<%BANNER%>
The Florida agriculturist
ALL ISSUES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS MAP IT! PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00047911/00031
 Material Information
Title: The Florida agriculturist
Uniform Title: Florida agriculturist (De Land, Fla.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ;
Language: English
Publisher: Kilkoff & Dean
Place of Publication: DeLand Fla
Creation Date: August 1, 1900
Publication Date: 1878-1911
Frequency: monthly[1908-june 1911]
weekly[ former 1878-1907]
monthly
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- De Land (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Volusia County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Jacksonville (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Duval County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: newspaper   ( marcgt )
newspaper   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Volusia -- DeLand
Coordinates: 29.02889 x -81.30055 ( Place of Publication )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (May 15, 1878)-v. 38, no. 6 (June 1911).
Numbering Peculiarities: Numbering is irregular.
Numbering Peculiarities: Some issues for 1911 also called "New series."
General Note: Publisher: E.O. Painter, <1887>.
General Note: Editor: C. Codrington, 1878- .
General Note: "A journal devoted to state interests."
General Note: Published at Jacksonville and De Land, <1902>-1907; at Jacksonville, 1907- .
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000941425
oclc - 01376795
notis - AEQ2997
lccn - sn 96027724
System ID: UF00047911:00031
 Related Items
Preceded by: Volusia County herald (De Land, Fla.)

Full Text
































Vol. XXVII, No. 31. Jacksonville and DeLand, Fla., Wednesday, August 1, 1900. Whole No. 1383.


Velvet Beanu and Corn.
Editor Florida Agriculturist,
I have just returned from a trip over
a Portion of my farm <* whle1 I iyr
pIantEd velvet beans ana corn. The
ground on which they are growing was
last year planted in velvet beans and
the vines were allowed to rot on top.
As many of the beans were picked as
could be gathered with the help at
hand, but a large portion of the crop
was left untouched. In the spring I
plowed under the velvet beans the best
I could and planted corn. My instruc-
tions to my men were to thin out the
corn to one stalk to the hill, but they
failed to do so, and to Iy SutllPfIS6 I
find that the corn has made a splendid
growth and even where there are two
stalks to the hill, two good ears of
corn are produced. It has fully proved
the fertilizing value of the velvet bean
to me. The corn is almost covered
with a most rank growth of vines that
have covered the ground so thick that
in some places there seems to be a
dense mass of vegetation five or six
feet deep, through which I imagine I
will have a job to get the corn gath.
ered. I feel that I can look over this
trouble considering the amount of im-
provement ity land has received and
the knowledge I have gained from the
use of the bean.
It has occurred to me that if we
only had some way by which we could
cure the velvet bean vines before they
get too old and hard we could produce
all of the forage that our animals
could possibly need during the winter.
which with the aid of the beans, would
put us in a position so that we would
not have to buy any feed stuff. 1
would like to hear from any one who
has used the velvet bean in connection
with cassava as a feed for stock. I
have heard that the combination made
has given as good beef as comes from
Chicago, but I have not had an op-
portunity to find out how the feeding
wa* dpgf Or In what proportlons the
meal and cassava were fed. If any of
your subscribers can give me informa-
tion along this line it would be very
much appreciated. J. B. Rhodes.

florida tauerkraut.
Editor Florida Agriculturist,
There seems to be one thing needed
in Florida, and that is some means of
working up our by-products or waste
of the farm and garden. For instance,
when market gardeners get through
shipping tomatoes north many of the
vines have only just reached the best
bearing season, consequently they have
a large amount of fruit that is wasted.
If a canning factory could be started
to utilize this waste product it ought to
Drove a good thing, not 9nly for the
canning factory, but also for the grow
er.
Cabbage is another vegetable that is
allowed to go to waste in great quan-
tities, and sometimes a whole field of
magnificent cabbage is left to rot or
seed instead of being used. If this
cabbage could be worked up into a
salable product It would not only be a
great saving but give employment to
many. There Is always a good de-


mand for sauerkraut which could be
easily made with but very little outlay
of capital. I have .'.st been reading a
Northern naDer in whilh I find the fol_
lowing weFrenee to te Wmatfliictuiriug
of sauerkraut:
Geo. H. Murphy, vice-consul at
Magdeburg, writes: "The best Ger-
man sauerkraut is made in Magdeburg;
but when a consular officer attempts
to ascertain how it is made, he en-
counters the usual Insuperable obstacle
-business secrets. The manufacturer
politely replies to all inquiries, 'My
recipe i, what makes my business
profitable. If I gave it to you, you
could m'ku t;g nRnme nourrhraut In
Washington. The fame of Magdeburg
would thus be dimmed, and what
would become of the orders which
mean so much to me?'
"The process of manufacture, omit-
ting business secrets, is about as fol-
lows:
"Take a number of heads of white


some one may do something along this
line. I know that just as good sauer-
kraut has been made in this State as
has hoon lahinned from MfIdntohur-' )hlti
it 0iily i~iEiii'-a ruoiiieitly If tiakl liulk
of the matter and push It to make it a
success. J. C. Foote.

From 'lee Oounty.
Editor Florida Agriculturist,
The season just closed has been one
of the most successful for growing to-
matoes on Sanibel Island. Frost sel-
dom visits the gardens on Sanibel Is-
land, the lands are fine, and failure
only ucles frum IneXipe fJr drotuglt
and sending to market. We often hear
that old yarn. "received in bad order,"
which is nearly always the case when
we ship our goods to commission men
of whom we know nothing.
There are many new settlers coming
to Lee county. Planting grape fruit
groves is the order now. Some pine-


E. O. PAINTER'S TENT-CLOSED.
cabbage, as fresh as possible, and* cut apples are being pl
them into fine long shreds. Place in Myers there seems
layers in barrels, or kegs, strewing salt viding line between
over each layer, using one-half a pound the common and fa
of salt for each twenty-five cabbages. ly all south, of th
Press the mass down wfth clean feet, Spanish, without s
wooden shoes or a heavy stamper. Abakkas, Cayenne
Place a cover on the barrel, and upon sheds to protect th
this lay a heavy stone. This presses rect rays of the su
the sauerkraut more and conserves it of cold.
better. The sauerkraut must then be Pineapples do w
allowed to ferment in a cellar for from there is not near tl
three to eight days, according to the as in some of the m
temperature or tlg room, Thi barrel apple sections of F
should then be tightly closed and kept there is a big savin
in a cool place, preferably In a cellar, cold.
"After the barrel is closed the sauer- Some of the best
kraut will be ready for use in about a State are further o
week. As soon as some is used, the of which has never
barrel should be covered and a stone the government.
again placed on top. saw-grass swamp.
"In preparing and keeping sauer- is presumed to be.
kraut, sunshine and extremes of heat lands and hard wv
and cold should be avoided." lots of wild orange
I send it to you in the hopes that tiers are in that co


anted. Here at Ft.
to be a sort of di-
i the plantations of
ncy varieties. Near-
ie town being Red
bedding, and north,
s and others, with
em from the too dl-
i, as well as in case

ell in this section;
he danger from cold
ost prosperous Dine-
lorida, conasquently
g in protection from

orange lands of the
n below here, much
r been surveyed by
Instead of its being
as the Everglades
there are high pine
ood hammocks, and
e trees. A few set-
,untry and more go-


ing. The outlet until a railroad is
built, is by schooner to Key West.
All the section mentioned is entirely
free from froamos and in L.me wll bS;-
mE a veriy prosperous part of the
State. The early settlers raise more or
less garden truck, sugar cane does fine,
and "Caloosahatchee syrup," if not a
household term, is a household favor-
ite.
Your correspondent has been well
down into that: "neck of the woods"
and in the fall opes to explore it fur-
ther.
Now ifts the trapper's and hunter's
paradise and it is from them that I
harc lcurned munv 01 tills IilfStfiatllIB.
The time is not far away when the
country will be sought after.
There is some talk that this country
should be made into a game preserves
The game is there. A Mr. Robertson
who settled on Palm river a year ago.
told me of having his horse killed by
a bear one night. The horse was tied
in the stable near the house.
Jas. Mott.
Ft. Myers, Fla., July 24th.
Pineapple Pointers.
Editor Florida Agrieulrisat.
In the AgrIelifugrll 8f Julie flth un-
der the heading of a Great Pest, Lake
Eustis Region speaks of the black
grasshopper. A few years ago they
were nearly as bad in this section, but
by constant killing of the big ones we
kept them from laying their eggs until
finally this year they are very scarce.
They used to destroy a great many
pineapples by eating holes in side of
apples. Killing is the only cure.
R. R. F.
Editor Florida Agriculturist.
I see In Agriculturist of February 21
Mr. B. M. Hampton, of Silver Lake
Fruit Farm, gives his experience in
covering pineapples with saw palmetto
fans. He covered with saw palmetto
fans about a year agSi did he leave
them on all this time; if so, how did
he cultivate? We use the saw palmet-
to fan and find it next best thing to
regular shed, but we take them off in
the spring. I have over an acre cov-
ered this past winter with fans, and
where they are covered right the pro-
tection is perfect and wind has had no
effect whatever; if it had the past two
weeks would have ruined my field, as
I have never experienced stronger
winds, save in a regular hurricane than
we had during February, and I find
the cover almost perfect as I go
through about once a week.
He either left his fans on till they
rotted or else did not know how to cut
and place them. Saw Palmetto.
Stuart, Fla.


Mr. aid Mrs. C. T. McCarty, of An.
kona, expect to leave fdr Paris about
the middle of next month. Mr. Mc-
Carty is a very successful pineapple
grower. He has shipped several thous-
and crates of pineapples, which
brought good prices, and now Mr. Mc-
Carty will take his wife to Paris to
see the exposition. Success to them
and their trip.-East Florida Advocate.

The rush of our pineapple season is


I


3









468 THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.


now over and only a few fancy and late
varieties are being shipped. Our grow-
ers will now devote their time to fer-
tilizing and planting. A number of oui
growers will increase their acreage
considerably this year. and many im-
provements of v-r1iuti 1tn111( will it'
made, as this season has been a very
profitable one.-East Florida Advocate.

A citizen of St. Petersburg came over
yesterday and brought with him outn
of the finest pineapples ever seen here.
It came from the famous Heard pinery
and weighed fifteen pounds. The imi
mense pine was turned over to W. H.
Fuller, Jr., who packed it and shipped
it to President J. Skelton Williams, of
the Seaboard, to show him actually
what Florida could raise.-Tampa Her-
ald.

G. D. Munsing will make his first
shipments from his fine bay front
pinery next week. He will get about
10,000 pineapples from the two acres
set out about eighteen months ago, and
this crop will pay half of the expenses
so far incurred. He is now setting out
two ac-res addlifonni Mis MFSUiiSM
has probably the best pinery of its size
in the State. He estimates that his ex!
pense in bringing the plants to bearing
is about $3.000 per acre, having provid-
ed every device and convenience which
would contribute to the success of the
enterprise.-Tampa Times.

George E. Macy, who is always
abreast of the times in industrial de-
velopment, has begun to set another
pinery. He already has a promising
one on thete corner opposite his mill and
wagon shop, but he sees noney in the
business, and he goes in deeper.

Mr .W. 0. Budd. the enterprising
owner of the Chicago Pinery, is build-
ing an addition to his already large
pinery. This is the kind of enterprise
needed in any progressive community.
--St. Petersburg Times.

Casusava and Velvet Beans.
The season has arrived when our pe-o
pie should again begin to consider how
best to promote their financial inter-
ests. This proposition Is specially ap-
plicable to those who till the soil.
'I want to interest my former friends
in the subject of stock-raising. We
have climate, soils 9nd all favorable
conditions.
We can with velvet beans, cassava
and bermuda grass raise pork at two
cents per pound and beef at one and
one-half cents per pound. With the
same stock food we can have fat
horses, cows and pigs at a cost of six-
ty-six per cent. below our present sys-
tem of feeding.
We can have a beautiful supply of
rich milk and creamery butter. The
price of pork may fluctuate, but thai
of beef will scarcely go below its pres-
ent level for the next twenty years.
We can. with the same system of
feeding, produce e a mutton needed
for home consumption and In addition.
have a fine money crop in the fleece
from our sheep and Angora goats.
Cassava can be raised for not more
than $1.50 per ton and is worth to the
starch factories, of which St. Peters-
burg and Clearwater should each have
one. six dollars ,er ton and to the
farmer wh lofeeds I to his stock it
worth not less t nlill iui i .ollarl s t[.r io11.
N 1II caIll i lsllp, I Tr ac ire. ri w -il, r1 2 il still- 1, .-
-I a would bet r -|l'.d l.

Velvet beans will furnish froln thirty
to fifty bushels of nutritious nItrogen-
ous stock food and still permit you to
return to the soil a large Ipercentagi
of those elements which are required
for its recuperation and gradual iin-
prorement.
Try these things on a small scale and
you will then fully understand what I
am talking about.
Seed of both cassava and velvet
beans will be plentiful next year.--.T
H. Stephens, in St. Petersburg Times.
There is some good advice in thel
above, but the gentleman is away off
as to the cost of growing cassava.
The Seminole Manufacturing Co.. with
about ((W) acres under cultivation, with
all labor-saving tools to assist them.,
claim a cost of $3 per ton. There is
enough value in the cassava to pay to
raise it for feed even if it costs $6


per ton. Also figure on five tons to
the acre instead of twenty. If it runs
over you won't be disappointed.

Orange Growers' Hope.
I). I). Rogers, C. E.. was at Oak Hill
lh.it wctl engaged in his pmrofaion,
and among others met and talked witl
our wide awake citizen, Mr W. C.
Howes who informed him that there
would be 2,000 boxes of oranges ship-
ped from Oak Hill this year, and that
guavas were abundant.
There is little doubt in tle minds of
thoughtful people that oranges will lie
again raised in abundance over most,
or all. of the former orange producing
territory, and the crop at Oak Hill and
other points farther south, besides
more or less fruit in groves at Hawks
Park. New Smyrna, Daytona, Ornond.
etc.. are strong arguments in support
of this view.
Mr. C. P. Lund stated to us last week
that he had no doubt but that another
period of success in the growing of or-
anges and other citrus fruits would
come. and in that hope and belief he
was planting several hundred orange
RRIR .11pe Irma tr ans OB BDCna ay
lots. Mr. Lund, as one of basis for
hope. stated that for ten years after
the freeze of 1835 orange growing was
unsuccessful, and that it was not until
well on in the forties that success
again crowned the orange growers' ef-
forts.
Mr. H. P. Hand also informed us but
a few days since that on visiting his
grove west of Daytona he found quit
a. sprinkle of fruit on his trees. All the
cases we have quoted were unprotect-
ed groves.
We hope our former guava growers
on the peninsula will not cease in the
effort to produce this excellent fruit.
Bushes produce in two years, and are
so in form that protection can be
cheaply given if needed.--Daytona
.loulrn' l.

Keep Tab.
In a paper read before the Terry-
town Horticultural Society. L. A. Mar-
tin makes some valuable suggestions of
great importance to truck growers.
"Any gardener wishing success with
vegetables must do some thinking andl
figuring, not only at the time of start-
ing in spring, but years ahead; he
should not be without a notebook in
which to make a dairy of all the work
done in the garden and greenhouses
during the year, dates of sowing his
seeds conditions of soil and weather at
the time. He must watch his plants'
growth, as some kinds of plants will
always be seen growing better in one
place than others. You very well know
that the soil In your garden Is not the
same all over. There is some spot
richer in substances than others, wet
or dryer; if you note the same, next
year you can plant some other vegeta-
bles more suitable for such conditions
of soil; particularly note what kinds of
crops are grown this season so as not
to plant the same kind year after year
in the same ground, such kinds as on-
ions. lima beans, and a few others ex-
cepted, but be very particular about
cauliflower and cabbages, or else the
maggots or club roots may prove un-
usually bad. More than one kind of
the same variety of vegetables is plant-
ed. therefore note what kinds grow
,est -witit yotu and stick to it. inuder-
Si;ll4lilig llei right treatilmllit it" lon I
kilil aind ltw it grw it w ll. Is 1 lol.i-.
lil 1l l i i ,t s.: v r |l'r Vr w'.* iile if.- nit you ill IItl Il. TRi-
lliili fan n mt trll "r ove 'ry-
thing to memory and that you are lap
to forget what you wish to keep. Note,
taken at the right time will be useful
to you in the future; I have now in
my desk tile records of past years, and
I have been glad more than once each
Pllo(ll to misult then. They are al-
ways a great help to me. 1 know that
there are many gardeners who would
not take the trouble, but, brothers of
the craft, let me say right here, that it
would be better for you to dq it; try it
for one season and you will be well
pleased with the results."

Substitute for Paris Green.
Owing to the high price of Paris
green many attempts are being made
to find a poison which will equal Paris
green in the poisoning property but at
less cost. A preparation consisting of


arsenic and salsoda is recommended by
Prof. H. E. Van Deman which he
claims is much cheaper and more effec-
tive than Paris Green. The method of
preparation is as follows: "Procure
such an amount of white arsenic and
fiali,(dli as nay be needed in the pro-
portion of four pounds or lump sasiuida
for every pound of arsenic. Put these
in one gallon of water, or in that pro
portion and boil for fifteen minutes
when they will be thoroughly dissol-
ved. There is no danger of being pois-
oned by tie fumes while boiling the
liquid. Put it il a jug or other vessel
that may lbe tightly corked and label
"poison" in such a way that all can see
it who handle it. It is then ready for
use at any time, and will not settle or
change in any way by keeping. One
gallon of it will cost not to exceed 20
cents, and has a poisoning power equal
to two pounds of the best Paris green,
and when the two are compared, as to
their settling, there is another doubling
of the advantage in favor of the liquid.
When te time comes te e o use it, meas-
sure out two quarts of the liquid for
every pound of Paris green that would
ho rotiuirod. For this amount of the
itlamll n -e or al pounds oa? innc ahouid
be slaked and dissolved in about 200
gallons of water to which the poison
should be added. This will not injure
the foliage because of the addition of
the lime. and will kill all insects that
eat it, when sprayed upon trees or
crops of any kind. If the arsenic is
added to bordeaux mixture it will not
be necessary to use the lime. because
there is sufficient in the bordeaux mix-
ture to counteract the caustic effect of
the arsenic."-Texas Stockman.

A Uook Ahead.
Florida stockmen must n5t imagine
that the Cuban market is going to last
forever. Competent judges, who hav@
visited the Cuban ranges, are of the
opinion that in four or five years, per-
haps less time, Cuba will be restocked.
and will be a shipper instead of an
importer. The Cuban inland ranges
are rich In sweet grass, well watered
and healthy. Cattle there breed and
fatten rapidly. The climate especially
suits Florida stock, and those that are
now being brought In will multiply
fast.
Before the last insurrection, that
ended in the Spanish-American war,
broke out. Cuba had re-stocked the
ranges that had been stripped bare by
the series of previous insurrections,
and had just begun to export beef. A
few shiploads came to Tampa. and
steers weighing a thousand pounds sold
there for less than ten dollars. Against
such competition as that the Florida
stockman must guard. He must make
hay while the sun shines, for one
tiling, and not hold on imprudently to
his surplus cattle, and, for another
thing, he must build up markets else-
where. He must breed up his cattle.
and study the problem of putting more
meat on them. He must also take up
the question of cold storage and trans-
portation. Everywhere it Is dawning
on the Florida farmer's and stockman's
mind that Florida is naturally an ideal
stock country, in grass, in climate and
in water: but it will remain undevel-
oped unless ways and means are de-
vised to utilize these animal products s
abroad. While the stockmen are rak-
ing in the dollars of today, they hhd
Irtl"tr think if the nee'is of tlom'rrow.


Oovernlment Protection of Birds.
Winil'i ;I. ai preve'niv' o,f ilfsectt l~csi
in gaud lonlud orchard aret yearly bro
coining better appreciated. An ex-
change calls attention to the fact that
a; new law for the protection of birds
and certainly wild animals has gone
into force. Its provisions are thus de-
scribed:
The first two stotiona of the hill give
the Secretary of Agriculture large pow-
ers in introducing and distributing ani-
mals and birds in various parts of the
country and prohibiting the importa-
tion of such as he may believe harm-
ful. The other three sections are di-
rected to the prevention of the killing
of birds and small animals. The third
section prohibits any common carrier
from transporting from one State or
Territory to another the dead bodies or
parts thereof of any wild animals or
birds killed in violation of the ll ws of
the State or Territory in which same


were killed. Section 4 provides that
"all packages containing such dead ani-
mals, birds or parts thereof, when ship-
ped by interstate commerce, as provid-
ed by Section 1 of this act, shall be
clearly and plainly marked, so that
the name and address of the shipper
and the nature of the -olttMlB8 llBmy De
readily ascertained on inspection of the
outside of such packages." Heavy
penalties are provided for violations of
either of these provisions.
Section 5 makes It- Impossible to
evade State laws with the pretense
that the game served is imported, plac-
ing all imported game under the opera-
tion of State laws s as soon as t reaches
a State.
It is hoped that this law will be more
effectual in preserving our insectivor-
ous birds than our State laws have
been.

Florida's Financial Condition.
We doubt if there is a State in the
Union that can make a better financial
showing than Florida. During the
years that one of her greatest indus-
tries has been cut off she has contin-
uled lIto rinur hur hnlorli,-lo ra 2 aB4.
now has only a little over one million
outstanding. At the present rate of re-
duction the years would see the State
debts entirely liquidated. The follow-
ing is the treasurer's report:
State of Florida,
Treasurer's Office,
Tallahassee, July, 1900..
During the past two years $200,000
of the public debt of the State has
been paid from the general revenue
fund by taking up the notes for $200.-
000 which were issued by authority of
the Legislature of 1801, chapter 4018,
laws of Florida.
These notes were bearing interest at
the rate of 5 per cent. per annum and
their payment and cancellation have
saved the State $10,000 per annum in
interest, besides reducing the debt of
the State $200.000. This has been done
without an increase of taxation, but on
the contrary the State tax levy was
reduced below the levy authorized by
the Legislature one-half mill for 1898
and one-half mill for 1900. Besides
paying off this $20,0,00 indebtedness.
with $10,000 per annum Interest, the
general revenue fund is now sufficient
to meet the general expenses of the
State and to pay the expenses of the
next Legislature, which latter will re-
quire about $75,000.
Public debt of State July 1st, 1900:
Florida bonds in common
school fund ..........$ 578,900 00
Florida bonds in Agricultur-
al College fund ...... 135,800 00
Florida bonds in Seminary
fund ...... ...... ..... 97,700 00

Amount of State bonds held
by State educational
funds ...... ... ..... $ 812,400 00
Florida bonds In hands of
individuals ......... 220,100 00

Total indebtedness of the
State of Florida .......$1.032,500 00
Balance sheet State funds:
General revenue fund ..... $153,312 77
Pension tax fund ........ 38,585 38
Tax certificate fund ...... 10,333 83
State Board of Health fund i83 01
Bonds of 1873, sinking fund 533 02
Bonds of 1871, sinking fund 38 71
S-r i,.7n t 7"'


Horse Talk.
A w i li ".i s.l l in ite tl' ,ellr 'ia l .if
hurae it a tar. Atu white fr- from eve
to eve is a bald face. A white stripe
in the face is a blaze. A stripe be-
tween the nostrils is a snip. A white
eye is a glass eye. A horse has pas-
terns, not ankles. White around the
top of the hoof is a white coronet.
W'hit htelo iUH listnu Joint is a
white pastern; above the pastern. a
white leg. The croup is that part of
the horse back of the saddle: the fore-
arm that part of the leg between the
elbow and the knee; and the elbow is
the joint of the foreleg next above the
knee, and next to the horse's side.
When a horse forges he strikes the toe
of the fore foot with the toe of the
hindl one; this is sometimes the result
of bad shoeing. A hand. the term com-
monly used in telling of the height of
a horse. is one-third of a foot-four
inlmes.-Farm and' Ranch.










THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST. 4W0


Great Track Gardme.
Writing under the caption "The
World's Largest Truck Gardens," and
describing th development and extent
of the industry in California, Mr. John
E. Bennett in the Cosmopolitan says:
The production of common garden
vegetables on great sweeps of hundreds
and thousands of acres, such areas de-
voted wholly to a single species, is one
of the most remarkable as it is one of
the most extensive of the recent indus-
trial developments of California.
It is noteworthy that the output of
these farms does not enter, to any but
the slightest extent, into local con-
sumption. The cities of Califorals
are supplied with their vegetables by
Chinese and Italians. The big bean-
grower is a grower for export. The
great pea man bottles his product in
green vials, labels it "Petits Pois Fran-
cais" and ships it to the ends of the
world. The man with lettuce gathers
his crop in the three winter months,
loads it a car at a time, and sends it to
Chicago and New York.
Indeed, the big vegetable grower is a
product of several conditions. The first
of these is climate; the second, soil, and
the third, location. Considering these
inversely, it is because California has
railroads on the east and an ocean on
the west that it is possible to get the
product to market. Fifteen years ago,
before competing railroads and steam-
ships came. the big grower's advent was
not possible. The reduction of freight
rates by land and sea, despite combines
to resist reduction, is what has brought
him into existence. Then the fact that
California possesses such a variety of
soils and climates, induces the growth
on a large scale of particular strains.
local peculiarities making it so highly
profitable to grow a particular thing
that other things planted on the same
soil become unprofitable when com-
pared with it. Thus the district about
Orange county has shown itself to be
so superior as a celery region that noth-
ing else is raised there. The soil is
peaty and the cultivated area is about
eight thousand acres. Over all this ex-
panse there is an apparently endless ar-
ray of deep ridges and high mounds.
making long lines in the black soil. the
elevations fringed upon their crests with
a stripe of green, feathery, delicate tint
telling of the stalks of celery which
stand buried beneath.
Three hundred dollars per acre is the
annual return from a farm of celery, and
he who has a hundred such acres may
be assured of profits which will impress
him with the feasibility and success of
vegetable farming on a large scale.
Beans, however, would not give such
returns on celery land. They would
grow, to be sure, but they would not
be profitable as a large farming invest-
ment. This legume requires a light
loam, for it draws most of its moisture
from the atmosphere. It is, therefore.
planted on the sea coast, and in a large
part of Ventura and Santa Barbara
counties beans alone are produced.
From the time the crop is sown until it
is gathered it does not receive a drop
of rain. The ground is opened with the
plow as soon as the crop is out, and
is permitted to lie fallow through the
winter and absorb water during the
whole of the rainy season. As soon as
this is over, which is in April, the cul-
tivators are rrn over the ground, after
which it is sown. the seed being drilled
in a.: is wheat. The ground ha.s enough
moisture t., -;tart the seed and bring
the plant a nldve the ground. alter which
it i.s watered solely by the heavy oceanl
iogs which roll over that part of the
country. No poles are used. the vines
being permitted to run over the ground,
and as a result the leaves soon cover
the surface and protect the soil from ex-
cessive 'evaporation.
On the peat lands of the Sacramento
river many large farms exist, and the
soil and conditions have proved them-
selves adapted to several products.
These lands are the most peculiar in the
State. They consist of reclaimed
swamps in which grew a strong reed
called tule, and for thirty feet below
the surface they are a compost of the
decayed stems of tule and other aquatic
vegetation. These lands are. by the
river's courses, cut into islands varying
from mere mud banks to stretches of
sixty thousand acres. A number have
been surrounded by dikes to prevent
ingress of the river, and the inclosed
water has been pumped out by engines


built upon the lands and maintained for
that purpose.
Upon these areas many of the great
vegetable growers have their farms.
Here are vast asparagus fields, wide to-
mato ranches and endless cabbage
lands with their big knobs of heads ta-
pering away in the distance to become
mere buttons. Great fields of salsify,
or oyster plant, are spread here, and
one might walk a day without putting
foot on any ground but that which con-
tains an onion.
Successful results in growing these
vegetables on such a scale are made
possible only by the employment of the
wonderful agricultural machinery that
of late years Yankee ingenuity has de-
vised. Throughout the work of bean-
growing there is no hand labor. The
ground is broken up with gang plows
and stirred with sulky cultivators, and
the beans are drilled in by horse power.
The vines are reaped with a reaper.
loaded on a header wagon, carried to a
dump pile and threshed out with a
thresher worked by an engine. Down
among the celery banks the rows are
run by horse power, mounds are raised
by special apparatus and the cutting is
almost the only thing left to be done by
hand. In the green pea fields the peas
are drilled in Iikt cerin. The vines are
cut with a reaper which runs its knives
two inches below the tops of the rows
and severs the roots. A specially de-
signed wagon drives over them and lift-
ing the vines tenderly up, carries them
to an elevator which takes them to the
top floor of a building. Here they are
turned upon rollers which burst the
pods and discharge the peas, which
come out of the establishment a corked
and labeled article of commerce, ready
to reach consumers through the stores.
On the asparagus plains, plants are cut
with reaping machines which snip off
the tender points, gather them into
sacks and drop them along the rows like
harves-ers.
So too with the other vegetables that
are farmed on a large scale: the fingers
of machinery deal with them exclusive-
ly.
But along with the cannery and the
bottling works has come another valua-
ble device, whose employment has
greatly helped the large ranch-this is
the drier or evaporator. Evaporated
vegetables are a staple of recent date.
The first impulse to this trade was ob-
tained from the Klondike rush. The
trade expanded, not only to Alaska but
to Asia; 'ind now whole shiploads of
these products leave San Francisco
bound to the Arctic and the far East.
They feed the soldiers in the Philip-
pines, the railroad builders in Manchu-
ria and the surveying companies in va-
rious parts of China.
Not less interesting and remarkable
are the flower farms, These, like the
vegetable ranches, have their raison
d'etre in excellent shipping facilities.
As a rule they are smaller than the
vegetable areas, but many of them are
a mile in extent. A favorite product is
the calla lily. This is in great demand
during the holidays and at Easter, in
the churches of the East; the plants are
cut at the bottom of their long stems,
then wrapped in wet tissue paper, and
so packed they are sent through on
express time. Some flowers, like the
sweet pear. are pulled while the buds
are vet unopened, and packed with wet
-slonge~s around their stems they get
thro~ih while thle lossohms are resh i.
I(lher fl,,wcr-. a r. c-arnations amid rocs.
are ,rnite easily slhiltd. anlt mduless de-
layed Iy accident invariably cross r the
continent with their freshness still oi
them. It has been demonstrated that
California can, with her broad acres.
compete with the hot-house flowers of
the East, and the flower farms of this
State are destined to occupy a high
place in the coast's material assets. The
open-air flowers are much superior ini
strength, beauty and durability to the
hot-house product, and where they can
be obtained are much preferred.
In brief. California has introduced to
the world new field crops. Agriculture
has been expanded to produce un-
dreamed-of results. The devotion of
vast areas to one product-is necessary
because of the use of machinery and the
inability to one sort of machine to work
another crop than that for which it was
designed. New localities in the State
suited to the growth of special strains
will be opened up, transportation will
become cheaper, and the entry of the


United States into foreign markets will
bring ever new and larger demands.

Treatment for Hardpan.
Recently we reproduced an article
from the Farmer and Fruit-Grower,
written by a Bradford county corre-
spondent, on hardpan and its forma-
tion. Below will be found another ar-
ticle of this series treating on the ef-
fects of hardpan on crops and the rem-
edy.
If the hardpan everywhere touched the
top soil, no retention of water would
take place, if access were provided for
surface water. Spots of soil, between
the basins are good, but above the hard-
pan basins the land is poor and some-
times even barren, because the soil in
these hollows, up to the surface, is only
white sand or quicksand. After rains
this stratum is soaking wet for a long
time, and with stagnated water, too. It
rots those roots of crops which reach
it. In dry spells what roots have gone
down into it again perish for want of
moisture; for, indeed, If any capillary
attraction could exist in that pure sand,
there is no supply of water, for the
hardpan can hold' no more than just
enough to fill its minute interstices. The
above described circumstances explain
the puzzling phenomena of good and
bad spots in every acre of pine land.
We come now to the last question.
How to ameliorate those evils, how to
level the hardpan stratum in order to
destroy the basins, or how to tap the
basins, how to soften them so that roots
may penetrate them, how to give them
larger pores for water storage, and
how to improve the quicksand.
Before I answer these queries, let me
present a few facts bearing directly upon
the subject which have come under my
own observation:
i. Wells dug where the hardpan was
so low as to be always below the water
line, furnished for the first two or three
years water that was unfit for use.
Though having no bad taste it was dark,
but got clearer all the time, and finally
became as good as any.
2. In ditches sunk through the hard-
pan, their walls and bottoms, although
at first very hard, became after some
time so soft as to yield to the spade
like surface soil, and allowed crawfish
to inhabit them.
3. In digging for various purposes in
land cultivated five to ten years, al-
though without doubt originally con-
taining both hardpan and quicksand.
none such was found. All the subsoil
was of a yellow color, inclined to gray in
Dlaces.
4. In orange groves where the trees
were set upon mounds and the furrow
slices thrown toward them all the time.
and the plow got deeper into the sub-
soil by two inches or so, midway be-
tween the rows at every successive
plowing; in the beginning, every time
the plow struck hardpan it was difficult
to hold it in the ground. But this part
was rendered less hard each succeeding
time, although it ought to have been the
reverse, as hardpan gets more stubborn
the further it is below the surface.
5. Hardpan thrown out from ditches
soon gets as mellow as any soil.
In the first of the above examples it is
conclusively shown how drainage alone
is sufficient to mellow hardpan. As
soon as part of the clogging and ce-
menting humans is washed out, it gets
mellow enough If the stumps. at least
the larger ones. are extracted with the
sitiinippnller atld the holes left open lr
a half-year -,r sE,. i e hardpan will Ie
c,.insideralhly iiipr.,veil. The liiiting -4
the stump i' .;o gradual that the shorter
roots, starting from the taproot, are
often pulled out entire; if not. they are.
near the stump, drawn upward several
inches before they break. A stump-hole
perhaps ten feet deep will create a con-
siderable hydrostatic pressure or "head"
for the water in the ground: and the
water, aside from carrying along the
fine particles in the hardpan will cause
the walls of the hole to cave and thus
to relieve the pressure on the hardpan
for some distance around.
All the other examples show that
drainage and relief from pressure soften
hardpan. In the second example, the
drainage of walls and bottom, the forc-
ing or crowding nearer together of the
walls and the rising of the bottom ease
the pressure and allow the clogging
substances to pass away. In the third.
fourth and fifth, relief from pressure
shows beneficial results. The top soil
does not get lighter from stirring; but


while it, when unbroken, presses every-
where, plowing makes the points of
bearing fewer, increases the weight of
some points and makes it nothing at
others. When we walk on thin ice upon
a shallow pool, the ice will sink under
qur feet and break and rise up all
around them. Likewise, hardpan will
sink at the points of bearing and rise
where there is no pressure.

Bad Drinking Water.-Every one
suffers greatly from the different kinds
of water he is compelled to drink, and
nothing is so likely to bring on an at-
tack of diarrhoea. Perry Davis' Pain
Killer is the only safe, quick and sure
cure for It, cramps and cholera mor-
bus. Avoid substitutes, there is but
one Pain Killer, Perry Davis'. Price
2 e. and 50c. 10

'Peach Leaf Curl.
The losses arising from peach leaf
curl frequently amount to several mil-
lions of dollars annually. For the
purpose of placing before the peach
growers of the United States the re-
sults of experiments conducted dur-
ing several years past for the preven-
tion of this disease, the U. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture has had prepared
and will noon issue Bulletin No. 20,
Division of Vegetable Physiology and
Pathology, entitled "Peach Leaf Curl.
Its Nature and Treatment."
The bulletin was prepared by New-
ton B. Pierce, in charge of the Pacific
Coast Laboratory at Sania Anna, Cal-
ifornia and it is believed that a wide
dissemination of the results obtained
by the experiments outlined In the
bulletin will lead to a large saving to
the peach industry. During the pro-
gres,; of the work over sixteen hun-
dred peach growers in all peach grow-
ing states were requested to test the
preventive lmeasires recommended.
A large nuilnber complied with the re-
quest and some of the more Important
results of their work are also given.
The bulletin is divided into eleven
chapters under the following heads:
Primary considerations relative to
peach leaf curl; nature of peach leaf
curl; history of the treatment of
peach leaf curl; plan of preventive
spray work conducted by the Depart-
ment; influence of sprays on the
vegetalon of trees influence of sprays
on fruiting of trees; preventive spray
work conducted by orchardists; pre-
paration, composition, and general
characters of sprays used; applications
of sprays; nature and source of spray-
Ing Inratrlal used; peach varieties and
nursery stock in relation to curl.
The conclusions reached are that
peach leaf curl may be prevented with
an ease, certainty, and cheapness rare-
ly attained in the treatment of any
serious disease of plants, and there is
no longer a necessity for the losses
annually sustained from it in the
United States.
The bulletin contains 30 plates and
10 text figures. An extra edition of
17..500 copies has been ordered by
Congress for distribution by Senators.
Representatives and Delegates in
Congress.

REWARD OF $100.
The reader of this paper will be pleas-
ed to learn that there is at least one
dreaded disease that scene has not
ien able to ce o in all its stages and
that Is Catarrh. Hall's Catarrhi Cure
is the onlyy positv-e cure nowt kilown
to the medical fraternity. Catarrh
being a constitutional disease, requires
a constitutional treatment. Hall's Ca-
tarrrh Cure Is taken internally, acting
directly upon the blood and mucous
surfaces of the system, thereby de.
stroying the foundation of the disease,
and giving the patient strength by
building up the constitution and assist-
ing nature in doing Its work. The pro-
prietors have so much faith in its cur-
ative powers, that they offer One
Hundred Dollars for any case that
it fails to cure. Send for list of testi-
monials.
Address, F. J. Cheney & Co., Toledo,
Ohio.
Sold by all druggists, 75c.
Hall's Family Pills are the best.









470 THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.


The Law of Selectlon.
The progressive hog raiser, he who
has learned that the largest possible
success from the industry comes from
the most careful attention to all the
many details of the business, has
learned to steer clear of the practices
or neglect that rarely ever fail to bring
disappointment and loss. This applies
with equal force to other lines of ani-
mal husbandry, but perhaps in no other
branch is the law of selection of heads
of herd so ignored as in that of swine.
If prices are high, valuable breeding
animals are often sold, and the own<,r
excuses the sacrifice by bringing him-
self to believe that they are too old, or
he may charge them with some misfor-
tune in farrowing, for which they were
in no way responsible. Many are ever
ready, says Mr. Louis in Farm, Stock
and Home, to condemn this or that
breed. There is claimed loss of vigor,
lack" of prolificness, want of thrift and
other faults that in nearly every in-
stance attach more to the two-legged
than the four-legged animal. And in-
stead of correcting the error at its
source, cross-breeding is resorted to, as
if crossing breeds would remedy de-
fects that result from poor selection of
breeders, bad feeding and poor care.
What hope is there for the average
breeder to improve by admixture when
he has failed to retain and improve
the good qualities possessed by the
breed of his choice that he got in its
purity? He had better leave the
making of new types to experimenters
who have the time and the means
for such work; and accept their work
only when they have demonstrated ab-
eolutely that they have attained a higb-
er degree of excellence. When one has
sows. of whatever breed, that are pro-
lific, that are good mothers, that far-
row from nine to thirteen pigs each at
a litter, no matter what their age is,
they should be retained and your fu-
ture breeding sows should be careful
selections from their Drogeny- Do not
condemn suen a sow f sometimes sIh
has pigs without vitality, some possi-
bly born dead, unless you know posi-
tively that her vitality and that of her
pigs was not impared by wrong feed-
ing or want of requisite care and shel-
ter at farrowing time. Selection does
not apply to an individual animal, but
to selection of food, shelter, cleanli-
ness, purity of air and other essentials.
Do not charge the sow for faults in her
keeper. Give her the care and food
that her artificial surroundings require,
and then if she proves desirable as a
breeder prise her highly, do not discard
her by reason of age as long as she is
desirable, and among her children will
$1 1uaaa Th mss mlfe fatai & sl1 i,
bring the most profit to their owners.
And do not select with a view to fan-
cy points, but to the characteristics
that go to make the good mother. The
editor is warranted by his experience.
In denying the assertion that pure bred
hogs have had vitality and fecundity
bred out of them, but he is ready to ad-
mit that in the hands of many breeders
results seem to confirm that conclusion.
But the cause has been suggested in
the foregoing. The"common-sense hog
the farmer wants is the one in which
the qualities of the approved breeds
are found, and those qualities can be
improved upon more rapidly and sure-
ly by a judicious selection of home-
grown dams than In any other way.
These thoughts are inspired by a visit
to a herd of twenty sows, sixteen of
which had farrowed with a total re-
sult of twenty-one pigs. With such re-
suits common, it is no wonder that
breeders are trying new experiments
and complaining of no profits in hog-
raising.-Prairie Farmer.


The Kafisas expeirimenlit Statfl6fi last 0
year tested various repellent mixtures o
and traps recommended for the pest. o
The flytraps are not effective, and most v
of the mixtures cost too much. The
following is recommended for cheap- f
ness, and though not entirely satisfac- o
tory, it is more effective than fish oil, f
which is one of the best applications, p
"Pulverized resin, 2 parts, by mea.-
ure; soap shavings, 1 part; water % n
part; fish oil, 1 part; oil of tar 1 part; b
keroene, 1 part; water 3 parts. Place h
the resin, soap shavings, % part of I
water and fish oil together in a recep- tl
tacle and boil till the resin is dissolved o
Then add the 3 parts of water follow- si


___ __ I _


ing with the oil of tar mixed with t
kerosene. Stir the mixture well a
allow to boil for 15 minutes. Wh
cool, the mixture is ready for use, a
should be stirred frequently while b
ing applied.
"The mixtures costs about 30 cents
gallon. From one-eighth to one pint
sufficient for one application. To app
the mixture, a brush is essential. V
find nothing more satisfactory than
old paint brush. At first it is well
make an application for two or thr
days in succession. Afterwards an a
plication every other day will suftti
Cows standing in water and mud, ru
ning through weeds and brush and ru
bing against trees, often remove son
of the mixture. In this case it is we
to retouch the unprotected parts.
is often more economical not to a
tempt to protect the entire animal, bi
only those parts not reached by tl
head or tail. This mixture is ver
sticky and for this reason is not recon
mended for horses. It Is perfectly
safe, and in no case has it appeared
detrimental to the health of the an
mal."
The station recommends fish oil als
It must be applied with a brush, 1-8
1-2 pint to each animal. It costs 32
35 cents per gallon by the barrel. Th
following application is recommended
for horses, applied with an atomize
not with a brush. The mixture cos
about 80 cents a gallon. One applic
tion lasts three or four hours or long
It does not gum the hair: Fish oil,
qts.; carbolic acid (crude), 1 pint; pel
nyroyal, 1 oz.; oil of tar, 8 ozs.; kero
sene 1 1-2 qts; or enough to mak
one gallon of the mixture.
The first mixture seems to be th
cheapest for cattle. At 30 cents a ga
Ion one application (one-third of a pin
costs 1 1-4 cents, and the cow, relieve
from the torment and constant battle
can devote her time to grazing an
milk secretion and will doubly pa
for the outlay.

Root Knot.-Ammonia as a Spray.
1. Can you give any practical remed
for the extermination of root-knot(an
guilluea)? What experiments, if any
have been made In the way of starvin
them out by planting only crops which.
they do not attack? The Alabama Ex
periment Station, some time ago, im
ported from Germany soil containing
bacteria calculated to destroy thi
pest. Do you know anything of the re
suit of this experiment?
2. Please name the best work o0
vegetable pathology, and where it cai
be obtained.
2, pa! ,7j Bs0 1s&. m t lasitam
fIr Z99D &UST 3 am olM t-al iwire niB
monia solution has been used witi
success on Terra Ceia Island.-J. R
Davis, Bartow, Fla.
1. We wrote to the Alabama Exper
ment Station and received the follow
Ing reply:
"Yours of June 20 has been handed
me. No bacterium is known that at-
tacks the root-knot nematode. Our re-
cent work with that pest is reported in
bulletin 107, pages 291-295, a copy of
which I send you.
"We have tried no experiments with
ammonia water spray. I see no pros-
pect that it will be beneficial.- F. S
Earle, Alabama Experiment Station,
Auburn, Ala."
The bulletin was received, and from
he pages noted we quote and con-
lense as follows: The root-knot nem-
atode worm(heterodera radicicola) oc-
urs on the roots of many plants in
he South, among them cotton.
Acting under the suggestion of Dr..
C. Neal, of Florida, in a bulletio
which the United States Governmet
published some years ago, kainit a d
ut resutilt. iBnone fae they wire t
n at a rate of 200 pounds to the acre,
n a plot of okra, but every plant de-
eloped root knot.
'Sulphur was used at rates varying
rom two to sixteen ponds per square
kra and cow peas. When more than
our pounds per square rod was ap-
lied the okra failed to germinate.
Vhere the heaviest applications were
nade, the fumes of the sulphur could
e detected easily, when the sun was
ot, at any time during the summer.
toot tubercles developed freely on
he plots receiving the heaviest dose
f suphur; it was ineffectual as an in-
ecticide.


he The bulletin continues:
nd "The only soil treatment that has
en proved at all efficacious in reducing
nd the numbers of this pest has been a
>e- perfectly clean fallow, continued I
through two growing seasons. Dur-
a ing the summer of 1896, certain plots akes short roads.
is were given perfectly clean cultivation,
il. no growth of any kind being allowed ,
Ve on them. I the spring of 1897, a por-
an tion of these plots were planted to
to okra and other vegetables. Root-knot
ee developed on all of them, but in only nd light loads.
p- about half the normal quantity. On
e. the other plots the clean fallow was
n- continued throughout the summer sea-
b- son of 1897, till September, when cel-
ne cry plants were set out on them. Cel-
ill ery is the most susceptible of all vege- for everything
It tables to the nematode root knot dis-
t- ease, but the plants remained entirely that runs on wheels.
ut free from the trouble. An absolutely
he clean fallow extending over two sum- Sold Everywhre.
ry mers is hardly a practical remedy on
a- account of the cost, and on account of mea by srWAwoNARD o L .
ly the injurious effect on the soil. Prob.
ed ably equally good results would be se-
li- cured by allowing only such plants to
grow on the land as are known to be
o. entirely free from the nematodes. plot with manure mixed by his hogs
to None of the grasses or small grains and cattle. He hauled muck and straw
to are known to harbor them, so by plant- and mixed them with barnyard man-
he ing to wheat, oats or rye in the fall ure where the hogs could root it; he
Ad and following with German millet or allowed the cows to run over it, and
r, sorghum in the summer, and contin- when they had thoroughly pulverized
ts uing this for two or three years, it, and mixed the mass, he carted it into
a- seems that the land should be quite' his pinery and applied it to a bed of
r. thoroughly cleaned of them. It would Iplants. These have made a marvelous
2 be necessary to take great care to keep growth of fruits and plants but the
i- down all succulent rooted weeds that, fruit grown on these animal manures
- might serve to harbor the nematodes. without potash was soft and unfit for
:e This style of cropping would prove shipment, and frequently rotted as it
very exhausting on moat 9 our cotton lay exposed for sale In the city stalls,
e lands, and on the lighter of them it He has his beds slightly elevated and
l- would not be practicable. It is unfor- along the margins he places pieces of
t) tunate that our best known soil im- timber to hold the edges from wash-
d proving plant, the cow-pea, should ing and he finds this a great advan-
e. prove a nurse plant for the nematode, tage, as otherwise the washing of
d but such is the case, and its frequent the rain would carry away the soil
y use cannot be advised on soils known near the edges, causing the plants to
to be infested by them." gr small frSm lass of naurichinK
2. An excellent work is Treat's In- soil. Where he has used this safe
jurious Insect of the Farm and Gar- guard, the outside row of plants are
Sden. We will sell you the book for $2. as fine as those in the middle of the
the regular price. Bulletin No. 19, beds. Someone may suggest that to
United Statds Department of Agricul- plant land where no bedding up is
g ture, Division of Entomology, is an ex- needed would be better, for then no
h cellent monograph, but not compre- wash could occur. This may be well
- hensfve enough, but as a matter of fact, Mr. Van Hou-
S3. Bordeaux mixture ranks first; ten's largest plants and finest fruit are
next are the ammoniated copper car- on his lowest ground, and these large
s bonate compounds. Prehaps the only plants produce twice as many suckers
- point of superiority of the Bordeaux as the smaller ones on the higher
mixture is that parts green or London ground.
n purple may be added, making it also To be sure, the lower ground is not
n an insecticide; but with the ammonil wet- for he has it underdrained thor-
cal copper conpounds they cannot. The oughly. The whole north end of his
Tendency of the Bordeaux mixture to ninory while bedded up la ior ? -
,I fll /1 I& namas imls dw 1an U11&4:- I iggill __ 5 5- 5RK iturafii Gon
Farmer and Fruit Grower. only surface drainage. His entire pin-
S. ery is supplied with irrigation -by
G rowing Pineapple Under Cover. _means of about 6,000 feet of pipe sup-
One of the most curious and inter- plied from a large tank standing near
- testing industries of the south is the the shed. This water supply is ob-
cultivation of pineapples under slat tained from a large well, twelve feet
sheds. El Modelo Park Pinery, the deep and twelve by twelve feet
. property of Mr. C. S. Van Houten. of square. This stands full of water all
- Orlando, is a demonstration of what the time, and when he wishes to water
may be done in this direction. His his pinery, he starts his fire in the fur-
favorite variety is Smooth Cayenne, nace of thft 20 horse-power boiler that
but he has also some Golden Queens, has a pulsometre pumping attachment.
Abakkas. Rothschilds, and a few oth- With this arrangement he can fill his
ers. His finest fruit has sold in the 10,00 gallon tank in about two hours.
North as high as ten dollars for a crate The tank stands high enough to give
of eight apples, each weighing from the water sufficient force for rapid dis-
eight to ten pounds, netting him after tribution through the pipes. He does
deducting freight and commission, not consider Irrigating indispensable
$1.03 per apple. This is the highest but thinks it very desirable in dry
price ever realized for apples in the weather.
North; but of course, such apples and The shed is made by placing on edge
such prices are exceptional. 15 foot joists, 2x6 on posts about 7
He has used many materials as fer- feet above ground, and standing about
tilizers, and while all have merits, he 14 feet apart one way, by 9 feet the
finds objections to some. The high other. These joists are lapped. Over
grade manures, while good are expen- Ithese joists, that extend east and west,
sive. He thinks cow-penning the best lare placed 1x3 slats eighteen feet long

Tis ie 18 uslng anQ lBen follows with tWeeni the slat, producing a semi-
a liberal application of bone-meal, shade that moves as the sunlight
blood and bone, or cotton seed meal, changes in direction, and distributes
and potash. Where it was not conven- the sunlight and shade evenly, so as to
lent to pen his cattle, he has given the give the plats the benefit of light with
land an application of cow manure an out burning.
inch or so deep and then covered that He finds the cold one of the greatest
with a mulch of corn stalks and grass, enemies to pineapple growing, and to
Where this has been done, the plants fortify himself .against this, he uses
are making a vigorous growth and the little paper pails that hold about
looking well. The plants on the cow- five pounds of powdered resin. v hen
penned portion are looking even better, filled he places them at Intervals of
This is doubtless due to the liquid man- of about thirty feet throughout his
ure that results from cow-penning. pinery. In case of a great fall of tem-
The dryer manure and mulch are perature approaching the freezing
slower to act, but may in time pro- point, he will light these resin pails
duce as good results. He tried one by inserting in the top of the resin, a






THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.


piece of cotton waste or excelsior sat-
urated with kerosene, and apply a
match. From the burning resin Issues
a dense cloud of smoke that covers the
pinery like a blanket and shuts out
the cold air. These palls when tlled1
and prepared costs six cents each, and
he keeps a relay of them ready so that
when the first burn out, he can slide
another into its place ad thus k ep up
the smoke. One pail will burn for
about two hours. Fifty protect an
acre in this way, and will cost $3.00.
G. J. P.

Meedlas aatu.
Much interest has always attached to
the fact that sugar cane is practically a
seedless plant. Notwithstanding the
fact that it arrows in the tropics, throw-
ing up a long tassel or panicle, bear-
ing seeds, these as a rule are imperfect
and will not reproduce the cane plant.
The rare exceptions that are now en-
gaing scientific attention in iomie
quarters of the tropical world are mat-
ters of great interest, but do not ma-
terially affect our main proposition.
We are led to these remarks from the
fact that the U. S. Department of Ag-
riculture has been making some ex-
periments with seedless plants, and be-
low we give the following remarks
thereon of the New York Sun, which
bring out very clearly these singular
qualities in some of our well known
plants. A careful reading of the same
will be of value to those interested in
the sugar industry, giving them a bet-
ter comprehension of the whole sub-
ject matter:
"Under modern methods of cultiva-
tion the seeds of our best varieties of
fruits can easily be dispensed with, as
they are of little practical value. Seed-
ling stock, raised from the wild or com-
mon varieties, answer the purpose as
well as the rare or choice trees, and
their usual combinations of hardiness
and virility influences the budded asi-
ons for good. Nature has already an-
ticipated horticulturists in dispensing
with the seeds and depending upon
other methods of propagation. The
banana, for instance, is a sccdless fruit
which nature has apparently changed
through some peculiar process. Rudi-
mentary seeds are to be found in the
fruit today. By slitting the banana
down lengthwise rows of the rudimen-
tary seeds will be exposed to view.
Undoubtedly at one time, in its primi-
tive wild state, the banana propagated
itself by means of seeds, but the use of
suckers for this purpose gradually
made the seeds of less and less value.
Following out the law of nature, the
seeds, becoming useless organs, degen-
erated. Occasionally a banana is found
that does propagate itself by means of
its seeds, or at least perfect seeds are
produced in the fruit which can germi-
nmtv, If for any reason the suckers of
this plant should fail to do the work
intrusted to them, it is not unlikely that
nature would reinstate the seed organs
and develop them gradually to their
really responsible position.
"The pineapple and cauliflower are
two other common illustrations of how
nature occasionally dispenses with
seeds. The pineapple is almost seed-
less, and, like the banana, its propaga-
tion is entirely by esekers. Tl Thi da
re in a low, rudimentary condition,
ut at one time they must have had
heir function to perform in life, and
they are capable, under stress of cir-
umstances, to renew their vitality.
he type would not be exterminated if
the suckers should fail to perpetuate
he plants. All the resources of the
plants would go to the assistance of the
needs to develop and vitalize them once
more. This has been found possible
y experiment. By selecting the pine-
ipple with the most promising seeds.
nd propagating them by the usual
process the seed organs have gradually
een developed until they are able to
produce their kind.
"The eggplant is more interesting
han either the banana or pineapple
here we have a fruit which is only
casionally seedless. That the seeds
re really immaterial to the welfare of
he plant is evidenced by the fact that
rfect fruits are often developed
whether the blossoms are fertilized or
ot. In the hands of the horticultur-
ata it would bc an easy matter to pro-
uce eggplants that would have only
he slightest trace of rudimentary seed
rgans, or vice versa, it would be im-
ssible to develop a class of fruits that


would be supplied with an abundance
of large full-grown seeds.
"Nature's hints, thus supplied in 4
few isolated cases, have been the op
portunities of man to raise a class o
seedless fruits. Sometimes it is merely]
a freak of nature that happens onlu
once or twice in a generation, and i:
the opportunity is missed the loss i!
treat. To this origin we owe our fini
California navel orange (Bahia) whici
is generally a seedless fruit, although
occasionally a few small seeds are to be
found in it. The navel orange was at
effort of nature to produce twins, bui
one of the twins aborted, merely sur.
giving as a protuberance in the blos.
som end of the orange, a little kernse
enveloped in the skin, which close
resembles a human navel in appear-
ance. In the effort to produce a mon-
strosity the seeds were apparently
neglected. By taking the scions of this
fruit tree and grafting them on seed-
ling stock we have practically estab
linlo a sgeedless range, It is, furthie
more, remarkable because of its excel-
lent quality and size. Usually the
freaks of nature produce fruits that arc
not very good. Thus quite a number
of apple trees have been produced, th
fruit of which is nearly or quite 'seed-
less. Their origin has been largely the
same as that of the navel orange. They
are generally abnormalities, and they
are often called bloomlesss,' because the
blossoms have no petals and sometimes
lack stamens. Their appearance and
quality are not such as to recommend
them to the general consumer. The
core is small and insignificant, but the
shape is peculiar and the flavor poor.
"But seedless apples and pears of
good quality may yet be propagated,
and gardeners are working toward this
end. Recent new varieties show great
improvements over those first pro-
duced, and in the course of time care-
ful culture and selection may brine
about the desired results. How much
the culture, iclcction and environment
have to do with the proper development
of the fruits is apparent in the case of
seedless currants at Corinth or the
Sultana grapes of Southern Europe.
These were suppoacd to have been as
full of seeds as any other fruits far
back in history, but successive years of
culture and selection eliminated the
seeds and improved the quality of the
fruits. How the culturists first got
their hint of seedless fruits is not
known, but it is reasonable to believe
that they took advantage of a freak of
nature which produced a vine with
fruits that had very few or no seeds.
"Experiments are now being made in
California with the famous Muscat
grape of Alexandria (Hanepoot). This
famous raisin grape would be greatly
enhanced in value if the seeds could all
be eliminated. Considerable progress
has been made in this direction by se-
lecting cuttings from vines which pro-
duce grapes with less than the normal
number of seeds. Several smaller va-
rieties of seedless grapes have been in
existence for many years, but most of
them are inferior in some way to the
best raisin grapes raised for market.
Seedless fruits will be a success only
when, in addition to maturing without
seeds, the size and quality of the fruits
will be equal or superior to the best
varieties in the country. That is thf
essential reason why the navel orange
is the greatest success of modern hor-
ticulture."
Putting food into a diseased stomach
is like putting money into a pocket
with holes. The money is lost. All its
value roes for nothing. WVhon thlo
stomach is diseased, witl the allied or.
gans of digestion and nutrition, the
food which is put into it is largely lost.
The nutriment is not extracted from it.
The body is weak and the blood im-
poverished.
The pocket can be mended. The
stomach can be cured. That sterling
medicine for the stomach and blood.
Dr. Pierce's Golden Medical Discovery,
acts with peculiar promptness and
power on the organs of digestion and
nutrition, is is a positive cure for
almost all disorders of these organs.
and cures also such diseases of the
heart, blood, liver and other organs as
have their cause in a weak or diseased
condition of the stomach.
Good Example.
If farmers were more willing to fol-
low a, good example, to imitate the
plans of those who make a success of


their farming operations, it would be
a great benefit to them. One would
think that any farmer who had a neigh-
bor who made a success in all the work
he undertook, who never failed to get
a good stand of clover, whose wheat and
corn were up to the maximum yield,
whose animals were always healthy and
whose cows were great money-makers,
would watch him closely and imitate
his example as nearly as possible. Such
is certainly the rule among business
men, says Journal of Agriculture. Ev-
ery business man in town, whether only
selling or manufacturing goods, is cer-
tain to be imitated as soon as his suc-
cess is demonstrated. Such a thing is
not ao safe with a business man as with
a farmer, because it may result in over-
doing the business, although it very
otfen happens that the imitators are very
successful, too. But in farming a good
example does not usually carry any
danger of overproduction. The really
important thing to consider in any sort
6f fairning i0 tl produce the largcas and
best and surest crops at the least ex-
pense of labor. That is the thing that
is vital to the profit of the business, and
that is wherein the intelligent, business-
like farmer excels the slipshod, unthink-
ing one, and it is what enables him to
make more money and get more out of
life than the other fellow. All this is
indisputably true, and we know of a few
scattered farmers whose methods are in-
finitely better than their neighbors' and
whose success is far greater; who have
nicer homes, better educated children
and larger bank accounts; and yet their
neighbors, knowing all these things, do
not watch and study their plans and try
to do likewise. It does not matter
whether it is due to envy, jealousy, or
what, certainly such conduct is emi-
nently foolish. The wise man learns all
the good he can from everything he
sees; he copies even his worst enemy
if he can do it to his own advantage.
A good and successful farmer ought to
be the beot liked man in any Beighbor-
hood, and all who want to succeed best
ought to be thankful that they have so
good an example to follow. Of course
to make the greatest success a farmer
must be a thinker, a student and experi-
menter as well as an imitator, but it will
save a great deal to learn as much as
possible from the experience of others.
Moreover, the man who follows the best
example is sure to do a great deal of
thinking on his own account.


A New Celery Farm.
W. L. Van Duzor recently sold thir-
ty-three acres of muck land adjoining
his farm on the lake .to a celery com-
pany composed of Illinois parties, and
is now having the land ploughed and
prepared for cultivation.
The crop will be raised by the Jor-
dan Bros., who are considered experts,
and are among the largest celery firms
In the United States. One of them was
down here in the spring and selected
this tract as being well adapted to cel-
ery growing. Previous to coming here
he examined lands near Sanford and
at other points but they have now
bought.
Thirty acres in celery will mean the
employment of thirty hands, and an
expenditure of ten thousand dollars.
They will ib downi Beptemer lot--
Kissimmee Gazette.

A Kansas editor who is good in fig-
ures has made some calculations and
finds that if a man grew as fast in pro-
portion as a silkworm he would be big-
asr than aBB s81hant In twf mseths,

If he could navigate as fast in propor-
tion as the average housefly, he could
cross the Atlantic and get back in time
it takes to eat breakfast. If he has as
many eyes in proportion as the butter-
fly. he would have 40,000, to say noth-
ing of an extra pair in his head for sky
lights. If lie could spring as far ac-
cordingly as a spider, he could jump
over the tallest tree in California and
it wouldn't bother liim in the least.
Man isn't the whole thing after all.-
Exchange.


Exposure in the Army."

Disease Cotrated while In the Army
Menaced the Laf of Olver salmon,
paved by Dr.WillHamn' Plak Pil
fr Pale People.

Though more than a quarter of a century
hs3 clapped siace the Civll War, the echoes
of that terrible struggle are still srried to
us through all the intervening time.
S Many a valiant
." man survived that
conflict but to be
r plunged into another
no lemssevere. From
the ba ttle i and
camp grounds there
sprung up a foe to
Sharrm thousands of
oldies for the rest
of their lives. Di-
ease brought on by
^ her.thii aMd saw-
sure fstened itself
PFbring a Mrea with an almost re-
lentless grip even upon throe of the most
rugged constitution.
ifr. Oliver Salmons, of Glenfeld, Lewis
Co., N. Y. a veteran, of Company K, of
the Fifth New York Heay Artillery, has
reached the advanced age of80years ad s
enjoying the beat of health, but to Dr. Wil-
liams' Pink Pills for Pale People he owes
both his health and longevity. He eame
out of the war with a weakened constitution
and for twenty years suffered terribly from
rheumatism, which led to other complica-
tiUos that threatened his life and it wasu at
this critical time that the tide of disease was
turned. The story as told by Mr. Salmons
himself follows:
"Twenty years ago I was taken with rhen-
matism which was induced by exposure
while in the army. Later this trouble was
complicated by diabetes and my suffering
was intense. There was an excruciating
pain in my shoulders and limbs, also a dart-
ing pain in my back. I could'not sleep or
work on account of the pain.
"I was under the care of physicians and
took their medicine, employing four differ-
uit doetora, but the treatment did me no
good.
"About two years ago a friend living at
Greig recommended that I try Dr.Williams'
Pink Pills for Pale People and I did so. I
had taken the pills but.three or four days
when I found that the gave merelief. Th
rheumatic pains ceased and to my surprise I
found that the pills were also curing the
dinhetes. I took the pills for over year
and was entirely cured of both troubles.
"I am now 80 years of age but am strong
have a good appetite and feel frst-class, all
of which I attribute to the good qualities of
Dr. Williams' Pink Pills for Pale People."
(Signed) OLIVlB SALMONS.
Subscribed and sworn to before me this
6th day of February, 1900.
A. C. MIIL.X,
Justice of hs Peace
in andfor the County of Lewui
At all druggists or direct from Dr. Wil
liams Medicine Co., Schenectady, N. Y,
6A cents per box; 6 boxes, .60.


TH I-.imma

MvOWES
That wil kill
all the weeds
in your lawn.
If you keep
the weeds cut
so they do not
se t! 2D9f
and cut your
grass without
breaking the s eo Oeders of roots
the grass will c me thick and
weeds will disappear. Send for
catalogue.
THE CLIPP B W"LL IT
OLIPPER LAWN mOWIn 00.
Norristown, Pa.

ARTISTIC

MONUMENTS
EXECUTED IN.........
THE LATEST DESIGNS OF

MARBLE and GRANITE.


Iron pertaerfl - -
For cemetery and lawn enclosures
A rich lady, cured of her de&rfne-s and All work guaranteed. Prices reasona-
noises in the head by Dr. Nicholson's ble.
AintiAf l ar Drums. awve T10.ooW co t Correspond with
Institute, so that deaf people unable to
procure 'the Ear Drumns may have them EO* R. NICHOL8 & 00.
free. Address 1221c. The Nicholsoa In- 00W Harrison Street,
asttute, 780 Etghth Avenue. New York. TAMPA PLOIA


471








472 THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.


iPBTIZBZ DEPARTMENT.
All communications or enquiries for this de-
partment should be addressed to
FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST,
Fertilizer Dept. Jacksonville, Fla.

Our New Department.
There is no one subject that is of
more interest to the fruit raiser, vege-
table grower or farmer than fertilizer.
He annually pays out more for the
fertilizer he uses than for any other
one thing on his domain and he really
understands less about it than any-
thing else. It is the object of this de-
partment to give information along
this line, and to publish from time to
time, such articles as bear on this sub
ject and will be of use to the farmer
a d EgrOer, aIl elp th iemi to more
thoroughly understand the action of
different fertilizing materials and
chemicals, and to assist them in se-
curing what is best for their require-
ments whether in field, garden, grove
or pinery. Every number of the Agri.
culturist should be worth a year's sub-
scription and we hope our subscribers
will help us to disseminate this infor-
mation by sending us the names of
growers who are likely to be interest.
ed, so that we may send them a sample
copy, or better still, ask your neighbor
to subscribe and send your name with
a coupon an advertised in the last page
of the Agriculturist.

Editor Fertilizer Department,
Please answer the following ques-
tion:-Is nitrogen obtained from NI-
trate Soda, say 500 pounds per acre.
injurious to pineapple plants? J. C. II.
St. Petersburg, Fla.
That would depend on how you ap-
plied it. If you spread it broadcast
over the plants, the Nitrate would burn
and spot the leaves. If you applied it
under the leaves and not close to the
plants it will do them no harm, but
cause them to put on vigorous growth

Editor Fertilizer Department,
What do you recommend as the best
fertilizer for young pines, also fruit-
ing pines?
Thanking you in advance for this in-
formation, I am, F. A. S.
St. Petersburg, Fla.
The best results have been obtained
where Kentucky Tobacco Stems were
plowed in, at the rate of two or three
tons to the acre, about a month before
the young plants were set. After the
plants have started to grow. apply
Higll (4pl0 loourl and D nur anrl Ihsw
Grade Potash in the proportion of 1500
pounds of Blood and Bone to 500
pounds of Potash. As the plants near
fruiting time, you can apply Simon
Pure Pineapple with good results, or
you can continue the use of the Blood
and Bone, but the amount of potash
must be increased to 10 to 12 per cent.
which would require about 800 pounds
of low grade potash to the ton.

Editor Fertilizer Department,
I have Mome eleooe plum
trees that grow nice and In the spring
bloom very full but put on no fruit. I
thought I would fertilize them with
potash and ammonia from the fact that
my neighbor had one growing by the
side of the fowl house and it put on a
good crop of fruit, but this year has
none. I think it is because the hen
droppings have become exhausted. Do
you think you can fix me something
bettor? WIat amount would you nut
to the tree, and at WBit tiLme -o Kuu
the fertilizer be applied? If you will
give your opinion, I will be much
obliged. B. J. M.
Mimms, Fla.
We have tried to make the Kelsey
plum fruit but have failed. In South
Florida, it seems to flower pr ,fusely
and to drop IDrefgel'"- As y'ou are lo-


cated in a section where the Kelsey is
a shy bearer, your observation may be
of some service. We would suggest
that you apply ten pounds of High
Grade Blood and Bone and five pounds
of Low Grade Potash to the tree. Ap-
ply at once and again just before
lloomini time. If highly ammoniated
fertilizer will make a Kelsey fruit in
South Florida, many a person will be
glad.

Lime.-Its Function and Use in Agri-
culture.
The use of lime in agriculture has
been since the earliest times. Pliny
mentions the use of this by the people
of the Trans-Alpine Gaul also in Italy,
when it was used for manuring the
vine, olive and cherry. In the earliest
writings on agriculture in Bnitian
(1534), little mention is made of lime,
and we may conclude that it was little
used. It is not till much later that ex-
tensive mention is made of it, and at
the present time its use can scarcely be
said to be general, being more confined
to localities. Pussey says that lime is
considered indispensable on the west
side of England, and is generally found
useless elsewhere in that country.
On this subject of lime and its appli-
cation one finds many different opinions
expressed, and, as these are all the re-
sult of practical experience in each
case, one can perhaps account for these
differences when it is remembered that
lime may act in such a variety of
ways, bringing about the most com-
iIeiatr-d Vh2nseg in ways which are a.
yet not thoroughly understood.
Lime may be looked upon as a plant
food-and a necessary one, in so far as
it is found in the ash of almost all
plants, though when applied as a man-
ure it is principally used, not to supply
the plant with lime for its structure.
but on account of changes in effects.
which will be explained hereafter.
Perhaps, before proceeding further,
a short account of the chemistry of
lime might not be out of place.
Lime is a salt or compound of a met-
al calcium, the compounds of which
occur very widely distributed. One of
the principal of these is "lime stone,"
which is a more or less pure carbonate
(a compound of calium with carbonic
acid)
Other forms of calcium carbonate are
shells, coral, and earths known as
marls.
Other compounds of calcium used for
agricultural purposes. are "gypsum" (a
compound of -calicum and sulphuric
acid) and "gas lime" which is lime
which has been used in the gas works
to remove sulphurous and other im-
purities, and consists essentially of a
mixture of slaked lime, calcium carbon-
ate, and calcium sulphate.
When limestone is heated, it parts
with a gas carbonic anhydride, and
quick-lime (calcium oxide) is formed.
1'PLi pr688 18 Is grri out on a large
scale in kilns, where the heat from
burning wood is used to effect the re-
duction of the limestone to quicklime.
Quicklime has a great affinity or lik-
ing for water, and forms with it calci-
um hydrate or slaked lime. This ac-
tion is so violent that great heat is
produced.
Slaked lime has the power of combin-
ing, with gas, carbonic anhydride,
which is always present in the air,
forming calcium carbonate.
The changes of quicklime to slaked
lime and of slaked lime to carbonate
will occur in the soil when lime is used.
Opinion differs consileratldy as to the
class of land most benefited by the use
of lime, and also as to its application;
German writers urging its application
to heavy lands, while French writers
recommend its use on open light soils.
In many localities the use of lime has
been proportionate to the facility with
which it could be obtained, and as ex.
amples of the very great benefits de-
rived from the use of lime might be
ctt-a til. mis o" ihe iFnr n SN r rn"p
of Limousin, and, in what is perhaps
better known, the soils of Hawaii as
treated by Dr. Maxwell. In the appli-
cation of lime to soils one well-known
authority recommends that lime be
harrowed in and not ploughed, while
Professor Storer says that theoretic-
ally lime had better be ploughed in
than harrowed. The general practice


472 THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST


i.. I think, to harrow in, since the fact
that the lime will sink through the cul-
tivatable soil into sub-soil, or go off
in the drainage water, has been noted
by manu.
As to the quantity of lime to be ap-
plied, opinions and customs differ, but
heavy dressings, except in particular
cases, are now discouraged; the idea
being to anDly a lighter dressini- often-
er than a heavy one, at much greater
intervals.
In England, the old practice was to
apply 4 to 8 tons lime pet acre, though
in Derbyshire as much as 16 tons has
been applied. This application was
made about once in sixteen years but
the general practice seems now to be an
application of not more than 1 to 2
tons per acre every six years.
Instances have been recorded where
the practice of applying 6 to 8 cwt.
lime per acre, when the land has been
prepared for seed. and before sowing
the grain, has given most satisfactor
results.
From experiments made by Scott
and Morton, the application of lime is
recommended of from .05 to .50 (ac-
cording to circumstances) per cent. of
weight of the cultivated soil. Thus on
an average soil cultivated to a depth of
10 inches, an application of 1 ton per
acre would represent .05 per cent., and
10 tons per acre a dressing of .05 per
cent.
Hilgard recommends for lime-lov-
ing plants the percentage of lime
should be not less than .10 if soil be
light sandy; .25 if soil be clay loam;
.50 if heavy clay, and may adVantage-
ously rise to even 1 or even 2 per cent.
Beyond this last-named amount, it
seems in no case to act 6iofr faarably
than a less amount, unless it be me.
chanically.
West Indian authorities state that
good cane soil should contain .4 to .9
per cent of lime.
Paradoxical as it may seem, it is
none the less noteworthy that liming
oftener does good service on lands
which already contain no small quanti-
ties of lime salts.
It is stated by Hilgard that the gen-
eral effect of a large percentage of lime
on vegetation is to encourage a low
compact growth and increase fruitful-
ness, whilst a deficiency of lime in a
soil otherwise of good composition pro-
duces a thin growth and diminished
frultfulnes,. In support of this, the
low compact forms of trees in Western
California. Oregon, Nevada, and Ari-
zona are cited, due probably less to the
parching influence of of the sun than
to the high percentage of lime in the
soils.
Spring or autumn is recommended
for the application of lime. In decid-
ing which time is most suitable, it
must be remembered that rain exerts
a great leaching action upon lime salts.
as appreciable quantities of these are
found in the water from the field
drains. Recent investigations of Hei-
den show that nine time as much lime
was diOilred by walis trm .11 "imeld
at the rate of 14 tons per acre, as from
unlimed soil. The experiment was
made six months after the lime had
been applied.
The action of lime upon soils is part-
ly chemical and partly physical As
to the first lime has the power to lib-
erate certain insoluable and inert in-
gredients in the soil--potash, soda, etc.,
etc.,-which are of great importance
for plant foods. Fuchs and Zierl have
shown that If powered felspar be di-
gested with milk of lime, even at or-
dinary temperatures, much of the pot-
ash in the mineral will pass into water
and ito plimo ib taken hr lime, This
power depends on the chemical condi-
tion of the lime, caustic lime being
more powerful than any other forms.
Stoeckhardt has further investigated
this and has shown that caustic lime
attacks not only felspar, but also pro-
duced quartz, forming a hydrated sil-
icate of lime,.
Lime promotes the formation of dou-
ble silicates of alumina from the clay.
which in rbiaflry oSoem ?d oaf iloate of
alumina. A portion of tb illuminim egg
be replaced by the compounds of pot-
ash, soda, lime and ammonia, forming
these "double silicates," which act as
reserves of plant food. According to
the generally accepted theory, it is In
this form that'much of the available
mineral plant foods are retained.
Hilgard argues that the presence of


calcium carbonate in the soil must be
of great importance for maintaining
fertility because it promotes the form-
ation of the more soluble, called zeol-
ites. Lime decomposes vegetable mat-
ter. setting free the inert nitrogen
which may become available as pliaii
food. Lime might profitably be used
as an adjutant to green manuring, In
which case it should be well worked
into a field when freshly slaked. It may
be remarked that lime must not
be mixed with ammoniacal salts-for
example, sulphate of ammonia-since
a loss of ammonia will take place.
Lime combines with certain organic
acids which when produced in large
quantities, render the land what we
term "sour." By removing this sourness
by neutralizing these acids with lime.
the general conditions of such soils are
much benefited, and many of the forms
of plant life wnicn exist on such a
soil are killed out, their place being
taken by others of finer nature. Kill
ern has shown that lime sometimes
acts upon phosphates, making them
more readily available for plant food.
Regarding the physical action of lime
on soils, lime has the power of caus-
Ing the coagulation of small particles
of soil (clay), thus causing the forma-
tion of larger channels for the passage
or air and WAfT, AsR 1aa ME
prove this for himself by repeating the
experiment made by Schloesing, who
found that the extremely fine particles
of mud in a mud-puddle which will
not settle can be made to do so by the
addition of a little lime water. Though
some other salts will effect this clean-
Continued on Page 481.









THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST. 473


ILO&LA' DIrnM9wJN.
BY W. C. STrELE,


SWITZERLAND,


FLORIDA


Origin and Clasification of Garden

Under this title we find a long article
in Success with Flowers.
The Rose has long been considered
the "Queen of Flowers" and is given
high rank by all flower lovers. A cor-
respondent not long ago wrote that
In his opinion we could better dispense
with all other varieties of flowers than
the Rose. We could hardly endorse this
sentiment yet it is certainly one of the
most satisfactory, under all circum-
stances, that we have.
We give the whole article notwith-
standing its length on account of its in-
teresting and valuable information.
Almost all catalogues now classify
their own roses and give the name of
the class to which each variety be-
longs. By studying the following arti-
cle carefully you may learn which
varieties to order and which to leave
out.
None of the varieties classed as
"Summer Roses" are worthy of culti.
ovation in Florida. There is no use in
wasting ground to cultivate varieties
which bloom but once a year when
there are so many equally fine in every
respect, that will bloom almost con-
stantly the year through.
To these may also be added the Hy-
brid Perpetual, and the Hybrid climb-
ing as very few of them bloom satis-
factorily in Florida. All varieties of
"Moss Roses" may also be included
as none of them are worth planting
here.
"In response to the suggestion here
made some of the principal classes of
Roses are now noticed, giving their
peculiar characteristics. An exhaus-
tive discussion of the subject is not at-
tempted, as such a treatment of it
would be a woFk a oonsldorablo magnl_
tude, and would weary the ordinary
reader with information which only a
professional botanist or a scientific hor-
ticulturist would care to be acquainted
with. But the main distinctions or
garden classes that at the present time
are recognized or observed by Rose
growers and dealers are here described.
The fact that some kinds of Roses
bloom but once during the season, and
that others bloom for several months,
or at least have more than one period
of bloom, serves as a foundation for
the two great divisions, that of the
Summer Roses and Perpetual or Au-
tumnal Roses. The term "Summer
Roses" must be understood in a broad
sense-that is, it applies to those kinds
which bloom only once, and that early
in the season, in Spring or early Sum-
mer, according to latitude and climate.
In the northern part of this country
IUot of l ituC klints bloomn n tile
month of June, though some few kinds
may commence to open their flowers
in May, and at the South their best
season may be in March and April.
The term. also, Perpetual or Autum-
nal Roses" Is not fully explicit. The
members of this division are Summer
bloomers as well as Autumnal. Some
of them are GCntlnuoui bloomers-that
is, they are all the time making new
growth and forming buds and flowers
or at least with scarcely appreciable
periods of repose. The Chinese, Bour-
bon and Tea Roses have this quality In
the most marked degree. The dwarf
Polyantha Roses have sucesslve peri-
ods of rest and bloom, which are very
very marked.
The class called Perpetual or Hybrid
Perpetual is the one least deserving of
the name it bears. For the most part
the varieties in this group flower abun-
dantly in Spring or early Summer, and
then again very lightly in August, or
later. Some varieties bloom for a
Such longer time and more freely than
others, which show bloom a second
second time only in the most limited
manner. The term "Perpetual," as ap-
pliedt to this group, is an unfortunate
one. though now in pucb general usf
that It cannot be displaced. The term
remontant which Is employed by the
French, is far better having nearly the
signification of our word "re mount-
ing", indicating that flowers again or a
second time, appear upon the plants.
As already stated, it is not intended
that the classification here presented
shall be complete; but merely to in-


elude the more common groups or fam-
ilies of Roses.
Summer Roses.-Groups and sub-
groups. Austrian; Ayrshire; Brier or
Eglantine, Hybrid Brier; Hybrid Chi-
na; Moss; Prairie; Rambler, Wichur-
iana, Hybrid Wichuriana.
Autumnal Roses.-Groups and sub-
groups. China; Bengal; Tea, Climb-
ing Tea; Bourbon; Noisette, Hybrid
Noisette, Climbing Noisette; Hybrid
Perpetual. Hybrid Climbing; Hybrid
Tea, Climbing Hybrid Tea; Rugosa,
Hybrid Rugosa; Polyantha or Multi-
flora Tea Polyantha; Perpetual Moss.
Summer Roses.-Austrian Group.-
The yellow Roses of our gardens came
to western Europe, and so to us, by the
way of Italy and Austria, hence the
name of the group, though good au-
thorities consider that these varieties
are modifications of Rosa sulphurea of
some botanists, or R. lactea, of other-
a native of the region east of the Med-
iterranean extending to Persia. Tihe
leaves have from seven.to thirteen ov-
ate glaucous leaflets; plant grows from
five to ten feet in height. The Austri-
an Copper. Austrian Yellow, Harrison's
Yellow and Persian Yellow belong to
this group or family.
Ayrshire Group.-The garden varie-
ties of this group have been derived
from Rosa arvensis, a species native to
Great Britain and Europe. The plant
makes long, slender shoots that trail
on the ground or climb upon bushes or
tlhickets; leaves with five or seven leaf-
lets. Some of the principal varieties
Bennett's Seedling, Dundee Rambler,
Queen of the Belgians, Ruga and Vir-
ginia Rambler. These varieties are
used in England and Scotland to train
on walls and to trail over the ground.
covering rough banks. They are not
quite hardy in the northern portions of
this country and at the present time
are not much employed here.
Brier Group.-By the term "Brier"
is meant the Sweet Brier. which grows
wild in many Darts of this country,
hlavlng been introduced here from Eu-
rope. where it is a native. It is the
Rosa rubiginosa of botanists, and the
Englantine of English literature. The
plants make tall, strong shoots, hooked
prickles; leaflets five. rugose roundish.
double serrate, downy and with russet-
colored aromatic glanild on the under
side; flowers single pink. Within a
few yiars past a considerable number
of hybrid varieties of this Rose have
been produced by Lord Penzance. by
hybridizing with different varieties.
The plants are hardy, retain the Sweet
Brier odor of the foliage; flowers are
single or semi-double, of different col-
ors. white-blush white pale rose porce-
lain pink. crimson of different shades,
copper-tinted and fawn or ecru. They
are regarded as valuable acquisitions.
Hybrid China Group.-The French
in the last century had developed gar-
.In Ilo anoa Ieaon that of nn- otho,
European country, and possessed many
handsome varieties. The fundamental
stock of these varieties was a native
species. Rosa gallica, a native of mid-
dle Europe and the Caucasus. The
flowers vary from red to crimson. Un-
doubtedly this stock was more or less
hybridized with other native species.
and especially with the Provence or
Rosa centifolia. In 1788 the China
Rose, Rosa lindica, was brought to
Europe, and soon after commenced the
hybriding of the French Roses with
the Chinese, and early in the nine-
teenth century began to appear the hy-
lPi inl UiBLs 1 Be8o Wllllrl Wer 8uP
highly prized garden Roses in the
early part of this century. They were
large and double, of many shades of
color, and bloomed but once in early
Summer. Some of these varieties were
so good and satisfactory that they are
yet retained in cultivation, though the
most of them have been dropped to
give place to the Remontants or Hy-
brid Perpetuals. Coupe d'Hebe, Mad-
anie Plantier, Magna Charta, George
IV and Paul Verdier are examples of
this group which are yet prized and
cultivated.
Moug Roso G(roup.-The origin of the
Moss Roses is obscure, but those who
have given most attention to this
point have concluded that the first
Moss Rose was a sport from the Prov-
ence or Hundred-leaved Rose.
'Prairie Rose Group.-The varieties
of this group have been .derived from
our wild species, Rlosa settgera, a
climbing Rose found from Michigan


westward and southward to Florida
and Texas. Commonly called the
Michigan Rose. Leaflets from three to
five. flowers produced in clusters, about
two and a half inches in diameter, and
varying in color from blush white to
Rose. Queen of the Prairie and Balti-
more Belle are the best of this group
and are widely cultivated in this coun.
try.
Rambler Group.-The representative
of this family of Roses is the Crimson
Rambler, a variety now well known
and highly prized, though introduced
as late as 1893. It is a tall-growing
variety of the Polyantha family de-
rived from Japan; probably the result
of crossing or hybridizing, but its his-
tory is unknown. Unlike the low.
growing varieties of the Polyantha
group, it has but one season of bloom.
early Summer. The plant makes long,
strong canes, eight to twelve feet In
lenght; leaves with five to nine ovate-
dentate leaflets, mostly seven, smooth
and shiny on the upper surface; flow-
ers small, double and produced in large
clusters, brilliant crimson. Included in
this group are Aglala (Yellow Ramb
ler) Alister. Stella Gray. Euphrosyne
(Pink Rambler), Thalia (White Ramb
ler). Polyantha Duplex, Jean Ferron
Laura Davoust. Claire Jacquier.
Wichuraiana Group.- The Wichuraia.
na Rose was a few years since intro-
(uced from Japan. It is a trailing
plant, the stems being very slender and
flexible. Leaves evergreen, being re-
tained on the stems during Winter, five
to nine roundis-oval leaflets, deep
green, smooth and lustrous; flowers
about two inches across, single. white.
This Rose has received In this country
the popular name of Memorial Rose, on
account of its peculiar adaptibility foe
planting in cemeteries, to trail over
graves. By hybridizing this Rose witl
other varieties, Mr. W. Manda, of
South Orange, New Jersey, has pro-
duced some very beautiful varieties,
the plants of which are mostly very
mniilar to the Wichuralain buot tlil
flowers are larger, of different colors,
some single and some double. These
plants were first offered to the trade
in 1897.
Autumnal Roses.--China Group.--
This family is derived from the Rosa
indica. of ,indley. the common China
or Monthly Rose. The species has
blush or red flowers, numerous, ordin-
arily semi-double, blooming at all sea-
sons. Leaves shining, non-pubescent.
with three to five elliptical-acumin-
ate leaflets. crenulate-dentate, deep
green above and glaucous beneath. In-
troduced into Europe in 1789. This
species has numerous botanical varie.
ties. One of these, R. indica semper-
florens of Seringe, is the Bengal Rose
from which numerous varieties of hy-
brids have been obtained. Another, R.
indica fragrans is the sure o of the
TPa Rose.
Bengal Group.-Rosa indica semper-
florens, Seringe. This botanical varie-
ty is considered the original Bengal
Rose. Flowers purple or rose-colored.
medium size. double, inodorous; leaves
with narrow, lanceolate or oval leaf-
lets pointed and dentate. The old and
well-known variety, Sanguinea, is a
representative of this group.
Tea Group.-Rosa indica fragrant,
Redonte. The Tea Rose has rose-col-
ored or yellow flowers, semi-double,
very sweet scented, with a peculiar
tea-like fragrance. The rose-colored
variety was brought from China in
I1A) ao 110), ai tiW yuliloWflowtuwllt'l
form in 1824. and from these have been
derived the many varieties of this fam-
ily which we now possess. The Climb-
ing Teas form a subfamily of tills
group. Tile plants grow with long or
climbing stems.
Bourbon Group.- The Bourbon Rose
was brought from the Island of Bour-
bon. where it was found growing
among some seedlings that had been
raised for the purpose of forming a
hedge. It is supposed to be a hybrid
between Rosa indica and some variety
of R. gallica or of the Hundred-leaved
Rose.
Noisette Group.-The original Nols-
ette Rose was raised In Charleston, S.
C., by Mr. John Champeny and was
called Champeny's Cluster. It was a
seedling from the White Musk Rose.
fertilized by the bush China. Some
years afterward, a florist, Philippe
Nolsette, also or Charleston raised a
plant from the seed of Champeny's


Pink Cluster. This was a bush vari-
ety. and lie propagated it and sent
plants to his brother, Louis Noisette, of
Paris. France. calling it tie Noisette
Rose. This was about the year 1817.
One peculiarity of the plants of the
group is to bloom in clusters. Caroline
Marniesse is a well-known variety of
this group.
The Hybrid Noisette is a sub-family
of this group, formed by crossing be-
tween Noisettes and Bourbons. Co-
quettes des Alpes and Coquettes des
Blanches are examples.
The climbing Noisette is another sub-
family, the members of which have a
tall growing or climbing habit.
Hybrid Perpetuals or Remontants.-
This group, as at present considered in
the trade, consists of varieties of Hy-
brid Chinese. Hybrid Bourbon and the
French gardenRoses with the Damask
Perpetual. They have to a great ex-
tent the hardiness of the old garden
Summer Roses, with a tendency to
bloom twice in the season. The flow-
ers are large double, of a great vari-
ety of colors, more or less fragrant,
and for garden culture in northern re-
gions the most reliable and valuable of
all Roses.
Hybrid climbing is a sub-family of
the group in which areincluded vari-
eties of taller growing or climbing hab-
it,
Hybrid Tea Group.--he varieties of
this group are the result of crossing be-
tween hybrid Perpetuals and Tea vari-
eties. Very refined and beautiful Roses.
Climbing Hybrid Tea, sub-family of
the Hybrid Tea. containing varieties
with a climbing habit.
Rugosa Group.-Rosa rugosa is a
Japanese species introduced into Eu-
rope In 1845. It is a strong growing
plant, with large, single red or white
flowers; leaves with five to nine oval,
singly-dentate leaflets, which are
strongly wrinkled or rugose, as its
specific name implies. Flowers are
produced all through the Sunmer. and
are succeeded by large, deep-red fruits,
which are very showy. The plant is
quite hardy and is a valuable ornamen-
tal shrub.
A number of hybrid varieties of Ru-
gosa have been produced which are
valuable. The first of these was Mad-
amie George Bruant, sent out by a
French Rose grower, Bruant, In 188.
This was the result of hybridizing R.
rugosa with Sombreull, a Tea variety.
Madame George Bruant is a handsome
pure white fragrant Rose, produced in
clusters at intervals throughout the
Summer. Other French, German and
American growers have since originat-
ed and sent out valuable hybrid spe-
cies, and it is probable that this sub-
group will in a short time be greatly
enlarged and be highly prized for the
hardiness of the plants, freedom of
bloom and beauty and fragrance of
flnowrnl
Polyantha Group.-The Polyantha
Roses are derived from R. multiflora, a
species native of China and Japan, in-
troduced into European gardens in 1822
1822; a plant of climbing habit. The
Polyantha Roses of our gardens are
low-growing plants, sometimes properly
called Dwarf Polyanthas. They are
hybrid of the Multiflora with varieties
of Hybrid Perpetuals and Teas, re-
taining the remontant character of the
Multiflora stock.
By recrossing these varieties with
Tea Roses the continuous-blooming
habit han Irtn imfnia-trl and thun wr
have a sub-group of Tea Polyantha, of
which Clotilde Soupert and Pink Sou-
pert are fine examples.
Perpetual Moss Group.-A variation
probably accidental, of the Moss Rose,
with a remontant character.
In order to make a practical applica-
tion of the information here supplied
it is necessary to become acquainted
with or have a knowledge of the typ-
ical species, or at least some of the
most distinctive varieties of each group
and sub-group; to have them under
frequent observation, so as to have a
vivid impression of their various char-
acters. O0ly those who have large col-
leetions of Roses can hope to gain this
proficiency, but most Rose-growers
can. by continued and careful observa-
tion. form some very clear Ideas of the
principal family divisions, and this
knowledge will assist to some extent in
the culture, care and pruning of the
plants. C. W. S.








474 THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.


f Y had begun to think that their de-
rLlU AI9UGD IUYLIIT cliniug years would be only those of
peace and plenty. But alas, an unfore-
Entered at the postoffice at DeLand, Flor- seen calamity swept over our state and
ida, as second class matter. the patrons of wealth and happiness


E. 0. PAINTER & CO.,
Publishers and Proprietor

Published every Wednesday, and devoted to
the development of Florida and the best in-
terests of her people.
Members of
THE FLORIDA PRESS ASSOCIATION.
Affiliated with the
NATIONAL EDITORIAL ASSOCIATION.

TERMS.
One year, single subscription............ .00
Six months, single subscription.......... LOO
Single copy.............................. .05

ADVERTISING RATES.
Rates for advertising furnished on applica-
tion by letter or in person.
TO CORRESPONDENTS.
Articles relating to any topic within the
scope of this paper are solicited.
We umeet praomna to rstur rjesstsd mnua-
script unless stamps are enclosed.
All communications for intended publication
must be accompanied with real name, as a
guarantee of good faith. No anonymous con-
tribution will be regarded.
Money should be sent by Draft, Postoffice
Money Order on DeLad or Registered Let-
ter, otherwise the publisher will not be re-
sponsible in case of ons. When personal
checks are used exchange must be added.
Only 1 and 2 cent stamps taken when change
cannot be had.
To insure insertion, all advertisements for
this paper must be revived by 1 o'clock
Monday morning of each week.
Subscribers when writing to have the ad-
dress of their paper changed MUST give the
old as well as the new address
-We now have an office a Jacksonville,
Room 4, Robinson Blok, Viaduct, where Mr.
Painter will be pleased to ee any of our sub-
scribers. Any time e can be of service in
Jacksonuille drop us a lie to above address.

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 1, 1900.

A Change.
With this number of the Agricultur-
ist there is a change made which, we
trust, will be for the papers's good as
well as the many subscribers that are
on Its list; many of whom date back
to the time when the Agricultrist first
launched its merits before the sparsely
settled state of Florida, and sought to
give out Information that would aid
in making its patrons more prosperous
and build up a state that would be sec-
ond to none in the Union for a desir-
able residence, for profitable Invest.
ments, or where the new comer, as well
as the early settler, could follow the
pursuit of wealth and happiness with
less fatigue and more certainty than
elsewhere.
Nearly twenty-eight years ago this
work was begun. At that time the ed-
itorial work was done in Jacksonville
but the paper was printed in Tallahas-
see, as there was not at that time a
press in Jacksonville large enough to
print the paper. Pioneering under the
best of circumstances Is hard on those-
who brave the uncertainties, and the
Agriculturist proved no exception, and
but for that hope which Is the main-
spring of all advancement, the paper
would have gone the way of many
others. Allured by hope and en-
couraged by the cheery words of the
subscribers that were constantly being
added to its list, and feeling that the
work done was being appreciated and
was proving valuable to the state, the
work of editing and publishing was
pushed on, although the editor and
publisher many times had to look to
other resources for their support. As
the years advanced that hope began to
be realized. The state and the people
were prosperous, the editor had no com-
plaint of his salary and the publisher's
assets grew with each year, and both


were plunged into poverty and sorrow.
At times it seemed as though the
strong hold that the Agriculturist had
on the people would be torn asunder
and that its publication would be a
thing of the past, but thanks to the
loyalty of many of our subscribers and
to that ever salent hope, the Agricul-
turist is still able to appear every week
and now has a very bright prospect be-
fore it of becoming more useful and in-
structive to the people of Florida, and
we hope that those who are interested
in the building up of the state, will
show their appreciativn by giving a
helping hand with their subscriptions.
The Agriculturist, like our fair state,
is not to be downed. Though floored
for a time by some heavy blow, recov-
ery is quick. She stands erect and as
proud as ever. The Agriculturist's
field has been entered by many who
have sought to turn to themselves the
prestige held by the Agriculturist, but
no tombstones mark their graves, only
sad memories and lighter tills. We
do not speak exultingly of this for we


naburg, thirty-six inches wide, which
we can sell to our growers at (i cents
per yard in bale lots, r. o. b. Jackson-
ville. This is a very low price, every
thing considered.
We have received a number of let-
ters, wanting to know if we would
make tents and at what price. We
could make them, but prefer to let
everyone make his own, as he can work
in his own help at a less figure than we
can hire labor. The making Is a very
simple matter and can be easily under-
stood by referring to the illustration of
our tent on this page.
To make the tents, first make a
frame of sufficient size to cover the
tree. The height should be a multiple
of three feet so that the cloth will not
have to be cut lengthwise. Always al.
low for the seam, laps and shrinkage.
Sew the desired widths together, then
the ends so that the cloths will be in
one piece. Tack one edge of the cloth
to the cross pieces at the top of the
frame and the other to a loose frame of
1x2 that should fit easily- outside the
tent frame. This is to hold the cloth
in position when it is dropped. When
the protection is not needed, the cloth
can be gathered up under the I roject-
ing top and kept out of the weather.


E. O. PAINTER'S TENT-OPEN.
know full well what it cost those who Treating the cloth.-The cloth should
undertook it, and we sympathize with first be shrunk by washing and allowed
them. If they had had the training of to dry without wringing. After being
pioneering, which means hard work thoroughly dried, dip in hot paraffine
and little pay, they could have stood wax, then. pass through a wringer to
the struggle and been a thing of life to, take out all surplus wax. The amount
day. of wax used should be about one
The change referred to above is sim- pound to three yards of cloth. We pre-
ply that the editorial department of the fer to furnish the wax and let each one
Agriculturist has returned to Jackson- treat his own if he can. We have had
ville after an absence of twenty-five to put up the necessary heaters and
years. Hereafter this work will be done rollers for treating our own, and we
from the Florida metropolis where it will treat it for others If the orders are
will be in closer touch with all the var- placed in time so that we can have it
led industries in the State. Whether done without interfering too much
the change will be a benefit or not re- with our other work.
mains to be seen but with that light of We wish to state again that we are
hope still burning and that faith in I not offering to furnish the cloth or wax
Florida's future and Florida's people as a business, but to help the orange
we do not believe it can be otherwise grower who wishes to protect his trees.
than a success. We have had to go to all this trouble
and expense to learn how to protect our
Protection. own trees and are simply giving the
We are receiving a good many in- grower the benefit of our experience,
quiries regarding protection, and es- hoping to see, in a few years, orange
specially as to the success of our own groves blooming and bearing as pro.
tent We do not know that we can add fusely as they ever did in years gone
anything to what has already been said by.
except as to the cost of cloth. We have One part powdered sugar and two
spent considerable time hunting for the parts powered borax thoroughly mixeu
best, and at same time cheapest cloth and wet with extract of vanilla is a
that would answer the purpose, and soverign remedy for roaches. The van
have contracted with a cotton mill for illa and the sugar attract and the bo-
fifty thousand yards of eight ounce os- rax does the killing.-Halifax Journal.


Curing Fodder.
Florida is urgently in need of some
better system of curing hay and fod-
der for winter feeding. There is no
trouble to grow all of the hay and fod-
der that can possibly be used, but the
season as to rain is quite uncertain,
and consequently the curing a matter
of a great deal of Chance, considerable
hard labor and a great possibility of
absolute failure.
It is not infrequently the case that
the mowing machine will be started
with prospects of a bright day. A fine
lot of grass will be cut down, but
about the noon hour the sky will be
darkened and a tremendous down-pour
follow, resulting in damage to the hay,
if not a total loss. Some of our farm-
ers have made provisions against trou-
ble of this kind by erecting long sheds
in which they can haul the hay after
it has been slightly wilted and finish
the curing there. This also is some-
times unsatisfactory as the weather
sometimes continues damp and the
hay molds before it can be properly
cured.
Not very long ago we went through
a large hop drying house and it occur-
red to us that If a building of this kind
was used it would furnish the solution
for curing our hay and fodder. The
building is a simple structure with only
one floor about ten feet from the
ground. This floor is made of 1x30 on
edges with a crack of two inches be-
tween each board. Over this is stretch
ed a light grade of burlap which pre-
vents the hops from sifting through.
Underneath is a large furnace with
pipes running around the room so that
all of the heat that is thrown out by
the wood is given'off in the room. By
a ventilator in the peak of the roof.
this heat is drawn through the floor
and consequently dries any material
very quickly that is placed there. With
this kind of a dry house, a ton of hay,
pea vines or fodder could be cured with
very little expense or trouble. It could
also be freed from any and all kinds of
insects by burning a little sulphur on
the furnace in the room below before
the hay Is removed. This would not
only destroy the insect of that season,
but lessen the chances of their increas-
ing another year.
We believe that a curing house of
this kind once used would prove more
satisfactory to the farmer than a silo
or all methods now in use for curing
hay or fodder.
We would be pleased to hear from
our farmer subscribers as to their ex-
perience along the line of curing their
hay.


ANSWgBg TO. 00UBESPOD3MEm.

This department ii dev ted to answering
surh questions as may be asked by our sub-
scribers, which may be of general informa-
tion. nquiries of personal character that
require answer by mail should always have
stamps enclosed.

Editor Florida Agriculturist,
Will you kindly let me know where I
can get a garden hand cultivator, one
with a high wheel.
J. R. O.
Avon Park, Florida.
The hand cultivator you refer to is
manufactured by the Brinly-Miles &
Hady Co., Louisville, Ky. We have in-
quired of the hardware dealers here
and find they do inot carry it in stock.

Editor Florida Agriculturist,
I have some young orange trees that
are troubled with a disease that is ne-y
to me. The first appearance is noticed
by a swelling'at the apex of the leaves.
Later on the trees die back and finally
nearly all of the new growth dies back








THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST. 475

to the old wood. If you can help me was thinking of planting the grove to
out with this, it will be greatly appre- velvet beans but have been told that it
ciated. A. C. is not safe on account of root knot.
East Coast. Please inform nme in regard to this. I
Your trees are troubled with whu; think velvet lbt-ni it great fortili'r H EP FR
is known as die-back, a disease that is and would grow them in a grove if it is
safe.
afflicting the orange industry on the I am clearing about ten additional For honest treatment and a Speedy cure wrte
East Coast more than any other see acres to set out next December. have or go to Dr. J. Newton Hathaway whose
tion. The cause is not clearly under- good land here and expect good suc- reat reputation is a suffl ien guarant of
mtlt;- T im w riter n1a! ti ,& 'p ill (1011 1115 ll: f jlll :grlalt : at oufi g of
tooI. The writer has mace an inpe- distance to set trees in rows. Please satisfactory results. Consultation o" Free.
tion of a number of groves on the East answer and oblige,
Coast to study this disease, and has J. W. G. leed PRoisn oiSyph aUi,"s Kd u Urlry w u" .
G etar yphillrs In all Its m PainfukDlm-
come to the conclusion that it is caused Grove City, Fli. terrible stages, producing copper-colored cult, oo Frequent, Bloody or Milky Urine-
by the nitrogen being liberated too rap- You need not hesitate about plant- spots on face or body, little ulcers oi the all functional diseases of the Heart, Lung.
dly for the well being of the tree. The tongue, in the mouth or throat, failing out of Liverand Stomach; also Catarrh, Raptre
dly for the well being of the tree. The ing velvet beans among your young or. the hair or eyebrows, decay of the flesh or Rheumatism, Piles, Fistula and all Blood
soil of the East Coast where young ange trees. In fact it would have been bones, completely and forever eradicated and Skin Diseases and all Female Diseases
trees are planted, is nearly all loose much better if you had cleared your without the uses of Injurious drugs leaving treated according to the latest and bet
Sthe system in a pure, strong and health- methods known to medical science.
and the cultivation of it renders it land and planted the beans first and futstate. o Tretmet By correspon.
more so. The action of the sun on this turned them under the summer before Vor enlarged veits, which ow T tfdence always sue.
soil causes the nitrogen to be liberated planting your trees. The orange is not eul power; ad to acomle o of c l r for reebookjust published and
sexaal power; also Hydrocele, Gonorrhtaa, Symptom blank if you cannot call.
very rapidly, giving the tree, as it troubled with root knot. Gleet, Stricture and all Private and Venereal J. NEWTON HATHAWAY, M. D.
were, indigestion. To effect a cure, ap- We do not believe any man should Diseases and Weaknesses of men quickly Dr. Hathawar1 y .,
cured. XG Bryan Street. WWI 01116
IV only yo*.h --A ph1.-phoo .'ag -g- *? =.slr A!. ISM Fh la It F S ca 5 red. agffj Ta H rr Rj TD rr aa aW
for DoOe T mnoTe appitu1a4tion. The *" i a bUn i inmi. oaiinftrini kISTU'i-lT
best for this p e, be- should be used to supplement or furn-
best formula for this purpose, be- a supply that cannot be made a O R A N G E FOR SU MER AND
ing dissolved bone-black and low home. RANI 'I I MtF.S FALL PLANTING R
grade potash in proportion of half and The question of distance to set or-
half. This will give you an analysis ange trees was settled before the Budded on either Sweet or Sour All Standard varieties of Orange,
of 13 to 14 per cent. potash and 8 to 9 freeze, which is no less tan thirty feet Orange, Rough Lemon or Citrus rape Fruitand other citrus fruits
per cent available phosphoric acid. Dis- about an orange grove. Where you Trlfolata Stocks . . . in stock .. ......
continue the stirring of the soil around have only a limited amount of land, by
the trees and mulch heavily. Sea-weed high cultivation, fertilizing and irriga- Trees budded on Citrus Trifollata bear young and are
will be found to be a good mulching tion you can make a grove plantedespecallysutedwhereartific protection s .
close, but for our choice give us plenty especially suited were art al protection i ed.
after it has been taken out of the of land between the trees to be cultl-
water and exposed to a few rains. If vated in beggar weed and velvet beans
you cannot get the sea-weed, plant vel- while the trees are young, a moderate HIGHEST # GRADE s TREES AT LOW PRICES
vet beans, beggar weed, or anything supply of commercial fertilizer, exemp.
else that will cover the ground and tion from cold and we would risk re- FREIGT PREPAID.
keep it from the direct rays of the sun, suits.
Editor Floride Agricatuirist, Complete Stock of all Classes of Fruit and Ornamental Trees.
I take the liberty of coming to you OHEAP COLUMN
as an authority on citrus fruits, to ask
what early varieties of oranges yoRATE-Twenty w address FL IDA GR WN PEACH TREES FOR LARGE ORCHARD
what early varieties of oranges you one week, 35 cents; three weeks go cents.
would advise me to plant and the
strong points of each. I am told that SAurT SICK. Cured for one dollar or PLANTING A SPECIALTY.
I ". 1k -"' CATALOG FREE. POMONA NURSERIES
Ocoee, F' P KELSEY PLUMS FOR a LB--75 cents a Correpondenceand Excelstd ead Poultry
wOcoee, .Fla, crate fo.b.. Sent ripe or half-ripe as desired.
Boones early Is to our mind the best w. B. HMBRY, Dade City. Fla. THE GRIFFING BROTHERS COMPANY
early oranges that we have. The Ear- PINEAPPLE PLXNTS-For sale-Smooth 9
ly Oblong or Little Gem is but a little Cayenne, Abakka and Enville City. JAs Jacksonville, Florida.
better than sweetened water in the MOTT, Fort Mycrs, Fla. 31tf
shape of fruit. The only time that it FOR SALE-Nursery of eight thousand
has any flavor at all Is just before the Grapefruit Trees 40 budded. Box Farm ers' Attention
juice ripens when it is the least bit
THE SID B. SLIGH CO., Wholesalers ol fPEC IAL
sour. The Parson Brown is another Fruit and Produce; Commission Merchants.
early variety and a better fruit than 138 East Bay Street, Jacksonville, Fla. P N
the Oblong, but not as good as the 47tL SG
Boone. In regard to the thornliness of BBLGIAN IfARB-Splendid California Buck GOOD
Lord Rosslyn Jr., Score 92%, Site Lord
the Boone Early, we wrote to the or- Rosslyn. cn Gr. er Avery Garden Plows, Acme Harrows
iginator and herewith publish his Two $s. J. F. Corrigan, St. Leo, Fla. t32 a v T s
reply. PINEAPPLE PLANTS FOR SALE- GEORGIA STOCKS.
Abakka and Golden Queen Suckers and SPVAYINQ OUTFITS,
Editor Florida Agricultrist, Slips from fine thrifty olnts. Address
"I hasten to reply in r fevrfre to Arthur H. Brown, Manatee, Fla. 26x33 and everything in trT9Y and Farm Implements and nupplls
your inquiry about thorns on the JAMAICA 8ORRE.L plants, by mail ) i to ital i t
Boones Early. When I first budded it. postpaid for 2c per dozen. Good sized Poultry Netting = =. Sa Columbia Bicycles
of course it was somewhat thorny but plans ready now. W. S. PRESN CH RTR OAK STOE,
never as thorny as the Parson Brown, CARRARA PAINT, IOtON PIPE, BOILERS AND PUMPS
and if any of those trees budded prior LAND TO RENT-In South Florida for WRITE FOR PRICES.
to the big freeze are living, they are what it will produce over $300 pr. acre. . FERNALD, S,
more thorny than the trees being made P y must have some money. I. .. FERNALD, anford, Florida.
now. DE PEW, Palmasola, PEla. 20x3
nOW.
"I have been careful to select thorn- FO ALK Olt i NT-eatiful bluf he. f
less eyes In budding and have some near Hotel Belleviw, furnished. Farm CIL I i
I have a rather limited supply o this Land, strawberry, orange. Bargain. W. A. CANCER CURED WITHOUT PAIN. _
variety this year, owing to the un- WICKS, Belleair. Fla. 31Xs33 NO KNIFE USED.
scrupulous workmen employed. This VILLA LAKE NURSERIES, Fruitland CURE GUARANTEED. YES W E HAVE
past season I lost nearly all of my Park, Lake county, Fla., offers for July for a casedeal o coinipetltlo in prices but not In quality.
grafting wood though I ought to have planting 5 varieties of 3 and 3 year Write for free ook *s. Addre PASWOVIWISEFCOAIANIC.
4000 of these treescitrus buds. For good stock and low BELLEVIEW SANITARIUM,
4000 of these trees prices, address C. W. FOX, Prop. lStf nelleview. - l .
"I do not consider that there are pr r rop Beleview .
enough thorns on the average Boones ORANGE, POMELO AND LEMON TRBBE T. USCS ftS ft 2K AA0 UP m,.
Early to be objectionable, there are not on sour 3r tritollata stocks tor summer TRUSSES 1. Ai U
as many as there would be on the av- andfallshipment. Large assortment fine L ui. aoby
erage Florida originated variety. And r ric. GLN ST. MARY
erage Florida originated varieties. And NURSERIES, G. L. Taber, Proprietor, Glen
as to quality and earliness there is st. Mary Fla. a1tf
none of them that will compare with 6 UNR SITY OF .
it." C. A. Boone. FOR SALE-O100 cae. Eteght ac e o ,w . fi. -i. UNIVERSITY OF GEOROIA,
There are other early oranges such high pine land near Deland Junotlon; as FACROr r one-u 4hi '
S ges 5 acres cleared, three acres of whloh are AUP rice cs 5S s ATHENS, dA.
as the Enterprise Seedless and Sweet it grove, the balance of the tract is in IoroI I s
timber. Small house and a well on the r w se emur lusted above, cutt ls
Seville. The Satsuma s a distinct type place. Address T. M. H.. care Agic tol- ad. out and sentousawithl R SE aL, res-4, One hundredth session begins Sep-
and is very desirable owing to its turist, DeLand, Fi. 8ty steur St WIt, A, how long yoa member I9th, g9oo. Rooms in dormi-
ruptur whethe rupture Is large or itil; ab state
hardy qualities, early bearing and low mE H E c Amerid mn 4 a lne ri h tory free. Excellent loard in Students'
hardyWE HAVE complete list American mn- rp.ture. whether Hlrautei ihs on ripet or mn.T,
growth. ufacturers. Can buy for you t lowest 'nd e tra to yu tae er Hall at eight dollars per month. Tui-
growt prices and ship you direct from each. r.st s reetsesea r pieyou aslulemtta m dwe tion of non-residents fifty dollars per
r orMachinery machines of a kind. en- will return your money. ,, annum, For further information write
dito- Florida ,griwtfriat, gintia, ballotres. inoubtore, wlndmtlls or WlrA 'rI ket mU$ cAIuI s. l I
t am trying to grow an orange grove aythin s wanted. Correspondenoe o- tW.r weinocldingt ew l T WALTER lU LL, Ch celor,
and am using Simon Pure fertilizer. I iacited. AMRInAN TRADES AGENCY s.am intam any es sa ..N hwanl hu rU
Jacksonvtile, Fla. Itt Aid...SEARS, ROEBUCK 96 1-10 Atlhe, Ga









476 THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.


BVDUKBOLD DPArBTXENT.
AU communications or enquiries for this de-
partlett should be adrure to
FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST,
Household Dept. Jacksonville.

Woman's Businem Suit.
The question is often asked: What
shall business women wear during of-
fice hours? Is it permissible to wear
the dainty things that she would while
at home or out calling? Solomon says
that there is a time for everything, and
experience has taught us that the shirt
waist suit is most applicable to an of-
fice life, or any other business pursuit.
Its first recommendation is its unvary-
ing neatness, and neatness of attire is
the first essential of dress on the part
of the business woman. It need not be
plain, that is, plain -to ugliness, but
may be trimmed as the taste may dic-
tate, but during the summer, should al-
ways be made of some material that
will bear washings without fading. It
requires four or five waists per week to
be perfectly fresh all the time, and if
one were to indulge in their liking for
the pretty things made of silk and lace,
they would soon fnnd It very expensive,
or their appearance would soon be far
from agreeable to others, as the dust
and dirt of the office and street would
find so many places to lodge in the
meshes of the lace and the silk would
~teW le gowa and rocked, aIill thr
nice tidy wash waist would always be
a pleasure.
Good taste, as well as common sense
demands the plainer attire. It is most
attractive to the eye because of its
suitability. We always like to see
things in their proper place. and we at
once recognize that nothing else will
allow the freedom and comfort essen-
tial 'to proper attention to work. With
no laces or ribbons to keep free from
ink and dust, and no fear of crushing
trimmings, the mind is freed from all
thought of personal appearance, and
a sense of rest takes its place.
The shirt waist suit is to a woman's
wardrobe what the cut-away suit is to
a man's. He would not think of wear-
ing an elaborate Prince Albert about
his work, .but it would be just as ap-
propriate for him to do so as for a wo-
man to wear one of those silk and
lace creations that are so popular at
present.

For Howsehold Department.
Soup Stock.
trh their perfection in matters cnisine,
but in nothing is their success greater
than in their delicious soups. These
are always made from stock. A pot is
kept on the back part of the range and
into it all scraps and waste particles
of meat are placed. When well cooked
and all the marrow Is extracted, the
bones and skins are removed, and most
of the grease is skimmed off, leaving
only the concentrated animal juices.
From day to day this process is repeat-
ed, iid MBe wt iI aJWLaj'8 U 1U1 Feiliy
for use. When a soup is wanted, it
remains to take a sufficient quantity of
the stock, use it as a base, flavor it
with any desired flavoring, and you
can have any kind of soup you prefer
with very little labor and almost no ex-
pense. This Is an excellent way to
utilie the scraps that always accumu-
late and are usually wasted, besides
being a great saving of time and labor.
Mrs. Coroline.

Influence of the Ideal Woman.
In the course of a university lecture
delivered at Boston, Miss Caroline
HIard' president of Wellesley college.
had thlt to say or tne Induence of diie
ideal woman.
"There are three ways in which wo-
men are pre-eminemt. They are bind-
ers together of society, they are the
beautifiers of life, and they are the ob-


servers of morals. Thus women imust
stand for conservatism, for grace. for
purity, and in these three directions
lUwt have a f tit;ia: tiiiiiin, Wisc
conservatism innust be founded on law,
anm law must teach obedience, which
lies at the root of all growth. Those
who are to interpret beauty must have
knowledge of what is elautiful, and
the training of the perceptive faculties
has to be under taken in a very thor-
ough and serious way. No one can
reproduce what lie is not absolute mas-
ter of. and beauty to wield any influ.
ence on life and character must be
deeply absorbed and enter into the per-
sonality of its exponent. Beauty must
pass Into duty. This is the supreinm
task of all education, the training of
the soul. How shall duty govern con-
duct? What fruit of personality shall
be the product of training? It is wo-
men who must answer many of these
questions, for women are the guardians
of morals. Women ought to be spirit-
ual leaders of the world."

The Sweet Motherly Soul.
A woman who entertains a great deal
says that she is heart, brain, nerve and
soul weary of clever people and she
longs to know somebody who neither
writes, sings, recites, toots, fiddles, nor
even has ideas. Cleverness runs in
families nowadays. Even the house-
hloldl lilrhy hauled out at lladly night
hours to do his little turn and the
grandmother of the family is clever.
Ah. a rare and satisfying woman, wiiho
is not clever; who makes no preten-
tions to cleverness; who has not pre-
pared a paper on any of the burning
questions of the hour.
Tliank Itfd for tilt- wmania 'wh! i
satisfied to stay at home and mend the
stockings and make pies and other
good things-make anything, in fact.
provided she is contented while she is
doing it. Probably she doesn't talk a
great deal and doesn't cherish it up
against you if you do not hear what
she is saying, even if you seem to be
listening and are looking right at her.
What a dear restful soul she is! She
knows good old tried and true remedies
for ailments and she doesn't even ask
you whether you want specifics for
your ills or not, but she just claps tlem
on, or pours them in, and hustles
around and hangs things up and tells
you you'll be better In the morning.
and sure enough you are. dear. unself-
ish, prophet that she is! Give us the
sweet motherly soul.-Selected.

Olive Oil In Scarlet Fever.
Among the many mothers who read
these lines there may be one or more
whose child has scarlet fever, that ter-
rible disease that has come to be so
dangerous of late years. and who wili
be glad to know of anything to help
their baby. And this is something so
simple yet so effective that no physic-
lai can object to its employment. It
is the application to the entire body of
warm sweet oil, well rubbed in. There
Ii nillinrtlih r1-mrinunl in ftn inlflVinO"
good effect. Almost twenty years ago
I had five'patients in one family with
the anginose or throat variety of scar-
let fever, and had them all brought in-
to one room for convenience sake. as
well as seclusion. Five little heads re-
turned my greeting every time a visit
was made. and all clamored loudly for
their oil bath. No medicine was given,
but little food was needed to supple-
ment absorbed oil. And in recovery
there was an absence of tlihe usual com-
pleiatlons, so tilat in my oWes-lri t,;-
oil baths came to be generally us.'d
witl excellent results.
Other fats were tried, but none nil
swered the double purpose of nutrition
and skin cooler as well as olive oil. It
is well worth trial.-Dr. Hutcliinson, in
Amlerienn Magazine.

"Doing One's Best."
A homely rhyme found in an old-
fashioned jingle book Imparts a sound
philosophy:
"Thoughtful little Mary Wood
Always did the best she could.
Let us follow Mary's plan
Allanlis o the bl-att WIr rinz"
Quotes Harper's Bazar. At the first
glance this looks very easy, still most
of us know that there are days when
we do not by any means attain to so
high a standard. To do one's very best


SIkNCHESTE


FACTORY LOADED SHOT SH

I "lowRvinl," 'LmEar/,I'd -R'p "f"
Insist upon having them, take no others and you wil get the bestshells that money can buy.
4 ALL DEALERS KEEP THEM.


implies that one has a conscience that hot with the boiling tomatoes. The can
will not be satisfied with half meas- must be brimful.
ures, that one has more than the aver- Pass a spoon down into the can, so
age amount of good health and that that the air bubbles and part of the
one's ideal is a lofty one. Most of us juice and seeds will come to the top.
start off splendidly when we begin crush the bubbles and dip out part of
any thing new. The real testing time the seeds and juice. Removing the
comes when the novelty is worn off seeds and juice is necessary to insure
and we are tired and begin to carry success. After this is done if the can
the load wearily, is not brimful, put in more tomatoes.
The old proverb, "A new broom Place on the rubber and cover and
sweeps clean," would never have beell .fW down 1as tigllly as possible. be-
spoken if the invariable custom of the ing careful that no seeds are under
world had always been to do its best the cover. Turn the cans upside down
on all occasions. The great cathedrals for four or five hours. If no juice
of Europe were built slowly through oozes out in that time your tomatoes
the ages by men who did "their best. are quite sure to keep. Wrap the cans
The great explorers and investigators in two or three thicknesses of cloth or
in science have done their best. What- soft paper to exclude the light. Keep
ever the work, if it is worth doing at in a cool dark place.-- ary B. Ketch
all. is worth doing well. in American Agriculturist. -
Tlir ivi;,5so whe lia Ita nloputatlon for
accuracy and for punctuality, whose The little red and acid cherry plum
work is always thorough and whose is good for pies and sauce and the juice
name stands for the best he can do, properly diluted with cold water has
never need fear that he will not find no equal as a refreshing summer drink.
room at the too. Boil it down sufficiently to keep. bottle
it. or use it fresh, when sweetened and
elilterd to rastet Be careful to leave it


Usea of a W.ekly Buet Day.
T'he observance of one day in seven
by a complete change of thought and
the suspension of modes of activity re-
quired for six days would be philo-
sophical even though it had no basis in
religion. In the first French revolu-
tion the attempt was made to have a
holiday once in five days. and again
once in ten. The intervals were too fre-
quent under the first plan and did not
recur often enough under the second.
Hence those who hated tle system
which enforced the Sabbath were fain
to return to it.
The superintendent of one of the larg-
est hospitals for the insane declares
nineteen out of twenty of the business
and professional men who have come
under his care have been in the habit
of carrying business on their minds
for seven days each and every week.-
The Century.

Do It Now.
Once a boy was walking along the
seashore when he saw a beautiful
shell. But lie had his hands full just
then, and he said, "I'll pick that up
when I come back."
But when he came back after awhile
he could not find it. The waves had
washed it out into the sea.
Sometimes a boy or a girl says: "I'll
lint di th il, klaml ati tl daRl 1I' loa0ti
it until to-morrow."
But to-morrow the chance of doing it
is gone.--Selected.
It would be a grand thing if not only
little boys and girls but older people
would take a lesson from the above
story and always try to do everything
on time. be on time. and never put off
till to-morrow.

Canning Tomatoes.
Select smooth, meaty tomatoes, not
overripe or they will le too juicy.
Place in a wire basket and imnmerce in
fast boiling water for three or four
minutes, plunge at once into cold wat-
er. then the peel will come off easily.
Cut in halves lengthwise and remove
all sceel that separate from the fruit.
Cook in a porcelain-lined kettle until
half done; stir carefully from the bot-
tom to insure cooking evenly.
Use self-sealing glass cans. Look the
cans, covers and rubbers over careful-
ly:reject ill covers that are not true
around the edges; if" the rubbers are
not soft and pliable use new ones. Put
the cans and rubbers into a pan of hot
uiatNr. nIl there atm-tr fill the Fn "'!*!t
hot water. Place a few flat sticks lb

the bottom of the pan for the cans to
rest upon to prevent breaking. When
ready to fill the cans pour out the hot
water and fill at once while the can la


ninlltl t:nitl- ancid Ilaifula to leav!e:




Smmer c.s
are noted for hanging on.
They weaken your throat
and lungs, and lead to
Serious trouble.
Don't trifle with them.
Take Scott's Emulsion at
once. It soothes, heals,
Sand cures.
0c.a ad St. Alldru.gists.


60 YEARS*
EXPERIENCE







qne ~aW Ion oany Ie ral. er, lal
ThADE MARKS
COPYRIHs Ac.
Anyone sending a sketch and dpaerijtinn mos
oInv mis probalentabla C'onmlnlli
tionls etl coned aot.aL Handbook on Patents
nt free.0det Ircy for securjngpatenas.



AhasmoCaeyustred eely-. lrest oh.
ulatou of any sctentl"journal. Terms. a
four months, L SdLd byall ewadealers

%HiSffS&' !







flTH PLOfttDA AGRICULTURISt. 477


POULTRY A"D WAi3 DBPAAT-
WENgT.
AlI commuaniatioas or enquiries for this
department should he addressed to
FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST,
Poultry Dept. Jacksonville, Fla.

Now that we have hares in this de-
partment, "big crops" ought to be the
result, fowls for surface cultivation
and hares for sub-soiling.

The Hare Sad.
There in a rapidly increasing interest
being taken by our people In the rais-
ing of Belgian Hares for profit. The in-
terest is kept up by the alluring profit
that the hares are said to produce for
their owners, and many cases are given
where some one has commenced with
a few and in a short time, not only had
a splendid rabbitry, but a good bank
account as well. This sounds nice and
is undoubtedly true but the average
reader overlooks the fact that these en-
ormous profits are made on the sale of
llgL-paFl0l alia so fanly DriPealia
stock. This is the history of all fads.
whether cattle, sheep, hogs or hares.
The first to have the stock for sale are
the ones to reap the big prices. These
fads while bringing disappointment
and loss to many, have their good
points, resulting in better breeds being
developed and new industries started,
that, while not paying the enormous
profits that at first were promised, will
pay good return for the time and labor
expended. The best example of this
mida that we have 1 the Jersey cow.
What fancy prices they brought and
how breeders prospered during the first
years of her introduction, but as the
country became stocked, the price of
milkers dropped till now good milkers
can be bought for from $25 to $50 per
head that would formerly have brought
Sf1ft or maror The faid haIn v sT aw a
good milch cow that is a boon to the
butter-makers and a great favorite for
family use.
The hare fad will be of shorter dur-
ation because they are bred much
more rapidly and it will take only a
short time to supply the country with
breeding stock when the business will
settle down to the question of supply
and demand for meat. Florida ought
to raise them as cheaply, if not more
so, than her sister states, and if they
can' make a good business of raising
the hare for the market, we see no rea-
son why Plorida should not reap hei'
share of the business.


The Belgian He as a blood Product.
The public in general knows very lit-
tle about the Belgian hare. The in-
dustry is practically a new departure
in the United States, but is here to
stay. The only absolutely Intrinsic val-
ue in the Belgian hare is the meat and
pelt. The only intrinsic value in a
chicken is Its meat and egg product.
The only value in cattle is the meat.
milk and hides. The chicken and cattle
ka)sWiSjss --2 2r!7 1 Ln A- ?10-


industry can be pursued by people r
practically without capital, and with
the certainty of being able to market
stock In five or six months. Besides
a Belgian hare doe will produce five
times as much meat as a cow in a
year.
It is very common to hear people try-
ing to discourage the Belgian hare busi-
ness by saying it will soon be over
done. Is the chicken and cattle busi-
ness over-done? Think of it: if the
people of Chicago, with its population
of a million and a half. should eat
nothing but Belgian hare meat for a
single day, there wouldn't be a Belgian I
hare left this side of the Atlantic. It i,
t l shleerest noanene for people t talk
of the business being over-done, when 1
as yet the demand for the animals for
breeding purposes is so great. The in- 1
dustry will adjust itself to the condi-
tions of the market, when people get
down to racing the Belgian for food.-
G. Strowbridge in Texas Farmer.
[We do not wish to discourage the
Belgian hare business but the high
price expectation. Ed.]

Parasites. _
Parasites are always with some poul-
terers. What, never gone? "Well.
hardl, over_" Air .alAhdn lime thrown
in the little coops every morning and
tipped out just before chicks come into M/i
them at night, will prove an easy and -
strong secticide. An amateur at one
institute asked why she had been told
to grease the little poults' heads. On
the head are where the big gray, blood- Ne
sucking lice live. Poults have a ten-
der skin, and suffer even more than
chicks. Hen's oil, sweet oil, glycerine de
or even lard may be used when the e1
weather promises to be fair but the
grease is so chilling, I rather risk in.
sect powder the first three weeks. The From
more and oftener older fowls and sit-
ters are dusted the less need of hand-
ling so many young ones. Kerosene ap- NORT
plied to the head sometimes makes
fowls crazy but a few drops in other S. S.
oils may be used.-Farm Stock and S. 8.
Home. S.S.
8. 8.
S.S.
Large and Small Hens as Sitters.
Fo
Having in mind the idea that a good
many autumn chickens will be hatched
hie nacotlan at larrr and amoll irno a
as sitters is not unseasonable.
While it is a fact. I believe, based on
experience and observation that a
small hen usually hatches more chick-
ens from a sitting of eggs than a large
hen. from an equal number, yet it does
not follow that large hens as sitters, sea
should be condemned. Rather investi-
gate the way they are set and see if l
the .system should not be condemned
first.
A large hen must have a large nest,
in order to get good results from her fsf'S
eggs, otherwise more or less breakage, .-t1i
bad odor and consequently bad hatch
will result. Her nest should not be Tllo
deep. nor too shallow, either. It must sv
be wide and Phallow, to a the large TH
hen plenty of room in which to turn
about and move her feet otherwise she
will. by her heavy weight crush some
of the thinnest shelled eggs.
In hot weather the hens'often half
stand over their eggs in order to cool
them; and push them out to one side,
too. during the hottest part of the day.
This is another reason why the sitter. Ia
whether large or small, should at this
season, have ample space in her nest. i
Get the chicks from the shell, then i!
coop the hen in a shady place where
the chicks can range about a good deal,
and they will thrive during the autumn lo
as woll an in the noring time.-lx_ ,s..a


and are still succefuiilly i6ri;iciifd by
thousands of people. It Is not an un-
common thing to pay $25 for a pair of Nutritive Value of an Egg.
thoroughbred chickens, and $2 to $4 for An interesting paper on the value of
a dozen eggs. It is also true'that thous- hen's eggs as food was recently read
ands of pedigreed cattle are sold every before the French Academy of Science
year, for breeding purposes, for from by one Professor Balland. Professor
five to ten times their value for meat. Balland in the course of his address,
This thing is going on continually and stated that twenty-five per cent of the
will to the end of time. egg has a nutritive value. The remain-
The American people will always eat der is water. The meat of ten eggs
good, sweet, clean meat: the Belgian equals about one pound of meat. From
thoroughbred hare, properly cooked is the latter analysis of the professor, the
one of the purest, cleanest and most inference is deducille that in certain
palatable meats in existence, seasons of the year, say when eggs are
A hundred pounds of hare meat can cheap, about fifteen cents a dozen, they
Ie produced cheaper than the same are cheaper than first class meat. Fig-
amount of beef. The cattle business ures submitted by Professor Balland
requires capital and patient waiting on the consumption of eggs in Paris--
two or three years for stock to arrive at where there is an octrol tax-during
marketable age, while the Belgian hare 1898, amounted to 538,000,000. If the


to every crop.

We have valuable books telling al about the
e of fertliers and Potash which should be in
the hands of every farmer. We gladly mail
then FRE. A pota will do.

;ERMAN KAU WORKS, 93 Namu St, New Yoek


ALLORY- STEAMSHIP LINE
tagOOOI. SiGg t' Passenger Servlee.
loridca To mLke close conn
1orida rtions with steamers lea
VW York Jacksonville (Union d
pot) Thursdays F:15 a. n
Phila- C. & P. By.) or Fernsa
dins 1:01p. m., via aun
L L &. en route, or "all rail" vi
Plant System at 7:4.5 p.
3oStOnr_ ar. Brunswickll:30p. n
pIssengers on arrival gi
Brunswick direct to directly aboard steal
New York. er.
pssOa eSK'BAILINQC for July. 1200.
H BOUND-BRUNSWICK. G. DIRECT TO NEW YORK. LEAVING EVERY
FRIDAY 4tS FOLLOWS:


C-
re
I..
e-
n-

i..

D-
a


NUECES.................. ............... ......Friday, July 6.
RIO GRANDE................................. Friday, July 13.
COLORADO ................ ....................Friday, July 20
RIO GRAND ................... ................... Friday, July 29.
r lowest rates, reservations and full information apply to
BASIL GILL,
220 W. Bay Street, Jacksonville, Fla.
H. Ramond. Agent. Fernandina. Fla.
.1, .Ymo i 8 '2!M 1112is P ar E m., new TMK


scientific analysis of Professor Balland
is correct the number of eggs consum-
ed equal in nutritive value the meat of
1418,000 steers.-National Ruralist.

Eggs by Weight.
"By the way," continued the egg mer-
chant. "I expect some day to see the
present system of buying and selling
eggs by the dozen give way entirely to
the better system of trading in them
by weight. Until one has weighed a:
lot of eggs by way of experiment he
would not believe how much difference
there is in the weight of eggs. I have
eggs weighed in my place every once In
awhile for my own satisfaction, and


they vary all the way from one and
one-half to two ounces each.
"Why should I get as much for a doz-
en eggs that weigh one and one-half
ounces each as I do for a dozen that
weigh two and one-half ounces each?
As a rule. of course, the little eggs go
along with the big eggs, but it is ap-
parent that the fair system to both sel-
ler and buyer is to trade by weight.
To my mind this is so obviously the
only satisfactory method that I do not
hesitate to predict its universal adop-
tion."-Exchange.

Sharple's Cream Separators-Profit-
able Dairying.


ME


The Prosperous

Farmer < /


Forming is science. To
Earm with profit, the farmer
must thoroughly inform him-
self onthesubject of fertilizers.
If he does this. success is
assured. Potash is essential






47g


THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.


OUTWITTING A WOMAN and his chosen partner for life agreed "No!" Over-Work Weakens
so well on such an important subject "It's a fact; want to see a letter from er-Wo Wn
But when he reached home he found her?" And he handed him one he had Your Kidneys.
"I never could stand a wax doll," said that the collector was right, just read and not yet consigned to his
John Oliver, contemptuously. care She needed the things, she said, and pocket. Unclthy Eldacys ame Impre Boo
nothing for money or position, and very knew he didn't have the money just While Oliver read, McAlester watched
little for beauty, but one thing I am de then, and thought it wouldn't natter him with an amused twinkle in his cyc. All the blood in your body pe. through
termined to have when I marry, and about running a little bill. And when "Writes just like your wife, doesn't your kidneys once eaver e minutes.
that is sense; and I'll have it as sure as he endeavored to make her understand she?" he asked innocently. thre kidneys are yom
your name is McAlester." that it did matter, and matter very Oliver flushed and looked up, and the blood purifiers, they fil
McAlester laughed in a superior way much, she went into hysterics, and eyes of the two men met in mutual com- ter out the waste o0
and elevated his eyebrows, as much as then, of course, he felt like a brute, and prehension. But his lips did not betray impurities in the blood
to say "Oh I've heard all that before took back everything he had said and him. If they aresick or oul
and don't believe one word of it." apologized profusely. "Well, they ought to write alike, of order, they fall to de
Aloud he said- After that rude awakening, he found ought they not," said he, "seeing they fd' their work.
"Of course you'll think she has sense, himself wondering, day by day, at the are sisters?" Pains, achesandrhe
but a fellow in love is incapable of judg- discrepancies between his wife's life "I suppose so; but I tell you," said matism come from ex-
ment. Why, you would pronounce the and the sentiments previously ex- McAlester, seemingly apropos of noth- cess of uric acid in the
veriest nonsense sense while under the pressed in her letters. ing, as he walked off, "a man needs to blood, due to neglected
magnetic spell of her presence, being in "However," said he, resignedly, "a get up very early in the morning to out- kidney trouble.
a state of mental imbecility yourself. man will preach one thing on Sunday wit any woman, even the silliest."- Kidney trouble causes quick or unsteady
"I have thought of that," replied Oli- and do the very opposite on Monday; Waverly Magazine. heart beats, and makes one feel as though
ver, seriously, and have fallen on a plan I suppose it's the same way with a they had heart trouble, because the heart is
for outwitting the lady, remembering woman. OUR GREATEST SPECIALIST. over-working in pumping thick, kidney-
that even Ulysses had to be bound to Several weeks after this, Oliver in- poisoned blood through veins and arteries
the mast when passing the abode of the vited McAlester to his house to meet For 20 years Dr. J. Newton Hath- It used obod d that only urinary
Sirens" his sister-in-law, Margaret, who was away has so successfully treated troubles were to be traced to the kidneys,
Sirens."troublwere to be ed to the kidneys,
"And your plan is-what?" paying them a visit. chronic diseases that he Is acknowledg- but now modern science proves that nearly
"To correspond with her. The mag- It is hardly to be supposed that a ed to-day to stand at the head of his all constitutional diseases have their begin-
netism of her presence being withdrawn young fellow of twenty-five feels any profession in this line. His exclusive ning in kidney trouble.
I can judge of her through her letters, burning desire to make the acquaintance method of treatment for Varicocele If you are sick you can make no mistake
critically and disssionately." of a woman of forty, noted for her ugli- and stricture without the aid of knife by first doctoring your kidneys. The mild
"Good for you!" said McAlester. "I ness and for wearing the dowdiest or cautery, cures in 90 per cent. of all and the extraordinary effect of Dr. Kilmer's
had no idea you were that much of a things possible; still McAlester went, cases. In the treatment of loss of Swamp-Root, the great kidney remedy is
sctemee ." parly uft out l cirioail, partly beriCuse Vital foracerr: ouB Dlsoracre: IKld. aon reallind. It stand tnh nig-hsn ror II
A short time after this Oliver went he did not know very well how to re- ny and Urinary Complaints, Paraly- wonderful cures ofthmostdistressing cases
down to Galveston to spend his summer fuse. ies, Blood Poisoning, Rheumatism, Ca- and is sold on its merits
holiday, and there met "his fate," to He had already met Mrs. Oliver sev- tarrh and Diseases peculiar to women, by all druggists in fifty-
quote his own language on his return." eral times, and long ago decided in his he is equally successful. Dr. Hath- cent and one-dollar siz-
"Just one question, said McAlester, own mind that she was a pretty, selfish, away's practice Is more than double es. You may have a
coolly, interrupting his friend in the insipid, vain little creature, her letters that of any other specialist. Cases sample bottle by mail nme orf etw ooa .
midst of his rhapsodies. "Has she any to the contrary notwithstanding, pronounced hopeless by other physi- free, also pamphlet telling you how to find
sense? Of course she's beautiful and "Never catch her wearing dowdy clans, rapidly yield to his treatment, out if you have kidney or bladder trouble.
divine and all that sort of thing, but things!" he commented mentally. "Per- Write him to-day fully about your case. Mention this paper when writing Dr. Kilme
what I'm concerned about is her intel- haps that's the reason her sister has to He makes no charge for consultation & Co., Binghamton, N. Y.
lectual capacity." wear so many." or advice, either at his offie or by
"Judgc I~ y6luS lff," rewetu d Oliver, It may hTe kssn hk li hs lwail ail J N ta or &ha advi M. Pa. hi Western Poautr fpar
triumphantly, tossing him a letter. more sympathetic disposition than 01-Byan S Savannah, Ga W S t y arm
McAlester read and re-read. Then he iver, or it may have been because he ,Bryan Street, avannah, MO.
looked up all the banter having died knew more about women than his 4 mons on tal M O
out of his face, and said earnestly- friend, but, in any event, he was more Salt Lake City still presents one of months n trl 10e One yr. 25.
"I congratulate you, John; she's bet- favorably impressed with Margaret at the most absorbingly interesting fields pI tells how to L ate. 24r pages.
ter than you deserve; but you always first sight than Oliver had been. for the sociologist. The conditions Send to day. We sell best liqud lce kill-
were lucky." She was plain, certainly; her features most vital to a people's fife are there er for 75 cts per gallon. Aluminum leg
Then Oliver exhibited her photowere irregular; but she struck him as a far beneath the surface and cannot bands for poultry, I dos., 20 ots; 25 for
enOlvrehbp ot- o character and one whose ncta: 50 for 0 t: 10 or .
Then Oliver exhibited her photo- woman of character, and one whose be comprehended in a day, nor by a
graph. friendship would be worth something. sojourner who looks exclusively
"Well," said McAlester, "if she is as The truth is that this woman, who wore through either Mormon or Gentile Splendid stock of Citrus trees on
beautiful as her picture would indicate, the dowdiest things possible, awakened eyes. Two generations have been rough lemon roots, and also on sour or-
and as smart as her letter, you certain- such an interest in him that he was born into the Mormon religion, and the S, ange and trifoliata.
ly have drawn a prize. ,, seized with a violent curiosity to know traditions of the church are as bind- Enormous collection
"There i only one drawback to her, if she really were forty. Under pre- Ing to tllm n tloo oe or otntury -olil and otoch of other
said Oliver, "and that is her sister, Mar- tence of examining some photographs creeds of their followers. The man who C rult trees, Economic
garet. She came down to Galveston on a table, with his back to the com- you are told has "broken away" from a n t s, Bamboos
only the day before I left, but I saw pany, he surreptitiously examined the the faith you find upon acquaintance Palms Ferns Coni-
enough of her in that one day to last family Bible instead, and in this under- to be half a Mormon still. The goodl fers and Miscellane-
me a life time. She certainly is the hand way he found that Margaret was M[ormon" who is pointed out to you ous ornamentals. 17
ugliest irl I ever saw, and stupid be- really twenty-seven, while Mrs. Oliver will be fund to be, in nine cases out of year. Most extensive
sides. If she has any redeeming qual- was twenty-nine. t half Genrile.-New Ippincott collectfonof plants and trees in the
ity at all, I wasn't able to discover it. When Oliver Junior was born, Oliver n, half Genle-New Lower south. nd for large elegant
"Is she younger or older than the fu- Lower South. Send for large elegant
Is she younger or older than the fu- Senior changed his opinion of Margaret. catalogue.
ture Mrs. Olivert' and confided to McAlester that although A Good Farmer. REASONER BROS.
"What a question" laughed Jon, n she was so ugly, she certainly was a The following Is one of the many ex- Oneo, Fla.
"Why, she must be forty at least, and treasure in a sick room; in fact, he samples we have of what can and is
my irl is just seventeen didn't see how his wife could have got- being done by those who try to turn
Ia pity," said McAlester, "that
your girl should have gotten all the ten along without her. something up" instead of waiting for
beuty and intellect of the family, and When the baby was six months old, "somonltlg to turn up." The Tiutes- ALWAY KEEP ON AND
that poor Margaret should be left with- his father had occasion to take a busi- Union and Citizen's Orlando corre-
out anything; it doesn't seem exactly ness trip which extended over several spondent says: .
far." ngmonths. He disliked very much to be "B. M. Smith, a practical farmer, who D
Well," said Oliver, as though trying away so long, ofr he loved his home, came here from Missouri two or three
to make the best out of a very bad case, yet the thought of his wife's bright sen- years ago, s1 demonstrating what can
to make the best out of a ver bad case, sible letters consoled him. She might be done along agricultural lines by one There is no kind of pain
"she might not be so hideous if she only rather flat and insipid in conversa- who knows how. Within the past two or aehe, internal or exter.
had a little taste about dressing, but she nal, that Paiin-Killer will
had a ltte tadwste aut drssig but se tion, with a pen, he told himself with weeks he has put into his barns twen- nal, that Pain-Kller will
wears the dowdiest things possible pride, she was anybody's equal, ty big loads of finely cured beggar- not relieve.
In course of time John Oliver was
married. But in less than six months The first letter he received was a dis- wed hay and has plenty of It grow- OK OUT FOR IMITATIONS AND SUB-
after the wedding, he discovered tiat tinct shock to him, it was so unlike the ing for pasturage for his stock and for STITUTES. THE GENUINE BOTTLE
married life is not all a bed of roses. A letters she used to write before mar- second crop of hay later on. From a BEARS THE NAME
dry goods bill for a hundred dollars was riage. The writing was careless, the mall patch of corn, covering about
presented to s im. spelling was faulty, there was no punc- two acres, he sold earlier in the season PERRY DAVIS & SON.
"There is some mistake," said he; tuation, and as for ideas, if she had any, abt $60 worth of green corn, and still
theree i sm e nr mysef ever rn she did not know how to express them. had considerable corn to ripen, which
"neither my wife nor myself ever run But although the letter was such a dis- lie has since gathered. ile brought in
bills of any kind we pay cash for y- appointment he made the best of it, as and jut on exhibition this morning
thing." he did of everything, and told himself several large ears, grown from seed
"There ia no amistae at all," replied that ahe was worried when che wrote it, D"urchased of J. McElroy. and from thl
the collector, positively but politely, and that the next would be better. same samK or stil w'lcht proiluedl no
"and the bill would have been present- Instead, the next was even worse. corn when planted by less skillful per-
ed several months ago, but knowing "It is very strange!" he said to him- sos. Ils horses and cows are always
your cash principles we refrained, ex- self "I can't understand it." fat nn(l in good condition. He also
pecting you to come up and settle daily. When the business trip was over and finds time to cultivate his orange grove, Alwaye obempr
If you -will just speak to your wife he returned home, he asked her how it anid a good sized patch of each pine- nltheendthanay u eds
about it, you will find it all right." was she used to write such different let- i apples and bananas. He has no spe- that only boost half a much.
But Oliver could not believe it. All ters from what she did now. She cial advantage over his neighbors in Tested, true to name r h nd
the way home he wondered h9w such a blushed and avoided his eye as she said the items of soil and situation. His relFnalL stt DeLs& AsA
mistake could have arisen. His she didn't know, unless it was because success Is due simply to the fact that wrI* ftr M Se0 AOu l.
thoughts flew back to those beautiful she had been in such bad health since he knows how." '. aL L tnaY & e.
letters of his wife, written before their the baby came that she had lost all the "" .*-
marriage, filled with sound sense and sense she ever had. TEASING THE JVNE BRIDE.
admirable precepts on the subject of Next day he met McAlester. TEAIN THE JUE BRIDE.
economy. One letter, especially, ex- "Has your wife told you the news. Dear me, Edgar, I wish we had
pressing her horror of going in debt for John?" something funny to read to night."
anything had struck him particularly, "What news?" "Well, my dear, there's your gradu- Subscribe to the Florida Agricultur
and he congratulated himself that he "That Margaret and I are engaged." eating essay."-Indianopolla Journal. lot.


_ __ 1_ 7_1 1_


I
L
r
I








I











THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST. 479


L.OTirTA WA


Mr. Rabegney, one of the light house
keepers at Fowey Rocks Light, met
with a serious accident on the 23d inst.
The hoisting apparatus at the light is
done with cog wheels, and while hois-
ing up a boat, some how he got his
hand caught in the cogs,tearing off two
fingers up to the first joint, making an
ugly and what will be permanent, in-
jury for life.-Cocoanut Grove cor. to
Tropical Sun.
Senor Martlatn, a resident of the is-
land of Cuba, is in the city for several
days, engaged on important business,
which will prove Interesting to the in-
habitants of this section. He will col-
lect from 6,000 to 8,000 head of cattle
which he will carry to Cuba, and dis-
pose of in the various markets on the
island. Although he will handle con-
siderable beef cattle, his purchase will
consist mainly of cows and calves for
stock raising purposes. A good market
for the latter, as recently reported in
the Tribune, now exists in Cuba.-
Tampa Tribune.
The homing pigeons sent to Observer
Wright by C. H. Jones, of 10 South
Broad street, Philadelphia, were re-
leased on top of the custom house yes-
terday noon. There were seventeen.
One hesitated a minute or two, taking
a bird's eye view of Pensacola, then
flew away in a northeasterly direction
following the others, who were out of
sight. It is calculated that the birds
will cover the entire distance by to-
morrow morning. Quite a number of
prominent citizens witnessed their re-
lease.-Pensacola Press.
Sylvester Pratt, a young negro man
about twenty-one years old, who for
the past five or six years has clerked
for Fred Powers shot himself, or was
shot by a friend in a house in the
southern part of town. The shooting is
supposed to have been accidental, as
the man was pranking with a pistol
so the witnesses say, and the revolver
was found in the yard. The ball en-
tered Pratt's left breast, in the region
of the heart, and death followed in a
Sfew minutes. Dr. Wilson, the colored
physician, was summoned, but could
give no relief.-Ocala Weekly Star.
While A. N. Shepard, of Jasper, Fla.,
was boring a well on Bob -Buckles'
place, a few days ago, his auger went
through a space of about six inches.
when at a depth of fifty feet. A gust
of wind came puffing up, and since
that time has continued to blow from
the well with cessation. The force of
the air is sufficient to blow a whistle
and a ten pound paper bag.placed over
the hole soon fills and bursts. The well
is a curiosity and the source of the air
is as yet undiscovered.-Jasper News.
John Gomez, of Everglade, supposed
to be the oldest man in Florida, was
found dead on the evening of July 13,
at Four Brothers Island. Un the
Thursday previous he had taken his
boat and gone to catch fish at a point
near the island, and not returning,
search was made and the old man's re-
mains were found where he had been
drowned, probably by falling out of his
boat. He was very feeble and claimed
to be 122 years old. He leaves a wife
aged about 80 years.-Lake Worth
News.
In a colored restaurant at Baldwin,
Eller Mitchell was shot twice by Amos
Burke, one ball glancing just above the
right eye, the other entering the right
shoulder, apparently only a flesh
wound. Burke tried to escape by run-
ning and shooting back at his pursur-
era. He was stopped, however, by a !
chance shot from a Winchester rifle in
the hands of John Whitehead at a dis-
tance of about 250 yards. Whitehead
said be only aimed at his legs, and,
sure enough, struck him about six in-
ches above, the knee, giving Burke a
very painful wound.-Lake Butler Bul-
letin.
A Gigantic Pine.-Frederick Ross
brought into the Grove on the 19th
one of the queerest pineapples that
mortal ever looked upon. Including
the slips growing out of the top and
quite small, it weighs 33 pounds. The
shah in unilau, and when you take
hold to pick it up it is apt to make you
grunt. It is one of six grown on the
same place, all of the same character-.
istics; but this one, perhaps, is a little
the largest. Only think of three of
them weighing over 100 pounds. It Is


of the Smooth Cayenne variety.-Co
coanut Grove Cor. Tropical Sun.
Fiber Factory for Gainesville.-A-
large palmetto fiber factory will bN
started in Gainesville. John Chesnui
and G. W. Moyers have entered int(
a copartnership, and have let the con
tract for the erection of the building
The machinery has been ordered and
will be here in time for placing in po
sition as soon as the building is com.
pleted. The new firm will work a
large number of hands.-Gainesvilli
Cor. T.-U. & C.
Something has been working the pasi
few years which has brought about a
very noticeable improvement In the po
litical and moral tone of the people of
Florida. A better feeling generally
prevails, there is exhibited more of a
disposition to act in unison in efforts
to promote the public good. The peo-
ple are more temperate. They are do-
ing more thinking in the right direc-
tion. They have been examining them-
selves, and have made the discovery
that much of the evil of which they
made complaint was without founda-
tion. It is well that this spirit has
taken possession of the people. It is
indicative of advancement along the
whole line. The motto, Be sure you
are right, then go ahead, seems to have
been adopted by the people of Florida.
--Gazette-News.
Dr. Van Elderen shipped a box full
of young Belgian hares to Mr. J. C.
Bates, in Lake City, last week. They
are in great demand. The doctor re-
ceives $1 for each one, and they breed
so fast when once started that there-is
always a new supply on hand. This
industry, the doctor tells us, is far
more profitable to raise than chickens,
and there is a ready market for them,
either as a food product in season or
for pets during summer. When fat
they weigh from ten to twelve pounds
each.-Suwannee Democrat.
Monday morning while Mr. Thomas
Lane was taking the three negro coun-
ty convicts to Malloy's turpentine farm,
two of them suddenly made a break
for liberty just as they were passing
through a bushy place. So suddenly
did they break away that Tom was un-
able to get a fair shot at them, though
he endeavored manfully to stop then
with his rifle. The bushes made an ex-
cellent aid to the darkeys in escaping,
and though they were pursued vigor
ously they managed to keep clear of all
pursuers. While the matter is to be
regretted no blame is attached to Tom,
who did all he could to stop the ne-
groes and recapture them.-Sumter
County Times.
Amos Randall, who is the proprietor
of the Randall hall and of'all that por-
tion of the town enphoniousy known as
the scrub, happened to a serious acci-
dent Monday night. As he was closing
his business house in moving a loaded
shot gun the hammer struck against
the counter, firing the whole load into
his left shoulder, inflicting a painful
and serious wound. Dr. Ben E. Mor-
gan dressed the wound and Mr. Ran-
dall is doing well, but the intensive hot
weather makes his confinement a try-
ing ordeal.-Phosphate Era.
The Electric Phosphate Company, in
the David Branch section, four miles
south of town, is busily engaged saw-
ing out the lumber for their plant. A
number of cottages for the workmen
have been erected and occupied. As it
will require a large quantity for the
construction of the plant, the actual
work of putting it in will not begin
for some time yet or until a large per
cent. of the lumber shall be on the
ground. However, the work is suffi-
ciently advanced to assure the early
completion of the works. This will
be another feeder for our town.-Phos-
phate Era.
Brevard county will try the plan of
consolidating some of the smaller
ichoole with the large schools by fur-
lishing conveyances for the pupils. We
think that plan will work satisfactory,
as it will enable the board to employ
better teachers, and then it will give
the children who have been attending
the small schools the benefit of grad-
ed schools, giving them educational ad-
Faftagf t111t Susy ,f ffiii woudl
never get otherwise. The same plan
might be worked to great advantage
n this section, combining the Hawks
Park, Glencoe and Turnbull Bay
schools with the New Smyrna school.
Fhis would add about sixty pupils to


PERUNA A REMEDY FOR FEMALE CATARRH.


MAeGUDB~, Yonr Co., VA.
Dr. 8. B. Hartman, Columbus, 0.:
"I can scarcely find words to express
my gratitude to you for all your kind-
ness to me. It has robbed the grave of
one victim, for I was in a critical condi-
tion when I wrote you before. Thanks
to you, however, my health is fully re-
stored. I wish every young lady in our
town could read your book. There would
be a great deal less sickness and puny
women."-Miss Bertha E. Sargent.
NAvABOTA, Tax.
Dr. S. B. Hartman, Columbus, 0.:
"I think it is time to let you know
what your treatment has done for me.
I am rid of that terrible trouble I had
when I wrote to you. When I would
stoop over I could not straighten up
without the most severe pain. I am well
if that, and am much better in other
ways." Mrs. F. K. F. Gille, Box 19.
OSTYA, Miss.
Dr. 8. B. Hartman, Columbns, 0.:
"I am sure that Pe-ru-na is one of the
mat medicines on the market. I am


a


S .98 BUYS A 4504SUIT "fire You Gotng

M M A n ,suA3 I ,,Ay i.. To Plant Trees?
Mt~~45. We have a fine lot of Orange, Grape
** orsm UforfalweUsadyou Fruit and Kumquat trees.
h it by exprzes, C.O.D. sbctto A-
I eo. I-u exLhatyour ALO
Sfacory oeeand i. A general line of fruit and nut trees,
Ls'r' Eyroure* roses, shrubbery, etc.
S yes age,.f i Low prices and trieght prepaid. Let
m R iEBCK aasa.- 1 .0 0 us mall you a catalogue.
=,*I= ilaer seU' seaab aw m
EL ira .^ 1. n. it Summit Nurseries
a sm Italian .2SJSeqo s l Monticello. Fla.
:taMsait, aMt of ar I tw lbe IsrWer-m d
ilSiwuA. r.Sfee5psirnp:b^ seoagf^alb"om THE U. 8. LIVE STOCK REMEDY has
t it.se. o an .ee s up. su. proved most efficient In preventing and
Ssent free B l Afo i. curing Hog and Ohicken Cholera and
Wr8,i tROEB & CIO. I.* Cim;^? iW kindred diseases. It is also a fine oon-
ditlon powder. Sales are increasing. If
your dealer don't keep it we will nma
K, *IOdL.Ks.T It to you on receipt of price 35c per %
TrackS AyC. ya lb. Liberal discount to dealer ISAAC
S-iAJSSIuElI MARD MORAN. Agent. KIsimmee. Fa. U1
Cf4U LLJ JESE MARDELF


The International Publishing Com-
pany of Philadelphia and Chicago, have
just published a new and interesting
Lfe of D. L. Moody. Also, "War in Af-
rica" and many other elegant and use-
ful books. The best terms to agents.
Apply to I. Morgan, Kissimmee, State
agent for Florida.

the New Smyrna school. If our school
board have not already considered the
matter we hope they will, as we be-
lieve it is a long step in the advance-
ment of education.-New Smyrna
Breeze.

Bathing with alcohol will prevent in-
jurious effects from poison ivy, or, if
the poison has taken effect, wetting
the affected part with alcohol, to which
sugar of lead has been added, until a
milky appearance is obtained will give
rnlirf. Thp wash in salsan and far ca-
ternal use only.

AGerman taylor who died at Bres-
lau in 1837 had such keen sight that i
he was able to see two of Jupiter's
four moons with the naked eye.


"Certificate Am.


The Practical
AND SIMPLE
BARBED WIRE
iiNCI BUILUO.
PRICE baee.
V. SCHMELZ,
SylvanLake, Fla
InsLt. air."


sure that I would have been in my grave
now had I
not used it. I
have told many
others the good
it did me.
Everybody said

sumption, and I
knew that I
would have it
unless I got re-
lief. I feel it
my duty to
give praise where it is due. 1 am and
ever shall be grateful to the man who
discovered Pe-rn-na."--Mrs. S. E. Dicker.
NNw ORLEAN Las,
Dr. S. B. Hartman, Columbus, O.
"I am feeling much better now than I
have for two years. I find Pe-rn-na to
be the best media
oine for female
complaint, and
in all cases of
S 4 extreme weak-
ness I think it is
the best remedy
in the world, as
it has done me
a great deal of
good. My friends
say that I am looking better now than I
have for years. They want to know
what I have been doing, I look so well.
I tell them that Pe-ra-na did it. I hope
Dr- Hartman will live many years more
to help others as he did me.--Mrs. .E
Buthe, 1834 Sixth street.
Every woman should have a gopy of
"Health and Beauty." This book con
tains specific instructions for the treat-
ment and cure of female catarrh. It Is
illustrated and contains much informa-
tion. Address Dr. Hvrtw n,0olumubus.O.




































































































I


WIT TgHE JOXiB knew it had something to do with
AMiss DeMuir-So stupid of me! I PLANT SYSTE\T1
A TWELVE HOUR DINNER. horses, though.-Chlcago Tribune.
They dined well If not wisely, in the 7
West in his "Recolleteflns". He af "some ay," we went mi-e ri 9ff A b i fI; jj
"Thanks to the introduction of smok- "a man will be able to go to sleep in
ing after dinner, wine drinking Is now Chicago and wake up in NewYork."
over. What it was in old days ap- "Do you really suppose Chicago will CO ECT
pears most Incredible. The late Lord ever get to be so quiet as that?" fal- CONNECTIONS
Clanwilliam told me of one occasion tered the Chicago man in evident con-
when he had dined at a friend's villa cern.-Detroit Journal.
near Putney. The dinner was extraor- THE ATLANTIC COAST LINE, via Charleston
dinarily late for those days-at S UINEXPECTEr- DFENSE. I Ric ond and W ingn.
o'clock. E "When they at last rose from the Tudge-Have you any thing to say
table and went to their rooms, Lord before the sentence is passed? THE SOUTHERN RAILWAY, via Savannah, Co
Clanwilliam flung open his windoly Burglar--Yes'r; if I'd know'd that
and saw the haymakers coming into spinster lady had a dinner bell under lumbia and Washington.
the field. 'er piller, things'd a come out diffr't. via AU A
'I wonder' he thought, 'what hour -Indianapolis Journal.
they begin work.' And on consulting The Southern R'y via Jesup, Atlanta and Chattan'g
his watch he found it was 8:30-the THE STRENUOUS LIFE. The Louisville & Nashville via Montgomery.
haymakers were returning to work Isabel-Well, I've accomplished a To The
from their breakfast."-New York great deal down town today. The Southern R'y via Svannah, Columbia, Asheville.
World. Arabella-Does your new coat fit The Mobile & Ohio R. R via Montgomery.
nicely?
NO USE FOR HIM. Isabel-Oh, I haven't found out yet:
"No," said the practical politician, but I kept 17 clerks from selling me Vi savannah and Ocean teahip Co. for New
"we don't want .him figuring in the oats that didn't fit Via nnah nd Ocean temship Co. for New
campaign." HARROW'IN TEST. TO The York, Philadelphia and Boston.
"But he is exceedingly well inform- HARROI TEST. To TAdmiral. "1
ed. "ialIi "John." said the returned Admiral. Savannah and Merchant & Miners Tranporta-
"I doubt it He has put in all his seating himself in the bay window. Vi ,avannah and Merchants & Miners TrEnsporta
time studying the tariff and finance "the people seem fond of me. Eh?" tion Company for Baltimore.
and the United States constitution. He "They do, sir."answered his private via steamship
doesn't know anything about politic secretary. "They do indeed."
shigon Sr. Al.yet sometimes,ohl .u. KEY WEST Via PENINSULAR OCCIDENTAL
-Washgton Star. the hero. "sometimes KEY EST ia PENINSULAR & OCCIDENTAL
permanency of even such popularity. AND
A CONCLUSION Joln-do-do you suppose they would HAVFNA STEAIISHIP CO.
"Doctor, what ails my daughter?" shovel the snow off my pavement for H V
"Before I answer that question let me?" NOVA SCOTIA,
me ask if you have any reason to The secretary paled.t He had no Via Boston and CANADA, ATLANTIC and PLANT
think she has had any love disappoint- thought of that.-New York Press. CAPE BRETON& STEAMSHIP LINE for Halifax Hawkesbury
ment of any kind."HIP LINE for Halifax, Hawkebury
"I know she has not." PRiNCE EDWADS and Charlottestown.
'Then. madam, your daughter has A CORRECTION. ISLAND....
the grip."-Chicago Tribune. "James," said his mother. "I've toldA ....
you four times to stop making that
ONE THING IN THFAI FAVOR. '"Five mamma." replied the youth, Summer Excursion Tickets
"I'll give the Boers credit for one who has a great future before him in
thing," remarked the engineer of the the exact sciences. Philadelphia to all Summer Resorts will b placed on sale September 30th,
armored train, as several more shells North American
banged against the armor, "their gun- The pLANT SYSTEM "' *'' ly ue m *rwe l wuH Through srjpma .Car
ners would make ideal suburban citi- M- rvice toe SHamer Restre of
zes." EASUREMENT
"How's that?" Inquired the fireman. 'Gertrude, I've brought you home WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA and
"Why they never miss a train!" re- two bushels of artificial violets." THE MOUNTAINS OF VIRGINIA.
torted the engineer as the baggage "Two bushels* Have you lost your
car left the track.-Puck. mind?"
car left the track.- ck.No but I heard you say you wished 'or Information as to rates, sleeping-car services, reservations, etc, write te
HAD LIVED IN THE CITY you had as many on your hat as that iI, L. POW Ag ent, DeLand, Fla.
Conductor--"Your ticket is for girl next door."-Boston Traveler. F. M. JOLLY, Div tion Passenger Agent.
Lawnville and we don't stop until we 138 West Bay Street, Aster Block, Jacksonville, Florida.
get to Trenton. This is the lightning NOT TO BLAME. STUART R. KNOTT, Vice-President, W. B. DENHAM, Gen. Supt.,,
express." The Elderly Lady-They say his Savannah, Ga. Savannah. Gla.
Suburban Resident "All right, wife has money. ? B. W. WRENN, Passenger Traffic Man Savannah, Ga.
When we get to Lawnville I'll jump. r'Well, that isn't his fault. They've '*
I've got off of street cars many a time only een married a short time."-
when the driver was liomewarn Indimu Ilft. OCEAN STEAMSHIP C
on his last trip." OCEAN STEAMSHIP CO.
YOU KNOW THIS KIND.
"OLD SUBSCRIBER'S" KICK "What is forced merriment?"
"How does it happen that you are "It is the kind a timid man gets off
reading the Bugle this morning? I when his wife gives a dinner."-Cli-
thought The Daily Planet' was yout enuro lecordl
favorite D per7"
"I used to like it, but I've stopped VNFORTUXATE "GIRL".
It." FORTUNATE "GIR".
"Politics?" "Why did you leave your last place?"
"No. It printed a notice of my iniluired a young housekeeper about to
daughter's wedding under the heal of ellg'age I newervant.
'Games of Chance.' I never want to "Why. you see. ma'am." replied lIh
touch the scurrilous sheet again!"Cli_ apli.Lan'lt. "I was too good looking and
q'ago Post. when I opened the door folks took ime
',*r I I'* i 5slIs.. 'T'it-fits.
sF IZi:sI I110 II'.
.Anl n,-ow." sigie,.u1 I r.. .ir...H :.
.o i*iulnldnIg his proposal. "lihav ,;i v .inli. Snlggs I':ain, v is..w iny -
,norhing to .sa to .Io.: A 1 r, I,,.', "". h.,ssn II,. 'ai Iar-,'. I.- i'*i.,-s "SAVANNAH LINE"
< h. do not keel, uie in siuspense:" '%n a ia
"But rather." repiiled Miss ;.,.Gli ...ir. .alar. -1 1i1ink ithey r.* all :
slowly and thoughtfully, "in suspend- large oW Sataly.-PIt;luiurg Chroni-
ers and other necessaries." .'ie-TeYLr:lliAl. ***
For vulgarly speaking, she was dead
on to him.-Philadelphin Press. TOO M1'I' FORl HIM TO UNDER-F
ROSTAN ,. FAST FREIGHT AND LUXURIOUS PASSENGER ROUTE.
T LOht I NTEREST. "I nelelhwr could un'stan." said IUncl'
S That is what I call a mnste Eben. "why it is dat I finds so much . FROM
stroke!" he exclaimed., mo' satisfaction in mnhchin' foh mile
"Oh do read about it." said his wif. hollin hurrah dan I does walkin a FLORIDA TO NEW YORK
"It'B rather long. Lo6lit at I l ro ,llr ir. u,-h ,,iN h-hIln iii A p FRI O ll li FI N W
of diplomacy- o the gledvert stroke '-de.* "-- Washington Star. BOSTON AND H' EAST.
"Oh. diplomacy! I thought it was RIG. IFFERENCE.
something about golf."-Washingtonil BI, -
Star. l'lidril-i (who for two month, hs
rteni studying French)-- ay. Sutton. I SHORT RAIL RIDE TO SAVANNAH, OEOtRO A.
call wrIte a good letter in French now. Thence via Palatial Expres$ Steamshipe, sailings from Savannah, Four Shi each week
ASSOCIATED. Sutton--I'i! Is that .o? Well you to New York and making cose connection with New York-Boston ships or und Lines.
Miss DeMuir-Papl. tlits is Mr. Gal- mlmy ,be able to write a good letter ill All ticket agents and hotels are supplied with monthly aling schedules. Write
loper.-no I mean Mr cr. Pacer. French. but I don't wlieve you can for general information, sailing schedules. stateroom reservations, or call on
The Young Man-I beg your pardon, write a letter in good Frenchl.-HBostpn HU BINwITW Trale Mlr., WAI.Tra RAWKIlS, GeA. AgL.
but my name Is Trotter. Trnlcr;ipt. Savannah, Ga. 22 W. Bay t.,Jacksonvile. Fla


THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.







THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST. 481


Forest Preservation.
After the New York State, legisla-
ture appropriated $2,000 for the State
Forest preserve, the New York Fish-
eries, Forest and Game Commission
requested the Division of Forestry of
the Department of Agriculture to ex-
amine its lands, and submit recom-
mendations for the management of the
forests in accordance with the regula-
tion for furnishing working plans to
those who pay the held expenses of
experts. Accordingly the work of in-
vestigating the forest contYions in the
Preserve began in June. and the com-
pleted working plans are to be ready
for submission to the New York State
legislature by the first of January,1901.
The beginning of this investigation
marks at eloch in the f0poe~t lIlto'y
of the country. For the first time the
Division of Forestry will co-operate
in practical forest management with
one of the State governments. If the
final report should lead to the repeal of
the forest clause of the 1894 ammend-
ment, a large public Preserve will for
the first time in our history be put un,
der skilled management, and operated
with a view, not only to its permanent
preservation, but to the production of
a regular revenue.
Thr wurhing liann for nwhirh th
data are now being gathered will
amount to a detailed scheme for man-
aging and harvesting the forest crop
of an important section in the Pre-
serve. They will show whether or not
a steady revenue can be drawn from
the New York Preserve without di-
minisling its timber yield or not to
prohibit all cutting whatsoever in or-
der to preserve the forest.
Their preparation will involve, first
of all, an examination of the forest it-
self with a view to finding out what
timber there is now on the ground, in
quantity as well as kind; and, secondl-
ly, a thorough study of the possibiE-
Ili? at lhitrring an a maaiml Iininhir,
basii; or, in other words, an examin-
ation of the forest trees from a lum-
berman's point of view, and of the-
most profitable methods of marketing
the timber. Thirdly, it will necessi-
tate a thorough investigation of the fire
problem, taking into consideration not
only the best means of preventing fires
in the future but also those of dealing
now with the lands which have been
injured or devastated in the past;
fourth, the preparation of forest maps;
and lastly, an examination of the for-
ests in their relation to the water sup-
ply of the region, and of the import-
ance of preserving them as natural
resevoirs. and for other reasons than
those involved in the Immediate pro-
duction of revenue. This part of the
investigation to be taken up in collab-
oration with the hydrographer of
the U. 8. Geological Survey, will dis-
pose effectually of any danger to the
water supply from the proposed cut-
ting, and will fix all those areas which
must be totally protected, or which
will require particularly careful and
conservative treatment.
The report of these plans will bring
up again the question of a repeal of
that clause of the State constitution
(Sec. 7. Art. 7), which now prohibits
any cutting or utilization of the for-
est crop of the Preserve. This clause
was an amendment passed in 1894
through fear that If any lumbering
were allowed, mismanagement would
he inevitable. The attempt to repeal
ii iil I-i; was defes tedi by tlt. girel;-
r.sl mllljIolity tlhlI ever dtfea;fl; *I jir'0.-
| Ipsal II r|>;ll in \ lithat int*, howev-r, tiln Slilt- hald ini
laiu-hinmry for regul.illn.ig tFiltR ,41;ilg
in a scientific manner.

SSalt for Weevils.
Some time ago we heard of a farmer
who had stored some corn in salt sacks,
and found that, whilst the weevil had
badly invaded some other corn in flour
:..Ltk. *that in thoe alt naok,. wans qlito
t"',sjKt L s'te la t"i ssrz ::?s
Tribune now comes forward with his
experience on the subject. He- has
malde the same discovery, having sack-
ed up a lot of cow peas in salt sacks
with the salt clinging to them. When
he was ready to market the peas he
unsacked them all, and found, to his
surprise, that the peas in the salt sacks
were in perfect condition, whilst those
in the other sacks were almost destroy-
ed by weevils. The next season he
used salt sacks with perfect success.


When he pulled his corn and stacked
it in tie barn with the husk on, he dis- FlOl d East oast Ry
solved a quart of salt in two gallons of
water, and as lie threw the corn on, I TIME TABL9 NO. S. IN EFFECT JUNE 6 U100
gave eaR'h layer a sprinkling. He has
ever been troubled with insects since. SOUTH BOUND (Bed Do) (aUp) O H BOND.
-Queensland Journal. N No.D~WN N078 No.G

ILime-Its Function and Use in Agri- 5 al TI..... ...Ja n T e........Ar I
culture. 0 5 6 aAr0.......9.A .......LT E
continuedd from PIage 472. l 4 ..*'........ .........
ing, Sclloesilg and Hilgard find none a ................. W p
L.::: : ...... .. Pbleta ..... ......... o
so effectively tas liliewater. 4a ` 6 1 llS ............ Palat ...........Ar 8 S
In stiff clay soils the particles. are i T" p.. ...Ar ..... o. .........L ......
very fine and closely packed together. ..... 7 K..............Ar ....
so that water can only with great dif- P T f iLv .......Mt Palat% .........Ar -
ficulty percolate through such. The ef- 7 2 1 . '.2
feet of lime on such soils is clearly 4 a8 1S ................" B e
rholiwn hr PIarnon who took thrcv --------- --- g
samples of different clays, and added .. *...P.... i ..." .....
ere 114 follo e:--y ...... ......... a ...... 2 ......
to each .25. .. and 2.5 per cent of lime.I ......... .........
Hle then noted the time that 2 inches of ..... ....... 1 ....
water took to percolate through 2 ......... ..
inches of these mixtures. The results r 4 S ..P.......M~m ......... 1 .
were as follows:- P ......... t m .
Clay. a 6 days. b 12 days, c 2. days. P . S- ......... S .t. .... "Lu .: I..
Clay and .25 per cent lime, a 12 hours, l ...... 6 ........ ort e ......... H i.......
b 10 days. c 8 days. .... ..... .... ... e ?
Clay and .50 per cent lime, a 10 ...... e6 ........... J ........... ....
hours, b 5 1-4 days, c 2 1-2 days. < ..... ............ tr.::.........::: .
Clay and 2.50 per cent lime, a 3 hours 0 on.. "
.. ..........W ...... .......
I1 S hours. e*7 liouirs. 0 Sin.:- Ei.... '
111 soIls II"it nave a tendency to pull- E- B6..""* 8i *
die and set hard, this tendency is less- a ...... .. o" 0S .....
ended by the use of lime. In this con- ... 10 ........Lemson ty......." NSo ......
section. Hilgard's experiment is most 4 .lO.. Ar............xMmi ............tr li ......
convincing. He says that. if any clay Bnufett Parlor Oar oe TraIa I sad an8
soil be worked into a plastic with wat- Betw-ee Jakseaville, Pae D eak a" KaPayet.
er and dried, the result will be a mass No.1 No.17 o.s No.
of almost stony hardness, but on add- STATIONS. Daily lS a San
ing to some of the same paste no more S n
than 1/, per cent. of caustic lime a dim- L. Jackonville ..... ..... .. 4 9.......... T
Ar. Pablo Beach........ 745s Ift I U 3
inution of plasticity will be obvious at Mayport Bc.... .. ............. ........ 5 .-..-.-
once, even while the clay is wet, and O .1 No.lIUo. N N N
on drying, the mass will fall into *i STATIONS. Dily Da W llyDAly l SSa n Sua
pile of crumbs, at a mere touch. It is exn ex n ex
evident then, that lime will render Lv. M yort ..................... ...... .. ....
clay soils warmer, mellower, and of PacloBeih l............. .......O. 8 p 0 SSip
hottepr tiltrl and the offset of this liht- r. Jacksonville ...........................
m{ *;r t A s Baa (rau Oifl g Uw TaSfff tg 3auzs-1
to last for many years. City Juantiae No.11 STATION&
Lime may promote nitrification. but, No.3. No.1. STATION. N No.4. L ...........t ..........
cumstances, especially if applied heav- 41 p ..a1e Le..Lv" ISp S S. ........... .....
490p 1200p ..OrangeC lop 44 .... ..........
ily, lime will arrest nitrification. War. 42t s215lAr.orange'y Jt. Ipl Ar .:....... anod..........
rington has shown that carbonate of Al trains between New Smyrna and Orange All train between TituailI ad eauird
lime is necessary to the effective work- City Junction daily except Sunday. daily except Sunday.
ing of nitrifying bacteria, and that Steamship Connections at Miami.
good working will not take place with. team ship Conns at Mi.
out it. Still, quicklime is injurious, and KEY WET LIN
heavy liming would arrest nitrification K W -
till sufficient carbonic acid had been Leave Mami Sundays, Triaya., Wednesdays 3 4 .. I _and
absorbed, or till the organic acids had Arriv Key West MonAdys,Wednesdays, Thursday ad 9mar6 I
neutralized the lime, when conditions est Thrdayanunda... ............................. ..... .
would again becommie favorable for the Arrive Miami Fridays and Mondays ................ ..................- &ON UL
would again become favorable for tlhe
nitrifying germs to work. Warring- HAVANA LINE. -
t(I tIOiHrlUulliIB hla-1 ru11eP u1w11 SOUTHBOUND STEAGMERB TOt'VC Al Y M? W1' NORTHBOUND AI;D
confirmed by the results of Heiden and DIRECT, HAVANA TO MIAML
Voigt. It is now generally recognized Lev imi SundaysdWee ............. UM ..T
that the addition of lime salts to th ArrvHava Tuedays and Fridays ..........
soil increases the power of that soil to Leave Havana Tuesdays and iidays ....... 1i~a O.
retain potash, soda, etc., from solu- ArriveMiami Wednesdayandaturdays... ioa. -.
tions. The use of lime in preventing 'Thee Time Tables show the times at which train may be expeo td tearvte d
certain fungoid diseases, such as "fin- from the several stations, bat their arrival or departed at the a U stated is not guars
ger and toe," "rust" "smut" and also teed, nor does the Company hold itself respoMlQ .mW say delay er aM eOsQIueo ail'
to prevent the ravages of slugs etc.. theesfrg~ e
has often been noted. One exception or copy do llehi a t BHsr A. P. A
ought, however, to be remembered-- J P BO 11w. Traffic Man er. t Augusti
tile potato scab fungus which affects Rom
potatoes and beets. The action of lime END U ONE D
seems to increase the activity of this *m .. .s
growth. ebbttl a e s P i emL a m,-.
Tho fori;egoimig reiiits show briefliv :i= e&. Ycn erI f 701 BaUIIa
the action of lime in altering the tex- retllOa tt f..**to$1 s nser erovam
ture, increasing the permeability and fgrbetterthanforgans Ie doys' amore l.7"M
power to retain certain plant foods In i tsaor .11, and freighter
soil<. provtlnting puddling. promoting $31.75 IS OUR SPECIAL 90 BAYS' fICE -- .
5 si r t iis- a I : , o n l i li ti g o fUl ,l '-- r b a n .
imist I' Su Cash a offer was sever sa ersf..
IIoti SI.. 1l:It IIIHV I% lh.I-kel 11up. THE ACME OUIL ione o tbe so* 8"a "
I\\ ll, ;1v aI oitl. of litlln onl ,il. is as i-tLa-Y ... 're From the Ilustratlon shown. which
L. antique finish, ha ndsomely ra n t,
Ih,. dolnue y ils al)p|li.a;io|n o a is oil <.t sl, eat ISti*tlnohle. TMndEmAlV deol U siledteetincheeli
tamiing small quantities only of clay, by it inches long, l inches wide sad wris i nlpound Ca.-
lecreasing the power of such to retain c..c m, csniite. Us asolos:
moisture. It will also be noted from the C wernms see. y;.a e. zme a0 1
above that the liberation of potash.etc., ." at *' LW
lre)sul)post', the presence of these plant sluMalle.Wust~. I a rtS .s.
foods. though in an inert and not read- 0~de.iJeimrn sedlse TIACLXoUZSE
Uon consm t of the oelebratedlowewl Ses rele-; _a
ily available stutte. The application, uedinthehihetssgrdeanstrunmena;a le wit
therefore. of ;ime aloue will not add e l below s ofthbeet d r le bbe
tholjo DOl:nt foI to the oil_ ln_ ,, hol.l onowsstockand anest leather in vA.lve
,,,m- ern kv {.12,tJ b Z 7N=Z
fix plant foods that may be added, and ,Qs L W.,miMe- -mpro&&
reduce some of tlose already existing QUARANTEED 25 YEAR&. It
there in an inert state to such a condi- se written bindna ye maa W ue
tion as to be readily available for plant tm" mdood w ff aI Ju m 0o
growth.-By A. Alexander Ramsay. sr nfuiyour mon.ayfyrae mo
Manager of the Sugar Experiment Sta- .Iot AT oo CL m'XKr 1M1AY..
tion, Mackay. OdR RELIABILITY IS ESTABLINU N 1E .
adotdes. with s ask your seigboirabeat rle
tde mbaliberof thspaperor Sdre.llltaNatosaI
=an, or Grn Exebrane las. Cuh.Calgo; or Gemas Ellange Baaa, New Yorki c
Hailstones in India are said to be ommy in ,9 weeaom e ., o eonofi.- ai-iis Sih
from 5 to 20 times larger than those in Ch icaoan mpl uown as woe 1 aL
England or America. Saud mrl aUt r t laent eaus ( se. e ..i i- LUrs
,ARS. ROiPUClKlg & 00. (V.1 h I1m I am mi 11111 @1AQO @ ILL1






_4W THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.

-"-a ___________


It


OW TO GET A TON OF FERTILIZE
^sl*t&*&a*^-a^*fdaa^eL^SKtanE D-te!aa


IfO


0 . FOR $2.00


. 0 0


io,ooo Subscribers Wanted for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST within the next six months.
Every Thirtieth person remitting $2.oo for a year's subscription will be given an order for a
TON of Simon Pure Fertilizer of whatever brand desired .. ..

HOW TO DO IT.


Cut out the coupon and
you will receive the Florida
COUPON.

flessrs. E. O. PAINTER & CO.,
Pubs. Florida Agricult
Gentlemen-Please find enclosed $2.0
scription to the Florida Agriculturist t
is understood that should the number
or any multiple of that number, I can o
brand of Simon Pure Fertilizer which
o. b. cars at Jacksonville, Fla., withoi
to me.
Shipping Point .....................
Freight Depot................... ......
P. O. Address........................ ..


send with $2.00 to E. O. Painter & Co., Publishers, DeLand, Fla., and
Agriculturist, the oldest, only agricultural paper in the state, for one
year. The coupons will be numbered as received,
and a receipt for the money bearing the same num-
ber will be returned. If your number is 30, or any
.......... 19oo multiple of 30, as 60, 90, 300, etc., you can order a
ton of fertilizer at once or any time within a year.
urist, Please bear in mind you get the Florida Agricultur-
i' Fte 1ist at the regular price of 2 per year and have one
Sfor one yea's sub- chance in 30 of getting ton of high grade fertilizer
o begin at once. It g igh grade fertilizer
of my receipt be 30 beside. This may be YOUR opportunity.
rder a ton of any
fill be delivered f.
ut further expense PAINTER & ,
........ E. 0. PAINTER & CO.,
.....................
................... Publishers,


Note-If the station to which the fertilizer is to be shipped is a
"prepay." amount of fright must be forwarded with instructions.


DE LAND,


- FLORIDA.


A High-Grade Fertilizer

j. -i>MUST HAVF,--


QUALITY!


REPUTATION!


"T'HiE IDEAL" BRANDS--

lM HAVE THESE E.--~'
Then why pay $35.00 and $40.00 per ton when you can get a strictly high grade, reliable fertilizer at the following p ices


IDEAL FRUIT AND VINE............. $3o.o00 per ton
IDEAL POTATO MANURE................ $3o.00 per ton
IDEAL VEGETABLE MANURE............ $30.00 per ton


IDEAL FERTILIZER (for all crops)......... $7.00 per ton
IDEAL BLOOD, BONE AND POTASH.... $8.00 per ton
SPECIAL MIXTURE No. .................. 28.00 per ton
CORN FERTILIZER ..................... $20.00oo per ton


All fertilizer 'material at the lowest market prices. Ask for our book "Why we make the IDEAL FERTILIZERS
WILSON & TOOMER FERTIT .IZER COMPANY,

JACKSONVILLE, FLA.
Pies Foot Brand Blood and Bone, $18.00 per ton. Damavaland Guano, The Ideal Tobacco Fertiliser, $44.00 p er to.


--~~-~-~-~f~-~l ~-~-1Xf~CI- -~---1-5--~j Sf-~i~C; -Tlt--l~-l- -t--Tl~-t- -t--T--~-~C- r~-~-t~-l~~ -I~--~t~---l-~k~~ ~~


-,. -'N- ,' ,- , --, -, -, -,, -: 77


77-7 7 7 7


~cr~


jref~c~~ 6 ~LE~P~