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The Florida agriculturist
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00047911/00074
 Material Information
Title: The Florida agriculturist
Uniform Title: Florida agriculturist (De Land, Fla.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ;
Language: English
Publisher: Kilkoff & Dean
Place of Publication: DeLand Fla
Creation Date: May 29, 1901
Publication Date: 1878-1911
Frequency: monthly[1908-june 1911]
weekly[ former 1878-1907]
monthly
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- De Land (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Volusia County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Jacksonville (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Duval County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: newspaper   ( marcgt )
newspaper   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Volusia -- DeLand
Coordinates: 29.02889 x -81.30055 ( Place of Publication )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (May 15, 1878)-v. 38, no. 6 (June 1911).
Numbering Peculiarities: Numbering is irregular.
Numbering Peculiarities: Some issues for 1911 also called "New series."
General Note: Publisher: E.O. Painter, <1887>.
General Note: Editor: C. Codrington, 1878- .
General Note: "A journal devoted to state interests."
General Note: Published at Jacksonville and De Land, <1902>-1907; at Jacksonville, 1907- .
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000941425
oclc - 01376795
notis - AEQ2997
lccn - sn 96027724
System ID: UF00047911:00074
 Related Items
Preceded by: Volusia County herald (De Land, Fla.)

Full Text
El


Vol. XXVIII. No. 22. Jacksonville and DeLand, Fla.. Wednesday, May 29, 1901. Whole No. 1426.


President Taber's Address.
Members of the State Horticulthral So-

Ladies and Gentlemen:--On a fate-
ful Friday a little less than three
weeks ago the wires carried through-
out the length and breadth of the land
the dire news that the city of Jackson-
ville was in flames. The next day
some of us drove for hours over fallen
wires, cluttering bricks and other un-
burnable debris, through smoking
ruins of what had been the fairest
residence and most prosperous business
portions of the Gate City of Florida.
The time for our Horticultural Soci-
ety meeting had been set for May 21st
to 24th. Hotel accommodations had
been arranged. Transportation had
been secured. We were to convene at
the beautiful Board of Trade rooms.
But now with her largest hotels van-
ished Into thin air, her Board of Trade
building, opera house and other avail-
able convention places but unsightly
piles of brick and mortar, what should
we do; what ought we to do?
A hasty conference of some of our
officers and members resulted in the
decision that the meeting should still
be held in .acksonville provided it
could be accomplished in a way that
would prove beneficial to Jacksonville,
Ibt not otherwise. In times past we
bad been welcomed there as guests, we
had partaken of the bread and salt of
a city noted throughout the country
for its generous hospitality. Fortune
had been kind to us during the past
year and perhaps some of us, viewing
the ruin wrought, would feel minded
to contribute toward the necessities of
those with whom fortune had dealt less
kindly; we would at least leave in the
city some of the dollars that trade and
hotel bills imply and we would recip-
rocate so far as in us lay, the kind
expressions of encouragement, of hope
and of cheer that Jacksonville had ex-
tended to us during the dark days of
our own adversity.
Acting upon this decision Secretary
Powers sent out his first circular an-
nouncing that, notwithstandnig the
fire, the meeting would still be held
in Jacksonville. A few days later, how-
ever, a second canvass of the situation,
in which your president consulted with
Vice-President George W. Wilson and
Secretary Powers of the society and
the prominent railroad, city and board
of trade officials of Jacksonville, result-
ed in a reversal of our first decision.
It became plain that we had under-
rated Jacksonville's wonderful recuper-
ative powers. Her burnt out popula-
tion instead of leaving the city in
swarms, remained to rebuild the fallen
city and recoup their fallen fortunes.
The city needed every available room
for officing and housing her own in-
habitants. The kindliest service that
we could render Jacksonville was to
look for other quarters. We accepted
t. Augustine's kind invitation; Secre-
tary Powers sent out notices to that
effect and we are here.
The thanks of the society are due the
railroad, which, with courtesy and
Peaptness, made available for St.


Augustine the reduced rates that had
been granted for Jacksonville. Our
thanks are also due the Board of Trade
of Jacksonville, and its large-hearted,
whole-souled president. Capt. C. E.
Garner, the worthy president of the re-
lief association, who, when your presi-
dent told him that we had decided to
go to St. Augustine, said: "Brother
Taber please say to your society and
to the good people of St. Augustine
that in addition to the losses Jackson-
ville has sustained by fire she feels the
loss of the Horticultural Society meet-
ing."
In addition to St. Augustine's invita-
tion we received one from the city of
Orlando, and one from the city of Tam-
pa. On behalf of the society thanks
were conveyed to the mayor's of both
these cities together with the informa-
tion that under the circumstances we
thought better to come here.
Your president wishes to extend his
personal thanks to the executive com-
mittee for empowering him with their
prerogative and endorsing, in advance,
his decision as to the place of meeting,
at a time when red tape would have
seriously impeded the prompt action
that the exigencies of the case demand-
ed.
Tile fire which was so disastrous to
Jacksonville was far reaching in its
effects and our society is one of the
sufferers-to comparatively small ex-
tent it is true, yet the loss is one we
deplore. All records of the society and
all annual reports on hand for past
years were destroyed. This makes it
impossible to supply life members from
now on with reports published prior
to the fire. I am happy to say. however,
that the library, of which the library
committee's report will show we have
a nucleus, was not burned. In tis con-
nection I wish. without discrimination
against other contributors, to call spec-
ial attention to the generosity of Mrs.
Frances E. Manville, of Orange City,
who, in remembrance of her husband,
our former secretary, A. H. Mannville,
kindly donated the complete collection
of horticultural books which he pos-
sessed at the time of his death.
While each and every one of us must
deplore the calamity that made neces-
sary a change in our meeting place,
yet it seems to me peculiarly fitting
that the Florida State Horticultural
Society, which, more than any other,
represents the peaceful, substantial
progress of our state, should hold a
convention in this historic town, the
oldest not only in Florida but in the
United States. It was here that more
than three and one-third centuries ago,
Melendez's expedition for conquest and
control first found anchorage. It was
from this port the Ion sallied forth to
give battle to the Frenchman; it was
near this town the massacre of the
French occurred that, in turn, brought
forth from France the expedition that
wrought terrible retribution on the
Spaniard. In those days Florida was
primeval. The most valued art was
the art of war. Fighting for occupation
or defense, was for many years the
most important business of the inhab-
itants of this city and of this state. It


had to be. Those were days when, If
ever, might made right. But now see
how changed! No need now for sen-
tries to pace the ramparts of yonder
ancient fort and signal whether the
fleet sailing up the bay is to bring re-
lief to a beleaguered people, or flying
colors that mean fight or be destroyed.
No need now for moat or drawbridge.
No need now for the portcullis at old
Fort Marion to be kept in working or-
der; the one at the Ponce de Leon has
replaced it and it is raised to all with-
out fear of an enemy. St. Augustine has
no enemies, but hosts of friends, and
amongst them all none more friendly
than the horticulturist. It is the prac-
tice of our art than the grounds sur-
rounding her palatial buildings have
been embellished and without this art
her magnificent architecture would
lose half its significance.
And now, Ladies and Gentlemen; let
us consider for a few moments the
scope of work that lies before us at
this meeting; our society has to deal
with the horticulture of the second
largest state east of the Mississippi
river, embracing, roughly speaking,
fifty-nine thousand square miles. From
Fernandina to the Perdido we cover
six degrees of longitude and from St.
Mary's river to Cape Sable about the
same number of degrees of latitude.
Figures. however, whether represent-
ing distances or areas, carry much
more weight wleni reinforced by com-
parlsons.
Let us suppose aerial navigation-
which the present century will un-
doubtedly see perfected-is already in
successful operation. With one of those
space annihilating machines let us
start from tile nortiwcestern extremity
of the state of Florida and Inake a fly-
il'g trip in a straight line to the soutlh-
eastern extremity of our mainland. An
examination of the meter will show
that we have logged off five hundred
and fifty miles. Now, returning to out
initial point of northwestern Florida,
let us take a trip of equal distance in
a northeasterly direction. This will

take us across a large portion of the
state of Alabama, the whole of the
states of Georgia and South Carolina
and land us in the middle of the state
of North Carolina, or, with our course
a little more to the northward, take
as clear over the northern line of North
Carolina into Virginia; or, trending still
more to the northward land us in West
Virginia after having covered portions
of the states of Alabama, Georgia,
North Carolina, Tennessee and Virgin-
ia. Pursuing a still more northerly di-
rection we can land in Northern Ken-
tucky almost up to Cincinnati, Ohio.
Flying north and northwest we can
land one-third of the way up the states
of Indiana or Illinois, or the center of
the state of Missouri; or, with just a
few revolutions of our propellor, can
land in southeastern Kansas. In an al-
most easterly direction we could land
near Austin, the capital of Texas or
a little more to the southwest al-
most reach Corpus Christi. Directly
south or directly east we would not
care to fly, or at least light when our
five hundred and fifty miles were com-


pleted. In the one direction we would
land in deep water well down the Gulf
of Mexico, with nothing more tangible
to grasp at than the Tropic of Cancer,
and in the other direction we would
disappear from sight in the Atlantic
200 miles east of Fernandina.
Now, while some of us might find
this flying a pleasant sensation, others
of us might not, and as none of us are
yet used to it and our air-ship might
not accommodate us all let us take a
map of the United States and a pair
of compasses and, drawing a circle
with the northwestern point of Florida
for its center and our southeastern
mainland on its periphery, attain the
same results. This circle will not only
corroborate the distances named, but
also show us that there are fifteen
states and one territory, one third of
all the states and territories in this
country prior to the Spanish war, that
are, either in part or in whole, nearer
to the state of Florida than thet
tremities of our state are to
er. (As a matter of fact, there '
other state that comes within
tance, but not within the
is Ohio, the southern extialty to
which is nearer to Pernandna than our
northwestern extremity is to. r east-
ern.)
Now if these figures and copartsom
applied to a state farther noith, sur-
rounded on all sides by other states,
the situation, while still admitting of
plenty of work on our part. would be
vastly simplified. In that case we
wonld be one of a cluster of states hav-
ing, horticilturally speaking, much in
common. We would consult horticul-
tural papers and horticultural reports
of states adjoining us on the east or
west or south and obtain valuable in-
formation from our neighbors working
under similar conditions of soil and
climate. But when we consider that
the only two states with which we
come in contact are those that con-
stitute our northern boundary and
that, leaving these, our state immedi-
ately trends southward into salt water
and warmer latitudes, our unique po-
sition and comparative isolation among
the sisterhood of states becomes doub-
ly apparent; we realize more fully
how much we are thrown upon our
own horticultural resources. I am
happy to say that these resources have
never yet failed us and are not likely
to.
Returning again to our map and sur-
veying the territory over which our
northeastern flight took us we will find
that while yet in mid-air, before the
flight was half completed we were
passing over the largest peach or-
chards in the world. Investigation .will
show us that some of the varieties
comprising those immense middle
Georgia orchards are also adapted to
our initial point of northwestern Flor-
ida, but that coming east and south
from there the adaptability of these
varieties gradually diminishes until,
before we reach an imaginary line
drawn across the state from Cedar
Keys to Jacksonville, their fruitfulness
has become so Impaired as to make
them utterly valueless for commercial
planting. Now this does not mean that








338 THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.


south of this line we cannot grow of adding largely to the horticultural
peaches, for on the contrary, we can wealth of the state, if we will go at it
and do. It means simply that peaches systematically; and that is the growing
for semi-tropical planting must be of of new varieties with the material al-
tropical or semi-tropical origin. Investi- ready at hand to serve as a basis. Take
gatlon will show us that the kinds most for instance peaches, to which I have
largely planted in peninsular Florida, before alluded, and plant a few pits
and which are now being shipped by year after year from the best, earliest
the carload from sections that a few and most fruitful varieties grown in
years ago did not know they could tihe immediate locality in which each
grow peaches, are to a very large ex- of us are situated. If each member of
tent varieties that have originated in this society would do this for a few
Florida and belong to types introduc- years in succession I believe varieties
ed from the tropics. would be originated that would be to
In the northern portion of our state Florida what the far famed Elberta
apples can be grown, although it must is to Georgia and the states to the
be admitted, not with such degree of northward. It does not take much
success as will warrant extensive room to do this, the pits may be plant-
planting. In the southern half of the ed one or two feet in the rows and
state we have an apple that is ten rows eight feet apart. After they have
times as large and ten times as lus- fruited dig up those that produce only
cious, the cultivation of which has as- mediocre or poor fruit and let the
sumed immense proportions and has others stand, not as the basis of a com-
proven immensely profitable; it is the mnercial orchard in themselves, but for
pineapple, further test as to possibilities of vari-
In northern Florida pears have been eties that may prove worthy of exten-
profitably grown, although in recent sire propagation and planting. While
years badly affected by blight. In budded varieties only should form the
southern Florida a so-called pear is basis of a commercial orchard yet the
grown which, while no relation to the few trees to which our little plot will
LeConte or other pears, holds out T)e ultimately thinned will be the best
promising inducements and is probably varieties out of the lot of seedlings pro-
no more subject to attacks of blight duced and. whether we have develop-
than is the saurian whose name it has ed anything startling or not. can.re-
borrowed. main as a valuable adjunct to our
In northern Florida the cultivation home orchard.
of the pecan nut is assuming large pro- I have specifically mentioned peaches
portions and very justly so. In extreme because they are easily grown, subject
south Florida we find that mammoth to wide variation from the seed and
of all nuts. which produces both food fruit while yet very young. There are
and drink, the cocoanut, growing under thousands upon thousands of acres of
as radically different conditions from land throughout both northern and
those suited to the pecan as can well peninsular Florida that are perfectly
be conceived, adapted to peach culture. We already
Section n n l a have other kinds: we might have better
In sections of northern Florida some s, let us originate them. Some of
varieties of the true Japan plum, us have already done something in this
prunus triflora. have fruited well and line, but it is needless t say that the
the crosses that have Ibeen. and will be, e.t I a le te gy e
Produced between these and our native efforts of a whole state will produce
iprodu.^d IMtween these and our native ,,,uh greater results than the few
types promises much for a large por- ch greater results than the few
tion of the state. In southern Flortda But it is not peaches alone that hold
the Eriobotrya Japonica. or loquat. out inducements in the way of origi-
also erroneously called "Japan Plum," nation of new varieties. There are
isnation of new varieties. There are
is one of great vale and worthy of many other fruits that can be experi-
being planted more extensively than mented with in the same way, and our
at present Several improved named horticultural resources materially de-
varieties of these are already in exis- veloped from within the state. With
tence that are very much larger and in the citrus fruits, where variation of
every way superior to the common seedlings is not as radical as with some
seed*ngs. others, the more scientific method of
In northern Florida we have the figs, artificial pollination presents an Invit-
Japan persimmons and grapes to con- ing field which has already been enter-
sider and many varieties of these are ed upon to a considerable extent and
equally adapted well down the state; crosses produced not only between vari-
and again in south Florida the pomelo, eties but species, that promise much
lemon, lime, guava and mango, togeth- for the future. This feld is so large,
er with minor fruits of even more however and admits of such an almost
tropical character come in for atten- endless combination in the assembling
tion. of desirable qualities of different vari-
And now last to mention, but per- eties under one exterior covering thai
haps first in Importance comes the or- there is no danger of its ever being
ange, the fruit that more than any overdone.
other has made us famous. The one And then in addition to the planting
with which the name of Florida is in- of fruit tree seeds, either naturally or
separably linked. Where shall we draw :irtiflcally polinated, there are number
the line of demarkation between adapt- ous shrubs and flowers which are sub
ability and non-adaptability of this ject to the same laws of variation and
queen of fruits? To be sure, during which offer a delightful field of expert
storm and stress of weather that re- ment to those of us to whom th(
cent years have brought us, she has beautiful in nature appeals; and t(
been seeking protection near the Ever- whom of us does it not?
glades, but does this mean that she has In mentioning the possibilities thai
abandoned her old haunts forever? We lie before us in the way of further de
think not. We believe that all this por- velopment, I trust that none of you
tion of Florida that has been graced will think that I am belittling the ac
with her presence in the past will be tualities that already exist. On the con
graced with it again; that in her trip trary no one of us recognizes mon
southward she is simply extending her than I the grandeur of our horticultur
dominion and making it that much al domain and the grandeur of our wel
larger than ever before. Her votaries established horticultural products. Le
farther up the state do not relinquish u;- continue to import into the statb
their claim upon her simply because every tree or vegetable or seed oi
those farther down the state have fil- plant or cutting that holds forth prom
ed theirs. Already with less than three ise of being an acquisition, but let uj
years elapsed since the hardest freeze also remember that we have within out
ever known in Florida there are com- state limits, at our finger ends, a mini
puted to be one thousand boxes of her of wealth in varieties yet unborn if w,
golden output in sight in one grove will but apply the wizard touch.
within ten miles of the Georgia line. And now, ladies and gentlemen,
But it is not alone the fruits of wish to congratulate each member o:
Florida that demand attention at our the society on the fact that we are hor
hands; if so we would be a pomologi- ticulturists. The pursuit that we follow
cal society rather than an horticultural is one that is broadening, ennobling
one. Pomology treats of fruits and uplifting. Of all the arts and science
fruit trees; horticulture embraces all there is no other the followers o
pomology and much more. Vegetables, which are brought into such close re
shrubs and flowers as well as fruits lation with nature; and he who cat
come within the scope of an horticul- feel his own pulse respond to nature;
tural society. Our printed program mighty heart throb is a king, regard
shows that all these are given a place. less of whether he live in palace o
Referring once more to our unique hovel. He can, as can all of us if w
position on the map. I wish to call at- are true horticulturists, appreciate th
tention to what I believe to be a means sublimity of sentiment expressed hb


WVm. Cullen Bryant in "A Forest
nymnn:" THE GHOST
"My heart Is awed within 'me when I
think Of our boyhood resolved itself to an old
Of tthe great miracle that still goes on, tree when we had courage to examine it.
In silence. round me-the perpetual work M anhood its ghosts, which, to the
Of thy creation, finished, yet renewed
For ever. Written on thy works I read man who has courage to confront them,
The lesson of thy own eternity, prove to be as harmless as the ghosts of
Io. all grow old and die-but see again boyhood. One
How on the faltering footsteps of decay of the ghosts
Youth presses-ever gay and beautiful w h ar
yout. which scare
In all its beautiful forms. These lofty a great many
tree people is the
Wave not less proudly that their ances- ghost of lung dis-
Mouder benealt Ithem. Oh, there is not ease. But expi-
lost ence shows this
One of earth's charms; upon her bosom ghost to be very
yet. armless. In
After the flight of untold centuries, rmles. In
The freshness of her far beginning lies, casesalmostinnu-
And yet shall lie." merable "weak"
I ~ have been
White ly, st=oug, ob-
WVhite Fly. stinate coughs
Editor Florida Agriculturist: stopped, and
Your request for a brief history of bronchial af ec-
tions cured by the
my experience with the white fly, re- ue of Dr.Pierce's
ceived some time ago and I should have Golden Medical
written you at once, but just at that Discovery. And these cures have been
time the fly was swarming. I thought wrought i" many cases after the doctor
best to wait until the hatching was had said-"There is no help for you."
over that I might write you the more Don't give i to the petition of a
intelligently on the subject. Now for at age. Give the "Golden tMdical
my experience: scoverya fair and faithful trial. It
When we were picking my orange alwayshelp. Italmostalways cures.
crop in the fall of '98, I noticed the ghteen Imonths ago, my hi wyour medicine
signs of the fly on about a dozen of broken down writ Corn Sandeand,
my seedling trees, about middle of the of Chaneville, Calvert Co., Md. %At times I
could not even walk aa the room without
grove east and west and along south ains in evyhest. rh ct who attended
side of the grove. During the winter me said I had I trouble, and that I wd
and spring. I gave these and adjacent never be well ai. At at I coded to
trees a thorough spraying, it looked as of' Golden medial Disovry took attnd
though every leaf was saturated or wet aon commenced to feel a little better; then
with the spray. I used it full strength, directed me to take both the 'oden
teal icoveryI and the Favorite Prescripti ,'
and a little more, of the formula. I which I did. Altogether havetaken ehteen
hoped that I had surrounded tile enemy bottles of Golden Medical Dic twe
(not entirely without doubt though) of the Faite Prescription, and five viandls of
'pellet&' I am now alumit .en-ir.ly wen, and do
and annihilated it A I:ttle later on all my work withoutany pI w er and cn
however, I found that the enemy had r,, with more ee than co former a."
me surrounded, aid on those trees that Dr. Pierce's Medical Adviser in paper
had been sprayed there was an abun- covers, is sentfiw on receipt of 21 one-
dance of fly hatched. Did I surrender?' cent stamps to pay expense of mailing
Well, no. not exactly, but I did change only. Address Dr. R. V. Pierce, Bu-
my mode of warfare. From what I had falo, N. Y.
observed in other groves, coupled with __
miy bit of experience, I concluded that mtucl improved, scarcely any fly this
spraying to eradicate the white fly spring. We can reasonably expect a
from a grove, no matter how thorough- ftll bloom another year.
ly and persistently prosecuted, must Will the fly return? I think so, indeed
fail. Especially on old seedlings, inas- I am sure of it, but the fungus will
much as it is practically impossible to meet it at least half way. In short:
reach and destroy all the eggs or lar- 1st. I took up the white fly as the
vae of the fly, thus necessitating re- most formidable enemy of the citrus
peated spraying from time to time, and tree the grower has ever had to con-
for all time (I believe the fly is here to tend with In Florida.
stay) entailing a heavy expense. Only 2nd. That the fungus is the most of-
in the winter and early months Is It fectual way thus far discovered to
safe to spray with a solution strong flght it.
enough to destroy the larvae, that Is, 3rd, That spraying injures or kills
if there is fruit on the trees, since It much of the fungus.
Burns the tender skin of the growing 4th. That spraying for the fly Is not
fruit and leaves an ugly scab when at all satisfactory and is very expen-
the fruit matures. Great quantities of sive.
the fruit were knocked off (I mean the 5th That fumigation, or plans used
solution so affected the fruit that in in experimenting thus far are too ex-
a few days it dropped off) by spraying pensive.
Last summer. In view of the foregoing ;th. That white fly fruit is lacking in
I concluded to give the fungus (natural flavor and does I.il carry well.
enemy of the white fly) a chance. Be- W. aB. Ta omps c wel.
SIleving that time might be saved by neco, Fla.mpson.
introducing fungus into the grove, I ,
Produced a lot of little trees well inoc-
ulated with both red and brown fungus Success With Tobacco.
t The brown is considered much the bet- I will tell you my experience in rais-
- ter variety of the two species. These ing tobacco, I do not raise tobacco be-
I little trees I transplanted in my grove. cause I like that kind of work. but if
- Where old trees were trained low I properly planted and grown there is
- planted in sand under them, but where some profit in it. Some people say
the trees had been trained high, I hung that there is no money in tobacco, but
- old boxes and buckets up in the limbs that is because they do not understand
I in which the little trees had been plant- the business. In the first place they
t ed. This was in July '99. My trees make a mistake by sowing their plant
Were carrying a full crop of fruit beds in poor soil, or by sowing the
r which I sold on the 23rd of July on seed too thick, which causes the plants
- trees. At that time a little smut to become very long and tender.
s showing on the leaves and none on In good soil about one tablespoonful
r fruit. September brought a perfect fog is enough to the square rod. The seed
e cf flies and by November the leaves can be more equally sown by mixing
e and fruit were as black as a "wool hat" with a few ashes or meal. The beds
and every box of fruit had to be should be burned in the fall of the
I washed. We had bloom for about half i year, and they can be sown early in
f a crop next spring, all in the tops of the the spring just as soon as they become
- trees, and another full crop of the fly. dry. Before sowing they should be
SI forgot to state that by September or i well dug up at least six inches deep,
,October, after introducing the fly we and well pulverized, and after sowing
s could notice the fungus on the leaves I the seed should be lightly raked in
f of the old trees wherever these little with a light rake, and, if the soil is
. trees were planted. By the next fall not too wet, the beds should be tramp-
n the fungus had spiead to every leaf ed and well drained, so as not to have
s seemingly. Fruit all to wash again, them overflowed. The beds should be
. though by November the smut had canvassed so as to hold the moisture
r commenced shedding. This was fall of and start the plants as soon as possi-
e 1900. The past spring had only bloom Ible. yet uncanvassed plants are far sn-
p for about a half crop. Smut most all prior to canvassed plants, because
r off the leaves and trees looking very they are tougher and when set out can








THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST. 339


stand the sun better than the canvass-
ed plants. A while before the plants
are ready to set, the canvass should be
removed during the nights, so as to
toughen the plants and have them bet-
ter fitted to stand the outside weather
when set out. The canvass should be
replaced during the day; if not. the
plants will become wilted. The plants
should be set in good, fertile soil. The
soil should be well pulverized and a
ridge thrown up with a single shovel
or hills made to set the plants in. Af-
ter the plants have been set about a
week the soil should be stirred, so as
to start the plant to growing right
away. The tobacco patch should be
kept clear of weeds and well under
control. Tobacco on old ground, if it
is the right kind of ground, requires
about two plowings and hoeing; it
then becomes too large and brittle to
cultivate any longer. On new ground
one hoeing is sufficient, if it is the kind
of land for tobacco. Last year we
sowed a bed forty feet long and nine
feet wide, which furnished us enough
plants to set our crop of about six
acres, and enough to furnish two or
three of our neighbors with plants,
and even some fellows from town who
raised a crop, then there did not ap-
pear to be more than one-half of them
drawn from the bed.
Much labor can be saved by killing
the fly which distributes the eggs and
produces the worm. by leaving a few
jimson weeds on the farm and distrib-
uting a few drops of poison in the
bloom from which the tobacco fly gets
its nourishment. If every farmer
would do this there would be much
hard labor saved on account of the
worming. When the worms are nu-
merous the tobacco should be gone
through every day, and get the larger
worms off first, as they will do more
damage in a short time than the small
ones. Labor can also be saved in suck-
ering the tobacco. The suckers should
be allowed to grow until they are
about six inches long. In this manner
the bottom of the plant will sucker but
once. Tobacco will sucker but twice,
and if properly managed will require
but two suckerings. The suckers
should not be allowed to go too long
before breaking out; if they do they
will push the leaves from the stalk.
The tobacco is ready to cut when it
becomes yellow spotted. It will be
very easily sunburnt if it remains In
the hot sun very long after cutting.
When we haul the tobacco from the
patch it is first hung on the scaffold
and remains three or four days, or un-
til it becomes well wilted and turns
yellow, then it is taken and hung In
the barn for the final curing. It should
not be hung so close as to cause it to
house burn. The barn should be well
ventilated, so as to cure it before cold
weather, but should not be kept open
In damp weather. When the tobacco
is thoroughly cured and ready to strip,
we make four grades-trash,. lugs, the
middle, or best leaf. and tile tips or top
leaf. Tobacco if properly sorted will
sell for a much better price than if it
is all mixed together. For the last two
years we have been selling our tobac-
co, the trash for five cents, lugs for
eight cents, top leaf for ten cents and
best leaf for twelve and a half cents
per pound, and this year we sold our
crop for the highest price paid in our
neighborhood, which was five and a
half cents per pound from the ground
up; and when you get the money for
a tobacco crop you have that much
clear money.. It takes no feed to raise
tobacco as it does to raise stock. II
requires the work only; while in rais-
ing stock it requires both the feed and
much labor if they are attended tc
right. It is, therefore, not difficult t(
see that there is some profit in tobac.
co if it is given the proper attention.-
Arthur Kendall, in Journal of Agrl
culture.
Southern Experience With Sorghum
As information on sorghum seems t(
be sought, possibly my experience foi
the past twelve or more years may b
of service to some one. I thoroughly
believe in sorghum; those who havi
never used it have no idea of its value
Mr. Waldo F. Brown recommend!
sowing it broadcast. I do not. Unless
the soil is rich and season is good,
poor crop may be expected. If drille(
in rows three to three and a half fee
apart, and about six inches in the drill


thick enough to allow the cane to
grow about the size of a man's thumb,
and cultivate like corn, a fair crop may
be expected, even with a poor season.
With good seasons, the greatest abun-
dance of the finest forage for cattle
and horses will be harvested.
If sown broadcast, it will have to be
harvested and stored like hay. This
will not do, for, in fact, sorghum never
cures. The blade does, but it is a very
insignificant part of the crop. The sap
or juice of the cane is always retained.
Of course, the longer kept the more
condensed; but if piled in a heap, un-
less the canes are very small (and
these are of very much less feeding
value than larger canes), it will sour
and mold.
Last season with us was very dry.
As my cane was small and only about
four and a half feet high, I, after the
blade was thoroughly cured, put it in
my loft on a floor of three-inch boards,
with one and one-half inch space be-
tween each board. I soon found it had
to be cared for differently. Fortunate-
ly. I had a lot of corn cut in early silk,
and cured it by making a layer of sor-
ghum about twelve inches deep, then
a layer about six inches deep of cured
corn, and so on for eight or nine feet.
I thus saved my sorghum, otherwise
would have lost it, as animals refuse
to eat it if sour and mouldy. When
planted in drills and cultivated, sor-
ghum will grow eight to ten feet high.
When seed is ripe. cut and stack, slop-
ing out all around; tie toward the top
securely with wire. such as used for
baling hay. At leisure it can be hauled
to the barn andi stored. Place in an
upright position in a row about three
feet thick, against the wall. then place
a threc-inch-wide board or slat about
three and a half feet from the floor
hard against the sorghum, making fast
both ends. Then put up another three
feet of sorghum, then another board,
and so on as cane or space may last.
These boards supilort each layer or
row of cane, which will settle some,
leaving so many spaces for ventilation.
In this way cane will keep well and
sweet, Iknow, for mlore than a year.
but if not supported will settle to a
solid heap and spoil. If short of hous-
ing room, tighten wire on stacks in
field, and use first. It will keep there
if necessary until spring. I have a
few stacks in field now ilMarch 15). ex-
cepting possibly a half-inch or less at
bottom, as good as the housed.
I would advise planting the Orange,
unless early green forage is wanted;
then plant Amber. which. like cat-tail
millet, will come again when cut. We
plant sometimes as late as July, and
make a good crop. Frost does not in-
jure sorghum. except to kill the blade.
I use a heavy half-inch cutter, cutting
as needed. My horse and cows never
tire of it. For cows. this is dampened
and ground grain mixed with it. In
season, I have green clover and green
cornstalks, after pulling roasting ears;
but for cows I always want some sor-
ghum. When my sorghum giv<'s out. in
a measure my milk and butter does
also.
This year I will plant more sorghum
than ever before, and earlier, and I will
use it almost exclusively for both cat-
tie and horse. Sorghum makes good
Sensilage, but it is better to mix it with
corn. Sorghum seed is good feed for
Schickens-I believe a better egg pro-
Sducer than oats. Grow sorghum cane
Large, and give to fattening hogs, and
it will save many bushels of corn and
Shorten the fattening period.-South
S;arolina letter, in Country Gentleman.

To Kill White Fly.
Through the courtesy of M W. Lacy
SBoyd, we are allowed to lay before our
readers the following formula for a
spray for trees infested with white fly,
says Bartow Courier-Informant, and
best times and way to apply it. The
Materials cost very little, are easily
o mixed, and the directions sufficiently
r explicit for any one to understand
e and apply it. Growers in whose groves
r they are seen. should at once provide
e a sprayer, and begin the work of de-
.struction. Remember the old adage,
s "A stitch in time saves nine."
s It appears from Prof. Rolfs that the
I fly has three periods for laying eggs,
1 thereby giving ample time for effec-
t tive work at whatever time it may
suit the trees and the growers best.


The following is the letter from Prof.
Gossard :
Mr. W. Lacy Boyd, Bartow, Fla..
Dear sir:-Yours of the 14th inst.,
addressed to Dr. Yocum has been
handed to me for reply. Under separ-
ate cover I send you a copy of Prof.
Rolfs' bulletin upon insecticides and
fungicides, in which you will find a
formula for the preparation of sulphur
spray, the best remedy for Rust Mite.
For white fly prepare a resin wash
as follows:
Resin, pulverized .. ........8 pounds.
Star Ball Potash, pulverized.3 pounds.
Fish oil .. ..............1 1-2 pints.
Boil this in six or seven gallons of
water in a big iron kettle and when
a clear liquid is obtained and all In-
gredients are dissolved dilute to 50 gal-
lons, when it is ready to use as a rath-
er coarse spray. The operator should
stand by the tree trunk and direct the
spray upwards and obliquely outwards
so as to wet the underside of every
leaf. The proper time to do the spray-
ing is not when the insects are on the
wing, but either eggs, larvae or pupae.
The best times for giving these treat-
ments are during the larval and pupal
stages of the white fly occurring
from the middle of April until the
first of June, from the middle of July
until the first of September and from
middle of October until early March.
If the trees are bearing it might be
wisest not to apply the spray during
the May and June periods lest the
fruit may be caused to fall. It is safe-
ly applied in the fall and winter. Two
applications may be made during the
winter and the grove will have a com-
paratively clean start for the sum-
mer. If the trees are not blossoming
or do not have small fruits upon them,
they might Ibe sprayed at any time
when the fly is not upon tile wing.
Yours very truly
H. A. Gossard.
*
The girl is the mother of the wo-
man just as "the boy is father of the
uan." The period when the womanly
functions begin is one to ie carefully
watched i11an considered. Irregularity
or derangement at this time may be
promptly met and cured by the use of
Dr. Pierce's Favorite Prescription. But
neglected at this critical period may
entail years of future suffering. "Fa-
vorite Prescription" acts directly upon
the womanly organs giving them per-
fect vigor and abundant vitality. It re-
moves the obstructions to health and
happiness, and delivers womanhood
from the cruel bondage of "female
weakness."
You pay the postage. Dr. Pierce gives
you the book. The People's Common
Sense Medical Adviser, 1008 pages, 700
illustrations is sent free on receipt of
stamps to defray cost of mailing only.
Send twenty-one one-cent stamps for
the paper bound book, or 31 stamps
for cloth bound. Address Dr. R. V.
Pierce, Buffalo, N. Y.
*
The Orange Market Trouible.
From the appended clipping from
the California Citrograph, it will ap-
pear that Florida has not been alone
in her troubles with the orange mar-
ket:
"T. T. Ashby, of the Pasadena Ex-
change, said to a local reporter that
the great trouble has been not with
the market but with the fruit. The
oranges arrive in poor condition, in
many cases, and his best advices are
to the effect that if only fancy fruit
had been sent and it had arrived in
perfect condition not a box would
have sold for less than $2.50.
"Mr. Ashby says that the talk of
over production is all a mistake.
There is no such thing as over pro-
duction. The people of the east want
our oranges and want them badly
enough to pay a good price for them,
but they will not buy poor fruit or
spoiled fruit. So the question is one
of proper transportation and of send-
ing only the best grade, shipped on
ice or in some way that it will arrive
sound and hard and good."
a
To make cows pay, use Sharpies
Cream Separators. Book "Business
Dairying" and !atalogue 208 free. W.
Chester, Pa.


Thoaude Havre Kidney Trouble
and Don't Know it.
Now To ind Out.
Fill a bottle or common glass with your
water and let it stand twenty-four hours; a
tling indicates an
unhealthy condi-


ney trouble; too
frequent desire to

convincing proof that the kidneys and blad-
der are out of order.
What to 3o.
There t comfort In the knowledge so
often expressed, that Dr. Kilmer's Swamp-
Root, the great kidney remedy fulfills every
wish in curing rheumatism, pain in the
back, kidneys, liver, bladder and every pa
of the urinary passage. It corrects Inability
to hold water and scalding pain in passing
it, or bad effects following use of liquor,
wine or beer, and overcomes that unpleasant
necessity of being compelled to go often
during the day, and to get up many times
during the night. The mild and the extra-
ordinary effect of Swamp-Root Is soon
realized. It stands the highest for its won-
derful cures of the most distressing cass.
If you need a medicine you should have the
best. Sold by druggists in 5c. and$l. sizes.
You may have a sample bottle of this
wonderful discovery
and a book that tells Mn pft
more about it, both sent
absolutely free by mall,
address Dr. Kilmer & no.. ctcs.f
Co., Binghamton, N. Y. When writing men-
tao reading this generous offer in this paper.


HUGHES' CHILL TONIC.
(Palatable.)
BETTER THAN CALOMEL AND QUININE.
(Contains no Arsenic.)
The Old Reliable.

EXCELLENT GENERAL TONIC
AS WELL AS
A Sure Cure for Chills and Fevers, Malarial
Fevers, Swamp Fevers and Bilious Fevers.

IT NEVER FAILS.
Just what you need at this season.
MUD LAXATIV
NWOUS SEDAWM.
S IM TONIC.
Guaranteed by your Druggist.
Don't take any substitutes-TRY IT.
50C. AND 51.00 BITTIS.

*Prepared by
ROBINSON-PETTET CO.,
(Incorporated),
ILOUTSVILLE, KY.

Well Digging Outfit
For Sale.
We have a steam well-digging outfit
with tools complete for boring wells
from four to twelve inches diameter,
which we can sell at less than half
the original cost. Any one Interested
in getting a well-digging outfit cheap,
please correspond with us.
E. 0. PAINTER & CO.,
Jacksonville, Fla.
BI-SULPHIDE OF CARBON
IFor use In granaries to kill weevil, to de-
stroy rats and gophers and to keep Ir
sects from the seed. etc.
o0 CENTS PER POUND,
put up In ten and fifteen pound cans
Fifteen cents extra for the cans.
E. 0. PAINTER & CO., Jacksonville
TANGENT FRU.T BRUSHER
For polishinv, cleaning
Gor washing orange
Sand lemons, ithonu
injury aae at slight ex.
pense.
WRIGHT BROS.
0Riverside, Cal.
PHILLIAPS & rFU.ER CO., Tasu .
agents or Florida.


I









340 THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.


Celery Growing Near Kimidmmee.
For several years past experiments
have been made in this neighborhood
with celery cultivation with more or
less success. There were many things
to be taken into consideration. Flor-
ida's geographical position enables it
to be cultivated at a season of the year
when quite Impossible in any other
state. Then the nature of the
soil was an important factor and
finally the particular variety most
suited to the different conditions of the
state and soil had to be discovered, all
of which entailed considerable expense
and careful observation
The experimental stage has now
been passed by several of our most
progressive truck farmers who are
reaping a rich reward in the way of
splendid crops, which are finding a
ready market at most remunerative
prices.
An interview with Messrs. Malsby
& Waring, who have been handling
the whole of the crop grown by Mr.
Larsen, on Cypress island, enables us
to give a few particulars of that crop
which was grown on about one and a
quarter acres.
The land was originally a cypress
swamp, which after drainage became
so dry that a fire absolutely burnt up
the whole top soil and left a deposit
of nearly or quite a foot deep of ashes.
This naturally was in a perfect me-
chanical condition for cultivation and
from its extreme fineness retains
moisture to a remarkable degree. Cel-
ery is a crop which is of the thirsty
order and must have water and this is
supplied by a powerful artesian well.
The crop is almost entirely the
"Golden Self Blanching" variety, but
though its name indicates a saving of
labor yet that is not put into prac-
tice and it is completely bleached by
the means of boards standing on-edge
close to the plants.
Great attention is paid by Malsby
& Waring to the packing, which is
done in crates 24x18x12. Into these the
celery is tightly packed in bunches of
six, and an idea of the size of some of
these bunches may be gathered from
the fact that in a few instances a
crate was crowded with three and a
half dozen bunches and the whole crop
of about three hundred crates will only
average about five dozen bunches to
the crate. From th!3 crop a profit of
about $1.000 is expected.
Near East lake Mr. Shurr has about
an acre of celery planted in what was
once a muck hollow, but which had
.taken fire and all the muck soil has
been, like Cypress Island, converted
into a bed of ashes. So retentive of
moisture is this sort of land that Mr.
SShurr has not found it necessary to
Irrigate but it must be taken into con-
sideration that we have had a more
than ordinary amount of rainfall all
through our winter months. The vari-
ety of celery planted has been "Giant
Plume" and Mr. Shurr is quite satis-
fled with his success.
At the further end of Steer beach on
Mr. MeCool's place, Lew. Seaman has
been busily engaged attending to the
cultivation of nearly two acres of cel-
ery planted in flat hammock land.
This also seems to have turned out a
successful crop, especially when we
learn that very little fertilizer has been
used and there is little in the way of Ir-
rigation. There is no doubt that the
moist season has contributed a good
deal to this success, as celery must
have moisture. We hear that Mr. Jor-
dan who is a veteran grower from
Ohio, is so pleased with the prospects
at this place, that he intends to make
a move there and cultivate on a very
large scale.
In addition to the above there are
several small garden patches around
town where trials are being made to
test the suitability of the soil; and we
may safely predict that with a more
liberal railway policy this section
would soon take a very prominent po-
sition among the counties of Florida
as one of its best truck producers.-
Kissimmee Valley Gazette.
(The writer of the above is evidently
mistaken about the depth of ashes left
on Cypress island after it was burned.
A deposit of ashes one foot deep would
mean the burning of twenty to thirty
feet of muck which would make an
enormous hole in the island. Again It
would have been impossible to have
grown celery in an ash-bed of that


AN ACCOMPLISHED CUBAN


Eulogizes Peruna as an Efficacious Catarrh Cure.


G*asle De aesada, Secretary of the Cafe Legatio n Washington.
Senor Quesda, Secretary of the Cuban Legation in Washington, is an orator
born. In an article in The Outlook for July, 180, by George Kennan, who beard
Quesada speak at the Esteban Theatre, Matansas, Cuba, he said: "I have seen
many audiences under the spell of eloquent speech and in the grip of strong emo-
tional excitement, but I have rarely witnessed such a scene as at the close of
Quesada's eulogy upon the dead patriot, Marti." In a letter to The Peruna Medi-
cine Company, written from Washington, D. C, Senor Quesada says:
"Peruna I can recommend as a very good medicine.
It is an ex cellent strengthening tonic, and it is also an
efficacious cure for the almost universal complaint of
catarrh. "" Gonzalo De Quesada.
Perun& does not operate upon the ays- Ia local treatment. It operates as a sys-
tem as the uamai remedy does. It s not i temic remedy. It gives tone to the


depth. We hope the other statements
in the article are not distorted in the
same proportion.-Ed.)

With an Audience of One.
Now and. then men are found who
have no appreciation of the fact that
the world is moving, that railroads are
good things, and the community with-
out them, like the cow's tail, brings up
the rear end of the procession. Such
men are very rare now,but occasionally
they are found. When found they are
lamenting their condition, as they sit,
with a well-worn knife, on the corner
of a goods box In some little town,
having ridden an uncurried horse, with
-ockleburr in mane and tail, in from
their farm, where the briars and
sprouts, not satisfied with the fence
corner, are gradually spreading over
their fields. Their gates are off their
hinges, and the barn is propped up
with a rail. The wagon has no shed,
and the plows lie out in the rain. The
garden has gone to weeds, and the or-
chard is full of dead trees. The fence
is gone from around the house, and the
stock have killed all the flowers plant-
ed by the good housewife. A lot of
poor hogs sleep under the house. All
this has happened while the head of
the family has talked about the past
and failed to see the procession pass
him. Such a man would actually in-
sult one if asked to give the right of
way through his tumble-down farm
for a railroad, albeit his lands would
be doubled and trebled in value, and
he might get a depot on them and a
thriving little town spring up there.
He might become rich from the sale of


lots. Tall oaks from little acorns grow.
It might turn out to be a good big
town, with cotton mills, hardwood fac-
tories, sawmills and the like, with
good schools and churches and all the
other comforts and conveniences of
modern civilization. Such arguments,
however, fall on deaf cars. The an-
swer is promptly made by such a man
that "no such luck is in store for me."
"Luck!" This is a word of supersti-
tion and ignorance. Put a P In front
of it, and it means something. It
spells thrift; it denotes success. It
was Garfield who said, "Luck is a fool;
pluck is a fortune."
There would have been more rail-
roads and better dirt roads in the
state but for just such characters as
above described. Formerly men of
this ilk could have been found in every
community. Upon reflection the word
"found," used in the preceding sen.
tence, is a misnomer. He did not have
to be hunted. He was like an onion
poultice; he announced himself. But,
happily, he is passing, and his depart-
ure is fraught with good. It is easier
to pull down than to build up. His
mouth, the only energetic thing about
him, has been potential for harm. He
was vivid on the verbal exercise, and
a horrible example to the youth of hit
community. But he is hardly ever seen
now. And when he is, nobody stops
to listen to him. People are too busy
building up the community in which
they live. Hence his only audience
now, where he lags superfluous on the
stage, is his own unprogressive self.-
Jackson Correspondent New Orleans
Picayune.


weakened nerve centers, and thus gives
tone to the mucous membranes that line
the various organs of the body.
Catarrh is always located in some mu-
cous membrane. Catarrh is a flabby
condition of the blood vessels of these
membranes. Peruna gives tone to these
vessels and restores them to their natu-
ral elasticity.
Miss Martha Wittkopp writes from
Greenville,Mich, the following :"When
I began your treatment I had catarrh of
the head, nose, throat, stomach and pel-
vic organs. I was troubled with hawk-
ing and spitting,canght cold very easily,
had almost constant headache. My
stomach was all outof order,I did not
sleep well, and was more tired in the
morning than when I retired. I had
backache and was very nervous, in fact,
the catarrh had permeated my entire
system, and I almost despaired of
getting well.
"I wrote you for advice and you ad-
vised Peruna. I began to gain right
along, and am now well. My parents
praise Peruna very much. As for my-
self, I can't speak well enough of it. I
am well and happy and enjoy my life as
I never have before. I cannot remem-
ber when I have felt as well as I do now."
Congressman J. H. Bankhead, of Ala-
bama, one of the most influential mem-
bers of the House of Representatives, in
a letter written
from Washing-
ton, D. C, gives
his endorsement
to the great ca-
tarrh remedy,
Pernns, in the
following words:
"Your Peruna is
one of the best
medicines I ever
tried, and no fam-
ily should be Congressman Bank-
without your re- headofAlabama.
remarkable rem-
edy. As a tonic and a catarrh cure I
know of nothing better."
Address The Peruna Medicine Co, Co-
lumbus, 0., for a free copy of "Summer
Catarrh." This book treats exclusively
of diseases peculiar to hot weather, is
profusely illustrated and should be in
the hands of every person suffering
with any form of summer catarrh.


Demand Uniform Packages.
It never pays to pack produce poor-
ly. It has been demonstrated by scien-
tists and by actual experience that all
the glutted markets in the produce
line result from inferior grades. It is
applicable to every line of produce.
Poorly packed berries, peaches, apples
or any other fruit commodity will not
bring the money as that packed care-
fully and honestly. The consumers de-
mand a uniform package, an honest
package and the best that grows. Until
growers realize this fully and keep the
inferior product at home, they will lose
money. On the other hand if they
would pack only the good material they
would all make money.
There is no doubt that all commodi-
ties should have a uniform package.
There should be laws to enforce a full
quart of berries in every box which
pretends to be a quart.
The trade at large demands full
weight and good weight, and the soon-
er it can be brought the better. Let
every shipper, every commission mer-
chant and every man who has any
dealings whatever with the trade, de-
mand a uniform package, an honest
package and a package which will sat-
isfy the consumer. Every state should
enact laws making a uniform package
for every class of produce and see that
it is enforced.-Packer.



SCoub Syup. Tasses Good. Us
In ta Soldbe. drugit









THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST. 341


Lime and Sulphur for Pear Blight.
The recent article by Mr. Pease oil
Pear Blight has very deeply interested
Ime. His experience, to say tile least.
is a remarkable one. To lose nearly
twenty per cent of his trees, after such
persistent efforts to check it as he
used, seems almost incredible. I would
like to ask Mr. Pease whether lie dis-
infected the pruning tools when cutting
out blight, also whether lie cut much
below the part affected? lie says, apart
from Bartlett and Louise Bonne, that
the other varieties were affected about
to an equal extent, except the Seckel,
which was less so. Now. in miy experi-
ence, the Angouleine has been virtually
blight-proof-- far more so than tihe
Seckel. So it would seem tllat tile at-
tack of this trouble was a very viru-
lent one with hlin, or else the disease
was transmitted from tile pruning
tools. Will Mlr. Pease state what pro-
portions lie uses of sulphur and lime,
and the quantity of same to fifty gal-
lols of water. I purpose giving this
remedy a thorough trial and hope that
I may have as favorable results as he
had.
Orange Co., N. Y.
J. It. Cornell.
As to the susceptibility of the differ-
ent varieties to the disease. I will say
that in my previous article the state-
ment was made in a general way, as I
have not taken the pains to figure the
exact per cent of loss of each variety,
but judging from observation I think
the Angouleme would show tile small-
est per cent of loss (except the Seck-
el), but was far from being free from
blight. We certainly did not carry the
disease to the Angoulenie trees by the
pruning tools, because it was there be-
fore the tools were used. As to the rem-
edy, I will state how we prepared it,
and wait for further exl'rience to im-
prove upon our method.
For the wash, use a thick whitewash
of lime with flower of sulphur thor-
oughly stirring in, adding one quart of
strong brine and one-half p:nt of lin-
seed oil to three gallons of wash.
Make it very strong with sulphur. For
the spray use milk of lille (strained)
with from five to seven pounds of
flower of sulphur to fifty gallons of
mixture. It must be well stirred while
using. As to the proper proportions,
we are yet in the dark. This must be
settled (if at all) by future work. I
realize that we have opened up a great
question and a broad field for investi-
gation. Tle more I study tile matter
the more it seems to nme that the cut-
ting-off treatment is like hocking up the
barn after the horse is stolen. It is
very evident that the disease is in the
trees for some time before we have
any outward evidence of it. I have
found trees that were apalrently all
right in the fall, black from the disease
the following spring. It seems to me
the better way to use a preventive, if
possible.-Rural New Yorker.

Best Methods of Cultivating Corn.
If the preparation of the seed bed,
the selection of seed and tie planting
have been well done, the cultivation of
the corn crop will be easy and will ac-
complish its best results. The cultiva-
tor should bear in mind at least four
objects, viz.. the conservation of mois-
ture, the destruction of weeds. the feed-
ing of the corn plant and the aeration
of the corn roots.
The time, manner and frequency of
the cultivation will be modified by
the condition of the soil. but should be
adapted to best effect the foregoing ob-
jects. generally it is best to begin
with tile harrow before or soon after
corn is llup. and (ross-harrow ill four or
five days. Tie importance of this early
and tllorougil work with tlte harrow
cannot be overestimated. and ought
not ill any ca!e to lie neglected. Tills
harrowing destroys the first crop of
weeds. which is always the most lln-
jurious to the growing corn. and pul-
verizes the surface soil, forming the
soil mulch so necessary to conserve the
moisture below against tle time of
drouth most sure to conmo.
Follow tile harrow with the cultiva-
tor. using small shovels and running
close and deep the first plowing. Cul-
tivate every week. the cultivation af-
ter the first Ieing shallow and farther
away from the corn, until the corn is
too tall for the cultivator.
The Impression is quite prevalent
that a corn crop is well cultivated


when it is plowed or cultivated three
times. Three cultivation may be suffi-
cient for the best results in some in-
stances, but five or six are sometimes
necessary. If a farmer contemplates
planting and cultivating forty acres of
corn with one team, it is a mistake. It
would be better to plant thirty or for-
ty acres and give it the cultivation
necessary to attain the best results,
ainld use the remainder of the forty
for pasture or some other crop.
The question of deep or shallow cul-
tivation has its advocates pro and con,
and will perhaps never be settled to
the satisfaction of all, but the prepon-
derance of opinion, based upon experi-
ence and backed by the principles of
scien(i favors shallow cultivation, at
least shallow enough to prevent the
destruction of the corn roots, which
form a net work a few inches below
the surface surrounding the plant.
Deep cultivating tears out these feed-
ing roots and limits the corn plant to
a very small area for food and mois-
ture. which we seek to save and render
more available by cultivation.-A. ID.
M'Callen in American Agriculturist.
0
Borers in Trees.
"Many orchards have suffered heavy
and unnecessary loss from the attacks
of borers. Many growers do not notice
that there is anything wrong with the
trees until the leaves turn yellow and
begin to fall in midsummer." says
American Gardening. "After this stage
has been reached there is little hope
for the tree and it dies before frost.
* "A glance at the tree will be suffici-
ent to see that the bark on the trunk
is dead and black in irregular spots and
lines. Just beneath the dead bark is
the Iorer's burrow filled with worm
dust. The borer is too familiar to re-
quire description. He works up and
down the side of the tree and finally
burrows to the center. When two or
three borers get into the same tree the
trunk is girdled and the tree is killed.
In many cases the borer works only on
one side of the tree.
"If a large spot of bark is killed, the
bark and wood begin to rot and are
soon filled with a mnushroom growth.
This mushroom breaks through the
bark of the tree and develops the fruit-
ing portion on the outside of the trunk.
The fruiting part is white and re-
sembles that which is seen on rotten
logs. If the tree dies the rot is then
supposed to be the cause of its death.
The rot may hasten the death of the
tree, but a tree that is sound and free
from blemishes is very seldom, if ever,
attacked by this rot.
The best thing to do is to keep the
tree erom borers and other Injuries.
The land should be kept free from
grass and otlier weeds and well culti-
vated. Good. clean cultivation is worth
more than all the washes and dressing
that can be applied to prevent borers.
A good wash, however, is often worth
many times what it costs to apply, and
will do much toward preventing the at-
tacks of borers and other insects. The
Oklahoma station says that a one
pound can of concentrated lye dissolved
in two or three gallons of water makes
a very good wash. Another good wash
can be made of one-half pint tar, one-
half pint carbolic acid, and two gallons
of soft soap. These washes can easily
he applied with an old whitewash
brush or a swab made of old rags tied
on the end of a stick. These washes
should be applied two or three times
to the trunk and large limbs during the
spring and early summer."
*


finally supplied, or by both methods
combined. Here it will be presupposed
that the orchardist has faithfully done
his part in fertilizing, pruning, insect
protection, and, if need exist, in drain-
ing, and at June 1st has a fair setting
of fruit. Up to that time, in the East
and Middle West. there is but little lia-
bility of drouth. It is the period from
that date until harvest that is the most
critical for the fruit grower and which
annually keeps the statisticians guess-
ing as to the outcome.
Ripe fruit contains from 85 to 90 per
cent of water. When we consider this
fact in relation to another, that the
leaves of a tree are constantly exhal-
ing moisture into the air at the rate
of hundreds of tons to each acre of
large and thrifty fruit trees throughout
the summer season, It becomes at once
apparent how necessary it is that no
moisture in orchard or vineyard should
go to waste. It also becomes plain why
fruit often drops in crop-ruining quan-
tities even when a drouth is of but
short duration when sufficient cultiva-
tion has not been given to conserve the
moisture. The tree will obey the law of
self-preservation by sacrificing its
fruit rather than its life.
Where special attention has not been
given to moisture conservation by cul-
tivation, it is not generally understood
how absolute a protection against evap-
oration of soil moisture ir afforded by
a dust mulch. The best results were
evident where a dust mulch of five or
six inches was provided. It was also
made evident that those depending on
irrigation, without much regard to cul-
tivation, were often no better off than
the orchards unirrigated. The uninter-
rupted supply of moisture is an abso-
lute necessity for the best fruit results.
Just as soon as the supply fails, the
fruit begins a premature ripening
which is fatal to its perfect future de-
velopment, even should its stem re-
main unparted from the parent tree.
The point I would especially empha-
size is that no one with an orchard
of bearing age, which at its best Is
capable of realizing its owner in East
or West, from $50 to $100 per acre, net,
when properly handled, can afford to
convert the moisture rightly belonging
to the fruit into grass or other crops,
or what is equally bad for the fruit,
allow the moisture to escape into the
air through the medium of a hard, un-
cultivated soil crust.
S*


UNITED CONFEDERATE VETER-
AN'S REUNION: Memphis, Tenn.,
May, 28th-30th, 1901.
The Plant System will sell round
trip tickets at rates of one cent per
mile distance traveled. Tickets on sale
May 25th, 26, and 27th, with return
limit June 4h, 1901.
By depositing tickets with joint agent
at Memphis, upon payment of 50 cents,
extension of final limit to June 19th,
will be accorded.
Perfect Passenger Service. See Ticket
Agents.
B. W. Wrenn,
Passenger Traffic Manager,
tf. Savannah, Ga.


DAYTONA.


- FLORIDA.


Wonder l RUNKNOWNCOWPEAS.
T erful beat quality, $1.O per bu.,
in any quantity, for immediate orders. Send M.
O. or registered letter.


R. F. MAYOR,
Roe Dew Farms,
Savannah Ga.


40 Acres for $40 of orge
apple and vegetable land. Write now
for terms. CLARK D. KNAPP,
Avon Park, Fla.

11l11t1"A6 W1111iI


IF YOU NEED
aPortable Menee, tr the PAGE It can be takb
down and r-treched an number of tla.
rAes WOVN WIRK FJU IC CA .,ABliAX,I C.


$4.00 tor $2.00!
Seed You must haev to nmae a garden, and the AGRICULTUm r yo should have to te a'
sucssful gardnrr. acu can get them both at the price ot one. Send us one new sabrriber
and $2 and we will nd you the following list of choice Garden Seed from the catalogue o
GRTFFINPT BROTT-HR"TR


Orchard Cultivation.
An Essex county. N. J., correspondent Beans, Extra Early Bed Valen-
of The Country Gentlenian on the sub- t.. ne .. ................ .10
ject expressed in this caption, says: I New StlMngles Green
cause of partial or entire fruit failure Pod......... ........ 10
is sought, after the orchardist has ful- Dwarf German Black
tilled his part, it may confidently be Wax........ ...... .10
expected to result from one of two In- Burpees Large Bush Ll-
terfering conditions. Either the fruit ma ................... 10
buds or growing fruit have been in- Beets, Extra Early Eclipse ...... .5
jured by untimely frost, or sufficient Imperial Blood Red Tur-
moisture has been lacking at some nip.......... .. ...
time during the growing season. Loss Cabbage, Select Early Jersey
or damage from the latter cause is Wakefield ...... ...... 5
now quite as common here in the East Early Summer.......... .5
as in the arid or semi-arid fruit grow- Griffing's Succession .... .5
ing districts of the far West. There Cauliflower, Extra Early Paris .. 10
they have become fully convinced that Celery, Golden Self Blanching.... .10
no fruit need be expected without an Cucumbers, Improved White Spine. .5
adequate and continuous supply of Long Green Turkish.... .5
moisture, either by conserving that Addrs A A
falling during the wet season, or artl- Address FLORIDA AGRIK


Eg Plant. Grilng's Improved
Thornless.. ........ ....10
Lettuce, Big Boston.......... .
Onions. Red Bermuda... ..... 10
Grifng's White Wax.....10
Peas, Alaska.... ............ .10
Champion of England.... .10
Peppers, Long Cayenne...........
Ruby King.. ........ 5.
Radishes, Wonderful ............
Gring's Early Scar-
let.. .... .. .... ...... .
Earley Scarlet rtfurt... ..
Tomatoes, Beauty.............
Money Maker.. ........ .5
Turnlpe, Griffing's Golden Ball.... .5
S Pomeranian White Globe
.. .. .. .... .. .. .... .. .5
Ruta Bagas, Bloomsdale Swede.... .
SULTURIST, Jacksonville, Fla.


Box 215.


How To


Gain Flesh

Persons have been known to
gain a poe'md a day by taking
an ounce of SCOTTS EMUL-
SION. It is strange, but it often
happens.
Somehow the ounce produces
the pound; it seems to start the
digestive machinery going prop-
erly, so that the patient is able
to digest and absorb his ordinary
food, which he could not do be-
fore, and that is the way the gain
is made.
A certain amount of flesh b
necessary for health; if you have
not got it you can get it by
taking





You will rmd it just ,as sd ulin aa
as in winner and if you are thriving upm
it don't stop became thweaihr i warn.
oc. and $., all druggists.
SCOTT & BOWNE. tCmists. New Yr e


W, E. FRENCH,

VETERINARIAN,
Will Treat all Diseases oi Iomeuticat.
ed Animals.
SURGERY AND DN i l I KY
A Specialty.








342 THE FLORIDA AGRICUL TOURIST.


sThIIgEXU DEPA3VmLTNT.
All communications or enquiries for this de-
partment should be addressed to
FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST,
Fertilizer Dept Jacksonville, Fla.


Phosphoric Acid.
Editor Fertilizer Department:
As a reader and an admirer of your
valuable paper, I take the liberty of
writing a few lines on the phosphate
question. I read with a great deal of
interest, the article on "Phosphoric
Acid and Lime" in your issue of May
8th. I agree with Mr. Mott that nature
provides plants with certain organisms
by which they supply themselves with
phosphoric acid, but not from fossil
bone. For a number of years I have
been investigating this subject and
have come to the conclusion that not
one particle of phosphoric acid is given
off to plants from pebble phosphate.
It has been locked up by One wiser
than man, One who saw the end from
the beginning. If plants could draw
phosphoric acid from fossil bone, it
would have all leen used un thousands
of years ago. All soils have more or less
available phosphoric acid. In some
lands it is nearly exhausted, especially
where wheat has been grown for sev-
eral years. I have known land to be-
come so wheat sick that it would not
produce ten bushels of wheat to the
acre, but by the application of six hun-
dred pounds of acid phosphate, it
would produce thirty. It had nearly ex-
hausted its supply of phosphoric acid.
According to DeMortillet's "Origin
and Antiquity of Man." the glacial
period was 160,000 years ago. In all
probability the majority of land ani-
mal bones found in Florida phosphates
were from animals driven south by
the cold of the glacial period, and when
the earth was again submerged, from
some unknown cause, the fish also per
shed. If it has been 160,000 years
since the pebble phosphates of Florida
was deposited, we can safely say thal
the vegetation has been growing an(
the roots in contact with fossil bon<
at least 100,000 years, and yet ever
piece will analyze as high per cent o:
phosphiric acid as fresh bone. I havi
picked up a shark's tooth in as perfect
condition as when they came out oa
the shark's mouth thousands of year
ago, not only the enamel part but thi
bone, showing every little hole when
the ligatures were attached. They hat
been in contact with roots of plant
for thousands of years and not a pat
tide of material gone, not one per cen
of phosphoric acid less. I have in m;
possession,the tooth of a"petalodus dis
tractor," a species of shark of the cos
period, that I took from the fire cla
in the Illinois river valley. It was nea
enough to the surface to allow th
roots of oak and other trees that grel
near to wrap themselves around it an
the little fibre roots to penetrate ever
little hole. This had been done fe
thousands of years, not to mention tl
roots of coal plants that entwine
themselves around this tooth for u
told ages, it having laid there as lon
before the glacial period as that period
precedes the present time. I analyze
a portion of the root of this toot]
which is bone (the teeth of sharks
the coal period were fastened in ti
jaw bone, those of the living specie
also found in the Florida phosphal
are only attached by cartilage) an
found it as rich in phosphoric acid
the Florida pebble, or nearly so, ni
more than one per cent less. Now
would like to ask, if a bone that hi
laid in the ground for over 300,0(
years, and a great part of the tin
been in contact with the roots
plants and trees, has only given off o0
per cent of its phosphoric acid, ho
much would an orange tree get in i
short life, say of fifty years?
I have too, seen the roots of plan
and trees entwining themselves arou
and running into little holes and crei
ces of the fossil bone of the Floric
beds.
I think they stand about as good
chance of getting phosphoric acid fre
it as they would of getting silica 1
entwining themselves around an e
piece of broken glass. It reminds i
of a friend in Illinois who told me th
he could tell me how the grani


boulders came to be scattered all over
that country. He said that they grew
there and if you would roll one of them
up carefully out of its bed, you could
see the little roots hanging to it Of
course it was nothing but grass roots
that had run into the little crevices and
cracks in the granite. They get just
as much phosphoric acid from that
source as an orange root will out
of a bed of petrified hone.
A.E.Stebbins.
Manatee, Fla
4*
The First Fertilizers.
An English journal, in referring to
the introduction of fertilizers many
years ago, says that in the early years
of the century, manurial trials were
confined to lime, wood ashes and a
few elementary substances about the
composition of which little was known.
Salt was occasionally used with indif-
ferent success, and the first manures
deserving the name of "bag tillage," a
name that amongst farmers preceded
that of artificial manures, were half-
inch bones and ground rape cakes.
'The bones were used in the half-inch
form because there was no machinery
to crush them finer. These were intro-
duced in tie last quarter of a century.
We sometimes look on nitrate of
soda as of modern introduction. It
however, is one of the oldest of our
artificial, and dates from 1830. In that
year the first consignment reached our
shores; its fertilizing properties were
recognized and inl the following year
about one hundred tons were import-
ed, the retail price being 30s. per cwt.
'henceforward its use gradually ex-
tended, but its high price prevented
its becoming popular.
The few years from 1838 to 1843
were very rich in introductions of ma-
Snure. Dissolved bones date from 183A,
and were due to the researches of the
great German chemist, Baron Liebig.
SThey are still an exceedingly popular
Smanure. Peruvian guano, so splendidly
Successful, and that did so much te
Break down the prejudice against ma-
t nurses. dates from 1841. The manufac
I ture of sulphate of ammonia for ma-
e nure commenced a year later; and at
r about the same time Sir J. B. Lawem
f put mineral superphosphate on thi
e market. Thus we have dissolved bones
t Peruvian guano, sulphate of ammonia
f and mineral superphosphates all be
s longing to the same period. This doe!
e not mean they were then extensively
e used. They only gradually made theii
Sway.
s The use of potash salts dates front
tle sixties. Muriate and sulphate o
t potash were first used in small quail
Y titles, being manufactured from sea
5- weed; later In the decade German pot
lI ash salts were imported in large quau
y titles. The rear is brought up by basic
r slag, the youngest of all manures, an,
le that dates back only ten years or so.
w Recent years have not added great:
d to the list of artificial manures. N
7 doubt others will be added in the year
or to come, but at present we seem t
ie have exhausted the supply of net
Ad kinds. As agriculture is greatly in
n- debted to them, it is desirable that a
ig many should be on the market as poi
d sible, and that their many and varie
Id properties should be well understood
h, *
le The Food of Plants.
s, An instructive and interesting
te glimpse of the mysterious processes b
d means of which plants secure their
as food is given by Mr. H. H. W. Peal
ot son in Knowledge.
I He says: "It is more than two thouw
as and years since philosophers began t
00 speculate about the food of plants, an
ie what we may term their digestive pr<
of cesses, but it is only during the lattt
ie half of this century that really clet
*w and definite notions concerning the foc
ts supplies of the vegetable world hav
been generally accepted by scientif
ts men. . As far as is known, tl
Id first botanical experiment ever pe
ri- formed was conducted by Van He
da mont. He placed in a pot two hundred
pounds of dried earth and in it t
a planted a willow branch which weigl
,m ed five pounds. He kept the whole co
by ered up and daily watered the who
ld with rain water. After five yeai
ne growth the willow was taken up an
at again weighed, and was found to hai
ite gained one hundred and sixty-fol


pounds; the earth in the pot was dried
and weighed and had only lost two
ounces. Knowledge was not yet suffici-
ently advanced to enable Van Helmont
to interpet these striking results cor-
rectly, and he cnme to the erroneous
conclusion that the increased weight of
the plant was due to the water which
he had supplied to the roots. He, there-
fore, looked upon this experiment as
supporting the theory which he had
advanced, viz., that "plants required
no food but water."
Stephen Hales advanced the subject
a great step by indicating that much
of the increase in weight of plants
was derived from carbon dioxide in the
air. Vegetable cells contained a liquid
known as "cell-sap," which is water
holding in solution various materials
which have been taken up from with-
out by the roots and leaves. "These ma-
terials are thus brought in contact
with the protoplasm, which causes
them to undergo changes in composi-
tion which prepare them to be added to
the substance of tie plant. Thus it is
in the protoplasm of the living cells of
the plant that those 'digestive pro-
cesses are carried on which Aristotle
wblieved to occur in the soil. We see
then that tile living cells are micro-
scopic labolorories ill which tle dliges-
tion of tlli. food of the plant is carried
on."
4 .
Ammonia.
Amnmonia is one part (by volmne) of
nitrogen and three of hydrogen. chemi-
i ally combined. By weight there are
fourteen parts nitrogen and three of
ammonia. In every one hundred
pounds of ammonia there are about
eighty-two and one-half pounds of ni-
trogen. Ground bone contains three
and a half pounds of nitrogen and
twenty-four pounds phosphoric acid in
one hundred pounds; dissolved bone
contains one and one-half pounds ni-
trogen and fifteen pounds phosphoric
acid; ground fish, seven pounds nitro-
gen and seven pounds phosphoric acid;
Stankage, seven pounds of nitrogen and
Sten pounds of phosphoric acid. These
Figures may vary some, as the sub-
Sstances mentioned are not always uni-
s form in composition, several analyses
e being required and the average taken.
-American Fertilizer.
i 5
Industrial Aspects of Cassava.
y A renewed interest is imparted to the
r subject of cassava by a request for in-
formation lately received by the Agri-
I culturist of the Florida Experiment
f Station. says the Times-Union and
SCitizen. This request emanates
from a Chicago company, who
Sown 40,40Xt acres of land near
Pensacola. and who desire, among
c other things, to grow cassava and es-
d tablish a starch factory, if the informa-
tion seems to warrant it.
y There has been really only two years'
o growth of cassava raised in Florida
s for starch making purposes on a com-
o mercial scale; previous crops had been
v grown only in an experimental way.
'- There are two factories in Volusia
s county, one at DeLand, one at Lake
Helen; and one at Lake Mary. Those
d at DeLand and Lake Mary have man.
.- ufactured and shipped starch of a high
quality, which has been taken at sat
isfactory prices by Northern dealers
The one at Lake Helen is of corn
g tively recent establishment, and has
Y handled chiefly the Dade county starch
ir plant, coontie, but is in good shape and
r- prepared to work up the growing croi
of cassava next fall in a business-like
s- way.
o The results thus far achieved are en
id couraging considering the fact thai
- cassava is a plant hitherto entirely un
er known to modern manufacturing pre
tr cesses, either In this or any other coun
d try. While contributing to commerce
'e one of the most delicate and dainty
ic desserts known to the tables of th1
ie highest households of the laud-tapl
r- oca--and a farine which might well bN
4l- called the flour of South America anc
,d the West Indies, yet it has been sub
ie ject chiefly to the manipulations of thi
h- ignorant peons of Cuba and Brazil-
v- manipulations as crude as the agricul
le ture which plows with a forked stick
rs Our Florida people have taken hol<
id of this valuable plant, which is h
re South America what corn is to Norti
ir America, in a characteristic Americal


way, and have subjected it at a bound
to the culture of steel and the rasp of
iron. It is quite possible that our vig-
orous trituration with metal rollers
driven by steam will not obtain as
great a quantity of those soft, delicious
grains which constitute tapicoa as is
evolved by the gentle beating of the
placid barbarians along the Amazon.
But of starch we have obtained the
highest percentage, falling only a little
below the absolute starch content ob-
tained in the laboratory processes, be-
cause the extraction of starch requires
the reduction of the tubers by steel
graterrs tn an impalpable powder.
In short, therefore, the chief obstacle
encountered thus far in Florida has
been, not only the manufacturing side,
but on the agricultural; not in the re-
duction of the root. but in the raising
of it. Our farmers heretofore have not
had marked success in preserving
through the winter the canes which
constitute the seed; and the result has
been with most plantations an imper-
fect stand and a light yield. Doubtless
their brethren of Louisiana, with their
experience in wintering sugarcane,
could have given them valuable point-
ers.
But Florida farmers have seldom
failed to come up to the mark when
summoned by the dollar which we are
all after. We are pleased to learn from
private sources that the extensive cas-
sava plantation at Deleon Springs
now presents an almost perfect stand,
few plants missing in rows a mile in
length, despite the uncommon back-
ward weather this spring. This seems
to indicate a marked success in win-
tering the seed canes.

Good Fruit Can Stand High Bates.
The Metropolis has always favored
an organization of the growers for
their good, and if a large portion of
the growers will go into an organiza-
Stion and adopt rules and regulations
so as to properly grow, pick, pack and
handle and market their products, and
get such prices as they are entitled to,
There will be very little cause to cornm-
plain of freight rates.
STo illustrate what we mean: One of
Sthe growers present at this meeting
Exhibited a check for $6.90, as the net
e proceeds for three crates of tomatoes,
which he had shipped via all rail ex-
- press to Chicago. The three crates sold
t for $4 each, making $12. The express,
. which was really excessive, was $1.30
Super crate, making $3.90, and the com-
. mission $1.20; dedcuting all, left $6.90,
Sor $2.30 net per crate. The Chicago
Sfirm wrote the grower that the stock
Swas extra fine, properly packed and
- urged him to send more of the same
e kind, as fancy prices could always be
I obtained for such goods. The grower
- remarked that he could afford to pay
e high express rates and still make mon-
ey, because he was always careful in
- selecting and packing his fruit, and
.would not risk paying such rates on
I inferior quality. He further said that
i as long as he could get one dollar per
I crate net for tomatoes he was satisfied
n with the profits.-Miami Metropolis.









THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST. 3


DLPABTXMNi OF ORNAMENTAL
HOBTIC..LTU3RE.


BY W. C. STEELE,


SWITZERLAND.


FLORIDA


Fire and Flowers.
One of the cooperias is commonly
known in Texas, as "Rain lily," be-
cause of its habit of sending up flower
stalks immediately after a heavy rain.
Almost incredible stories are told of
the rapidity with which these flower
stalks develop. It is said that after a
heavy shower an apparently barren
plain will be almost white with their
blossoms within less than half a day.
It is probably not generally known
that we have in Florida a bulbous
plant, Zephyranthes Treatea, often
catalogued as Amaryllis Treatea, or
"Fairy Lily;" but more commonly
known here as "Easter Lily" from the
fact that its delicate lily-like white
flowers usually open about or before
Easter, which has a somewhat similar
habit. In this case it is not water that
is required but fire. The woods around
here are usually burned over by the
cattlemen in January or February. Soon
after the flower stalks of the Zephyan-
thee begin to appear. At that season
the weather is usually cool often cold,
so those blossoms do not come on very
rapidly, and as stated before usually
bloom about Easter.
There is a small tract of timberland
Joining our place which was burned
over in January 1884 and had not been
burned over since then until this
spring. In February, 1884, soon after
the fire, this strip of flat woods timber
land was white with Jthousands of
blossoms of Zephyranthes Treatea. Bul
we have not seen a single bloom from
the spring of 1884 until this week, Ma]
1901. Another strip of timber near bj
had never been burned over since wi
have lived here and we never saw s
single one of those flowers on it. A few
weeks ago a fire was started which go
away and burned over this piece o
wood land, now it is in places whiti
with the flowers of the "Easter IAly'
after the middle of May. The othe
timber land joining us was set on fir
purposely by the neighbors at nigh
when there was no wind, because "ac
cidental" fires were becoming too cor
mon and It was a constant menanc
to all our fences. Now as we said be
fore there are some blossoms open
but there are hundreds probably thor
sands of buds just appearing, many o
which will not open until the very las
of May probably not until in June.
So long as the wiregrass is left un
burned the bulbs grow slowly making
leaves and increasing in size but mal
Ing no attempt to bloom. The reason
of this strange habit of the plant is no
explainable. Wiregrass never makes
solid turf but grows in bunches an
tufts. These In many places do n<
even cover or shade one half the soi
The bulbs of the Zephyranthes ver
seldom grow in a tuft of wire gras
but usually in the bare places between
tussocks. The only explanation we ca
think of is that the fire burns off a
the foliage of the bulb and in son
way the loss of its leaves starts
into bloom.


The Opening of an Amaryllis.
Under this title we find in the Ma
flower a very interesting account of tl


behaviour of a bulb when treated as a
house plant.
All of the family may be grown in
the open ground here and though the
tops may be killed by frost the bulbs
are never hurt if properly planted. The
name of the variety in question is not
given, it being merely called "Barba-
does lily," this is given by the encyclo-
pedia of American horticulture as the
common name of Hippeastrum equ-
estre. known in cultivation as Amaryl-
lis equestre, but the description of the
flower and mode of growth does not
fit tils species. It seems probable that
the bulb in question was Hippeastrum
Reginae.
"Here's a birthday present for you,
guess what it is?" cried my friend.
"Well," said I, touching the parcel
"it feels astonishingly like an onion."
"Guess again," said she.
"Perhaps it's a Chinese Lily." I ven-
tured.
"Chinese lily indeed!" exclaimed the
donor. "That was what I gave you last
time. Do you imagine that I am so
lacking in originality that I have to
give you the same thing every year?
Look at it." I looked.
"Is it an Amaryllis?" I asked, not
daring to trust my eyes.
"Yes ma'am, and it's a good healthy
specimen, all wool and a yard wide,
warranted not to run down at the
heel."
"Isn't it unusually large?" I inter-
rupted.
"Yes," said she, "it is an extremely
good bulb. It's waist measure is more
than eleven inches, and it is almost
seven inches high. Now let's plant it
in a seven inch pot and put it away
until spring and see what will happen."
But nothing happened. All the other
bulbs gre and blossowmed,ripened their
I foliage and retired from society; but
the Amaryllis showed neither root nor
top. Still from force of habit I contin-
ued to look at it occasionally and one
day in March I discovered at the top
a small greenish spot, though the bulb
was still without a root. The pot was
Placed on the top of the warming
oven of the kitchen range and the soil
k was watered daily. The green speck
r which proved to be a flower bud, in-
r creased so rapidly in size that I began
to wonder if I had not planted one of
e Jack's beans by mistake.
SUp, up it grew until it was two feet
r high. Then the curious green, pod-like
t bud began to expand and I could see
through the silken covering, the forn
of the enclosed buds. How many would
e there be? I was sure I could see two-
Sperhaps three. To think of it! Three
r Amaryllis blossoms! I was a proud and
happy woman for Amaryllis blossom
e do not grow on every bush. The nexi
t day the pod was larger and I was al
most sure I could see another bud.
One morning the pod began to open
and within were four large buds and-
e imagine my delight-four smaller ones
I- all packed tightly in together. Day bi
i. day they increased in size. One bum
Outstripped the others and was soo
five inches long. It changed from greet
Pf to white, from white to pink, front
It pink to crimson. It grew still another
inch in length and was swollen almost
to bursting. "It will surely open to
n- morrow!" said I.
g Early in the morning I opened th
k- blinds, that the wonderful flower migh
catch the first ray of sunlight, then
sat with my work, beside the Amaryl
ot lis and it was my good fortune to se
a the glorious blossom slowly unfold. Th
.d bud grew visibly larger. The petals be
ot gan to separate at the sides but wer
still held together at the top of the bud
l. By this time the sun shone direct:
y in. Suddenly, with a slight rustlin
S, sound, one petal separated from th
n others, then another fell away, and i
less than ten minutes the beautify
n white and crimson, sweet-scented flo
11 er was opened wide. The king of flow
ie era, the Barbadoes Spice Lily, was i
blossom. No roots, no leaves-bot
came later-but seven buds and on
regal blossom."

Cape Jasmine in Southern Californi
y- After reading all the wonderful a,
he counts of the remarkable thrift an


Flowering Plants deran sasrb YOU Can Plant These Now.
mixed colors; Asters, large, mixed colors;
ilinthus, mixed colors; Verbenas assorted THRIFTY WELL-ROOTED PLANTS.
colors; Cannos (dry bulbs, choice varieties,.
mixed colors); Sivias. Splendens Dwarfng 0c per do by mail;c per do. by express.
Spikes; Sweet Alyssum; Candy Tuft; Chrys- Five do- for 2 by express
anthemums assorted. Address
Foiage Plants Coleus assorted; Velvet
Foliage Plant s Plant; Royal Purple; MILLS, The Florist, Jackemviile, Fla.
Ashyranthus: Acalyphs, three varieties; at-
trnanthera. border plant (red and yellow A nice Boston Fern free with every dollar
and green and yellow.) order.


success of flowering plants in Califor-
nia, it is a relief to find that there is
something in which they do not excel
Florida. The following is from the Cal-
ifornia Florist:
"As an outdoor plant we must regret-
fully concede the Cape Jasmine to be
a failure in Southern California. That
it may and has succeeded in a few iso-
lated locatitles-notably so at places
along the coast, does not affect the
general value of this assertion. Even at
Santa Barbara, Santa Monica, and San
Diego, where the writer has seen it
flowering and growing moderately
well it offers in those places, (where
seen at its best) a conspicuous failure,
to the contrast shown by its luxurious
growths in frequent hedge rows
throughout the South Atlantic and Gulf
states.
There it is not unfrequently cut tc
the very ground by heavy frosts, yet
recovers from the root and commonly
pushes out vigorous growths of two or
three feet the following season. Ex-
tremes of temperature are not account-
able for its failure here, but rather, I
think, to the coolness of our nights in
summer and consequent radiation of
heat from the soil, this for localities
adjacent to the sea coast; while in in-
terior valleys where the night tem-
perature remains sufficiently high to
furnish the needful heat, the air lacks
the humidity essential to its welfare.
No flowers of any value are produced
except, as the result of vigorous un-
checked growth, and with this plant
this only seems to result with heat and
atmsopheric moisture, conditions in our
climate only to be attained in the
green-house. IUnder these circum-
stances alone do we get the flower in
its perfections-umapproachable in its
Swhiteness-incomparable in fragrance.
A very light sandy soil seems to suit
it best, though it seems to accommo-
date Itself to any soil except a heavy
clay, provided proper climatic condl-
tons are obtained. Indeed the most lux-
-uriant plants I ever saw were grown
in clear silver river sand, with perhaps
Twenty per cent. admixture of finely
decomposed vegetable humus, leaf
mould, etc.
The above refers wholly to the so-
called Cape Jasmine, Gardenia Florida.
STwo other species, almost as strik-
Sing, to wit: (;. radicans and G. Camel-
Sliaflora. I can say seem at least of
t hardier habit, than G. Florida and to
those who persist (and there are many)
in planting out Gardenias year after
year. I now almost commend these lat
ter species, they will at any rate drag
out an impoverished existence a few
y months longer than the former, and
d yield flowers while they last, almost
Sas attractive.
n In conclusion, I would say, that as
i green-house plants, nothing will repaj
r more amply the attention bestowed
t upon them; still they are exacting, re
quiring during the growing season
most generous treatment and constant
e watchfulness, as they become the eas]
t prey of almost all vile green-house ver
I min known, and quickly succumb t(
black scale, green-fly or mealy-bug, i1
e kept in active vigorous growth, thesm
e pests are more easily kept in check; bu
if the plant once declines, the best rem
e edy I know of is to throw it away
1. Few things are more difficult to restore
y to healthy growth again."
g a --
e Prosperity is Here.
SThe increased demand and conse
quently the values of real estate ii
This favored region in the past three
n months has been marvelous. Prosperit:
n has come and is here to stay. Capital
other than that of one individual, ha.
become and is being invested in rea
property and put into improvement
which are lasting.
. What could more clearly demol
state the fact that prosperity ha
c- come among us to abide, when oa
d every side improvements are springin


up as if by the touch of magic. The
developments of the past five years
have been something short of miracu-
lous; but the future promises to
eclipse the past, and the waste places
which still remain will grow-under
the touch of capital so rapidly coming
in-bloom and blossom as the rose.
It is a gratifying fact that the in-
vestments now being made are not by
any individual or corporation, but come
spontaneously from many quarters. On
these things we dwell with pleasure.-
Tropical Sun.
a
Diversification.
Truck farming on a small scale says
the Texas Truck Farmer, by the indi-
vidual farmer is diversification. You
don't have to belong to some organiza-
tion to raise all the fruit, vegetables,
potatoes peas, watermelons, cane,
corn, hogs and poultry you can use at
home. That is what we would,call real
diversification. Tis true farmers can't
do much on a big scale without organ-
izing for shipping purposes, but it
seems the first object of every farmer
should be to have plenty of good stuff
for comfortable living at home before
he goes to dreaming about getting rich
supplying northern markets. It may be
only a fancy, but we believe the hap-
piest farmer In the world is the one
who can hear the grunt of his own
hogs, the cackle of.tis own chickens,
the neighing of his own horses, the
lowing of his own cattle, while he
stands with a good wife on the vine-
wreathed gallery of a little home, and
looks out on the growing truck of every
description.


"Everything for Florida." Fruits,
Flowers, Trees, Shfubs for Orchard
and Lawn, Palms,
Bamboos, Conifers,
Ferns, Economic and
o a at-bearing trees,
Siuaties, and all
sorts of Decorative
SStock, for Northern
House Culture as
S well as the South.
Rare Tropical Plants, East and West
Indian and other Exotic Plants. Send
for splendid Illustrated catalogue, free.
We make special efforts to keep down
Insect pests, and will not send out
"white files" or other serious pests, or
diseases. 17th year. Reasoner BrosL.
Oneco, BL.


Budded and Grafted

t Mulgoba Mangoes.

i Imported from India; absolutely free
From fiber. Pot grown $2.50 each.
SLargest assortment of Crotons in the
United States.
t Also Citrus stock. Address,
JOHN B. BEACH,
o West Palm Beach, Fla.
t

t H. C. HAR a & CO.,
GENERAL AGENTS,
. 216 W. Forsyth St., bet. Hogan and Julia, Jack-
Ssonville, Fla.
Manchester Fire Insurance Co., Norwich Union
Fire Insurance Society, American Fire Insurance
Co., of N. Y., Indemnity Fire Insuranee Co., The
Traders' Insurance Co. of Chicago.
. AGENTS IN ALL THE PRINCIPAL TOWNS IN
FLORIDA.



H AN HAND CULTIVATOR
1,
m I" se tTrs an us e anler sd prowesa
S ve ardea= n Sanford, the eflt
1- a r.' our. o.urt Oapplaon. Deliver I
Jsto any pano oa Fo on reeipt of 12
an "dS r pplles,8a anltd.Fla.


M -









344 THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.


FLOBmDA AICDLTIrST.

Entered at the post-ofce at DeLand. Flor-
ida, a second class matter.

E.O. PAINTER & CO.,
Publishers and Proprietors
Published every Wednesday. and devoted to
the development of Florida and the best in-
terests of her people.
Members of
THE FLORIDA PRESS ASSOCIATION.
Affliated with the
NATIONAL EDITORIAL ASSOCIATION.
TERMS.
One year, inple subsacription.... ........0.O
Six months. ingle subscription......... 1.00
Single copy.. .................... .. ..-.... .
ADVERTISING RATES.
Rates for advertising furnished on applica-
tion by letter or in person.
TO CORRESPONDENTS.
Articles relating to any topic within the
scope of this paper are solicited.
We cannot promise to return rejected manu-
script unless stamps are enclosed.
All communications for intended publication
must be accompanied with real name, as a
guarantee of good faith. No anonymous con-
tribution will be regarded.
Money should be sent by Draft, Postoice
Money Order on DeLand. or Registered Let.
ter, otherwise the publisher will not be re-
Spon&.ble in case of loss. When personal
ecks are used exchange must be added.
Only 1 and 2 cent stamps taken when change
cannot be had
To insure insertion, all advertisements for
this paper, must be received by 10 o'clock
Monday morning of each week.
Subscribers when writing to have the address
of their paper changed MUST give the old as
well as the new address.

WEDNESDAY, MAY 29, 1901.

The right way to pluck the closely
adhering Peento peach is to shove it
down the branch: This splits off a frag-
ment of the bark with the stem and
does not mangle the peach, which is al-
most certain to be done otherwise.


The stems and leaves of grass and
cowpeas when growing are coated with
a very thin film of gum. Most grasses
that are adapted for hay have a sweet
taste that is perceptible even to the
human palate, as one may learn by
chewing them. This sweetness Is one
of the most valuable elements of the
hay, and it is protected by the film of
gum. When the grass is cut down and
dried, this film cracks. If rain now falls
on it, it runs in through the cracks and
soaks out the sweetness. Hard rain
will do much damage to partially dried
grass when it would not injure the
standing or freshly mown grass at all.
On the other hand, if hay is over-cured
it is equally injured by the sun drying
up and destroying its sweet, aromatic
quality rendering it woody and taste-
less.
*
There is great virtue in rotation of
crops, but we do not any longer ac-
cept the old-fashioned teaching as to
the value of fallowing or complete rest
for a season. One of the most impor-
tant objections against complete rest-
ing of land is the tendency it has to
increase insect life. Constant plowing
or cultivation, especially if coupled
with the use of pure agricultural chem-
icals, potash salts, etc., assists materi-
ally in repressing the white grub and
the cotton cricket. Cut worms are al-
ways worse the first year after a piece
of raw sod is broken up. but after that
they can be measurably suppressed by
keeping the land in constant cultiva-
tion. A piece of land which lies open
during the summer, or which is only
sparsely covered with grass and weeds,
will abound in cut worms the following
season. If heavily mulched all summer
or covered with a dense growth of cow-
peas or velvet beans, the cut worms
will be missing the following summer.
The cut worm moth seems to be deter-


red from reaching the earth to deposit
her eggs, where there is a heavy coat-
ing of trash, while the naked earth is
inviting to her.
S*
A current crop report reads: "Corn
is not doing as well this year as last
and stands are had, owing to planting
bad seed and the cold the first part of
April. Some farmers have splendid
stands and crops doing well, all owing
to causes above mentioned." To the
careless reader it might seem hard to
understand how the same causes could
produce diametrically opposite results.
But the experienced farmer knows
that good seed- not gathered in a
water-soaked condition, but dry, hard
and sound-will make a good stand of
thrifty, vigorous plants which will re-
sist the cold. Strong, sound seed, deep-
ly plowed and therefore well drained
land, with manure or fertilizer close at
hand for the young rootlets to lay hold
upon at once will make a good stand
cf thrifty, dark colored plants, where
poor, weak seed, dumped down any-
how in a shallow furrow run through
an unplowed field, will come to noth-
ing and will need replanting of half or
two-thirds. Frost and flood and drought
are the ruin of the poor farmer, but do
little harm to the good farmer, if they
are not an actual benefit. The skillful
farmer has good crops in a bad year
and receives high prices.


It is a true kindness to cattle to de-
horn them when very young, and in
this day and age it is only the ignorant
classes or bandbox philanthropist who
inveighs against the practice. It is best
performed on calves from four days
to four months old, and if done by a
humane person, quickly and neatly,
the pain caused is trifling. Some advo-
cate the caustic method, burning out
the embryo horn w:th potash, but if
the operator is unskilled or the animal
is restless, some of the deadly liquid is
apt to run down into the eyes, causing
intense suffering and ruin to the or-
gans. A better method is with the
branding iron. Screw a three quarter
nut on to the end of an iron rod, heat
it red hot and press it only for an In-
stant, with a firm sure hand-holding
the calf securely-on the little cone
or embryo horn, and the work is done.
This is for very young animals. When
the calf is from two to four months
old, file sharp a pair of blacksmith's
pinchers, and with one snip the little
button can be clipped off clean from
the surface. Apply grease and tar in
either case, renew it perhaps once or
twice, and the operation is done. In
the case of very young calves, the little
fellows will be playing around in five
minutes, apparently unconscious of the
operation. Experienced Florida stock-
men, however, contend that it is better
to defer the operation of dehorning un-
til the animal is two or three years
old. If the animal is dehorned when
very young and grows up a "muley,"
it learns to butt to some extent, and
is more inclined to break fences and
creep through into inclosures. If de-
horned when nearly grown, the opera-
tion cows it completely, the unruly dis-
position is subdued, there is no more
lighting or hectoring of its fellows.
The idea that cows shrink in their
milk yield is wholly erroneous. They
may drop off slightly for two or three
days, but they soon recover. The yield
is increased, if anything, for the de-
horned animal is quiet, docile and
spends more time in grazing and less
in lording it over his fellows.


Hay vs. Corn Fodder in Florida. ceaseless bovine persistence in making
We have been reading about and and saving the little.
watching for results from the corn It is generally an easy thing for a
shredder for some time. In the north farmer who has a good reputation to
where the weather is cool or cold be- get credit from the merchant for a half
for the corn is cut, and where the dozen tons of fertilizer, costing, say
slhcks cure out in two or three months $200, then go in debt as much more
tlie fimlder can Isx shredded and stored for labor and for harvesting a crop of
in the imow with a comparatively lim- vegetables. Then at last, owing to a
ited danger of moulding. But in Flor- poor yield or a glutted market, or late
ida, fodder would have to be very frosts, with high transportation charges
thoroughly cured and dried before it added, come out behind and be unable
would be safe to store it away shred- to discharge a dollar of his indebted-
ded. In this condition it is pretty cer- ness. Next year he begins-if he be-


lain to pack pretty close, ana tme
abundant saccharine matter which it
contains is'a strong promoter of mould-
ing. Farmers who have tried to keep
fodder corn, a different article from
corn fodder, know how extremely dif-
ficult a thing it is to keep it from
moulding.
Unquestionably all farmers should
save their corn-fodder; but we do not
at all subscribe to the antiquated
practice of fodder pulling, and we are
still uncertain about the success of the


gins again at all-just that amount De-
hind, just that amount less than noth-
ing and it is a great discouragement.
It is no exaggeration to estimate that
the vast majority of farmers in the
great and rich states of the upper
south and the north do not clear, on an
average, above $250 a year apiece.
They seldom take such risks as do our
Florida growers. They buy little or no
fertilizer except in certain limited
trucking districts; they employ no la-
bor except in harvest; they sell theiz


corn shredder in this latitude. prdouce in their own barns or pack-
Meantime crab grass hay should re- ing houses, or at the door of the village


ceive more attention than it does. If
cotton seed meal at the rate of 300
pounds to the acre is sown in the corn
field and lightly harrowed in when the
corn is "laid by," a ton of crabgrass
hay could be harvested to the acre
after the corn is removed. The meal
would he worth $3.00 to $3.50, the hay
would be worth from $15 to $20 per
tol. The corn would have to be cut
close to the ground and shocked, west-
ern fashion, to get it out of the way
of the mower. If it is grown with flat
culture, as it should be. there would
Ib! no ridges to interfere with the oper-
ation of the mower.
The most approved practice in every
section of the country is to cut corn
and shock it. This is done in Texas in
an increasing proportion, though the
climate of Texas in summer is not so
wet as ours. But we shall never be-
lieve that a well-built corn-shock, prop-
erly set up around a shock-hill and
tied, will not preserve a greater pro-
portion of the forage of the plants than
is preserved by the fodder pulling. And
then fodder-pulling is wasteful of the
virtue of the corn. It is calculated
that corn from which the fodder has
been pulled, strinks as much in
weight and feeding value as the little
fodder thus preserved is worth.
A ton of good crabgrass hay and fif-
teen bushels of shelled corn per acre
together would be little, if any, short
of the average yields of the west, in
money value.
Lastly, there is an area of 21,378
acres planted to truck, potatoes and
melons, all of which might be lightly
plowed, harrowed down smooth after
the vegetables are harvested, and a
good crop of crabgrass hay grown
without the necessity of sowing seed
or applying fertilizer, though the yield
would be better for a little. In Florida
tile farmer should strike hard and
strike fast; let one crop follow right on
the heels of another. In this way, he
gets ample compensation for the com-
parative poverty of the soil ,and he
gives the vermin no chance to rest and
recuperate their forces.
a
Avoid Risks.
Farming above all other vocations
is not calculated to sustain heavy


warehouse incurring no risks from long
shipments. A few hundred bushels of
wheat and potatoes, with perhaps a
dozen fattened hogs or a hundred
fleeces of wool and a half hundred fat
wethers buy their clothing, pay their
taxes, and school their children and
leave a little surplus.
He takes an unwarranted risk in
Florida who, with a debt of even a
few hundred dollars behind him, stakes -
his whole year's living for himself and
family and his profits, on a perishable
crop that has to be shipped a thousand
miles to find a market. This is sheer
lottery. Men will clear a few hundred
one year, perhaps thousands, lose it all
the next year, then get credit to begin
on again, and so on, around a vicious
circle year after year. They generally
unload a proportion of their debt each
time on the fertilizer dealer, and he
has to keep up his profits by putting
the price of his goods a dollar a ton
higher to those who pay In full.
No man should undertake such risks
without capital enough to tide him over
a bad season, causing a crop failure.
But if he has not enough capital, what
is he to do? Such a man should not
come to Florida or he should come as
a laborer until he can accumulate the
money to operate on. "Nothing ventur-
ed, nothing have," is an old and re-
spected saying. There is a certain ele-
ment of speculation in all cropping.
There is some even in the slow-going,
steady North, where a field of wheat
is considered almost as certain as
taxes. But in Florida the speculative
element is greater, there are more
chances against the grower. We think,
take one year with another, in a long
series, there is a good margin of prof-
it in sight to the farmer here, but It
is imperative that he should have a
small bank account as a bridge on
which to cross over the occasional
sloughs and slumps of failure. Buy fer-
tilizer, by all means, but buy only what
can be paid for in advance. Hire the
necessary labor to do the crop justice,
nut have enough funds in reserve to
crop another year, even if this one
should prove a failure and yield no
profit.
sweet potatoes grow from cuttings
Sweet potatoes grown from cuttings


risks. In common with the carpenter, of vines set out in July or even up to
the mason and the blacksmith, the August 15th, are said to keep better
farmer's gains must come from a slow, than those grown from slips planted
steady, moderate increment, from a in the spring.










THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST. 34E


AN8WBBS TO OO1eESPO1FDEZrH'8.
This department is devoted to answering
such questions as may be asked by our sub-
scribers, which may be of general information.
Enquirie of personal character that require
answer by mail should always have stamp en-
closed.

Editor Florida Agrlclturist:
I have read with a great deal of
pleasure, the comments of the different
commission men on the celery ques-
tion. It seems to me that Florida has
a good market crop and one that is
not likely to be overdone. There is one
thing, however, that I would like to
ask and that Is, if celery has been ship-
ped north in small refrigerators. There
are some growers like myself that
could raise only a small amount of cel-
ery, but not enough to load a car at one
time, therefore if we could ship in
small refrigerators like strawberry re-
frigerators, we would be able to get
off our crop. Any information you can
give will be thankfully received.
N. T. J.
Dover, Fla.
We have made inquiries along this
line and find that celery does not carry
well in strawberry refrigerators. A let-
ter addressed to the express agent at
Sanford brought the following:
Editor Florid Agriculturist:
Referring to your inquiry regarding
refrigerators for use in celery ship-
ments, I beg to advise you that we
have experimented with the strawber-
ry refrigerators and without exception,
they proved to be a failure, the cel-
ery arriving in a worthless condition.
The best results obtained have been
through the express service or the use
of refrigerator cars. The advantage of
the express service of course is in the
fast time, which is always desirable,
especially when shipping to a market
on the decline.

Editor Florida Agriculturist:
Do you know anything regarding the
Rowell system of budding trees? I be-
lieve he has a patent on it. He puts
buds into a stalk from bearing wood
and plants same horizontally a certain
depth and leaves bud to grow to sur-
face of the ground through a tube. He
claims an early fruit and the best part
of it seedless fruit Is there anything
in the last claim mentioned? An ans-
wer will be greatly appreciated.
E. M. B.
Punta Gorda. Fla.
We do not know anything about the
Rowell system of budding, but do know
that his claim for producing seedless
fruit cannot be substantiated by ac-
tual facts. If he can produce seedless
oranges or grape fruit through any
system of budding he has a bonanza
that our nurserymen would like to
share with him.
*
Thinning Fruit.
A tree has a certain amount of ener-
gy to be used in the production of fruit
and at first devotes his efforts to ma-
turing as many pits as possible. This
great production exhausts a tree so
that there is little strength left for the
development of the fleshy part of the
fruit. More than this, there is only a
small growth made and the tree can-
not ripen its wood so as to pass a se-
vere winter without being injured.
Very few if any fruit buds will be
formed for the following year's crop
and the tree must spend this season in
recuperating and developing fruit buds
for over bearing again the next sea-
son.
Since fruit when thinned is more
evenly distributed over the tree there
is a greater opportunity for uniform
development. The smaller the number
of fruits, the greater will be the supply
of food for each and the result will be
larger size, better color, better quality
and higher market prices, and the sat-
isfaction of producing an extra good
article. The tree will make a moder-
ate growth, set fruit buds for next
year's crop, and ripen its wood. With
varieties that will naturally produce
crops biennial thinning will tend to
encourage the habit of bearing annual
crop.
The work should be done early when
the little fruits are from one-half to
three-fourths of an Inch in diameter,


and before there has been an exhaus-
tive strain on the tree. By relieving
the tree of all extra effort at this time
it can put its energy into developing
the remaining fruits. The thinning
should be done by hand so that a sys-
tematic selection of fruits to remain
may be made. A large amount of good
Judgment is necessary to thin fruit so
as to balance up the crop on a tree.-
Epitomist.


A woman who will make a habit of
brushing and combing the hair at
night and vigorously rubbing the scalp,
rubbing until the blood tingles, may
be sure, if she inaugurates tils hab-
it before her hair has begun to fail,
that it will keep its color and
youthful quality. Even falling hair will
often be brought back to vigor by
such treatment. A good deal is said
in favor of brushing the hair. Brushing
cleans the hair itself, but it does not
invigorate the scalp, as does combing,
and neither is half as good as vigorous
rubbing.-Ex.


CHEAP COLUMN

RATES-Twenty wolds, name and address one
week, 5 cents; three weeks 60 cents.

ROSEILLE (Jamaica Sorrell Plants) 25 for
25 cents. Seeds 10 ots pkt, warranted.
Arrowroot plants 25 cts per doz, post
paid. E. Thompson, Avon Park, Fla.
22x2d
CITRUS TRIFOLIATA, one year old, (from
seed beul, six y cents per hundred; fve
dollars per thousand, by mail. PAiuPAr
UnUVB AURSIRBIe., treenland, lorida.
1. xZ5
DATIL PEPPER.-The finest flavored pppper
In toe world; freely used It saves doctor's
bills. Last tall plants, pot grown, sixty
cents per dozen. From beed bed, twenty
centsper dozen. PAMrAS UIKVE JU R-
SLtI!.it, Greenland, bila. 17xZh
WANT ID.-An honest, energetic, intelligent,
sober man to work in oranges anu pine-
apples, and care for cow, horse and pigs.
om.0t per month, and free rent. Address in
own hand-writing, giving full particulars
and references. V. U. boNEDl e, Jensen,
Fla. tf
CASSAVA SEED for sale; prices low.
M.iNJ. ,N. IILAADT, ltuntington, Fla.
I"'
PALMS, FERNS, BAMBOOS, AMARY-
LL.a. ttlM U&L1 kANCIL-.AV .U
CAJLADIUMS, ORAN .iS. and a long
list of floweringtruiting and foliage
plants, asrubs, vines, ec., pot-grown,
bpecially adapted to *'orida pian ung.
ll inLeremteu snouid 'have a copy of
our beautifully illustrated CATA-
J.OGUE 5kitku lLwJN. ,lr A.fL UAti-
kiUiNS, Jesamaine, LVa. 12tf
SALT SICK cured for one dollar or
money refunded. W. k. MANN, Mann-
vUle, FLa. lxm
FOR SALE-Nursery-All Grape-fruit S.ock,
mostly bdded to brape-frut and Tange~ne.
box n urlando, Fla. Ni
CASBAVA SEMD FOR SALE-Purchs-
er may bid on them standing in 10-acre
neld. C. B. SPROUL, Glenwood, Fla.
42t


JAMAICA SORREL plants, by mail postpaid
for 6 cents per dozen. Good sied plants
ready now. W. S. PRESTON. Auburndale.
Fla. 1d
"WHAT I SAW IN FLORIDA"-Beautiful
kodak album. Cloth and morocco binding,
Cloth 60e. morocco 76c postpaid. I. U.
PAINTEK & CO., DeLand. Fla. 2t
WRITE to J. U. Bell, St. Petersburg, Fa.,
for pineapple plants. id
VILLA LAKE NURSERIES, Fruitland
Park Lake county, Fla., offers for July
planting M varieties of 2 and 2 year citrus
bds. or good stock and low prices, ad-
dress C. W. FOX, Prop. lIa
FOR SALE-- Cash. Eight acres of high
pine land near DeLand Junction. acres
cleared, the balance of the tract is in timber.
Address, P. H. care griculturist, e-
Land, Fla.
WANTED-Customers for a million fruit trees
and plants for Florida planting. Oranges,
Grape Fruit, Peaches, Persimmons, Plums,
Pears, Grafted and Budded Pecans, Cam-
phor trees. Roses, Ornamentals, etc. Cata-
loge ree. Address, THE GRIFFING
BROTHERS Company, Jacksonville. Fla.
41tf
BUCKEYE NURSERIES, TAMPA. FLA.--Am
prepared to contract for fruit trees-an
qua.tity-next fall delivery. Bud Wood.
Pineapple. Walters' Grape Fruit. Jaffa,
Tangerine, Tardiff. M. E. GILLITT. Prop.
16-tt
FOR SALE-Grape fruit and Orange trees
Largest and most complete stock in the state.
Trees budded on either Citrus, Trifoliata,
Rough lemon, sour or sweet orange stocks.
Best quality, Low prices. Address THE
GRIFFIN BROTHERS Company, Jack.
sonville, Fla. 41tf
PINEAPPLE PIANTS-Smooth Cayenne
Abakka, Enville City and Golden
Queen for sale by CLIFFORD OR-
.ANGE CO. Citra, Fe. Utf


SPRAY PUMPS.

Myers' Knapsack Pump, 5
gal. copper tank...............12 00
Myers' Knapsack Pump, 5
gal. galvanized irontank.. 7 00
S' I ) Brass Bucket Spray Pump.. 3 50
Barrel Spray Pump, com
plete with hose, etc....... 16 00
Climax No. 3, complete
( with hose, etc................ 18 00
Climax No. 4, complete
with hose, etc................... 20.70
Myers' California Favorite,
complete 28.00
Insecticides: Lime. Sulphate of Cop-
per (Bluestone), Sulphur, etc.
Pine and Bangor Orange Boxes
/ Shaved Birch Hoops, Fresh Green
/ ixed Hoops, manila and Colored
Orange Wraps, Cement Coated Box
Nails, Pineapple. Bean, Cantaloupe,
Cabbage and other Crates; Tomato
Carriers, Lettuce Bakets, Etc.
Imperialow and Cultiators, etc.
Catalogue and price lists on appli-
cation.


E. BEA N.
Jacksonville. Fla.
Room 18 Robinson Bldg.







ee6? Field Garden
mS HEE De

VELVET BEANS COW PEAS BEGGARWEED ETC. ETC.
The only seed house in the city not
burned

The Griffing Bros. Co., Jacksovie, Fla.
1149 MAIN ST., Opposite Water Works





We have a full supply ol
all the best varieties of Or-
anges. Pomelos, Kumquats,
etc., and shall be glad to
show them to prospective
planters. @an show both
trees and fruit; have twenty-one varieties fruiting in the nursery rows.
Also a full line of other fruit trees, roses and ornamentals.
CATALOGUE FREE. Correspondence Solicited.

GLEN ST. MARY NURSERIES,
G. L. TABER, Proprietor,


Glen St. Mary,


- .. Florida.


TREES AND PLANTS THAT WILL GROW
IN FLORIDA AND THE TROPICS.

ORANGES and other CITRUS FRUITS grafted on CITRUS TRI-
FOLIATA.
Camphor, Vanilla, Palms, Fruit, Nut an: Shade Trees.
Grapes, Small Fruits, Roses, Evergreen Shrubs, Crotons, Bedding
Plants, Etc. ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE FREE. Address,
FRUIMLAND NURSEIES. P. J. BERCKANS CO,, Ast. Ga.
.0.Establshed 1956"A 0ANSC ___



SPECTACLES

SAND EYEGLASSES
NwMs-"s r s BY MAIL.
Pe*rft Fit and Satisfaction Guaranteed. Beware of travelling
OPTICIANS and FAKIRS who ruin your eyes. Write for Home Ex-
Samintlen Bla ks and particulars, and save over one-halfthe cost.
GLOBE OPTICAL CO., --- Baltimore, Md.


SOME VERY DESIRABLE
BUDDED ORANGE TREES

FOR SALE-


HAVE been well cared for and are ITH THR "INCOMPARABLE"
nearly ready to fruit. They
are grove trees. J angerines, Satsu- BORDEAUX O
ma, Grapefruit and others. Will I'd "Wrld'. reseat" spr OaSi.
transplant and replace all losses iln r pr t KEn SEI E .r AYe.
quantity of five trees or over. Mae* Eak isa wle* PamL As.
TW W. e C6. ls&Mn omo.
W. H. Haskell, DeLand, Fla. l. PNI sU A1,,UL
FlORIDA HiaaRDWAz CIL, ab-.UK.. I









THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.


HOUSEHOLD DEPAR.TEB T. things that are really necessary to her
Comfort that they may not know care,
All communications or inquiries for this d- or may have advaintages. This spirit
tartmett should be addressed to of self-denial on her part is often car-
FLORIDA AGRICUITURIST, ried too far. as it has a tendency to
Household Dept. Jacksonville. make the children careless of her com-
fort and lays the foundation for a sel-
fish character. She should require a cer-
Helping the Boys. tain amount of self-denial on the part
"Story not available, because plot is of each child, not only for their own
not new." was the hastily scribbled good, but most assuredly for her
note from a busy editor that accom. pleasure and comfort. The child who
palnied a rejected nianuscript of the has every wish supplied is pretty sure
writer's a year or so ago upon its return to grow into a very selfish individual.
to his desk. I smiled as I glanced If she does not make them think of
through its pages once more. It was her comfort once in awhile, they are
an old stor--as old as tradition itself. apt to think that she does not care,
Strange I had not thought of that be-that it does not matter if she does have
fore writing it. And yet it was found. to deny herself that they may have
ed on facts from real life pleasure. A certain amount of self-de-
e on facts from real life. nial is good for a child. That person
We have all heard it. The old far- who has never had to sacrifice his
who has never had to sacrifice his
mer. too old to longer work the home- pleasure for another is usually very
stead, gives it over to his sons. Once selfish and exacting and has missed
his property is out of his hands he is one of the very best elements of char-
anything but welcome about the old acter building.
home. lie is in the way of wife ano No wonder so many mothers fill early
children, his ways are not agreeable, graves, no wonder they become old and
the little he eats and wears-but why careworn when they should be in their
continue? It is such an old story of prime of beauty and vigor. They
selfish neglect and ingratitude. sacrifice themselves too much to the
There may be exceptions to the rule, wants and wishes of their families
but it is rare indeed that the petted when they should exact some sacrifice
child repays his indulgent pare s for on the part of husband and children.
their kindness. The boy who is given Children are very proud of a beauti-
every opportunity without being forced ful mother. It is a memory that is a
to work for it gets the notion in his pleasure all through life, and for this
head that his parents owe it all to him, reason as well as for their own sake,
:ind he will expect their helping hand they should take more thought for
to always help hit over the obstacles themselves. It is no doubt a pleasure
toi his ways help him over the obstacles for them to deny themselves for their
iut it is a mistake to consider that loved ones, but they should remember
Ibut it is a mistake to consider that tt i ma sometimes be a pleasure
that it may sometimes be a pleasure
parents are in duty bound to respect, for others to do some of the denying.
property or material gifts are among They should require their daughters
them. If the parents-no matter what to sacrifice their pleasure sometimes
their wealth may be-give a Iboy a and bear their share of the home bur-
strong mind and body and good moral dens, not only as a preparation for
training they have done their full duty their after life, but to relieve them
by him; and if he has any manhood and allow the time for needed rest and
about him he will ask no more, cer- recreation.
tainly no more than to be helped *
through college, and unless they are In an Old English Kitchen.
well-to-do he cannot ask that. Just outside the gate and across tlhe
A good common school is within the way from the shop of the potato and
reach of every farm boy, and if his par- pork merchant's there stands, as it has
eats do their duty by him and the stood for a couple of centuries, the old
school be what every country school Falstaff Inn. We went in under the
should be. lie will be through with the sign through a low doorway, over-
common branches when thirteen years grown with ivy. t the end of the
of age. In this day of cheap bicycles all was a lovely old kitchen with a
and horses good high schools are with- floor of cool tiles and a gorgeous din-
in the reach of nearly every boy. This flr service of purple, red, blue and
he should finish in three or four years. gol displayed in wide racks against
Then the boy will doubtless have def- gold displayed in wide racks again,
inite ides as to what e desires to do tile wall. A bright fire was burning,
irmite ideas as to what he desires to do- Oti, red coal glowing between the Ibars
whether to continue his studies or en- of tie grate, and a deal of cooking
ter actively into a career. In this crisis was going on. The ele a i
of Iris life a wise parent will do much a with fuss etffsion like tabt of
li shape Iis future destiny. No arbi- ng ith a fussy effusion like tIat of
to shpce is fhoult e fotinwe. oarboy a comfortable, home keeping, good-
otrary egurse should be followed. A by carted, motherly woman, bustling
of eighteett ye rs hlmld ble manlayl o to get things ready fr he
t.nough to resent being driven, and sen. aut to et the chils ready fc l
sible enough to listen to the counsels good man an tigh befchret. A leg ti
of one who has his interests at heart, lamb was roasting before the fire.
as a father will have. The boy should string, or thin iron chain, I believe it
steer his own craft. Better to learn was, was fastened from the mantel
the ropes and self-reliance in shallow shelf, and from the other end hung the
water than to meet the storms of later meat, dangling directly in front of th
years with neith neer knowledge nor sel- grate bars. te a
confidence, without which there can be neath to catch the dripp e in
a bit of that lamb with some mint
no success.
It is safe to bank o the boy who sauce for my dinner, and I can attest
It is safe to bank on the boy who t itwas most excellent eating. I
has the ambition to put himself through that it was most excellent eating I
college. It is the noblest of discipline wish I had some of it at this moment.
to mind, muscle and morals. If the A trim young woman, wearing the
parents are able, they can furnish the whites of mob caps, the cleanest of
way for the boy to put himself through white aprons, stood before the fire
but it should be understood that every broiling a chop. She had a long-ha in
dollar loaned shall come back. It will died d oule tn roler oras st up r in
be a source of pride to him in later her hands. The chop was shut up in
this, and she patiently held it before the
life that he can stand with that throng tis, and se oietl held t efore to
of men among whom are some of our rase t od u a the
brightest and noblest citizens-the self- dry, turning it round now and there;
made men from the farm. and what with the tea-kettle, tilhe
Give the boy sound morals, a good bursting of the skin of the leg of almost,
common-school or high-school educa- tifrte sizzling of tie savory noop, most
tion, and let him do the rest for him- comforting, if deafening noses filled
self. It is far better that he work the the cozy room. The girl turned a ro.y
first few years of his life than that he fe at us and smiled comfortably. Trows
be given a start in life that will tide smile, the goodly old then, tihe rows
him over the first years, and when it is of delft on the wall, the nodding red
wasted by indolence or mismanage- hollyhocks out in the garden, the recol-
ilent, leave him stranded, to begin life electing of that swinging jolly old Fal-
anew without sound business princl- staff, of the charming windows and
pies and training.-J. L. Irwin in Farm deep window seats warmed tie to tried
& Fireside. heart with enthusiasri.- 'atherine
& Fireside. ole, i New Orleans Piciayune.
Teach the Children Self-Denial.
A mother's love Is so entirely bound Becipes.
up in her children that she practices 'Peanut Cookies.-Take one pint of
much self-denial even doing without roasted peanut meats. Rub off the


brown skin and chou ithe, using a
meat cutter if you have one. Cream
together one cup of brown sugar and
two tablespoonfuls of butter. Add
three eggs beaten, two tablespoonfuls
of milk, a quarter of a teaspoonful of
salt, the chopped nuts and sufficient
flour to make a stiff dough. Roll out,
cut in round cakes, put a peanut in
center of each cookie and bake in mod-
crate oven.
Ham Croquettes.-Three cups of
chopped ham. Three hard-boiled eggs,
also chopped. Rub the ham and eggs
together. Add a teaspoonful of mus-
tard, a dash of cayenne; melt half a
cup of butter, and when hot stir into
it three tablespoonfuls of cornstarch
and a little salt. When smooth pour
into this one and a half cups of hot
milk; cook until thick and creamy.
Mix this with the ham, and when
cold shaDe into croauettes. Roll in
beaten egg, then in cracker or stale
bread crumbs, and fry in hot fat.
Cocoanut Custard.-Scald a quart of
rich milk. Moisten a cup of grated
cocoanut with a spoonful of cold milk.
Beat the yolks of five eggs very light,
add one cup of sugar. Stir tile cocoa-
nut into the egg. Pour the scalding
milk over it, and return to the fire to
cook for two minutes; flavor with va-
nilla. When cold beat the whites into
a stiff froth with three tablespoonfuls
of powdered sugar. Heap this on the
custard. \Then sprinkle freely with
grated cocoanut and powdered sugar.
Serve very cold with sponge cake.-
Exchange.
* N,
The Pecan's Taproot. '
Our readers will doubtless remember
a series of articles which appeared in
the Semi-Weekly Journal during Feb-
ruary and March, g9oo, in reference to
pecan culture, and especially to the as-
sertion that the removal or reducing
the taproot of pecan trees when being
transplanted would cause barrenness.
We refuted this assertion because our
experience, as well as that of many pe-
can growers, proved the contrary. Dur-
ing a visit to Laurens county, Georgia,
we were forcibly reminded of what we


then said and as there are many per-
sons who still believe that the cutting
away of the taproot will cause unfruit-
fulness. We desire to refer these
doubting Thomases to the many
healthy and fruitful pecan trees which
are growing in many gardens in Dub-
lin, Ga., and especially those in the
grounds of Col. John M. Stubbs. One
large tree is an especial good illustra-
tion of our position. It was transplant-
ed when fully ten years old, and has
produced an annual crop of several
bushels of nuts during the years follow-
ing its transplanting; at that time the
tree was fully ten inches in diameter
at the ground, and now measures twice
that size.
iAgain, theer are a number of young
trees transplanted four years ago when
two years old, that h ve produced their
second crop of nuts, he taproot hav-
ing been greatly reduced at their re-
moval. Showing that the period of
bearing is usually hastened by trans-
planting and inducing lateral roots to
follow the removal of the taproot. That
pecan trees are greatly benefited by fer-
tilizing the land, was also shown in two
rows of trees, those planted on a slight
slope and nearest the barnyard, where
they received the washings of the ma-
nure heap had attained to twice the
size of those planted at the end of the
row here the fertilizing material did
not reach them, and the largest and
most generously manured trees yielded
a crop of nuts at four years of age, the
others not showing such precious fer-
tility.
Another fact is that the nuts pro-
duced upon the majority of the trees
were almost all similar to the parent;
if there was an variation, the tendency
was toward a larger nut. We saw none
as reverting to the hard-shell type.-
P. J. Berckmans, in Atlanta Journal.

S llll [A i f r Niif il, t',o'tl


il - ;=l- ;:::,;or
e.ow fl se id C, ,oe
W n. iithim & ap s, LelvilA, Kr.
Mention this paper when you write.


Light.Sweet


Wholesome re
easily,

Brea.d 0l 0 0 speedily.
certainly
aede
Delicious Pestry with





ROYAL

BAKING POWDER.

Its great usefulness and superiority
have made the Royal Baking Powder
one of the most popular of household
articles, and it is declared by expert
cooks indispensable in the preparation
of the finest and most wholesome food.


The Royal Baker and Pastry
Cook "-containing over 8oo
most practical and valuable
cooking receipts-free to
every patron. Send postal
card with your full address.


There are cheap baking pow-
ders, made from alum, but they
are exceedingly harmful to
health. Their astringent and
cauterizing qualities add a
dangerous element to food.


ROYAL BAKING POWDER CO., 100 WILLIAM ST., NEW YORK.


01


__











POUVLTY AND rABZ DBiPART-
aMENT.
All communications or enquiries for this de-
pautmet should be addressed to
FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST,
Poultry Dept. Jacksonville, Fla.

Incubators and Ineubator Chicks.
When you select an incubator, says a
writer in Country Gentleman, be sure
that you choose one that is standard
in quality, one that has and will con-
tinue to do good work in the hands of
an amateur. Do not for one moment
get the notion in your head that any
child can run one; but you may de-
pend upon it that any good sensible
person, man, woman or child that is
old enough, can learn to run one very
nicely if he will give the matter his at-
tention; but like the sewing machine
or the churn, it must have sensible at-
tention or poor results must follow.
Lamps must be properly cleaned,
filled, and the wicks trimmed. It takes
fully as much care for the lamp that
teats the machine as is necessary for
the lamp you read by. The heat must
be as carefully regulated in the ma-
chine as in the oven for baking. It
must be just right. The regulator will
do its part; but should those in charge
of the machine be so careless as to refill
and fix the lamp and put it back with-
out regulating the flame, too much heat
may be the result. This is the fault of
he operator; the same if too low, and
too little heat results.
When the machine is started one
should pay strict attention until one is
tully satisfied that he has turned on the
proper sized flame that will, with the
.relp of the regulator, keep the proper
east is conceded by poultrymen who
When this is intact the machine should
go along for twelve hours without at-
tention. Frequent observations for the
first day or two are necessary to full
assurance that the lamp and regulator
are doing their proper work. When
this condition is reached, note the
height of the flame, and keep it to this
form, for in this way but little trouble
comes.
The heat should hold very nicely in
a good machine when you have it
properly regulated. I have had ma-
chines go through the whole three
weeks and not vary two degrees dur-
ing the whole period; while I have seen
them vary as much as four degrees in
one day. This is partly the fault of the
attendant, and partly the fault of the
machine. For these reasons it is well
to consider the machine you buy before
you secure one; also to pay proper at-
tention to printed directions "hen you
get it. An expert can run successfully
any machine; but this is not the case
with the thousands who buy one ma-
chine for their own use. This one ma-
chine must be all right within itself.
and must be run according to rule if
you are to succeed with it.
The several machines have different
methods of turning the eggs, all of
which will accomplish the desired end.
Some people turn them twice, others
once in twenty-four hours, with equally
good results. I feel no hesitation in
saying that the hen shifts her eggs
much oftener than is supposed. The
next time you set a hen, mark two of
the eggs with a black line all around
them, lift the hen from the nest two or
three times in one twenty-four hours,
and note the change of position of
these two eggs; and I believe you will
conclude that she changes them often-
er than once a day.
The hen leaves her nest regularly
once a day when she has her own way
about it, usually during the morning
hours. If she can find food, water and
a dust-bath, she will return to the eggs
in from twenty to thirty minutes. Dur-
ing this time her eggs have had time to
air and cool, her body is cooled off and
she returns refreshed to the eggs.
Naturally one would suppose the eggs
would be considerably cooler when she
returned to them than when she left
them; but they hatch well. Usually
she hatches every hatchable egg. And
we all work to have our incubators do
as well as the hen. Might not it be
well to study her methods?
Air and ventilate the eggs in a prop-
er manner. Don't be fearful of their
getting too cold, providing they are in


THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

as warm a place as the hen has her $5.00 Compressed Ai
nest. Let both the eggs and the ma-
chine have proper airing-not in a It is admitted by all classes of fruit gn
chine ave proper airingnot in a compressed air sprayer is the most dur
freezing atmosphere, but where the limited time only. Take advantage of tl
surroundings are right for the machine. portunity to get the sprayer at the redi
Some people keep them out of the ma- r copper. WILL THROW A GOOD
Some people keep them out of the ma- 20 to 30 minutes. The tallest fruit tree
chine io minutes, others 15 and 2o. I reliable men. Address,
believe from 1o to 15 minutes, accord- ML
ing to the temperature of the room, to
be about right. You have thus struck interfered with as little as possible.
about the average time that the hen al- Geese live many years, and it is of
lows herself when she leaves the eggs. no advantage to sell off the old stock,
Less than half as much airing will be as they are the best for breeding pur-
plenty for the machine. Don't allow it poses, as also for feathers.
to run below go or 95 degrees when the The goose will lay from ten to fifteen
eggs are out. eggs and then sit diligently on them
Testing the egg has nothing to do for and seldom fails to bring off a good
or against the hatch. It simply fur- brood.
nishes you with facts in advance. If At ten weeks of age, or when the
the eggs are tested the seventh or tenth tips of the wings reach the tail; young
day, you can select the clear eggs, geese are ready for market, and should
which are as good for general use as weigh between eight and nine pounds.
any eggs two weeks old. If perfectly Geese will come nearer living on pas-
clear and free from life-giving germs, ture and taking care of themselves
they will keep longer than other eggs. than any other class of poultry. Gos-
Many use these clear eggs to cook for lings come in for the table as "green
the chicks, or in making corn bread for geese" in the summer, and should be
them. I hardly think anyone could tell fine birds for the Michaelmas board.-
them from other eggs of the same age Fancy Fowls.
if made use of for cooking or the table, *
as they are not injured in the least be- Bone and Bone-Cutters.
yond other eggs that we keep in box Bone for poultry is usually purchased
or basket two or three weeks, from local butchers, the price depend-
The advantages of testing the eggs as ing upon the locality; sometimes It is
soon as practicable are many. If two given away. Bones may be kept a long
or more incubators are filled a'd start- time by subjecting them to sulphur
ed the same day, when the time comes fumes for half an hour in a suitable
to test them it may be possible that the box having a lid. An old trunk serves
good fertile eggs will all go into one well. Put the bones in, light a sulphur
machine; and the other may be filled candle or a tablespoonful of sulphur,
again, thus saving time and space. and close the lid. A bone-cutter is al-
Those who run a number of machines, nost indispensable to success, as bones
and are expert at testing, can select all greatly assist in making hens lay. It is
the clear eggs from the fertile eggs the not known which is the best cutter,
third or fourth day; thus selecting the as each has claims in its favor; but
clear eggs for market oeiore they be- that a bone-cutter will soon repay its
gin to spoil. This is a large business, cost in conceded by all poultrymen who
and many of what are called tested are enterprising.-Farm and Fireside.
ducks' and hens' eggs are sold in the THE HOME GOLD CURE.
cities. The sooner they can be select- TE HOME GOLD CU
ed from the fertile eggs the better for An Ingenious Treatment by Which
the handler, who turns his money the An gk s T men d D
quicker. Drunkards are Being Cured Daily
quic e in Spite of Themselves.
The question of moisture has been No Noxious Doses. No weakening of
much considered. We never furnish Nerves. A Pleasant and Positive
any artificial moisture for our ma- Cures for the Lquor Habit.
chines, neither do we keep them in hot It is now generally known and under-
rooms. Up to May Ist they. are kept stood that Drunkenness Is a disease
on the first floor in one of the living and not weakness. A body filled with
rooms-that is, next to the kitchen. All poison, and nerves completely shatter-
the heat that gets into the room comes er by periodical or constant use of in-
through an open door into the kitchen, toxicating liquors,requires an antidote
or from the machines themselves. Af- capable of neutralizing and eradicat-
ter May ist they go into the cellar un- ing this pois on, and destroying the
der the house. Machines that are con- craving for intoxicants. Sufferers may
structed for this method supply their now cure themselves at home without
own moisture from the atmosphere. It publicity or loss of time from business
is quite possible to furnish too much by this wonderful "Home Gold Cure"
moisture when a pan of water is put which has been perfected after many
into the machine. The less aid we years of close study and treatment of
must give the better. When it is nec- inebriates. The faithful use according
essary to use a moisture gauge to be to directions of this wonderful discov-
satisfied that there is enough moisture ery is positively guaranteed to cure the
in the machine, or when we must move most obstinate case, no matter how
and remove pans of water into and out hard a drinker. Our records show the
of the machines, it adds to the compli- marvelous transformation of thousands
cations of management and gives that of Drunkards into sober, industrious
much more trouble. The more simple and upright men.
the management, the better, provided Wives cure your husbands!! Children
they will do good work, the test of cure your fathers! This remedy is in
which is their ability to hatch every no sense a nostrum but is a specific
hatchable egg. for this disease only, and is so skillful-
When the hatch comes in sight, don't ly devised and prepared that it Is thor-
open the machine until it is complete. roughly soluble and pleasant to the
The conditions of moisture and aid for taste, so that it can be given in a cup
breaking the shell should be complete of tea or coffee without the knowledge
at this time, and to open the machine of the person taking it. Thousands of
may so disturb these conditions as to Drunkards have cured themselves
retard their advancement, and create with this priceless remedy, and as
other conditions that may reduce the many more have been cured and made
results materially. If your machine is temperate men by having the "Cure"
properly constructed, the ventilation administered by loving friends and rel-
willbe sch as t make the nhic com natives without their knowledge In tea
will be such after theyo make the chicks com- or coffee, and believe today that they
portable after they drop below the tray, discontinued drinking of their own free
w here they may stop for a day or more will. Do not Wait. Do not be deluded
the ldo well. I have seen them kept in by apparent and misleading "improve-
the lower part of the machine as a menrt." Drive out the disease at once
brooder for three days, and do well, and for all time. The "Home Gold
being provided with food but no wa- Cure" is sold at the extremely low
ter price of One Dollar, thus placing with-
in reach of everybody a treatment
Geese for Profit. more effectual than others costing $25
Geese begin laying in January or to $50. Full directions accompany each
early in February. package. Special advice by skilled phy-
Goose eggs should be gathered and sicians when requested without extra
handled with great care. charge. Sent prepaid to any part of the
Ganders became ferocious when the world on receipt of One Dollar. Ad-
geese are hatching, dress Department E 257 Edwin B.
Access to water and a grass run are, Giles & Co., 2330 and 2332 Market st,
absolutely necessary in breeding Philadelphia.
geese. All correspondence strictly conflden-
When hatching, the geese should be tiaL


r Sprayer for $3.75.
powers and farmers that my five gallon
able made. This reduction is made for a
he liberal offer-it may be your last op-
uced price. $3.75 for galvanized steel, $5.00
STREAM 25 to 30 FEET. Good pressure
can be sprayed. Order today. Salary to
LRTIN WAHL, Rochester, New York.



Wanted

during next eight months orders f'r
10,000 Smooth Cayenne Pineapple
plants.
Slips taken from fruiting plants.
Will sell cheap.
R. W. SI K ES,
Palmasola, Fla.
Manatee Co.



TOBACCO DUST.
If your fowls are troubled with lice
or jiggers, send $1.25 and get 1,J
pounds of tobacco dust and aptinkle
it in your coops. The tobacco ia guar-
anteed to be unleached. Snud 2 cent
tamp for sample.-E. 0. Painter & Co.,
.Jacksonville, Fla.

HENS' TEETH T i SELLS
To properly digest its food the fowl
must have grit. What teeth are to the
human being grit is to the fowl. We
can now furnish ground oyster shells,
from freshly opened oysters, from
which all the dust and dirt has been
screened, to supply this grit which ir
lacking in nearly all parts of Florida
Goods very inferior to ours and fud
of dust hai e been selling for $1.00 to
$1.25 per sack of 100 pounds. We now
offer it at
100 lb bag, 75c. f. o. b. Jacksonville.
E. O. PAINTER & Co., Jacksonville,
Fla.
Manufacturers of High Grade Fer-
tilizers and dealers in all kinds of Fer-
tilizing Materials.


Blood, Bone and Shells

FOR POULTRY
For $3.25 we will ship by freight pre-
paid to any railroad station In Florida
100 lbs Crushed Oyster Shells...$ .75
50 lbs Coarse Raw Bone........ 1.00
50 lbs Pure Dried Blood......... 1.50

200 $3.25
The above are three essentials for
profitable poultry raising. Address.
E. 0. PAINTER & CO.,
JACKSONVILLE, FLA.


Western Poultry Farm,
MARSHALL, MO.
4 months on trial 10c. One yr. 25c.
It tells how to make poultry raialns
profitable. It sl up to date. 24 page.
dend to day. We sell bet liquid lce kill-
er for 75 cta per gallon. Aluminum leg
bands Cor poultry, 1 don., 0 eta; 5 for &a
eta: 50 for 60 cts; 100 for S.

ODIII COCAINEM-WHISKY

NHo= Tmrtment ,nt Fin.t Addren
SM.i WOOLLEY, M. D.. Atlanta. oa.