thrived and grew prolifically,
and which proved.as represented ex-
cellent excellent forange and very fattening to
cattle and stock.
I can fairly say that after a thor thorough
ough thorough test of the Guinea grass I be believe
lieve believe it to be a problem solver for
the cattle industry of Florida, re remarked
marked remarked Col. Thrasher Tuesday. I
knew nothing about it when I ordered
the seed, but planted them according
to my own judgment in the absence
of directions, with the result that 1
had a prolific crop from my invest investment,
ment, investment,

Fine Fruit Farm,
in Lake County,
For Sale Cheap.
Tract of nearly forty acres, partly
underlaid with kjolin. About twenty
acres planted to oranges and grape*
fruit, fifteen years old. Also figs,
peaches and other fruits. Land is
especially adapted to peaches. Near
railroad station, and in good neigh*
borhood. House of three rooms,
small barn, fowl house and other im improvements.
provements. improvements. For immediate sale will
take $2,500 cash. Address
LAKE COUNTY,
Care Agriculturist, Jacksonville, Fla.
W. D. JONES,
PRESCRIPTION SPECIALIST and
FAMILY DRUGGIST.
107 East Bay Street,
JACKSONVILLE, : : FLORIDA

7



8

Florida
Agriculturist
Entered at the postoffice at Jacksonville,
Florida, as second-class matter.
Published weekly by the
AGRICULTURIST PUBLISHING CO.,
Walter Connelly, Manager.
W. C. Steele, Editor.
E. O. Painter, Associate Editor.
Jacksonville Office:
216 West Forsyth Street.
Northern Representative:
A. Diefenbach, Newark, N. J.
TERMS.
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SPECIAL NOTICE Subscribers who find
a cross mark opposite their name will please
take notice that their subscription expires
with this number, and that unless renewal
is sent in promptly the paper will be dis discontinued.
continued. discontinued.
WEDNESDAY, NOV. 6, 1907.
A Personal Request.
It is our purpose to devote the is issue
sue issue of the Agriculturist for November
20th largely to the best methods of
gathering, packing and marketing the
various fruit and vegetable crops
grown in Elorida. We hope to cover
every phase of the subject, and have
the promise of special articles from
some of the most experienced growers
and shippers in the state, but in order
that it may be as complete as possible,
we would be especially pleased to have
the experience of our readers generally,
even though it may deal with only a
single detail. No one man knows it
all, but 11 each reader will contribute
something on this subject, this particu particular
lar particular number of the Agriculturist alone
will be worth more than a whole years
subscription. We therefore appeal to
every one to give us something from
his experience along this line, and to
do it as soon as he reads this.
We expect to print a large number of
extra copies of fchis issue, to place in
the hands of our subscription agents,
and this will present*an unusual oppor opportunity
tunity opportunity for advertisers to reach the
growers and shippers of the entire
state. Exceedingly reasonable rates
will be made for the service rendered,
which will be cheerfully furnished on
request.
1
The Mediterranean Fruit Fly.
In the article on mangoes, the writ writer
er writer mentions this insect as being a
serious enemy to mangoes, and ad advises
vises advises great care in importing fruit
from Mexico that we may not also
import this insect.
A late number of the California
Cultivator devotes more than a page
to a description of this insect and
its life history. There is no question
that it is one of the worst enemies

of fruit growers that has ever appear appeared.
ed. appeared. The female lays a number of eggs
in the ripening fruit, before it is ready
to pick, and these hatch out in a few
days into small worms. Their pres presence
ence presence is not easily detected before the
fruit is cut open. You all know how
the presence of one larva of the cur curculio
culio curculio affects a peach or plum; when
that is multiplied by five or six, as is
often the case with this fruit fly, you
can readily imagine that the result is
not appetizing.
Something ought to be done to in insure
sure insure the rigid inspection of all fruit
from suspected ports and the con condemnation
demnation condemnation of all infected fruit.
. +.
/
Winter Cantaloupes.
Some weeks ago Mrs. Townsend de described
scribed described a variety of cantaloupe which
is being grown in California, which
will keep for weeks, and if grown in
the fall may be kept into cold weather.
The last number of the Fruit Trade
Journal reports that a crate of them
has been received in New York. Six
of the melons, packed in sufficient straw
to insure safe carriage, filled a crate
which would hold 45 Rocky Ford can cantaloupes.
taloupes. cantaloupes. The charges were $2.50 for
the crate of 6 melons, so that they
must sell for at least sl. each to allow
the grower any profit. If there is a
demand to justify, they can be shipped
by freight much cheaper.
The new fruit is said to have the col color
or color of a cross between a watermelon,
a Hubbard squash and a summer crook
neck squash. The taste is pleasantly
sweetish, a blending of cantaloupe and
watermelon. VVe hope that our grow growers
ers growers will get seed and test this melon
next year. Being so much nearer mar market
ket market would give us a great advantage.

Record California Orange Sale.
Orange growing in this state is a
profitable business, especially to those
who take pains to have their fruit clean,
smooth and then put it up in the best
possible manner. Yet it is impossible
lor us to compete with California
growers, in making money, until we
can find a variety which we can hold,
until October and have them of first
class quality at that time. The last
number of the Fruit Trade Journal
tells of the sale of a car load of or oranges
anges oranges from California at prices which
are surprising. There were 384 boxes
111 the car and the footing ol the total
sales was $2,948. The fancy sold for
irom $7.50 to $9.00, averaging $8.83.
Choice sold lor Irom $5.00 to $8.83, av averaging
eraging averaging $7.94. Standards sold from
$5-50 to $7-70, averaging $6.83. The
average lor the car was $7.67 and a
iraction.
It certainly seems that here is a
field for experiment, the production of
a variety that could be kept and sold
at this season of the year, would be a
wonderful boom to the orange grow growers,
ers, growers, 01 this state.
Sheep.
W e wish to call attention to an ar article
ticle article on keeping sheep, which will be
found in another column. We have no
doubt that they will be profitable wher wherever
ever wherever they can be protected from the
ravages of worthless curs. Angora
goats would have the advantage, as
they are much better able to take care
of themselves. Still the kids must be
watched or dogs or hogs will destroy
them.
But we have no doubt that the keep-

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

ing of mutton breeds of sheep will
become a great industry in Florida. A
few have tried it and found that lambs
could be sold at a good profit. Our
mild climate makes it so much easier
to raise the lambs at a time when they
bring a high price. One can easily try
it with a few head, as they can be put
into a fold at night so as to be safe
from dogs.
+
Guinea Grass (?)
In our introductory remarks, at the
beginning of an article on guinea
grass, we expressed doubt whether the
grass grown near Gainesville,
which withstood the cold of last winter,
could be the true guinea grass. This
opinion is based upon the following
facts. The grass is very tender and
former introductions winter-killed so
badly that its cultivation in that sec section
tion section was abandoned. But the princi principal
pal principal reason for doubting its being true
to name is that it is said to have been
grown from seed.
Prof. Spillman, in his Grasses of the
United States, devotes over a page to
this grass. It is no doubt a remarka remarkably
bly remarkably valuable grass for pasture or feed
where it can be grown, but Prof. Spill Spillman
man Spillman quotes Prof. Frank S. Earle, of
the Cuban Department of Agriculture,
as follows: As to Guinea grass, it
is the best pasture and hay grass in
the world. I do not know how it
will do in Florida sands, as I have
only seen it in rich lands. It is us usually
ually usually planted by slips. I have never
seen the seed, nor heard of its being
planted. I his is strong evidence
that it is not grown from seed.
As to Para grass the same writer
says: The Para grass is not as nu nutritious
tritious nutritious as guinea grass, and it grows
best in wet, half-swampy places. It is
as hard to kill as Johnson grass, and 1
regard it as a rather bad weed. Still,
like Johnson grass, it is a line thing m
its place, and yields enormously on
lands too wet for anything else.

Estimate of Orange Crop.
We have published some of the va various
rious various estimates as given by different
papers. The latest, made by the cor correspondents
respondents correspondents of the New York Packer,
is that the crop will be nearly or quite
2,500,000 boxes. This does not vary
very much from the estimates of those
who have probably the best opportunity
to know the real conditions of the
crop in all parts of the state. .Prices are
said by the Packer t be rising, being
held now at $1.50 per box on the tree,
.buyers are inclined to hold back,
they have been paying from $1.25 to
$1.40, but grumble at the extra dime.
Catjang.
Have you seen any advertisements of
Catjang as a wonderful new forage
plant? li so, ao not be in a hurry to
invest 111 seed, for if you do you will
hnd that you have only your old
iriend the cow pea. Our attention was
hrst called to this by an editorial note
in harm and Ranch, which said that
they were receiving inquiries about
Catjang as anew forage plant, and
calling attention to an exposure of the
lacts 111 the case. These are, briefly,
that a subscriber asks about an adver advertisement
tisement advertisement which he had- found in a
Texas paper. Ihe Farm and Ranch
reprints the entire advertisement
which sets forth in glowing colors the
great advantages of the new forage

plant Catjang, and then shows that
it is simply the cow pea offered under
its botanical name, which is seldom
or never seen or heard. As soon as
we read this we looked up the botan botanical
ical botanical name of the cow pea.
Since then we have been somewhat
amused to find, in the Denver Field
and Farm, an item about this very
plant. The editor evidently had but
little faith in its value, but did not
take the trouble to look it up. He
makes no mention of the facts in the
case, but says; We will bet our good
old alfalfa will skunk it at every twist
in the pike, so what is the use of put puttering
tering puttering with such things with incom incomprehensible
prehensible incomprehensible names?
National Rivers and Harbors
Congress.
That is a long name but it refers to
an important body. We have just re received
ceived received a circular from the department
of publicity, stating that the National
Rivers and Harbors Congress will con convene
vene convene in the city of Washington, on
Wednesday, December 4. That it will
continue in session through the next
two days.
The claim is made in this circular
that this body is second only to the
Congress of the United States in im importance.
portance. importance. This may be true. Certain Certainly
ly Certainly we are in full sympathy with its
proposed work, which, as we under understand
stand understand it, is to advocate a better system
of inland waterways.
The waterways of this country do
need improvement. The railroads con confess
fess confess that they need to enlarge their
facilities. Moreover the farmers of
the country need the competition of
waterways to keep down the freight
lates, it being a well known fact that
railroads which have the competiiion of
some water route carry .freight at a
much lower rate than those which
iiave no such competition. It is out
of the question for the state govern governments
ments governments to do the required work prompt promptly
ly promptly and efficiently. Moreover the com commerce
merce commerce over these routes will necessari necessarily
ly necessarily come unaer the control of Con Congress
gress Congress as interstate business and the
work should be done by the general
government. The object of the circu circular
lar circular was to interest the people o i all
Hie states, so that all would be repre represented
sented represented at the coming meeting. We
Jiope tnat iTorida wifi be properly rep repevented.
evented. repevented.
Citrus Fruit in New York.
liie rruit Trade journal reports a
good demand lor Florida grapeiruit,
and when 01 attractive quality prices
were mgn, ranging ironi $0.75 down
cO
As we have mentioned elsewhere,
x' norma orange* continue poor anu the
movement was ngnt, prices ranging
ironi to $5.50, wmen, considering
uie co uuinon 01 tile iruit, was consid considered
ered considered a very good hgure.
'ortv) icico oianges are coming in
larger quantities and prices range
ironi $1 45 to $4 according to quality.
iuexican oranges are also selling
wen, prices ranging from $2.25 to $4.
borne grapeiruit is arriving irom
rorto Kico and the quality is said to
ue superior to any otlier on the mar market
ket market at this time.
Ricking the new crop of California
oranges lias begun and shipping was
expected to commence sometime dur during
ing during the week ending October 26.



Shipping Green Oranges.
This ruinous practice is still going
on. Reports from New York say that
the fruit arriving is still very green and
selling at low prices. The low price
is not the worst feature of the busi business.
ness. business. It is hurting the reputation of
Florida fruit, and tending to ruin the
market.
So far a; we know, the papers of this
state agree in deprecating the practice,
with one exception.
We know very little of the newly
organized Orange Growers Associ Association,
ation, Association, but all that we have seen in re regard
gard regard to it has been favorable. We
quoted their open letter to the various
boards of health in regard to condemn condemning
ing condemning the green fruit, and commended the
action. One or two other papers have
done the same thing. It remained
however for one editor to distinguish
himself by denouncing it, calling it a
bool Break. He denounces the Or Orange
ange Orange Glowers Association and the
whole thing. Fortunately for fae state
we ao not believe that he represents
the general sentiment of the press or
the orange growers. We hope that
the time is not lar distant when the
law will step in and put a stop to the
snipment oi such unwholesome iruit,
unuer me provisions ot the pure iood
law.
AASWIfiJiS jlO COJiIUSSPOADENTS.
i have a patch of cow peas, still holding
their leaves, auu Irom which the peas have
not Deen picaea. ean l matte nay rmm
tnese witnout picking the peas' c. i. J.
Certainly. JLhe peas wiii only add
iiourisnment to me nay. it is possible
Liiat in curing tile vines you may lose
ail or most oi me leaves, but mis will
not matter a great ueai, as me vines
ana me iruit win contain a large quan quantity
tity quantity oi iiourisnment, ana will in iact,
niaive almost a complete iood. We
woum suggest mat tile vines De cured
in sman cocks, aim turneu several
times betore storing.

1 wish to piant a tow pecan trees, but
u.o not oaitj lu wait years* aim years tor
riuit. f nave on my place two trees tnat
nave Oeen Here ever since x ownen tne
inctce, aoout six years, ana tliey still snow
no signs or truit. my nelgiiDor nas trees
piaiiteu. since x moveu nere, wincn are oear oearran
ran oearran crops. vv licit Kind ox trees can X
get tnat win mane an eariy yielu ana
wnere can tney ue procureuY VV. p.
xOu nave evidently seedling trees
uiaL may near in tne course Oi a iew
years more anu may not. lour neigh neighbor
bor neighbor evmenuy nas graitea trees, ana
tnese are tne una tnat you should
piant. joesiues getting an early crop
you get iruit true to name. .lliese
tiees may be procureu oi any ol the
nurserymen advertising in our columns.
1 am a suoscriber to your paper residing
in me norm, ana expect in tne course ox
mile to mane my iiome in L'lOiiua. rlave
oen muon linpressea witn tne reports or
pi out xroiu me celery growers near *Sau *Saurom.
rom. *Saurom. jls mis tiie only section ox Florida
wuere ceiery is prontaoiy grown l J. p. W.
is grown to a limited extent
in a iew other places in the state other
uian oamora, but tne section
nas set tne pace, aim it is here that
ceiery growing has been developed to
a most prohtable point. We should
thing tnat there were many other sec sections
tions sections in Florida where the plant could
he grown easily and prohtable. Of
course the matter ol irrigation is one
oi the chief points. At banford the
land is irrigated from howing wells,
which minimizes the cost. While other
places might do as well, at present
people appear to take on. a certainty by
developing farms near Sanford than to
take the chances of failure by experi experimenting
menting experimenting elsewhere.

Farm Insurance.
Farmers often complain of the diffi difficulty
culty difficulty in securing good accommodation
irom insurance companies. They com complain
plain complain of the excessive restrictions and
the difficulty of getting insurance at all
on some property.
The trouble is owing to different
causes. In the first place, the insurance
business is virtually a trust, the com companies
panies companies having formed an association
which arranges the general terms upon
which insurance business is done, and
the property owner must accept these
general conditions or go without in insurance
surance insurance in the regular line compan companies.
ies. companies. The other cause iies in the iact
that insurance on larm property nas
generally been unprontaDle to compan companies.
ies. companies. Many companies ao not like to
take risks on iaim pi
ing louiia such business a losing ven venture,
ture, venture, owing to the rather poor pro protection
tection protection against hre in most country dis districts,
tricts, districts, and also the defective construc construction
tion construction of many farm houses, and the dan danger
ger danger irom lightening ana other causes
of fire in barns. One of the insurance
offices recently cited the experience oi
a dozen or more Massachusetts com companies
panies companies covering a period ol six years,
snowing that for every dollar received
from owners of farm property $1.36
was paid out.
Yet some of the co-operative farm
insurance companies have succeeded in
carrying insurance at a lower rate than
the price charged by the regular com companies,
panies, companies, and they pay their losses with without
out without trouble. The secret seems to lie in
tlie closer sifting of the farm risks. By
selecting a high class oi property own owners,
ers, owners, those who are careiul in looking
alter tlieir property and avoiding risks
of lire, the danger is much reduced,
/igain, of course, there is a certain class
01 property owners who place exces excessive
sive excessive insurance on their property, otten
Higher than the whole market value 01
the farm, ana in such cases it is not
surprising that the loss is heavy. The
mutual companies avoid risks of this
kina, placing a sate limit upon the
amount of insurance they wili accept.
Ino reason appears why larm property
should not be profitably insured 11 it is
looked after carefully and the risks
thoroughly sifted out. American Culti Cultivator.
vator. Cultivator.

ortc/ip OOlu/m/v
Twenty words or more, iy 2 cents per word.
JNo advertisements taken for less man 25
Tn FUNGI is natures own and sure
remedy for WTiiteity. infected leaves
and trees for sale. C. A. BOONiI,
Orlando, Fla.
LOUB white farm hands wanted; single
men; S2O per month and board, and
small raise for good hands. fi. xvi.
FFaxsjj], Bradentown, Fla.
F-ttoinjcn; commission merchant
orange, Lemons, (Grapefruit and ail South Southern
ern Southern uruit and Vegetables soiu at nignest
prices, uooa sizeu consignments. We will
sena check on account wnen received;
oalance when soia. t. J. xioover, ixti
Produce Ave., Pnua., Pa.
STBA W 8888 Y Plants for Sale. Klon Klondike,
dike, Klondike, Bxcelsior and JLady Thompson.. Price
per thousand. L. xti. Amidon, Pine
Castle, Fla.
AxiLi YOU going to plant a fail crop of vege vegetables
tables vegetables t if so you had better let us send
you our seed price list. Keniierlys seed
Store, Paiatka, Fla.
FOB SAUL! 0,000 new Victor Becorus;
latest lied Seals; new phonometers ior
utermining speed for turn-tables, sl.uu.
Catalogues fx ee. Wholesale and retail.
Victors only. Metropolitan Talking ma machine
chine machine Cos., Jacksonville, L'ia.
CHoiCLi Budded Citrus Trees, improved
strains, best varieties, stocKea witn xted
ana xsrown Fungus, Seedlings up to naif
inen diameter. Jttougn Lemon, Pomelo,
Sweet and Sour Orange. A. J. Pettigrew,
Manatee, Lia.
FOK SABBFruit and vegetable farm,
healthy location, Poik County, 5y 2 miies
from railroad; well improved, bearing
grove, poultry and bees. Address A, care
Agriculturist.
NO MORE SAN JOSB SC ABB Bed head
fungus sure and speedy death. For in information
formation information address F. P. IIBNDBBSON,
Arno, Fla.
FOB SAUB A four acre celery farm with
two-story seven room house, good barn,
on Celery avenue, Sanford, for so,ouo.
Address C. B. H., care Florida Agricul Agriculturist.
turist. Agriculturist.
FOB SAUB A fine piece of farm land of
thirty acres, of which fifteen acres is
orange grove, two miles from Bustis,
Bake Cos., for $4,000. Address C. B. LL.
care of Florida Agriculturist.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

AGRICULTURIST REAL ESTATE DEPARTMENT
SOME GENUINE BARGAINS IN FLORIDA PROPERTY.
A few weeks ago the Agriculturist published the following article, under the head heading,
ing, heading, Sell Some of \our Land, suggested by the many inquiries regarding Florida and
its opportunities that are being received almost daily:

Have you a small tract of land suitable for truck and fruit growing that
you will sell at a reasonable figure? If so, write us a full description, stating
distance from schools, churches, transportation, etc., together with price and
terms. We may be able to put you in communitation with a purchaser. The
Agriculturist receives letters almost daily from people in other section of the
country asking about locations for homes in Florida, mostly small places
worth SI,OOO to $5,000, and these inquiriers generally ask about land already
planted or suitable for planting to oranges, peaches or pecans, and on which
they can grow truck or raise poultry profitably until their trees come into bear bearing.
ing. bearing.
If you have more land than you need sell some of it and surround your yourself
self yourself with good neighbors, and thus let us fill up the state with industrious peo people
ple people who will make homes and add to our prosperity.

We have received a large number of responses to this from parties desiring to sell,
some of whom have found purchasers; others have priced their property so high that
we did not feel like recommending it, while in the following cases the property is
still unsold so far as we are advised. We beiieve they are real bargains. Inquirers are
requested to refer to them by number.

No. 4. Nine room house in DeLand, on
Boulevard, two biocks from University and
postoiiice; completely furnished; sanitary
plumbing, electric lights and water. Price
No. 5. Two-story seven room house in
Orlando; bath room and pantry; hot and
cold water and electric lights, finely fur furnished;
nished; furnished; barn 16x24; lot 84x100. Price $3,000.
No. 8. Four acre celery farm, with two twostory
story twostory seven room house and good barn, on
Celery avenue, Sanford. Price $ 6,006.
No. 11. Fine opportunity on Indian river.
Any quantity of land desired at sls to $75
per acre; oranges, grapefruit, guavas, etc., on
property;/spiendid Ifind for trucking. Also
tract of 12 acres under cultivation, near
railroad station, express office, postoffice,
store, hotel, school and churches; seven room
house, six out-buildings, hogs, chickens, etc.
Will sell reasonable, rent or let on shares
to right party on liberal terms.
No. 14. Fine 10-aere orange grove in
Manatee county, containing 550 old bearing
orange and grapefruit trees, and four acres
just beginning to bear; crop last year
3,500 boxes. Also six acres rich hammock,
sub-irrigated and especially suited to let lettuce,
tuce, lettuce, celery, etc., wnich netted last year
$2,000; newly installed irrigating plant for
both grove and truck farm; line shipping
facilities, both rail and water. Will make
liberal terms or trade for good Jacksonville
property. Price $15,000.
No. 15. Forty acres best quality pine land
in DeSoto county; nine acres cleared and
planted this fail to oranges and grape grapefruit;
fruit; grapefruit; small hour**; near school, churcnes
and postoffice; nursery of 25,000 orange and
grapefruit trees, which ought to pay for
place in two years. Price $2,000.
No. lb. Twenty acres good hammock
land, one mile from Leesuurg, on hard clay
road and near railroad and line large lake;
hrst class gardening, farming or orange
land. Price $2,000.
No. 17. Thirty acres in Lake county, two
miles from Bustis; fifteen acres in grove,
balance suited to any purpose. Price $4,000.
No. 18. Small place 1 1-4 miles from Or Orlando;
lando; Orlando; 10 acres in tract live in clear wa water
ter water lake and balance line trucking land;
small one-story house, driven well and other
improvements. Price $1,250.
No. 20. Twelve acres good hammock land,
with six-room house, all furnished. Good
barn, hog proof fence, with orange and
grapefruit trees. In line gi'azing section of
Lake county. Price SSOO.

In addition to above we have had referred to us a number of fine timber tracts in
size from 10,000 to 50,000 acres, located in different sections of the State, inquiries con concerning
cerning concerning which we will promptly forward to their respective owners.
In most cases satisfactory reasons are given for desiring to sell.
The Agriculturist is not dealing in realestate and does not undertake to negotiate
any sales, but will cheerfuly answer any inquiries and put intending purchasers in com communication
munication communication with owners.
.Please direct all correspondence connected with this department to
yKEAL ESTATE DEPARTMENT,
FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST,
Jacksonville, Ela.

CUT-AWAY HARROWS and repairs. E. S.
HUBBARD, Agent, Federal Point, Fla.
FOR SALE Banana plants. The Bananas
will produce more nourishing food to the
acre year by year than any food grown.
BEARHEAD FARM, Orlando, Florida.
BROTHER, I have found a root that will
surely cure that tobacco habit and in indigestion,
digestion, indigestion, let me write you about it. C. H.
STOKES, Mohawk, Florida.
GRAFTED PECAN TREES As good as
the best as cheap as the cheapest our
motto. Try us. BEARS PECAN NUR NURSERIES,
SERIES, NURSERIES, Palatka, Fla.
WANTED One to two dozen young hens,
either Rocks, Wyandottes, or Rhode Is Island
land Island Reds. J. Milligan, Daytona, Fla.
TEN WEEKS FOR TEN CENTS.
Until further notice we will send the Agri Agriculturist
culturist Agriculturist ten weeks for 10 cents to new sub subscribers
scribers subscribers only.
PIGEONS FOR BREEDING Can furnish in
quantities, Runts, Maltese hen pigeons,
Dragoons and homers. True to anme anu
first-class stock. Elmer Ogbin, Starke,
Fla.
FOR SALE Twelve acres of good hammock
land with a six room cottage all furnisned.
Good barn, hog proof fence, with orange
and grapefruit trees. In Lake county in
fine grazing country. All in good condi condition
tion condition for SSUO. Address H- Florida Agricul Agriculturist.
turist. Agriculturist.

No. 22. Nice farm two miles from Orlando;
40 acres, all fenced; 400 orange, tangerine
and grapefruit trees, more than half bear bearing;
ing; bearing; seven room # house, new packing house
and other buildings; horse, wagon, farm
implements, chickens, etc. Price for the
whole $2,000.
No. 23. Twenty-six and one-half acres,
one and one-half miles from Leesburg; house
of eight rooms, finely finished in native
woods, stables, etc.; 150 orange trees and
small fruits; clear water lake on the tract;
fine place for chicken ranch. Price SI,BOO.
No. 24. Ten acres four miles from Sor Sorrento,
rento, Sorrento, Lake county; four room house and
small barn; 120 orange and grapefruit trees,
40 pear trees, mostiy nearing; 30 peach
trees; nice front yard set with fiowers and
evergreens; good well of water. Price $750.
No. 25. Thirty acres good truck i land,
three miles from Sorrento; ten acres clear cleared
ed cleared and in cultivation; good ordinary six
room house, barn and other buildings; about
twenty peach trees. Ten acres is good
round timber, and remaining ten acres has
some good small timber on it. Price $750.
No. 26. About one-fourth mile from No.
25, tract of 25 acres, from which timber
has mostly been cut off. Good fruit and
vegetable land. Price $lO per acre.
No. 31. Very fine fruit and truck farm,
near Palatka; 45 acres, .mostly under culti cultivation;
vation; cultivation; four acres sub-irrigated and pro produces
duces produces fine lettuce, celery, etc., several hun hundred
dred hundred old bearing orange and grapefruit
trees, and 100 pecans just coming into
bearing; house, packing house and other
buildings modern and up to date; fine ship shipping
ping shipping facilities, being located near two rail railroads
roads railroads and St. Johns river. Price $13,500.
No. 32. Forty acres five miles from Pa Palatka;
latka; Palatka; 5 acres two miles from Palatka;; 50
acres eight miles from Palatka; 10 acres
and two town lots at Silver Springs
Park; all good land for general farming
purposes. Detailed description of each will
be furnished on request. Price for the whole
$2,250.
No. 38. Ten acres of first-class pineapple
land and 10 acres fine muck land suitable
for tomatoes and all kinds of vegetables;
near Bast Coast Railroad, the Hillsboro
river, Bast Coast Canal, and on good hard
road, between West Palm Beach and Miami;
one of the best bargains in Florida. Full
description and price on request.

MANNS SALT SICK CURESaIt sick cured
for one dollar, or money refunded. Ed Edward
ward Edward L. Mann, Interlachen, Fla.
FREE EXUIANIiE COLUMN.
Advertisements of twenty (20) words or
less will be inserted in this column free for
regular subscribers who have pioaucts or
other articles they would like to exchange.
Regular business announcements will not be
permitted under any circumstances.
TO EXCHANGE A good Incubator, used
one season, or a good Mann Bone Cutter,
for Pure Barred Plymouth Rocks. A. La Lamont,
mont, Lamont, White City, Fla.
TO EXCHANGE For best offer, s%x9Vfe
printing press, 12 fonts of type, cuts, leans,
etc. All in good condition. C. F. Whit Whitcomb,
comb, Whitcomb, Umatilla, Fla.
I WOULD LIKE to hear from Florida cor correspondents
respondents correspondents who have choice lilies, shrubs,
and tropical plants to exchange. Mrs.
Georgiana S. Townsend, Fay Villa, Holly Hollywood,
wood, Hollywood, L. A. Cos., Cal.
CABBAGE AND CAUI.iri.OWBB
SEED.
I have had some sample packages of
cabbage and cauliflower seed sent me
from Denmark to distribute among
the vegetable growers in Florida. I
will send a small package to any
one wishing same on receipt of a two twocent
cent twocent postage stamp to pay postage.
These will be sent out as long as
the samples on hand last.
E. O. Painter, Jacksonville, Fla.

9



10

POULTRY DEPARTMENT

How the Geese Led the Turkeys.
The following account of a curious
race is from the Metropolitan Mag Magazine.
azine. Magazine. Probably those who backed the
geese understood the propensity of
turkeys and set the time of the race
accordingly:
No more curious examples of one
of these side issues of sport can be
found tnan is ottered by a match made
when George IV. was still Prince ol
Wales. The match was a famous one
in its day irom its exceptional nature,
the parties engaged in it and the unex unexpected
pected unexpected denouement. The Hon. George
Hanger, afterward Loid Coleraine, was
one of the celebrated and eccentric
personages of tile aay. At one of the
gay parties at Carleton House Mr.
Hanger was led in the course of the
conversation to declare that a turkey
could travel faster than a goose. The
Prince of Wales, who had great confi confidence
dence confidence in his judgment as 10 all matters
of "wind, limb and speed, agreed with
him in this declaration. A Mr. Berke Berkeley
ley Berkeley differed from them and a match
was at once arranged. Twenty tur turkeys
keys turkeys were entered against twenty geese.
The distance to be traveled was ten
miles. The race was for five hundred
pounds. Indeed the confidence in the
turkeys was so great that odds of two
to one were offered and taken that
these birds would win. The prince at
once arranged to have twenty of the
finest and gamest turkeys collected.
At the time and place appointed ne
met Mr. Berkely with his entries of
geese. The race began. Prom the
start there was every indication that
the turkeys would come in winners
"haricis down or wings down. They
tripped onward at a brisk pace, which
the geese, with their heavier waddle,
were not able to equal. Indeed, at the
end of three hours, the turkeys were
leading by two miles. But night was
falling. As the light grew less, the
turkeys displayed signs of uneasiness.
They began to look at the trees that
appeared by the wayside and edged
toward them. The prince, with a pole
to which was fastened a piece of red
cloth, did what he coulu to urge them
forward. First one escaped, and rais raising
ing raising itself to a pendant limb, settled it itself
self itself down comfortably. This one was
no sooner dislodged than another es established
tablished established itself in a like manner. Bar Barley
ley Barley scattered along the road did not
aid in the least. The turkeys had con concluded
cluded concluded that it was time to turn in, and
turn in or turn out they did. In a few
minutes all of the twenty were roosting
in trees, from which it was impossible
to drive them. Meanwhile the geese
came lumbering on. They slowly pass passed
ed passed their sleeping competitors. The
race finished with the geese first and
the turkeys nowhere.

The Dark Side of Poultry Raising.
No business, profession or calling
exists, to which there is not a dark
side. A contribution to the Petaluma
Poultry Journal, portrays the dark side
of poultry keeping. Possibly some
beginners may find a useful lesson in
it. We have no coyotes in Florida,
but we have wild cats, foxes, raccoons
and opossums, all of which need to be
guarded against.
In every profession and all kinds of
business there are difficulties to be met
and overcome, and beginners in the
poultry business must expect to have
difficulties to contend with and to meet
with disappointment. If it were other otherwise
wise otherwise and success came easily to all who
engage in poultry raising, there would
soon be no incentive for any one to
raise poultry.
However, the large number of suc successful
cessful successful poultrymen is the best kind of
evidence that the various difficulties
and obstacles can be overcome. It is
in reality a personal matter of grit and
ability. There is only one thing that
should cause one to give up, and that is
'to find after a while that there is want
of interest in the work. It is not
necessary that there should be a natu natural
ral natural interest if a strong incentive is sup supare

plied by a sense of responsibility a
compelling need to do the work. But
a strong interest or motive of some
kind is absolutely necessary. Then the
will of the worker will master every
difficulty and failure becomes impossi impossible.
ble. impossible. Every loss is an object lesson,
every disappointment a goad to further
effort. Sometimes one will meet with
an almost overwhelming loss. A
brother of the writer lost nearly all oi
his fine young stock one fall by weas weasels
els weasels gaining entrance into the chicken
house. Many of the fowls were dead,
others were slowly bleeding to death,
while those that were unharmed were
walking about in a dazed condition. It
was a sad sightone seasons work
destroyed in a night. But he never
thought of giving up, but began again
and met with abundant success along
broader lines than he had hoped for.
Rats are a great source of loss.
They will crawl through a small open opening
ing opening and carry off chicks and steal eggs
from under sitting hens. Larger chicks
they will leave half devoured.
Floors should be made perfectly tight
and all openings in chicken coops
covered with wire netting. But on
badly infested places rats will run out
in the day time and seize chickens.
Cats will destroy rats wherever they
can reach their hiding places. We
have seen seven large rats lying dead
at one time that the cat had killed
during the night. Whenever a rat hole
was found we would set a steel trap
close to the hole and place a small
box over it with a rock on top to pre prevent
vent prevent the hens from turning the box
over.
In the country coyotes have to be
guarded against, as they often get
very bold and come up close to the
premises and carry off chickens. The
remedy is to fence in the yards with
strong wire netting. One will save
enough stock in a year to pay for the
fence. A lady in Washington wrote
that the coyotes had killed nearly all
their chickens every year. They had
incubators and hatched a good many
chicks, so it had been quite a loss to
them, and that now they were going
to keep their poultry confined. Where
coyoes are known to be troublesome
it is wiser to take precautionary
measures before meeting with the loss
that is inevitable. When hens have
free range they like to lay out in th(
weeds, and if chicks are hatched both
the hen and chicks are likely to be
killed by varmints.
In some localities butcher birds de destroy
stroy destroy a good many small chicks. One
woman said she had lost as many as
fifteen in one day. The chicks were
running about in an orchard some dis distance
tance distance from the house. To protect
chicks from them and the hawks they
shobld be confined in low wire-covered
runs until a few weeks old, but if
hawks are very troublesome it will be
necessary to keep the chicks in yards
near the house. Some people raise
their chicks to maturity without ever
giving them their liberty, but it is
natural and best for growing chicks
to have free range if possible.
Hatching is most always attended
with more or less loss whether incu incubators
bators incubators are used or the natural meth method.
od. method. Accidents are less likely to oc occur
cur occur with incubators, but the loss is
greater when anything does go wrong.
Sometimes at hatching time the wick
is accidentally turned up or the regu regulator
lator regulator interfered with so that the
chicks are almost litterally cooked just
when a fine hatch was expected. A
poor hatch may occur if there is too
much moisture which causes the over
development of the chick and they die
in the shell, or from lack of moisture
when the lining of the shell becomes
tough and dry and the chick unable
to break through. If the temperature
varies much either way and condi conditions
tions conditions are not as they should be, al although
though although the eggs may hatch the chicks
will be weakly and few will reach ma maturity.
turity. maturity. It is not enough that the eggs
hatch, but conditions attending their
hatching must be normal if the chicks

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

are supare to be worth raising. A few gen
erations of poorly hatched incubator
stock will result in under-sized birds,
weak in constitution, that will not pay
for their keeping.
When hatching with hens but little
difficulty is experienced if good na natured,
tured, natured, quiet hens are used. Some hens
are vicious, others nervous and unfit
to sit. Hens should be tried a day or
two before trusting them with the
eggs. Nearly all of the larger breeds
make excellent mothers, and when
Leghorns and Minorcas can be in induced
duced induced to sit they make very good
mothers, as they are more active in
protecting their chicks from enemies
and in finding foor for them. Although
as a class they are non-sitters, individ individually
ually individually some of them are most persistent
sitters.
Sometimes valuable eggs are lost
by hens leaving the nest, but this sel seldom
dom seldom happens unless driven to it by
lice, mites or fleas. On large plants
of course hens are not used for hatch hatching,
ing, hatching, except now and then even when
several hundred hens are kept all the
hatching is done by the natural meth method.
od. method. About twenty hens will be set at
one time in a building reserved for
the purpose. The eggs are tested the
same as when incubators are used,
each hen given fifteen or more fertile
eggs and the hens left without eggs,
reset.
And with the chicks we meet with
more loss. Over-crowding is the most
frequent cause; next is improper feed feeding.
ing. feeding. Sventy-five chicks are as many
as should ever be placed in an individ individual
ual individual brooder. There is nothing to be
gained by hatching out large numbers
of chicks unless one is able to pro provide
vide provide ample room for them, for they
are sure to crowd and become over overheated
heated overheated and made susceptible to colds
and their vitality weakened at the
start, or perhaps a whole bunch of
them will be smothered outright.
Dont get chummy with an incuba incubator
tor incubator man, like one man we knew, and
be induced to buy unnecessary incu incubators
bators incubators and hatch out a lot of chicks
to die. Keep cool, and look well ahead
before each step that is taken.
In feeding it is more frequently the
quantity that hurts instead of the
quality, unless the food is actually
spoiled or indigestible. One should
remember that a chicks appetite is al altogether
together altogether out of proportion to its
digestive capacity for the first six
w r eeks. After that their digestive or organs
gans organs become stronger, their power of
assimilation greater, and there is not
then much danger of over-feeding.
One of the most trying disappoint disappointments
ments disappointments we have to bear is in buying

FERN CREEK STOCK FARM
.BREEDERS OF DU ROC-JERSEY SWINE.
Have a fine lot of young pigs, will be ready for November delivery.
Can mate them in pairs or trios, ready for breeding not akin.
Our foundation stock came from th e best prize winning herds in U. S.,
and our main herd header, Duke of Orange, 52809, was sired by Tip
Top Notcher 20729, King of Duroc- Jerseys in America, the grand cham champion
pion champion of the St. Louis Worlds Fair, that sold for $5000.00.
ALL STOCK REGISTERED
WRITE FOR PRICES AND GET FIRST PICK OF FALL LITTERS
A. Y. FULLER
Proprietor of Fern Creek Stock Farm ORLANDO, FLA.
Special Poultry Supplies*
E. O. Painter Fertilizer Company
JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA. March 10, 1007
BEEF SCRAP, per pound I 1-2 eta SNUFF TOBACCO DUST (Inseotl-
MEAT MEAL, per pound t eta clde), per 100 pounds $1.15
POULTRY BLOOD, per pound ... t eta
CHLORO NAPTHOLBUM, for all
COARSE CRACKED BONE, extra
quality, per pound 11-1 eta poultry plnt 60 :
MICA GRIT (Crushed Granite), per 65c; alloa l,lO
pound 1 * SPANISH PINK, for lice, per pound 2$ eta
CRUSHED OYSTER SHELL, fine
quantity, no dirt, per 100 pounds 7# eta GAS LIMB, for fleas, par 100 pounds SI.OO
All prleM 1. o. b. Jacksonville, Fla. Net cash. On orders amounting to over $4,
accompanied by caeh, we allow S pci cent, discount.
Send for our booklet, "How We Came to Make Fertilizers, and our new price list
of eFrtlllzer Matrelals and Insecticides. Gat a Gould booklst, containing all the latest
formulae for both liquid and dry eprsying.

stock, and eggs for hatching. Where
we expect the most we get the least.
We find serious defects where none
should be, and sometimes high-priced
eggs fail to hatch and there is absolute absolutely
ly absolutely nothing to show for our money. Na Naturally
turally Naturally we feel hurt and disappoint disappointed.
ed. disappointed. Again, we are pleasantly sur surprised
prised surprised to find stock much better than
we had expected in looks and laying
qualities, and they prove to be most
profitable investments.
There has been gain to offset every
loss, a pleasant surprise for every dis disappointment,
appointment, disappointment, and we learn to accept
and be patient with the annoyances
and losses, knowing that they must
always be a part of the work.
Green Cut Bone.
One pound of cut bone for a dozen
hens once a day, which should not cost
over one cent a pound,will produce more
eggs than five times as much grain,
because the cut bone is complete in
egg-making substances, while the grain
is largely deficient in many respects.
Some persons affirm that it does not
pay to procure a bonecutter for small
flocks. That is a mistake. Bone-cut Bone-cutters
ters Bone-cutters are now cheaper than many ordi ordinary
nary ordinary garden tools, and are strong, dur durable
able durable and efficient. The cost of the
bone-cutter is soon regained in the
increased number of eggs laid. It is
almost in dispensable to success, no
matter how small the flock, for no one
should keep a flock unless fully deter determined
mined determined to secure the largest profit pos possible.
sible. possible. The great saving of bones and
meat and the utilization of materials
that could not be appropriated as food
for fowls without their use have given
green bone-cutters a place on all well wellregulated
regulated wellregulated farms. They are sold at
from $5 to $lO, a price which places
them within the reach of all, and they
have added to the profits of poultry poultrymen,
men, poultrymen, farmers, butchers and poultry
supply houses. Mirror and Farmer.

WINGS WHITE MINORCAS.
Eggs that will hatch little beauties. All
full blooded stock.
S. C. White Minorcas, S. C. Rhode Island Reds,
S. C. White Plymouth Rocks. Eggs $1.50 per 15;
$6.00 per 100. Mammoth Bronze Turkey
Eggs in season.
WINGS POULTRY FARM, Webster, Fla.

Army Auction Bargains
Tents $1.90 up Old Pistols - $ .50 nP
Rifles 1.95 Officers Swords, new $1.75
ARMY SADDLES 3.00 Cavalry Sabres M 1.50
/XV§5 Bridles 1.00 UNIFORMS 1.25
ffldmU Pegging, pr. .15 7 Shot Carbine 3.50
1007 MILITARY ENCYCLOPEDIC CAT CATif/iffMmFW
if/iffMmFW CATif/iffMmFW ALOGUE, 260 large pages, containing thousands of
yaW beautiful illustrationswith wholesale and retail prices
of 15 acres GOVT. AUCTION SALE GOODS,
mailed for 15 cents (stamps).
FRANCIS BANNERMAN, 501 Broadway, NEW YORE



A Story of Chinese Lilies.
The California Cultivator prints a
curious legend of the origin of the
species of Narcissus known as Chi Chinese
nese Chinese Lily, it is as follows:
Very few people who see and ad admire
mire admire the beautiful Chinese lilies know
the reason why this particular flower
is held in such favor in the Orient.
This is the story of the origin as
told by a Chinaman:
Years and years ago a member of
the celestial empire had two wives
whom he loved dearly because each
had borne him a son. While they
were still lads the father died and in
settling up the estate some difficulty
was encountered, for the man left
his heirs two pieces of land, one a
strip lying in a fertile and beautiful
valley, the other a small ribbon of
land bordering the bed of a narrow
stream. The former land was known
to grow anything the country pro produced,
duced, produced, while the latter was counted
utterly worthless.
It was at first proposed that each
of the two strips be divided in half
and a section of each be given to the
two heirs. But the mothers could
not agree upon the division and it
was finally arranged that one son
should take the rich land, while the
other should take the sterile piece.
The valley strip yielded bountiful
harvests season after season and the
rocky one gave nothing until one day
the boy owner happened to notice a
tiny white, sweet-scented flower
blooming among the rocks and after
a careful study and examination it
was found to be the only one of its
kind in China. The flower grew
from a bulb and the boy discovered
that theses bulbs could be transplanted
to similar rock soil without destroy destroying
ing destroying their growth.
Soon the bulbs were in great de demand
mand demand and when it was learned that
the flowers brought good luck to the
owner of the plant the boy had all he
could do to supply the market. From
the sale of the bulbs he grew enor enormously
mously enormously wealthy, while his brother
never made more than a good living
out of his valuable valley property.
The Iris.
Most people, who love flowers at all,
admire the Iris. Yet some of you may
not be aware that we have several
species growing wild in Florida, being
found abundantly along all water
courses. They are commonly called
blue flag. There are many other
species grown for various purposes,
useful as well as ornamental, do not
misunderstand, we do not mean that
ornamental plants are not useful, but
that is the common way of distin distinguishing
guishing distinguishing between plants grown solely
for beauty and these which have other
uses. The California Cultivator gives
a very interesting account of the vari various
ous various species of Iris, which we copy for
your information, it is as follows:
Iris is a genus of bulbous and her herbaceous
baceous herbaceous plants native in various parts
of Europe, Asia, Africa and America.
There is a large number of species,
. many of which have been cultivated in
European gardens for centuries, and
from which garden forms that are
superior in many ways to the types
from which they originated have been
raised by intercrossing and selection.
The types being so numerous, and
the geographical distribution so wide,
flowers of some species or varieties of
iris may be seen in bloom at almost
any season of the year, and under most
varying conditions. Some kinds re require
quire require a warm dry situation, with
abundance of light and sunshine, while
others are denizens of swamps, and re require
quire require moist and shaded conditions to
bring them to perfection. The bow bowers
ers bowers of most species are very beauti beautiful,
ful, beautiful, and are extensively used for decor decoration
ation decoration in Europe, where, in addition to
the varieties grown in the flower gar garden,
den, garden, bulbous kinds are grown in pots
and forced into flower prematurely in
heated glass houses. Orris root, used
in medicine and perfumery, is derived

Ornamental Horticulture

from Iris florentina, a species worthy
of culture as a garden plant.
Irises are divided into several sec sections,
tions, sections, but for the purpose of these
notes it is sufficient to mention the
principal groups only. The most gen generally
erally generally grown are the Flag irises
(Iris Germanica and its varieties,) in
which are included other types and
their hybrids. The chief characteris characteristics
tics characteristics of this group are:The foliage is
broad and in most varieties dwarf, ris rising
ing rising from a creeping root-stock or rhi rhizome,
zome, rhizome, and the flowers large, generally
blue, purple and white in color. They
are all hardy and will thrive in al almost
most almost any situation. Flowers of this
section are produced in spring. The
Japanese iris (I. Kampferi) is fibrous
rooting, and produces tufts of foliage
3 or 4 feet in height when well grown,
above which the large distinct flowers
are borne during summer. There is
a greater range of color in this, than in
any other section. It grows to perfec perfection
tion perfection when planted beside water courses
and in other damp places, but will also
thrive fairly in ordinary borders if the
soil is of a loamy nature.
The Spanish and English irises (also
known as Xiphions) with other spe species,
cies, species, including reticulatum alatum and
junceum, are true bulbous plants that
produce their flowers during spring
and summer. In the so-called English
irises, the original types of which are
natives of Spain and Portugal, the col colors
ors colors of the flowers are white and pur purplish
plish purplish shades; while the flowers of the
Spanish irises are yellow, bronze, white
and lilac in color. The foliage of
this class is usually narrow and round rounded.
ed. rounded.
The irises are plants worthy of much
more extended culture being in most
cases very hardy and easily grown grownthriving
thriving grownthriving without artificial watering.
They produce beautiful flowers, which
are excellent for general decorative
purposes, and totally unlike those oi
any other hardy plant.
The Flag iris will succeed in almost
kind of soil, that of a loamy na nature
ture nature being most suitable. No manure
is required unless the soil is very poor
and shallow, when some well rotted
cow or stable manure should be in incorporated.
corporated. incorporated. Good drainage and sunny
positions should be provided. The
plants are increase-, dy divisions of the
root stock. A piece of the parent
plant may be cut off with roots at attached,
tached, attached, and planted at about the same
depth as originally occupied; the bare
covering of the creeping shoot as it
really isbeing sufficient. The soil
should be firmly pressed and after afterwards
wards afterwards watered as in the case of plant planting
ing planting out generally. After culture is
mainly cleaning and weeding.
While damp, or even wet situations
are suitable, it must not be assumed
that they will succeed in sour soil. They
will endure abundance of moving
water, but not that which is stagnant.
Divisions of the fibrous rooting kinds
may be planted during autumn or ear early
ly early spring.
The bulbous section should be plant planted
ed planted in autumn in well-drained and
rather light soil. They are increased
from offsets of the bulbs. The bulbs
should be planted at a depth of 4 to
6 inches, and about 4 inches apart to
allow for multiplication. They are
most effective in the garden when
planted in large patches.

Thrip Juice No. IFor Scale on Oranges

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

A Floral Miracle.
Under this title the American Farm Farmer
er Farmer tells of the production of an im improved
proved improved variety of the Cactus Dahlia.
The writer is evidently not very well
posted as to flowers, he speaks as
though the Cactus Dahlia was anew
thing, when it has been, offered by
florists for several years. Probably
the new variety is an improvement on
any which were in existence before,
still they were well worth cultivating
all the time.
Great are the achievements of the
floriculture experiments. Things
beautiful are made still more beauti beautiful
ful beautiful and unlovely things are deprived
of their ugliness. Burbank takes the
cactus in hand with its prickly leaves
and forbidding thorns. The wand of
genius touches the plant and behold a
transformation excelling the utmost
achievement of Aladdin. The thorns
have disappeared, the harshness is all
gone and we see before us a plant not
only harmless but useful. A Chicago
florist, completely reversing the pro process,
cess, process, puts thorns on the gentle dahlia.
They are not stiff and stinging, how however,
ever, however, and that would be a calamity in instead
stead instead of improvement. The petals
have simply been transformed into
floral needles which in general appear appearance,
ance, appearance, with the exception of the rich
coloring, bear a striking resemblance
to the thorns of the desert plant.
Thus the cactus dahlia emerges as the
latest flgral wonder, a witness extra extraordinary
ordinary extraordinary of what can be done by man
operating along the lines of evolution evolutionary
ary evolutionary science.
This floral miracle was evolved
through elaborate culture processes
at the Vaughan hothouses in Western
Springs and is at present on view at
the Randolph street store of the firm
in Chicago. It has been grown in three
principal colors yellow, scarlet and
pale pink. It may be seen at the
flower show, which will occur at the
Coliseum in November, and will cer certainly
tainly certainly receive esthetic homage from
all flower lovers who attend the exhi exhibition.
bition. exhibition. The fluffy chrysanthemum and
other old-time favorites will have to
take back seats in presence of this
new flower queen, certainly until the
novelty wears off. Even the peerless
American Beauty rose and all her love lovely
ly lovely sisters will have to step aside while
the cactus dahlia passes with her won wondrous
drous wondrous new euuioment of needles. Th<
band will play Hail to the Chief, the
ushers will bok obsequiously and the
chorus will sing hosannas in praise of
the new wonder that attests the su supreme
preme supreme achievement of experimental
genius. By all means Burbank should
be invited to come and bring his de dethorned
thorned dethorned cactus to be placed beside its
more civilized sister. Then it may be
explained how the needles taken away
from the cactus have been trans transferred
ferred transferred to the dahlia without their
sting and offensive qualities. The oc occasion
casion occasion will be one of wonderful inter interest,
est, interest, not simply for flower lovers or
the general multitude, but for all
scientists and others interested in
these famous illustrations of the truth
of Darwins theory as set forth in his
epoch-making book on the Origin of
Species. In this publication, which
was the greatest achievement of the
nineteenth century and most far farraching
raching farraching in its results, was for the
first time unfolded one of the most in interesting
teresting interesting secrets of nature. It ex explained
plained explained elaborately the processes by
which an original type, either anima
or vegetable, was differentiated into
species. The operations were all un under
der under the natural law and long periods,

SAMPSON GROVE.
"Crown and "Puritan Brands. Florida
Oranges, Lemons and Grape Fruit.
Boardman, Florida, December 19,1904.
H. B. Marsh, Esq., Live Oak, Florida. Dear
Sir: We answer yours of the 15th. We depend on
Thrip Juice to keep the Scaje in control. It does
the work and at far less expense than anything
else I know of. Yours truly, F. G. SAMPSON.
FROM DADE COUNTY.
Keeps the Trees Clean, and Note "What is
Said about Old Trees.
Cocoanut Grove, Florida, July 21,1906.
Mr. H. B. Marsh, Live Oak. Florida. Dear
Sir: I kart keen using Hammond's Thru? Juice

sometimes ages, were required fof
Dame Nature to do her work. But once
possessed of her secret, man may step
in and facilitate the process. He can
take short cuts and push things, thus
accomplishing with comparative speed
what in nature requires so much time.
Much has already been accomplish accomplished
ed accomplished for agriculture by taking advantage advantageof
of advantageof the Darwinian knowledge and pur pursuing
suing pursuing the Darwinian methods. It is in
this way all the new grains, new
fruits, new grasses and new flowers
have been produced. Burbank used the
method in taking the thorns off of
cactus, Vaughan used it to trans transfer
fer transfer them in modified form to the dah dahlia,
lia, dahlia, and every breeder who has given
us anew kind of cattle, sheep or hogs
has simply followed nature as ex expounded
pounded expounded by Darwin. Nothing can be
done in opposition to the natural law;
almost anything may be done by fol following
lowing following it and artificially assisting the
process. It can not be doubted that
scientific agriculture of the future will
depend for advancement and success
upon the wonderful discovery of the
kindly and gentle English philosopher.
The possibilities of the process, pa patiently
tiently patiently pursued, are limitless in the
floral, horticultural and general agri agricultural
cultural agricultural world. To make our country
worthy of the twenty-first century, to
bring aboutthe changes that will be
necessary to enable our farmers to
feed the teeming millions of the fu future,
ture, future, the brains of the inventors and
experimenters will be kept busy
Berrys
I Seeds
prove their worth at harvest
time. After over fifty years of
H|9 success, they are pronounced
the best and surest by careful
T Peters everywhere. Your
dealer sells them. 1907 Seed
fpPfpi Annual free on request.
. M. FERRY St CO., Detroit, Midi.
WOODS SEEDS.
Best qualities obtainable.
7 Winter or and
Hairy Vetch
makes not only one of the largest- j
yielding and best winter feed and
forage crops you can grow, but is
also one of the best of soil-improv soil-improvers,
ers, soil-improvers, adding more nitrogen to the
soil than anyiother winter crop.
Woods Descriptive Fail Cat Catalogue
alogue Catalogue gives full information
about this valuable crop; also
all other
Farm 6 Garden Seeds
/-n for Fall planting. Catalogue /
r' mailed free on request. Write /
for it. I /
T. W. WOOD & SONS, J
Seedsmen, Richmond, Va.

for the past fifteen years. Asa scale destroyer it
has no equal. It keeps citrus trees perfectly
clean and leaves no bad effect when used accord according
ing according to directions. Yours truly, JOHN P. TOMS.
P. S.l find I can use two dippers full instead of
one to the barrel, on old trees, with safety.
H. B. MARSH, General Agent, Live Oak, Fla.
E. O. PAINTER FERTILIZER CO.,
Jacksonville, and other Seed Dealers
carry our goods,which have been used in Flor Florida
ida Florida 26 years. For pamphlets worth having address
HAMMONDS SLUG-SHOT WORKS,
Fishkill-on-fiudson, N.Y

11



12

THE HOUSEHOLD.
We would like to receive, for publicat ion in this department, any good Recipe
or item of general intere st to Farmers Wives.

WILLFULNESS IN CHILDREN.
A Quality to be Guided, Not Elim EliminatedAll
inatedAll EliminatedAll Mothers Have to
Meet it.
The following is Irom the Tribune
Farmer:
Willfulness in children, which is one
of the commonest difficulties that
mothers have to contend with, is more
often due to unwise and inconsisteni
management on the part of the mother
tfian to the perversity of the child. If
the mother be reasonable in her re requirements
quirements requirements and consistent in enforcing
tnem there will be little inclination on
tne part of the child to overstep au authority;
thority; authority; but if that authority be fluctu fluctuatin
ating fluctuatin strict to-day, lax tomorrow
with no consistent reason for the differ difference;
ence; difference; if the reason or judgment of the
ciiild lias never been called into play,
and tne responsibility of a choice
thrust upon him; if he has learned by
experience that it is oniy a question
of time before his persistence will obtain
lor him tne coveted permission, why
wonaer that his own will and desires
seem paramount?
Children are as earnest and ardent
in tneir longings as are we older folk.
ilie decision of our own action de depends
pends depends upon ourselves, and if, as often
Happens, it proves an unwise one, we
try to bear tne result with equanimity
and lay up the cost that we pay to
the score of experience. I his same
method would be Denelicial to the child.
Give his individuality a generous
sway and avoid checking his impulses
unless there be a real necessity for do doing
ing doing so. (Even if those impulses be
not of the best, there is no readier way
lor us to learn them and to know what
we have to contend with.) l each him
to consult you in affairs of any mo moment,
ment, moment, and when he does so show your
commence and appreciation of his
honesty and good sense and let him,
as often as possible, follow the dic dictates
tates dictates of his heart untrammelled.
When there is only personal dis discomiort
comiort discomiort or annoyance to be considered
as a consequence it will be well to
talk the matter over, advise him frank frankly
ly frankly in regard to the probable results,
and then leave the decision of his ac action
tion action to himself, if he yields to your
superior judgment it will strengthen
your confidence in each other for all
time. if, on the other hand, he
chooses to proht by his own experi experience,
ence, experience, it may be as well for him to
do so. But if for any reason you so
disapprove of the thing he desires that
you cannot conscientiously accord it
to him, make your refusal clear and
decisive and let nothing move you
from it. There are not many in instances
stances instances that will require a really arbi arbitrary
trary arbitrary stand, and if in minor considera considerations
tions considerations thoughtlessness and leniency
have been the rule, there need be no
fear of resentment or rebellion in these
exceptional cases.
The ease with which many mothers
avail themselves of their rights with without
out without regard to reason or necessity is
amusingly illustrated in an instance
quoted by Miss Sarah Arnold, of Bos Boston.
ton. Boston. While passing through one of
the thickly populated streets she ob observed
served observed a small boy on a doorstep
so completely engrossed with his play
that repeated calls for Tommy from
an upper window seemed to have no
connection whatever with his affairs.
After a few moments the calls ceased
and a woman appeared in the doorway
benind him.
Tommy, she exclaimed, irately,
didnt you hear me calling? Why
didnt you come?
Oh, replied the boy, turning with
barely awakened interest, did you
want me, or were you just calling?
I know a mother who resorts to
the same bitter reproaches when her
children soil their hands or clothes
as she does when they openly defy
her or transgress in serious affairs.
She scolds vehemently on all occasions,
and it does not do a bit of good.

The children have grown so used to
her fretting that they pay no atten attention
tion attention to it. They know that every everything
thing everything they do is open to censure, and
as there is no suiting such an exacting
parent they do as they please.
Motners too often ignore the fact
that the determined impulse which,
unguided, leads unwary feet through
many a troublesome maze and tangle
is the same that, influenced by a well
developed character and sound judg judgment,
ment, judgment, stands for all that is best and
most successful in later life. If a
child be deprived of the privilege of
choosing and deciding for himself, if
he be trained to depend upon others
for suggestion and for the impetus
that moves him, he will develop into
a weak, spiritless character, lacking
in incentive and initiative ability. Al Always
ways Always he will follow, not lead. Put
yourself in your childs place as much
as is possible. Judge things, if you
can, from his standpoint. Grant him
the privileges that he desires when whenever
ever whenever it is possible, and when it is
not, show him that his good, and not
your own indifference, influences your
decision. Ihese are all excellent
methods of overcoming willfulness, and
before the strength of their-combina their-combination
tion their-combination not even the most obstinate case
of willfulness would long prevail.
A Blue and White Bedroom.
Some useful hints may be found in
the following from the Womans Mag Magazine:
azine: Magazine:
A hostess was recently showing some
frienus her newly decorated bedroom,
and when they enthusiastically declared
it was the prettiest bedroom they had
ever seen, she astonished them by say saying:
ing: saying: Well, i can tell you now it was
cone, for 1 did it every bit myself. Not
a thing in the room suited me, and I
didn't have much money to refurnish
with, so i had to do a lot of thinking*
Fred said he would help me paper,
so l selected this pattern of a trellis
design in small pink roses on a blue
background. We ran this up two twothirds
thirds twothirds of the way and finished with a
drop ceiling of cream moire paper,
putting the picture molding at the junc junction
tion junction oi the two papers.
The bedroom set was of ugly cheap
wood and 1 had always hated it, so I
took off the varnish with strong lye
water, taking care not to get it on the
mirror. Then I sandpapered it smooth
and gave it two coats of white paint
anr later two coats of white enamel,
letting each coat dry thoroughly before
applying the next.
The window curtains are made of
scrim, bought by the yard and hemmed,
making inch hems at the sides and
three-inch ones at the bottom. I made
these to fall straight from brass rods,
and to come just below the window sill.
Then from plain blue chambray I cut
bands an inch wide when done, and
stitched two rows around the curtains,
starting the first band three inches
from the edge, and letting it run
straight down to the bottom of the
curtain, the second band was one and
a half inches farther in. 1 ran a band
across the bottom of each curtain,
Uiree inches above the hem, and an another
other another an inch anu a half farther up.
Acrss the top of the curtains, on a sep separate
arate separate rod, 1 put a valance one foot
ueep, and stitched on two more bands
to run across it, omitting the vertical
strips.
tor that portiere over the doorway
I got blue denim to harmonize with
the blue in the curtains, and trimmed
it in the same way with bands, ex except
cept except that I used white in place of blue
strips, and hung it by brass rings on a
curtain pole so it slides easily. I
didn t use the valance, either, for this.
1 made a cover of blue denim for that
trunk, in the same way, and call it my
shirt waist box.
1 he screen in front of the commode
was covered differently when I bought
it, but the colors clashed with every everything
thing everything in the room, so I ripped off the
cloth and recovered the screen with

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

We Make a Specialty of Shrubs and Plants
For the Garden
MILLS, THE FLORIST,
Jacksonville, Fla.
Write for Prices and Mention This Paper.
Bread is the staff of Life and Bread and BUTTER is a gold headed cane.
Make Your BUTTER with the Lightning
BOW AND STRING CHURN.
Write for information and prices to
B. H. DUTTON, Tavares, Fla., Afent Lake Cos.
Also sells the celebrated Asbestos Lamp Wicks, all sizes,

| THE T. G. WILSON FRUIT AND VEGETABLE CANNER.
liQLl\y7 Patented April 25, 1899.
II Saves time, fuel and labor. Needs neither cook stove or
11 " furnace. Can be used within doors or out under trees. A
H Vll postal card will bring you circular and price-list. Address
(HIM THE WILSON CANNER COMPANY,
411jP Cochran, Ga.

JD CD AT H SEWING MACHINES,
t Q, PIANOS and ORGANS
204 ZACK STREET, TAMPA,FLORIDA
Cut Prices. Easy Payments. Write for Prices. Mention This
Paper.

the blue denim. I made bands of a
darker shade of denim (for a screen
is something you cant launder) and
stitched them on near the top, making
a criss-cross border.
For the bed set I got the heaviest
white drilling. The spread I hemmed
top and bottom, but put deep ruffies on
the sides to hang over the edge of the
bed, and edged these with bands of the
chambray. Then for the center of the
spread I put the blue strips in a dia diamond-shaped
mond-shaped diamond-shaped pattern. The shams were
made in one piece instead of two, with
ruffled edges banded with one blue
stripe, and using the same diamond diamondshaped
shaped diamondshaped design in the middle.
I he dresser covering was an idea.
I had the dainty little swiss and lace
scaif and was waiting to get some pale
blue cloth to go under it when I saw
exactly the right shade in a roll ot
crepe paper at the io-cent store, I
cut the paper just a trifle longer and
wider than the scarf, and ruffled out
the edges. There was enough left to
line the top dresser drawer twice, so 1
doubled it and sewed it up in a large
sachet bag that just fits in. I put in
a wadding of cotton, sprinkling it with
violet sanchet powder, and now every everything
thing everything in the drawer is delightfully
fragrant.
That is about all, except the rugs
on the floor, which are woven from
blue and white rags. All the pictures
and wall ornaments except a few
framed photographs of the family,
have been banished. This pretty paper
is decoration enough and many knick knickknacks
knacks knickknacks detract from the restful look a
bedroom should have.
There is very little work about dust dusting
ing dusting this room, if the curtains have
been pinned up and the bed covered
beforehand, for the only small articles
to dust are on the dresser. All the
toilet articles are of white celluloid.
One can get a much better quality than
if the same articles were purchased
with silver handles, and these are easy
to keep clean and pretty, too.
I am glad you like my room, girls,
and the best part of it is that I did it
all myself, with a little help from Fred,
and it cost only a few dollars/

If You Are Well Bred.
You will be kind.
You will xiot use slang.
You will try to make others happy.
You will not be shy or self-con self-conscious.
scious. self-conscious.
You will never indulge in ill-natured
gossip.
You will never forget the respect
due to age.
You will not -stagger or boast of
your achievements.

You will think of others before you
think of yourself.
You will never measure your civility
by peoples bank accounts.
You will be scrupulous in your re regard
gard regard for the rights of others.
You will not forget engagements,
promises or obligations of any kind,
j In conversation you will not bear bear-1
-1 bear-1 gumentative or contradictory,
i You will never make tun of the
peculiarities or idiosyncrasies of
others.
You will not bore people by con constantly
stantly constantly talking ol yourself and your
affairs.
You will never under any circum circumstances
stances circumstances cause another pain it you can
help it.
lou will not think that good in intentions
tentions intentions compensate for rude or gruff
manners.
You will be as agreeable to your
social inferiors as to your equals and
superiors.
iou will not have two sets of man manners;
ners; manners; one lor company, and one for
home use.
You will let a finer manner and su superior
perior superior intelligence show that you have
traveled instead of constantly talking
ot the different countries you have
visited.
You will not remark, while a guest,
that you do not like the food which
has been served to you.
You will not attract attention by
either your loud talk or laughter, or
show your egotism by trying to absorb
conversation. O. S. Marden, in Suc Success.
cess. Success.

A Memory System.
Forget each kindness that you do
As soon as you have done it;
Forget the praise that falls to you
The moment you have won it;
Forget the slander that you hear
Belore you can repeat it;
Forget each slight, each spite, each
sneer,
Whenever you may meet it.
Remember every kindness done
io you, whatever its measure;
Remember praise by others won
And pass it on with pleasure;
Remember every promise made
And keep it to the letter;
Remember those who lend you aid
And be a grateful debtor.
Remember all the happiness
lhat comes your way in living;
Forget each worry and distress;
Be hopeful and forgiving;
Remember good, remember truth,
Remember heavens above you
And you will find, through age and
youth,
True joys and hearts to love you.
Pricilla Leonard, in Exchange.



YOUNG PEOPLES DEPARTMENT
Edited by Uncle Charles.

Uncle Charles* New Proverbs.
It is better to be a live coward than
a dead hero.
Greeting-
The editor of the Young Peoples
Department, with this issue of The
Agriculturist, sends a warm greeting
to all the boys and girls of our fair
State and every State of our glorious
Union.
eTwant your co-operation in mak making
ing making this department one of the bright brightest
est brightest and most interesting part of our
paper.
Let me tell you how it can be done.
I want one and all of you to write a
letter, telling our readers how you
have made your spending money in
the last year and what you intend
to do this winter.
Let me know if you have done any
trucking, and if so, what vegetables
did you make pay the best? Also, did
you have any stock or a flower garden?
Have you any pets? If so, let us
hear about them. What particularly
good time did vou have during vaca vacation?
tion? vacation? And what do you plan to do
this winter? How would you like to
form a club and have regular pass
words and grip, with club pin for boys
and girls?
In writing to us make your letter
short, and write plain, using only one
side of the paper. Always give your
full name and address. All letters
should be addressed as follows:
The Florida Agriculturist,
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST
Young Peoples Dept.
Jacksonville, Fla.
+
THE GOLD MAKERS.
By Chas. B. Hulett.
Something was again troubling
Billie.
For two weeks he had been about
as much company as a wooden cigar
sign.
Every night when we arrived at our
rooms he would throw himself in his
Morris chair and gaze at nothingness,
pucker his lins and scowl like a chim chimpanzee
panzee chimpanzee and look twice as ugly.
He would mumble, twist and turn
as if he had swallowed a spring matt mattress:
ress: mattress: then suddenly he would grab
pencil and paper and start to figure,
then grasp his head in both, hands
and rush back and forth as if in pain.
It was quite interesting for anyone
to see him. if they did not understand
him like I did. But I was on to
him, like a hawk on a June bug.
I expected these brain storms about
every six months, and would feel disap disappointed
pointed disappointed if they did not come around in
season.
A few words of Billie, whose
loving parents had named William
Makepiece Grafton. Both parents
were dead and had left him bonds and
stocks, the interest of which netted
Billie $5,000 a year. He called him himself
self himself an artist, but he is the only one
who thought himself entitled to. that
distinction, as most of his friends
thought fas I did) that with practice
he might 'be able to paint those Coca
Cola signs on the side of a barn,
or the back fence. He was also an
Tnventor, with a big capital I. Tn} s
I can personally vouch for. This
evening, like all the evenings for the
nast two weeks, the inventor part of
him was holding full sway, hence
those agonizing expressions and his
uncongeniality.
I knew that all I had to do was
to give him time enough to fill up,
then overflow and tell me.
As for mvself, I was named by. rny
lovincr and baneful parents Maximinus
Grant Ramsdell, and how I ever sur survived
vived survived mv childhood been a mvs mvsterv
terv mvsterv to me. But mv kind companions
and friends soon short shortened
ened shortened it to plain Max, and at thirty
of age finds me an orphan ana
a bachelor, making mv living as a
reporter on a New York daily, at one
hundred per month..
Billie and I occupied four pleasant
rooms on H. Street, kept by a lovely

old lady by the name of Cummings,
who thought the world of us, as we
did of her. We boarded at a restau restaurant
rant restaurant a few minutes walk from our
rooms.
Billie had one room for his studio,
another for his chamber; and I had
my bed chamber, and we both oc occupied
cupied occupied the combined library and par parlor.
lor. parlor. |
Now, to return to Billie, I knew
by the violence of his attack that the
eruption would soon follow, and then
he would confide his secret to me,
or overflow and scald me for some
imaginary wrong.
But I did not fear Billies outbursts
as when he got too rabid, I laughed
at him until he would grab his hat
and fly out of the room until he cool cooled
ed cooled off.
Well, the evening was near gone
and it was most eleven, our usual
bedtime, when he whirled around on
his chair and shouted, Ive got it!
Of course you have, I replied; you
have had it for over two weeks.
Oh, you dry up! You are always
the last to recognize genius. If I
,was to sit down and tell you of some
grisly wonder, so you could make
a scoop, and get it into that yellow
sheet of yours, you would sit up
and take notice. But now while I
am working and delving into the
mysteries of science to make us the
greatest men of this century, you sit
there and insinuate I have a brain
storm.
Well, Billie, forgive me, In an answered,
swered, answered, as I refilled my pipe; come
Billie, dont get mad. I am ready
now speil.
Did it ever filter its way through
your admantine skull, Max, that ex experiments
periments experiments have shown that gold is
constantly falling to the earth?
I havent seen any of it lately,
Bilbe dear.
He glared at me for as long as a
minute and said: Are you going to
let a scientific man tell you a scientific
fact, in a scientific way? This was
said very sarcastically.
All right, Billie, I will try and be
good; go ahead!
As I was saying, Billie resumed,
gold is constantly falling to the earth,
in association with cosmic dust, and,
dav or night, it settles all over land
and sea. Some of this gold, when
concentrated by wind or water, or
dissolved by acid surface water, and
then redeposited in a more concen concentrated
trated concentrated form, is recoverable do you
understand? recoverable. Now, I
have prepared (on paper) The Grafton
Improved Gold Accumulator, which,
with your kind permission, we will
proceed to build, after you have exam examined
ined examined my plans.
I could make nothing out of them,
but made believe I did, to save argu argument.
ment. argument.
Of course you will be my part partner
ner partner and own one-half interest, as I
will need someone to do the menial
work and attend to little details.
Thanks awfully, I said. Another
glare from his eyes and a long pause.
I have also made calculations that
I can complete a full-grown Ac Accumulator
cumulator Accumulator by the middle of Decem December.
ber. December.
May I ask when and where yo i
will first do your accumulating act?
Certainly, he replied, as you arc
my partner. I expect to have my
first Accumulator ready about Jan January
uary January first and give our grand opening
at Kissimmee, Florida.
It may seem strange to you to
go so far from New York, he con continued.
tinued. continued.
Oh, not at all, I exclaimed; I
think it a good plan. He shot a
quick glance at me, but my face was
calm and unruffled.
I have found, by experiments, that
the lower the land, and the more water
we have around us, the more precipita precipitation
tion precipitation there is, and consequently more
gold. In the state of Florida the highest
land is only two hundred and twelve
feet above th e sea level, and at Kis Kissimmee
simmee Kissimmee we have the Atlantic ocean

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

only thirty-five miles on the east side,
and the Gulf of Mexico only sixty
miles to the west, also the Kissimmee
River, and in the Kissimmee Valley
by the river is a lonely place to erect
the .Accumulator. We will make it
in New York and ship bv Clyde Line
of Steamers to Jacksonville, and then
by rail to Kissimmee.
Well, you had better ship it k. and.
if you dont want the freight to cost
more than our machine, I replied.
Oh, I will get a special rate all
right, dont be afraid of a little ex expense,
pense, expense, Max.
I aint afraid of a little expense,
but that last Grafton Improved
House Shingler kept us a little short
for six months until you got your
yearly interest, as burning up that old
gentlemans house and barn with our
Improved House Shingler as well,
was no laughing matter and a burnt
child, etc., etc.
Oh, you are always looking for
trouble, Max, and when I make a
howling success you want all the
honor.
Well, go ahead, Billie; I had just
as soon land in Kissimmee, Florida,
about January first as not, and if we
dont shovel gold from our Accumu Accumulator
lator Accumulator we can shovel
What? yelled Billie, as I opened
my bedroom door to retire.
Sand, I replied, as I dodged a
book he threw at my head and slam slammed
med slammed and locked my door.
(To be continued next week.)
Riddles and Condrums.
Answers to these riddles and con condrums
drums condrums will be published next week.
Send in your answer, and those giv giving
ing giving correct solutions will have t 1
names published in the Roll of
Honor.
Address all communications to the
Florida Agriculturist, Jacksonville,
Florida, Young Peoples Department.
1.
Where is happiness found?
2.
What grows in winter with its root
upward, and dies in the summer?
3-
What is the first thing a gardener
sets in his garden?
4-
What is the difference between a
cat and a comma?
5-
Who is the first nobleman mention mentioned
ed mentioned in the Bible?
6.
Why is a pig like the letter N?
7-
What is most like a hen stealing?
8.
What is enough one, too muc 1
for two, and nothing at all for three?
9-
What is the difference between a
cow and a broken chair?
10.
What did Jobs wardrobe consist
of?
11.
If you met a crying pig, what animal
would you call him?
12.
What part of the face resembles
a schoolmaster?
13-
Two sisters on one day were born,
Rosy and dewy as the morn,
True as sailor to his lass,
Yet words between them often pass.
At morn they part, but then at night
They meet again, and all is right.
What seldom you in nymphs dis discover
cover discover
Theyre both contented with one
lover.
Puzzles.
14-
Three boys met a servant maid
carrying apples to market. The first
took half of what she had, but re returned
turned returned to her ten; the second took
one third, but returned two; and the
third took away half of those she had
left, but returned her one. She then
had- twelve apples lefthow many had
she at first?
T
A schoolmaster being asked how
many scholars he had, said: If I
had half as many, half as many, and
one-quarter as many more, I should
have 88how manv had he?^
16.
If ioo eggs were placed in a straight

line, exactly a yard from another, and
the first egg a yard from the basket,
what length of ground does that man
go who gathers up these hundred
eggs singly, returning with every egg
to the basket to put it in?
Forfeits.
What is more fun than to attend
a nice party given by your boy or
girl friends, and have forfeits? Here
are a few good ones, and will our
young firends send us some more, and
we will publish them for our readers.
To kiss the candlestick this is per performed
formed performed by getting a young lady to
hold the candle, then kiss her.
To sit upon fireThis somewhat
unpleasant penalty is usually evaded
by writing the fire on a piece of
paper, and sitting on it.
To bite an inch off the pokerThis
is a penalty which can be performed
by holding the end of the poker about
an inch from the face, and making
a bite at it.
To place three chairs in a row, take
off your shoes and jump over them
This is easily performed by jumping
over your shoes.
To ask a question that cannot be
answered in the negative What
does y-e-s spell?
To place a pin on the floor in such
a manner that no. girl present can
jump over itThis is done by placing
it close to the wall.
Bill and Bills Board Bill.
Bill had a bill-board, Bill also had
a board-bill; Bills board-bill loved
Bill so that Bill sold his bill-board
to pay Bills board-bill.
Then after Bill sold his bill-board
to pay Bills board-bill, Bills board boardbill
bill boardbill bored Bill no longer.

I a a a every a #
BUSINESS MAN I
a a a shovld a ,a a I
Sch o!ctrshiMs */Q, SV.
Not only a good hand, but a good busi business
ness business letter as well. The place to do it
is at a good business school, and the
Tampa. Business College
stands pre-eminently above others as
a successful institution. Terms
reasonable. Open all the year. Write
L. M. HATTON, President,
Krause Building, Tampa, Florida.

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13



14

Out in rural Missouri there are two
standards of good citizenship. By them
you can tell whether one is worthy of
the confidence of his fellow-man and
capable of expressing an opinion merit meriting
ing meriting consideration. The lack of respect
for these standards does not mean that
a man is an outlaw, but his character is
presumed to tend in that direction.
To be a good citizen in the corn grow growing
ing growing region of Missouri one must drag
the roads with unflagging zeal after
every rain, and must have a deep and
abiding conviction that the district
school is the cradle of all honesty and
of all real worth; that it is the barrier
at which stalking red revolution and
anarchy shrivel into mist.
There are other elements entering
into the make-up of a good citizen in
these parts, but they are comparatively
inconsequential. If a man is enough
of a patriot to drag the roads and sup support
port support his district school all the other
virtues of humanity will naturally gravi gravitate
tate gravitate to him.
So strongly was this creed of good
citizenship engrafted in the souls of
the people along road district No. 15
that when a foreignera man from
some far eastern state came over and
located on the Hampton estate, his in inattention
attention inattention to local customs caused him
to be a marked, man inside of two
months. Bob Rockford, the road over overseer,
seer, overseer, sent him a polite note leciting
what was expected of him in the way
of road work. Knowing he was a
foreigner, and, therefore, with more
or less learning ahead of him, Bob
didnt get mad at first, but when a
second note brought no response,' he
took his pen in hand with some -vigor.
Mr. R. Hasbrook, he wrote: This
is the third time your attention has
been called to the disgraceful state of
the roads along Hampton estate. A
very little exertion would put them in
good condition. If you have not the
time to drag them yourself your duty
is to hire it done. This neglect on your
part will not be tolerated any longer.
I am under bond to see that the roads
in this district are kept in good con condition.
dition. condition.
Rockford, Overseer No. 15.
The overseer had never met the new
occupants of the Hampton domain,
and knew nothing about them. The
place was at the southern terminus of
his jurisdiction, and he did not often
have occasion to go that way, but as
the last ultimatum was treated with the
same anarchistic indifference that had
been accorded the other two, he re resolved
solved resolved to ride over and see who was
Boss of the Highway.
Rockford had not sought the posi position
tion position of road overseer. In fact, when
the county court appointed him at the
suggestion of many residents of the
district, he had tried to withdraw, urg urging
ing urging full hands in other directions. The
court solemnly listened to his objec objections,
tions, objections, and then directed the clerk to
enter them as overruled. The overseer
lived in a large mansion home with his
widowed mother and two sisters; but
was engaged in several business enter enterprises
prises enterprises in the town of Mapleton, the
nearest market. Rockford was neither
exactly old nor young. He was at the
elastic age commonly designated as
the prime of life. In disposition he
was quiet and somewhat reserved.
Strangers regarded him over cautious
or diffident. Those best acquainted
with him recognized a different charac character.
ter. character.
The overseers brow was moody as
his saddle horse brought him nearer
the insurrectionary territory. He had
small regard for a man who was will willing
ing willing to profit by his neighbors work,
and do none himself. Running back
through the years of his residence in
the district, he recalled one other man
who had refused to do his part on
the road work, and who for such re refusal
fusal refusal had been righteously banished,
with scant time to gather up his be belongings.
longings. belongings. But Bill Jones had not oc occupied
cupied occupied such pretentious quarters as
Hasbrook did, and it seemed from
surface indications that Jones was re-

THE BOSS OF THE HIGHWAY.
BY EDGAR WHITE.

ally the least sinner of the two.
As the overseer turned a hedge
corner his horse shied and nearly dis dismounted
mounted dismounted him. And no wonder. Of
all the queer craft that ever navigated
the mudholes of highway No. 15 the
one there encountered was a prize win winner.
ner. winner. An aged gray horse was labori laboriously
ously laboriously hauling a sawed-off piano crate
up the hill. The driver was a brown browneyed
eyed browneyed maiden, whose chestnut hair
waved tantalizingly from beneath a
broad straw hat. With some difficulty
Rockford induced his horse to aproacl
the object of its terror.
Good morning, he said.
Good morning, replied the girl,
looking frankly at him.
What are you doing? asked the
overseer.
Cant you see? she asked, a trifle
indignant. Im dragging the roads!
Just look behind there!
The horsemans eyes traveled down
the highway and saw the dirt raked
up in a sort of fashion toward the
center of the road. Then he looked
into the piano crate and observed a
number of stones for ballast.
Why are you dragging the roads?
he said.
Because theres no one else about
our place to do it; papa is an invalid,
you know. At the tender tones the
fresh young face became strangely
beautiful. The overseer removed his
hat. The girl went on:
Im the only man on the place
just now, but Cousin Will is coming
out from New York this summer to
live with us, and then he will attend
to the work outside.
Are you Mr. Hasbrooks daughter?
Yes, sir; my name is Bijou Has Hasbrook.
brook. Hasbrook.
Did your father tell you to come
out here and work on the roads?
No, sir; he told me not to, said
the young navigator, flushing; but
he got such a mean note from the
road overseer Monday that I was
afraid something awful would happen
to us if we didnt get to work.
Rockford smiled under his grizzled
mustache.
The overseer is a cold-hearted
wretch, he said.
Indeed he is, she responded, hearti heartily;
ly; heartily; I dont see what difference it
makes if the old roads are. left to take
care of themselves till Will comes.
When I show that better to Will hell
be terribly mad.
Hell mix up with the overseer?
suggested Rockford.
I hope so. I think hes acted very
unmanly, but I intend to show him
what a woman can do if he ever comes
up this way and
A woman?
She looked up at him and smiled in
appreciation of the suggested compli compliment.
ment. compliment.
A girl then, she went on, and
then if hes any sort of a man at all
hell be sorry for having written papa
that horrid note. Just as if we were
outlaws! Get up, Dick!
The last was addressed to her gray
nag, which strained on the tugs to
start, but Rockford rode his horse in
front.
You turn Dick around and drive
him back to the pasture, he said,
' and Ill send my men over to drag
the road for you this afternoon.
She regarded the stranger with sud sudden
den sudden interest. At first she was not par particularly
ticularly particularly impressed with his face, and
his somewhat inquisitive way, but as
she looked at him now she saw that
the. gray eyes glowed with the light of
action, and that the man behind them
seemed to be used to having his own
way about things. Rockfields face
wasnt exactly handsome, but it was
strong and looked like it might inspire
confidence on a battle line. At first
the independence of the girl arose in
rebellion at the authoritative direction,
but as she observed the new expres expression,
sion, expression, she merely smiled and said:
Who shall I tell papa is doing this
for us?

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

ROLLINS COLLEGE
WINTER PARK, FLORIDA.
FLORIDA'S OLDEST COLLEGE.
COLLEGEGives the decree of Arts &f ter a four years course of study In academic.
branches. The Academy prepares the stud ent for admission to Rollins College, or for
any other college or technical school in the United States. The School of Music gives a
thorough training in vocal and Instrumental music, and in harmony, musical theory and
the history of music. It has four teachers and fifteen practice and concert pianos.
The School of Fine Arts offers a three years* course in outline work, charcoal pen and
ink work, and painting in oil and water colors. The Business School offers courses in com.
mercial arithmetic, commercial law, bookkee ping, banking, shorthand and telegraphy.
Expenses are very moderate, varying from $178.00 to $196.00 per annum for board,
room rent and tuition. The character of the institution is thoroughly Christian, but
entirely undenominational, both in spirit and control. Several scholarships covering the
cost of tuition are available for students of superior character and ability, who may
need such assistance. Next session begins October 2, 1907.
WM. F. BLACKMAN, Ph.D., President.

Ten Weeks
For 10 Cents
(
RELIEVING that if we can get the
progressive, intelligent farmers of
Florida to read the AGRICULTURIST
for even a short time they will become
yearly subscribers, we will, until further
notice send the AGRICULTURIST for
introductory purposes only
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Ten Weeks for 10

Bob.
All right Mr. Bob, she returned,
without seeking further disclosures;
you can send your men over this af afternoon,
ternoon, afternoon, and if they dont do the work
right Ill get out my piano box again
in the morning. I dont want that
man who runs the roads to send us to
prison.
You can watch them, Miss Has Hasbrook,
brook, Hasbrook, said Rockford, seriously, and
if they dont do it to suit, make em
do it over again. While here theyre
to be entirely under your orders.
The girl searched the quiet face to
see if any mockery lurked therein,
and decided there was none.
Thank you very much, Mr.er
Bob, she said.
* *
When Rockfords teamsters return returned
ed returned that night after performing what
they designated, as a giltedged, dia diamond
mond diamond drilled job of road dragging
along the Hampton estate, one carried
something in a newspaper for Mr.
Bob. It was an assorted lot of spring
roses and ferns done up in the form
of. a boquet, with the compliments of
Bijou. The overseer took the flowers
to his room.
Bijou, Tie murmured; an apt title.
Wonder what 'Cousin Will looks like?
Following the next rain two of
Rockfords men got out their teams
and drags and started work on the
roads in front of the place, in accord accordance
ance accordance with their custom. The overseer

observed them as he was on his way
to town and directed them to first go
down and drag the Hampton roads.
When he returned home late that
afternoon his road draggers reported
that they had gone up to the Hamp Hampton
ton Hampton estate, but had been forestalled
William Henshaw and Jacob Warner,
two well-to-do young bachelor farm farmers,
ers, farmers, living further down the road, had
become acquainted with the situation
at the Hasbrook home and were sweat sweating
ing sweating on the highways in honor of Miss
Bijou. Just the suggestion of a frown
crossed the overseers forehead at the
news.
Its been hard enough to get those
fellows to attend to their own roads,
he said; Im glad somethings inspir inspiring
ing inspiring them to do better.
Next morning as Rockford was
driving out of his front yard he en encountered
countered encountered Bijou on her gray mare.
I was just coming to see you, she
said, in some agitation. Its about
those men you sent yesterday.
Oh, thats all right; I dont mind,
returned the overseer, thinking she
referred to his draggers who had ar arrived
rived arrived tardy.
You know you told me I might
give them directions about how I
wanted the work done, she said.
Why, certainly; they had orders to
st^ r on their heads if you said so.
Well Ilthese were anew set setth.e
th.eS setth.e n a 4i yOU T sent ~ n ot like the others
at all. When I went out I found them
dragging too much on the side, and I



told them to keep more to the center,
and that after they dragged the main
road to come around and do some work
on the lane that goes to the barn, and
then I wanted them to go down in the
pasture and bring up some wood.
That was right.
So I thought, but when I said it
they looked fierce enough to eat me,
and then, without one word, they
turned and drove away with their
teams. Did I ask too much of them?
she inquired, innocently.
Not at all, Miss Hasbrook, said
Rockford, trying to not smile over
the grim humor of the situation; you
didnt ask enough. Ill give em their
time tonight and send the old crew
back this morning. Youll find no nothing
thing nothing to complain of with them.
He saw she had mistaken the two
young farmer gallants for his hired
men, and understood they might nat naturally
urally naturally have been vexed at being or ordered
dered ordered about by a girl.
But, Mr. Bob, a little anxiously;
please dontdont discharge the
others on our account. I will always
feel bad over it if you do.
Well, Ill study over it, he said,
judicially; but they deserve itthe
rascals!
The overseer raised his hat and
picked up the lines.
Theres just one other matter, Mr.
Bob, said the girl, hesitatingly.
All right; lets have it.
The other day as I was riding over
to Mapleton, Dick stumbled on a rot rotten
ten rotten culvert andlook here!
She -unbuttoned and pulled back a
starchy white sleeve; exhibiting a
smooth, round arm, across which were
two discernable discolorations. Rock Rockford
ford Rockford bent over and reverently scrutiniz scrutinized
ed scrutinized the finely modeled exhibit.
Thats terrible! he said; you fell
off?
I did that, and it was just on ac account
count account of that worn out culvert! Dick
never stumbled with me before.
Rockford waited with some fore foreboding
boding foreboding as to what was coming next.
Enlightenment was on the way:
In that ungentlemanly letter that
man Rockford wrote to my sick papa,
remarked the little lady, with some
vehemence, he said if the roads were
not kept in good condition he was
liable on his bond.
I see.
Now, dont you think, Mr. Bob,
that my plain duty is to teach that
overseer a lesson? Because, you see,
my arm hurts frightfully, and it was
all his fault.
To this good logic, Rockford was
too fair to dissent.
I think you have a just grievance
against him, Miss Hasbrook, he said
soberly; I have noticed that old cul culvert
vert culvert myself. It should have been re repaired
paired repaired long ago. I told
Of course it ought. Im glad you
agree with me, she returned, cheer cheerfully;
fully; cheerfully; Ill do it. Thank you, Mr.
Bob.
Within a week thereafter a con constable
stable constable from Mapleton served on the
road overseer a citation to appear in
Squire Thomas Grimshaws court and
there show why, if possible, he should
not be removed from office and for forfeit
feit forfeit his bond for neglect of duty on
the highways. Bijou Hasbrook, com complainant.
plainant. complainant.
Just spite work, eh, Bob? sug suggested
gested suggested the constable.
The man in office, you know,
Andy, is always a legitimate subject
of persecution, said the overseer,
ironically.
The lawsuit brought out everything
in district 15 that could move. Squire
Henshaws little room in the office
building wasnt built for a crowd like
that, so he held his tribunal in the
district court room, over at the court
house. Bijous cousin Will had ar arrived
rived arrived from New York earlier than ex expected,
pected, expected, and assumed control of her
case. He had found a young lawyer
in Mapleton who told him the com complainant
plainant complainant would have good grounds
for a civil action for damages against
overseer i n case he was deposed.
v\ ith an eye to keeping in lier good
gaces, Will was looking up evidence
and making himself generally useful
to his pretty cousin.
Rockford sat over at a round table
among his lawyers and several farm farmer-like

er-like farmer-like gentlemen. Bijou saw him,
smiled and bowed pleasantly. That
he had the slightest interest in the
case was not within her imagination.
She carried her injured arm in a silk
sling, in obedience to an adroit sug suggestion
gestion suggestion of Rockford, asked the witness
that while riding Dicka gentle old
horse she had used for many years yearsalong
along yearsalong district 15, his forefeet sudden suddenly
ly suddenly crashed through an old worn-out
culvert and she was violently precipi precipitated
tated precipitated to the hard roadway, alighting
on her left side and arm, terribly
brusing and mangling it; that it was
the first time in all her experience she
had even known Dick to do such a
thing, and she held him quite blameless
for the accident. Then she showed the
white, round arm to the jury, along
with the disfiguring scars.
After clinching her case her eyes
wandered over to the defendants table,
and observing a bushy-headed yoeman
sitting near the counsel, she selected
him as the culprit and withered him
with scorn.
The defendants lawyer, at the sug suggestion
gestion suggestion of Rickford, asked the witness
if Dick was ever in the habit of laying
down and going to sleep if he was
pushed further than he thought he
ought to go.
I have known men to act that way,
but horses never!
At this crushing retort, the lawyer
meekly excused her and the state put
on a few more witnesses to testify as
to the shady character of the culvert.
We will call first the defendant, Mr.
Rockford, said the overseers lawyer.
Whywhywhy, its Mr. Bob!
Bijou half arose as the amazed ex exclamation
clamation exclamation left her lips. The crowd
laughed. Rockford quietly took the
witness chair, and awaited the inter interrogation.
rogation. interrogation. There seemed to be an ex excited
cited excited colloquy going on at the proose proosecutions
cutions proosecutions table. Forgetful of her part,
Bijou had contemptuously thrown aside
the silk sling and was using both her
arms to lend strength to her observa observations.
tions. observations. The two attorneys seemed to
be pleading with her, and her Cousin
Wills voice was added to their entreat entreaties.
ies. entreaties. But she stood alone, and would
not budge. Finally the prosecuting at attorney
torney attorney sighed, and quit trying to
coerce his rebellious client.
Your Honor, he said, as he re reluctantly
luctantly reluctantly arose and addressed the court;
the state is placed in a somewhat hu humiliating
miliating humiliating attitude because of the sud sudden
den sudden change of heart in the prosecuting
witness. She absolutely refuses to per permit
mit permit the trial to proceed, giving as her
reason that she didnt know until now
that Mr. Bob, as she calls him, was
the defendant. Everybody in these
parts knows Bob Rockford, but she ex explains
plains explains that she never knew him by any
other name than Mr. Bob, and she
says with resolute energy that she
wouldnt prosecute Mr. Bob, even if
old Dick had fallen and crippled her
for life. We dont wish to proceed with
the trial against her objections, so the
state will enter a nolle pross.
* *
One moonlit June evening, when the
perfume of flowers and fields made
light the heart of the husbandman,, the
overseer rode over to the Hampton
home to negotiate for a scrap of paper.
This paper was neither a deed to land,
a promissory note nor a certificate of
valuable stock. Yet he was prepared to
pay an enormous price for it. It con contained
tained contained such language as disgraceful,
neglect of duty, will not be tolerat tolerated,
ed, tolerated, and so on. The deal was not con concluded
cluded concluded with the holder of the paper, but
with one who was authorized to treat.
By the terms of the treaty the over overseer
seer overseer was allowed to light his cigar
with the sinster piece of paper, and
the ambassador representing the re relinquishing
linquishing relinquishing address wore upon her
third finger a diamond constellation
that seemed to reflect the glory of her
own bright eyes.Farm and Home.
During the Revolution Thanksgiving
day was held by most of the states
every year, but after a general thangs thangsgiving
giving thangsgiving for peace in 1784 five years
elapsed before President Washington
proclaimed a day of thanksgiving for
the adoption of the constitution.

Subscribe for the Agriculturist ten
weeks for ten cents.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

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absolutely youabsolutely free a beautiful copy of what the publisher intends shall be the great greatest
est greatest high-class magazine of its kind ever published. This contest, consequently,
is absolutely without restrictions of any nature. Therefore send in your solution
at once to-day it costs you nothing, and, In addition, we will show you how
you can also take part in our other contest, in which there will be distributed
monthly, $1,075.00. Address PUZZLE EDITOR, 375 West 68th street, New York
City.

For Information
As to soil, climate and productions
in the nations garden spot along the
line of the Atlantic Coast Line Rail Railroad
road Railroad in Virginia, North and South
Carolina, Georgia, Alabama and Flor Florida,
ida, Florida, write to
WILBUR McCOY,
Agricultural and Immigration Agent,
JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA.

15



16

THOSE SATISFIED CUSTOMERS.
WE FIND THAT OUR BEST DRUMMERS AND BUSINESS BUILDERS ARE CUSTOMERS THAT ARE
WELL PLEASED WITH OUR GOODS. HERE IS WHAT A FEW OF OUR PLEASED CUSTOMERS SAY:
Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 29, 1906. WELL PLEASED.
E. 0. Painter Fertilizer Company, Neptune, Fla.
Jacksonville, Fla. E. 0. Painter Fertilizer Company,
Gentlemen: Our foreman says there is a very great difference Jacksonville, Fla.
in the grove in favor of your fertilizer over the He has Gentlemen:Yours of the Ist just at hand. I certainly have
kept a correct record, and unless seen can hardly he realized, as no cause of complaint, on the contrary do not see how I could ask
he applied the fertilizers side by side in equal proportions. Where for better treatment. You will certainly find me again on your
your fertilizers were used the trees have a good, healthy color and list of well pleased customers. Yours truly,
have a nice crop of fruit on. Where the was used there (Signed) A. R. Gerber.
was but little fruit and the trees are poor in color, and look as
if there had been no fertilizer used at all. I am, ALL THAT WAS CLAIMED.
Very truly yours, Bartow, Fla.
(Signed) E. R. Redfield. E. 0. Painter Fertilizer Company,
Jacksonville, Fla.
HAD TO PROP TREES. Gentlemen: All of your fertilizer which I have used has done
Grasmere, Fla., July 28, 1906. all that was claimed for it, and I am glad to so state.
E. 0. Painter Fertilizer Company, Yours respectfully,
Jacksonville, Fla. (Signed) W. Lacy Body.
Gentlemen: I wanted to tell you about my orange grove. I have
been using Simon Pure No. 1 on it now for three years, and it gets TOOK FIVE PRIZES.
more compliments than any grove. Nearly everybody that sees it Punta Gorda, Fla., April 27th, 1907.
talks about the trees looking so well, and I have had to prop some E. 0. Painter Fertilizer Company,
of them already. They are so full of oranges they look like they Jacksonville, Fla.
would break. I will bring you other customers, I think. Gentlemen: Our success at the Expositions and Fairs is due to
Yours, etc., your fertilizer. I have used nothing but your Gem Pineapple
(Signed) E. M. Strong. on my pines for three years, and it enabled me to grow pines which
last year captured every prize for shedded pines at the State Fair
THINKS THEY ARE THE BEST FERTILIZERS. at Tampa. These five prizes aggregated $315.00. I consider it the
Lakemont, Fla., Dec. 4, 1905. best pineapple fertilizer I know of.
E. 0. Painter Fertilizer Company, Yours very truly,
Jacksonville, Fla. (Signed) J. M. Weeks, Mgr.
Gentlemen: Simon Pure No. 1 and Simon Pure No. 2 are the Punta Gorda Pinery Company.
BEST FERTILIZERS in Florida, and I shall always do all I can to
introduce them. Respectfully, SUCH A CROP.
(Signed) B. M. Hampton. Fruitville, Fla., Dec. 24, 1906.
E 0. Painter Fertilizer Company,
NONE MORE SATISFACTORY. Jacksonville, Fla.
Largo, Fla. Gentlemen:Please send me price list of your fertilizers, espe-
E. 0. Painter Fertilizer Company, dally your fertilizers for early tomatoes, and also yours for bearing
Jacksonville, Fla. orange trees. The man who rented from me last spring used your
Gentlemen: Your favor of the Ist received and noted. In reply tomato fertilizer and I never saw such a crop of tomatoes,
would say that I have never done business with any house that Please let me hear from you at once. Time to order now.
has been more satisfactory than the business I have done with you. Respectfully,
You have often acceeded to what I have thought, and I shall cer- (Signed) F. H. Tucker.
tainly do all I can for your house. Yours truly,
(Signed) C. W. Johnson. FINEST CORN.
DeFuniak Springs, May 31, 1906.
CAN RECOMMEND IT. E. 0. Painter Fertilizer Company,
E. 0. Painter Fertilizer Company, Ft. Pierce, Fla. Jacksonville, Fla.
Jacksonville, Fla. Gentlemen: The corn I fertilized with the Painter corn fertilizer
Gentlemen: I have been well pleased with the fertilizer I got is the finest I have ever seen grown on this sand; it is lots higher
from you and have recommended your firm to every one that wanted than my head now, nearly black it is so green, did not fire when
fertilizer, and shall continue to do so. the dry weather hit it. I dont expect to ever iise any other make
Yours very truly, as long as you keep the standard up. Yours, etc.,
(Signed) R. E. Blanchard. (Signed) B. F. Noyes.
OUR BRANDS ARE ALL STANDARDS.
We Make a Specialty of Special Mixtures Suited for Special Crops. Our Formulas are Backed by 30 YEARS
Experience in Florida. If you want anything in the FERTILIZER OR INSECTICIDE LINE write to US for our
booklet and price list.
E.O. PAINTER FERTILIZER l O.

WANT 810 CROPS? then use IDEAL FERTILIZER
OUR BOOKS WILL TBLL YOb
FLORIDA VEGETABLES A complete manual £ IRISH POTATOES Book on Soil, Seed, Plant Planton
on Planton Florida crops. ing and Cultivation, Effect of Fertilizers, Digging
and Shipping/
" FLORIDA ORANGES Book of special interest
. PINEAPPLE FERTILIZING Of special interest
to orange growers. to pineapple growers.
FLORIDA STRAWBERRIES Booklet on Soil, ** IDEAL FERTILIZERS Book showing all our
Varieties, Cultivation and Fertilization. different brands, analyses, prices, etc.
' t
New and revised editions of the above just published, sent free for the asking.
WILSON & TOOMER FERTILIZER COMPANY
JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA.

THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.