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 Material Information
Title: The Florida agriculturist
Uniform Title: Florida agriculturist (De Land, Fla.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ;
Language: English
Publisher: Kilkoff & Dean
Place of Publication: DeLand Fla
Creation Date: June 13, 1900
Publication Date: 1878-1911
Frequency: monthly[1908-june 1911]
weekly[ former 1878-1907]
monthly
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- De Land (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Volusia County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Jacksonville (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Duval County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: newspaper   ( marcgt )
newspaper   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Volusia -- DeLand
Coordinates: 29.02889 x -81.30055 ( Place of Publication )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (May 15, 1878)-v. 38, no. 6 (June 1911).
Numbering Peculiarities: Numbering is irregular.
Numbering Peculiarities: Some issues for 1911 also called "New series."
General Note: Publisher: E.O. Painter, <1887>.
General Note: Editor: C. Codrington, 1878- .
General Note: "A journal devoted to state interests."
General Note: Published at Jacksonville and De Land, <1902>-1907; at Jacksonville, 1907- .
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Source Institution: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: aleph - 000941425
oclc - 01376795
notis - AEQ2997
lccn - sn 96027724
System ID: UF00047911:00024
 Related Items
Preceded by: Volusia County herald (De Land, Fla.)

Full Text

































Vol. XXVII, No. 24. Wlole No. 1376. DeLand, Fla., Wednesday, June 13, 1900. $2 per Annum, in Advance


Some Ctrus .Troubles.
The Florida Experiment Station has
Just Issued Bulletin No. 53, with the
above title. From the publication we
extract the following chapters:
Foot Rot.-The name given above is
the one under which the disease is
commonly known in Florida. In Italy
It is called "Maldi Goma," while in Cal-
ifornia, it usually goes by the name of
"gum disease." So far as known it is
found in nearly all the citrus districts
of the world, and its history in Europe
extends back to about 1845. It worked
destruction in the groves of the Azores
some years previous to that, and, in
fact, it seems to have first jeen noted
there. When it made its appearance
in Florida, is not definitely known, but
in 1888, Dr. A. 1t. Curtis referred to it
as follows: "The disease of orange
trees commonly known as 'foot-rot,'
seems to have made its appearance in
Florida about twelve years ago. Few
persons, however, remember to have ob-
served it earlier than the year 180."
Dr. W. T. Moore, writing in 1881,
states: "Two other diseases have of
late years shown themselves in Flor-
Ida, and occasioned great fear and
trouble among the orange growers
One is known as 'foot-rot.' In the
Florida Dispatch-Farmer ana Fruit
Grower, one of the horticultural papers
of the State, now incorporated with the
Times-Union and Citizen, Mr. T. S.
Coogler, of Brooksville, Fla., makes
the following statement: "When I
first began the growing of citrus trees
in this county, ((Hernando), in 1867,
there was no such thing known as
foot-rot, and if it then existed it was
wholly unnoticed. The year 1878 was
a very wet one, for it rained almost
continually during the entire year.
** When the sap began to flow
in the citrus trees the following (1879)
spring, it was noticed that in many
trees it exuded from the bark at or
near the ground, but no one paid any
attention to it. This was really the
commencement of the foot;rot in this
country, so far as we can ascertain."
From these references it will be seen
that it has, in all probability, been pres-
ent in the State for a period extending
over the last twenty years.
Previous to the freeze this disorder
caused great destruction in the groves
of Northern Florida; it is still found
generally distributed throughout the
sections where orange growing is suc-
cessfully carried on.
Foot-rot is clearly marked and not
likely to be confounded with any other
disease. It Is confined to the crown
and main roots of the tree, extending
a foot or so above the ground and
downward along the roots. Its pres-
ence is first Indicated by an exudation
of gum, which forms in drops on the
bark covering the diseased spot. Fur-
ther examination at this time reveals
a brownish coloration of the outer cor-
tex and a decayed condition of the in-
ner.
The affected areas emit a fetid odor
similar to that from a decaying orange.
All plants, when attacked by a disease,
strive to overcome it, and this the or-
ange tries to do by cutting off the af-
fected portion by a wall of new tissue
similar to that around an ordinary
wound. Following this, the bark co.-


c-ring the spot dries up. breaks away
from the adjoining parts, and drops off.
The wood is then found to be decayed
for a short distance beneath.
Though tree still continues to
bear fruit, appearance is far from
healthy; t e ves become yellow, the
twigs and g branches die, and the
whole tree umes an unthrifty ap-
pearance. ere the affected tree can
be seen fror distance, It stands out
in marked c st to its neighbors.
Fortunately varieties of the cit-
rus stock are 9t in the same degree
subject to this disease. In order of
foot-rot resistance they stand about as
follows: Sour orange, Citrus bigara-
dia; pomelo, C. decumana; rough lem-
on; C. sp.; lemon, C. limonum; sweet
orange, C. aurantium. Roughly, we
may class the first three as decidedly
resistant, the last two as very much
subject to the disease. It is pre-emi-
nently a disease of the sweet stock.
We are unable to place C. tifoliata
definitely, but would venture tMe opin-
ion that it possesses considerable mer-
it in power of resistance as well as in
so many others.
Cattle-penning; deep-setting; a wet
soggy-soil condition; the use of rank,
organic nitrogenous fertilizers; plant-
ing in localities underlaid with hard-
pan; faulty drainage; a shaded condi-
tion of the soi, and many similar cir-
cumstances and practices have been
given as the cause of foot-rot. While
it is not probable that the disorder is
due to any of these, there is no doubt
that they have a deleterious effect on
the general health of the tree, and so
act as a predisposing cause. A healthy,
vigorous tree has all the chances in its
favor for withstanding the inroads of
disease, and any decrease in its vital-
ity simply gives its enemies an oppor-
tunity to gain a foot-hold.
The specific case of the disease is
still in doubt, but it is probably due to
some form of vegetable parasite. Prof.
Giovanni Brioze, in 1878, found a fun-
gus, Fusisporium limonii, constantly
associated with the disorder, but was
not certain as to whether it was the
specific cause or not. Regarding it he
states: "But that its presence ought
to accelerate the disorganization of the
tissue and contribute to extend the evil,
I think I see without any doubt."
As pointed out above there are many
conditions which bear an important re-
lation to foot-rot, and a irief discussion
of some of these will not be out of
place. (a) Cattle-penning and pas-
turing, so often resorted to for the pur-
pose of fertilizing the groves, is to say
the least, a questionable practice. The
sharp hoofs of the animals cut and
bruise the bark on the crown roots, and
thus, through their agency, this possi-
bly parasitic disease may be more rap-
dlly earriel from affected to unaffectedl
trees. Then, too, the rank manure
may act injuriously, and there is no
doubt that there are better means for
supplying the requisite plant food than
this. In fact, we believe that the best
orange is produced in Florida by the
judicious use of commercial fertilizers.
(b) Close planting is often resorted to
as a means for shading the ground. A
moist or damp condition of the soil is
produced about the tree, which, in our
warm Florida climate, Is exactly suit-


ed to the development of disease. It
would be decidedly better to provide a
surface mulch either by the growing
of leguminous crops or by providing a
mulch of leaves and leaf-mold. Air
would then be freely admitted, and the
sunlight, one of the best germicides we
have. would be allowed to reach the
soil. (c) The piling of rubbish, old tin
cans, palmetto roots, etc., about the
trunks of trees is to be strongly con-
demintl. Where a mulch of leaves or
grass is placed close to the trunks it
should, from time to time, be removed
to allow the soil to dry out on the face.
(d) Strict attention should be paid to
drainage, that no stagnant water be
allowed among the trees. A soggy, ill-
drained soil is not conducive to the
health of an orange tree.
Remedies.--These consist in remov-
ing, as far as possible, the detrimental
conditions to which reference has just
been made, and particular attention
should be paid to everything conducive
to the health of the grove.
Carefully remove the earth from
about the tree, avoiding injury to the
healthy roots. With a sharp, strong
knife, cut out all the diseased tissue
down ito the healthy wood. Burn the
material removed. With a brush, paint
the freshly cut wood, using one of the
following solutions:
1. Carbolineum Avenarius.
2. Crude carbolic acid and water in
equal parts.
3. Sulphurous acid and water, three
of the former to seventeen of the latter.
4. Lime, crude carbolic acid, and
salt. Slake one peck of lime in two
gallons of water and add crude carbol-
ic acid, four ounces; salt, three pounds.
If too thick, add a little more water.
Leave the earth removed until such
time as the tree has recovered, and
then it would be better to fill in with
fresh, porous earth. In close-planted
groves remove a sufficient number of
trees to let the light reach the ground.
These can be set in another plot of
ground. Disinfect cultivators, plows
and harrows with carbolic acid after
using them in diseased groves, and be-
fore use among healthy trees. As a
preventative measure, use resistant
stocks as already indicated, and where
trees have died out, re-set with others
budded on sour orange, pomelo or
rough lemon, as the soil conditions ren-
der necessary.
Scab.-This citrus disease has been
known in Florida for the past fifteen
years or more, having been observed
first on the sour orange, C. bigaradia.
The bitter-sweet and lemon are also
very much subject to the disease. This
year it has been collected on young
tender leaves of the pamelo, C. decum-
ana, and on the foliage of the Satsuma,
C. nobilis (?) and Kumquat, C. Japon-
ica. A large number of young Satsuma
trees badly affected by the disease
were found, and the leaves showed that
considerable damage had been worked
by the fungus. On the Kamquat, only
a few diseased leaves were found,
though several hundred trees have been
examined. It is very probable that on
one of the last named varieties it was
introduced into Florida from Japan,
and, here finding host plants and cli-
matic ouditions adapted to its devel-
opment, has become a serious incon.


venience in the successful growing of
certain citrus fruits.
While the sour orange, wherever
found in Florida, is very badly affected
by scab, little notice is taken of the dis-
ease on that host, as it is used princi-
pally as a stock on which to work oth-
er varieties, and is usually cut off
when a year or two old. It is, however,
a slight drawback in the production of
healthy, vigorous stock. But it is with
the injury done to the fruit of the
lemon that we are most concerned from
an economist standpoint. Lemons, to
sell well, must be perfectly bright,
clean and smooth, and when they are
badly affected by this disease, they are
rendered unsalable. A rough, distorted
fruit finds no place in our markets.
Scabby leaves, twigs and fruit are
very characteristically marked. Warty,
corky elevations cover the surface,
giving to it an unsightly, roughened
appearance. Often the leaves are twist-
ed or drawn out of shape, and they
are in a considerable degree deprived
of the power to fulfill their natural
functions, namefl, respiration, transpir-
ation and the assimilation of food. Be-
neath the warts on the opposite side
of the leaf, there is often a well marked
conical depression, corresponding to
the elevation on which tlie excrescence
is situated. Under the warts 6n the
fruit there is an abnormal thickening
of the tissue, resulting in the formation
of somewhat conical elevations. Thus
the corky portions are lifted above the
normal level of the rind. The warts
are at first yellowish, then grayish, be-
coming dusky in appearance as the dis-
ease advances, until they become al-
most black, and eventually crack and
open. When the excrescences are
isolated they are minute and of the
shape of a cone or truncated-cone.
Generally, however, they are confluent,
presenting the appearance of a bark-
like substance firmly attached to the
epidermis.
The specific cause of the disease is a
minute parasitic fungus, a species of
Cladosporium described by Prof. F.
Iamson-Scribner in 1886. The spores
are very small, smoky in color, and us-
rally one or two, though" sometimes
three-celled. They are borne on brown-
ish colored sporophores (spore-bearing
filaments). When matured they become
detached, and through the agency of
the wind they are carried about from
one tree to another. They fall upon the
leaves of their host, and, under favor-
able conditions, germinate by sending
out a delicate, slender tube, which en-
ters the leaves and gives rise, in due
time, to the well-marked diseased con-
dition.
lemedies.-The experiments carried
out by Webber and Swingle have gone
to show that the disease can be suc-
cessfully controlled by using one of the
copper spraying solutions, Bordeaux
mixture or ammonlacal solution of cop-
per carbonate. The latter must receive
the higher, recommendations, as it is
less likely to injure the tender leaves
and blossoms of the lemon, but a weak
solution of Bordeaux mixture is likely
to prove quite as efficacious without
any harmful results.
The question at once arises, "Am I
not likely to do injury by killing as
well the parasitic species of fungi that









s70 THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.


work destruction to the various scales only to become affected and die. Ev
that Infest the trees?" This will have tually the tree succumbs.
to be borne In mind, and, if necessary, Dieback is not, so far as known
follow the spraying with an application fungas disease, no spores nor anyth
of whale-oil soap, kerosene emulsion or of the sort having been found connt
resin wash. To prevent scab spray three' ed with it. It appears rather to bt
times. Give the first application just disorder brought about by a varib
after the petals have fallen from the of circumstances, and the exter
first blossoms and two others inside the marks of the disease are to be regard
next six weeks. If the disease gains as an indication of a deranged con
ground on the young 'fruit, further tlon of the whole tree. In certain
spraying will be necessary. Shoots of calities it seems to be brought about
sour orange and diseased fruit should the presence of hard-pan in proxim
be removed and burned, to surface. Again, the conditions se
Ammoniacal solution: to be due to a wet, poorly aerated s,
Copper carbonate, 5 ounces; ammo- But perhaps the most prolific source
nla, 3 pints; water, 45 gallons, trouble is the use of fertilizers unsi
*Dilute the ammonia with five gallons able to the orange tree. Now, whetl
of water and add the copper carbonate, we should make a distinction in d
Use a wooden vessel. Stir tioroughigy i acK Dy these several causes, it is C
until dissolved. This gives one ounce ficult to say.
of copper carbonate to each gallon. Many instances have come under i
use, add forty gallons of water, or, in observation of the writer, of the occ
smaller quantities, one gallon of mix- rence of the disease where trees wi
ture to eight gallons of water, planted in ground previously usedl
The following mixture of Bordeaux growing vegetables, and which w
is recommended heavily fertilized with blood andl ..c
Copper sulphate, 4 pounds; unslaked and cotton seed meal. Then, too,
lime, 4 pounds; water, 75) gallons. some localities the spaces between i
lDissolve the copper sulphate in twen- tree-rows have been used for grow
ty alltone of wato. Slake tlhe li",,, ea r s b;!1."a th! i"'ir fhrtihinrr i
b ltfi 0 qulatity 6f Watef; idd Water to Ilied as In the cases just mention,
make twenty gallons. Mix the two so- and with the same deplorable effect
Intions in a third vessel or in the bar- the orange trees. The disease has Iw
rel of the spray pump, taking a pail- observed in groves regularly fertilize
tul alternately from each of the solu- with rank nitrogenous fertilizers, a
tions. trees standing near and receiving nul
Die-back.-This disease takes its ment from stables, closets and hi
name from the fact that the young coops are generally atQctedl. The g,
twigs and branches of affected trees oral conclusion reached by all obse
dieback to a distance of from two to ers during the past fifteen years
eight inches, or even more. from their more has been for the most part to I
tips. It was first described in the year effect that the excessive use ot orgi
1b75, J. H. Fowler, and it seems to be ic nitrogenous fertilizers will cai
peculiar to Florida conditions. die-back, and the matter has been pr
In 1873-74 It was the subject of in- ty thoroughly discussed in the hortic
quiry In several letters to the Agricul- tural papers of the State.
tural Department at Washington. One Remedies.-These consist for
of these we quote as referred to by most part in removing conditions a
LM. W. LH Assfl fa f IRB Bf -sY Writ- iSGifUii pfiffii fiiFdWiFe Wfiliti indi
ten In 1884: "'Mr. W. F. White, of the disease. Make a thorough study
Tampa, wrote under date of April 15, the soil and the methods of fertilizi
1873, to the department as follows: In some places, with trees grow
'We have the disease of the orange un hard-pan, the following plan A
tree known as "die-back." It has late- adopted and they made a complete
ly appeared at this place. We have no cover: The trees were cut back, li
underdrains, but it is equally as bad on ed from the ground, the liard-pan
the pine land, hammock, or shell land. moved, either by blasting or picking
Some of our trees are almost killed by out, and the trees reset. The reml
the disease, while in other cases only for trees growing in damp ground c
a few limbs are injured. The trees sists in paying proper attention
once affected make very little growth drainage and fertilizing. Tile or 1
afterwards.' drains should le put in to remove 1
No citrus trouble is more widely dis- water and allow the air to ent
tribute throughout the State than die- Where the disease has been broul
back: No locality ls exempt from It, about y1 thli use na ft o:lirtlmo, as
and no variety free from Its attack, fore Indieated, discontinue their u
Trees, young and old suffer alike, and discontinue cultivation, allow the n
a few trees have been found affected ural vegetation to spring up and apI
which were still standing in the nur- potash and phosphoric acid as ust
sery rows. Very often little notice is Continue this treatment until recover
taken of It, and It gradually works its takes place; then resume cultivat
way, nipping off the new growth, and and fertilization, using nitrate of s(
the trees, in consequence, make very or sulphate of ammonia as a source
little progress. eYars of work and nitrogen.
much capital are often wasted in mis- Quite a number of growers have
taken efforts to bring a grove into perimented with Bordeaux mixture
healthy condition, a cure for die-back, anft report t'
The disease is easily recognized. The benefit has been derived from the ap
young twigs die back several inches. cation of that compound, even wh
Irregular, reddish-brown elevations, at no alteration was made in the ferl
frrst siede later srasb d Oern and trr, On Fubruarry S. 1000. a numi
killed with resinous substance make of trees were examined In a yot
their appearance on the small branches groN e belonging to Mr. Harrington,
and twigs. These vary greatly in Winter Haven, Fla. These trees 1
length, height and shape. Often ele- been very badly affected with the (
vated pustules, filled with a gummy ease and were sprayed about Sept(
substance, occur on the young growth, her 1, 1899 and again January 1, i.
These seem, in some cases at least, to The mixture first applied was qt
develop Into open ruptures. Adventi- strong, six to twenty-two; the seco
tions buds are frequently produced, four to twenty-two. The leaves, yol
and those which are not smothered by growth and flower buds were un
the resinous erudation develop, thun jured by the second applici.tion- mi
giving rise to several branches from a the first treatment the trees, in m11
single node. Sometimes the only no- cases, made an apparently health
ticeable mark of the disorder on. a new growth of nearly two feet.
branch Is the presence of a resinous new growth had survived for mon
knot In the axis of the leaves where before. Whether we are to reg:
the buds should be. Slightly affected Bordeaux mixture as a remedy is
branches have often a dark, greasy ap- in doubt, but it is worthy of a tr
pearance. The small growth is usual- Better to use a one to ten solution.
l3 twisted and bent. On the fruit the
disease is manifested by the presence Pollination.
of dark, brownish blotches and by From the publication on Culture
cracking or splitting. Many fruits drop the Citrus in California, issued by
9ff As the diaea e adTancca thr treua Ptiltr lnourl of IIohl-tliultlrul. nlo (i-Ex
try In vain to throw out new branches, the following chapter on pollination
Symptoms become more strongly The mixing of the pollen among
marked, the tips of the bare, distorted flowers of the species has given bi
branches protrude above the dark-green to innumerable hybrids, distinguish
foliage. Gradually the larger branches as such and designated as variety
are embraced, water sprouts develop by their remaining constant, i. e.,


en-

, m NCH E STER

*'a d"HNEW RIVAL"

nal
ety
nal w FACTORY LOADED SHOTGUN SHELLS
led
d Noblockpowder shellson the market compare with the NEW RIVAL" in l-
lo- sormlty amid tron shooting quallti. & r tin IMI wlup o. G eat theb ani.
'by WMOHESTER REPEATING ARMS CO. Ham COm.
ity
e n
oil.
it- reverting to thie mother type after con- devoid of special characteristics
ir tenuous propagation. With the con- through which their qualities could be
ler stant multiplication of varieties it known to the trade and distinguished
uie- twil a DI (ifloult to trace to iwhat ae- from tbs aslinary on"mon sdlin of-
cies many hybrids belong. Many par- ten sell for no more, if as much.
Stake of the lemon, the orange, and the The only variety produced by what
hecitronl may be termed a peculiar method of
ere The flower of the orange is nothing propagation is an exceptionally fine
in but a transformed branch, either com- type of Navel by C. Thompson, of
as, ing out of the axilla of an ordinary leaf e. Te process, which is men-
,ne or from that of an abortive leaf, usual- tioned by ancient writers upon agricul-
in ly called a bract. This transformed ture, was first applied in this State by
:he branch, or flower, in the orange, con- r. Thompson and was perform wood of
ing sists of several whorls or transformed close intermarriage of the wood of
Slov-a., z0 the eRnlr whorl. the corolla several varieties which by growing
PIIidi'l, fi f Kflfihtn w-11FI (rF U jioris, __ P51A4511 a -mltflna of
ed, WoiGflt ifts ifiliift weort or ultsons, 6-W'-_5 arnteristics of the varjons fae-
oni and ovary whorl or whorls. The latter, the characteristic of the various fa-
en in the citrus fruits, consists ordinarily tors. The secret of the operation lies
ed of two distinct whorls--the outer or in the matching of two half-buds of the
nd rind whorl, and the inner or pulp same size and of different sorts.
tri- whorl. The flowers of the greater T'he process Mr. Thompson describes
en- species are single-possessing an abun- as follows: "The bud is composed of
Ln- dance of pollen. Double tiowvers are two half-buds of tie same size put to-
rv- often produced by the growth of addi- gather aind Inserted as one, waxed over,
or tional whorls or petals. after being concaved to fit the convex
the Double flowers have a tendency to side of the stock, and concaved a lit-
In- fruit-doubling. The peculiarity of these tie also in the split so as to bring both
use fruits exists in the ovary before ferti- edges of the germ together closely.
et- lization, and the fruit exhibiting it may This hias to be done. of course, with
ul- develop without having been fertilized, a very thin, sharp knife. Now say, for
It lins rarely any seeds. and when Iprs- instance, that one of the half-buds is a
the uet are very small and iniperft,.t. Such Washington Navel and the other half
nd instances of seedless fruit plainly show a St. Michael. These grow together
ice MtVUt tle ro-clled supr tatioi coul] nnl form one toe hat P-om this shoot
of not have been the resulxtof exeSS fer. nlt season take buds, and from Malta
ng. tClization, as there are no germs to be Blood take buds of equal size and ma-
.ng fertilized, and even if there are any. turity; split and unite these halves as
-as they must le so imllirfect tlht no fer- one bud, fit them well and neatly to-
re- tilization can take place. This result gether. wax over lightly, and cover
ift- might also occur from imperfection of with a wax wrapper: string will not
re- ihe sexual organs. do. as the buds would dry out. Next
re The orane within orange is nothing season again takes these buds from
,dy but a doubling of the fruit or ovaryr this new growth and halve them with
on- whorls. It is the result of the doubling half-buds of Mediterranean Sweet.
to of the flower. Gallesio says: "'Certain IHere, then, you get a growth which
ox varieties, like the double-flowered ber- includes all the varieties named. At
the ganmot, when not highly cultivated and the end of three weeks from budding,
e. left to themselves, lose by degrees the the wrapper has to be removed and the
ght character of giving double flowers and buds examined with a magnifying
Iwh-ar anly ~ng!' osn1<1, glass. If the union is complete at the
[s-, 'Artificial foundation whenever ap- crown of the germ return the wrapper,
sat l'lied has given varying resuhs. and to exclude sun and air until the bud
ply when the action was reffcd upon t lt, starts to grow. Sometimes only one
al. ovle the fruit was ynot i od itil. but half of the bud starts to grow; all
ral.the ovules grew into sditil. which such should be cut out and the bud-
ion when planted produced trees and ding done over again. Sometimes both
halves (lie, or both halves grow separ-
oda fruit entirely distinct from the par- ately. Then it has to b e done over
ately. Thea it has,; to be done over
of eat trees. again on a new place in the stock.
Fecundation is effected naturally There ought to be at least fifty buds of
ex- among pollen-producing flowers by in- each combination put in at the same
as sects, birds, the wind, and by friction. time to cover failures."
hat The moment the flowers reach matur- Mr. Thompson has distributed a great
pli- ity and are ready for fecundation the many buds and trees among his neigh-
ere stigma of the pistil appears ;is if gum bors and in other sections of the State.
tili- med with a honey-like substance and The trees have invariably continued to
her arryca to rrtnin the dutt-lihr nollcn proiuue tlH tlipuuRlntiu l fllag1 ulI O mll -
Ing when applied to It. The flower with ingly remaining constant. Many have
of which to effect fecundation must be claimed that the variety has not pro-
lad taken when ready to bloom, must be duced fruit as grown on the original
lis- thrifty, the corolla removed, and .he trees, but Mr. Thompson says this has
i11- anthers rubbed upon the stigma, the not been on trees which he has sup-
oK). corolla removed, and the anthers rub- plied. The buds then must have come
lite bud upon rthe stigma to le frucitiied. from otiler trees that are not the true
nd, The operation is repeated until the "Imlproved Navel."
ing stigma assumes its normal state, and
tin- care must be exercised not to miss the Intensive Horticulture.
ilo moment of blooming in the pistiil. A IMllKioln oullt corrl'enplndnt Of
mny varieties of the orange are :nuner- the Farmer and Fruit Grower. gives
hy, able, and have of late years been iln- his personal experience in intensive
No ported from all over the glol'. While lIciticultulre is follows:
ths many of these possess good qualities, We in Florila. known really nothing
ird the majority lack the most essential as to intensive horticulture compared
yet characteristics to be worthy of culture to some gardens around the great ci-
ial. for profit. Attempts to improve upon ties of the North, who have to make
the varieties now fruiting have been their profits in six or eight months,
miade by cross-pollination, without re- while we have twelve. They practice
suits of much value, although numer- gardening at a truly high pressure.
of ous varieties possessed of some mleri-t Iigh culture is three-sided; it con-
the have been thus originated. The best sists of good tillage, abundant fertilis-
"a:1l Itxillts have lbooi through llglllll ami inlg alli judivioua planning as to the
: ture, and chance seedlings of high mer- succession of crops. Good tillage is
the it have been produced without the aid not keeping down weeds; it is stirring
rth of man. But while some of these im- the soil, deeply at first, shallow later
ned ported sorts and home-grown seedlings on. and often, for the direct benefit of
ies, have been planted quite largely the crop. There is nio fallacy so un-
not throughout the State, the fruit, being founded as that which uses the hoe









THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST. 371


only when the weeds become conspic-
uous. Good tillage kills the weeds
while they are still under the surface.
I never knew a true market gardener
who knew or cared much about weeds.
In a certain garden of 100 acre~, I nev-
er saw a weed, unless it grew along
a path or about a compost heap. I of-
ten think of weeds as a divine bless-
ing to the shiftless farmer, to goad
him to cultivate the crop; but to the
wide-awake market gardener weed is
almost a meaningless expression.
Next to the care of the soil itself, the
manure is the most important consid-
eration to the trucker. He does not con-
sider a good dressing of manure once
in two or three years to be sufficient;
that is not high culture. Every year
almost regardless of cost every acre
must be heavily manured. For ordi-
unry lalls thel galrilonilers aIKout Iost[On
use annually about ten cords of horse
manure to the acre and its cost is sel-
dom less than $7 or $8 per cord. The
gardener usually has little faith in the
value of manure the second year after
it !, applied,: _g app!!es it to hlb lInd
in a thoroughly decomposed condition,
and expects to reap his reward at once.
For certain crops he even applies it
twice a year. Even after several years
of this excessive manuring, should a
your no skipped, thi crops will almost
invariably fail to yield a profit.
Profits of figli Manuring.-Peter
Henderson relates an apt illustration
of this sort; it is not new to older
leaders, but may be to younger ones.
A market gardener of twenty years'
experience, and whose premises had
always been a perfect model of pro-
ductiveness, promised to run a street
through his grounds, Thinking bis land
sufficiently rich to carry a crop of cab-
bage without manure, he gave It none.
On the other side of the street he al-
lowed guano at tile rate of 1,200 pounds
per acre. Upon the unfertilized part of
the contiguous areas he planted early
cabbages. From the fertilized ground
his cabbages brought him $1,400 per
acre; from the unfertilized part, $330
per acre-a loss of $1,000 an acre.
iMauure, Manure, and Again Manure.
-Much has been said and written
about the ultimate exhaustion of soils,
and the Inevitable failure of agricul-
ture. The famous market garden lands
of Arlington, near Boston, were arid
wastes when the British soldiers
marched to Lexington--as poor as a
Florida sandhill, and even fifty years
ago they were called in derision Pov-
erty Plains. To-day they are among
the richest lands I ever saw.
The successive cropping, the double
cropping of lands are distinctive fea-
tures of intensive horticulture. The
"multtm in pravo," the even lprsist-
ent cropping of every foot of ground
in every available season, is the only
nlithl of rTallrllng a paolt firnl lgitl-
priced land. A good story is fold of a
shrewd gardener who hired a piece of
land at a nominal price, allowing the
owner the privileges of entering upon
the land at any time by paying him the
value of the crop upon it. The owner
anon saw tile luorosling vUluo o01f il
land, but after watching it for several
years he could not find a time when the
crops upon the ground were not worm
more than the ground Itself; and be
was finally obliged to sell to the ten-
ant at a very low figure.
Promptness and Thoroughness.-
The secret of the success of these
Northern gardeners lies in the prompt-
ness and thoroughness with which ev-
ery operation is conducted. Garden ve-
getables rarely bring what the general
farmer would call a high price. -'hey
are articles of universal consumption
and so cheap that very family in city
and -.country can afford them. Most of
them can be readily grown by any far-
mer on land ten times cheaper than the
valuable acres in the vicinity of large
cities. How, then, does the market
gardener make his money? His secret
lies in these two facts: lie grows
more vegetables to the acre than the
general farmer, and he markets them
ir better season and in more attractive
condition. The average farmer, with
land worth only $50 an acre, and am-
nure costing a trifle, makes a bare Imar-
gin from cabbage; but the expert gnr-
laBr, ~~i land worth $i,uuu an acre,
and with an outlay of $75 to $100 for
manure, realizes a handsome profit


Products of the Citrus.
Although there are innumerable va-
rieties of the citrus, which, owing to
their inferiority, are worthless for cul-
tivation, yet all, or nearly all, have
merit in one way or another. In Eu-
rope every part of the tree is utilized
for various purposes. The flower, the
leaf, the pulp, the rind, the wood-all
enter into articles of commerce. R. C.
Haldane, in his work, "Subtropical
Cultivations and Climate," London,
1886, gives the following formulas:
"Orange-Flower Perfume.-In the
early morning the blossoms are collect-
ed as soon as the petals begin to fall,
by shaking the tree over a sheet
spread on the ground. A tree yields
from two to ten pounds of flowers. The
perfume is generally extracted by en-
fleurage, as follows: A frame is re-
quired six feet high, thirty inches wide,
and twenty inches deep; in this
grooves are cut to allow trays one and
a half inches deep to run. These trays
aire covered with wi wre gauze. between
every two trays there is a sheet of
atoft glass, l nrtml; OB M15t, garden or
vaseline is thickly spread. The whole
should be as air-tight as possible. Ev-
crty morning fresh flowers must be puit
in the wire gauze trape; and this is con-
tinued for a month or two, when the
grease is removed.
"The grease is made as follows:
Melt equal parts of beef-suet and lard,
or mutton suet, beet-suet, andl l.rd.
well together. Pound well in a mortar
and wash until perfectly clean. Melt
over a slow fire, adding three ounces
of powdered alum and a little salt to
each hundredweight. Heat tne grease
strain into a deep pan and let it clari-
ty two or three hours. The clear grease
is then put on a charcoal fire, and
three quarts of rose water and half a
I)onlld o fpowdered glln-b"inzion a;d l-
ed: it is gently boiled, and all scum
taken off till it ceases to appear. Put
the grease in deep pans to cool; when
solid remove any water there may be
in it, liquefy, and pour into vessels for
future use. Besides grease, glycerine,
vaseline, and paraffine are all used.
Formerly, instead of using grease in en-
fleurage, oiled linen was employed to
absorb the odor and afterward squeez-
ed in a screw press.
"A superior system is by employing
l'iver's litllielatic fraine, whiiclh has
two lellows on the top which qapd a
constant current of air through the
flowers. The most primitive is the
SIpnish, which consists of two bowls
-the upper one, or cover, being lined
with grease, while the lower holds the
flowers.
"To extract the perfume from the
grease or 'pomade,' as it is called after
being scented, chop up eight pounds
of pomade, put in one gallon of sixty
over-proof alcohol. and let it remain
r oillp 1 ionHll at summer u loat.
"l'ssclllc' or Extract of Oraluge-Flo\v-
er is prepared by tincturation. Four
ounces of orange-flowers are steeped in
one gallon of alcohol until all the per-
fume has been absorbed by the spirit.
This preparation is nlao known qa ex-
tract of neroll.
"Essential Oils of Orange are ex-
pressed thus: The peel is cut from the
pulp in three longitudinal slices, leav-
illi lilc pt11llp in a tri;iligill;t r shali Thelt
peel and pulp are kept separate. Next
iay the outer surface of the peel is
bent convexly, and pressed four or five
times against a flat sponge held in the
left hand of the workman. From time
to time the oil is squeezed from the
spolltg into a vessel, froul which it is
drawn after the watery fluid separ-
ates from dhe oil. Four hundred or-
anges yield from nine to fourteen
0lhn(ces of oil. Thi- pulp Is distilled for
the small amount of essential oil it con-
tains. When lemons are thus treated
the pulp is pressed until tne lemon
juice is all extracted and then distill-
ed
"Petit-Grain Oil.-Prepared from
young tender shoots and leaves of both
sweet' anld Seville or.lingcs thle Ilttcr lie-
ing most valuable. The oil is obtained
by distillation with water.
"Neroli, or Oil of Orange-Flower.-
Obtained by distilling the flowers of
the sweet and bitter orange with wa-
t-r. The littrr (m-angr gElrat a tllpopi
ior oil. It is very fluid, is lighter than
water, in which it is slightly soluble.
One hundred pounds of flowers give


Rabbi David Klein. 52 E. Main street,
Columbus, 0, writes the following to
Dr. Hartman in regard to Pe-ru-na: "It
affords me great pleasure to testify to
the curative merits of your medicine.
Pe-ru-na is a well-tried and widely
used remedy. Especially as a speolfao
for catarrh of the stomach it cannot be
excelled. Pe-ru-na will do all that is
claimed for it."


Rabbi David Klein.
People afflicted with catarrh of the
stomach complain of lassitude, all-tired-
out feelings, their blood becomes thin,
nervous system deranged, food seems to
lo them no good, continuous and in-
creasing weakness. The unfortunate


victim wonders why he should be sm
weak, why his food gives him no
strength, why his blood should be so
thin.
Mr. Alex. Carter of Van Buren, Carter
Co,.Mo, says: "I had been troubled
with dyspoptla and indigestion 9ine=
1879. The best physicians in the country
could do no good.
I visited the
Mullanphy hos-
pital in St. Louis
and received no
benefit. The at-
tending physi-
clan told me I
had narrowing of
the outlet of the
stomach, and the
only remedy was
to have it cutout,
which I refused to Bht8 d9ieS I than
visited West Baden, Ind.; Las Vegas
Hot Springs, New Mexico; Sweet
Springs, Mo, and Moniton, Col. I also
took a great many different kinds of
medicine recommended for dyapepaia,
but found no relief. Last February I
read a testimonial for Pe-ru-na in the
Central Baptist that suited my ease and
I determined at once to try it. I have
taken two bottles of Pe-ru-na and four
of Man-a-lin, and I feel like a new man.
None of my friends believed I would get,
well. I would not take any money for
the good your remedies have done me.*
In catarrh of the stomach, M well
as in catarrh of any other part of the
body, Pe-ru-na is the remedy. As it has
often been said, if Pe-ru-na will cure
eatarrh of one part, it will oure oatrrh
of any other part of the body.
"Summer Catarrh" sent free by Pe.
ru-na Drug M'f'g Co., Columbus, .


them from three to six ounces of ne- perspiration, and a positive relief from
roli. It is generally atdulterated witll a cold.
alcohol or essence of petit-grain. Es- "A few drops of fresh lemon juice
sential oils of orange, lemon, or berga- added to drinking water will kil any
mot are better extracted d by ai of an microbes and greatly help digestion.
implement known as the ecuelle a "Lemons used in a bath will act as
piques, a saucer-shaped vessel of pew- a disinfectant, clean the pores of the
ter about eight inches wide. with a lip skin. hence revive their acteln,
on one side. The bottom is armed with "Lemon juice is also universally
numerous brass pins about half an known as one of thebest remedies for
inch high, which stand upward. The rheumatism, and when diluted with
center has a tube five or six inches warm water and salt and sniffed up
long, and half an inch In diameter, the nostrils and used as a gargle is an
closed at the farfest dend. The hole excellent cure for catarrhal affections.
resembles a shallow funnel. The peel "No cuisine is perfect without e1m-
is ribbed against the pins by hand, ons, and this fruit Is a necessary con-
and when the tube Is full of oil it is diment to nearly all viands.
emptied into another vessel.
"The peel of the tter orange it is used Graml Cultu~M in lrlo4da.
in nficlilitol as an apaomast. tuijct, but NoHing is more ul eaeltahbl to
more frequently for counteracting the Southern agriculture than the constant
nauseous taste of other medicines. The and heavy importation of hay from the
most common forms are syrup of or- North. It is usual to argue against the
tnge, tincture of orange, nad confec- grasses of the tropics that they grow
t:on of orange, wide apart and are coarse., while those
"'Oil of Len1on.-It is extracted from of the North are fine, sweet and nutti-
gr C fruit by pressing tile rind ttous. T'ils State Is not far enough
against a sponge, or by the ecuelle. An South to justify this complaijnt. Crab
inferior oil is produced by rasping the grass is as fine and may be cured up as
peel of the fruit and distilling with wa- nutritious as timothy, and the millets
ter. One hundred fruit should yield and desmodium may, by thick seeding,
from two and one half to three and one be grown as tine and as full of heart
half ounces of oil. The lemons are as the famed red clover of Pennsyl-
sometimes sacrificed and thrown into vania.
hot water, and the oil skimmed off. Grass culture has always been the
"Citric Acid.-Is obtained from lem- index of progressive agriculture, the
en juice by saturating It with chalk contemporary of profitable husbandry.
or whiting until effervescence ceases, Whether the land that has been culti-
by which citrate of lime is formed. vated for a thousand years as in E1u-
This is precipitated, the supernatant rope, or In America upon virgin souls.
liquid run off, and fhe precipitate well the highest prices paid for land as well
aimliped. Thi precipitate is thenb treat- asf tlhe greatest net product per acre
ed with sulphuric acid; sulphate of and the maximum results of the labor
lime and citric acid are the results, of one man have occurred, where grais
The former sinks, and the clear solu- is one of the leading staples. Every
tion is evaporated In leaden boilers and acre of good flat-woods, hammock or
then crystalized--tle crystals being first-class pine, convenient to access
purified by being dissolved and recrys- and near a local market well set in per-
talized." ennial grass or in desmodium, is intrin-
oses to Which Lemons May be Put. sically worth $1)M) to tle Florida farm-
-A firm of lemon packers in Italy er. He can raise one and a half tons
gives the following as among the uses of hay on it, worth $24, at an 'outlay
to which lemons may be put: of $8. This will easily pay the inter-
"l)uring tlhe last Influenza epidemic c' t on *1(N) or over; even dleducing the
in London, the Board of Health of said taxes; and this takes no account of
city advertised the public to make free the fertilizing elements vf thej lmr
e0O of litMMiii to combat sait epiemI iieirll are returne to the soil If feql tc.
ie. stock on the farm.
"A warm lemonade, taken in bed, Those parts of any State where hay
will Immediately produce an abundant and pasturage have superseded tillage


CATARRH OF THE STOMACH.










372 THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.


crops bring the highest prices per acre
when sold. This is notably trunk in
New York; it is bound fo be true in the
South. Texas would not be so pros-
perous if grass did not. like a magnet.
attract. European immigrants know
the value of grass or clover. When they
reach Texas they rarely become cotton
planters, and when they settle in a
Northern State they clothe the steep
hillsides with pasture or meadow to
prevent the soil from washing.
Bl&7c6iFY iidEied c6ttii iiltiiW6 gai-
eral and almost exclusive because the
negro's limited capacity made it desira-
ble to employ him on a staple regular
in character, simple in details and ex-
acting all his time throughout the year.
in a large section of the peninsula or.
ange culture was a bonanza in the ear-
ly days, and the humble agricultural
staples on which many of our forefath-
ers acquired a competence, if not
wealth, were looked upon with con-
tempt. It was said, and often fully be-
lieved, that grass would not grow in the
orange belt. To-day we can almost lit-
erally reverse that dictum, and say that
the orange belt cannot grow without
grass. In other words, when the
groves are so far restored as to pro-
duce millions of boxae yearly, as lI reoP
oranges will be so cheap that legumes
will have to be employed as a source of
nitrogen The orange grower will then
her la rndan bin nawn hay for hin work
stock and grass for his butter cattle,
and study economy in every direction.

Commenting on the above article, the
editor of the Kissimmee Valley-Ga-
zette, says:
In connection with the above excel-
lent ~&Hcle by the agrfeulttural leitor
of the Time-Union, we have had an in-
terview with Mr. George Summerlin,
who for some years past has been de-
voting a great deal of time and atten-
tion to experimenting with different
grasses, and as these experiments have
been conducted on a fairly large scale,
the conclusion he has come to from
the results obtained must prove of
value. Scattered over an area of about
700 acres he has in one place nearly 40
acres planted roughly with "Bermuda,
Another field contains 10 acres of the
same grass and other smaller fields.
these were all set out with cuttings of
Bermuda, planted in rows six feet
apart and two feet apart in the row,
but the most Important information he
gives is that between the rows he
scattered Bermuda grass seed, which
is now making a fine show. The
growth of this grass from seed has
some how been generally looked upon
as an impossibility on our soil, but here
we have it from a practical man, that
it will grow and grow well under prop-
er treatment, and Mr. Summerlin pre-
dicts that in two years the ten acre
field he has now under cultivation will
maintain ten head of cattle the whole
year round and he would not exchange
it for any orange grove, knowing well
that a g8od pasturage with a little care
will last many life times. The St.
Luele and Pora grasses also received
their share of attention and in soils
unsuited for Bermuda afford splendid
pasturage.
At present, range fed cattle require
from 30 to 40 acres per Bead to enable
them to exist for one year, and allow-
ing three acres of improved land to the
head it will at once be seen what an
enormous addition can be made to the
present herds. Men like George Sum-
merlin are working out Immense good
to the country and will "iteave a lrelh
heritage to their successors."

Cowpeas.
Much has been said and written on
this important plant, and much re-
mains to be said. It draws the nitro-
gen needed from the air, consequently
Bhonahric ard il nl intadll only nrnl
be applied direct.
A filattin tilheA a nrlt.f1 ,l i;-,..


In nearly all the formulas of fertili-
zers, for the various crops, the percent-
age of potash and phosphoric acid are
usually about in the proportion of
four parts of potash to three parts of
phosphoric acid. A fertilizer compos-
ed of the following ingredients maiy
be used for peas: Available phosphoric
acid, 7 per cent.; and potash, 9 per
cent. Apply 550 pounds per acre and
mix well with the soil, preferably two
or three weeks before planting. One-
1:aif of ihe fertilizer may be applied in
the drill, the residue broadcasted.
Instead of the above the following
materials may be compounded and
used: Acid phosphate, 250 pounds;
kainit. 300 pounds. In lieu of kainit.
To pounds or murlate or potash may be
used.
The above will give large and satis-
factory returns, but the quantity stat-
ed can be profitably increased from 50
to 100 per cent. Potash and phosphor-
ic acid are drawn from the soil and
consequently it will be necessary to
properly supply these materials from
time to time.
More than this, by growing and turn-
ing crops of the legume family, such
as clover, peas, etc., all the nitrogen
flint lity n fl~eil- for tli fi pri'eWCii iiiiil
next crop will be virtually grown
(drawn from the atmosphere). There
will be a considerable surplus left over
thi rtainlrtninta of the salld copa,
which will serve for the permanent en-
richment of the soil.
The humus produced by the decaying
vegetable matter, will exert a further
and beneficial influence on the soil, the
details of which are not necessary
here.
i will state nere that the most con-
venient material for supplying nitro-
gen direct is nitrate of soda-Chili salt-
petre. Therefore, if you would enrich
your soil, economically, grow all the
saltpetre possible, which can be done
as aforesaid.
-When commercial fertilizers are ap-
plied in the usual way there is but lit-
tle or no humus produced and conse-
quently the soil will continue to grow
poorer,I however abundant the applica-
tion may be. Bryan Tyson,
Iallison, N. C.
~- -
Celery Culture in Dade.
We clip the following article on cel-
ery culture in Dade county from the
Tropical Sun, of West Palm Beach:
Learning from some of the Beach
people who have visited Boynton. the
vegetable centre at the foot of Lake
Worth, that Major Boynton, after ex-
perimenting in celery for three or four
years had finally demonstrated that cel-
cry could be successfully raised on the
muck lands south, The Sun reporter
made that town a flying visit for tlO
purpose of seeing for himself and get-
ting all the information possible re-
garding the growth of that product.
As usual the Major extended the
courtesies of his hotel and the freedom
of his garden, and upon request took
us to the celery patch. "And now I
am going to show you the first crop of
celery, on a small scale, that has ever
been successfully raised on the muck
lands at the foot of Lake Worth," said
the Major as we approached a modest-
looking celery patch, the forage of
which bore a rich green and golden
vendure above the bleaching boards.
"There," continued the Major, "are
four rows and three varieties, the
(oldenl Self-blancliing, the Golden
Ii-airt uan White Plume." "iach
row," said he, "contains 640 plants or
stocks and will yield 50 dozen market-
able plants to the row. You see I have
already pulled one-third of it, and the
rest will be all bleached and marketed
inside of two weeks. This small patch
covers about one-sixteenth of an acre,
producing in all 200 dozen. I hav been
wolllug it at N13 (ents to l1 per dozen.
net."


a I u ura wr ter
has recently recommended in several "Do you think the growth and quali-
articles that phosphoric acid only be ty equal to Kalamazoo celery grown in
used on cowpeas. 'this Is contrary to your native State, Michigan?" I asked.
all other authorities on the subject, as "I have been over the great celery
well as established practice. beds Kalamazoo," said the Major,
A cowpea crop of 15,000 pounds of when the celery was growing and also
green vines per acre will contain about when it was being pulled for market,
100 pounds of nitrogen, 67 pounds of and I have been as an individual a
potash and 2i pumndsl phoaphorli aclt. gract lover of that unrIriani l t!Tllu plant
Therefore, three flmes as much potash eer since I tasted the first stock. In
as phosphoric acid will be required. crispness the Kalamazoo celery excels


Al harness, old or new, is made pliable and easy-will look better
and wear longer--by the use of
Eureka Harness Oil
The nest preserative for leather ever discovered. Raves
many times its cost by improved appearances and inthe cost
of repairs. Sold everywhere In cans-all eizes.
Sadaf Ia 1T AMA B ali sIR,


this grown here. In tenderness, jucl-
ness and flavor, this greatly excels the
Kalamazoo or any other Northern cel-
liv', TII se lpnuel or tUo KIualHimloo
celery is produced by the frosts and
cold weather in the late fall before pull-
ing for market, and after being put In
cold storage for winter use. Cold stor-
age increases its crispness. If the cel-
cry grown here was placed in the cold
storage vaults of the large hotels, if
would become crispy, but would, to a
great extent, lose its flavor and juci-
ness. I like to realize with my eyes
shut, with my sense and taste and
sIllell to guide me, that I am eating cel-
cry, than to li in doubt by muinehintf
tasteless but crispy stocks of vegeta-
tion."
"Why has the culture not been at-
tempted before?" T naked-
"It has. uuIing the pant fotn ar fir v
years a few of the growers of this sec-
tion have experimented a little, but
without success. Some four years ago
celery culture received the attention of
the Florida East Coast Railway Com-
pany, and a Mr. Brown, who was, a
few yearn ago, a grower in Kalamanoo.
and later in Osceola county, this State,
conducted experiments at Delray, but
abandoned it without raising a crop.
He concluded that celery could not be
raised on the muck soil here."
"That certainly must have been dis-
couraging, not only to himself but to
the settlers as well," I suggested.
"Yes,. he being an expert, lis failure
was accepted by some as final. Not be-
ing satisfied with Mr. Brown's conclu-
siols, I decided to experiment a little
on my own account. My first attempt
in the winter of 1897-8 was a complete
failure; the next was a partial failure
but this winter it has proved to be a
success as you see. In my efforts to
discover some methods of fertilization
and culture, I have consulted with dif-
ferent celery growers, both in this sec-
tion and North, and with the help of
iile:ls and suggestions thus obtained to-
gether with my experiments, I believe
I have at last hit upon the proper meth-
ods to produce celery on the muck
lands hner."
"You ought to feel highly gratified at
your success," I remarked.
"I am. I believe it to be important,
because if celery can be raised en the
muck lands it will open the way to the
production and shipment of auothe.-
staple crop of the East oCast muck
lands. I believe the truckers have re-
alized the necessity for diversifying
their crops. So far tomatoes have been
the most profitable as well as the most
reliable crop, but owing to the frosts
during the last two or three years
their growth has been attended by con-
siderable difficulty, much loss of labor
and extra expense and annoyance. The
setbacks which tomatoes receive from
time to time, owing to unfavorable
weather, make it difficult to get our
crops marketed before the growers in
kMieieipp i and 'ErFila are in the mar-
ket. Shorter distance and lower
freight rates shut the Southern Florida
growers' late crops out of the market.
The bulk of the crop in this section this
year will not be ready for picking and
shipping before the middle of May, and
by June the crop in Mississippi will be
ready for shipment. So you will under-
ntnndl Wlhi Wo oannon dopond nlta e t-
er on tomatoes, and hence the necessity
of some other staple crop. Celery is
more profitable than tomatoes, and re-
quires less labor and expenditure."
"What effect has frost on it?"
"Celery will stand frost better than
any other vegetable. No freezing
weather in this section has ever been
severe enough to hurt it. ,n the con-
trary, frost now and then, and a little
C(Kil iwPillor I$ uBOgfitClli to its growth,
as it makes it, when blanching, much
more tender and crisp."


TRUSSES, 9C I $1.25 AND UP




at FACTOSI hUiC, Mis than one-third
the
the rice chare by others a WE
*ARANTEE T1 aF'lS ay
whether w our i .eTr or our 3La INe.
S DnIhi o Tais., illustrated abovcut thi
ad. out and end to us with BPLUL O rU u ind,
state your iftt W.ltit, AV, howlong yon have been
ruptured whether rupture is large or smnail; also tate
number inche around the body on a line with the
rupture, say whether r ture is on right or left side,
and we wl send either s to you with the under-
standing. If It nb t a nr St Msd equal Imi tat
retail at three thee eur prriyou can return t and WO
will return your money.
WRITE FOR FREE TRUSS CATALOGUE _*_`are l
.trlfman landldi s ths fS- e:s" L t 7
anm SEARS, ROEBUCK & Co. CHnICA

0BO YEARg
EXPERIMCaCI






CTures M Are
Anyone sending a sketch and decriptlon may
quickly ascertain our opinion free whether as
invention is probably patentable. Communica
tiona strictly conndentlaL Handbook on Patents
sent free. Oldest aency for securing patent.
Patents taken through Munn & Co. receive
special notice, without charge, the

ScieNtifc mierkat
A handsomely llnstrated weekly. largest cir-
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nch o. 05 V s Wushington. .U


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PERRY DAVIS'


"At what time should the celery be
ready for market?"
"During the months of January and
February and the fore part of March.
We could not be sure of a later crop,
owing to the hot weather which fol-
lows. Celery can be marketed In Feb-
ruary and March, and the same ground
prepared for tomatoes, and thus the
two crops can be raised in one season
from the same land. Experimenting
costs money, and although I have con-
ducted my experiments on a modest
scale, not being sure of results, yet my
iupondilturo has bloon voofslldPamilo IUP-
ins the last three years."
"Where have you disposed of the cel-
ery you have raised this year?"
"Manager Sterry of the Royal Poin-
cina and Inn, has purchased T e- most
of it. He has already taken 75 dozen
and has written me that he will take
the balance of my output small as it is.
I haLv found the management or the
East Coast Hotel system quite ready
and willing to purchase what they re-
quire in the way of vegetables from the
East Coast growers, when they can be
obtained in sufficient quantities to sup-
ply the hotels. In fact, it is a rule
which Is followed by the management.
Heretofore the growers in this section
have not been able to supply such ve-
getables as the hotels rleqire during
ilhe wnhter, In sufi cient quantity, hence
they had to get their supply elsewhere.
Now, that it has been demonstrated











THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST. 373
I


that celery can'be grown here success-
fully and profitably, I expect to see the
growers gradually turn their attention
to celery culture, and also to add other
vegetables which I have found can be
grown here with as much profit as to-
nhatoes The last four or five years
have shown that all attempts to grow
early tomatoes for winter use have
been unsatisfactory and unprofitable.
The demand North for tomatoes prior
to April is light, and prices rule low.
Experience has shown that Northern
people do not take kindly and freely to
tomatoes and other vegetables outside
of celery, when Blizzards are raging,
the thermometer at and below zero.
and the people bundled up, as they
have to be, in their furs and heavy
overcoats.
"A carrier of tomatoes would freeze
solid before they had carried them
two blocks. In April, May, and June,
they begin to thaw out, and their appe-
tites crave Southern vegetables. It Is
then, as experience has shown, that the
best prices prevail: it is simply a waste
of time, effort and money to raise to-
matoes here for the North except pos-
sibly in small patches. It is not so
with celery. There is a good demand
the year round for the plant, and parti-
cularly so during winter and spring."
The Major pulled a few plants of the
Golden Self-bilanching variety and gave
them to us to test its quality at our
lunch the following day, and we can
frankly say that we found it tender,
highly flavored, and the most palatable
we ever ate. It was all tTiat he clallied
for it, and more too. The Sun congrat-
ulates Major Boynton on his final suc-
cess in celery culture on his muck
lands.

"By the Herd We Thrive."
No question has been asked me so
often in the past twenty years as this:
"Is the south adapted to the production
of the best breeds of domestic ani-
mals?" Realizing fully the importance
of this answer I have thought best to
state empI)haticially that. given tile same
care and attention bestowed in other
parts of the world. Georgia can suc-
cessfully compete with any section in
rearing race horses, beef cattle, dairy
cows and that most important factor
in our agriculture, the mule. Every
planter knows the northern bred mule
is not equal in efficiency to the south-
ern, so it is quite evident our native
pastures supply sufficient fat and mus-
cle forming constituents for our ani-
mals.
It is thue many parts of tile south
do not produce sufficient bone-forming
material, but t.at Is easily added to
the rations of the growing animals by
the stock raiser. No part of the world
has all the necessary things for man
and the higher developed animals. In-
deed civilization only, reaches its acme
where man has by necessity to supply
the deficiencies of nature in foods,
clothes and shelter.
When man gives sufficient care and
attention to the raising of farm ani-
mals, adding artificially to their foods
whatever constituents nature does not
sufficiently supply, stock raising in the
south beacomeas suoo. 1ful Tb.h t all
people starting in a new Industry will
be at first successful I by no means
state or expect. All live stock litera-
ture comes from the part of our coun-
try whefe different conditions have
prevailed from the first settlement of
America by civilized man, and the
southern stock raiser has to deprart
from northern methods. In the stock
raising success is cumulative, that is.
with each' succeeding year one can see
an improvement in the animals them-
selves, the lands they graze upon grow
more fertile. The grasses not only
hold all the fertility they originally
find in the soil. but they really aug-
ment its richness by shading of the
soil and by the yearly decay of roots
and stems.
Therefore the stock raising there is
no nmccoitJ to hem called "depreciation," for there is on
the contrary an appreciation in both
animals and lands.
The Romans condensed much wis-
dom in the mottc 'omnis pecuniar pe-
cus fundaementun." "By the herd we
thrive." Certainly no cultivation with-
out the herd has ever been attained
by any people, and the south given
over to the exclusive cultivation of cot-


ton, stripped of Its grasses, denuded
of its forests, must revert to barbar-
Ism. The negro fits the barren cotton
field as the Arab fits the desert, and
he alone will inhabit this once beauti-
ful land when the southern planter has
destroyed the last vestige of its shade,
moisture and fertility.
It is a grief and pain to those who
have "leafy sensibilities" (as Downing
calls them) to watch year by year the
destruction of our beautiful, glorious
woodland trees, to see the girdling
with steel and burning with fire of
those great conservers of our wealth
and producers of comfort and promo-
ters of rural enjoyment, to realize the
certain suicide of a whole people bent
on their own destruction, yet to be
powerless to avert it. In Middle
Georgia I have been forced to see in
twenty years a land most highly fav-
ored by nature with all that the hus-
bandman could desire turned into an
arid desert by the destruction of its
forests. And those most beneficent
friends of man destroyed that the cot-
ton crop might grow, for which there
was no adequate remuneration and
which cursed the soil that gave it life.
Over these hills and valleys of Geor-
Eia was laid a benediction of balm in
the climate, and added to this were
ever flowing pure waters, and respon-
sive soil needing only the husband-
man's touch to turn to bounteous har-
vest. Grand monarchs of the forest
with giant arms withheld the tempests
and threw down for man and beast
grateful shade from scorching suns.
Yet man, unmindful of his blessings.
has ravaged his own glorious inheri-
tance and handed down to his children
but a desert waste. Would I could
make the cotton planter see with the
eyes of him who dwells In a pastoral
land, surrounded by flocks and herds:
would he could have one glimpse of
the downs of England, the pastures of
Nornriiindy. tihe verdure of slinky
France, and then be forced to gaze up-
on the "abomination of desolation" he
has made by exclusive cotton planting.
It is vain and useless to attempt to at-
tract to these once fertile southern hills
Sitl dales thel fair seeker for holes ,a ld
pasture. He views the arid plains ;iid
the hideous stumps of forests and lie
flees the scene. IHe will pitch his tent
only in the "green pastures and by the
still waterss" where food and sh-ade
are to be found for iman and beast.
Ask the traveler over Mexican deserts
if lie would voluntarily relinquish
wooden glens and forest vistas and
verdant _,-Istures for all the wealth
Cortez discovered, if lie must abide
forever without grass and trees. His
nsutr-r wouhl ie "t." Yet we blanm
the northern and western man, who,
glancing from his car window at
naught but tree-girdled wastes through
the "cotton belt," jots down disrparag-
ing remarks about the south and ad-
vises his home people to stay where
they are, or emigrate elsewhere. There
is not such a vast difference now be-
tween our cotton-scourged part of tile
south and the unchanging desolation
of the desert. There is the same lack
of forest growth, the same monotony
of barren earth upon which pours the
relentless fury of a tropic sun. Even
tho0 uOrgfIla 1uliu lla Wgiul tv ulao
on that peculiar gashed and ghastly
look as if just rent by primeval earth-
quake or sealed with lava fire. tli'r
well known melancholy boundary view
of Mexican desert. This is appalling
to one familiar with its unspeakable
horror-appalling to trace this shad-
owy likeness which is daily growing
more visible between the once fertile
southern cotton land and that abode
of terror, where no living thing flies
or creeps or crawls, where even" na-
ture has no pity and has long since
ceased to shed tears above its eternal
death. Given over to everlasting si-
lence and endless nothingness, where
never was and never will be tread of
lan or song of bird or bloom of flower
or blade of grass. And only a few
days' journey from us stritcelhs, this
i1tlrl'se-d iartenuness,. ain awrti oliject
lesson to the tree destroyer of the cot-
ton states.-Benj. W. Hunt, in Atlantai
Journal.

Sugar Making in Florida.
We make the following extract on
sugar making in Florida read before
the State Agricultural Society by Capt.
Rose:


The wonderful recuperative and re-
productive powers of the plant are
phenomenal. With good soil and cul-
ture, wonderfully fine canes, rich in
sugar, vigorous and thrifty, are fre-
queltly grown from seed cane of the
most worthless quality. Small, knot-
ty, short-jointed stubble the result of
years of neglect, when planted in good
soil and well cared for, have made
crops of immense weight and large
sugar content, with little impurities in
the juice. No plant more quickly re-
sponds to generous treatment, and
none will suffer greater neglect and
still return a. fair harvest than will
tropical cane.
Much interest is now had in cbeet
culture and sugar making in the West.
Were it generally known that larger
amounts of sugar can be made in
Florida, at a much less cost per acre,
with less labor, with but little skill re-
quired in growing, with for less capit-
al required for machinery, and manu-
facturing, than in beet-sugar making,
vast sums would be invested in the
business. The location of central mills
ad various parts of the state-near
Quincy, Tallahassee. Madison, Lake
City. Gainesville. Ocala, Leesburg.
Brooksville. Lakeland, Plant City, Bar-
tow. Fort Mead. Punta Gorda, and
Braidentown-could each afford a sup-
ply of cane for mills making 5.000.000
or more pounds per annum. On the
St. John's River and East Coast. St.
Augustine, Hastings DeLeon Springs,
Tomoka. Daytona, Port Orange, New
Smyrna, and Titusville afford equally
as fine opportunities for the establish-
ment of central mills.
These mills or factories, purchasing
their supplies from the farmer, can af-
ford to pay for the cane delivered, a
price. eqinil to the suin now olta:lin-
ed for his crude syrup, now made in
a crude and wasteful manner, saving
the farmer the annoyance and cost of
manufacture, and packages, and at the
sa&ne time nmke large profits on the
capital invested.
Further south in Dade and Lee
counties, below the twenty-seventh
parallel, where vast areas of rich land
in large Iodies can be had, the plan-
tation or "gang-systom" will prove
most satisfactory, where the planter
owns the factory and cultivates the
cane also. This system is applicable
only wlfre there Is no probably ty of
killing frost, where large fields can
be safely allowed to stand till wanted
by the mill. North of the twenty-sev-
enth parallel the central-factory sys,
reim, similar to the beet-factory sys-
tem of Germany, Austria, and the
West. will be fouhd most satisfactory.
c'uVlr9 the n.ropao is mnide up hp
numerous fields of ten to forty acres
each, each farmer, in case of threat-
ened freezing weather, can properly
care for his crop by windrowing or
mat laying, as is now practiced in
Georgila. Mississippi, and frequently
in Louisiana.
The crop can then be deliver d as
the factory requires it. This process of
securing the crop adds but little to the
cost and keeps the cane perfectly for
inonthls. No silos or bins are r<' for cane as with beets. The delay
caused by a cold snap seldom retards
the innrh tf oucar making ta vasna
three days.
I advocate the central-mill plan,
purchasing cane from the farmers,
that the best results may be had both
in the field and in the factory, the far-
mer devoting his time, skill and labor
to producing the largest possible crop
of high-grade cane. the miller to the
most economical methods of making
the best sugar, each receiving tihe
greatest reward possible for his skill
in his particular line.

TWO VIEWS OF THE CASE.
Mrs. Keene-I don't believe those ru-
mors about Mr. Worth's business em-
barrassment. Why, he fairly lavishes di-
amonds on his wife.
Mr. Keene-Perhaps he hrtends to en-
gage in the Jewelry business as her agent
after the craih.-Jewelera' Weekly.

The International Publishing Corn
pany of Philadelphia and Chicago.
have Just published a new and Inter-
esting life of D. L. Moody. Also.
"War in Africa," and many other ele-
gant and useful books. The best terms
to agents. Apply to I. Morgan, Kis-
simnuee. State agent for Florida.


WHY HE CURES.
The Greatet Specialist of the Time lives
Every Came His Personal Attention.
sptr Most doctors have a certain number
of stock remedies which they use in
Hathaway' al cases which eem at all similar.
This is not Dr. Hathaway's method.
EftOCk Every case with himismostcarefull
dianoeed and the exact
pition of the dlseasedcon-
uition determined. Thus
every case is treated mpar-
ately and medicines ared-
ministered which ar
specially prepared under
D. Hathaway's personal
s perviiontoreacca.
bNotwo peopleare affected
byapartlculardiseaseIntbe
same manner, consequent-
ly no two people hold be
treated In the same way
even for same complain
Dr. Hathaway is a special-
ist in the best senseof the
word-he treats special dle
eases in aspeclalmanner of
ofhisown-a system studied out years ago while
r as college and hospital practice and Ima
Every a t proved and enlarged uponostantly
SBmelIlv daring the twenty years ince-
r twenty years of the most extensive
Traltd. practice enjoyed by an specialist in
thiscountry. Dr.Hathaway' great an uniform mc-
ce is due to this Indilv ldal-tem of treatment.
eesosi In spite of hamdre ee of
y from doctors in all Pars of the
TrIatmlt iorld, asking for the privilege of
ulnorDr.Hathawayenmethod of tretmenl.be ele
itwiser to allow none bide himself the know
of his remedies, as he is too well aware of the
chief which may be done by the unskillful e of an
system. nevermind how perfect.
Blo ad kl Dr. Hathaway's treatment for
auumso s. blood diseases in whatever stage
cures all forms of ulcers, sores.
blotches, pmple, etec.and not only restores thesk
and calp totheir natural condition, butso parife
the blood that the disease is permanently and com-
pletelydriven from the system and all this without
adminiaterng poisonous or dangeroua drugs.
His treatment of Varicoesle
VarIooelle and and Stricture is E method excin-
Strture. sivel his own and In 90 per cent
of au cases results in a perfect
andpermanent cure. No operation s required and
no pain or Inconvenience are experienced by the
patient. The expense of this treatment is mch lem
tan that of any operation or hospital or institute
treatment, and is both safe and aure, restoring the
organs to a condition of perfect, normal health.
u.-- uDr.tHathaway bes Just prepareda new
KIdney te question blank for the whohave
Dm/a mareson tosuspect Kidney troubleand
this blank he will gladly end free t
everyone who sends him his name and address.
The demand for Dr. Hathaway's new
Now Book book "Manlines, Vigor, Health" has
FREE. already ehausted the first edition o
.... l but for a limited time a coy of
this book will be sent free to anyone who send his
*- name and address to Dr. Hathaway.
Dr. Hathaway makes no charge
FREL frconsultatlonnadvioee at etthU
is office or by mil.
J. NEWTON HATHAWAY 11. 0.
Dr. Hatmaway ar c
2s Bryan Street, Savannah, G
NMETION THIS PAPER WHN WRBrINOG.

TI-I -H e- iii

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That will kill-
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If you keep
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breaking the small feeders of roots
the grass will become thick and
weeds will disappear. Send for
catalogue.
THE CLIPPER WILL DO IT
CLIPPER LAWN MOWER CO.
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WE STILL HAVE A FEW
Nice Satsuma oranges on Trlfoliats
stocks, entirely unhurt by cold. ALa
peaches, plums, grapes, etc., including
the famous James Grape. A few
thousand Trifolita seedlings yet un
sold. Prices low. Freight is paid
Summit Nurseries.
Monticello. Fla.










THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.


The Melon Louse.
During the summer this insect feeds
on melons, cucumbers, cotton, mustard
and perhaps other plants. It is alto-
gether probable that the insect passes
the winter eFther in eggs laid late in
the fall or the female survives the win-
ter. The eggs or insects are located on
some plant on which they may feed in
early spring. This may 'e on the fol-
iage of some plant that keeps green
during the winter, or on the roots of
some plant that loses its foliage in au-
tumn or the eggs may be deposited on
the plants or fruit late in the season.
The plants themselves may die, or the
fiuit may decay, as the melon, and yet
the eggs may survive. When warmn
weather cones in tile spring if tinh
eggs survive the winter they hatch and
probably live for a time on some wild
plant until they obtain wings. If the
winged form has passed the winter it
feeds for a short time on some wild
plant. In either dase when the melons
have formed a few leaves these winged
female forms fly from place to place
over the field leaving not eggs, but live
young on the plants they visit.
By careful ovservatlon it has been
seen that one female Individual will
produce five to six live young in twen-
ty-four hours and that these young
having inherited the reproductive pro-
penalty, begin producing young at a
similar rate in less than a week's time.
Hence it will be seen that a single fe-
male louse that has successfully passed
the winter can in a comparatively
short time establish several colonies in
the field. By a brief mathematical
calculation it will be seen that one in-
dividual may become the common pa-
rent of a million or more in a single
season.
From this ft will be seen that preven-
tative rather than curative measures
should be employed. Could the few
that are trying to pass the winter be
found, the destruction would be easy
enough. The best thing to be done is
to destroy the probable abode. This
can best be done by destroying all old
decayed or Immature fruit by letting
hogs eat it is practicable. If not then,
it should be hauled off a safe distance
from the melon field and dumped. The
old vines should, if possible, if not then
hauled away from the field. After the
field has been cleared in the fall as
soon as possible after the crop has
been harvested, it should be well
plowed and If after that any green
thing tries to grow, it should be killed
by harrowing or digging, for it may be
that a very few living plants on a large


principally of potash and phosphoric
acid, as the bean belongs to the legumi-
nous family, and can obtain a large
portion of its nitrogen from the air.
A fertilizer analyzing ammonia, 3 per
cent.; phosphoric acid, 7 per cent.; and
potash, 7 per cent., is about right for
the crop, applied at the rate of 500
pounds per acre. To prepare a ferti-
lizer which will analyze as above, take
10(C pounds nitrate of soda, 450 pounds
cottonseed meal, 1,200 pounds acid
phosphate, and 230 pounds muriate of
potash, to make a ton, or 1,700 pounds
bone meal and 300 pounds muriate of
potash will also give a similar fertili-
zer. Care should be taken to have tile
soil fine and the fertilizer well mixed
:i the row. 1 like to prepare land. ap-
ply the fertilizer, put two furrows on
it, ana let it stand about two weeks,
before planting, then plant as soon af-
ter a rain as the land will do to work.
The tops of the ridges can be knocked
offl with a board, ana the seed put in
with a drill; or the ridge can be open-
ed with a small scooter and the seed
dropped by hand, covering about two
inches deep. In this way you may be
almost sure of getting a good stand. If
however, there comes a heavy rain af-
ter planting, and a crust forms over the
seed, it should've broken with a harrow
or rake, else the beans will lie slow ot
come up, and an inferior stand will be
the result. When cultivating, be care-
ful to plow and hoe your beans only
when the vines are dry, otherwise,
they will turn yellow, and the crop be
greatly damaged.
Lima Beans.-Of the lima or butter
beans, the small bush varieties, such
as Henderson's Bush Lima, succeed
best in the Sonth. There is also the
Small Lima (Sieva), pole variety,
which does nicely. I have seen this
bean completely hide a garden fence
in Florida and furnish a continuous
supply of beans all summer. Lima
beans should nol be planted until the
weather is thoroughly settled and
warm, otherwise the seed is likely to
rot in the ground. Their culture is
similar to that of tlie snap bean, with
the exception that they require very
much richer land for best results, and
I, use double the quantity of fertilizer
for them than I do for the snaps. I
find these beans very profitable for the
home market, and last year I sold .$10(
worth from one-half acre on land that
had grown a crop of strawberries in
the spring before flie beans were plant-
ed.-F. J. Merriman, in Southern Plant-
er.


field may harbor the enemy we are af- gBush Sweet Potatoes.
ter. A second measure of precaution The reputation of New Jersey sweet
would be to burn at some time during lottoes is well established, and one of
the winter as much'as possible of the tle widels weln established, and e of
weeds and grat for sdverel ro "iewdly known vanities is thle.Ter-
around the propose foreld. Since the se Yellow. A correspondent of the
louse is known to field.on thince oteon Ir'l New Yorker tells that there are
louse is known to feed-on the cotton a nufriber of local strains of this whose
plant it would be best to avoid as far ec uliaitief lial strln iplly i wthose
as possible old cotton fields. But shapeti lie principalkeely in tqualeir
what is the melon grower to do who shape, color ani keeping quality.
has not taken care of his field during Ahich seems to e a truneland Bush for of
the winter? Careful watch should be th h seems to true bush form of
kept for lhe colonies that have started the Jersey fellow. The writer says:
for he colonies that have "We grew some of them last season.
and when they are found, destroy the and fond them to be larout ctie, of
lice entirely even at lie sac o and found them to be productive, of
lice entirely even at the sacrifice of a good yellow color and desirable shape.
few hills of melofns. The fight should They form a thick, bushy top of rich
begin in the fall and be kept up until rk grem leavesick, not a sign of a
the crop is planted in tTie spring and dark ree leaves, au not a sign of a
longer if necessary.-Ex. runner. The leaves are of the same
shape as the Jersey Yellow, but rather
larger. They are as easy to cultivate
Beans for the South. and hoe as bush beans, and there are
Snap Beans.-Among the vegetables no vines in the way at rigging tine.
which should occupy a prominent place The quality is very much like the Jer-
in the farm garden is the snap bean, sey Yellow. We have grown so-called
both bunch and pole. Repeated plant- vineless sweets, but they are all more
wings of this bean should be kept up to or less of the yam family. The Vine-
insure the continuous supply. The new land Bush is a true sweet potato."
stringless Green-Pod, Valentine and Soil, method of culture and season have
Best of All, are good bunch varieties, much to do with the shape, color and
with the eKntucky VWondar and White quantity of sweet potatoes. It is a
Creaseback for pole. One quart of the well-known fact that where they have
bunch beans will plant one hundred been grown in favorable soil for many
feet or drill, or about two bushels onu years their habit of growth becomes
peck to the acre, where the rows are to some extent fixed in the seed, and
two feet apart. The pole beans can be they will retain that habit for a year
planted at the rate of one quart to 150 or more when planted on quite differ-
hills, In rows four feet or five feet ent soil. A large sweet potato grower
apart, and hills two feet in the row, in Iowa writes me: "W1e buy Jersey
training :wo hills to a pole. There art. Yellow seed which at first grows short
a number of good wax varieties, but and cunky, but after a year or two
we much prefer the green podded sorts, they grow longer, and then we call
they being more hardy and productive, then Yellow Naisemnonds." Thus they
also better sellers, change name as well as shape. The
The culture of beans Is very simple, seed-the small or medium potatoes-
and comparatively little manure or fer- are first bedded in a hotbed one-half to
tlizer as required. This should consist one inch apart and covered three inches


deep. In about four weeks the sprouts the value of this cross, hnd at the end
should be well up and rooted when of one year if every pullet has not pro-
they are pulled and set where the soil duced double the value in eggs over
has been previously prepared. The what any so-called American or Asi-
ground is first plowed lightly, as ldep atic breed has done, then set the writ-
plowing tends to produce long pota- er down as the dispenser of superheat-
toes. Some growers plant in hills, ed atmosphere. There is nothing I
others on ridges. Usually light fur- would like so well as to see the Farm-
rows are run about three feet apart, er's Voice invite and carry out a fair
in which the fertilizer, which should test of the different breeds, from the
be rich in potash, is sown at the rate egg to one year old. Weigh the product,
of one-half ton per acre. Ridges (or say, of twenty-five eggs at two months
hills) are made directly over this eith- and every month afterward until one
er with a ridger or small plow. The year old, keeping a correct account of
plants are set on the ridge eighteen expenses and profit, where all breeds
inches or more apart. There are sever- are given a fair and similar treatment
ail forms of li:ind planters in llse as well I would like to furnish the Leghorn-
as the two-horse machine, but llmany (.ame cross on such a test.
farmers still set with the hand trowel. We all think we know the breed that
Plants should never be set until the suits us, but not one of us are so pre
weather is warm, about melon plant- judiced but we would adopt that breed
ing time. If the soil is dry, a little wa- that proved itself the most profitable.
ter is put in as the plant is set, which I have every faith that the five or six
insures a good start. Sonic planters pound Game-Leghorn pullet which will
always water. Frequent cultivation produce at least six dozen eggs before
and clean hoeing are essential to suc- one year and mostly in dead of winter,
cess. Nearly all growers now use cul- is the one that will come off an easy
tivators with vine turners on. which winner for an all-purpose fowl.
keep the vines upon the ridge through The tendency of late years is to pam-
the season. per fowls too much. A breed can never
become the popular all-purpose fowl
The. kl-Purpose owl. that must be surrounded by extraordi-
oThevatiourposf the editor of ary conditions of comfort to be prof-
he Voice as to the relative eit of table, because the ordinary poultry.
the Woandotte and Plymouth Rock grower cannot or will not thus sur-
treed of fo ane ly mouth myround his fowls. What we want is a
iibred of owls are timely ad to my fowl hardy enough to get along with-
inll corrt. ersonavly, think ther- out this extra care and still carry on
Plymouth Rocks have the most over- the egg business. The coldest day this
grown reputation built on the slight- winter, February 19, over 70 per cent.
est foundation of merit of any of the of my Game-Leghorns laid, and they
prominent breeds. kept it up right through, and yet my
That old truism, "A fountain cannot house was so open that pure Leghorn
rise above its source," has a bearing to cockerels had their combs very badly
a certain extent in valuing the differ- frosted, I am ashamed to say.
ent breeds. The Plymouth Rock orig The immunity to cold of the Games
inated from a cross of the old Ameri- I attributed to their very dense, close-
can Dominique (a dunghill) and the fitting feathers, their tiny comb-a
Black Java. which was also a cross of mere wart on the head-and wattles
the Black Cochin and common fowl. scarcely perceptible. Even when
This is from Felch's history of this crossed with the large-combed breeds
breed. Now to start on, there was no the most of the pullets have but very
especial merits in the Rocks' ancestors, slight combs.
and they have been so persistently Of course, no one has an established
crossed with the Brahma since to in- breed if this cross for sale, and really
crease their size so that they have it doesn't matter. Leghorns or Minor-
merely the merit of the Asiatics more cas are easily procured, as are the Pit
or less diluted. Games. The first will increase egg
The Rocks that I have known were production if crossed on the common
a lazy, profitless fowl and poor layers fowl of any established breed. The
at a time of year when there was prof- Games will give weight and hardiness
it in eggs. If one wishes to raise fry- just as certainly. Cross these two
ers for market, then the Rocks are per- breeds with each other and you have
haps fully as profitable as any other the most profitable of all.-Farmer's
breed. and when this is said, all is said Voice.
in their favor that can be proven. The
Wyandottes are from a cross of the Spraying and Proecting
m;IuIIIIlIIrg and Dark Brahmia. It can ,. 1 Protecting.
Ia r and )ark Brahm. It can We clip the following from a late
confidently be depended on that the es- issue of the Tampa Times:
tablished reputation of the Haburg Ma C. P. Parrish, of Parris, Mana-
for prolificacy will place the WVyan- tee county, was a welcome visitor at
dotte ahead of the Rocks for profit ev- the Times office this morning. Mvs or
cry time, where tested under exactly I'rrish grew the prize orange crop of
ilar it, o not thini we have his county last year, and he will have
For my part, I do not think- we have a larger crop this year; but he states
yet secured the real all-purpose Ameri- that his brother John will beat him
can breed, and never will until we go this season-he will probably put 10,-
to the Mediterranean class for egg pro- 000 hoxes on the market. Major Par-
duction and to the Pit Game for hardi- rish scoffs at the. idei that orange
ness. Every dip into the Asiatic blood trees cannot be protected from cold
is a loss to the practical and profitable by firing in Florida--lie has proved to
qualities of the breed, the contrary, and has even saved his
In crossing with the Pit Game it guava trees. He advocates a large
must be remembered that there is a number of small fires rather than a
vast difference in the shape, size and few big ones.
type of what is known as I't Games. Major Parrish also advocates spray-
There are some strains where the ing. Last year he sprayed with a so-
cocks weigh eight to nine pounds, and lution of lime and sulphur-five
hens six to seven. It is such which pounds of lime to four gallons of wa-
should be used, and nol the long-leg- ter. He sprays from July to October,
ged, long-necked exhibition games, anid his fruit is always bright and
which are really a caricature on the fine. By adding two quarts of salt to
game fowl. each fifty gallons of water he destroys
I know from personal experience ex- the red spider and other insects.
tending back twenty-five years that the This testimony is valuable, as it Is
Game cross is more valuable than any given by a gentleman who Is well
other for general purposes. The com- known all over South Florida as an au-
ing profitable breed is one that will thority on orange culture.
have attained almost full growth at
six months and will start laying and During the summer season cramps
lay right along through rain or shine, come upon us unexpectedly; you
whether warm or cold weather; one should be prepared for an emergency
whose eggs are invariably fertile, of this kind, as otherwise you will suf-
young chicks easily raised, tough lit- fer agony for hours. Keep a bottle of
tie hustlers that are as hardy as young Pain-Killer handy and go by the di-
crows, but withal have the most meat reactions on the wrapper, it will sur-
for the amount of bone and the sweet- prise you how quickly relief will come.
est meat of any breed of fowls. If a Avoid substitutes,( there is but one
person will only take a hundred eggs Pain-Killer, Perry Davis'. Price 25e
of the Leghorn-Game cross and a hun- and 50c. 10
dred of any other breed and weigh up
both lots at the end of three months Sharpies Cream Separators-Profit-
from hatching he will be convinced of able Dairying.


I











THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST. 375


UIO"AI. DEPARbRENT.

Address all communications to the
editor, W. C. Steele, Switzerland, Fla.

How to Treat the Calla for the Sum-
mer.
Under this heading, we find in the
June number of the Mayflower a se-
ries of articles, which is both amus-
ing and instructive. It occupies so
much space that we omit this week
all other matter. The Calla well de-
serves a place in the collection of ev-
ery flower lover not only in Florida,
but elsewhere. It seems strange that
it is not more commonly grown here
than it is. In California it is grown
by the acre in the open ground.
The difference in the directions giv-
en by various growers reminds us of
the condition of orange growing before
the freeze. At that time it was said
that there were almost as many differ-
ent theories, as to the best way to pro-
duce an orange grove, as there were
growers and that every one of them
could show a fine grove as proof of the
correctness of his theory. Read these
various essays and then exercise a lot
of common sense in adapting them to
your own needs.
All the rest of the Calla article, in-
eluding the editorial comments inter-
spersed, is from the Mayflower:
"Ten years ago a friend of mine who
was moving to another town presented
me with a handsome, full grown Cal-
la, that she found it inconvenient to
take it with her. I was delighted with
the gift. I prepared a good rich soil
as directed and waited impatiently for
a 1Ii Vakn were my hopes, nothing
but leaves rewarded my care that win-
ter.
'When summer came I laid the plant
down on Its side in a dark place as my
friend had advised. The next winter
I had no blossoms. The second sum-
mer I treated the Cala as before, with
the same result. The third summer 1
grew desperate; I lifted the Calla, dirt
and all, out of the pot and set it in
Sthe open garden bed. A few weeks
Later it blossomed. I repotted it in the
fail and cyicr ainvc iiiciii Itiai twii
some summer and winter. I repeat
this treatment every year, breaking off
all the small bulbs, and last winter 1
had seven blossoms, three single lilies
and twice, two together that measur-
ed six inches across and eight inches
to the tip of the scroll. Try this plan."
[June is the beginning of the Calla's
resting season and we therefore devote
considerable space to it in this issue.
It is a plant which thrives under a
wide range of treatment.--E.]

Calla Culture.
"Personally, I have no experience
with this plant to record,its frequent
use at funerals in a locality where we
iornmey lived having given my mother
such a horror of its waxy, deathly-
hued blossoms that she will not have &
plant about.
"It Is certainly too large and ghast-
ly looking a flower to place within the
coffin, but once I saw it most beautiful-
ly and appropriately used as a tribute
to the dead. An aged uncle of mine,
beloved by neighbors and friends alike,
was wont to pass in his daily walks
a home where three small children
lived. Thelied e title ones called him
'grandpa' and watched for his kindly
greeting. Suddenly in March, that
dreariest of months, he was stricken
down. The mother of the thras tets
had a Calla bearing three Afe blooms.
These she sent as the offering of the
little ones, and they were arranged on
a stand beside the coffin, tied with a
bow of broad lavender ribbon, whose
ends hung to the floor.
"The Calla is a plant that becomes
very dear to its cultivators, as was
witnessed by a comical incident which
crept into the papers. A Buffalo wo-
man went to California to spend the
winter and insisted upon taking her
beloved plant along' The first hitter
home contained this paragraph:
'I must tell yon about that Calla.
It wan thS Sgnftqq bothoe yeou ovoe
saw. I almost wore myself to a Fltsal-
ow taking care of it. But I carried it
along, thinking of the lovely blossoms
It would surely have this winter. By
the time I got into California, I was
sick and tired of it and nervous and
worried and all that But I remember-
ed the comfort the blossoms would be


when they came. When I got up on
the morning of the last day 1 looked
out of the car window, and may I nev-
er see Buffalo again if the train wasn't
running through a field of Callas so
big that I couldn't see its limits. I just
sat down and had a good cry. To
think that an ordinarily sensible wo-
man should carry a twenty pound pot
and Lily 3,000 miles just because she
wanted to see it in blossoms, and then
find millions of the same Lilies grow-
ing wild in the fields. It was enough
to make an angel weep. Then I look
the Calla and threw ai out of the
car window.'
"The postscript read like this: 'P. s.
-Dear IIrnry, please supply any suit-
able word where I left the blank.'
"Now everyone knows that the Calla
must be rested during summer and had
this 'ordinarily sensible woman' shak-
eit her Calla roots dry from soil in the
fall, wrapped it in paper and placed it
in her trunk she would have been
saved the annoyance of lugging a '20
pound pot,' and though she might have
been somewhat provoked at herself
even so, still her mistake would not
have been so aggravating nor so pa-
tent to all.
"Our next door neighbor has made a
success of Calla culture and her meth-
od is so peculiar as to be worth re-
cording. She doses her plants-doses
It well, too. She gives it a tablespoon-
ful of castor-oil whenever it does not
appear blooming and healthy. When I
went to her for information concerning
her treatment she said, "It is not us-
ual for the Calla to bloom before it is
two years old. In fact they seldom
come into flower before the third year,
but I have had them in blossom when
only one year old. After their sulm-
mer's rest I repot them in rich soil and
pour a tablespoonful of castor-oil on
the top. I repeat this dose once a
month or until they bud.'
"This lady always has particularly
fine blossoms, too, and I have noted
with regret summer after the laying
down' of the pot, as the plant invari-
ably has both bud and flower when the
resting season overtakes it."
[Here, again, is that ridiculous eas-
f gvil i Rf 4itz" It?. IBtraat IPal
ble benefit can the plant derive from a
tablespoonful of oil of any kind poured
on the surface of the soil? And what
of the tens of thousands of Callas
which have never been treated a dose
of oil but which annually grow and
bloom to perfection? When it comes
to Calla culture "throw physic to the
dogs;" use rich soil, give a warm, sun-
r.y position, and an abundance of wa-
ter after growth commences.-Ed.]

More About Callas.
"The Callas have done particularly
well this past season, owing, I fancy,
to a change in treatment. Being fa-
y-orlt Blowers of ming, I ba r watched
them more carefully thing winter than
any other plants, and find there is a
most decided difference in their growth.
The home grown bulbs, obtained of
New York florists, produce tall plants,
large leaves and huge blossoms, and In-
crease but slowly. Others (sent me
from California) grow only half as tall,
leaves smaller, plants more stock
and blossoms half the size of the other
kinds, but they increase more rapidly
and blossom more profusely. From
one bulb sent me three years ago, I
now have seven blooming bulbs and as
many small plants.
*"After vFiona a tri*ala. following ev-
ery suggestion I ever read on the sub
jer of their growth, drying them off
in summer, planting them out in the
border, etc., I have settled down to this
plan as the best one: I plant four bulbs
in a ten inch pot, In a mixture of two-
thirds leaf mold to one of sand, give
perfect drainage of charcoal (if I can
get it), sink pots in the ground in full
sunshine, and water well all summer;
thus the plants gain strength and size
and still rest, as they have only natural
growth and are not forced into bloom.
T'he first of September, I lift out the
pots, turn on their sides, and with the
ioano waoh out all the oarth I oan with-
outc disturbing the roots, fill again care-
fully with the same mixture, water
well and set on the piazza to grow
with the other winter plants until time
to move- them Into the house. Then
give all the warm water they can drink
every other day, a warm shower bath
and dose of weak manure water once


a week, and you will see a plant to
make your heart glad.
"I find that crowding the roots
makes the plants stocky, and produces
more blossoms, although the leaves do
not grow so large. Fortunately for
people who have little room, an east
window is as good as any for Callas.
From three pots I have had twenty-
seyen blossoms this winter and the
buds are still coming. Summed 'up,
my success is due to good drainage,
good earth, warm water and little root
room,
'I advise all to get a 'Dwarf Calla'
and grow through summer for next
winter; it is sure to eb a popular plant
with every one."
"While we acknowledge there is no
cause for merriment yet we cannot
help feeling amused as we turn the
leaves of our flower journals and read
the various methods of cultivating the
Calla Lily, for opinions differ greatly
a' io what is i'ut proper treatm'nr:rt of
this plant, and frequently we find upon
the same page instructions that are di-
rectly opposing, and it is not surpris-
ing that the navice in floriculture
should be somewhat perplexed to
know which way is best. But, to bet-
ter illustrate my meaning, I will copy
a few of these conflicting ideas from
the pages before me:
"One writer says: 'I keep Jny Calla
growing all summer, set out of doors
in a shady place and have not repotted
it for five years; but every spring and
autumn I dig out some of the old soil
and fill in with new, using fine black
muck; and let five or six bulbs live in
the same large pot. Treated in this
way my Calla has been in bud and
blossom ten months of the year.'
::"A3inep Wft1,e tells us tI :.TlsE nsU
Callas out of doors in June, lay the
pots over on their sides, and leave
them through the hot summer months,
giving them no attention whatever.
The old leaves will drop off, and the
earth in the pots bake Into the con-
sistency of bricks. This looks like
harsh treatment, but the Calla likes it.
In September bring in the plants and
give them water to start them into
growth. Never remove the new bulbs
at faF1sn0 srFSHR IhE 81A1 Pa&tl ast A.-
they grow shift Into larger pots and
you are sure of flowers for the win-
ter.'
"Again we have the following: 'In
August, the leaves of my Calla having
died down, I take up the bulbs and af-
ter removing all offsets, which should
always be done, I report in fresh soil
and give but little water until they be-
gin to grow well, then water plentiful-
ly, adding a few drops of ammonia
about twice a week. At Christmas set
them In a vessel and every morning
pour boiling water into it. Let them
stand in water constantly, and both
buds and flowers will soon make their
appearance.'
"Again Rs twun a saf eida read
"The Calla Lily being a tropical plant,
and its native home the marshes and
deltas of the river Nile, It of course
must be well supplied with water, but
only at certain seasons. About the first
of July lay. the plant on its side in
some out of the way place and let It
remain until the last of September;
then repot in fresh soil and water free-
ly. After it has thrown up some
three or four leaves, earth up around
the stems, leaving the outer eyes next
to the pot lowest, and put on from one
to two quarts of boiling water each
day and you will be surprised at the
number of blossoms obtained by this
mefiod.2
"The above are doubtless the exper-
iences of the several writers and are
tendered in good faith. They teach us
one thing at least, and that is that the
Calla Lily is a very amiable plant and
its powers of endurance are indeed
wonderful, else it would never survive
the rigid discipline to which it is of-
ten subjected. We believe that the
Calla, like all other plants requires a
season of rest; but it is a mistaken
idea to think we are emulating Egypt
and the Nile when we cramp our plants
into a small pot and then turn them
on their sides until the soil Is hard as
Driezs, ana the roots of the plants are
as dry as leather shoestrings. No, in-
deed! we can never believe that the
Calla likes such arbitrary treatment.
"Those who cultivate the Calla have
doubtless noticed when repotting their
plants the rope-like roots coil In bottom
of the pot, and that these in turn are


thickly set with fibrous roots or feed-
ers, which are also found on and
around the plant just below the sur-
face of the soil. Now, botany teaches
us that every root and fibre, even the
most minute, has its part to perform
in nourishing the plant. If this be true,
how injurious It must le to the plant
when we let the roots become too dry
for action and keep them in this condi-
tion for months together. We believe
It is an error to let the roots of the
Calla become absolutely dry; they
should have moisture enough when
resting to keep them from shriveling.
"If we consult history concern its
native habits we shall find that from
June 21st, the beginning of the summer
solstice, the waters of the Nile begin
to rise gradually within the banks of
the stream until the middle of July,
when they overflow them. About the
20th of August, the valley presents the
appearance of a great inland sea, and
so continues until the time of the au-
tumnal equinox, when the waters be-
gin to subside, and by the last of No-
vember the river is once more within
its banks. The rise is estimated at
from twenty-niie to forty feet; and as
O*e land is sr.l'nerged from July to
November the (alla does not have a
great opportunity for drying off, al-
though the roors may lie dormant
through it all and spring up anew
through the rich deposit of black mud
when the water has subsided.
"We are told that as the waters dry
out of the surface of the ground the
long ropes of roots follow it horizon-
tally, going down to the bed of the
Nile, where a perfect network is
formed. By this arrangement the
leaves are independent of the dry at-
mosphelsF by whl(h they are surrounds
ed, and the plants have from Decem-
ber to June in which to grow and oloa-
som.
The Calla Lily when in a healthy
growing condition is one of the most
noble plants in cultivation; but when
neglected and abused it is the most
forlorn, and makes us feel indignant
for Egypt and the river Nile.
Mrs. G. W. Flanders, Maine.
[Our esteemed correspondent Is
tleaa right in H!tr tnoluaio that
flh Inftereting extrni f Wfiifi Si
gives in her article are "the experi-
ences of the several writers, and are
tendered in good faith," but she falls
into an error in company with one of
the writers from whom she quotes:
viz., that the Calla is a native of Egypt
and subjected to the overflow of river
Nile: a very common and widespread
error, by the way. The plant is widely
known as the Egyptian Calla and in
old botanical works its scientific name
is given as Calla Aethiopica; but its
correct botanical name is Richardia
Africana, and its native home is the
Cape of Good Hope, South Africa, far
below the equator where the seasons
are exactly opposite to ours and those
of all coiufifles noilfi df thin edilifF.
We cannot find a particle of evidence
that the Calla Is a native of Egypt, and
we are inclined to believe that the er-
ror has arisen from the resemblance to
tie Calla of the Colocasia Antiquorum
which grows In Egypt. It is not at all
unlikely that some travelers in the
latter country have mistaken the one
plant for the other and made their
statements accordingly.-Ed.]

HOW TO TAKE COD LIVER OIL.
Nearly every one knows that when
they are thin there is no remedy in the
world equal to cod liver oil to make
diem -leshy, Yet there 1~ nothing
against which they rebel more prompt-
ly. There were a great many ways re-
commended for making cod liver oil
pleasant. Among these we would men-
tion placing a pinch of salt In the
mouth before and after taking the dose
of oil. Syrup of bitter orange peel was
also recommended. But now all this is
unnecessary. Science has found a way
of making cod liver oil not only pleas-
ant to take, but easy to digest. Messrs.
Scott & Bowne have brought this sci-
ence to perfection in their Scott's
Emulsion, which is cod liver oil free
from disarre-eble odor. and taste, and
already partly digested.

KEPT ON THE JUMP.
"That tall man seems to be the buslest
person around the establishment. 'What
does he do?"
"It Is bts duty to see whether the oth-
erm are working or not."--Chicago Times-
Herald.











376 THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.


FLORIDA AGBICULTIUST,

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Florida Clover.
The Times-Union and Citizen says
Florida clover will beat the tourists, as
it brings money from the North and
leaves it here, securely anchored in the
land, in foliage, bloom and seed, for
the feeding of stock and the enrich-
ment of the soil. Like some of our
hotels, not conducted on the "home
rule" principle, Florida clover does not
grow wholly on indigenous nourish-
ment. It Is the most cosmopolitan of
plants, it forages on all sections of the
continent, because it derives its sup-
port largely from the atmosphere. The
great abattoirs of Chicago, where the
blood of cattle always smokes to hea-
ven may contribute ammonia to be
wafted to this greedy plant in Florida.
The nitrogen combed out of the fog
and the rain of Dakota may, in its long
wanderings in the clouds, be precipi-
tated in this State, and thus become
absorbed by the omnivorous Florida
'clover, the beggaweed, which is no
beggar, but a bold taker of other men's
substance.
And who shall gainsay its right? The
tiny rivulets of nitrogen which Dakota
and windy Chicago may contribute to
this plant to drink are an inadequate
compensation for. the rivers of bliz-
zard which have overflowed us from
their bitter fountains in the past five
years.
Nolontleta tell us tliat there aro a
great family of plants, the legumes or
podded plants, whose function is the
opposite of other plants. The legumes
are builders and restorers; all other
plants are consumers of fertility. The
legumes have on their roots minute
nodules or excreecences, which, by
s9wm yrn99s Rot 799t sndorstood, have
the power to appropriate from the at-
mosphere that most valuable and ex-
pensive ingredient of fertilizers, nitro-
gen. They extract the free nitrogen
which is always present in the atmos-
phere, whether above the surface or
circulating through the interstitial
openings of the soil.
Of the numerous families of the le-


gumes, Florida clover, or desmodium,
is one of the most useful. Its stiffly
upright habit of growth prevents it
from "lodging," as red clover does, in
the North, which would prove disas-
trous to it in the flooding downpour of
our rainy season. Thus it stands up
alone, and rivens a rich harvest of for-
age, were the Northern farmer has to
support his clover with an intermin-
gled reinforcement of timothy. Flor-
ida clover sends down a long and pow-
erful taproot and brings up from the
clay subsoil valuable mineral salts,
which by thle deomposition of the
plant are imparted to the surface
strata of the soil. For this reason, it
is superior to the cowpea. The drier
the season the deeper it penetrates in
quest of moisture and mineral salts;
thus the farmer discovers that a crop
of corn succeeding a year of drouth
has leaves of an unusually rich and
lustrous finish. showing how well the
decayea clover or toe preceding year
had prepared the ground. Paraphras-
ing Falstaff. we may say that it not
only yields fertility in itself, but is the
cOuse tll:ir fertility is in otilher pliii .
This clover is the natural comple-
ment of cattle, and the farmer should
keep always In co-operation these two
powerful regenerators of the soil and
creators of fertility, at tile same time
not stinting his use of judiciously com-
pounded commercial fertilizers, for the
clover cannot create something out of
nothing. Commercial fertilizers make
a crop. cattle and clover make the land.
An instance is related showing how
great importance those unsurpassed
farmers, the English, attach to cattle,
in other lands as well as England. A
traveler in Egypt found, to his aston-
ishment, that the English, who have
reainerttodl that country nine their
military occupation of it, were using
oxen in certain large irrigating opera-
tions. Upon inquiring why men so
progressive as the English did not em-
ploy steam machinery instead of oxen,
he was told that oxen enrich the land.
wilie steam machinery aoes not. ii
this was good reasoning and good
farming on the proverbial fertility of
Egypt. would it not he still better on
the thin. sandy lands of Florida?
Cattle are extremely fond of Florida
clover, when properly cured, as well
as the green article; and it is almost
as fattening as grain. We have, there-
fore, the excellent, cumulative rota-
tion; the more clover the more cattle,
and the more cattle the more clover.
For more than thirty years, since
emancipation Introduced the reckless
freedman system of agriculture in old
Florida. this invaluable plant has cov-
ered and protected the outraged earth.
Growing as a volunteer, self-seeded
from year to year, it has taken posses-
sion of the cornfield and quickened the
farmer's unready steps with Its prep-
arations for the succeeding crop. Be-
fore the crop was "made" it had laid
in a stock of fertilizer for the next,
and by the time it was harvested it
was ready to be scattered and plowed
under. Nowhere else in the world's ag-
riculture can there be found a more
instructive instance of the land taking
care of itself through this plant, and
yielding a support to improvident and
wasteful man.

farmers' Institutes.
There has been an active, deter-
mined effort in many sections of North
America during the past twenty years
to establish an educational medium
for the adult farmer. This commen-
dable and greatly desired work has
been generally started by individuals,
who saw the imperative need of intel-
lectual training and development of
the mind to a higher standard of ex-
sallsnoe among tia paoploa ho none
stitute the population of the rural dis-
tricts. Unfortunately, a rapid advance
along these liy.s has been checked
and handicapped by a lack of neces-
sary funds to make the movement
more general, and thereby successful. t
But there has been, nevertheless, a
gt?-ay "-4 gnia"agnt gi2 Tf t tirv rEt- 9
tute work year by year, backed up in i
most instances by State or national ap- s
propriation, until at the present time 1
farmers' institutes are the most num-
erous and popular organizations of any I
other agricultural societies in the coun- X
try.
In Canada the movement seems to i
be quite popular, and rapidly increas- c


ing each year in interest and member-
ship. In Ontario there were held dur-
ing 1S99, 677 Institute meetings, with a
total attendance of 120,000 farmers.
This work is carried on there under
the direction of the department of ag-
riculture, directed by an official of that
department, known as the superintend-
ent of farmers' institutes. This Is in
the province of Ontario, and the gov-
ernment appropriates about $10,000
annually in behalf of the movement.
In the United States we find the insti-
tute work most popular at this time in
the Middle and upper Western States.
The Southern States are gradually
moving forward, with the institute
work generally under the control of
the agricultural college of the various
States, supported principally by na-
tional appropriation.
This itinerant lecture system for the
farmers may be traced back to 1842,
in the state of New York. The state
agricultural society of that state bL -
gan sending out lecturers in that year,
which proved at once so entertaining
and instructive, that the plan was at
once adopted, and extended in the fol-
lowing years. Massachusetts next fol-
lowed by holding a series of farmers'
institute meetings in the year 1859.
From the plan which originally pre-
vailed of raising subscription for the
work by voluntary contributions, these
states and others were induced to
make annual appropriations, until fin-
ally there are about only three states
in the Union that makes no effort to
organize a system of these institutes.
It may be safely predicted that this
state of affairs will not long exist, and
that within the next year or two farm-
ers' institutes will have become per-
manent institutions in every state in
tile Uniin,1
In nearly all of the older states the
institute movement has ceased to be
experimental, and their existence is
so well fixed in the public mind and
policy, as to be recognized as a part of
thoe governmental and educational ma-
chinery. Twenty-two States have an-
nual appropriations direct from their
various governments for carrying on
the institute work. Among the larg-
est contributors to this fund for the
intellectual advancement of the farm-
ers through the medium of farmers'
institutes annually are. Wisconsin,
$12.000: Pennsylvania. $12,500; Ohio,
$S.00; New York, $20,000; Minnesota,
$7.000: Michigan. $5,500; Indiana, $5,-
000; Illinois, $16,000.
Among the southern states Alabama
is the only one making a direct appro-
priation for farmers' institutes, which
is $3,000 annually, South Carolina has
no department of agriculture, except at
Clemson college, where $1,500 is appro-
priated mostly from the college funds
to carry on the work. The balance of
the rtatea make no effort toward the
education and Instruction of the adult
farmer, except through the different
agricultural colleges which is mostly
spasmodic and of restricted value.
The only institute work carried on In
this state during 1899, was conducted s
by the editor of this paper, the appro-
priation for that purpose being made
by The Atlanta Journal. During last
summer about 40 institutes were or- a
ganized, which are doing the best they i
ann. depending upon their own finan- t
r'al resources and home talent, for im- t
provement. The South cannot afford t
to continue indifferent on the subject 1
of aiding the adult former, upon whose s
efforts in the avocation he has chosen, t
rests the present and future prosperity c
of our whole people.-Atlanta Journal. t

The Beneficent Bee. r
Mr. Frank Benton, the bee expert at
Washington, has cited for The Rural a
Tow Tfor (IO tno following dlata in re r
gard to the actual amount of practical 0
benefit in increased fruit and seed pro. t
auction by keeping bees: P
In "Langstroth on the Honeybee" It p
s slated that "a large fruit grower t
old us that his cherries were a very v
uncertain crop, a cold northeast storm
Frt'aslty1 pvrnv"*! SBI tg Fy wry -
n blossom. He had noticed that If the s
sun shone out for a couple of hours the t]
bees secured him a crop." t
Root says: "A few years ago the ii
people in some parts of Massachusetts t
got an idea that the bees, which were g
kept there in large numbers, were d
Irejudicial to the fruit. After some I
controversy the bees were banished t


from the town. In a year or two they
found the fruit not only no better, but
decidedly the reverse, for the trees
blossomed profusely, but bore no crops.
By a unanimous request our friend
was persuaded to return with his bees,
and since then the trees have not only
Wifenamed. but borne fruit in profit
sion."
Mr. T. W. Cowan, editor of The Brit-
ish Bee Journal. has recently said: "It
is useless increasing the area under
fruit cultivation without at the same
time increasing the number of bees
Rapt. As df instance I would mention
Lord Sudeley's fruit plantation in Eng-
land. About 200 acres of fruit trees
were first planted, and for several
years there was such poor success that
it was a question whether the ent-r-
prise should not be abandoned. Lord
Sudeley was, however, advised to in-
troduce bees, as it was found that not
niany ware kept In tfiat tdiiU'Ifg, f'iWG
hundred colonies, in charge of a practi-
cal bookkeeper were introduced and the
former failure was turned into a suc-
cess. Since then 500 acres have been
ptmntod with frult tree0, and a large
jam factory has been started close by,
both undertakings being in a prosper-
ous condition."
The following case also adds weight:
For several years the cherry crop of
Vaca valley, California. had not been
good, although it was formerly' quite
sure. The partial or complete failures
had been attributed to north winds.
etc., but in the minds of the owners
these causes did not sufficiently ac-
count for all the cases of failure. It
was remembered that formerly, when
cherry crops were good, wild bees were
very plentiful in the valley, and hence
it was thought that perhaps the licok
or fruit since most of the bees had dis-
appeared might have been due to im.
perfect distribution of the pollen. To
test the matter several hives of bees
were placed in an orchard in 1890. The
result was striking, for the orchard
hoIs a good oiop of oniBomsl, WRlalg tf-
er growers in the valley who had no
bees found their crops entire or partial
failures. In 1891 one orchard had 65"
hives of bees in it, and the owner
wrote: "Our crop was good this sea-
soan, afd We attribute it to the bees.
Since we have been keeping our bees
our cherry crop has been much larger
than formerly, while those orchards
nearest us, five miles from here, where
no bees are kept, have produced light
crops."

A 3ide Down the issimmee River.
- The story of the Disston drainage gp-
erations in the Kissimmee valley has
been read by thousands outside of
Florida, probably in every State in the
Union. Yet in the first drainage ca-
nal which we entered below Lake To-
hopekaliga, one of the first sights
which we witnessed from the deck of
the snug little steamer Roseada was
a steer in a vast expanse .of water,
with only his head visible above the
surface contentedly browsing the mai-
len cane and other luxuriant herbage.
Certainly not much drainage there.
During very dry weather these drain-
ige canals connecting the string of
makes in some places afford only eigh-
een inches of water, or even less; and
hey are shoaling up. In one place
he canal bank being composed of peat,
n a prolonged drouth last year became
o dried out that it caught fire and
turned up. This makes a miniature
revasse, and the water has flowed
through from the area back of the ca-
lal and washed in so much sand as to
ender it nearly unnavigable.
In our opinion there are immense
reas bordering the river which never
an bc icirmanantily molaimont by
itching alone. It would be necessary
o dyke them and pump them out with
powerful machinery during the rainy
weather. But the soil is fertile enough
o compensate for the heavy outlay
rhich this would require.
The captain of the Roseada, Mr. Clay
chnllon, wae an exporoinoed TLonilinna
ugar planter, and he it was, who, at
he request of Capt. R. E. Rose, raised
he first sugar cane on reclaimed land
n the Kissimmee valley. He planted
en acres at Southport. and by Intelll-
-ent and energetic management pro-
uced so favorable results that the
)isston operations were undertaken on
his showing. Captain Johnson still










THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST. 37r


has unshaken confidence in the capac-
ity of the Kissimmee river bottoms
and reclaimed lands to produce sugar
cane of a quality and richness superior
to that of Louisiana. With the excep-
tion of Captnin Rose the half dozen
managers at St. Cloud have been inex-
perienced or wrong-headed men. Plant-
ing operations were sought to bq man-
aged in a Philadelphia office. The
whole management, from beginning to
end, has been a cramming and a salt-
ing, from headquarters to catch stock
buyers.
One instance of nlismanalgemlent men-
tioned by Captain Johnson was that
the farm managers did not plow deep
enough. In dry weather this peaty
olil, bluns almoolt druF Vgett# li do
bris, dries out very deep, and unless
the plowing is a foot deep or nearly,
the ground dries out below hardpan,
and the cane roots become thirsty.
The reason of the failure of the rice
experiment was also clearly explained
by the captain, The planters were
South Carolina men, who were accus-
tomed to the regular flow and reflow
of the tide water on and off their rice
fields. This constant motion of the wa-
ter, alternately in opposite directions,
keeps it moderately cool, and it i. ben.
eficial to the rice. But they did not
tskEg !not consideration the difference
between tidewaters and these interior
waters, which have no motion. They
turned the latter upon the rice, and
they stood there unchanged from day
to day, ror weeks. During the day
they would become hot in the sunshine
and they literally scalded the
rice to death. These lands of splendid
fertility will produce rice equal to any
in the world, but some way must be
contrived to keep the flood waters from
stagnation and heating.
It Is wonderful what an amount of
down-right lying has gone out into the
world about these lands which once
had the misfortune to come under the
observation of a Philadelphia million-
aire anxious to sell sugar land and sug-
ar mill stock. One extreme begets
nnofher. Thfie laMin Bhae been In ud
ed to the skies and belied down to
sheol.
It has been asserted that they would
not even produce vegetables! On the
return trip sll2!e SPB tho 9iYes, We
saw a station trucker on the Soiltn-
port canal put on board several barrels
of Chile Red potatoes, as fine and large
as any we ever saw grown In Florida.
Vegetables do well where the drainage
is maintained.-Klssimmee Gazette.

Insect Remedy.
A reliable remedy to prevent and de-
stroy the red and black ants is to
sprinkle ground cloves around their
haunts. Ground cinnamon and pulver-
ized borax are said to have the same ef-
fect, but we cannot vouch for their ef-
ficacy; the ground cloves have always
done the work for us, and it was not
necessary for us to try other remedies.
Cockroaches are difficult to destroy.
Find the chinks and holes from which
they come and scatter unslaked lime or
borax around them. If these fall, try
this: Mix equal parts of corn meal and
red lead, and add enough molasses to
make a medium thin paste. Spread the
mixture on plates and set on the floor
In the evening. The next morning the
plates will be covered with dead cock-
roaches. Reset the plates every even-
ing until the cockroaches are all de-
stroyed.-Selected.

TOO BUSY.
"You said you had no opinions about
the guilt or innocence of the prisoner,"
said the friend.
"I know It," said the nia who had been
to court.
"But you had already expressed opin-
ions 'to me."
"I had. But the opinion I was formingg
of the lawyer who asked me all those
hard questions was getting to be so nu-
merous and intense that there was no
room for any others just then."-Wash-
ington Star.



CANCER--PILES.
CANCER CURED WITHOUT PAIN.
NO KNIFE USED.
CURE GUARANTEED.
$1,000 for a case of Piles we can't cure.
Write for free books. Address
BIJLHVIEW SANITARIUM,
alsraIf - .in


TO THE DEAF.
A rich lady, cured of her deidness and
noises in the head by Dr. Nicholson's
Artificial Ear Drums, gave $10,0000 to his

Institute, so that deaf people unable to
procure rthe Ear Drums may have them
tree. Aaaress 122c. The NichOlOn In-
stitute, 780 Eighth Avenue, New York.


CHEAP COLUMN
RATES-Twenty words, name and address
one week, 25 cents; three weeks 50 cents.
SALT SICK. Cured for one dollar or
money refunded. W. H. iMann, Man-
ville, Fla. 10x18-1900
rnOK 3A1'-lNurtcrrre afibit thlhvtsir
Crapefruit Trees 4,500 budded. HaS 2Z1,
Orlando, Fla.. 419t
THE SID B. SLIGH CO., Wholesalers of
Fruit and Produce; Commission Merchants.
138 East Bay Street, Jacksonville, Fla.
47tf.
JAMAICA SORREL plants, by mail
poitlildl ftor rse per diann, frhmld nilti
plants ready now. W. S. PRESTON,
Auburndale, Fla. 15-tf
FOR SALE-A few trios of Buff Ply-
mouth Rocks; also eggs from two
yards, not related. Mrs. F. R. HABS-
KINS, Mannville, Fla. 7-26
LAND TO RENT-In South Florida for
what it will produce over $300 Dr. acre.
Piai'ty -nust have some money. L, M,
DE PEW, Palmasola, Fla. 20x:32
FOR SALE-Selected seed velvet beans
at $1 per single bushel. Reduction on
I Raif nmouniti on o:irr :i drt butler l-
H. DE LONG, Candler, Fla.
LODGE, Plain or Society Shield, Silver
Key Checks with your name only 10c.:
with address 25c. K. RING, 1003 G
street, N. W., Washington, D. C. 23x3
EGGS FOR HATCHING reduced to 60c
per dozen, Jamaica sorrel plants 10c per
dozen, citron melon seed 2 oz. 10c. AL-
BERT PRIES, St. Nicholas, Fla. 23x25
FOR SALE-A few thousand Carney Par-
son Brown Orange, Marsh Seedless and
Walters Grape Fruit Eye Buds. $ per
thousand. E. L. OARNEY, Lake Weir,
Fla. 2
ROSSEULLE makes splendid sauce, jelly,
pite, picklea, wine, chrub. ,; Si 4-vi
plants mailed for 25c; large, 20c dozen.
Seeds 25c oz: 10c package. E. THOMP-
SON, Avon Park, Fla.
VILLA LAKE NURSERIES, Fruitland
Park. Lake county Fla., offers for uly
citrus buds. For good stock and low
prices, address C. W. FOX, Prop. 13tf.


FOR SALE-$100 cash. Eight acres of
high pine land near DeLLand Junction;
6 acres cleared, three acres of which are
in grove, the balance of the tract is in
timber,. Bmanl Iou O and a woll on tnO
place. Address T. M. H., care Agricul-
turist, DeLand, Fla. 8ty
WE HAVE complete list American man-
ufacturers. Can buy for you at lowest
prices and ship you direct from each.
Machinery, machines of all kinds, en-
gines, boilers, incubators, windmills, or
anything wanted. Correspondence so-
licited. AMERICAN TRADES AGENCY
Jacksonville, Fla. 6tf
THE U. S. LIVE STOCK REMEDY has
proved most efficient in preventing and
curing Hog and Chicken Cholera and
kindred diseases. It is also a fine con-
dition powder. Sales are increasing. If
your dealer don't keep it we Will mall
it to you on receipt of price 25c per 1A
lb. Liberal discount to dealers. ISAAC
MORGAN, Agent, Kissimmee, Fla. 1ttf
OUR VELVET BEAN HULLER is in op-
eraition. Arrangements are perfected
for doing your work promptly; our ca-
pacity being twenty bushels an hour.
Get your beans in early, and we will
store them for you free of charge. Our
charge for hulling is but 15c a bushel
for the beans after they are hulled, 60
pounds to the bushel. E. O. PAINTER
& CO., Deband, Fla. etf.

DO KEEP BEES?

No matter-my 64-page Bee Book
Tells IT-o-w
It will inle'est and please you. I know it
will. It's ree. Write today-the honeysea-
son's coming J. I. Jenklin, Wetumplia,
Alabama 12-4


"Certificate Am.


The Practical
AND SIMPLE
BARBED WIRE
FNCEI BUILDER.
PRICE $2.oo.
V. SCHMELZ,
SylvanLake, Fla
Inst. Fair."


ORANGE TR7,7 *FOR SUMMER AND
ANE TR EES FALL PLANTING
Budded on either Sweet or Sour All Standard varieties of Orange,
Orange, Rough Lemon or Citrus Grape Fruit and other citrus fruits
Trifoliata Stokka ., in *tok - -- - -

Trees budded on Citrus Trifollata bear young and are
especially suited where artificial protection is used.


HIGHEST GRADE o TREES o AT LOW PRICES

FREIGHT PREPAID.

Gompletn Stosk of all Classeis 9f ruit and Ornamental Trees.


FLORIDA GROWN PEACH TREES FOR LARGE ORCHARD
PLANTING A SPECIALTY.


CATALOG FREE,
Correspondence Solicited.


POMONA NURSERIES
and Excmior Fred and Pouliry
Farms.


THE GRIFFING BROTHERS COMPANY,
Jacksonville, Florida.



Farmers' Attention!

sPElCAL
SPRING -
GOODS

Avery Garden Plows, Acme Harrows
GEORGIA STOCKS.
SPRAYING OUTFITS
and everything in Grove and Farm Implements and Supplies

Poultry Netting w a '. AColumbia Bicycles
CHARTER OAK STOVES,
CARRARA PAINT, IRON PIPE, BOILEBS AND PUMPS
WffITE fi P ICEBS.
GEO. H. FERNALD, Sanford, Florida.



OCEAN STEAMSHIP CO.


"SAVANNAH LINE"

PART RAIL, PART SEA.

FAST FREIGHT AND LUXURIOUS PASSENGER ROUTE.
. FROM .

FLORIDA TO NEW YORK,

BOSTON AND EAST.

SHORT RAIL RIDE TO SAVANNAH, GEORGIA.
Thence via Ship, sailings from Savannah, Four Ships each week to New York and Two
to Boston. All ticket agents and hotels are supplied with monthly sailing schedules. Write
for general information, sailing schedules, stateroom reservations, or call on
E. H. HINTON. Traec Mgr., WALTER HAWRINS, Gem. Ags.,
Savannah, Ga. 224 W. Bay St., Jacksonville. Fla


SPECIAL UNTIL JULY 1, 1900.


0
I3


To reduce our enormous stock of pot-grown plants, consistingof
about half-a-million Tropical and Semi-Tropical Fruit trees, Bcono,
mical, Meaicinal, and Useful Plants and trees, Bamboos, Conifers,
Palms and Cycads. Ferns, Miscellaneous ornamental vines, creepers
shrubs, and flowering plants, we will until JULY FIRST offer any
and all at a cash discount of 33 1-3 per cent fom Rur list prices
when order amounts to $1.00 and over, byexpress or freight;if plants
are wanted by mail, a discount of 20 percent only will be allowed.
We have a large stock of such plants as guavas, mangoes,sapodillas
star-apples, cherimovas, loquats, camphor, etc., etc., all healthy and
free from insects. On citrus stock we can only allow usual discount
of 20 per cent., when order amounts to $5.00 or over. Send for ele-
gant catalogue, most complete published in the South (free) and get
some bargains. REASONER BROB., Oneco, Florida.










378 THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.


HOUSEHOLD DEPARTMENT.

Address all communications to the
Household Department, Agriculturist,
DeLand, Fla.

A HELPFUL CORNER.
Aunt Esther's Experiment.
(By Retta.)
Those who have lived in the South
have been obliged to depend upon col-
ored help, who "get tired" in a few
weeks and go liome, leaving the place
for the next applicant, will not wonder
that Aunt Esther's patience was worn
thread-bare with doing so much teach-
ing in the domestic line without re-
ceiving adequate returns.
At last she suggested taking a little
colored boy to raise, teaching him to
do the house work.
Uncle Benjamin protested that "a
boy would wear out more clothes than
he was worth and be no use after all;"
but after being assured that there
would be very little expense for cloth-
ing, except for a pair of shoes for cold
weather, he consented that Aunt Es-
ther should try the experiment, -~nd
Watson, a bright little colored boy,
was duly inistalled as a permanent
member of the kitchen help.
As he was not quite four years old
(Aunt Esther preferring one who was
too young to have learned many- bad
habits) only a small quantity of ma-
terial was necessary to make his
clothes.
Perhaps some perplexed housekeeper
who wishes to try this method of se-
curing permanent help may like to
know how Aunt Esther managed the
question of clothing, so I will try and
tell you about it.
'A supply of colored shirts had just
been made for the men, and the pieces
left, furnished material for blouse
waists. Some of them had collar,
front pleat and sleeve facings of an-
other kind, but that only served as
trimming and was highly appreciated
by the wearer.
The best parts of old pants, after be-
ing thoroughly washed in pearline
suds furnished material for the tiny
knee-breeches.
Undershirts and drawers were made
from the cast-off knit underwear of
the family. Underwaists were cut
from left cuttings larger "garments
and the stockings were "cut down"
from long stockings.
As the garments were easily made,
little Watson was soon fitted out with
an abundant wardrobe for week-days,
but for his Sunday suit Aunt Esther
wanted something a little different so
that he might be dressed as well as
the other pickaninnies at the Sunday
school.
'For this purpose, an old light gray
overcoat of rather fine cloth was rip-
ped and washed in pearfine suds. then
colored deep blue with diamond dyes
and a nobby liftle suit was evolved
frorq it, A bit of Iold braid loft fr0no
last Christmas' fancy work gave the
sailor collar and sleeve ends a finish
that made one little brown face beamn
with Joy and prompted such a bring-
ing in of wood and picking up of
scraps from the floor that Uncle Benja-
min smiled audibly and declared that
such a good worker deserved a new
hat to match the clothes, and should
have it the first time he went to town.
The new shoes came with the hat
and now there is not a more willing
worker in Southland than little w.at
ot., W1i6 pT oudly says. "I's lier lioy an'
I's wine work er heap ter pay fur all
dese tings."

Canning Late Pears.
When the season is overcrowded with
work it is wise to defer that part of it
which will wait without detriment.
Late canned fruit, providing the vari-
ety is good, keeps better than that
sealed in hot weather, so -or several
years we have sold all the early va-
rieties and canned only the late ones.
We have a large russet pear, the Se-
. think: tHat la swwi5q f, jRW itid
cf fine flavor, which is not ready to put
up before the middle of October. when
the fire is a comfort and there is time
to devote to this particular task. This
variety, however, while good for can-
*ing is not good for preserves.


Choose a fine-grained pear for pre-
serves always. The little Seckel is a
perfect pear for tlie later use; it is
also late. Either of these varieties
make excellent pickels.
i'ears pxce()t in occasional families,
are lesO uKed titan almost any other
fiuit; but they can be made very pala-
table by combining them with other
tliivor will probably be relished, then
flaovr will-probably be relished, then
unless some new flavor is Introduced,
pear sauce is at a discount. Slices of
lemon cooked with pears gives a pleas-
ant, tart flavor, and a healthful stimu-
lus to the appetite. Oranges sliced
alone or in combination with the lem-
on are very fine.
Pineapple sliced or shredded and
cooked with the pears give them a de-
licious flavor, and pears cooked in
strawberry and raspberry juices is an
epicurean dish. Besides the fruit fla-
vors, cloves, cinnamon and ginger root
will each help to give a pleasing vari-
ety. I nearly omitted the best of all-
peaches and pears are a delightful com-
bination. It does not improve the
peaches, nothing could, but it does im-
prove the pears greatly. Manufactured
flavors of lemon, orange, pineapple,
etc., may be used acceptably in case
the natural fruit cannot be procured.-
Ex.

Sardine Sandwiches.
When baking bread, bake two or
three little loaves in baking powder
cans. These loaves when sliced, make
sandwiches of convenient size, which
are perfectly round. Chop fine six
Iard- boiled eggs and two of the little
flat cans of sardines (sardines, not the
cans) season to suit. Butter the little
slices, spread with the mixture put to-
gether, and you have your sardine
sandwiches ready for lunch.-Maude
Lenna Beadle in Farm, Field and Fire-
side.

The Newest Ties.
The neckties and stocks to wear with
the elaborate shirt waists are bewild-
eringly Ibautiful this season. There are
plaited stocks of changeable chiffon,
with a fluffly bow and chiffon bows
with silk embroidered ends, as well as
those with a border of appliqued lace.
Then there are exquisite, filmy crepe
scarfs. with a printed design, which
looks as if they were hand painted.
The newest net neckties have the
ends ornamented with lace appil.ques.
which are outlined with shirred
baby ribbon. For example, a white net
stock and four-in-tand will have the
stock threaded with narrow black vel-
vet ribbons and the ends appliqued
with ecru lace outlined with black vel-
vet baby robblon.
A pique tie is the correct thing to
wear with the pique shirt waist. It
may be either a pique stock with a
string necktie or pique tie in a small
bow, or a pique Ascot puff. With the
cotton cheviot waist the necktie to
nMillh tlhi- lIet alpirnlpiatc. Irt mny
be tied in a bow, Ascot or four-in-hand.
A black satin stock neeltie is not out
of place with these waists.
Among the newest black satin stocks
are those with a little turn-over white
silk hem-stitched collar. This stock
may be worn with a white silk bow
with fancy hem-stitched ends, or a
tightly tied black satin four-in-hand.
Neckties of very narrow white silk,
with the ends finished w!tl a tasse" andl
ornamented with tiny buttons covered
with silk threads, are among the neck-
Wvitr noveltivs,.
Another novelty is the necktie of nar-
row silk riibon witl the ends of many
stands of silks braidedd and finisihdl
with a tassel. ,.

Contributed Recipes.
Oatmeal Cakes.-Beat four eggs, a
pinch of *'alt, two tablespoon sugar,
a saucer of cooked oatmeal, three ta-
blespoons of flour. Fry in butter, or
butter and meat fryings.-Ret Robin-
son.
lye Bread.-Scald a panful of sour
1klli iiff l It 15 7-T,11 ciidrd, thcn our ii
into a cloth (a flour sack is nice for this
purpose), and drain well; take two
quarts of the whey when luke warm;
add rye flour enough to make a batter
as other bread, and adcd a well-soak id
yeast cake; this should lie done in the


evening and set to rise in a warm place
over night. When light in the mo-ninag
add a good tablespoonful of salf and
wheat flour enough to knead it well.
Grease the sponge all aronud with
senme nice dripping of butter and let rt
rinc tgni-i 'whlci lllilt fl IBl Itf s W
again; let it rise again and mould into
small leaves and let it rise till light,
then bake same as wheat bread.-Mrs.
A. E. Mann.
Rhubarb Pudding.-Boil two cups
bread crumbs and beat two eggs with a
half cup of sugar. Cover bread crumbs
with sweet milk and add butter the
size of a walnut. Chop rhubarb stalks
into pieces one-half inch in length,
about a plint in quantity. Add this to
the soaked bread crumbs, together witli
eggs and another half cup of sugar.
htir together and bake in a buttered
pan. Serve with sauce made in the fol-
lowing manner: Heat one pint of
creally milk and add sugar and grated
nutlneg to suit taste. Stir up a heap-
ing teaspoonful of flour with a little
i'Ilk until it is smooth, then add a half
cupful of milk and turn into the sauce
on the stove. Allow it to heat until it
thickens, stirring constantly.-Cather-
ine Blanc.
Potato Salad.-Pare and boil six
large potatoes till well done, and also
two eggs for tweuty minutes. Have
ready a vegetable dish and slice po-
tatoes enough in it to cover the bottom
of the dish, sprinkle over a little salt,
pepper and bits of butter, then put in
another layer of sliced potatoes and
salt, pepper and butter and so on unt!l
the dish is full. Mash the yolks of the
two hard-boiled eggs in a cup, add a
little pepper and salt and one teaspoon-
ful of ground mustard and one table-
spoonful of butter; mix all well togeth-
ti and fill the cup half full of vinegar;
pour this over the potatoes; peal an on-
ion, chip it very fine, also the white of
the eggs, add a Ifttle salt, mix and
strew over the top of the salad and it
is ready to serve. This is a very pret-
ty dish as well as good tasting and
very nice for supper in the summer.-
Mrs. A. E. Mann.

Hints to Housekeepers.
If people only ate more fruit they
would take less medicine and have
much better health, says an exchange.
There is an old saying that fruit is gold
in the morning and lead at night. As
a matter of fact, it may be gold at both
times, but then it should be eaten oil
an empty stomach and not as a dessert,
when the appetite is satisfied and di-
gestion is already sufficiently taxed.
Fruit taken in the morning before the
fast of the night has been broken is
very refreshing, and it serves as a stim-
ulus to the digestive organs. A ripe
apple or an orange may be taken at
this time with good effect. Fruit, to be
really valuable as an article of diet,
should be ripe, sound anil in every way
of a good quality, and if possible it
should be eaten raw. Instead of eat-
ing a plate of ham or of eggs and ba-
-ll tfol blrm-ikfnat, most people would
tdo far better if they took some grapes,
pears or applles--fresh fruit as long as
it i to Ibe hald and after that they can
fail back on stewed prunes, figs, etc.
If only fruit of some soi-t formed an
important item in their breakfast, wo-
imen would generally feel brighter and
stronger, andi would have far better
tolmplexionis than is the rule at pres-
ent.
Tle custom of sending wedding cake
it: still sufficiently plracticted insure to
i w'mifllnan of nin-hiil Irumllinut-il i t1 url
siderable accumulation of this sweet-
neat. One woman packs the little
qlua'res in her pudding moud as fast as
they arrive. When the mould is full
site steams it for an hour, and serves
lier family with a delicious plum pud-
ding. "The composite sweetness," she
says, "of many happy occasions."
Gold frames may be cleaned by wip-
ing with a cloth dipped in sweet oil.
Bronze articles are best ciliedl with
a paste made of powdered chicory and
water.
IIouse cleaning should have no fixed
iif. l;t;;r' Biiilil depend entirely upon
the weather. It is rarely warm enough
to leave off fires unt!l late in the spring,
but many small things can be done be-
fore the real cleaning begins.
Steel kept in quicklime will not rust.
The best thing for cleaning it is un-


slaked limle, but care should be used,
as it may affect the eyes.
Tansy leaves scattered around spots
infested by ants will cause them to dis-
appear.
It is never well to delay packing furs
away until (ulite Iant in tilh amrani, tar
the moth will early commence depre-
dations. All furs shoutN be shaken
free from dust anil well wrapped in
paper, with smafl pieces of camphor
laid in and about them and put them
away in a cool, dark place.
Windows may be kept free from ice
and polished by rubbing the glass with
a sponge dipped In alcohol.
To insure a good light the lamp-wicks
n'ust be changed often as ..-ey soon be-
come clogged and do not permit the
flee passage of the oil. Soaking wicks
in vinegar twenty-four hours before
placing in the lamp insures a clear
flame.
Rub lamp chimneys with newspapers
on which has been poured a little kero-
s ne. This will make them much clear-
er than if soap is used; they will also
be less liable to cracr.
An excellent salve may be made at
home of one ounce of straneu honey
and lemon juice wilh half an ounce of
eau de cologne and glycerine. Another
is composed of one ounce each of sweet
oil, and white 'wax, a drachme of
spermaceti and a fourth of an ounce of
powdered borax melted together and
perfumed with a few drops of attar
of roses. Mutton, tallow, fresh lard
and glycerine, equal parts, dissolved
over the fire and mixed with a few
drops of spirts of camphor, will be
found very soothing to chapped lips.
Fever blisters may be relieved by
touching with a little powdered borax
moistened with camphor.

Cucumber easts.
Probably no insect has withstood
more methods of repression than the
striped cucumber beetle. Each year
some new style of plant cover, some
new poison or some foul-smelling com-
pound is pronounced by writers in the
agricultural press a never-failing de-
fense; yet the little pest returns to the
attack every season in" increasing num-
bers, and with sharper appetite than
before, says a bulletin from the New
York Experiment Station. It may safe-
ly be said that no perfect remedy or
preventative has yet been found. On-
ly by a combination of two or more
measures can we hope to keep even, or
perhaps get a trifle the better of the
insignificant appearing little foe.
Squash is the beetle's favorite food
plant, so this vegetable should be plant-
ed in single rows along the margins of
small patches, or in several rows
around large fields, about four days
before the cucumber seed are sown.
When these trap plants are up and the
beetles appear about them, dust about
half the plants with green arsenite, re-
serving the other half for use if rain
or heavy dew makes the poison solu-
lble and kills the vines first treated.
T 0e b"tloe Will feed upon the squasl
vines and be poisoned by the arsenite.
When the cucumbers are up they
should by spray-d witL BgrdeauS aad
more of the squash vines should be
poisoned.

High Feeding for Plants.
Interesting experiments have been
carried on in plant feeding by G. M.
Sherman of Hampdlen, Co., Mass. His
plan in brief is to supply liquid ferti-
izrers by means of a porous jar buried
a foot or more beneath the t urrate Uian
filled from time to time through a tube
projecting above the ground.
The roots of the plant or tree collect
around the porous jar and absorb the
fertilizers. Mr. Sherman's experiments
l-ave been mostly confined to rose bush-
es, which in many cases appear to have
made enormous growth, shoots extend-
ing several inches per day in some
cases. The inventor expects the prin.
ciple to prove of great value in culti-
vation of all kinds of fruit and shrubs
:and will attempt to have the theory
thoroughly tested at the Stat.o liUri-
iienuC Sitation.- Amerl-an Agriculturist.

A LABORED EFFORT.
"What do you think of my play?"
asked the author.
"Play," grunted the leading man. "Play
nothing. It's hard work."-Philadelphia
North American.










THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST. 379


POULTRY DEPABTXIENT.

Address all communications to Poul-
ty Department, Box 200, DeLand, Fla.

Tor Our City Markets.
I have often been asked as to the
grades of dressed poultry for our city
markets. These requests come most
frequently from small fanciers who
wish to dispose of their surplus stock
to the best advantage. Among our bet-
ter hotels, there are uedl four kinde
cr sizes; the between sizes go to the
family trade and "restaurants. The
most profitable market at all times is
that which consumes the best quali-
ties in goodly quantities.
The "breakfast broiler," or "squab
chicken," as called by some, should
weigh close to two pounds to the pair.
They should run very even in size,
for while they are continually served,
it would cause, and ill-feeling should
one guest be served more liberally than
another. These small-sized breakfast
broilers sell in April at one dollar per
pair, wholesale, to large hotels, and
there is an active demand for them at
all times. But the quality must be the
best or their value is cut in two. Only
the very best wil meet the demand of
this high-class trade. Those who se-
lect these daintles for their living know
full well when the quality is right and
refuse to be served with an inferior
grade.
The regular broiler grade must aver-
age from 2yV to 3 pounds per pair, and
at this time they sell in the market at
but little more than the very small
ones. The price April 10, was $1.10
per pair. These fancy broilers must
be quite plump and full about the
breast or they will not pass muster. The
Ill-favored scrawny specimens will not
do for this manner of trade. As de-
livered they are usually packed as nice-
ly in the crates as oranges or dates in
their boxes. This attractive style of
packing gains many cents per pound in
toler favor.
Much depends on the manner of pre-
senting this style of poultry to -the
trade. The very best that can be pro-
duced may be injured for market eith-
er by poor preparation or presentation
for sale. If those who kill and dress
them do not understand the art of do-
ing this nicely, the specimens may be
very much reduced in value from be-
ing pulled and torn till the broken skin
lools badly. Or, if poorly plucked and
some of the feathers not removed, this
gives an undesirable appearance that
counts against the value. If thrown
together In a careless manner when
packed, what good appearance they
may have had is gone forever.
When properly killed and nicely
dressed, they should be packed in rows
with the heads turned under, so as to
slightly elevate the point of the breast.
This position makes them look their
best. If the shanks and feet are nice
and clean and allowed to project, as if
to be used to handle them at the feet,
it gives the attractive mode of pack-
ing. All these little features, when
properly made use of, help to sell your
product at the very highest price.
The most attractive fowls for roast-
ing should weigh four pounds to the
pair. These are for a fancy roast, to
be served for two. Such sell at $1.30
per pair, and are usually In good de-
mand. Other sizes are classed as
fowls and are used for soup, sandwitch-
es and cold cuts. The very large chick-
ens are used for these purposes, and
when considered as fancy table stock,
the larger they are the less valuable
for the fancy hotel and restaurant
trade. Such stock Is selling for 15c
per pound and to bring this price must
be first-class.
The records show that the small, one-
pound specimen or squab broiler, sells
at 50 cents per pound. The next size
larger at about 38 cents per pound; the
two-puond 'rooster for about 32 cents
per pound, and the heavier weights at
15 cents per pound, early in April.
These prices are as paid by hotels to
the big supply men for the very best of
all that comes for the regular market
supply. This grade of stock is not dis-
turbed by over-supply, for there is sel-
dom a surplus of this grade. There are
also some high-class fancy grades that


go to the most fashionable re-
sorts and clubs, but these are of a sep-
arate class and are valued at just
what they will bring. Often they sell
very high.
Those who prepare and care for their
stock so as to have them come under
these better grades, can always do well
with them. This is the kind of market
poultry that it pays to produce. I can-
not think that there would be much
of a margin to those who raise the
poor. clihap grades, for they sell in the
market at prices ranging from 7 to 10
cents. If ill of this gooe to the pro-
ducers, it would hardly pay for the
food they consume. The small, plump
well-conditioned specimens bring the
highest prices.
Why there should be an effort to In-
crease the size of our VWyandottes, that
are at this time one of, if not the very
best market fowl, is a question, when
I see that the most desirable for mar-
ket in our cities, at least, are not the
large, heavy specimens, but the com-
pact, plump, full breasted specimens of
the medium size; the same kind of the
lighter weights are the most valuable.
In small towns, when dressed poultry
is sold by the piece or pair for family
use, it may not be of so mucn import-
ance, but in this city it is of great con-
sideration.
The packing of eggs for market is al-
so of importance. All white or all
brown in the one case increases the
value over mixed colors. Those who
take care in packing to have the eggs
in each case all of the same color and
fairly even in size add considerable
value to the eggs. Never pack a soiled
egg in the case. Better throw it away
if you have not the time to wash it.
For such carelessness in packing
grades your eggs under best table qual-
ity and reduces their value. Those
who buy them may select and repack
them and gain the advanced price, but
this lack of care in packing counts
against the original packer.
Quality counts for so much in high-
class city trade that it will pay those
intOoreoted to study all manner of
methods in presenting their product for
sale. Those who make a special ef-
fort in this direction will always se-
cure full reward for so doing as soon
as they become known in the channels
that dispose of their products to the
high-class family trade.-'1. P. Mc-
Grew in Country Gentleman.

OUR GREATEST SPECIALIST.
For 20 years Dr. J. Newton Hath-
away has so successfully treated
chronic diseases that lie is acknowledg-
ed to-day to stand at the head of his
profession in this line. His exclusive
method of treatment for Varicocele
and stricture without the aid of knife
or cautery, cures in 90 per cent. of all
cases. In the treatment of loss of
Vital forces, Nevous Disorders, Kid-
ny and Urinary Complaints, Paraly-
sis, Blood Poisoning, Rheumatism, Ca-
tarrh and Diseases peculiar to women,
he is equally successful. Dr. Hath-
away's practice is more than double
that of any other specialist. Cases
pronounced hopeless by other physi-
ciani. rapidly yield to his treatment.
Write him to-day fully about your case.
He makes no charge for consultation
or advice, either at his office or by
mail. J. Newton Hathaway, M. D. 25
Bryan Street, Savannah, Ga.

Not long ago Don Mi. Dickinson of
Detroit, made a rather startling state-
ment in a public speech, concerning
wine drinking among public men. He
declared that not 50 out of 10,000 were
total abstainers. This is a decided ex-
aggeration, although it would be dif-
ficult to give exact information without
a personal canvass. It may be said,
however, that there are some very con-
spicious examples of total abstinence
among public men. Both President
McKinley and Senator Frye are invet-
elate smokers, but they never drink
wine; Senator Platt of New York, ex-
Senator German, of Maryland, Secre-
tary Long, David B. Hill, Richard Cro-
ker ard many others that I could men-
tion neither smoke nor drink intoxicat-
ing liquors. I suppose that 50 men
might be found in the house of repre-
snctatives who neither smoke nor
drink.-Chicago Record,


SEED! SEED...


e


Please note that I have transferred my seed business from Gaines-
ville to Jacksonville, Fla. I can now olfer special inducements to pur-
chasers of Seed Oats, Seed Potatoes, Velvet Beans, etc.


I HAVE

"--800 POUNDS-

ROCKY FORD CANTALOUPE SEED
READY FOR DELIVERY.


Address all orders and inquiries to
P. F. WILS N, Jacksonville, Florida.
OJ


MALLORY-

Florida
New York
Phila-
d elphia &
Bostoni
From Brunswick direct to
New York. _


STEAMSHIP LINE.
0 Passenger Service.
To make close connec-
tions with steamers leave
Jacksonville (Union de-
pot) Thursdays 5:20 a.'m.,
(F. C. & P. By.) or Fernan-
dina 1:30 p. m., via Cum-
berland steamer; meals
en route, or "all rail" via
Plant System at 7:45 p. m.,
ar. Brunswick 11:30 p m.
C passengers on arrival go-
n directly aboard team
. . . . . er.


ROPOsEU 8A lLIIuS lror June, 1900.
NORTH BOUND-BRUNSWICK, GA., DIRECT TO NEW YORK. LEAVING EVERY
FRIDAY %S FOLLOWS:
S. S. RIO GRANDE ....................... ... ... ...Friday, June 1.
S. S. COLORAD .. ........ .... ......... ...............Friday, June 8.
RIO GRANDE ..... ................... .......... .... Friday, June 15.
S. S. COLORADO .... ......... .......... ... ... ......Frday June 22.
S. S. RIO GRANDE............ .............. ..Friday June 29.
SOUTHBOUND-NEW YORK TO BRUNSWICK, STEAMERS LEAVE PIER 2
E. R., EVERY FRIDAY, 3:00 P. M.
For general information, steamers, trains, rates, etc., apply to
BASIL GILL, WY. Bay Street, Jacksonville, Fla.
H. Raymond, General Southern Agent, Rr.nswicl.k Gsa,
C. H. Mallory & Co., general Agents, Pier W0E. R. and 385 Broadway, N. Y.


w


I I I JPAG [ll l ,[1

YOU'D SLEEP BETTER
dyou used Page Fence for your breachY stock.
PAGE WOVEN WIBE FENCE CO., ADRIAN, ICH.
EEO
Western Poultry Farm, E
MWestern Poultry M. grow paying crops because they're
MARSHALL, MOY..
esah and always the best. For
4 months on trial 10c. One yr. 25c. sale everywhere. Refuse substitutes.
It tells how to make poultry raising Bick to Perry's eda and prosper.
profitable. It is up to date. 24 pages.
Send to day. We sell best liquid lice kill- 900 Beed Annual free. Write for It.
er for 75 cts per gallon. Aluminum leg D. 1. FERRY A CO., Detreit, Mcl.
bands for poultry, 1 doz., 20 eta; 25 for 30


cts; 50 for so cts; too for 31.


T~sk. MyJ Cast C1tt.
Pa'Umimutc-iot bterL.s
Satisfctio Guamaseed.
JESSE MARDE%
209 a. CluW1 u9
3RALTMOBJ4 J


Aliliff~ijimillill












THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.


A SUNDAY DINNER.

It was a cold morning, and Miss Pris-
clla Peters shivered as she stood before
her small looking glass, brushing her
scanty gray hair. It was a happy shiver,
however, and she smiled at herself as she
thought-
"It's got the right Christmas feel, ust
like back home, and to think I'm going to
a real Christmas dinner, too, turkey and
stuffing and cranberry sauce It seems
like I can taste them now. Father was
always great on dinners; he liked things
tasty; I guess I take after him. My, what
would he say if he knew I'd got to ask
help from the county next week?" Her
little figure seemed to shrink away from
the glass, as tf ashamed to face itself.
"He'd be mightily put out Why almost
the fast words he spoke was, 'Prissy,
you'll be all right; them shares in the
losing Sun will keep you. And here that
mine has been closed down these five
years, and me going to the supervisors
come Monday week. I ain't a going to
think of it. I'm going to Mrs. Bassett's
and hold up my head with the best of
'em." She kindled a fire in the kitchen
stove, ground some wheat for the cof-
fee, which, with a slice of toast, made
her morning meal.
"It's lucky for me I'm going to eat out.
I won't need anything more, and that's
so much saved. I hthuldn't wonder a
might if Mrs. Bassett asked the evange-
list, too; he's a proper pious man. He
was powerful concerned last night over
Sadie Bassett. I see him look at the sing-
ing seats when he was pleading for them
to flee from the wrath to come. Sadie's
a mighty pretty girl, but she don't seem
constituted to take easy to religion. She
and Stephen Crane was taken up with
each other alt a great rate, but they've
fallen out. I seen hinm glowering at
Brother Maccabee when (he was a-talk-
ing to her, and his mother told me her-
self he poahed over him getting her into
the church, a girl that likes to dance
like her. Mrs. Crane says to him-
"'Steve, don't you dare to say a word
to keep that girl out of the kingdom. Re-
member what the Bible says, "Better a
millstone round his neck and drowned in
the depths of the sea." I don't want none
of them things happening to flesh and
blood of mine.' She sad Steve flounced
off madder than an adder."
.Miss Priscilla began to do her simple
work. She was atetually singing 'How
firm a foundation, ye saints of the Lord,"
her 'high cracked voice quivering through
Ithe old hymn.
"Why, I'm tickled as a little girl be.
cause I'm going to have a good dinner.
I'm afraid I ought to wrestle against it;
It's carnal of me, but I always did ,hand-
ker after good things to eat, and 'fore
my hands got all crippled up with rheu-
matism, and I could sew, I fixed me a
little something good now and then. I
wouldn't be a bit surprised if we had
lemon pie besides mince pie. Sarah Bas-
sett Is a great hand to cook. It's a priv-
liege to be able to ask the preacher to
dinner. I remember mother and I did
once. iFa'ther'd gone over across 'the
Divide.' It was risky of us, being as he
Wn a was mso as oflnat rlrcehtrai Wr
had a beautiful dinner; fried chicken and
mashed potatoes, and afterwards, right
at the table, Brother Butts sat and sang
with his eyes shut, 'Bear me away on
your snowy wings.' Oh, it was beautiful.
Only father come home unexpected and
slammed the door and was dreadful mad.
We were so ashasnaed."
Miss Priscilla got out her one black silk,
now htny and cracked at the seams. She
,brushed It carefully.
"I'll wear it today, and then I guess I'll
ay It away to be burled in; it ain't seem-
y for a woman on the county to be
Faunsst ;n eea nis x pae emat
She dressed herself, fairly trembling
with excitement, and when the church
bell sounded on the crisp air she stepped
out holding (her skirts daintily away from
the red, muddy streets.
The sun was shining, and the pine trees
on the hil glistened.
"If we only had a Iittle snow now." she
thought, "it would be more like Christ-
mases back home. This is a mighty open
winter for California. There's Sadie now,
stepping out of the rockaway; she looks
as pretty as a picture. I feel sorry for
Steve Crane. I hope EXlHs Smith won't
come today, I'd hate to have him see
me riding off so grand wtth Mrs. Bassett,
seeing as he's supervisor, and me got to
ask to get on the poor list. I will have
this one day, and hold up my head as
high as anybody." And Miss Priscilla
stepped into the church, and pattered up
the aisle in her mouse like way.
Brother Maccabee was in the pulpit. He
was tall and tank. with a bald head which
e tried to cover wltfi aT &W }Sig WiSiS of
nair, and which played him great tricks
when he became excited, to the amuse-
ment of the small boys. He had been
preaching revival sermons for two weeks.
Night after night he exhorted porniediy
at the singing seats, where Sadie Ias-
sett caroled as blithely as a bird, and
Stephen Crane glowered at him tr'fn te-
hind the stove. and accused him, men-
taNy, of designs to convert that one fair
woman into the second Mrs. Mac cabee,
whleh really should not have concerned
him, since he had relinquished his own
right to her. Only the night before he had
seen the evangelist barring the way from
the l'oir, and talking to the girl until the
color fiasmed into her cheeks, and she
threw un her head with blazing eyes and
pushed by him to the door.
"That's the way; Brother Maccabee
knows," nodded old Ms. Green, eagerly.
"He's laboring for her soul. 'Get 'emt
*mad,' our old parson used to say, 'and
W*w t *'em tnr tIhe mourner's

Stelfien's big hands clinched as if it
grasped the preacher's long yellow throat.


HIe'd like to show him the consequences
of bothering that girl. Then he ground
his teeth. What right had he to fight
her battles?
After service Mrs. Bassett, fair, fat and
good natured, came bustling down the
aisle.
"Oh, Miss Peters, I'm so glad you can
go home with us today. Brother Macca-
bee's going to be there, and you can ride
out with him judt as well as not."
"Oh, dear, I couldn't." And the little
dressmaker fairly trembled in her awe of
t he great man.
"Well," laughed Saralh Bassett, "then
you must come along with us, and Said
can go in (hit buggy. How de do Miss
Bain? IHow de do, Brother Styles? Oh,
'Brother Maccabee, remember you belong
ito us. 1ll Ithank you if you'll take my
"daughter, so Miss Peters can have her
place in our rig."
'"Certainly. I shall be glad of the young
lady's company."
Stephen Crane, from the hitdhing posts,
saw Sadie's flushed dheeks, and inwardly
smiled as he contracted the preacher's
team with his own smart horse and bug-
gy; but the girl passed him with a cool
nod, and let Brother Maccabee tuck the
robe about her, and rode off without an-
other look at her former lover.
"Now, Sadie, you fly around and set the
'table," said Mrs. Bassett, when they
reached the farm, "and we'll get the din-
ner right on. Susan's roasted the tur-
keys all right; they're done to a turn.
I will admit she surprised me. I couldn't
keep run of the sermon for worrying over
her, she's Uhalt likely to get to mooning
and let the fire go out," said Mrs. Bas-
set.t, as she bustled down stairs from
putting away her best bonnet. "Priscil-
la," She called back, as the little dress-
'maker stepped out of the spare room,
"you go right into the sitting room with
father and Brother Maccabee till dinner's
ready. Now, John Paul and Sylvia, keep
quiet and show your bringing up."
She bustled off to the kitchen, the two
children following, to stand around with
watering mouths until the Christmas din-
ner was ready.
Mrs. Bassett had exemplified her skill
as a cook; ,the table fairly groaned with
good things.
"I'm going to have the wishbone, John-
ny. I said so first," cried Sylvia.
"You're not, either, Syl. I tell you we'll
be in luck if we get anything; that the
bother of 'being kids and getting your
stuff last."
"Well, I am." reasserted the little girl,
-with the feminine instinct to have the
last word.
They subsided as feet were heard mov-
ing along the oiled cloth hall.
"Well, Brother Maccabee, what will you
have, dark meat or white?" began Mr.
Bassett, his knife poised over the plump
bird.
"Father."
"Oh, land, I clean forgot the blessing.
Fire away, parson. I'll keep the turkey
from flying away."
Through !the long grace the two chil-
dren pinched egh other and took many
sly peeps.
"Now, 'there, Brother Maccabee, I've
given you an assortment; fall to, man,"
said Mr. Bassett; and he passed him an
appetizing plate heaped 'high with turkey,
.tur-g1, assets ptarass manl weagw
gravy.
"No thank you, brother," began tihe
preacher. "I never eat food prepared on
the Sabbath," and he stroked his promi-
nent Adam's apple as if to shake down a
rising carnal appetite. "I consider it in
conflict with my duty as a Christian min-
ister, and the teachings of the Scrip-
tures."
Mr. Bassett paused, his knife held high
in the air.
"Lordy. do you starve on Sundays?"he
exclaimed.
lto amcary my pn- scae nosnl.
That matron's good-natured face had
flushed, she seemed to feel the many steps
she had taken to prepare that tempting
meal.
"Sylvia, child," she said coldly, "go out
and get an egg."
Sylvia rose crestfallen. Johnny whis-
pered, 'wish bone," which sent her fly-
ing on her errand.
"Now, Miss Peters, I know I can serve
you." began the host.
The little dressmaker flushed all over,
and glanced deprecatingly at the self-de-
nying face of the preacher. The tears
welled up into he faded eyes.
"I-I-" she began. Oh, she did want
some of 'that turkey, it smelled so good,
she had counted on it so. But there salt
the arbiter of the gospel of her spiritual
nature. "I never thought-I don't-"
"Pass me her plate, father. There now,
you're going to eat all that, and more,
'too. Don't you say a word." And Mrs.
Bassett set down the coffee pot with a
thiuniimp.
Meanwhile, Ilttle Sylvia had run to the
storeroom; not an egg remained in the
box; they had gone lato the yellow pump-
kin pies and stately white cake on the
dresser. She caught up her hood and flew
to the barn. The child dived her hand
into eadh manger; the hens had struck
duty today; not one egg could she find.
She thought of Johnny stuffing down
'turkey and dressing, and perhaps getting
'the wish bone, and almost sobbed.
"Oh, dear, why couldn't that hateful old
thing eat like other folks?"
Then she remembered Speckle; she was
up on the harvester seat in the shed. She
climbed up the high ladder like a cat, and
slipped her cold little hand under the
hen's warm feathers. Yes. there was one.
She hurried down and off to the house.
Everybody was served, and her own plate.
with the coveted wish bone, stood ready
at her place.
She set down the glass and egg before
thl mni~ator. He was tullcinf. and
cracKet it leisurely. Tlire was tre ound
of an explosion, and a terrible etendh
filled the dining room. The foul stuff flew


all 'over the reverend gentleman's shirt
front, into everybody's plate. Sylvia
gasped, open-mouthed and frightened
eyed.
"Oh, that beautiful turkey," cried Miss
Peters, spreading her napkin over the
carcass. "It's a judgment."
"That egg was never laid today," be-
gan Mr. Bassett; then he choked and
hurried out, his 'hand held tight over his
mouth.
"If you folks will go into the parlor I
will get another dinner," said the host-
ess. with suoh freezing dignity as per-
mitted of no disobeying. Sadie, glancing
at her mother's face, choked back her
mirth, and began to gather up 'the soiled
dishes.
That one rotten egg had possessed the
power of distributing itself thoroughly;
not a thing on that loaded table seemed
to have escaped Sts contamination. Later
they sat down to a dinner of badon and
fried potatoes, and Johnny tried to com-
fort scared little Sylvia by promising to
give un all the wish bones that year.
When dusk was falling Sadie wrapped
in a fleecy shawl, stole out at the garden
gate. She was shaking so with laughter,
and mirthful tears so obscured her eyes,
that she almost ran into Stephen Crane.
"I thought, being as Christmas," he be-
gan, then, "Why, Sadie, what ails you?"
"O, Steve." The girl's voice was kind,
and between paroxysms of laughter, she
'told of the Christmas dinner.
"I say, Sadie. you ain't going to let such
a man come between me and you, are
you. sweetheart?"
"You silly Steve, he don't wan to. He's
looking at Miss Peters this minute as If
she was made of gold, and he's got on
one of father's shirts. Olh, dear, dear."
And she went off into another spell of
laughter.
"Then let's let the world be all right
with us, sweetheart," cried Steve, joy-
fully.
It was all right with Miss Priscilla, too.
"It's a miracle, and the Lord's doings.
I ain't a going on the county, after all.
I'm going to marry the minister and be a
mother to his children. Just think of
that.-Waverly Magazine.

Good Tomato Sales.
One day this week Mr. Douthit, of
the firm of Peters & Douthit, tomato
growers at Cutler, dropped into the
Metropolis office and let the editor look
at two checks which had just been re-
ceived in payment for tomatoes, says
the Miami Metropolis.
One check was for $1,082.30, signed
by The Liebhardt Commission Co., of
Denver, Colo., and represented the net
proceeds for 400 crates. The check
was dated April 28. The other check
was dated the same day, and was for
$815.25, for 300 crates, from Crutch-
field & Woolfolk, Pittsburg, Pa.
Both these firms were represented by
Messrs. S. J. Sligh & Co.. who have
packed and had the handling of the
Peters crop, and these gentlemen have
a right 1& "e DPsa 45?? UB6 splenia
returns, which a calculation will show
to be an average of $2.71 per crate net.
Some of the sales were $4 and $4.25
per crate.
These shipments were made in Ar-
mour & Co. refrigerator cars, and went
through in fine shape.
A few small shipments of tomatoes
recently have sold for $5 per crate.
and the prices have been good all


Few people are aware that the large
chimpanzee, so popular and well known
as Sally in the zoological gardens, was
not infrequently supplied with animal
tood, which she evidently consumed
with great satisfaction. It has been
observed also that the gorillas and
chimpanzees in the zoological gardens
tit Berlin have a marked preference for
animal food, of which they enjoy a
small proportion. As above noticed,
their organization indicates that while
they are certainly "mixed feeders"
-that is, obtain their food from
both the animal and vegetable
kingdoms-they have been accustomed
to consume a larger proportion of veg-
oiable inaiier iliaii Ii iisiiilly idtified
by a man. And, lastly, having regard
to the evidence which inquires into
prehistoric records of man's life have
revealed, as well as to our knowledge
of his existence since, with what we
have learned respecting the habits of
savage tribes of recent date, it is impos-
sible to doubt that his diet has long
been a mixed one. Among the last
named class we know that a certain
quantity of animal food is always
greatly prized as a welcome variation
from the roots and fruits which must
(loubtless have largely contributed to
-'istain his daily l:fe.

Cnlvo ia anid to Te. an omnivorous
trilitl'r. NitO lIl.aly hhlnkins t noiewspli-
pers, but delves in many kinds of liter-


A Helpless Child.

A Little Suferer Cured of a Terriblf
Nervous Disease-Her Parents Pratse
the Remedy that arved Her.
Prom the Traveler, Arkansas City, Kan
Bapid as has been the advance of medical
science along many lines, it is only in recent
years that a remedy has been discovered for
one of the most dreadful of nervous diseases
that afflict children-St. Vitus' Dance.
This and other nervous disorders that
cause the pale, wan faces and peevish, irri-
table dispositions of so many children can
now be scientifically treated by a remedy
which strikes at the root of the disease by
renewing the impoverished blood and
strengthening the nerves.
Words of commendation for this remedy
come from all parts of the civilized world.
This is the interesting story told by Mr. and
Mrs. Christopher Armstrong, of Arkansas
City Kan.:
Our youngest daughter was for three
years afBlcted with St. Vitns' dance, and we
almost despaired of finding relief in medical
treatment. Shewasso
Shelless that she had
to be fed and would
Fall over at times and
be unable to rise.
"We had heard and
read great deal about
a Dr. Williams' Pink
Pills for Pale People,
-and, as a last resort,
determined to try
Had to be ed. them. The effect was
almost miraculous. From the first box
there was a noticeable improvement and by
the time she had taken six boxes she was
almost well. Altogether she took about
a dozen boxes and now, at thirteen year of
age, is strong and healthy, weighing 114
pounds."
CHRISTOPHER ABxTwm%,
MARY ABrSTBONo.
Arkansas City, Kansas.
Subscribed and sworn to before me this
8th day of January, 1899.
W. D. KBAMER, Notary Puble.
The power of Dr. Williams' Pink Pills
for Pale People in the vast number of dis-
eases due to impure blood or to derange-
ments of the nervous system, has been de
monstrated in thousands of instances as re-
markable as the one related above. No one
who im suffering can rightfully neglect this
way to restore health.
All the elements necessary to give new
life and richness to the blood and restore
shattered nerves are contained, in a con-
densed form, in Dr. Williams' Pink Pills for
Pale People. They were first compounded
as a prescription and used as such ingeneral
practice by an eminent physician. S at
was their efficacy that it was deemed wise to
place them within the reach of all. They
aot nna mnaiifaturtl l by ths Pr, Wi 'ie '
Medicine Company, Schenelady, IN., N
are sold in boxes (never in loose form by the
dozen or hundred, and the public are cau-
tioned against numerous imitations sold in
this shape) at 50 cents a box, orsix boxes or
$2.50, and may be had of all druggist er
direct by mail from Dr. Williams MIdid
Company, Schenectady, N. Y.


ature. Just now she is greatly Inter-
ested in Orientalism. and is planning an
eastern four sule flope to mane in the
near future. Unlike the majority of
opera singers, Calve is unmarried. She
once passed through a fierce love ex-
perience which left its marks on her
temperament for lffe. She asserts she
will never nw'rry and that she is wed-
ded to her art.

Prayer blessed by a hadji can be
obtained by dropping a coin in the slot
machine which has been placed in a
street in Algiers. Affixed is a notice in
Arabic to the effect that any miscreant
who dares to cheat the prophet by an-
nexing a prayer in return for a disk of
lead or a spurious coin will be con- gn-
ed to cruel punishment without' the
hope of entering a paradlse by any subn
equent earthly act of reparation. Bna-
lish automatic machine companies
would be glad to have such penaltitc
for swindlers at their disposal.-Lon-
don Chronicle.

To build a barbed wire fence, you
need the Fence Builder advertised in
this paper by V. Schmelz, Sylvan
Lake, Florida. You save the cost of
it in one day's use. For unreeling wire
without carrying the spool and stretch-
ing, and for reeling wire quickly and
easily. One man does the work of four
lb the old method. It will last a life-
time. It stretches wire beyond the
last post and pushes the post against
lrnoo. Adjustable to any po _ition.
Atoight only Ao paounfi. snd for cir-
cular.


1


I -









THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST. 31

PEm AND ScAso0S.


People who are bothered by a young
musician practicing on the piano may
be somewhat consoled by a knowledge
or some or the many devices which
have recently been patented for the use
of such students. Recently an appara-
tus closely resembling a thumb screw
was put on the market and was en-
dorsed by some music teachers as cal-
culated to greatly increase the reach of
of Diano players. Now a piano player's
harness is given to the world, with
equally strong endorsements. It is in-
tended to prevent pupils from dropping
the wrists too low and it fitted with
handcuffs and an adjustable strap,
which passes over the shoulders. While
sustaining the hands in the proper po-
sition of fingering the keys of a piano
it is yielding to a sufficient extent to
permit the hand to reach all the octaves
of the keyboard.

King Oscar of Sweden, is visiting
England incognito, and having a good
tili in iging where he likes without
ceremony. At the age of 71 he is still
hale and active, and, in a literary and
scientific sense, is recognized as the
ablest sovereign In Europe. He is
withal the most genial and democratic,
This was illustrated by his enthusiastic
handshaking of a group of Swedish
laborers who greeted him with cheers
when he arrived In London.

The experiment of the postoffice de-
partment in placing on sale the small
books of postage stamps has proved
successful, and the first issue, which
S92isstsA st 2,9w9wQS bagaslr was aold
out so rapidly that the department was
flooded with requests from all over
the country for fresh supplies. The
second supply has been distributed.
The department has made an improve-
ment In the books since the first issue.
In the first books the stamps were sep-
arated by thin sheets of paraffin paper,
but there were many complaints that
h,ioks when placed In the pocket
became so heated as to cause the
stamps to adhere to the paper. The
department therefore in the second Is-
sue separated the stamps by sheets of
tissue paper that had been boiled in
linseed oil, and this prevented the
stamps from sticking.

In 1864 J. Wickham Wilcox caught
a large turtle on his farm near Pine
Island near Middletown, N_ Y., and
cut his name and date on the shell.
The turtle was then released, and two
years later was again discovered by
Mr. Wilcox, who cut the date 1866 un-
derneath the first one. A son, Smith G.
Wilcox, has Just come across the iden-
tical turtie in the same neld where it
was found by the elder Wilcox thirty-
six years ago. The marks had grown
deeply into the shell and were as dis-
tinct as ever. The son cut his own in-
itials and date on the shell, and again
released the turle.

The people of the United States con-
sume 4,000,060 bushels of peanuts an-
nually, at a cost of about $10,000,000.
The growing of the peanut in this
country is gradually increasing, but
much of the product consumed is still
brought from abroad, notably from
Spain, Egypt and Japan. Yet the South
Atlantic seaboard and the lower Miss-
issippl valley, an well as other parts of
the United States, have been shown to
be abundantly responsive to the culti-
,,jU!on of this ground nut, the average
yield being about sixty bushels per
acre,

Speaking .of big salaries, the biggest
on record was paid to George Gould.
For ten years' work his father gave
him $-i.(Nw,0K0. The account went down
as "for services rendered." That was
at the rate of $500,000 a year. The
highest salary ever paid a railroad
president was the $75,000 a year that
went to Sir William C. Van Horn,
when he was president of the Canadian
Pacific.

While the diamond mines of Kimber-
ley have been producing about $18,-
000,000 worth of gems a year, the in-
dustry in Brazil, formerly the most
important diamond-producing country


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struck, and of this a court house,
school, hotel, church, stores and dwel-
lings were built. As time went on lit-
tle more gold was found, and the place,
abandoned within a couple of years,
stands a desolate monument of man's
greed for gold, and of the uncertainty
of eager speculation.-Cincinnati En-
quirer.

In the last sixty years the speed of
ocean steamers has been increased
from eight and one-half to twenty-two
and one-half knots an hour. Ships
have been more than trebled In length,
about double in breadth, and increased
tenfold in displacement. The number
of passengers carried by a steamship
Irls nten lnereasea fromI about one
hundred to nearly two thousand. The
engine power has been made forty
times as great, while the rate of coal
consumption per horse-power per hour
is now only about one-third what it
w-a in 18it4 The weight of the ma-
chinery per horse-power has also been
very greatly reduced.


11&


in the world, has fallen to a low ebb.
It is now carried on only by individuals
or small associations working in a crude
manner. The yield was never much
over .$1,000,000 in any year, and the
product is now worth annually less
than $200,000, and yet the quality of
the Brazil stones averages higher than
that of the Kimberley output.

Italy is essentially the land of post-
cards. The latest postcard is shot
with various colors, so that the hues
change if the card is regarded from
different angels. The colors, moreover,
are made of sensitive chemical ingre-
dients which are effected by changes
in the weather to the extent of alter-
ing their oolors.

Professor Lawrence Bruner, who
spent the year 1898 investigating the
grasshopper plague in Argentina, says
that only Australia could match Argen-
tina In the siagularity of Its life formal.
It is a country where everything pro-
tects itself. "The trees have thorns,
the grasses and weeds are provided
with thorns and sharp blades and her-
baceous plants are shielded with burs."
Forests exist where rains are scarcest,
and natives say that sometinmer when
heavy rains fall the trees die from too
much moisture. Some birds belonging
to the same order as our waterfowl,
avoid water. Many Argentina birds
possess spurs on their wings.

Dr. Koldewey, director of the ex-
cavations at the ancient city of Baby-
lon, has informed the Oriental Society
of the discovery of a canal built by
Aramcaa brick, which Is believed to
be the long-sought East Canal. A tem-
ple called Ernach of the goddess Nin-
niach was laid bare, and stones found
inscribed from the time of Nebuchad-
nezar.

Wampum was the name applied to
sll.lls or strings of shells used by the
North American Indians as money. Be-
sides their use as money they were uni-
ted to form a broad belt, wh:ch was
worn as an ornament. In thie language
of the Massachusetts Indians the word
signified white, the color which gen-
erally prevailed in wampum be'ts.

In the county of North Hastings, On-
tario, there is a town built of white
marble, with not a soul living in it. A
nugget of gold was discovered there,
which brought a rush of 5,000 people
in quest of fortune. In sinking a mine
shafts a vein of white marble was


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Vest sno cot, als oreeda ars, and
wewllmendyouthnicoatbyexprea.
COL, -mhit re iabal. Ex
ine and tr t on a your near
expre office, ad V =a sedUy
vahn Ieea ever aw r bea sM
saols say eat y u gan buy ir
e eIxpre agent Ot
SPECIAL PaM- r 2u 27and
4KS TOet ts late rt 1o-
Style, eas fitting, ade from hy
nn mer Ger, geusif Doa'kCve-t
Cloi th length. double breastd,
g velvet colar, fancy p=aid lining,
coar rooamede to S write for
sboth f r Onnts, and sauadtrd
qaTvBT VALV r e J by w or
anyotherhouse. 74w rn Cleft SIa
oen's MacLUntohes Up to la.6%
d ade-tolleasure Sulteand Over.
cts at from W.00 to 6O.W, write for
*EAR O BUCK & 0O. (Ina.) CHICACO.
*f^ ^ noHa








382 THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.


FLORDINA. GRAY PLANT SYSTEM
Captain T. H. Johnson, of Ocala, W let
shipped a car of melons from Oxford
this week, the first car to leave the al your
State. The melons were very fine, n i h- The great Througn Car Line From Florida.
ranging from twenty to thirty pounds a
each, and will demand the hikhaSt brs and
price. Captain Johnson has purchased friends CONNEOTIONS.
a great many melons at Oxford, and think yo
also has eighty acres in melons at y
Ocala, from which he will ship a cnr I must be THE ATLANTIC COAST LINE, via Charles on,
load not later than Monday. There are
a great many truckers In Marion coun- To The Richmond and Washington.
ty, with large acreages In melons, and y e a r s
mot of tem will begin to ship in car older than you are? THE SOUTHERN RAILWAY, via Savannah, Co-
lots next week. lumbia and Washington.
Last Monday at a turpentine farm Yet it's impossible to vi All mal
of West, Mllinor & Co., six miles look young with the
fionte i d-6 ra, sIt il On slar of 0 an f70 Th Ril, nthrrn I'r r in ,iarJaun!i Allnsto iad lchattan'as,
from which he died Tuesday morning. the hair. It's sad to To The The Louisville & Nashville via Montgomery.
The trouble began about 10 cents, The Southern R'y via Savannah, Columbia, Asheville.
which the latter owed the former. see young persons The u h R via n n
Judge Martin arid a jury held an in- look prematurely old The Mobile & Ohio R. R via Montgomery.
quest and found 'hat the homicide was in this way. Sad be-
murder in the first degree. Robinson i Via Savannah and Ocean Steamship Co for New
was present when the inquest began, cause its all unneces-
but before the taking of the testimony sary; for gra hair To T h Y,-rk, Philadelphia and lhston.
was concluded left for parts unknown., e
Immediate efforts were made to cap- may always be re- Via Savannah and Merchants & Miners Transporta-
ture him, but he succeeded in eluding store d AE
his pursuers. Both were colored. iU tion Company for Baltimore.
The protest of the citizens of Key to Its via Steamship
West to prevent the establishment n a t T WEST
of a quarantine station in the harbor Y KEY WEST Via PORT TAMPA and
by the Marine Hospital Service has u l Hrl a I AND
brought good fruit. The bill recently C o0 r 0 HAV PLANT STEATISHIP LINE.
Introduced in Congress was changed by us- HAVANA L LI .
so that the site will not be within five O
milla of the r ty, andi an frnnnlP mtinn ing-- NOVA SCOTIA. Yla l titn man CANADA. ATTLANTIC nti PiLANT
of $125,000 has been made for the pur- CAPE BRETON &
chase and construction of a location. STEAMSHIP LINE for Halifax, Hawkesbury
There are several places only a few For over half a cen- PRINCE EDWARDS and Charlottestown.
miles from the city that will be suit- tury this has been the ISLAND....
able for a station to the westward at d
the Marquise group of islands. When standard hair prepara-
the biwa rstproposed, it asnot ion. It is an ele summer Excursion Tickets
enerally known that Fleminr Ky Hey drcsstigw; t apm er ll
inside harbor of Key mde t ing of te ha; a to all Summer Resorts will b e placed on sale JJr e 't.
gestion of Senator Mallory. the hair grow; and The PLANT SYSTEIM s theonly Line from Florida with Through S'liplng-Car
The acreage in cantaloupes this year Service to the Summer Rsorts of
is much greater than that of the past cleanses the scalp
season, and the crop is rapidly mair-- from dandruff. WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA and
ing. Whllo thoie wers onl.y i, I m e THE MOUNTAINS OF VIROINIA
from this section last year, the number St.00abottle. Alldrulggtst.
the coming season may safely be es- 1' 1 have been using Ayer's Hair
timated at 300 car loads. With the Vigor for over 20 ears and I can For information as to rates, sleeping-car services, reservations, etc., write to
weather favorable cantaloupes will be- het air tonic n etence. F. M. JOLLY, Division Passenger Agent.
gin to movo within a FGw dg- Mra. L. fL. Aroo 1 m Wn-7 QItY TFrSt- lt A rlo Gainesvile Sun. Apriat 4, ias. E -co, Tex. STUART R. KNOTT, Vice-Prcsident, W. B. DENHAM, Gen. Supt.,,
Dr. J. Y. Porter, State iheilth officer. If you do not obtainathe benet Savannah, Ga. Savannalh, ;a.
has secured, through Dr. W. F. Blount, o expected from te Vror, write 1,. W. WRENN, Passenger Traffic Man Savannah, (a.
of Texas, who occupies the same po- Dotor about it. ;Mx ,
sition there, very important conces- well, Mas.
sons, that his State would not put on :rnd almost succeeded in floating the Wm. Blumer has on exhibition in
quarantine against Florida until they sAtcames, when heavy weather again one of the show windows of his drug
had been officially notified that yellow Idove the Copenhagen ashore, the wa- store a huge specimen or a bull frog,
fever was within Florida's borders. lt. covering her decks and boilers, and which came from Bayou LaFouche,
Passengers and freight will le allowed completed plans for a grand Fourth of the steamer is now a total wreck.- La., having been brought to this city
to land in Texas froml Key \We(-dt July picnic. A unique torchlight pro- 'l tusville Advocate. by a friend of 1Mr. Blumer. The frog
Crtlficate from lth Floridia l tat;l l1i Wil i pi~t~ct it 6~ tthi light of Judge Swayne, or the Unlted States w'iTsilim aliil trlivy, ?und 9Ri d a It a
health officer that they have not been the 3rd, and excursions will be run Court, in session in Pensacola has giant of its kind. It is just like the or-
in Cuba ten days previous fro leaving from Montgomery, Mobile, River June- an important decision in regard dinar bull fro found in the ponds
Key West for Galveston. This keeps tion and other places. to liking turpentine from government and rivers. Tle amimals are grown In
communication with Texas open all W. B. Jackson. receiver of the First toaingr arnmis An Romn ger nm Bt Louisiana as an industry, the hind legs
Sanford is all right F.reee m'oai vianaI or Orlando, is now pay llood of Santa iiosa were some time or tle rRog ieolug wiemii very mignly
ford is all right. Freze or no ing a dividend of 20 per cent. to the since lasted by the United States there, as in a great many other places,
freeze, we can grow celery and lots of creditors of the bank, the first that has as a table delicacy.-Pensacola Jour-
It; cabbage and lots of it; potatoes, been declared since its suspension. The lmrshal. charged with ooxing timber na l ll
beans, cukes and so on, and lots of dividends will amount to $12,000, the on government lands for the purpose
them; catch fish and lots of them. We larger part of which goes to creditors of procuring turpentine. The case was
have, comparatively speaking, but re- in that county. tried before Judge Swayne, who fined CATARRH CANN(OT BE CURED.
gently realized the bounleougnesoe nni Thr hill before Coniren netting alde the defendants $1,154.10 each, with wiit, TorCAT. APPl'ItA TIOXTO S as
'roallgallty, generosity and liberality, $50,00X) for dirdging and sluicing Cum- c"st of prosecution, and In addition thly cannot reach the seat of the dls-
of Nature to Sanford; but henceforth herinnd Sound 6iar has been passed seltencLed them to serve one day in ese. Catarrh is a blood or constitu-
we shall make most of it. A couple of and is now available. It is the general pr'ion. ,, tional disease, and in order to cure it
years and Sanford will take her old opinion that a depth of 2i; feet can be On MIonday night Fred S;agnar iand you imust take the internal remedies.
place at the head of the procession.- obtained as soon as the dredge can Sam Veronee. while hunting turtle eggs lall's Catarrh ('ure is taken internal-
Sanford Chronicle. give a few months' work and that this on tlhe ocean beach, which are found in ly, anid anets directly on tile blood and
Martin H. Sullivan, Pensacola's mil- depth can be maintained until tie comn- great quantities on our beacl at this mucous slrf;aces. Hall's Catarrh Cure
lionaire timber manufacturer, has re- pletion of the jetty system, which will .season of the year, met a 420 pound is nor a quanek-medicine. It was pre-
turned from Detroit, Mich., where, in r( under this depth permanent.-Fernan- bear, which was as eager to find a nest ?cribed by one of the best physicians
conference with Russell A. Alger and dina Mirror. of eggs as the boys, but after receiving in this coulnry for years, and is a reg-
associates, details for the organization 'Pincapples are now being shipped a shot by both of our Irave and gallant ular prescription. It is composed of
of the Alger-Sullivan Timber Syndi- front the Ludlow sixty acre pineapple l"'Inters from their rifles, the bear de- tith best tonics known, combined with
cato were completed. This svndic;ite plantation at Caxambas, by the schoon- cil'', to retreat to the palmetto swamp, the best blood purifiers, acting direct-
owns the finest tract of timber lands in er load. The crop here is the largest where they followed him a short dis- ly on the mucous surfaces. The per-
the South, located in Southern Ala. (evr -rais.sc. and wilh reach ill tlle i'ne tanco, and he wan found hugging a cab- feet combination of the two ingredi-
bama, within easy access to P'ounaool.. Iborimod of 13,000 oratgs.-Flt. MiLvcirs ti--r. nlmoat dead. and a finishing nts is what produces wonderful re-
They will establish Immense mills, I'ress. shot was tired.-itusvillc Advocate suits in curing Catarrh. Send for tes-
bui'd railroads for transporting their With reference to the report of the 'A. G. Liles, more widely known as linioials f ree.
products to this market for export to ni r'ck south of Jupiter, publishel the "Egg-'lant King." of Terra Ceia, F . C., HEN & CO.,
foreign countries, etc. The syndicate last week's Advocate, a telegram from was in the city recently. He showed a u, Poprst. poledo. Ohio.
will have headquarters in Pensacola, Iey VWest says that the British steamer Tribune representative checks to the hl' by all driuggists, pe e 5bt.
and will at once expend $100,000 in im- C'openhagen ran ashore on a reef near value of $1,70( as representing the re-y lls e the best.
proving Sullivan's wharf, one of the I'ort Lauderdale, seven miles north of u!lrns of one week's shipments of egg-
best located export wharfs here.-Pen- ('ape Florida, on May 20th. She was plants from his farm. r rom this item When cassauva velvet beans, sweet
sacola correspondent Times-Union and from Philadelphia, bound for Havana. his magnificent receipts for the entire potatoes and brooimnorn fields flourish
Citlaen. Tih tug Cihll(. went to her asititancce sWvason cau be estimat.l.-Tampa Trl. GVor tlhe .tunmp of the frozen orange
Pensacola's Carnival Association has frcm Key West as soon as reported, bune. ,trees, our people will again prosper.










TfH f Lf-DID1A ACRICULTUKIT.3


WITH THE JOKEBR

HARD FOR QUEEN.
Mr. Whitehead-I think I understand<
now why Victoria and Wilhelmrlna wer
so opposed to war between the Britlal
and Boers.
Mr. Young-Chicken heartedness.
Mr. Whitehead--'ihey knew it would
cut off the diamond supply.-The Jewel
Uar WWVIly.
FORCING A COLLECTION.
"Vat, you gtf noddings fer dot moosic?
said the collector for the little Germaa
band.
"Not a cent."
"'Den ve blay some more, aitd't it?"
He got the money.-Ohio State Journal
IMPOSSIBLE.
The Jay-Bryan ought to have gone tt
the front.
The Josh-The idea: Who ever heard
of a man talking from the front end of
tne tram.-Kansas City Independent.
Inquiring Tourist-TeH me, what were
your sensations while you were crouch
ing in your cyclone cellar with t'ne ter
noltI r tgng jug aP! yi9
itinmie Lralier-wa-al, I r'eiLon' t's
sale to say I felt sorter under tie weea-
ther.-Puck.
THINKING OF "FAUST."
Mephisto (to latest arrival in Hades)-
Well, what do you think of me?
'ie Arrival ta patron of tne opera)-
To tell the truth, you don't come up tc
my expectations. You ought to see Ed-
ouara de Reake in the part.-Puck.
A MODEST REQUEST.
Hewtt--My money is my best friend.
jewett-'Well, the best of friends must
part; lend me hve, will you?-Harper's
.azar.
SIDE IAGH'IT ON HISTORY.
"Croeeed in love," exclaimed Leander,
as he looked back at tine Hellesipont,
shook t1e water from his hair, and made
a bee line for Hero.-Ohicago Tribune.
HE THOUGHT NOT.
"Our defeats," said the Briton, "were
largely due to red tape."
"Ited tape." said the lBoer prisoner, in-
nocently. "I don't think we've been using
any."--tuck.
TWO VIEWS OF THE CASE.
Mrs. Keene-I don't believe those ru-
mnors about Mr. Worth's business em-
barrassment. Why, he fairly lavishes di-
amonds on his wife.
,Mr. Keene-Perhaps he intends to en-
gage In -the Jewelry business as :her agent
after the crash.-Jewelers' Weekly.
AH.
She-Hasn't the minister lovely eyes?
He--I really don't know. He always
lhuts them when he prays.
She-But don't you see them when he
preaches?
He-No; mine are shut then.-N. Y.
World.
THE WAYS OF WAITERS.
Dan Murphy-What's the matter with
my regular water?
".Can't serve you. Lost his wad in a
poker game last night and then put up
his customers. I wai you."-The Crite-
lion.
ENTIRELY WILLING.
Loquacious Visitor (wiho has been de-
scribing at some length her bridal trous-
seau)-You ought to see me in my going
away gown.
Hostess-I wish I could.-Chicago Tri-
bune.
HE KNOWS HER.
She was a Washington woman well ac-
quainted i diplomatic circles. Talking
about Washington people one day, some
one asked her:
"Do you know Senator Blank?"
"Do I know Senator Blank?" she re-
B peated. "Yes, I do know him, and he
knows me. He will never forget me.
S I've trumped his ace when we were part-
ners at whist."-New York Times.
PO ETi QUERY ANSWERED.
"I wonder will they miss me?" wrote
the poet in violet ink on gilt-edged pa-
per.
And the editor as he tossed the manu-
script into the yawning gulf at his side
murmured softly, "If they do, they never
ought to be trusted with a gun again."-
London Telegreap'h.





Don't Stop

taki icoatt's Emusn he.
cauge fte Warm wcathcr.
Keep taking it until you e :
cun.
It will heal your lungs and'
give you rich blood in sum-
meras in wlite It's cod.

Soo.a $ 1. All drem. la-


AUTOMATIC RENOWN.
"Kirby could become famous if he
weren't so lazy."
"Oh, he will get famous yet."
1 "What do you mean?"
S"Why, 'he takes suoh good care of him-
h self that he will live to be 100 ana be
famed for that."-Detroit Free Press.
d A CONDITIONAL REWARD.
Woman-My husband has disappeared
und inily ee 48 d9. I want to offer a r[e
ward for his body.
Chief of Police-Yes, madam. A de-
scription will be needed, and this, with
Sthe reward, will no doubt prove effec-
tive. He may be alive, you know, in
which case we may soon be able to re-
turn his to you.
"I shan't pay a cent reward unless he
is returned dead, Just remember that."-
N. Y. World.
Remedies for Gapes.
Among the suggested remedies for
gapes by investigators in a uen's feath-
er stripped of its barbs near the point
introduced into the trachea and rota-
Sted like a brush, to detach the worms.
SThe practice is approved, however,
as in ithr fira' DIAit I8tu WlW'ia are teoo
firmly attached to be removed by the
friction of the barbs of a feather.
Should they be detached, however, they
would only be pushed to the root of the
trachea, where, forming a ball, they
would augment the obstruction in the
Stube, and thus bring about more
promptly the death of the bird. Some,
on the contrary, believe in the efficien-
cy of this method, and that this effi-
ciency may be increased by impregnat-
ing the feather with a germicide sub-
stance. Spirits of turpentine has also
given excellent results, but unless great
care is exercised with this method the
chicks may be seriously injured. One
of the most rational methods of treat-
ment has been pointed out by one who
did not stop with the methods above
mentioned, but who obtained much
success with the following means com-
bined: Removal from the affected
places (or places where birds which
have been affected were kept), and
complete replacement of the conditions
by new ones in which hemp seed and
new grass figure prominently; finally
for drink an infusion of rue (ruta) and
garlic instead of ordinary water. It
has been said that the eggs ejected
from the birds in the coughing fit hatch
in the water, and that the embryo may
live in this medium for many months.
The birds are infected by drinking the
water containing these embryos. It is
always beneficial and indispensable to
disinfect the soil of the inclosures af-
ter the removal of the birds. One of
the best means of destroying the eggs
and embryos which exist in the soil of
the contaminated inclosures consists in
sprinkling it with water containing in
solution a sufficiently large quantity of
salicylic or sulphuric acid, one dram
(151 grains) to a lirer of water (abott
one quart), for example. Great care
should also be taken to isolate the sick
chicks on the first appearance of the
symptoms of the disease, and keep
them closely confined until complete
and and well-confirmed recovery oc-
curs. The cadavers of the d(ad birds
must be burned or deeply buried to pre.
vent the re-infection. Air-slaked lime
freely used on the soil is a preventative
of gapes.-Farm and Fireside.
Ghosts would frighten n11ln. people
who are not afraid of germs. Yet the
germ is the real danger. If this micro-
scopIc animalism could oe magnified
to a size in proportion to its deadliness
it would show like a giant python, or
fire breatlhing dragon. The one fact to
remember is that the germ is powerless
to harm the body when the blood is
pure. It is far easier to keep the germ
out than to drive it out after it obtains
a hold in the sytsem. Dr. Pieree's
Golden Medical Discovery is the most
powerful and perfect of blood purify-
ing medicines. It increases the quanti-
ty as well as the quality of the blood,
and enables the body to resist disease,
or to throw it off if disease has obtain-
cd a footing in some weak organ.
Whenever the digestion is impaired.
ilhe nutrition or the body is diminished,
for the blood is made from the food
which is eaten, and half digested food
cannot supply the body with blood in
quantity and quality adequate to its
needs. For this condition there is no
remedy equal to "Golden Medical Dis-
covery." It cures ninety-eight out of
every hundred persons who give it n
fair trial. Wlen there is constipation
Dr. Pierce's Pleasant Pellets promptly
relieve and permanently cure.


Florida Fa. t Coast Ry.
TIME TABLE NO. 25. IN EFFECT APRIL 11. 1900.


OUTHE BOUND (Bead DowWr (Beawl p) NOBPft BOUND.
j No.W No. 15o
toae~e=_ -At wiar sa
t ib SbtN Ar y Sli B

5 1 dhr .;.... ...L. 9-..
** ******ISS O3u
S 8p .... t l ....... SOP 9
.a 1 0a As IS 8 US
......0~.....Tso- ,5, S,...... .l.e
1.3


SE ... .... a .......r 5 .


T 1 -
a l 1 ; .. ....... ... ..." ia
Sf I.... ... ....S.. G.t u .. ..... 8U a
. PP r ;. P ... .. T .....
.o a e I ;..;;; . .. a2p ..



A t in .be e N .... .... O g a..... i ns.
- * *........ ... ,. 1 48p ......
S... p .. l ;,.. ....a
E ...... P : ........ ........ ::

S...... g0 p ........... trt ........... .. -
t y J ... o ............d p ........t O .. ..
S.... e ........ J e M 1a .. ...
..... : a p ......... W t r .- .;... 0 45a ......








No.17 o1L STATIONt. o, N tb AIP~Ot6g to sNo
...... ........ Hobe 1 ...r ...... .. a..
S 1a L. a Soanv n e. Ar 80 4"0 ..ir.... a t s

4l ...ab ...e.. L .T. L do to .. o ...... i a e......
e .........Tieeont able oh" 72mB .. S
o ...... 9t Ar I .... ... MiMU. i~.b. ;. ..; .. 2t oa ......
92 ......... .l .rri 1a ......
Buffett Parlor Card Od Ttkil 85 ;Ld ?IL
Betw een JNew S onvll and Orablo or any odar
Beach daily Jexcept un. any consequences g thereSrfo
Na. ro.y. 8TAT0tim c O.a Icon 'flke STAOens N od
3 p1- T :. w ,1 1 ,, ........... I i ..........
p 1a ak Hee..L .12 16p 6 ........... Sm ............. l_ p
S12pl2(p ,, ..Orange City I p iry Sam ........... OsteA ........... 1 011
An trains between New Smyrna and Orange 9_ ,,. .... aford ......... "
City Junction daily except 8 na. 1 between Tittsrftle lad
B.twen Jack'vllead Pblo Beek. daily except Sunday.
Them Time Tables show the times &I whis
O.IT +N015 STATION&. |Noia|O'l 8 may be expected to &My* end
p I5aL ..Jacksonville.i..Ar.9 8 r sttinsde0 b
715pl0 10 Ac..-Pablo Beach...L 730a 40se is not guaran Feir any or
l trains between Jacksonville dad Pabo pany hold itself responsible tor any he
Beach daily except Sunda7. way poneequences arising therefrom.


ror cop~yo. ixal i mfe cart carU on T'1t Agents, or address
J. P. Bi~CKWITH, Tram Manager. J. D. RAHNEB, A. L P. A
St. A~ugtine.


STEAMSHIP LINES.

Florida East Coast Steamship Co..
PROPOSED SAILINGS:
BETWEEN 1iAMI AND KEY WEST.
Leave Mamni Sundays Tuesda, Wednesdays and Fridays...................U 0 p
Arrive Ky West Mondays,Wednesdays, Thursday ad aturd .................... 8l00p.
Leave Key West Thursdaysand Sunday................................. ............ SWOp. a.
Arrive Miami Fridays and Mondays................................ .... ........... I a.

BETWEEN MIAMI AND HAVANA.
SOUTHBOUND STEAMERS TOUCH AT KEY WEST; NORTHBOUND SAIL
DIRECT, HAVANA TO MIAMI.
Leavq Miai Sndays and Wednesday............................................. .
rreave Havana Tuesdays and Fridays ........................ ...................., iO6. 0m.
Leave Havana Tuesdays aId Fridays ................................................... MI, RL.
Arrive Miami Wednesday and turdays............................................ I0 Is.
While it is the intention of the lorida Bast Oast 8teamship ompuy to have the rt
follow regular schedules as advrtised, the line the right at times to withdraw
their ships or change their filing days without no a nd to substitue Way Iteomr w1
necessary; nor will the line hold Itself responsible fr any detntion of its t 4n or S
In de" art re. ____


SEND-1U ONE DOLLAR
cut this as. S01ue S .ItS t "swith S1.c0, sad ww 7W selad -.tissw
InEovED AcNE QCEE PAsse1 e6as, trihfetc. D., so"t
etmaiis. You can examine it at your nearest freight dep
and if you find it exactly as mileseeated, equal to organs =
retail at $0T1 0o to tlgretes value youever saw and
far better than orguu adverlitedby others at more money, pay
tha freight agent oar special 30 days' Mar pr't,
lels the n.00. or Iss15 and freight Charges.
$31.75 IS OUR SPECIAL 90 DAYS' PRICE the
raboethers. suh acs e was nvernm ins.e beae.,
THE ACME OUEEN I- one of the m=0DURAMNANDt Rin1
fuSED lssfrsss Fren the Illustmtion shown, which
is engraved direct from aphot gra ucanform some deaofie
beautiful appearance. dec men quarter amwe
ak, antique fnishhadomel atedandornmeted
latest 18, u stl. ThS ACn mlrc m feet 6 inches high
U inches long, inches wide andwel 30 pounds. Con-
tain octaves, 11 stop, a follows: ass, Pae l lpe
F Nreilo i = Csre t eae TSam nu mar.eble
I ,* man, I -=Do.
,ee 9sarVPr quest, Seeds ,1 Set at r..ot
Eed?. ISet aTse Chsaas. gty a. Is ltos"If
SDim Rsteew slmoth ul aser eds, 1 Set ef I4 ri mmng
9esue idserorisep ra eds T E NAO QUEEN ac.
eon consist of thecelebratedl.mwle eoiwhieh ds arm only
used in the highest grade intramente fitted with en.
aad Coapis sE end lez nes, also best Dole feltsl.
lath 'te., wllo1 0f ithe bst 4rebbe 6lth h, 6-l
bellows stock and finest leather In valves. THE
ACME QUEE is fur-shed with a Mo beveled
plate French mirror, nickel plated petal frme%
and eealy modem tmlngpImmtL. We tlnmtelm b pes
omne uo ial tai r" etgo I' Alw tabatldlll.
GUARANTEED 25 YEARS. /'th E
Issue a written binding IyTar IMte by the
terms and conditions o whioh I any rt g ves out
we re i t ee f chalrg. Try it oe month ad
%I ref nd your money if you are not perfectly
sadilted. IN of them orgasm will be sold at 5L 15
OV."ER AT O@1CE. ]OW'T DELAY.
OdR RELIABILITY IS ESTABUSHED If you
not dea., with s ask your neighbor about u.write .
Sh lbl.her of this paper r etuoal liiam tloNal. o z s
aRmO, .7 of Sao largess 0 eks in
compayin Iheue. a v s amingm W ear omupi eEi onee or InI laresos eUem blocu
Chicago, and mploy nearly M people n our own building. WE 5S1L O1. tGAAT .0 upa rapt15 1104M
s p also ev.'rthing in munea instrumeniat s lowest wholesale Picem. Write for free sj orgiag io
la musia nsitruetrt catioe Ad. Aress (See. aeehes A m ie1 eP ae-id.
OMARI* OE 0ItpUOK O. 0 0a). FPlt. Desele ad Waua a. CHICAUO., ILL.


_I _I_






384 THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.





SH OW TO GET A TON OF FERTILIZE


I4 FOR $2.00 .


boooo Subscribers Wanted for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST within the next six months.
Every Thirtieth person remitting $2.00 for a year's subscription will be given an order for a
TON of Simon Pure Fertilizer of whatever brand desired .. .. .

HOW TO DO IT.

Cut out the coupon and send with $2.00 to E. O. Painter & Co., Publishers, DeLand, Fla., and
you will receive the Florida Agriculturist, the oldest, only agricultural paper in the state, for one
year. The coupons will be numbered as received,
COUPON. and a receipt for the money bearing the same num-
ber will be returned. If your number is 30, or any
H.............................. IWO multiple of 30, as 60, 90, 300, etc., you can order a
flessrs. E. O. PAINTER & CO., ton of fertilizer at once or any time within a year.
Pubs. Florida Agriculturist, Please bear in mind you get the Florida Agricultur-
DeLand, Fla. ist at the regular price of $2 per year and have one
Gentlemen-Please find enclosed $2.00 for one year's sub- chance in 30 of getting a ton of high grade fertilizer
scription to the Florida Agriculturist to begin at once. It
is understood that should the number of my receipt be 30 beside. This may be YOUR opportunity.
or any multiple of that number, I can order a ton of any
brand of Simon Pure Fertilizer which will be delivered f.
o. b. cars at Jacksonville, Fla., without further expense PA T
to me. Ee 0. PAINTER & CO,
hipping Point.................................... ....
Freight Depot...............................................
P. 0. Address.......... ................................... .. Publishers,
Notc-If the station to which the fertilizer in to li shipped isa AN F IDA
"prepay," amount of fr2ght must be forwarded with instructions. DE LA FLORIDA.






A High-Grade Fertilizer
--Ml UST H AVF,

QUALITY! REPUTATION!


"THEij IDE A T" BR HANDS
iM HAVE TH ESE. 4l
Then why pay $35.00 and $40.00 per ton when you can get a strictly high grade, reliable fertilizer at the following prices
IDEAL FRUIT AND VINE.............. $30.o0 per ton IDEAL FERTILIZER (for all crops)......... $27.o0 per ton
IDEAL BLOOD, BONE AND POTASH..... $28.00 per ton
IDEAL POTATO MANURE.................$30.00 per ton SPECIAL MIXTURE No. I................. $28.oo per ton
IDEAL VEGETABLE MANURE........... $30.oo per ton CORN FERTILIZER.....................$2o.oo per ton
All fertilizer material at the lowest market prices. Ask for our book "Why we make the IDEAL FERTILIZERS
WILSON & TOOMER FERTIT .IZR COMPANY,
JACKSONVILLE, FLA.
Pig's Foot Brand Blood and Bone, $ 17.00 per ton. Damavaland Guano. The Ideal Tobacco Fertilizer, $44.00 per ton.