|UFDC Home||myUFDC Home | Help ||
ALL ISSUES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS MAP IT! PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
TR TE INT
Vol. XXVII, No. 21. Whole No. 1373.
DeLand Fla., Wednesday, May 23, 1900.
$2 per Annum, in Advance
Cattle Ranges of South Florida.
The agricultural editor of the Times-
Union and Citizen recently made a
visit to some of the extensive cattle
ranges of South Florida, and contrib-
utes to his paper the following inter-
esting description of some:
The Seminole ranch belongs to Sum-
merlin Bros. and contains 320 acres of
rich meadow lands situated on the
northern spur of Lake Kissimmee.
Here the lake makes a deep curve, and
at all seasons it affords an abundant
water supply. Perhaps in no other
part of Florida could a more beautiful
situation for a home be found. The
lake shore is flanked by a ridgeway
from thirty to fifty yards wide, over-
grown with vast, umbrageous oaks;
and from the border of this belt of tim-
ber one can look out southward prob-
aby twenty miles over the shimmering
waters of the lake. Here It was, it is
said, that the last general councils of
the Seminole chiefs were held in 1854-55
between Tiger Tail, Tustennuggee,
Chipco, Billy Bowlegs and old Mcco,
before they plunged into that war of
destruction and deportation which
broke the ambition of the Seminole for-
One of the most interesting charac-
ters in the cattle business of South
Florida is George Summerlin. He is a
gentleman of a kindly disposition,
therefore he has never married, be-
cause he did not believe a lady of re-
finement could endure the lonesome,
isolated life of a stockman. His spe-
cial fad is the propagation of cultivat-
ed grasses, and from the Bartow
bridge on Peace river to the St. Johns,
for siaty miles, and many miles up and
down Kissimmee river, he has planted
these grasses. Besides his fenced fields
and lots, he scatters them everywhere.
He will dismount from his horse, pull
out a few root-cuttings from his sad-
dlebags, stick them into a hog-wallow,
stamp them down and go on his way.
In a promising place he will set out
clumps of them and surround them
with pIccs toL keep the atIc iitoin
pulling them up prematurely. Hun-
dreds of clumps are to be seen here
and there, which will serve as centers
of propagation. Generations hence
posterity will mention with gratitude
the name of George Summerlin, as the
people of Western Pennsylvania and
Ohio do the name of Johnny Apple-
seed, who stocked that region with ap-
ple trees in advance of the earliest set-
He prefers the Bermuda, the Fort
Thompson, the Para and the St. Lucie
grasses. The day we were there he
had just received from Sanford a sack-
ful of St. Lucie cuttings, and he had
three men at work preparing a field to
be planted in Bermuda.
East Gardner is an island of about
one township in extent. The center of
it is a thin scrub pine, while the border
all around is prairie and swamp, often
of great fertility and luxuriant vegeta-
tion. Intermediate between the pine
and the prairie there are margins
sometimes of considerable width,
where Mr. Summerlin pointed out a
marked change that is taking place.
Owing to the succession of dry seasons
for the past seven or eight years, the
grasses have measurably died out, and
pine and oak saplings are taking their
places. Stockmen note this encroach-
ment with regret; it means a curtail-
ment of the range. This is also partly
due to the Disston drainage operations
and the slight subsidence of the water
Another change is the rapid spread
of Mexican clover where it was never
observed until four or five years ago.
Nobody can account for it. Most of the
stockmen do not view the intruder
with favor, but Mr. Summerlin thinks
cattle will soon learn to like it, and al-
ready they will graze on it when the
other forage plants to which they are
accustomed are not abundant.
The heavy stocking and the conse-
quent severe depasturing are wearing
out some of the old plants and replac-
ing them with others. There is a lup-
ine (we take it to be), which is gradu-
ally spreading. On the other hand, the
switch grass is somewhat falling off.
This is a tall, tough grass, which is a
considerable resource in the winter.
and lies most soil.
Mr. Summerlin has introduced at va-
rious times bulls of the Hereford, Hol-
stein, Devon, Jersey and Brahmin
breeds. Tne one wnlen has left a more
abiding impress on the herds, at least
in physical characteristics, is the Brah-
min, which is distinguished by the large
flap depending from the middle of the
llyf. oVSaaequslay as Pffs iti
Brahmin. Lately, however, he has con-
ceived the idea that the Jersey blood
is an excellent infusion to make, on
account of their deep milking aptitude
and the consequent strong maternal in-
stinct. The native cows more fre-
quently abandon their calves, it penned
up, than any other breed. The quan-
tity of milk secreted seems to be very
closely correlated to the strength of the
motherly affection. He admits the Jer-
seys are tender, from years of pamper-
ing in the North, and they must be
broken gradually to a more hardy hab-
It; but this can be done and still re-
tain a greater domesticity and a supe-
rior milking aptitude.
The above facts are likewise peculiar-
ly true of the Merino sheep. The less
milk a fresh ewe has the more likely
she is to disown her lamb.
The Brahmin improves the offspring
in the element of precocity. A steer
deep in the Brahmin blood will dress
240 to 250 pounds at three years old,
where steers of other breeds will grow
four or five years before they accom-
The principal months for calving in
the Florida herds used to be February
and March; nowadays calving general-
ly takes place in March and April.
There is a greater tendency than for-
merly to drop calves all the year round.
This is principally owing to the falling-
off in the supply of natural forage,
which makes greater delay in the oc-
currence of sexual heat.
Some cows will breed every year,
some every two years, a few will breed
only once in three yards. Mr. Summer-
Un estimates as an average of the herd
that the cows will breed once in fif-
teen months. This percentage may be
used in calculating the probable rate
of increase in a given herd.
In looking at Florida cattle collect.
ed in large numbers, particularly those
destined for shipment to Cuba, an ex-
perienced stockman frequently wond-
ers at the high percentage of bulls.
This arises from the fact that the cat-
tle on the range are so dispersed that
a high percentage of bulls Is required
to insure the greatest ratio of increase.
A normal proportion of bulls here is
about ten per cent. of the herd.
Thie .wboys are all white men, gen-
erally native Florldians, and the most
independent, resolute, hardworking
men engaged in any branch of rural
Industry. Some colored men have been
tried occasionally, anu wnen they were
men of the old regime they have some-
times given satisfaction; but the ne-
groes of the present generation are
well-nigh worthless. Their work is
u t that 8atlSy, UDPBRfn toll, wnion
is the lot of the agricultural laborer,
but it is full of peril and exposure, as
the writer can well perceive after fol-
lowing a band of cowboys in the sad-
dle for one forenoon.
Each cowboy carried as his instruc-
tions to select the beef animals and
the unbranded calves. Scouring far
out over the Illimitable prairie, each
cowboy, as he comes upon a group or
a single animal, must decide with
promptness whether there are any fit
for marketing. It any, he sweeps them
in toward a common center. Some of
the cattle, especially calves, seem dazed
by the clatter and rush of the horse,
and they have not a particle of sense;
they dash helter-skelter in every direc-
tion. A well-nourished calf of two or
three months, with head and tall in
air, ':an run with incredible swiftness.
1'he p3ny is obliged to head him off at
whatever cost, and it may be the fifti-
eth spurt he has taken that morning,
carrying a man in addition, while the
calf is fresh and carries only his own
skin. The pony may step on a pal-
metto root or slide in the mud, and
hurl the rider headlong, though this
seldom occurs. Galloping through a
piece of woods, he may strike his rider
against a tree or a branch and inflict
severe injury upon him.
Therefore, the pay they receive, $1.25
a day and found, or $1.50 a day and
board themselves, is not out of reason,
even though they may pass many days
In the year In inactlvlty.
The writer has ridden many a day
with the Texas cowboys; in fact, he
once crossed the continent with a com-
pany of about thirty, driving herds,
which aggregated at the start about
four thousand head. The differences
between the cowboys of the two States
are marked. The Texas cowboys are
noisy, roaring fellows; when they eir-
cle out to raise a herd and start it in
motion they utter prolonged yells:
"Whoop! Whoop! Y--o-oop! Whoop!
Whoop!" The Florida cowboys dart si-
lently and swiftly around the outlying
cattle, only occasionally cracking their
long whips and uttering a suppressed
oath, os, more frequently, some rough
cowboy joke. In a great rush, when
the cattle are hard to head off, or in
a stampede, in order to drown the noise
and distract the attention of the cattle,
the Texas cowboys do not hesitate to
shoot into them with revolvers, not al-
ways over their heads, either, but bor-
ifig them through the quarters any-
where, even dropping one on the prai-
rie now and then. The Florida cow-
boys are never so reckless.
But it must be admitted that they
hare not as much prormu ntinn no the
Texas cowboys have. Both Florida
ponies and cattle are less vicious than
those of Texas. We have often seen
Texas steers, maddened with thirst or
long driving, pursue a man on foot,
making desperate efforts to catch him
on the horns; in fact, this sometimes
occurred when there had been no spe-
cial provocation. The cattle of this
State are seldom so vicious as this.
Probably this is due in large part to
the moister climate of Florida, render-
ing the animals more sluggish and gen-
Texas cattle have a great aversion to
TOO THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
water, but Florida cattle are almost
amphibious. In crossing the Rio
Grande at Fort Selby the herdsmen
had to fire into the rear of the column
and make an unearthly uproar to force
the cattle to take the water; then they
had to gallop down the river half a
mile or more and fire into the head of
the column, swimming in the middle
of the river, to keep them from return-
ing to the bank they had just quitted.
Florida cattle will, for days together,
swim the Kissimmee river every morn-
ing, or stop on some island to graze on
the choice pasturage of maiden cane,
and return at night to dry ground to
Texas ponies and oxen are harder to
break Into service. One would suppose
that in the long, wearisome journey of
three thousand miles across the plains
all the animals would have become
jaded and submissive; yet there were
not a few that had to be corralled and
fought with ever morning. A Texas
pony may have been ridden fifteen
years, yet if on a certain morning the
owner does not go through exactly the
same motion In putting the bridle on
that he has for fifteen years, the cursed
animal will fling away, and have to be
captured over again. Many a Florida
pony, well used, becomes like a petted
child. Many a Florida pony never
knows the day when it was "broken,"
but the Texas pony frequently has to
be, or is at any rate, half-killed before
it will submit.
Texas cattle are somewhat taller,
more bony and have taller or more
wide-spreading horns. Their flesh is
less juicy and less savory than Florida
beef or an equal degree of fatness.
In these wide, fenceless regions the
hrds of, different owners become much
intermingled in the course of a year.
At the more important roundups in the
spring and early summer a man's
neighbors will sometimes be present
or send a trusted cowboy or two to
claim their own and drive them home.
Sometimes one or more animals may
be rounded up thirty or forty miles
from home; the owner has completely
lost track of them. Here is a tempting
opportunity for stealing; these strays
might be rebranded, driven off and
sold. We will suppose that they are
old enough to market, have reached
their prime and begin to deteriorate.
One or two animals are harder to drive
than a hundred. To drive this single
one so far would be as much as he is
worth. The stockman sells him with
his own and forwards the owner a
check, giving marks and brands. Such
honesty is not uncommon.
The extraordinary rainfall this spring
has kept the cattle back; they have not
shed off as well as usual. But the
ranges have mostly dried off now, and
they are making better progress. The
calves are looking fine, better propor-
tionately than the older cattle. The
scanty milk secretion of a native cow
seems to be stimulating; the calf grows
rapidly for a few months, then, after
that, its progress is not at a rate com-
mensurate with that before it was
Many stockmen believe that Florida
has entered upon a new cycle of wea-
ther, more like the old-fashioned sea-
sons which prevailed before the de-
struction of the orange groves.
The almost unprecedented rainfall of
the past winter has gone hard with
the horsefly, probably beating down his
gauzy wings, and at any rate reducing
his numbers so that the cattle have
enjoyed an unwonted comfort. But
the little, swift, brown-headed "sharp-
shooter" is still in evidence, and mos-
quitoes will be abundant later on. The
greatest torment, however, is the ex-
ecrable, misnamed hornfly, which al-
ways clings just back of the shoulder
and never relaxes its hold day or night,
summer or winter. Cattle learn by ex-
perience to pass through columns of
smoke and even the fire itself to scorch
these pests; but better than all else is
to wade out into the water until only
the head is visible, and stand ruminat-
ing by the hour, or graze upon the mai-
In early days the wolf was a serious
pest to the cattlemen. He would run
alongside a calf and snap it in the
small of the back to break it down,
then, after the mother-had ceased to
mourn over it and gone away he would
return and enjoy a feast. But the wolf
is gone. There remain only the cat,
the eagle and the buzzard. The latter
will sometimes peck out the eyes of a
calf, and a pair of eagles will drag
one down and kill it if not disturbed.
The sagacity of cattle in fighting
their foes is notable. With wild ani-
mals they form a circle and place the
calves in the center. When sorely tor-
mented by horseflies they congregate
in bands and begin to "mill," rushing
around in a disorderly circle, every
one striving to get on the inside, furi-
ously lashing his body with his tail,
rubbing against his neighbor, rubbing
against bushes, until a space of half an
acre or more may be trodden into dust.
Here and there over the prairies, es-
pecially under the clumps of live oaks,
are rounded depressions, cattle wal-
lows," where in summer they paw and
bellow and cast up dust to protect
themselves from vermin.
The Summerlin Brothers own about
7,000 cattle, from which they expect to
brand this year about 1,500 or 1,600
calves; 400 already branded. Last year
they branded about 1,400. From this
herd they will sell each year about 600
straight steers at say $15 a head, be-
sides a number of old, shelly cows,
bulls and other culls. It is estimated
that it costs about $2 a head to bring
up a steer to the marketing age. This
leaves a net profit of $13 per head,
which in 600 steers would make an
annual profit of $7,800, less the taxes.
The culls, however, will nearly pay the
expenses, so the profits are even bet-
ter than above indicated, and the taxes
are inconsiderable. The rental is noth-
ing. Thus it will be seen that the cat-
tlemand reaps a substantial recompense
for the lonesomeness and the hard-
ships of his life.
Molasses for Xule Feed.
The very short cane crop of 1899 is
now developing an active demand for
low grade molasses. The low prices at
which molasses sold in this country for
a number of years, and the fact that
considerable quantities of it were
thrown away for lack of a market, at-
tracted to this market the attention of
the live stock feeders of England, and
immense quantities of molasses have
recently been sent abroad for horse
and cattle feed, our own people seem-
ing to be comparatively ignorant of the
great food value of this by-product of
our sugar plantations.
The matter has been exhaustively
discussed by the Sugar Planters' As-
sociation recently and it may be ac-
cepted as a fact that molasses is just
as good horse and mule and cattle feed
in Louisiana as in England, and it
is far better to feed it here on the
plantations to our horses, mules and
cattle, saving the cost of shipment to
the city, of barrels and re-shipment to
As molasses is a liquid food it took
a long while for many of our planters
to get ready to use it. It was found
that the best way to give molasses to
live stock was to give them a free sup-
ply of it, always accessible and they
would then gauge the quantity to be
eaten by their own inclination and no
harmful results followed, whereas the
animals fatten and become sleek and
glossy in appearance, and the general
effects are very satisfactory. As this
season there will be very little offered
for sale, unless our sugar planters
should find prices so high as to justify
them in selling what they have and
buying grain foods to take the place of
it. We think that even this, if it were
done, should be done with great care,
as molasses is a fare better stock food
than most people appreciate, and its
use by our working animals to the ex-
tent of five or ten pounds per day per
animal can hardly be replaced in ex-
cellent results by any other food, ex-
cepting oats.-Louisiana Planter.
FERTILIZERS AND IBRRIGATT3N.
Your standing committee on ferti-
lizers and irrigation would be most
happy to communicate a great deal of
very valuable information of such vital
Importance to the members of this So-
ciety. But unfortunately, these sub-
jects cannot be studied out, like ex-
amples in exact sciences, but depend
for their solution upon long and ex-
hausted experiments which your com-
mittee is neither qualified or equipped
to perform. As the Experimental Sta-
tions, where they have facilities for
making these experiments, the officers
are doing their best to conquer the dif-
ficulties which surround many absorb-
ing problems pertaining to the fertili-
zation and irrigation, and the knowl-
edge thus obtained is being widely dis-
tributed in official bulletins from time
to time, which are eagerly perused by
thousands whose success or failure so
largely depend upon a correct solution
of these highly important branches of
agriculture and horticulture.
The market conditions at the pres-
ent time of ertilizers and fertilizing
material will interest the members of
the Society, many of whom may have
been unable to understand the causes
which led to the recent advance in
prices. An appeal to Mr. E. O. Painter,
than whom there is no better author-
ity on the subject of fertilizers and the
market conditions thereof, elicited the
Simon Pure Ohemical Fertilizer Works,
Jacksonville, Fla. April. 28, 1900.
Mr. M. F. Robinson, Sanford, Fla.:
Dear Sir-In reply to your favor of April
13th would say:
First. There has been an advance in the
cost of fertilizing material during the last
four months that has varied from $2 to
$5 per ton. The prime cause has been
'the increased demand for fertilizers all
over the country. The good price received
for cotton, wheat, etc., having stimulat-
ed the planting of increased acreage.
The Spanislh-American war advanced
the sulphur and nitrates from 25 to 100
per cent., and the prices of these mate-
rials had not returned to the normal level
when the English-Boer war again in-
creased the demand. Consequently the
prices remain high.
Owing to the scarcity of vessels freight
rates for ocean carriage have advanced
in some cases 50 per cent. This is a big
item in the cost of goods, as fertilizing
materials are often carried as ballast and
at a very low rate.
Another cause of the higher prices is
the forming of the so-called Fertilizer
Trust, which has established a price for
certain goods and held them there. But
I do not believe they could have held up
the price to the present ilgih point if It
had not been for the other factors which
have made tn increased demand over pre-
Second. Florida produces enough phos-
phates to supply every pound used in this
State and several other State, and yet
not 10 per cent. of the phosphate used in
fertlizers is mined here. The amount of
phosphate shipped from the State during
199 is approximately as follows:
Port Tampa ............... ........... 0,606
Fernandina ...... .................. ,62
Punta Gorda .......................... 83,03
Total ...... ..... ..................529,300
Pensacola is credited with 142,153 tons,
but the bulk of this amount came from
Tennessee, consequently could not be
classed as a Florida phosphate. South
Carolina has always been considered the
greatest phosphate producing tate, but
her export shipments last year was only
499,716 tons, against 52,300 from Florida.
Notwithstanding the fact that Florida
produces more and better phosphate, she
pays from $1.50 to $3 per ton higher for
her acid phosphate than South Carolina.
This is caused from r:.e fact that very
little phosphate is acidulated in this
State. Consequently the Florida rocK goes
to points North for acidulation and is re-
turned to Florida either as acid phos-
phate or in manufactured goods-but gen-
erally the latter. That all the phosphate
used in the State should be acidulated
'here is very plain.
There are but two acid chambers in the
State-one at Pensacola and the other in
South Jacksonville-but the great bulk
of the acidulated goods is used in the
southern and central parts of the State,
consequently freight rates from PensacoSa
would be against that market. I under-
stand that one of the reasons that more
rock is not treated in South Jacksonville
is on account of the high freight rates on
the raw material from the mines to the
factory-being more than from the same
mines to Charleston. It is my hope, some
day, to assist in changing this by locat-
ing an acid chamber where the disad-
vantages of local rates can be overcome.
Third. There is one fact that the Flor-
ida grower can congratulate himself on,
and that is, he is buying his fertilizers
and fertilizing materials as cheaply and
in many cases cheaper than the farmers
in the North. I recently sold a bill of
goods to a gentleman who has interests
in Florida and in Central New York. He
found that he could ship high grade pot-
ash from here to his place in New York
cheaper than he could buy in New York
and deliver to his farm:
Fourth. As to the immediate future.
The present indications are that there is
not likely to be any perceptible change
in the prices of fertilizing materials for
a year. Prices on potash salts for the
coming year have been established, and
nany other materials are still in active
demand with a limited out-put. There is
also an active demand for cotton seed
meal, which furnishes the ammonia for
many brands of fertilizers made through
,the South, and this will have a tendency
to keep the price of other domestic am-
E. O. PAINTER.
Your committee desires to thank Mr.
Painter for the information contained
in the above communication, and
heartily join him in the hope that in
addition to his present unsurpassed fa-
cilities for the preparation and distri-
bution of fertilizers, he will soon be
able to add an acid chamber and
thereby save us the expense and hu-
miliation of sending our phosphates
out of the State for acidulation and
paying the freight both ways.
It is an interesting and important
fact that many of the orange groves
which had been highly and annually
fertilized before the trees were killed
to the ground in 1805, have retained a
remarkably productive soil, and with-
out any additional fertilizer since that
time continue to promote a rapid
growth to the new trees that are com-
ing on. Thus proving that in building
up a soil with fertilizers, we make an
investment that will yield for several
years, at least. Whether any consid-
erable amount of chemicals remain in
the soil that were in the fertilizer de-
posited, or whether they are re-pro-
duced by turning under repeated crops
of beggarweeds, etc., is not material.
The fact that the soil is still much
more productive than similar land that
was not thus fertilized, is very encour-
aging to those who must look to the fu-
ture for a reward. It is also encourag-
ing to know that through the medium
of the velvet bean and beggarweed we
have a means of perpetuating the fer-
tility of the soil, indefinitely, and at the
same time profitably. This is probably
the most important fact of recent dis-
covery in Florida. At the North the
red clover serves the same purpose ad-
mirably, and for many years has en-
abled the farmers to keep up the fer-
tility of their land. Red clover could
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST. o01
not be successful grown in Florida,
and until a substitute was found, the
Florida farmer was greatly handicap-
ped by the natural poverty of the land,
particularly in some localities. He was
obliged to confine his efforts to small
areas, specially adapted, that he could
find means to enrich sufficiently to
grow his crop. Now, with the positive
knowledge that the fertility of large
areas can be Improved year to year,
we may confidently look forward to a
prosperity which a few years ago could
not have been reasonably predicted.
Irrigation is as old as the hills and
the members of this Society have had
the matter under discussion for sever-
al years until now it is pretty generally
admitted that, notwithstanding the
large amount of rainfall in Florida,
there are seasons, when, for most
crops and many orchards, artificial ir-
rigation is indispensable to success.
The means of Irrigating in Florida is
about as varied as it well could be, and
no system is applicable to every situa-
tion and purpose. Many do not avail
themselves of convenient natural facil-
ities while others are succeeding under
very difficult conditions and at a g eat
In several locations artesian flowing
wells are readily and cheaply obtain-
able. These wells are located on the
highest side of the field. Dlu.ces are
dug to accurate grades with a view to
the drainage of the land, as well as
the conveyance of water from the wells
for irrigation, when irrigation Is re-
Your committee is indebted to the
courtesy of Mr. F. H. Rand, of San-
ford, for the following description of
his plant, which seems to be every-
thing desired for the purpose intended,
to-wit: Celery and other crops. He
says he selected a lot near Sanford
where flowing wells could be obtained.
20 acres, being 800 by 1,128 feet, and
as nearly level as practicable. He put
down four artesian wells to an average
depth of 150 feet and in each case ob-
tained a good flow of water, averaging
about three inches These wells arm
situated along the south side of the
field and 280 feet apart. Running di-
rectly north from each of these wells
he constructed catch-basins of brick
and cement, water tight, 24 inches
long, north and south, 14 inches wide,
and 23 inches deep, and extending 4
inches above the surface of the ground.
These catch-basins are subdivided by a
partition running east and west, two
inches thick and 15 inches high, leav-
ing the south chamber 14 inches square
and the other 8x14 inches. Note that
the smaller chamber is on the opposite
side from the well and that the parti-
tli8 come within 4 inches of the sur-
face of the ground and 8 inches from
the top of the basin. In the partition
are two 3 inch holes. One of them is
one inch from the bottom of the basin
and the other is two inches above the
top of the first one. In these holes are
set three inch iron thimbles. These
catch-basins are set 20 feet apart, from
center to center, the whole width of
the field, making 40 in a row. They
Luae cuonuecttd north And s2elth 1y 2
inch vitrillied sewer pipe, cemented at
the joints and to Iron thimbles into
the catch-basins. The object of iron
thimbles at the openings is to enable
their being plugged without breaking
them. The top of these vitrified pipes
must be 14 inches below the surface.
The water from the well, when turned
on, flows into the top of the large
chamber in the first catch-basin. The
entire fall in this 800 feet is only two
inches. The basin at the north side F T I
empties into a pipe that empties into P L Y ST
an open ditch which has sufficient ca-
pacity and fall to carry the water off
quickly. After this line of pipe has THE GREAT THROUGH CAR LINE.
been tested by turning on the water
and then draining it off, they may be LOCAL SCHEDULE
at once covered with earth. The irri-
nation pipes are laid at right angles
with pipes just described and extend
from basin to basin, entering the same
through iron thimbles, and are 2 inch
earthen unglazed pipes from 10 to 18
inches long with square ends and are
laid 14 inches below the surface of the
ground on a bet of charcoal two inches
thick, without any cement, and covered
with about four inches of charcoal be-
fore the earth is put on. They con-
nect with the large chambers in the
basins. At the west end of the field
these irrigating pipes empty into an
open ditch through short iron pipes at
each terminus. It will be observed
that the water pipes and the irrigating
pipes connect at each basin, and that
water from the different wells can be
turned into any part of the field by
means of inserting wooden plugs or re-
moving them in such a manner that
the water can be sent where it is need-
ed and prevented from going where it
is not wanted. The partitions in the
catch basins is to prevent the land
from being too much flooded in case of
an unexpected rain storm, when no one
is present to remove the plugs. The
outlets from the small chambers not
being plugged, the water can only rise
until it runs over the tops of the parti-
tions and the surplus is carried off.
The object of two holes in the parti-
tions is to better regulate the quantity
of water that is to be put into the land
through the irrigating pipes. On his
2u acres there are 160 catch basins; 45,
130 feet of 2 inch pipe and 3,200 feet
of 3 inch pipe. It required to build
the basins and lay the pipe, 12,000
brick and 23 barrels of hydraulic ce-
ment. This plant has been flooded in
a dry time from the wells in 18 hours,
and then the water drained off in four
hours. Notwithstanding this has been
a wet season, he has never lost a day
from cultivation on account too much
or too little water. It seems to be all
that could be desired for the purpose
North bound. IN EFFECT APRIL 11, 1900. Southbound
Read down. Read up.
140 I 178 1 78 1 32 I 1 I 12 1 I 13
..... 6 5o5 6 630p Lv.. .. ....Pot ampa..... ...Ar....... 30p 830a.......
7..17a 652 ...... Tampa Bay Hotel.. 9 fp 8 OB .......
............. 30a 7 0p .. ........TamPa............ ....... 9 800a ........
.............. .. 40p ......PuntaGorda ...... ....... S 50 .......
.. ....... 600a 7p ............Bartow .......... ....... 9 p 8 ....
...... ..... 10 8 5 ...........Lkelad... ......... ..... 74p 6 40a.......
..... 1029a1019p ..... .... aimmee. ...... .... ...... Ip 6 ......
....... ....... 11 Oa 10 503 .... .. ....Orlando... ..... .... p 4 39% .......
10 .21. U 2P 3l.a. OOp .... .... Winter Park.. .... ... 3p 4 30.......
............ 12 4p U 55p .... .........Sanford.. ............ ..... 4 40p3 45 .......
....... ....... 2 00p 8 00a Ar.. ........Deand ...........Lv..... 3Ip .............
.............. 12 35p ....... Lv.... .......DeInd.. .... .....A....... 4 3p 8 OOa .......
10OOa 5 35p 3 40p 2 3a "..... .....PFlatka.. ............ U41 200p O00a 61Up
10 52a 6 22p 4 34p 32 ".. Green Cove Springs...... 10 62a l10p12 08a 617p
12 lOp 7 20p 5 45p 4 30a Ar.... ... J..acksonville ..........LvI 9 45&a12 10p111 00pl 4 00p
....... 6 551 .............. Lv........Port Tampa.. ........Ar 9 30pl ... ..................
4......7 la .......... .. Tampa Bry Hotel........ 9 0p ................
.. 730a .............. ".........Tampa.. ........... 9 Op ....... .............
.. ..... ......... ....... G. ...... ..Pumta Gorda.. ....... 12 Ia ............ .......
S6 a ............. ..... ......Bartow.. .. ........ ........ ......
... 9 ia .............. ... .... a la ........ 7 .. ........ ............
.. 6 40a .............. .. .. ... Petersburg.. ...... 10 0p ....... ......
7 24a ....... ....... .. .. .....elieair .. ........ p ................
.... 12 2p ........... ... .......Leesburg.. ........ .......... ......
SOOa 2 lp..... ... ........... .....Ocala.... ...... 2 40.. ............ 915p
a a 4 30p .............. Ar.. .. .....Gaineevllle.. .......Lv ..................... 15p
7 5 3 15p .............Lv.. .... ... Gaineaville.. ........Ar 1 p ....... ....... 8 3
10 00a 5 35p 3 40p 2 45a ". ..... .......Platka .. ........ 11 4s 200 p.l a 6 16p
12 10p 7 20p 5 46p 4 30a Ar.... ..... Jacksonville.. .. ......Lv 9 4W412 lOpill 00p) 4 00p
FROM JACKSONVILLE TO JESSUP. SAVANNAH AND CHARLESTON
i9 1 34 1 34 I 32I I 3 I 14 I 781
Lv Jacksonville.. ........... S 00aa 75 OOa) 8 00 7 6pI 7 45.........
Ar Waycross.. ........... .. I 0a 30 I Sal 5a 0p 4 1p.......
"Jesup .................. ....81081 ....... 10 oSlalO S1 30P 0p
Savannah ... ... ... ........ 10 30al.......12 ilZ ]l 2 5p 1U 59p....... 1 ....... I .......
Ar Charleston.. .. . ... ... .. ... I .... I4 31 ... .................. .......
FROM CHARLESTON, SAVANNAH AND JESSUP TO JACKSONVILLE.
23 113 1 9 I 35 37 133 1 I
Lv Charleston...... .... ...... ... ....... s I s ....... .. I.
Savannah...............I .......5 7 40al 3 35p3 56 Op
Jesup.. ............ ..... 3 4 5 30 6 3 8 59a| 4 54 6
SWaycro ............... 6 40a; 7 35a0 55p 8 40 .......
Ar Jacksonvile ....... ..... 7 30 8 30I l 9 Ia l 6 Ba| 7 OplO p0 o 40p .
Jacksonville, Thomasville and Mont- Waycross and Brunswick.
gomery. Eastbound. Westbound
Northbound Southbound 88 1 90 1 | 87 I as
78 1 32 l 1 8 1 27 9.50pI 7.15ajLv. Waycross Arl 9.3a|l 8.00p
7.46pi 8.00alLvJacksonvile Ar| 7. Oea10.40p 11.30p10-1oal|Ar Brunswick LvI 7.fa| 5.0p
10.15pj 9.55aAr .Waccross ..Lv 5.10a 8 40p Waycross and Albany.
12.15a112.12pIAr Valdosta I 3.14 6.45p Westbound Eastbound.
1.3al 1.40plAr Thomasville LvI 2.00a1 5.30p
. ., 9.20plAr. Montg'ery .Lvl 7.4plU.25a 89 1 8 I 1 0 1 |
Lo.45plB.10_l(Lv. WaycrosM .Arl 0i.tia1 T.Sp
3.4Sai 2.lOp|Ar Albany LvilI.01a 3.469
Connections made at Charleston with Atlantic Coast Line. At Savannah with
Southern Railway, Central of Georgia Railway, Ocean Steamship Company and
Merchants and Miners Transportation Company. At Jesup with Southern Rail
way. At Montgomery with Louisville and Nashville Railroad and Mobile & Ohio
Railroad. At Abany with Central of Go orgia Railway.
PLANT STEAMSHIP LINE~- lteRBmaDI MsWotto and Olivette.
Mon., Thurs. and Sat..10.30p....Lv.. Port Tampa Ar..1U.00a Tues., Thurs. and Sun
Tues., Fri. and Sun... 3.00p......Ar..Key West.... Lv.. 7.00p Mon., Wed, and Bat.
Tues., Fri. and Sun..... .00p.... Lv..Key West.... Ar.. 6.00p Mon., Wed. and Sat.
Wed., Sat. and Mon.... 6.00a....Ar..Havana...... Lv..12.3p Mon., Wed. and Sat.
Steamer leaves Punta Gorda daily except Sunday at 7.00 a.n., lor COptiva Pass,
St. James City, Sanibel Island, Punta Ras sa and Fort Myers. Leaving Fort Myers,
returning, at 6.00 a.m. daily, except Sund ay.
On account of the excessive rains and Information regarding schedules, throu
protracted droughts in Florida, If ev- ma be secured upon applcati anto
13. W. WRENN, Passenger Traffic Mana
ery farmer could have one field, even Savannah. Ga.
though small, under perfect control as
to daRalsRgl a l tfflgatlon, it would cept iho las8 at raiasng and fccding
prove a very satisfactory investment, the forage. Some of our readers have
However, for fruit trees a carefully se- objected that they could not induce
elected location will obviate all neces- pigs to eat cowpea forage. This has
doubtless been because they were not
sity for irrigation or drainage, and placed on this rotation as a separate
where such locations can be obtained diet, but were given occasional messes
they are highly uesraule. ir a spot UiLf f u r;l. milk r thl rfphiS o
that sort, which spoiled their appetite
is selected where there is water bear- for the forage; whereas if kept on cow-
ing clay from 8 to 12 feet below the pea forage exclusively they would
surface, by the time the trees are old thrive on it for several months, gain-
enough to bear the roots will have ing from fifty to a hundred pounds
penetrated this moist strata and the apiece during this summer on this, the
trees will not drop their foliage or cheapest possible feed, making the
farmer's pork at a minimum cost.
fruit during the most protracted A recent bulletin of the Ocklahoma
drought. That such locations are to Experiment Station sustains our
be found in many parts of the State views only in the case the pigs were
of constidrablo extent it a very fortu- fed cowpea hay instead of green cow-
nate circumstance connected with the Station sioats weighing abolt 115
industry. Respectfully submitted, pounds at the beginning of the experi-
M. F. Robinson, ment were divided into two lots. The
Committee. first was fed what cowpea hay the pigs
would eat in addition to a mixture of
one-half Kaffir and one-half cornmeal.
Hogs Fed on Cowpea Hay. They consumed four and three-quarter
We have frequently argued for the pounds of grain for each pound of
growing of more pigs by our Florida grain, while another lot fed the same
farmers, the same to be kept five or kind of grain but not cowpea hay, con-
six months entirely on green forage sumed eight and one-fifth pounds of
and waste vegetables, melons, etc., grain to each pound of grain. The lot
without any expense to the farmer ex- receiving the cowpea hay had a better
gh car arrangements, reservations, etc.,
ger, H. C. McFADDEN, Div. Pass Agt.
appetite tLhn th f that t!h d !N4 ot ro-
ceive cowpea hay--Times-Union and
State of Ohio, City of Toledo, Lucas
Frant J. Cheney makes oath that he
is senor partner of the firm of F. J.
Cheney & Co., doing business in the
city of Toledo, County and State afore-
said, and that said firm will pay the
Mim of ONE HUNDRED DOLLARS
for each and every case of Catarrh
ibat cannot be cured by the use of
Ifall's Catarrh Cure.
FRANK J. CHENEY.
a worHR to Deroe mine and sulrsurlml
in my presence, this 6th day of Decem-
ber, A. D., 1886. A. W. Gleason,
Seal. Notary Public.
Hall's Catarrh is taken Internally,
and acts directly on the blood and mu-
cous surfaces of the system. Send for
F... CHENEY & CO., Toledo, O.
Sold by all druggists, 75 cents.
Hall's Family Pills are the best.
sos THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
THE TREES OF FLORIDA. ,"taper out" in size; some, on the contrary, are un-
usually well developed.
A Complete Catalogue, With Notes on the Distribution and In the subjoined table I have epitomized as
Characteristics of Each Species. much as possible of the knowledge I have acquired
Sr r r i essentialof the sylva of the State. The weights are taken
In treating of the trees of Florida t is essentiafrom Prof. C. S. Sargent's report on the forests of
first that we adopt a definition of the word tree. 'the United States, to which my catalogue conforms
To do this we most draw a dividing line between in botanical arrangement and nomenclature. It
the tretc and shrubs, and this i manifestly diffl- has also enabled me to treat more fully of the uses
cult to do, because of the insensible gradation in to which our various kinds of timber can be put.
size between the two, and also because the Among so great a number there will be found
same species often develops very differently in dif- some to subserve every purpose. We have the
ferent sections. For example, the willow, in.most hardest and softest of woods, the heaviest and the
parts of Florida, is only a slender shrub, yet in lightest, the most durable and the most perishable,
some localities it becomes a large tree, and is split the most flexible and the most brittle, woods most
into rails. Moreover, in our subtropical region, easily split and others impossible to split.
there are some plants-like the pawpaw and coral As the uses of the different woods cannot be rep-
tree-which have stems from six to twelve inches riety of woods may be used, but pine is found most
in diameter and a height of fifteen or twenty-five convenient, economical and generally satisfactory.
feet, and yet they have little if any woody fibre. For all work which is exposed to the weather,
Manifestly the line of division between the trees either long-leaved yellow or pitch pine should be
and shrubs must be somewhat arbitrary and de- used. The latter serves almost as well for framing
pendent on individual judgment. My experience timbers, but for sills it is not so durable. For
has led me to regard as trees all plants having solid sheathing and inside work generally short-leaved
woody stems as much as four inches in diameter, yellow and loblolly pine may be used.
growing erect, or nearly so, and without support. Flooring-Probably no wood is equal for this
Applying this standard to the plants of Florida, purpose to the long-leaved yellow pine. Where
we find that there are in this State fully two hun- this is not obtainable, white elm, sugar maple, etc.,
dred kinds of trees, without counting those which may be used.
lack woody fibre, or those which, though enumer- Shingles-Cypress ranks the best, juniper sec-
ated among American trees, do not attain to a ond, and yellow pine is largely used.
sufficient size in this State. This is 47 per cent. of Interior Finish-The kinds of wood best adapted
all the trees in the United States, and is a half to inside ornamentation are curly pine, red bay,
more than can be found in any other State. This white and green ash, sugar maple, cherry, box el-
great diversity of forest growth is attributable der, black walnut, white oak, juniper, magnolia and
mainly to the sub-tropical character of the south- poplar.
ern portion of the peninsula. The vegetation of Cabinet Work and Furniture-Poplar, magno-
the Florida Keys is identical with that of the Ba- lia, white cypress, curly pine, birch, beech, chest-
hamas and other low islands beyond the gulf nut, white oak, black walnut, red bay, white and
stream. There are to be found on the keys seventy green ash, sweet gum, cherry, red and sugar ma-
kinds of trees, most of which grow also on the pie, holly, loblolly bay, China-berry and many of
southern mainland, many extending northward the sub-tropical wor .. For cheap furniture, sil-
along the coast as fas as Cape Canaveral and Ro- ver maple, hackbet. y, sycamore, linn and pine are
mano, some as far as Mosnuito Inlet and Tampa used.
Bay, All but two become reduced to'mere bushes Cooperage-Bitter-nut hickory, white elm, mul-
at their northern limit; these are the palmetto and berry, dogwood, sassafras, box elder, cypress, juni-
pitch pine, the only trees which are found both on per and various oaks, namely: the white, post,
the southern and northern border of the State. chestnut, scarlet, black and red.
Our sub-tropical forests, in the aggregate, cover Ship and Boat Building-White, overcup and
but a small area, and although of great interest to live oak, yellow pine, cypress, juniper, poplar, mul-
the student, they cannot be said to constitute an berry, white elm, sugar maple. Of South Florida
element of wealth. But if they were not included woods: Jamaica dogwood, mahogany, mastic, wild
in the sylva of the State, Florida could still boast tamarind and ink-wood are favorite kinds.
of a more varied forest than any other State. In Wagons and Carriages-White and green ash,
the peninsula counties the variety is not great, but red and pig-nut hickory, poplar and linn, white,
in the northwestern counties there may be found post and overcup oak.
nearly all the trees of the Piedmont region of Ten- Engravers' Blocks-Dogwood.
nessee and Virginia. The forests of the upper Ap- Shoe Lasts-Sugar maple, persimmon, beech.
alachicola river are the finest in the State, both as Shuttles-Persimmon.
to size and variety of timber. It is here that we Levers-Hornbeam, ironwood.
find those beautiful and nearly extinct trees, the Tobacco Boxes-Sycamore.
resented in so condensed a table, I present this Paper Pulp-Cottonwood, linn, box elder.
most important detail in another form, not giving Floats-Tupelo.
the uses of each tree, but lists of all the trees adapt- Oars-White and green ash.
ed to a particular purpose. From these lists, how- Pencils-Red cedar.
ever I shall omit about half of the trees included Gangg-Qrange, ,crabwood, princewood, torch-
in the general catalogue, because they are rare and wood, palmetto, royal palm.
little known. A. H. Curtiss. Piles--Palmetto, yellow and pitch pine, black
Fuel-Most of the pines, oaks and hickories af- gum, mangrove.
ford excellent fuel, also beech, sugar maple, mag- Railway Ties-Black cypress, juniper, yellow
nolia, black titi, etc. In Southern Florida the pine, chestnut, post oak, white oak, slippery elm,
woods most used for fuel are the button wood, mulberry, catalpa.
Jamaica, dogwood, crabwood and torchwood. Tanning Barks-The mangrove affords most
Fencing-For posts or rails the following trees tannin, but the kinds most used are the black and
are preferred: Black cypress, red cedar, juniper, red oaks and the tan or loblolly bay.
yellow pine, post oak, chestnut oak, white oak, Medicinal Barks-Are afforded by the cherry,
overcup oak, willow, hornbeam, chestnut, catalpa, dogwood, white bay, willow, sassafras, Georgia
mulberry, honey locust, sassafras, slippery elm, bark, prickly ash, poplar, slippery elm, white oak,
hackberry. and a number of the sub-tropical trees.
Building-For general construction a large va- A Ctastl.e Nl the lTrt Trre of Florida Cmpriaiat4a per ent, of All
Florida yew and savin. In Northern and Middle P Fad I the United Stat*
Florida most of the trees of the Southern States First Column-In this are given the botanical
find their southern limit, but as a rule they do not names adopted in the Forestry Report of the
Treats All Disass
HIls ethod Invariably Cares All
Catarrhal, Bronhial, Lung, Stom.
ach, Liver, Kidney and Other Co-
plaints, as Well as All DiMmae
and Weaknesses of Women.
in Dr. HMuaPrways ma
extensive practice, coy
ering a period of more
called upon to treat aU
manner of diseases of
Smen and women and
along Ule wnlo hlie Of
human allments he ha
been uniformly Ise
Dr. Hathaways me.
thod of treatment ets
directly at the 9"4t 9
the trouble, purfles the blood
Pif-es tones up the whole system and
the B ed. neutratze. the polamns whie
produce the diseased conditions.
a Yearly he restores to perfect
AN i health ousands of sfferen
Tresad. from Catarrh, Bronchitis, As-
thma. Hay Fever. Lung Complaints Stomach,
Liver and Kidney Diseases Piles, Tmor, Can-
cers, Eczema and all manner of skin affections.
Dr. Hathaway also treats with
11118 0 the getrat usimmia all tmae
Wmem- many distressing weaknees and
diseases by which so many women are aficted.
E k.i..i Dr. Hathaway's omies are fitted
E with an the latet electrical a
Appi a-Mm other appliances, in the use c
which, as well as the microscope, ne has word-
wide fame as an expert. All of the medicines
used by Dr. Hathaway are compounded in his
own laboratories, under his personal director
and special remedies are prepared for each In-
dividual case according to Its requirements.
E mliat.e1 Dr. Hathaway has prepared a
lLanhs. applylngtothedlfferet diese
which he sends free on application; N.1, for
Men; No. 2. for Women; No. a, for Sin Diseases;
No. 4, for Catarrhal Diseases; No. 5 for Kidneys.
es .u .., Dr.Hathawaymakes noeharge
e lta t for cosultation at either his
Free. office or by mall.
J. NBWT Oi HATHAWAY, M. 0A
Dr. Hathaway & r .,
65 Bryan Street, Savanw b, .
MENTION THIS PAPER WHEN WRITING.
TRUSSES, eSj S1.25 AND UP
d. ouBt and sal dwi to a SO L IR--4i
state your 5a=bis, W Ase, bow long you have base
ruptured, whSr, rupture slure ormail; a.so ts
number inohs ar d t body on ne with
rpt h tnmre is on right or ltat .
ds iwTa d etheWass to you with the
WRITE FOR FREE TRUSS CATALOG sh.a.
,s, 8AARa; ROIEBUK & CO. cil W
n.tmba i"n"eui d ing the 5.. ias .n Vim .9
ihutama. s.asssgtu aaU co .Msbe..U hwJe
Wrnu he h~oa m tOm
W TRADE MARKS
Anyone ending a sketch and desaription man
quickly certain our opinion free whether at
invention I. probably patentable. Communiea
tionu strstl c aonfenta Hndbook on Patent
sent free OIdet agency for securing patents.
Patents taken through Munn & Co receive
spMtal soi without charge. In the
,A hudomenly lhutratIl weekly. Il nret ci-
olation of any sentitcl9ol Terms. 3
io four months. Ld Dboiyall newdeaers.
iUlN- ACo."' -,ei New Yrk.
u <, c a" r -* In."n p 7
There is no kind of pain
or ache, Internal or exter-
nal, that Pain-Killer will
LOOK OUT FOR IMITATIONS AND SUB.
STATUTES. THE GENUINE BOTTLE
PERRY DAVIS & SON.
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST. a
Tenth Census, and (in Roman type) the names of
orders or families.
Second Column-This contains the popular
names most used in Florida, and figures repre-
sentinig the iiiiiber of species of each order found
in Florida and in the United States. For example:
Of the magnolia family there are five species in
Florida and eight in the United States.
Third Golumn--Here is given in inches the
maximum diameter which each tree is known to
attain in Florida, the measurements being made
about four feet from the ground.
Fourth Column-The numbers represent the
weight in pounds of a cubic foot of kiln-dried
wood, according to Prof. C. S. Sargent's tests.
N indicates that the tree grows only in Northern
S indicates that the tree grows only in Southern
indicates that the tree grows only on low or
BOTANICAL NAME. COMMON NAME.
Magnoliaceae. Si 8
-Mgnolia randfora, L ......... Manolia ..................4 40
a-- lac .... .............. White Bay... ............. 224 3.
a- Fran Walter ............ Cucumber Tree..........N 8 3
-- insruyim, li MiIm .. ....... C.tlansra11t Cucumllcr Trrr
.................... N 433
5- Liriodendron, Tulipiera, L.. Poplar...... ............. 84 26
6-Anon lauriolia, .. Pond Apple...... ... .........S i 31*
7-Capparis Jamaicensis, Jacq.... Caper.. .................S 8 43
8-Canella alba, Murray ......l Cinnamon Bark ........... S 862
--Gordonia Lasianthus, L........ Tan Bay, Loblolly Bay..... 22 30o
o-Tilia pubescens Ait............. Linn, Wahoo.. ... ....... E 2 26
I-- nateropallal, ent .. ....... Linn, Whovv, ... ..-... N ~S 7
M Lphigiaceae. 1-1
a1-Byrsonima lucida, H B K...... Glamberry.............S 10 37
13-Guaiacum sanctum, L.......... Lignum Vitae ...... ......S 12 7
4--Xanthoxylum Clava Herculis,
L... ............ ......... Prickly Ash, Sea Ash....... 12 32
15- Caribaeum Lam .......... Satin Wood, Yellow Wood.S 15 56
6- Pterota, H B K............ Wild Lime...... ......S 7 46
s1-Ptelia tritoliata, L.............. Hop Tree .............N 4 52
iS-Simaruba glausa, D C......... Bitterwood, Paradise Tree..S 24 26
ig-Bursera gummi era, Jacq...... Gum Elemi, West India
Birrh ,i i, ,, --S a. '7
o--Amyris maritime, ?acq ......... T9ftwd ...0... ..- ... 05
-Swietenia Mahogoni, L....... Mahogany ...............S 36 45
az-Melia Axedrach ........... .: China Berry .............. 18
23-Citrus vulgaris ......... ild Orange ... ........... 10
4-Ximenia Americana, L......... Pure Nut, Hog Plum...... S 7 57
Ilisa r .
25-Ilex opaca, Aiton............ Holly ...... ... ... ........ 6 35
a6- Dahoon, Walter..... ...... Broad-leaved Yaupon ..8.. 33
2- var. augustifolia.. Narrow-leaved Yaupon .... N 8
2-Cassine, Walter ....... .... Cassina ........ .........N 443
Sdecidua, Walter ............ Prssuc Haw ..............N 646*
--lucida, Torr & Gray.......... Swamp Gall-berry.. ........ 5
S-C rilla racemi.ora, L.......... Red Titi, Leatherwood ......N 12 42
-Cliftonia ligstrina, Banks..... Black Titi, Buckwheat Tree.N12 3~*
-Myginda intergrifolia, am.... False Boxwood ...........S 6 5s
S4-Schaefferia rutecens. Jacq.... Boxwood ... ............S 7 48
Rhamnaceae. 4.7 ,
3-Rynoia latolia Griseb...... Darling Plum, Red Iron-
5- yo. wood... ..... ......S 868
36-Condalia errea, Griseb......... Black Ironwood... ........S 2 81
7--Rhamnus Caroliniana Walt.... Yellow Wood... ... .......S 36 51
A-Colubrina reclinata, Brough... Soldier Wood..............S 36 51
-Sapindus Sapouria. L......... RPlau BowoVd ... ..,. j32
40- marginatus, Will .......... Soap Berry..... .......... N 4
4--Hypelate paniculata, Cambess.. Ink Wood ................ S 8
4A- trifoliata, Swart ........... White Ironwood ... .......S 22 57
43--Acer saccharinum, Wang...... Black or Sugar Maple.....,.E I5 43
.lsycarnum, Ehrh .. .. White or Silver Maple.....N 24 33
4-ibrum L.... ...... ::.... Red or Swamp Maple........ 22 39
6 rNegunao aceroides, Moench... Box Elder ... .. .......... 14 27
47-Rhus copallina, L. ............ Sumac ........ ... ..... 833
48- Metopimum L ............. Poison Wood. ........ ..S 24 49
LeOt m nose* 7-26
4-Piscidi Erythrina, L...;....... Jamaica Dogwood ... ......S 28 54
o--Gleditschia triacanthos, L...... Honey Locust ............. 12 42
51- monoea. Walt ....... Water Locust ............15 46
-Cermila C aensis. L .......... Red-bud ... ............... 12 40
$3-Acaeia FarneMsan., Willd...... gopinac. ..-..............S a
4--Lysiloms latisiliqas, Benth.... Wld Tamarind ... ........S 22 40
55-Pithecolobium ungLis Cati,
BthS... .. ..... ........ Long Cod............... 5 56
Chrysobalanus Icaco L ....... Cocoa m .. ..........S 2 48
-Prunus Americana, ilarsh..... Wild Plum, Sloe ...........N It 45
-- angustifolia, Marsh ......... Yellow or Chicasaw Plum... 8 43
5-umbellata. L...... ..: ............y.. I 51
r- -otina. Shrh ............d Cherr. ....- .............. 53
1-caroinnna ,-- --- -------- Much glir....... .1. ..r11 if
6.- sphaerocarlM SW... .- Wcs t Indian Cherry .......
g-Pyrus angustiolia, Aiton ..... Crab-apple ...............N 8 43
rataegus arborscen. El..... Tree Thorn or Haw........N 4
-65- Cr-gall, L. .......... Cockspur Thorn ..........N to 45
ine, IL-... .." .... Scarlet Thorn or Haw....... 5 54
67- tomentosa, ............. Black Thorn ........ N 48
6-- apiifolia, Mx......... Parsley Haw............N 6
69- spathlata, x .......... og's Haw ..............N 44
7o- aestivalis, T. & G........ Summer aw ...........N 6 41*
7-- flava, Aiton ............. Yellow Haw.............. 12 49
.-Amexanchir Canadenss., T. &
S a- Currant Tree ............N i 40
73.-Liquidambar styrac.iflua L....S. weet Gum...............72 37
7--Hamamelis VirginlcaI, ..... Witch Hazel............. 4
7---Rhizophora Mangle, L ......... Mangrove ................ S 24 72*
76-Conocapus erects L.. ..... Button Wood ............ S 30 62
77-agu:cuafi a racemoaa, Gaertn. False Button Wood........ S 44
7--Terminalia Buceras, Hensly... .... ... ..........S 12
79-Calyptranthes hytraclia, Sw.. Pimento................ S7 56
--Eugeni, oixio lil i Wild....... Gurgeon Stopper......... 5 58
8-- dichotoma, D C...............
82- monticola, D C..............
83- procera, Potret ...........
84- arberi, Sargent ... ... ...
85-Cornus florida, L..............
86-Nyssa capitata, Walter ........
87- sylvatica. Marshall.........
8s- aquatias. L.,..... ,,,...
89- uniflora, Wang ............
go-Sambucus Canadensis .........
gi-Viburnum prunifolium, L.....
92- obovatum, Nutt.............
Naked Wood ...... .......S o s6
White Stopper ...........S 5 57
Red Stopper ..... .........S 8
.. .. . ....... ....S 8
Dogwood ................o 5
Ogeechee Lime ..........N 30 29*
Black or Sour Gum.......... 3 4
Tuapls C8um ............ .
Tupelo, Cotton Gum......... 4 32*
Elder... ... ...... ......... o1034
Black Hawk ... .. 6 5
Swamp Haw ... .. ........ 6 4o*
o3-Exostemma Caribacum, R & S. Prince Wood.............S 8 58
-P.ns.iy. ;t;, M ... ------ coorgia ark. mlorida Oult
nine... .......... N... 633
95-Genipa clusiaefolia, Griseb..... Seven-year Apple... .......S 64*
96-Guettarda elliptica, Sw......... Naked Wood ....... ....S 52
97- ambigua, C................ Naked Wood...........S 4 55
98-Vaccinium arbroeuc, Marshall. Sparkleberry .............. 847
99-Andromeda, ferruginea, Walter ...... ...............N 848
oo-Oxydendrum arboreum, D C.. Sour Wood ..............N 9 46
noI-Myrsine Rapanea, R & S...... False Candle Wood.........S 6 s2*
Io2-Ardisia Pickeringia, Nutt...... Marl Berry, Cherry ........S 654
o13-Jacquinia armillaris, Jacq...... Joe Wood... ............S 6 43*
S2 otaeeae. 8-8
o'--hry sophy um ol lirm_, / L P.;n L._. ... ;. ..o.. j
os-Sideroxylon mastichodendronJ Mastic... .... ... .......S 36 63
107-Bumelia tenax, Willd......... Black Haw..............N 8 45
los- lanuginosa, Pers..... ..... Black Haw ... ... .......N 4 41
0og- lycioides, Gaertn, f........... Ironwood, Mock Orange..... o 47
1o- cuneata, Sw.............. Ants' Wood, Downward
Plum.. ...... .... S 10 5o*
InI-Mimusos Sieberi, A. D C.... Wild Sapodila, Dilly........S 15 68*
i2--Diospyros Virginiana, L....... Persimmon ...... ......... 12 49
z3-Symplocos tinctoria, L'Her.... Sweet Leaf, Florida LaurelN 10 35
r14-- alesia diptera, L... ......... Swamp Sour Wood.........N 736
115- tetraptera, L ............. Snowdrop Tree..........N 533
,,6-PraxTnus Americana, L........ White Ash.. .............. .12 41*
117- pubu cnXlj, Lnamlrl .......... J All ......... 1 N 4V
118- viridis, Mx, I ................ Green or Swamp Ash........ 36 41
119- platycarpa, Mx.. ...... .... Water Ash... ..... ....... 12 2*
12o-Forestiera acuminata, Poir..... Swamp Privet ..... .....N to 42*
12--Chionanthus Virginica, L....... Old Man's Beard............. 640
122-Osmanthus Americanus, B &H Wild Olive, Devil Wood.... 12 51
ra3-Cordia Sebestina, L........... Gieer Tree ...... ........S 12 45
124-Bourreria Havanensis, Miers.. Strong Back ..... ........S to 50
125-Catalpa bignonioides, Walter.. Catalpa or Catawba ... ... N 12 z*
I~6-Crescentia cucurbitina, L...... Calabash .......... .... S 639
127-CDitharexylum villosum, .acq... ... ............ .... S 54
128-Avicennia nitidia, Jacq......... Black Mangrove ..........S 24 57
9-Pisonia obtusata, Sw ..........Beef Wood..............S 18 41
i3o-Coccoloba Floridiana, Meisn... Pigeon Plum .............S 24 6
131- uvifera. Jacq .............. Sea Grape ............S 24 6
132-Persea Carolinensis, Nees..... Red Bay, Sweet Bay......... 36 4
133- Carolinensis palustris, Cr.... Swamp Red Bay ...........
134-Nectandra Catesbyana, Michx. Lance Wood .............S 649
135-Sassafras officinale, Nees.. Sassafras .............. N 12 Fz
i3(-Drypetes crocea, Poit.......... White Wood .............S 6 56
1 ]- ulaura Volll t: i II.. II ....i... iian I'lum .1.. 1... k.. i 4. Ni
13-vmnanihca lues da, Swi ..-.. c. Ca id... ...... ...... j4
i39-Hyppomane Mancinella, L.... Manchineel ..... .........S 12 37*
i4o-Ulmus fulva, Michx....... Slippery Elm... .......N 24 44
141- Floridiana, Chapm .......... Florida Elm......... ....N l2 *
42-- Americana, L... ............ \hiite Elm. Swamp, Elm..... 2 41*
143- alata, Michx .............. Redl Elm, Cork Elm .......N 47
x4t--Planera aquatic. Gmelin...... Water Elm ... ..... ....N 12 33
145-Celtis occidcntalis, L.......... kIa|uklbrry, l.ugarLbrry .,.. 4 43*
i46-Ficus area, Nutt .......... \Wild Fig, Rubber Tree ....S 48 i6
147- populnea, Willd ............ ......... ... ........... 24 37
148-Morus rubra, L. ............ Mulberry ............... 24 37
149-Trema mercrantha, B & H.... False Mulberry ...........S 822
15o-Platanus occidentalis, L........ Sycamore, Button-ball ... N 84 37*
-Juglans nigra, L ............... Black alnut ........ ......N 27 3*
g-'Carya tomentosa. Nutt. ...... Red lickory ........... 24 51
153- Iarpina, Nuii ... ...........- I'inauot I1t--t--.-. ........ -4 3s5
154-- amara, Nutt...... ... ...... Ilutter-nut Hickory ... ....N 36 47*
155-acquatica, Nutt ...... ....... Swamp Hickory ...... ...N 30 46
M yricaceae. 1-2
156-Myrica cerifera, L............. Wax Myrtle .............. 12 35*
157-Ouercus alba, L... ............ White Oak ... ........... 36 46
158-Stellata, Wang ........... ... Post Oak ................ 24 51
IO- var, parvifolla ................... .. .................... 12
i ,w- lr-ta, Wls --- .....-.---.- nOtr-cup (131 -... .... ...- jD 1n
161-Michauxii, Nutt ... ... .... Swamp Chestnue Oak....... 6o 52*
162-Castanea, Willd .............. Upland Chestnut Oak ......N 12 52
163- virens, Aiton ........... .. Live Oak... .............. 9659
164- rubra, L..................... ........ ...........N 30 41
165- coccinea, Wang ....... ..... Scarlet Oak ..............N 27 46
I66- tinctoria, Bartr ... ......... Black or Quercitron Oak..N 36 41
167- nigra, L..................... Black Jack. Barren Oak.... 2o 46
168- falcata, Michx... .......... Spanish Oak, Red Oak .....36 43
169- Catesbaei, Michx ......... Black-Jack, Scrub Oak..... 1845
o70- aquatica, Walter ... ...... Broad leaved Water Oak.... 48 45*
171- laurifolia, Michx ..... ...... Narrow-leaved Water Oak... 3o 48
172- cinerea, Mich .............. Turkey Oak, Blue Jack...... 12 40
173- Phellos, L................ ......illo ak ... .....N. 30 47
174-Castanea pumila. Miller ...... Chinquapin ......... ......- 10 37
175- vulgaris, var. Americana..... Chestnut ................. g 228
i20-FaetUa fcrruinca: Alton : P--. Reol!h: .. ... .........N A I
77- strya irginica, Willd ...... Hornbeam .................. 1252
i78-Carpinus Caroliana, Walt...... Ironwood ........... ...... 14 45
i79--Betula niga, L................ Black Birch. River Birch..N 15 36*
18o- lenta, L...... ... .......... Cherry Birch ...... ......N 12 47
8i--Alnus serrulata, Willd ........ Alder .............. ....... 4 29*
i82-Salix nigra. Marsh. var. long-
ipes ..... ................. Black W illow ......... ..N 4 a8*
5i1pgsaulurtmnailifea. Aiton..Nn CottInnuloti .... N n 34
i84-Casuarina equisetifolia, Forst.. Australian Pine...... .....S 12 57
Coniferaei. 12 83
185-Chamaecyparis thyoldes, Stph. Juniper, White Cedar....... 24 21*
186-Juniperus Virginiana, L....... ed Cedar................. 2431
187-Taxodium distichum, Richard. Cypress ... ........ .......120 28*
i88-Taxus Floridiana, Nutt........ Florida Yew ... ..........N 6 40
i8g-Torreya taxifolia, Arnott....... Savin. Stinking Cedar......N 18 32
go--Pinus Taeda, L............... I Loblolly or Old Field Pine.. 36 31
191- serotina, Michx ........... Pond Pine ................. 24 50
92- clausa, Vasey .............. Upland Spruce Pine......... 20 31
-?a- mitia. Michx- ........... Short-leaved Yellow Pine.. N 2u 23
gl--giabra, Walcr ............... Lz.lal yprups Pina...... zKX
195- palustris, Miller ............. Long-leaved Yellow Pine 72 44
196- Cubensis, Griseb ..... ..... Pitch Pine......... ....... 36 47*
i97-Sabal Palmetto, Loddiges...... Palmetto. Cabbage Tree...... 20 27
ix9-Thrinax parviflora, Swartz..... Silver Thatch .............S 437
199- argentea, Loddiges ........ Brickley Thatch .........S 745
200- excelsa, Griseb ... ...................... .............S
Wang .. ......... ................. ... .. ....S 6
202-Oreodoxa regia, H B K....... Royal Palm ....... ".....S 24 38
C HOICE Vegetables
will always find a ready
market-but only that farmer
can raise them who has studied
the great secret how to ob-
tain both quality and quantity
by the judicious use of well-
balanced fertilizers. No fertil-
izer for Vegetables can produce
a large yield unless it contains
at least 8% Potash. Send for
our book, which furnish full
information. We send them
free of charge.
GERMAN KALI WORKS,
93 Nassau St., New York.
That wial kill
all the weeds
If you keep
the weeds cut
so they do not
go to Aned,
breaking the small feeders of roots
the grass will become thick and
weeds will disappear. Send for
THE CLIPPER WILL DO IT
CLIPPER LAWN MOWER CO.
I Artistic -
IXKCUTIKD IN ........
'CHE TATET DESIGN OP
and Grar ite.
rort hernirtg - -
I or cemetery and &tw enclosure
All work guaranteed. Prices reasonable.
Correspond with :: :: ::
G.EO. R. NICHOLS A 00.
i10xf Ilarrln( l f as t.
The International Publishing Coin
pany of Philadelphia and Chicago,
have Just published a new and Inter-
esting life of D. L. Moody. Also,
"War In Africa," and many other ele-
gant and useful books. The best terms
to agents. Apply to I. Morgan, Kis-
simelee, State agent for Florida.
WE STILL HAVE A FEW
Nice Satsuma oranges on Trifollate
stocks, entirely unhurt by cold. Alat
peaches, plums, grapes, etc., including
the ftal8ps :Tames Grap:. A fao
thousand Trifolita seedlings yet un
sold. Prices low. Freight is paid
COULDN'T HEAR IT.
Hostess-Did you hear Wagner's "Loh-
snrtnrn" Bcrftrmol In Pertt?
Returned Tourist-No, I was In London
at the time, and the wind was blowing
the wrong way.-New York Weekly.
AS HE VIEWED IT.
Common Person-Have you ever met
the talented Miss Bung?
Great Author-No, never. The talented
Miss Bung has met me several times,
aic THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
Advantags of Good Boads.
The following interesting paper was
read before the State Horticultural So-
ciety by W. M. Bennett, of Okahump-
When I read of a gentleman in a rep-
reentiatfl captity ltfO aire national
good roads convention making the dec-
laratIon tbat "the State of Florida can
boast of having pretty good roads with-
out much expense," I experience a
sense of embarrassment that is not
easily explained or overcome, for I am
unable to drctrmlm whither the gI-
tleman was favoring his fellow dele-
gates with a view of what lay before
his prophetic vision of Florida in the
next decade, or that he really had dur-
ing his Journeying to and fro through
the land been sustained by his State
pride and filial love to observe only
the perpetual verdure of its flora, the
purity and mirror-like beidty 6f ita
emerald framed lakes, its unequalled
climate, its balmy breezes ladened with
the perfume of innumerable flowers,
and the music of the forest songsters,
or perchance he has witnessed the
driver help his horse by pushing the
empty wagon up the clay hills of Leon
and enjoyed the spectacle of the wagon
pushing the tired horse down the other
side, or while hunting gophers on
Apopka mountains he has philosoph-
ized upon the reversal of the laws of
gravity where good horse power Is re-
quired to pull an empty wagon down
hill, or as all lines of beauty are said
to be curves, may we not conclude that
his artistic nature has seen in our
sand sinuous trails that so expertly
dodge forest trees and gracefully mean-
der around ponds and Drairies, only
lines of beauty, and the four to six
inches of shifting sand through which
the horse delights to wallow, and the
wheels do continually grind and moan,
as the rythmic accompaniment of a
restful three-mile an hour gait The
pine root corduroy roads of the flat
lands is another variety with infinite
variations ranging from a toothache
shock to a lyddite concussion, and
these are what the gentleman called
pretty good roads.
Why, Mr. President, for the past six
or seven years I have been telling the
people of Florida that our, unimproved
roads averaged exceedingly bad; and
that outside of the road tax they cost
us more than all other taxes combined,
and this statement is not hard to dem-
onstrate. There is no public utility
that so certainly and Intimately affects
every individual and every social and
material interest as the public roads.
Every journey made over a bad road
entails a loss of time, an unnecessary
wear of the vehicle, a waste of horse
power and exercises an influence that
tends to still further degeneracy of the
indolent or exasperation of the ambi-
The farmer at an average distance of
five miles from town finds that It takes
a man and horse half a day at a cost
of seventy-five cents to get the mall
from the postoflice or a few groceries
from the store when the tortuous
sandy trails are the lines traveled. On
a good road the trip could be made at
a cost of twenty-five to thirty cents
with less fatigue to the horse. It
would take a man and horse two days
to haul a ton of fertilizer from town
through an unimproved sandy road
which would add three dollars to its
cost at the farm, while over a hard
surfaced road, with a minimum grade
the same man and horse could make
three trips per day with a thousand
pounds each trip, which would reduce
the cost of wagon transportation to one
dollar per ton. The railroads charge
about one and one-half cents per ton
per mile on fertilizer, and on the more
numerous class of merchandise about
six cents per ton per mile. On good
roads the cost is less than twenty
cents, while the serpentine sandy ex-
tortion takes sixty cents per ton per
If a farmer and his team can do
twice as much in a day for one day in
eac9 wees unaer changed conditions
as he is now doing under existing con-
ditions he can add fifty- two working
daws to each year without adding to
his expenses, and taking the current
rate of two dollars and a half per day
for man and team and we find that he
has made, or saved, one hundred and
thirty dollars. But assuming that this
increased ability to do work does not
affect more than two days per month,
at the current rate of on dollar and
fifty cents per day for a man and one
horse he has gained thirty-six dollars,
or twenty-four days in the year, which
is a low estimate of the time lost by
the farmer struggling with bad roads.
Procrastination has justly been called
the thief of time, but bad roads is the
highway robber that takes the farmer's
time, mistreats his horse, destroys his
wagon, isolates his family, takes toll
on all that he bnyJ, and all that hl
takes to market; keeps the family from
church and public gatherings, where
their Information might be increased,
their ideas and aspirations broadened
,and their lives brightened. He sours
the tempers, he drives the children of
promise to the already congested chan-
nels of city life. By his presence he
repels alike the advances of the set-
tler, the tourist and the manufacturer;
he is the unqualified enemy to wealth
and progress in every form.
After the most thorough inquiry, in-
vestigation and calculations, three of
the best authorities in our country
while pursuing independent and differ-
ent lines of investigation, have reached
approximately the same conclusion-
namely-that bad roads cost the people
of the United States annually the
enormous sum of $500,000,000, or about
$7 for each man, woman and child. It
will be assumed that the population of
Florida does not bear its full propor-
tion of this appalling burden, but what-
ever does inhere from the roads of this
State carries exceptional condemnation
because of the fact that we have un-
cusable bad roads, with exceptional fa-
cilities for constructing good roads at
very small outlay. There are no moun-
tain ranges to traverse or rocky chasms
to bridge; no degrees of cold that ne-
cessitates deep foundations to prevent
upheavels, but a gentle undulating sur-
face that presents an easy gradient, a
porasity of soil that furnishes natural
drainage and surfacing material with-
in easy .reach of every part of the
But roads were not built because the
mass of the people being accustomed
to our sand trails did not appreciate
the fact that they were very poor apol-
ogies for roads, and their use a great
burden upon the people, some like our
representative at the good roads con-
vention insisted that we had good
roads probably because they had never
seen any other, many there were who
believed that the people were too poor
to build roads and omitted to verify
their opinions by an examination of
The facts are the people's time and
money have been frittered away under
a system that never has nor never can
be successfully defended as a means of
providing the public with highways,
but as a means for the distribution of
political favors would be hard to beat.
Why, sir, if the labor and money con-
tributed by the people of Florida dur-
ing the past ten years ostensibly for
the maintenance of highways had been
systematically and wisely used there
would have been more miles of good
roads in each county than there are
now within the borders of ihe entire
The people do not realize how large
are the sums in the aggregate that are
raised for the road and bridge fund; it
seems incredible that over thirty thou-
sand dollars could be expended on the
public roads of one county and no vis-
ible Improvement result from its use.
Yet such was the fact and the same
waste has been going on wherever the
system has been in operation.
The law, plan or agreement that di-
vides that road funds between the sev-
eral commissioners of the board and
give those commissioners unchecked
authority over its expenditure in their
respective districts is contrary to the
spirit of the constitution, is unjust in
its application and violates safe busi-
ness principles. By the constitution
the county is the unit of territorial
subdivision in tihe StEt, and a !?gSk
lative board is provided for its man-
agement, not of a part but the whole,
not as individuals, but as a board, and
no authority is vested in the board to
delegate its power to an individual
member. The idea that the commis-
sioner is entitled to the control of the
total millage collected for the board
and bridge fund in his districtfor use
exclusively within the district, is un-
sound as a theory and unjust in prac-
tice. The revenues of a county irre-
spective of the districts from which
collected are used for the construction
and maintenance of county buildings
and without regard to their location.
The compensation of county officials
is drawn from the county funds with-
out question as to the district from
which they were chosen. The salaries
of the school teachers are paid from
the county school fund without regard
to the location of the school or the
home of the teacher. The cost of
criminal prosecutions are borne by the
county as a whole, and the criminals
are boarded at the county's expense
without inquiry as to the precinct In
which the offense was committed," or
from whence the criminal came.
Is there any good reason why the
public highways should be made an
exception to the rule which regards the
county as a unit for all public, finan-
cial and internal improvements? Pre-
cinct boundaries have no relation to
county finances, but are established for
the specific purpose of providing con-
venient voting districts. A small, com-
pact, populous commissioner's district
may embrace half of the assessed val-
uation of a county, have but ten per
cent. of the county's highways, and yet
be dependent for support upon the
farming districts adjoining. Now
neither justice or good policy would
sustain the claim that one-half of the
total county road fund should be used
for the one-tenth miles in the one dis-
trict, and the other half of the reve-
nue for the nine-tenths mileage in the
remaining four districts. The greater
portion of taxable property in the pop-
ulous districts are the accretions from
trade with the producers, and without
that trade there would have been no
concentration of values, and it must be
apparent that by improving the chan-
nels of trade an increase in value may
be expected. No part of the county
has a superior claim over any other
part to a speclne portion or tme rowa
fund, except as indicated by the vol-
ume of traffic and the public demand
for increased facilities. There should
be no disbursements except by the au-
thority of the commissioners sitting as
a board, each member of which should
Be Blyenl all eunplioon on poi oona in-
terest In profits from contracts or ben-
eits to accrue through members of
their families or political partisans.
The employment of a competent man
as road superintendent for the county
subject to the general control of the
commissioners, when acting as a board,
offers the best solution of the road
question. It is a plain business propo-
sition that a competent man with the
incentive of continued employment and
public approval could and would pro-
tect the public from the losses incident
to supervision by commissioners result-
ing from Inadaptability, Inexperience
and abnormally developed acquisitive-
ness which has wasted thousands of
the public funds.
The efficiency of a superintendent
would grow with his experience, each
month's work giving better value for
the expenditure, and the continuous
employment of such a man would cost
less than the perfunctory services of
the five commissioners usually cost,
and would be Immeasurably more eco-
nomical from any point of view. To
secure good roads it is not so essential
that taxation tw inromsed as that the
funds be wisely expended. The lines
must be laid out by an engineer or one
having the necessary ability and ex-
perience; such a man will usually save
many times the cost of his services in
the construction, greatly lessen the
subsequent cost of maintenance, Insure
permanent and enhanced value for
traffic. The superintendency of the
construction should not be the experi-
mental work of a novice, but that of
good judgment developed by experi-
ence. The drainage, the preparation of
the roadbed, the fitness and quality of
the surfacing material, the relative
convexity of longitudinal grades and
levels should all be understood, and
knowledge available for prompt and
certain application. All work should
be done on the cash basis and under
such rules as a successful business
man would conduct his personal busi-
ness. Improved road working machin-
ery should be used wherever money
can be saved by its use. The able bod-
led boarders in the county jails who
now eat the bread of idleness and
study mischief during their term of re-
tirement, preparatory to graduating as
doctors of deviltry, should be required
to add to their curriculum the practi-
cal study of highways which would
give healthful employment to their
minds and bodies and fit them for earn-
ing an honest living when again given
their freedom. From being a burden
upon the tax-payer, they could be con-
verted into a source of profit, without
being brutalized by the cruelties of the
convict camps; and thereafter the
judge's sentence would not carry an
order for food and rest for the law-
breaker and added burden for the hon-
Provision can be made for the group-
ing of counties where the probably
number of convicts In each could not
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST. as
be profitably employed, with the cost
entailed by the necessary precautions
against escape, and that county of the
Aroup which would pay moat could
take the convicts of the group.
In several States convicts have been
used with the most satisfactory re,
suits from a moral, hygienic and finan-
cial point of view. In the States where
the system has become established the
cost per diem for each man has aver-
aged about twenty-four cents for feed-
ing, clothing, guarding and medical at-
tendance. A portable structure of cor-
rugated sheet iron very readily solves
the question of shelter and security at
night and protection from inclement
The increased use of wide tires is a
meos engparaging indication of the
growth of knowledge and of interest in
the principles that tend to cheapen
wagon transportation; when it is real-
Ised that a change from one and one-
fourth to three to four inch tires about
doubles the horse power on yielding
sand, and that the improved roads are
preserved by the use of wide tires.
while the narrow tires are very de-
structive, we may reasonably hope that
no more narrow tired wagons will be
constructed or brought into this State.
In the countries of Europe where good
roads are the rule and four to six
thousand pounds a common load for a
farm team, the use of narrow tires for
heavy vehicles are prohibited, and
wheels from four to ten inches wide
and non-tracking axles for the heavier
class represent the most advanced ideas
on highway legislation. Compare the
cost of moving six thousand pounds
ten miles on a sandy road in Florida
with the same task in France, where
it would take six days, in France or
Germany it would be done in one, with
several hours to spare for other work
is it surprising that we cannot com-
pete with the pauper labor of Europe,
as our demagogues love to tell the dear
people. It may be suggested that we
have not the population that demands,
nor the financial ability to construct
such roads to which a qualified assent
must be given. 'Tis true that the
lighter traffic here does not require
such wear resisting material for sur-
facing, nor yet the depth necessary to
withstand the effects of frost, but we
can and should have all our roads laid
on the shortest practical lines, avoid-
ing angles and heavy grades.
Gen. Roy Stone, the eminent road en-
gineer and director of the United
States office of Public Road Inquiry,
in an address delivered in Morris coun-
ty, N. J., gave an illustration in his
hearers' neighborhood of the cost of
heavy grades and of the folly of at-
tempting to maintain roads on lines in
violation of all rules of engineering.
Over an old road three and three-quar-
ter miles long between Morristown and
Whippany there is an average of one
hundred and fifty tons of freight
hauled daily In loads of one and one-
half to three tons, but because of the
heavy grades but two trips a day can
be made which brings the cost up to
eighty cents per ton. By a change of
route the distance can be shortened
one-quarter of a mile, the grades so
changed that three trips could be
made each day with double the load,
thus reducing the cost to twenty-seven
cents per ton, making a saving of two
thousand dollars per month, a loss
which in nine months would build the
proposed new road. What an amas-
ing waste is here disclosed-twenty-
tour thousand dollars per year; if it
has averaged but one-fourth of this
amount during the past twenty years
the waste has aggregated one hundred
and twenty thousand dollars. Twenty
years ago the people would have ob-
jected to raising eighteen thousand
dollars either by taxation or bonding.
To have borrowed the money the an-
nual cost would have been about $1,100,
but they saved the $1,100 at a yearly
tax upon the business of the neighbor-
hood of $6,000, a net loss of $4,900,
which would have paid the loan in
four years, and as a result of the
transaction the community would have
had a good road and saved the $96,000
lost during the succeeding sixteen
years with the probability that the un-
noticed and indirect losses have even
xW4edvd this amount.
Are we not doing the same thing in
Florida? Are we not beguiling our-
selves with the idea that the reduction
of expenditures and the evasion of
taxes is a personal benefit in the inter-
est of economy?
It has appeared to be'the policy of
some county boards to get glory by cut-
ting down the tax levies for roads, and
that they may not be accounted non-
progressive they solicit subscriptions
from their fellow citizens for building
roads, offering to furnish one-fourth
from the county funds. This is re-
garded by the commissioners and their
non-subscribing friends as very sharp
financiering until it is understood that
over one-half of the taxes are paid by
non-resident property owners, and un-
der the subscription plan they pay but
one-eighth of the cost of the improve-
ments, while receiving equal benefits
with the resident in the enhanced value
of their property.
Conceding that our State is sparcely
settled and the people poor, the all-
wise Creator has provided for just such
conditions. The soil is easily pre-
pared, the grades are light, surfacing
material can be found in every town-
ship, work can be prosecuted fifty-two
weeks in the year; living is inexpen-
sive, hence labor is cheap and the ex-
perience of the past two years has
proven that it we will we can build
roads. Good country roads facilitate
iuutrcourse between the town and the
country for their mutual benefit; they
are better for the farmer's family re-
garded from a religious, educational or
social point of view; the increased fa-
cilities makes the country home more
attractive to the young and saves
many from a wasted life in the city,
the increased capacity of the horse to
go in less time and haul larger loads
effects a strong saving in the number
of horses; enables the farmer to spend
more time on his farm, and thereby
raise larger and better crops. Intelli-
gent immigration is attracted by good
roads and with equal certainty is re-
pelled by bad; business enterprises
need not be expected to locate weerr
the bad road burden consumes the
Thousands of Northern citizens would
spend their winters in Florida in mod-
est hotels and country homes away
from the coast if there were opportun-
ities for enjoying the climate by driv-
ing and wheeling.
With increased population every in-
dustry would be stimulated, and for
the products of the farm, garden and
grove, there would be an improved
home market. Good roads must come,
and the sooner the better. Other States
are spending millions to secure manu-
factories and the tourist business, and
growing rich on their investments,
while the legislators of Florida are
neglecting to adopt a reasonable road
system that will enable progressive
counties to make improvements that
will attract the patronage of tourists
and investments of capital.
In some instances the people may not
be ready, but there should be no legal
obstacles in their way, but on the con-
trary, wise legislation for their en-
couragement, guidance and protection.
The members of the Good Roads Asso-
ciation have worked earnestly in dis-
seminating reliable information. They
ask all to enlist in their ranks and ac-
tively co-operate in this great unsel-
fish work. The time is at hand for the
selection of our law-makers. Let us
eec to it that we mead to the Ieisa-
lature men of ideas, not fossils, and re-
quire that they shall post themselves
upon this great movement for better
roads throughout the United States,
and demand that Florida shall have
an equal chance with her sister States
in the great race for development.
Next in importance to the selection
of right varieties is the proper cultiva-
tion and care of the orchard.
In all my experience and observation
as to the causes of failures in Florida
the two principal causes have been,
first, want of proper selection of varie-
ties; second, want of proper cultiva-
Either one or both of these causes is
sure to cause utter failure.
Men buy trees, stick them out with-
out cutting back, among other crops,
and give them no care or cultivation,
except what they get by the cultivation
of the other crops, and they fail every
time. Then you will hear them say:
"Peaches don't do well on my land. I
have tried it."
Would they expect to get a crop of
anything else, without fertilizing, and
with such care as they give their fruit:
trees? Land may be too wet for peach-
es, or it may be diseased-have what
the Florida people call "white bud"-
but never too pool. Where corn will
grow and thrive peaches will do the
same. Where corn needs fertilizer for
best results, peaches need the same.
The best soil for a peach orchard is a
sandy loam, underlaid with clay from
one to two feet below the surface. Al-
ways plant on new land, it possible,
but if necessary to use old land, mulch
heavily. Prepare land well by plow-
ing and harrowing.
Plant trees from fifteen to twenty
feet apart each way. Never plant any
other crop in your peach orchard.
Never plow deep, only cultivate the
surface. Keep clean of weed s and
grass. Fertilize well with any form
of fertilizer largely consisting of phos-
phates and potash. Peach trees need
but little ammonia more than they are
able to gather from the air and soil.
One of the most important factors of
success in Florida is not to let your
trees overbear. They must be prevent-
ed by cutting back the tree and thin-
ning out the fruit before it is grown.
About the last of April is the proper
time. It should be done before the
seed begins to get hard.
Remember that one crate of this fine
fruit is worth two of poor fruit, and it
will hurt your tree very much less to
make the good crate than the bad one.
The vitality of the tree is not consumed
in making fruit, but in making seed;
therefore make your fruit on as few
seeds as possible.
Beides, it will cost you just as much
to gather and send the poor crate to
market, that will only bring $1 to $2,
as it will to prepare and send to mar-
ket the good crate, that will bring from
$S to $5.
Insects and Disease.-Rootknot is
about the only disease that attacks
peach trees here in Florida, and this
does not hurt them if on a limestone
clay soil. And it can be successfully
prevented on sandy soils by fertilizing
well and mulching.
The root-borer has appeared in the
older portions of the State. His ray-
Ever have them?
Then we can't
P tell you any-
know how dark
and how you are about
ready to give up. Some-
how, you can't throw off
the terrible depression.
Are things really so
blueP Isn't it yournerves,
after allP That's where
the trouble is. Your
nerves are beingpoisoned
from the impurities in
purifies the blood and
gives power and stability
to the nerves. It makes
health and strength, active.
ity and cheerfulness.
This is what "Ayer's"
will do for you. It's the
oldest Sarsaparilla in the
land, the kind that was
old before other Sarsa-
parillas were known.
This also accounts for
the saying, "One bottle
of Ayer's is worth three
bottles of the ordinary
S.M s toeb. An d4glM .
"bee Mel DeOefee
It o have an complaint whaover
anddeireU advice yea
can possbl fteeive, write the doeto
freely. You will receive a prompt mr
ply. without cot. Addre.
D. J. CA, TL Lowel. 5 gf
ages may be prevented by putting a
roll of tarred paper around the tree,
and tying it about eight inches above
the ground, and let it reach down to
the ground, drawing up a little soil
around the bottom to hold the paper
steady and to keep the fly that lays
the egg from getting to the tree. The
egg must be deposited in the ten lcr
bark, just under the surface of the
soil, and any means that will prevent
the fly from depositing the egg there
will prevent the borer.
The San Jose scale has made its ap-
pearance in a few sections of the State.
and should be carefully watched and
stamped out at once. If you have this
scale, write to the State Department of
Agriculture for instructions as to best
methods of destroying it.
I am planting 100 acres in peaches in
Alachua county, Florida, and will
cheerfully give my experience to the
people of the State through the col-
umns of the Times-Union and Citizen.
-E. P. Henderson, in T.-U. & C.
"You ride your wheel on Sunday, yet
you object to my going skating on Sun-
day. What is the difference?"
"Well. when you ride your wheel you
are always going somewhere. When you
are skating you are not. It's just like
dancing, and you know it isn't the right
thing to go to a dance on Sunday."--Chi-
THE PROPER THING.
She-Isn't that a duck of a bonnet the
doctor's wife has on?
(He-Yes, and it's very appropriate, too.
He-Her husband's a quack.-Ohicago
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
Entered at the postofice at DeLand, Flo
ida, as second class matter.
E. 0. PAINTER & CO.,
Publishers and Proprietors.
Published every Wednesday, and devoted
the development of Florida and the best i
terests of her people.
THE FLORIDA PRESS ASSOCIATION
Affiliated with the
NATIONAL EDITORIAL ASSOCIATION
One year, single subscription............$ 2.
Six months, single subscription.......... 1.
Single copy.................... ...........
Rates for advertising furnished on applica
tion by letter or in person.
Articles relating to any topic within th
scope of this paper are solicited.
We cannot promise to return rejected manu
script unless stamps are enclosed.
All communications for intended publication
must be accompanied with real name, as
guarantee of good faith. No anonymous con
tribution will be regarded.
Money should be sent by Draft, Postoffi
Money Order on DeLand, or Registered Let
ter, otherwise the publisher will not be re
sponsible in case of loss. When persona
checks are used exchange must be added
Only 1 and 2 cent stamps taken when chang
cannot be had.
To insure insertion, all advertisements fo
this paper must be received by 10 o'clock
Monday morning of each week.
Subscribers when writing to have the ad
dress of their paper changed MUST give th
old as well as the new address.
We now have an office in Jacksonville
Room 4, Robinson Block, Viaduct, where Mr
winterr will be pleased to see any of our sub
scribers. Any time we can be of service ii
Jacksonville, drop us a line to above address
WEDNESDAY, MAY 23, 1900.
Cultivation of Rice.
Since the acquisition of the Philip
pines and the demand for an open-dool
policy in China, the agricultural circles
of the United States have manifested
much interest in the commercial pos-
sibilities of the cultivation of rice.
The present statistics on this subject
are unsatisfactory, but interesting. The
world's consumption of rice is enor
mous. It constitutes the principal
foodstuffs of China and Japan, and one
of the principal cereal foods of India
Egypt, Siam and the Philippines,. and
the combined population of these coun-
tries Is more than half the total popula-
tion of the globe. Many authorities
assert that the consumption of rice is
greater than of any other cereal.
Here is a magnificent market and so
far as the United States is concerned
practically an unentered field. We now
produce about 70,000 tons annually and
consume twice that amount. Whether
we can profitably produce the whole
domestic supply necessary and force
an entrance In Eastern markets, de-
pends upon the possibility of employ-
ing machine methods and Western
methods of production to a degree suf-
ficient to offset the lower cost of la-
bor in the orient. Towards the end of
the last century this was done for cot-
ton cloth; the first quarter of the next
century may see it done for rice. It is
because there seems some possibility
of doing this that Interest in the sub-
ject is being aroused.
In the United States labor costs more
than in the east, but it is more pro-
ductive. The department of agriculture
estimates that the American laborer in
* Southwestern Louisiana or Texas can and various one so seemingly profitable,
farm about sexteen times as much rice that the farm boy is often discouraged
land a he laborer of Span or Ita, and disheartened by the way thin are
land as fhe laborer of Spain or Italy, going on the farm, with the result that
r twenty tTmes as much as the East In- his thoughts are drawn away from the
dian, and thirty times as much as the work to soar in mere nothingness and
Chinese. Farm labor thus costs less dwell in air castles of -what the future
for a given yield In America than in would be if he could only get away from
the farm. When the does this he is ab-
any other rice-growing country. sent-minded, forgetful, careless and trrt-
American labor is more productive table in all thing concerning his work.
to because it works with American ma- What is the trouble? He is disheartened
on the farm, 'Ut is all. But why? is
Schinery. Instead of a sickle, the farm- the question that ought to put his father
er frequently iuts the grain with a to thinking, as it often does. In the fiat
reaping machine; instead of flailing or place many boys do not stop to think
.. treading it out, he thrashes it with a what farming really is. They consider
steam thrasher; instead of pounding it it a routine of planUng and harvesting
and caring for crops and stock year after
in a mortar with a pestle, he hulls and year, and fall to find that any one is ben-
cleans it in a modern mill, where a few edited materially. On the contrary they
men and a few machines clean and pol- view with awe and admiration the fine
0 ish as much rice in a day as 5,000 men residences, moot people nd dty la e at
stylish rigs of city people and decide that
00 could do with the primitive tub and in a large city is the proper place to live
pounder still used in the east. In order to be somebody, when they at-
Rice is particularly susceptable to tatn their majority.
cultivation on a large scale. To raise As nearly all young persons give their
tongues fuil away as to their opnionjs
it successfully the farmer must have at and convictions, there is no reason what-
his command an adequate supply of ever why the parents, wih their experi-
water of uniform temperature and un- ence and knowledge of the world, s2auld
e der such control that it can be used not know just how to step in and inter-
fere at this crisis and begin to/work a
in the right quantities at the right complete reformation.
times. These conditions are best se- Many farmers argue that a boy's mind
cured by powerful pumping machinery is not well enough developed to grasp
and extensive irrigation works, and tile with the ooks and crooks of buines
methods, which Is of course true to some
result is systematized production on a extent. But the fact is the boy cannot
large scale. In such industries the improve unless he is thrown into actual
American people lead the world, contact with humanity where he will
S There are several other reasons for have to depend on his own judgment to
l. bring him through safely.
b. believing that we are to become an im- As a rule men do not alow their boys
e portant factor in the world's produc- to possess any stock that is really their
r tion of rice. Hitherto we have been own. They probably instruct them one
Cultivating a very expensive and unde- in awhile about the value of money as a
power of exchange, but unless the boy
Ssirable variety, but recently the de- own something that is constantly in-
partment of agriculture imported a creasing in value and can be turned ito s
large supply of Japan or Kiusiu rice, cash, he is disinterested and scarcely f
which yields about one-fourth more knows or oares what his father is talking
Super acre and loses about one-fourth
And then there is another fatal mis-
; less in milling than "Honduras" rice, take often made in the manner of inform-
the usual American variety, ing boys of what is to be done about the t
Moreover, it looke as if rice straw farm. A rough command is given where C
will become a valuable commercial a moderate request would answer ten
times better, for the boy would not only
product. The price of paper, particu- perform his work better, but his regard
larly the grade used by newspapers, for superior wisdom would be much more
has of late been steadily rising. To profound. Though they may not be able v
meet the immense demand for cheap to explain it youthful eyes are quick to f
r discern conceit and when a youngster n
paper, extensive experiments have once forms an opinion of anyone it is deep h
s Ieenl conducted with the object of in- rooted and will assert itself in action and t
venting a cheaper method of manufac- deed, if not in words. Therefore, a men 1
touring paper from rice straw. These could strive to ntereet his boy on the I
farm if he would commend rather than i
experiments are said to promise sue- command, guide instead of lead, observe
cess. If the report is trui, rice culture occasionally that only "practice makes t
in the near future will be yet more perfect," and that experience is the pro- t
profitable, mulgator of forethought. f
Again a boy tba't is strong enough phy-
All these facts point to a cheaper and sally to make a hand on the fnrm ps n
larger production in the South and in strong enough mentally to know some- a
other suitable regions. From 1879 to thing of the practical and scientific sides c
1889 the yield per acre in the United of farming as an occupation. And then c<
-Stas i d t x pr c: men themselves will set bad examples, 0
States increased twenty-s per cnt. and wonder and scold because their boys
In recent years a number of Northern do not behave about right. Some farm- I
farmers have undertaken the cultiva- ers have no regard for order or neatness, n
tion of rice with modern machinery but half tend their crop, allow their B
stock and tools to be nto confusion and b
in Louisiana, and their success has sth yad and oolo covered with rubo a
their yards and lots covered with rub- t(
stimulated the industry in Texas and bish. His boy likely Is ambitious in an h
elsewhere. Our natural advantages for opposite nature; no wonder then he wants p
riceraising are being utilized. But to leave the farm. Where affairs are in w
ny of lnd r ns q a W such condition, no profit comes in, the c
plenty of land remains quite as well man s not sufficiently interested and can v
adapted to the crop as that now so not expect his boy to be. a
used. Like any other business, farming must fo
The twelfth census will attempt to be pursued with a diligence and sea bi
collect relief s s g .backed up with clear thinking and good h,
collect reliable statistics conc ng judgment-qualities that will arrest an sP
acreage, quantity and value of product, ambitious boy's attention. A great ad- fr
cost of fertilizers and labor, value of vantage to a farmer rearing a family of ta
buildings and machinery, etc., for this boys is a reading table weyl stocked with 5e
rop in connection with i s agicut the very best literature on agricultural re
crop in connection with its gricultur- and public matters that the world at- a
al returns. fords. In this way a boy will come to n(
know the importance of agricultural pur- s5
suits and find out for himself what farm- It!
The Boy on the Farm. ing really is. He wil learn how the di
The following paper was composed money market in Wal street is influ- la
and read at the Farmers' Institute at enced by the American farmer. How the 1Q
Ankeny, Io., by a boy of 16 years. It markets of the world are affected by ve
Is along the lines upon which there has American farm produce. ce
been considerable discussion among our How dependent men of every profession be
correspondents, and is well worthy of are upon the farmer for their living and th
a place among them: the making and existence of their profes- t%
In the present day and age of the world sion. nf
legitimate occupations are so numerous. I-ow in fact farming ts 'the creation of gf
all other ooeupa'tions and, therefore, at
the top of the list, instead of the bottom
-an erroneous view held by many boys.
Every boy would 'be interested in under.
standing why an occupation requiring him
to remain close to-nature is in every way
preferable to one that is not. In the
-former there is always an opportunity
for advancement, while in the latter, as
a rule, there is not, like a cog in a wheel
-forever working but gaining nothing.
A boy cannot choose a vocation employ-
ing more laws of nature than farming.
Many who have 'been able to see this
point of vantage have made a shning
mark in the ww ld, and theirs has been
what we call a successful career. There-
fore, it is easy to observe how the farm
boy of the present time will control te
State and nation twenty-five years hence,
just as the farm boy of twenty-five year
ago controls it today. At first this seem
incredible, but if you look up the life of
the men at the 'head of the nation or the
millionaires of our land you will find they
were almost invariably brought up to
manhood on a farm with les education
than the average boy today. Thl to
proof enough. With these facts at hand
every intetectual, considerate, ambitious
farm boy ought to banish all ideas of de-
serting the farm until he and his parea
agree that Providence ordained that e
should do other work, If such b ease
It many farmers would devote their
time explaining and impressing these
facts upon the boys' minds, nstead- of
absenting themselves from home to at-
tend to and do certain things fmb which
they derive no benefit and .having no oa-
nection with their occupation, the rising
generation would indicate their willing-
ness to be of service instead of planning
to leave the old homestead, and the next
half century would find the United states
not only at the head of the list of nations
but a vast wide space between it and its
nearest competitor, and for such a high
portion the sole honor, glory and respon-
ibility would rest upon the head of the
'arm boy of today. Rosoo B. Howard.
Qnegn ruling and IUltHnizing
Writing of the rearing of queens, and
he gradual Italianizing of ordinary
colonles, Mr. F. M. Creighton, in the
Southern Cultivator, says:
No matter if we keep only a few hlves
f bees we should know how to raise our
own queens. It is a duty we owe our
amilles not to spend our hard-earned
money for things we can produce at
mone during idle hours. In the last ar-
icle I recommended the purchase of at
east two tested Italian queens. Now If
intended to raise one hundred queens
n one season, I would not care for more.
'o place us in best position to begin,
these queens should have been litroducd
he previous season. In early spring, be-
ore fruit bloom, go over your bee yard
nd select as many as three combs as
ear by old drone cells as possible, take
like number from one of your Italian
olonles, and Insert these drone combs in
enter of brood nest; now see that this
olony has plenty of stores. The frames
iken out abould not have contained any
rood, so this drone rearing hive should
ot be weakened by moving these frames.
y all means keep quantities of honey
y this hive of bees. I often at dusk go
this hive, raise front end an inch
Igher tlan rear end and pour balf a
Int warm honey diluted with water. It
Ml be licked up before morning, when it
in be readjusted. By this plan we get
ery early drones of good blood. As soon
I drones begin to batch we are ready
r queen rearing. 'Now go to strong
lack colony, look up their queen and kill
sr. If you have other hives that can
pare them take frames of sealed brood
on them, enough to fill this hive full,
king away as much as possible all un-
aled brood from hive intended for queen
aring. Now feed this hive as mudh as
pint of warm honey a day. If honey is
ot on hand make a syrup of granulated
gar by pouring boiling water on twice
s weight in sugar, stirring until it is
ssolved; don't boll. In eight days all
rva in this hive will be too old to rear
leens, so at this time go through hive
iry carefully, cutting out every queen
4. To do this you had best shake all
es off comb until more experienced in
Business. Two days previous to out-
Sout queen cells a comb containing
ither eggs nor larva should have bern
sen our other Italian queen I oeenter of
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST. a,
brood net, so this comb next day after
queen cells ar cut out wil be filled with
eggs. By so doing bees won't rear queens
from larva too old, and won't have any
larva to feed except those intended for
queens and a few worker larva in this
oaomb Now navt mornmun after cells are
cut out take tis oarb from our reed-
Ing queen and place In center of this pre-
pared hive. As queens ot out of ceh at
sixteen day from time egg to laid, and
some or most egg In tisb oomb were lid
three days when we ierted it In tMs
hive. they mu be looked after the day
before we expect them to batch, or
twelve days from time frame waa in-
serted in prepared hive. So on eleventh
day look n and see how many queen
cells we have. UsuaUy at least ten will
be found, sometimes more; but we will
suppose ten are found. If so, ine more
Mhve will be needed for our increase,
and should ti day be pit in position
To jt a Istiff Er !; ssa, sea ans
supplied with a divigin board. Tis i a
board five-eighths of an lahn thick naled
on under sie of top for fram, and out
Just ame ss of frame acts as a dumny
In any htve not filled th frames, to
contract the ime of hive. Now between
the hours of ten a m. and two p. on.
next or twelfth day, go to work with
sharp narrow-b ed knife, cut all queen
0ells but one coatined in this frame. Be
carefl not to cut close to base of ells.
Cat out several worker ceMs with queen
cells. You are safer not to cut olosr
than an Inch of queen cell. Place them
In a smab box or some other resoepticle
containing some warm cloths i weather
is soal, aI budsIe sha l ra y s arfully.
Now Wt out mne frame, an wita
of thumb re a considerable dent in
side of comb where there i no brood
but near center of comb; take one queen
cell and very tenderly press into dent
made for it, pressing the edgs of worker
comb cut wlth queen cell, but on no ac-
count press hard on bas of queen cell-
ft will adhere enouh to hold in position
until bees glue ft fest. Now set this
frme in hive Intended for it. place be-
side It a frame at hoe y, draw up the
division board to suit this small colony.
go on with other cele and frames until
all nin are cut ad grafted n frames,
and hung in their respective hives, whth
combs of honey by each comb of brood
an queen cel. The last comb, being the
ne used in marii cells, has tenth ce
on it uncut.. Leave itle frame In this
hive, giving trame of honey and frame
of comb foundation, for we have more
bees in this hive than on any others. We
want now A many drone traps as we
have black colonies of bees. Place in
front esah bdiv eaatining rblak bees a
trap, so aBO butt ou 4Itto c Itaula
drones can fly out. 'Whle our queens are
mating, atey should be placed on the
third day after new hives were made and
kept o tfor ten a. Before ttM time
all queens will be mated. Look after
these little colonies, keep them in plenty
of honey, and give frame of foundation
as often as needed These will soon be
good colonies. If we with to Itlianise
the colonies of black bees, as.soon as
queens begin to lay, do so, and give
nueole another Mil to rar fr for ftelf a
queen. Introedtlon of queens will be
Estimated 'Tirida Crop for 1900-91.
Mr. W. R.Fuller, of Phillips & Fuller,
Tampa, I t., who is well known as an
authority on the Florida orange crops,
sends to the Fruit Trade Journlal an esti-
mate of t0 dsop top 1o0.-1, whic Is ex.
ceedingly valuable us web as Interesting.
In round numbers Mr. Fuller places the
the coming crop of 1,000,000 divided
according to counties as follows: Desoto,
250.000; Manatee, 200,000; HIllborouah,
300,000; Polk, 150,000; Lee, 75,000; Or(aae,
25,000; Lake, 15,000; Osceola, 15,000; sct.-
tering, 70,000. He says that more than
tnne-teoths of this will be from Southern
The largest Florida orange crop before
the freeze was 6,000,00 boxes. In com-
menting upon Mr. Fuller's estimate, a
Taimpa newspaper says:
"The most gratifying condition is amply
substantiated by the present status of the
groves, the healthy movement of Invested
0spital iwrord the Sa9Wi PFIlSift *SMaR&
groves are being taken It hand by pro-
gressive growers, and the many more
acres of new groves which have been set
out In the past few yesas, and which
will be bearing next season. Among these
latter are those of the Manatee Lemon
Company, 360 acres, and the Atwood
Grapefruit Company. M0 acres." FOR PROFIT AND PLEASURE
TO THE DEAF.
A rich lady, cured of her detfness and
noises in the head by Dr. Nicholson's
Artinftlal Bar Brmsna: nYas 9s112o 1s *bh!g
Institute, so that deO& people unable to
procure the Ear Drums may have them
free Address 1226c. The Nicholson In-
stitute, 780 Eighth Avenue, New York.
RATES-Twenty words, name and address
one week, 26 cents; three weeks 5 cents.
LAND TO RENT-In South Fla. for what it
will produce over $100 pr. Acre. Party
must have some money. I. M. DaPEUR
rapB DAh-= few thasanda acrnsJ rarea
Brown grange, Marsh -Sedls and Wal-
ters Grape Fruit Bye Buds. 15 per thou-
sand. B. L. CARNY, Lake Weir. Fla. 2
FOR SALE-Selected seed velvet beans at $1
per single bushel. Reduction on larger
amounts on cars at Candler. W. H. De-
LONG, Candler, Fla.
JAMAICA SORREL plants, by mail postpaid
for 25c per dozen. Good sized plants ready
now. S. PRESTON, Auburndale. Flor-
500 YOUNG FOWLS from which to make
your choice. White and Brown leghor s,
Barred and White P. Rocks, and a few Ruff
of both varieties. Wire netting, ani-meal to
make hens lay, and Mica Crystal grit. Cata-
logue and rice list free.
t. W. AWmrdn, Ooand, Za-
VILLA LAKE NUBREEIES.
Fruitland Park, Lake Co., Fla.
Offers for July planting 1 varieties of 2 and
3 year citrus buds. For good stock and low
prices, address, C. W. FOX, Prop.
FOR SALE-Nursery of eight thousand
Grapefruit Trees 4,00 buded. Box 271,
Orlando, Fla.. dtf
FOR SALE-A few trios of Buff Plymouth
Rocks; also eggs from two yards, not re-
ated. Mrs. F. HASKINS, Mannville, Fla.
WE HAVE complete list Amnerican
Manufacturers. Can buy for you at low-
est prices and ship you direct from each.
Machinery, machines of all kinds, en-
gines, boilers, incubators, windmills, or
anything wanted. Correspondence solic-
American Trades Agency,
Jacksonville, Fla. 6tf
OUR VELVET BEAN HULLER is in
Arrangements are perfected for long
your work promptly; our capacity be-
ing twenty bushels an hour. Get your
beans in early and we will store them
Isr wu frog Vi st-rgO. Our cghargO for
hulling is but 16c. a bushel for the beans
after they are hulled, 00 pounds to the
bushel.-E. O. PAINTER & CO., DE-
LAND, FLA. St.
THE SID B. SLIGH CO.. Wholesalers of
Fruit and Produce; Commission Merchants.
138 East Bay Street, Jacksonville, Fla.
FOR SALE-o100 cash. Eight acres of
high pine land near DeLand Junction; 5
acres cleared, three acres of which are
in grove, the balance of the trat is in
timber. Small house and a well on the
pla"e. Addrhes, T I. MH., Oar& A0rlU5-
turist, DeLand, Fla. Sty
THE U. S. LIVI STOCK REMEDY has prov
ed most efficient in preventing and curing
Hog and Chicken Cholera and kindred dis-
eases. It is also a fine condition powder.
alts are increasing. If your dealer don't
keep If we will mail it to you on receipt of
price 25c pr % Ib, Liberal discount to deal-
er ISAAC MORGAN, Agent, Kissimime,
YOU KEEP B"FS?
No matter-my 64-page Bee Book
Tells MICow- .
Itwill interest and please you. I know it
will. It's free. Write today-the honey sea-
son's coming. J. M. Jeui Wetusmpta,
"Certificate Am. Int. Fair."
Fruit Trees, Seeds and Fancy Poultry.
HIGHEST QUALITY. LOWEST PBRICM.
Freight Prepaid on Trees and Seed,
Satsuma Orange on Trifoliata Stock
All the Standard Varieties of Orange, Lemon ; I Grape Fruits la
stock. Also a complete assortment of the beet varieties of Peaches, Plums,
Japan Persimmons. Pears. Apples, Mulberries. Figs, Pecans, Grape, Or-
nameintil ti:cS, RG M, etc., et., &aaipted for SStifBBi plaBUtlg.
The most extensive propagting establishment in the Lower South.
Largest and most complete catalogue published in the South, listing a
complete line of nursery stock, Seed and Fancy Poultry, free upon applica-
THE GRIFFIN BROS. CO., ""M AiT
OCty Offce and Grounds, 110 Main St.
Farmers' Attention I
Avery Garden Plows, Acme Harrows
and everything In Grove and Farm Implements and Supplies
Poultry Netting M1 LA"'. Columbia Bicycles
CHARTER OAK STOVES,
CAMRRAA PAINT, IROn PIPE. BOILBiH AID PURPB
WHITE FOR PRICES.
OEO. H. FERNALD, Sanford, Florida.
OCEAN STEAMSHIP CO.
PART RAIL, PART SEA.
FAST FREIGHT AND LUXURIOUS PASSENGER ROUTE.
FLORIDA TO NEW YORK,
BOSTON ANDI" EAST.
SHORT RAIL RIDE TO SAVANNAH, GEOROIA.
Thence via Ship, sailings from Savannah, Pour Ships each week to New York and Two
to Boston. All ticket agents and hotels arc supplied with monthly soiling schedalce. Write
for general information. aing schedules, stateroom reservations, or call on
E. H. HINTON, Traie Mgr., WALTERB IAWKIN, Gas. Aht.,
Savannah, Ga. 224 W. Bay St., Jacksonville, Fla
SPECIAL UNTIL JULY 1, 1900.
To reduce our enormous stock of pot-grown plants, consisting of
Ing s about half-a-million Tropical and Semi-Tropisal Fruit trees, Bcono-
S mical, Medicinal, and Useful Plants and tsees, Bamboos, Conifrs,
Palms and Cycads, Perns, Miscellaneous ornamental vines, creepers,
Shrubs, and flowering plants, we will untll JULY FIRST oer any
and maR at a gnasl agnt 7 go 1- p sm a g m J9w 5st pl* f
S when order amounts to $1.00 and over, byeXpres or frright;if plants
are wanted by mail, a discount of 20 per cent only wil be allowed.
We have a large stock of such plants a guavas, mangoes sapodilas,
star-apples, cherimovas, loquats, camphor, etc etc., all healthy and
Sfree from insects. On Citrus stock we can only allow usual discount
bs5,os'0 of 20 per cent., when order amounts to $5.00 or over. Send for ee-
gant eataloue, most complete published in the South (free) and get
some bargas RBAS ONBR BROB., Oneco, Florida.
814 THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
HOVUB OLD DEPABTXENT. nious blending with the color of your
Address all communications to the
Household Department, Agriculturist,
Important Acceemorie of Dress.
The woman who dresses with art
and intelligence never fails to give the
greatest attention to the details of her
toilet, says an exchange. Indeed, it
is by these little touches in the fitting
accessories and adjuncts to her ward-
robe that a woman expresses her own
nature and "all sweet art" that is in
Any woman, no matter what she is,
provided her pocketbook is well fed
and lusty, can secure a flawless gown
from an accomplished wutrlwr, and
her milliner may guide her in the se-
lection that will not startle or alarm
refined taste. But In the minuter mat-
ter of dress-"the little great, the infi-
nite small things"--whlch' she pur-
chases for herself and upon which her
taste has full and unhampered play,
she tells the story of her environment,
culture ana cUarater. How often, too,
these accessories are mere labels of
vulgarity as decipherable to the keen
eye as the beggar's sign, "I am blind,"
but with no appeal to our pity for their
The mere ornaments a woman wears,
such as bangles, buckles, scarfpins and
decorations for the hair, are the first
things to betray her, and loudly pro-
claim her class and tendencies. Then
come the useful accessories, such as
parasols, hosiery, neckwear, gloves,
girdles. shoes and handkerchiefs. These
every woman must have, and these she
selects for herself.
For the woman with bad and ag-
gressive tastes there is no hope. No
advice or hint can reach her. Her
gploudid sglf polio in aflic :ug the sen.
sitive public by wearing colors that are
at strife with one another, and gew-
gaws that are Incongruous and out of
plaeo, snows the courage of her convict
tons. She sees wrong, but she sees
distinctly. Her Ideas of beauty, though
upside down, are strong, and she can-
not be swerved la her intrepid expres-
sion of them. From her we must suf-
fer in tolerant silence, just as we pati-
ently hear a harangue from a half-mad
fanatic without hoping to change his
There are many women;, however,
who, far from having bad or aggres-
sive taste, offend from carelessness
and a certain unconsciousness and in-
difference to the fitness of things. For
them a few gentle hints and pointers
may prove helpful.
In the first place. I should like to
Impress upon every woman that not
style but good taste is the first principle
of dress. The desire to be smart and
up-to-date should never be so strong as
to supercede the love of artistic ele-
gance and refinement of appearance,
withoUt which smartness becomes loud.
ness and style extravagance.
Just now, in the present craze for
fanciful and ornate dressing, when the
shops blossom daily with fresh novel-
ties, and bizarre whims in decora-
tions,, one is easily led into making
shocking mistakes and without the
guidance of a sure sense of art it is
well to be chary of too wide an ex-
penditure in these beguiling trif8ts.
In buying neckwear and fancy col-
lars, for Instance it is wisest to avoid
indulging in color whenever there is
the smallest uncertainty of a harmo-
gown. Cream and white are never out
of place, and though not so smart and
gay looking on the counter or in the
shop windows, as some of the ties with
bright borders and Persian colorings,
they give a certain thoroughness to the
general appearance, and are more ef-
fective when worn than any of the
more daring modes.
Potato Puffs.-Have about three-
quarters of a pint of mashed potatoes,
stir in two tablespoonfuls of butter, a
gill of milk and two beaten eggs. Beat
the whole mixture till very light, sea-
son it with chopped parsley, pepper and
salt, with a tiny pinch of mace, pour
into small buttered cups and bake in a
very quick oven. Serve at once.
Johnnycake.-A johnnycake so cheap
that even the impecunious housekeep-
er can afford it, and so delicious that
the critical wayfaring man wil not
turn up his nose at it, is made as fol-
lows: Stir together one tablespoonful
each of drippings (chicken oil prefer-
red) and sugar. Add one beaten egg,
a saltapoon of malt, and one cunful of
sour milk, into which one-half tea-
spoonful of soda has been beaten until
it stops "purring." Lastly add corn-
meal and flour in the proportion of two-
thirds meal and one-third flour, taking
care that it is not too stiff. It should
be thin enough when poured In the pan
to flatten out easily. Bake in a hot
Norwegian Bread.-Norwegian bread
recommended for dyspeptics is made
after this recipe: One pint barley
meal, one-half pint graham flour, one-
half pint flur, one teaspoonful salt,
two teaspoonfuls baking powder, one
pint milk. Sift together barley meal,
graham flour, flour, salt, and powder;
mix into firm batter with the milk;
pour into the greased tin; bake in mod-
erate oven forty minutes. Cover with
paper twenty-five minutes.
Blackberry Mange.-Put a quart of
blackberries on to heat: take from the
fre as soon as the juice runs freely and
pass through a wire sieve to extract all
seeds, sweeten to taste and return to
fire. When it boils, stir into it corn-
starch, dissolved in water, and boil un-
til quite thick. Pour into bowl and set
aside to cool. Serve with cream. The
quantity of cornstarch will determine
whether it shall be soft enough to dip
with& a aSs of Ra f as ig gn to out
How to Reheat Food.-Many dishes
which, with a little care, would be as
good the second day as when freshly
cooked are spoiled by being put into
the oven, regardless of its temperature,
and left to get hot. A meat pie which
fsl nson wout will not OFy up if rehisat-
ed thus: Add a small quantity of
brown stock to the meat, wrap the pie
in buttered paper and put it into a
moderately hot oven until it is ready
to serve. Wipe the dish and place a
pig dil n eolle pound It bfronr sending
it to table. A plain milk pudding
should have a little boiling milk in
which a small lump of butter has been
dissolved added to the rice, etc.; a piece
of buttered paper should be tied over
the top and the dish containing it
should be placed in the oven in a tin
of hot water.
Minces, bashes, stews or a fricassee
eheuld be heated by placing the sauce-
pan containing the meat in a larger
pan and surrounding it with hot wa-
ter; a piece of greased paper should be
put over the meat, but the lid of the
large saucepan only should be used. To
reheat a leg of roast mutton without
cutting it up brush the meat all over
with warm dripping, including the part
which has been cut, then fill in the
space with boiled rice which has been
passed through a potato masher or
some rather moist mashed potato, en-
velop the meat in greased paper and
set the tin containing the mutton
across a larger tin of bolling water in
a moderately hot oven and let it heat
gradually and thoroughly.-T.-U. & C.
for the 'Hosekeeper's Scrapbook.
If you heat your knife slightly you
can cut hot bread or cakes as smoothly
as if it were cold.
Soda is an excellent article for clean-
ing tinware. Apply with a damp cloth
and rub dry.
Neuralgia may very often be speed-
ily relieved by applying a cloth sat-
urated with essence of peppermint to
the seat of pain.
Pails and tubs may be kept from
warping by painting them with glycer-
To clean linoleum without washing,
romoro all ttio dust, then take a bit of
flannel sprinkled with paraffine and rub
the linoleum. It will not only make it
appear like new but will preserve it.
A too rapid boiling ruins the flavor
of any sauce. It must boil up once,
but should never do more than simmer
Don't think water should be added
to spinach to cook it. It is a mistake.
Don't fail to add a drop or two of
vanilla flavoring to a pot of chocolate.
It is a great improvement.
,Don't close the oven door with a
bang when the cake is baking. A jar
has spoiled many a fine loaf.
Don't wonder that corned beef is
tough if put in hot water first, nor that
it is too salt if the water is not changed
at least three times while boiling.-Ex.
In Writing Letters.
A woman should keep in mind the
Business letters must be concise and
clear, because business people are sup-
posed to be busy.
No letter is complete without the
In writing to solicit employment of
any kind on no account should per-
sonal perplexities or needs be men-
tioned. The world is full of unfortu-
nate Veroono, ida ta a StfiigeP 18
troubles of one are no more than those
of a host of others.
Letters of introduction are left open
Elaborately ornamented note paper,
as well as highly perfumed notes, are
WAS= as*isng Igf4FM #somomosn -
That written words stand as ever-
That an ambiguous sentence is likely
to be misinterpreted.
That friendly words never harm.
That a WiltteB Wtrg V_ sympathy can
sometimes do much good.
That a letter written in a kindly
spirit should be answered in the same
way, even though the message is dis-
That business letters and invitations
must be answered at once.
That one should acknowledge any
friendly offer of hospitality, even
though it be not by acceDtance.-Ex.
Feed and Oare of Chickens.
There appears to be almost as many
modes for feeding young chickens as
there are poultry breeders, says a
writer in Southern Cultivator. Some
use plain raw meal dough from the
first day they are hatched until grown
-others millet seed. The majority of
those we have read about, recommend
stale bread soaked in milk as a L;rst
feed. We notice that Mr. Geer in the
Cultivator recommends equal parts
corn meal and fine ground bran mixed
with a raw egg as good feed, We have
never tried this; having such good suc-
cess in our own way of feeding and as
our chicks are too valuable to experi-
ment with, we have never cared to try
some other mode of feeding, though
we hope to some day have a chance to
experiment with a number of different
foods with a view of finding out the
most simple and cheapest as well as
most successful way of feeding and
As a first feed we now use baked
break soaked in milk. We make this
bread of two parts corn meal, one part
shorts, one part oat meal, a little salt
and soda mixed to a stiff dough, using
cold water for mixing; bake till thor-
If we have any infertile eggs on
hand, we use two or three of these in
the broad. When oool this broad sl
ready to soak in milk and feed. We
use the bread until the chicks are two
weeks old, when we gradually wean
them off to a feed of bran one part,
Ehort one part, meal, two parts, scald-
ed and fed cold.
After the chicks are two days old we
begin feeding a little grits. cut oatmeal
and millet seed In addition to the
bread, after two weeks old, cracked
corn, wheat and millet, or sorghum
seed in addition to the scalded food.
Meat in any form is good, if not fed
Sweet milk is the best drink for the
first two weeks and after that a plenti-
ful oUsply of pure clean water, using
milk in any form if wb have it to
We keep our brood hens cooped the
first week. After this allow them to
range at will with the chicks if prac-
tical. The more exercise the chicks se-
cure, after strong enough to follow the
ben, the better for them.
It is best to keep and feed the dif-
ferent size chicks separately. When
there are several sizes of chickens in
the same Yard. it Is beat to have threw
separate pens for feeding the chicks.
Make one out of one and one-half inch
mesh wire netting another of two inch
netting and the third of three inch net-
ting. Have these pens in different
parts of the yard. Feed the smallest
size chicks in the first yard, next in the
second size, and the largest chicks last.
When all the chicks are four weeks
old, this separate feeding is not neces-
sary, as they all feed alike of the same
roda. Rome or our haost aooda ar
raised in the garden and orchard,
keeping the hen cooped up all the
time but the coop should be moved to
new ground once a week. It is won-
derful what an Immense amount of
good a young brood of chicks will do
among a 2atch of Ieans, -cabbage or
other plants, destroying the many in-
sects that infest these crops. Where
the coops or mmustina timely hiarU w ml
en floors, they should be cleaned and
fresh earth put In at least once a week.
A handful of insect powder or tobacco
dust should also be thrown in to kill
and drive off lice that might infest the
chickens. The covers of the box should
be Dainted with kerosene twice a
month to Keep away mite.
Market chicks should be disposed of
as fast as they become ten and twelve
weeks old as this is the age at which
they can be disposed of to the best ad-
vantage, and the most profit realized,
except during March and first of April
when a six weeks old chick often sells
for as much or more than a ten or
tWelve weeks old chick does a few
weeks later. It does not pay to keep
them after they are twelve weeks old
as the idea Is too sell them at this age
or before i.L.p go6d pritae C i be had.
The restaurants have been charging
consumers 75 cents for a "spring try."'
They now bring 50 cents on the table
anfl 25 to 35 cents on the market.
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST. all
Address all communications to Poul-
tif Department, Box 200, D6Land, PIa.
Chickens require nothing at all un-
til they get hungry and that usually
does not occur for a day or two; when
it Goes, they are pretty sure to say
something about it. A6ove all things,
do not pay any attention to that an-
tique rubbish, hard boiled eggs; how it
came to be originated no one can even
find out, probably because the chicken
Is built around the yolk of the egg
and draws Its nourishment therefrom,
until it is all consumed, but who ever
supposed it was hard boiled, and even
if it was, the chicken has had enough
or it and needs a change. I think It
makes very little difference what you
give it as long as it Is wholesome. I
feed bread and milk the first day or
two, sometimes crumbs of bread dry-
baker's bread-the home-made article
does not mix with the milk so well, al.
though it is all right if anyone cares
to bother with it; but the fact is bak-
er's bread is not really good for much
else, and ought to have some redeem-
A very useful thing to have is a mill
in which to crack corn for chickens.
In this way the food is always fresh;
some corn Is Just about as good as ar-
senic. The bill of fare for chickens
may be cracked corn three times a day,
from the time they can eat it until
they mature, only this and nothing
more-freedom to get gravel, grass,
bugs, and water alone excepted.-N. D.
Forbes, in Poultry Life.
How to Set a Hen.
Doubtless some of the readers of this
article will think that we are not up-
to-date to talk about setting a hen,
when there are so many good incuba-
tors now, says Lizzie Southwell, in
American Poultry Advocate. As yet
we are old-fashioned enough to like
the old setting hen; then we do not
think it just right to'deprive the poor
little chicks of a mother, so ive will
tell you how to set a hen. Thuei art
two ways to set a hen-a wrong way
and a right way. First, we will tell
the wrong way. Some morning you
will discover that one of your hens
wants to set, and you will set her just
where she is. Most likely it is right in
the laying nest in the poultry house.
It has not been cleaned out since last
fall, If it was then, but no matter, she
is set there, in dirt, filth, lice and a'l.
The laying hens will bother her, try to
drive her off the nest and she will
walttz around on the eggs. In the fra-
cus from one to three eggs are broken
and at last she will succeed in shar-
ing the nest with the setting hen. In
your hurry to set that hen you neglect-
ed to mark the eggs, consequently you
are unable to tel the fresh eggs fro'n
the others. A thoroughbred hen would
not set in such a place.
The right way is when you fl a
hen becoming broody, to stroke her
kindly, talk to her and let her get ac
customer to being handled. Do not
frighten her so she will forget she ever
wanted td raise a family. Now she
stays on her nest thirty-six hours; go
to her the last thing before dark and
see that she In on the neat. When nha
really means business fix a place and
be sure it is away from the laying
hens. Take a box large enough for
her to turn round in, put in an Invert-
ed sod or shovelful of earth, free from
stones, twigs or anything that is not
dirt and make it a little shallow in the
9wat8 V t6S VES WHi a4t "11 "tf,
Put in a little straw and two or three
eggs and the last thing before dark
take the hen carefully and put her on
the nest; cover with a board and leave
her. It she is quiet and the eggs are
warm all the next day it is safe to
trust her with a setting of eggs. Keep
her free from lien by emrinelan her
twice a week with insect powder.
Feed and water every day; the morn-
ing is the best time. Be sure to sprin-
kle the eggs every five or six days with
luke warm water; the last week ev-
ery other day.
It is quite a little work to set hens
this way, but if you do your share, I
will guarantee the hatch and the ba-
bies will have a mother to take care of
The spring ribbons are soft in tex-
ture and in a taffeta weave. Many are
corded and hemstitched and fancy rib
bons in general were never more in fa-
vor. The favorite tints are baby blue,
strawberry, cream and pastel green.
In hat trimmings several colors are
used In rosette bows. Rosettes are
popular, also, as decorative adjuncts to
the toilet. They are worn on the left
side or front of the soft belt. Sashes,
too, are in vogue. They should be tied
at the left in front and should be about
ten inches wide. Many are fringed.
Fringed ribbons are worn on the neck,
and should cross at the back with ends
brought to the front, tied in a bow and
left to fall nearly to the waist line.
Trimmed sailor hats are among the
spring exhibits. Fancy straws are used
largely and the decoration, as a rule, is
composed of weather proof materials,
such as tucked taffeta, ribbons and
quills. Wings are returning to favor,
and by summer will be worn extensive-
ly. Certainly, nothing is better fitted
to withstand the caprice of April and
June weather, the fogs on the eqashor
and the dashing spray on board a
This is to be a season of flowers.
Some charming hats recently shown
have the entire crown composed of
flowers, such as forget-me-nots, small
wild roses or the larger crushed rose.
liolets, too, will Im worn In this way.
and o comparatively new blossom for
such profuse use is the snowball. Pan-
sies, poppies and orchids are popular
to a degree greater than ever before.-
OUR GREATEST SPECIALIST.
For 20 years Dr. J. Newton Hath-
away has so successfully treated
chronic diseases that he Is acknowled-
ed to-day to stand at the head of his
profession in this line. His exclusive
method of treatment for Varicocele
and stricture, without the aid of knife
or cautery, cures In 90 per cent. of all
cases. In the treatment of loss of
Vital forces, Nervous Disorders, Kid-
ney and Urinary Complaints, Paraly-
sis, Blood Poisoning, Rheumatism, Ca
tarrh and Diseases peculiar to women.
he is equally successful. Dr. Hath
away's practice is more than double
that of any other specialist. Cases
pronounced nopeiesm by other physt.
clans, readily yield to his treatnme,
Write him to-day fully about your
case. He makes no charge for consul-
tation or advice, either at his office or
by mail. J. Newton Hathaway, M. D.
25 Bryan Street, Savannah, Ga.
Sharpies Cream Separators-Profit-
If you wish paytea results advertise In
SEED! SEED! ..
Please note that I have transferred my seed business from Gaines-
ville to Jacksonville, Fla. I can now offer special inducements to pur-
chasers of Seed Oats, Seed Potatoes, Velvet Beans, etc.
ROCKY FORD CANTALOUPE SEED
READY FOR DELIVERY.
Address all orders and inquiries to
P. F. WIL N, Jacksonville, Florida.
MALLORY- STEAMSHIP LINE.
Florida To mahe cloe connect
tilorida eors with steamers leave
New York Jacksonville (Union de
rot) Thursdays :20 a. m.
Phi.la= (F. C. & P. Ry.) or Fernan
dinae I: Op. m., via UbIn
berland steamer; meal,
n route, or "all rail" vi
Bosto r Plant System at 7:41 p. m.
ar. Brunswick 11:30 p. m.
,grom Brunswick direct to C ng dietly aboard team
New York. er.
BOPOSKRD SAILINGS for l h. 1900,
NORTH BOUND-BRUNSWICK, GA., DIRECT TO NEW YORK. LEAVING EVERY
FRIDAY AS FOLLOWS:
S. S. RIO GRANDE ........................... ... Friday, March 9.
S. S. COLORADO. .............. ................... ..Friday, March 10.
RIO GRANDE............. ............ .. ......Friday, March 23.
S. S. COLORADO .................................. .Friday, March 30.
SOUTHBOUND-NEW YORK TO BRUNSWICK, STEAMERS LEAVE PIER h
R., EVERY FRIDAY, 3:00 P. M.
For general information, steamers, trains, rates, etc., apply to
BASIL GILL, A Ilay Street, Jacksonville, Fla.
H. H. Raymond, General Southern Agent, Brunsaick, Ga.,
C. H. Mallory & Co., encral Agents, Pier 20E. R. and 385 Broadway, N. Y.
IIIU I J 11 J1
DON'T BE DISOUIAAED
Page 12 Wire 58-inch Fence will hold your stock.
PAGE WOVEN WIRE FENCRCO., ADRIAN, RICH.
Western Poultry Farm,
4 months on trial 10c. One yr. 25c.
It tells how to make poultry raising
profitable. It Is up to date. 24 pages.
Send to day. We sell best liquid lice ukll-
er for 75 cts per gallon. Aluminum leg
bands for poultry, 1 dos., 20 ots; for 30
cts; 50 for 50 cts; 100 for SL.
mat Cough Syrup Tastes Good. me
In time. Bold by d Rias
trow pying crops because they're
e anI always Ls ia For
sale everywhere. Refuse substitute.
Stick to yerye s Seeds and prosper.
1000 Seed Annual free. Write for it.
D. .I FERRY CO., Detre, 1c1.
Trck. Ma coat. Craft
Platform Con.um Soak.
109es. Ckmrk. 5t.
318 THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
THEIR FIRST NIGHT IN
It is difficult to imagine what possi-
ble use any one living in a sod house
on a Kansas prairie could have for a
patent fire-extinguisher; but none the
less an adroit agent persuaded my
aunt, Honor Sloan, to buy one and pay
e'ght dollars for it.
"The one and only thing you have to
fear on your claim here," said he, "is
a prairie fire in grasshopper time; but
with this extinguisher in your house,
all you have to do is to stand in your
doorway and turn the nozzle on any
conflagration that may' spring up. No
fire can come within a hundred feet of
And Honor took it. The agent sold
her three pounds of soda and a quart
of sulphuric acid, enough to charge It
fully three times.
My aunt was a woman six feet tall,
n-uscular and commanding; she had a
hoarse voice, green gray eyes, and a
rose that might frighten anybody--and
did frighten most agents for patent
things. We all of us had reason to be
tLankful that the agent for the fire-ex.
tinguisher had been made of sterner
stuff than most of his predecessors.
In addition to her indomitable and
aggressive physical ch&-mi6tflrffl Wy
aunt had an undaunted will; and after
the fourth successive drought and the
plagues of grasshoppers and hot winds
and winters of blizzards, she decided
that It would be enterprising to move.
She was quite cheerful and undismay-
ed in spirit. The neighboring farmers
were disheartened. We often saw them
standing in their doorways looking out
over the blighted prairie, or sitting on
tl etvpa, waUMlmg Utlomealy-ir they
happened to have sticks to whittle;
there wasn't much lumber in our neigh-
They all talked of moving away, but
rone of them with any real belief that
they were going to better themselves.
No doubt that was because In the last
three years there had been such
changes in their households. There
weren't many families that hadn't lost
members by death; women had suc-
cumbed under the strain of those ter-
rible winters and cruel summers, and
it wasn't a good country in which to
bring up babies. People are always re-
luctant to abandon their homes; it's
harder atill when they have to abandon
newly made graves, too. So it was no
wonder that so many of our neighbors
felt depressed; and I suppose it was
because we had escaped the sadness
that had come into the lives of most
of them, and because we had all man-
aged to maintain rugged health
through everything, that Auit Honor,
in the face of a dark future, was
strong and hopeful.
At any rate she decided to start for
Oklahoma. Yet when we left the little
sod house that had been home to us
for so many years, my aunt made no
attempt to disguise the tears that ran
down her cheeks.
The patent fire-extinguisher and the
400 feet of barbed-wire fence that had
been around our truck-patch were
among the heaviest parts of our outfit,
but my aunt would take them.
"I put good money into that fire-ex-
tinguisher," said she, "and one never
knows what may happen."
We had a span of the best, longest-
legged loping mules in the whole Ar-
kansas bottoms, and my younger
brother Miles-Miles and I went to live
with Aunt Honor after our parents
died-had taught those mules to lope
bL the hour. They traveled as easily
as a pair of jack-rabbits.
Everybody had hearil of the Okla-
homa "boomers" and Soonerss," and of
the tremendous race to get to the site
cf Guthrie to pre-empt lots, after the
"opening gun" was fired. The United
States troops, it will be remembered,
drove the sooners all back to the boun-
dary line. Nobobdy could start until
the signal cannon was fired, and a
great many unfair advantages were
taken even then.
A wild race followed. Heavy loads
vere a terrible handicap that day. The
light outfits got the choice locations.
To hold a lot in Guthrie, one was ob-
liged to put up some sort of building on
It immediately, else it would be
"jumped" in the night. Aunt Honor
had, in the bottom of our wagon, her
six pre-emption stakes and 300 feet of
inch boards, each board sawed eight
feet long, and a roll of tarred paper.
But when she saw how things were
going-when the boomers lined up,
waiting for the starting gun,-she
threw all of the timber out on the
ground except four boards, and she al-
so threw out a bushel of beans, the
barbed wire, two sacks of flour and a
b&g of corn. A more resolute boomer
than my aunt never crossed the "strip."
The whole line cheered her when they
saw the beans and lumber and wire go
Cverboard. several gatnerea round to
pick up the boards.
"You're welcome," was all my aunt
eald to them. But she would not throw
out that fire-extinguisher.
At daybreak that memorial morning
moAprll Sil. iMa-Milec won on the
front seat, holding the reins. Aunt
Honor and I sat on the roll of bed-
ding behind. At last we got the signal
and the -run began.
What yells went up! Whips cracked.
and 500 wagons raced across the
prairie. From where we had camped,
cn the north boundary the distance to
the site of Guthrie was about 14 miles.
"Easy at the start," Aunt Honor kept
saying to my brother. "Keep an eye to
holes. Don't break a tug. Steady lop-
ing does it, Miles. Steady, steady,
tuat's the way."
And ,steady loping did it. Only the
men on horseback passed us. Not a
waron led us all the way down to the
Cimarron river. Most of the teams
balked when they came to the river-
bank, but our mules took the ford in
line style. The water and sand came to
the wagon-bed, but Aunt Honor
snatched the whip from Miles and
swung it herself. Three cuts and a
crack, and we went up the farther
bank like a trolley car on a frosty
Not much of Guthrie had arrived
when our wagon rolled up "Capitol
avenue." The stakes were driven for
a few of the streets, and about 20
horsemen were on the ground, looking
for corner lots. We could hear them
driving calm stakes all around us.
"Keep on up Capital avenue!" cried
Aunt Honor. "The best part of a town
is always on the high ground. Now
I'm here, I mean to pick my location."
But seeing 10 or 1 2 teams coming
from the other end of the town, we
pulled up, and, after a good look
around, chose two corner lots at a
point where a cross street had been In-
dicated. Miles drove our wagon upon
one lot, and Aunt Honor ran over to
the other with her stakes and hatch-
ct. As I had reached my majority, we
intended to pre-empt two lots.
Within ten minutes we had our
stakes down and our names marked on
them, ready for land-office entry. Aunt
Honor then had Miles split those re-
maining four boards, with the saw, into
16 strips, to serve as the frame of a
"house" on the lot opposite the one
, here the wagon stood, and on this
frame we nailed the sheathing paper.
We now felt secure. Our house was 12
feet by 10, with the doorway opening
on the avenue. As night came on, our
small oil stove could be seen burn-
ing, and our supper cooking within.
By sunset every lot atout us was tak-
en by somebody; but the wild scenes
of hurry and rush during the day were
as nothing compared with what fol-
lowed that night. By sundown the
slower ones had arrived and were very
sore to find all the beet lots taken. A
particularly bad crowd had come from
Dodge City; and as they drove along
the avenue, they denounced us all as
"sooners,"-that is settlers who had
unlawfully come in before the "strip"
had been formally opened,-and they
all declared loudly that our claims were
Claim-jumping began on all aidea and
soon there was "Jumping" by force.
After dark, pre-emption stakes were
lulled up and others driven in their
Angry and excited shouts of remon-
strance were heard all around, then re-
volver shots, and several times the re-
port of carbines. Men and horses were
running to and fro, some fleeing, others
apparently pursuing. Just across from
Vifo a man was sht 1 a1 iy groaning.
Aunt Honor and I kept close inside our
house; I was greatly alarmed.
About 10 o'clock four men rushed
our wagon off the lot which had been
staked in my name, and took posses-
sion. Miles was sitting in the wagon
u itlh his shot gun, but he dared not re.
sist, for two of them got the drop on
lim with their revolvers.
He stuck to the wagon however, and
klpt hold of the mules.
After awhile Miles called out to us,
ard I answered, but had hardly done
so when three men approached, one of
them exclaiming, "Here is another
,ooner! Rush it!"
Aunt Honor had armed herself with
"*Keep off!" she shouted, resolutely.
"This is my claim. This is my house!"
"Call that a house!" cried a derisive
voice. "I can down it in two kicks."
"Better not try it!" cautioned Aunt
Honor. "If you come near, you'll be
-orry! Keep off! I mean what I say!"
But hearing only a woman's voice,
one of them stole forward, probably
with the intention of pulling the bouse
away. He encountered unexpected re-
sistance. Aunt Honor opened the nos-
zle of the extinguisher and caught him
full in the face with a jet of the pun-
gent, acidulated fluid. The fellow near-
ly measured his length on the ground,
and jumped backward, strangling rnd
Those behind him also got a dose of
it, "It's vitriol!" shouted one of them.
'It'll burn your eyes ouf!"
They all ran back, for Aunt Honor
had dashed out into the middle of the
a' enue, and with that fire-entinguisher
rnder her left arm was sending jets
n any feet on all sides of her.
Agonies of Neuralgia.
HOW THE WIFE OF HARTFORD'S
REGISTER OF ELECTIONS
wr. William otter Tells how Me
suered, au the sImple wy
in Whi bs Real ega
Many who are now tortured with neural.
ia will read with interest the following
a.itement which is beyond doubt as it i
given over the sinature of Mrs. William
Cotter, whose husband has been Den|o1ratie
Register of Elections in Hartford, Conn.,
for over ten yee,, and who is well known
throughout the State.
trs. Cotter who lives at No. 42 Windsor
'Street, Hartford, is the mother of a happy
family, and in now enjoying excellent
health. Her story is best told in her own
words. She says:
"I was taken with neuralgia several
years ago and suffered untold misery. I
tried a great many doctors and several reme.
dies with the result that I found temporary
relief but I was not cured and began to fear
that I never would be.
About three years ago Polieeman Reilly,
who is a neihbor ofours, recommended tha
I try Dr. wfliams' Pink Pills for Pale Peo.
e and I did so. I thought that the fi
box gave me some relief, and my husband
insisted that I keep on taking the pills. I
did and I can truly my that the pills ar the
only medicine that ever permanently bene
the last two year
I keep the pill
'i*^ W l1J ) eonstantly o hand
Sas I believe they
are a wonderit
AwIfulian. "To Dr. Wil.
liams' Pink Pills for Pale People I owe all
the comfort I have enjoyed for the padt tw
years in being free from neuralgia and I
am glad to be able to recommend them."
MRS. WILLIAM COTTr
All the elements neeessry to give new life
a!l4 rithsa t th? ?ood ad rete C*tter-
d nfrO are ornainr|d, ID it SObd aa
form, in Dr. Williams' Pini Pills for Pale
People. They are an unflling specify for
such diseases loeomotor ataxia, partial
paralysis, St. Vitus' dance, sciatiea, neural-
gia, rhenmatism, nervous headache, the after
effects of the grp, palpitation of the heart
pale and sallow complexion., all forms of
weakness either in male or female. Dr.
Williams' Pink Pills are sold by all dealers,
or will be sent post paid on receipt of price,
50 cents a box, or mx boxes for 2.60 (they
are never sold in bulk or by the 100), by ad-
dressing Dr. Williams Medicine Company,
Scheneetady, N. Y.
Then she turned it on the scamps
who had just rushed Miles off our oth-
er lot, and sprayed them.
"You old Jesebel!" one of them
ylled, and fired his revolver at her.
Rut Aunt Honorw' blood war up now:
the kept playing on them in the dark,
and the rogues ran away-probably
tl inking that the fluid was pure vitriol
When they had gone, Miles pulled up
their stakes, drove ous again, and
hauled the wagon back on the lot.
We were not molested again that
night. The next day affairs In the new
community, quieted down considerably.
We entered our claims without further
ef position, and during the next three
years my aunt put aside a very satle-
fr.ctory amount of money, made by
keeping a boarding house and a hotel
*uolnulmoD sq-inoA;--' oao
Did it ever occur to you that a little
Perry Davis' Pain-Killer on the end
of the finger applied once or twice to a
mosquito bite would counteract the
poison and speedily reduce the swell-
ing? Pain-Killer will also cure bites
and stings of other poisonous insects
as well as reptiles. See directions as
to use upon wrapper on each bottle.
Avoid substitutes, there is but one
Pain-Killer, Perry Davis,. Price 25c.
and 50c. 7
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
PNx AMD CXIIbOB.
Not very long ago a bedstead made
of gold and silver and inlaid with pre-
cious atones was discovered in a cave
between Beyrout and Damascus. An
inscription shows that It belonged to
the famous Queen Eleanor of England.
who followed her royal husband to the
Crusades. T4is wonderful piece of fur-
niture had lain concealed in the cave
for six centuries.
From "Southern Arabia," by the late
T. Bent and Mrs. T. Bent: "Arab girls
before they enter the harem and take
the veil are a curious sight to beholo.
Their bodies and face are dyed a bright
yellow with tumeric. On this ground
they paint black lines, with antimony,
over the eyes; the fashionable color
for the nose is red; green spots adorn
the cheeks, and the geneMal aspect is
grotesque beyond description."
According to the Hartford Courant,
that paper in 1777 was owned and ed-
ited and managed by a woman, whose
name comes down to modern days as
"the Widow Watson." She had "exclu-
sive charge" of the journal. After a
couple of years Mrs. Watson mairled
a leading citizen of Hartford, and after
that date she no doubt let him advise
and assist In the conduct of the paper.
But she hords the record for the first
woman editor in the country.
Sleep Is a sovereign balm for those
who suffer from weak eyes. It is
advisable to retire early and avoid
the painful evening lights. Ten hours'
sleep for delicate eyes is better than
eight Never read when lying down.
Many a tedious case of weak sight
has been traced to the pernicious
habit of reading in bed after retiring
for the night. Any middle-aged per-
son, a good authority tells us, can look
back to the days when near sight and
weak sight among boys and girls were
quite rare. It was not the fashion
then to teach little children everything
including drawing, music, and all the
languages except English. Nor was it
then supposed that a sufficient amount
of bodily exercise would neutralize the
effect of an excessive amount of brain
South Carolina has a new income
tax law which applies to all Incomes
of $2,500 or more. The returns from
the collection of this tax are now all
In, and they appear to indicate that
the people of South Carolina are in an
astonishing state of poverty. Some
seventeen counties have reported no
collections at all. Many other counties
made returns of from $16 to $90, and
in only two did the collection exceed
The question of domestic service in
China is by far an easier proposition
than in most other countries. In chi
na a rich man gets as many servants
as he wants and yet he pays them no
wages, while the common people have
to pay them well. Even then they are
hard to get, for the reason that the em-
ploye of the rich man can make more
than triple the ordinary wages in per-
A family of eleven brothers, each one
a giant in stature, recently left for the
Klondike. They wer the Beam broth-
ers, born at Cumberland, Maryland,
where their parents live. Six of the
brothers by their stature created a sen-
sation at the railroad station. Each of
the six were exactly six feet five inches
tall. The five remaining brothers
reached Polttsburgh and all left for the
West. Their parents are very small,
measuring less than five feet in height,
and very light in build. Both have but
three fingers and a thumb on each
hand, and the little finger on each be-
ing absent. This same peculiarity ap-
peared on the hands of each of the six
sons at the station. They said it was
a common peculiarity among their an-
It appears that when Tommy Atkins
arrives in India he has one rupee per
month stopped out of his pay until
fifteen rupees have been collected for
a coffin. This fifteei rupees is invest-
ed in the regimental sodawater ma-
Don't you know
the news about oil stoves? They have
been perfected so that they now equal
any stoves made for cooking efficiency,
safety, beauty and convenience. The
most economical stove you can use and
the most comfortable in hotweatheristhe
Blue 0 tove
It burns the same oil you use in your
lamps, at a cost of one-half cent an hour
for a burner. Makes no soot and no
odor. Sold in all sizes. If your dealer
does not have them, write to
STANDARD OIL COMPANY. --- -
chine, and should he die the machine
provides him with a coffin and buries
him decently; but should be survive,
when he leaves India he receives his
fifteen rupees and his share of the prof-
its of sodawater.
The low lying level of Lincolnshire,
England, is accountable for a curious
difficulty at Sleaford-namely, the ab-
sence of boys with choir voices. The
influence of a hilly environment in de-
veloping singing talent has long been
well known, and even in the middle
ages it was not uncommon for boys to
be sent from the highlands of Scotland
to supply the treble and alto in contain
ental cathedrals.-London Standard.
During the volcanic eruptions in tl-e
Hawaiian islands last summer rthe
smoke rose to a height of between fi e
and six miles and then drifted away to
the northeast. At a distance of 000
miles from Hawaii it settled upon the
surface of the sea, and was then car-
ried back by the northeast wind to its
place of origin, where it arrived a fort-
night after its original departure, and
covered the entire group of islands
with its heavy pall.-Youth's Compan-
A Toronto rubber manufacturing
house recently turned out what is be-
lieved to be the largest machinery belt
ever made. The belt is of rubber, and
Is over two-thirds of a mile long-to be
exact, 3,529 feet. It weighs nine tons,
and is now being used fo the transport.
station of grain at the elevator of the
Inter-colonial Railway at Saint Johns,
In the Australian court it is contrary
to custom for perishable articles to ap-
pear twice on the imperial table. The
result is large perquisites for the at-
tendants. To one man fall all uncorked
bottles, to another the wine left in the
bottles, to another the wine left in the
glasses, to another the joints and to
another still the game and the sweets.
Every morning a sort of market is held
in the basement of tle palace, where
the Viennese come to purchase the re-
The proposed Buffalo branch of the
Pennsylvania Railroad will start at
Wilcox, Pa., and follow a route across
the ridges by way of Lafayette, Mc-
Kean county. In that vicinity it will
cross a deep and mountainous gorge
with a steel viaduct nearly 500 feet
high. The bridge will be over 3,000
feet in length and its construction will
be one of the greatest engineering feats
on record. It will be the highest bridge
in the world.
A HELPLESS CHILD.
A weak and puny child is badly han-
dicapped in the battle of life. It is
isolated from the healthy enjoyments
of its little fellow beings. It cannot
partake either of their play or their
sturdy work,; and progress in the world;
its whole life is embittered by incapa-
c:ty and weakness.
Any woman who expects to become
a mother ought to know what Dr.
Pierce's Favorite Prescription will do
both for her own health and safety
during her time of trial and also to
insure her in bequeathing a fair me;is-
ure of health and strength to the pros-
pective little one.
To build barbed wire fence, you
need the Fence Builder advertised in
this paper by V. Schmelz, Sylvan
Lake, Florida. You save the cost
of it in one day's use. For unreeling
wire without carrying the spool and
stretching, and for reeling wire quick-
ly and easily. Oie man does the work
or four by the old method. It will last
a life-time. It stretches wire beyond
the last post and pushes the post
against brace. Adjustable to any po-
sition. Weight only 30 pounds. Send
I$1.98 BUYS A $3.50*SU17
nd to us, sa ae rf a and W whether
ire or smll forage and we will send you
amination. Yow can exanll e it at your
express officeand if found perfectly sat's-
factory and eodal tso walts ler 7 rw fer
SL&,pa yourexpres agent uer Spelal
orf Pree 1.91, and express charge.
TES[ Il a pAT SUIT a. for boys to
i a yearu o age ad. an ra..i. '. me.. at
S .f. Madewith OUI sad 'T MBE E,
ites 31- iUk lUtraltd, a*lde f'tn a
eWdal heq uir t, a.".e.whlsg, asl-Ms
Siastl Cstan, neat, handsome pattern.
fne Italian liningr. psre ra d iler~las. I add aL
rtbag ad .fielI g, silk sId it newig, ,etar-ai
tl1rsta sMilt mu y bor pre wreould e prmud OC
FO KE CIA)TH R ANI 8 of B.s Citg ftar bki 4 to
19 TKEAmS wrilr le l* e sM k E. contains fashion
plates, tape measure and full instructions bow to order
Men' 8soit Mod to order tRe w.o up. sam.
pies sent free on application. Address.
SEARS, ROEBUCK & CO. (Inc.), Chicago, IIL
(oM., Ma*fa a Co(.. e Uifay reHabe.-Nlo.f.)
ILK la m 1111 ky ftv
&H ONLY TOOLS YOU NLED.
We hasve on hand nd nsaes -N
SNother tool than a hatchet or am r
i requLa d to lI t rooanl. We furnI I
Switch each order suitei-mtraBt to c ,I.MeH
u nails to Iu it, without additional obV
Write f our fee catalogue
- of gesiwal mseuehada bought bI us a
hSerifs and EcKaier's__ i Ss .
* u*. asth A Iron s tt. Chila O
MICA_ E -& c an
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
818 THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
IJOD AL DEPAK/MENT.
Address all communications to the
editor, W. C. Steele, Switzerland, Fla.
We met a gentleman in Jacksonville
a few days ago whose home Is south of
Palatka. In talking of plants, he said
he could not grow many of the fine
plants we described, as growing at
Switzerland, on account of the cold.
This must be a mistaken impression.
It Is as cold here as at any point south
of Palatat. Previous to the "big
freeze" we had often noticed that ten-
der plants and even citrus trees suf-
fered more damage from severe cold
even as far south as Orange county
than at this place. Not because it was
really color, but because an average
higher temperature kept the plants in
such a tender growing condition thai
they were badly hurt when a freeze
came. However, our tender plants are
killed to the ground every winter.
And the roots can be saved anywhere
in the State by a little time and labor
spent in banking them in the fall
Having of late years seen several no-
tices of this beautiful flower, I recent-
ly sent to a distant Northern nursery
for a plant of the same. It arrived
about the middle of December last, and
was Immcdiatcly iir a p laS U thi
Soon it threw up its tender shoots,
which were killed down to the ground
by a free before they had time to
arise much above the surface. Then
came up three stalks which grew with
apparently increased vigor, till a hun-
gry rabbit cut one of them, and there
were but two left; subsequently
another dliiipie& ed By tiae sUfmi
means, and I began to think se-
riously of getting some woven wire to
make a screen to place around it,
when from some unknown cause the
rabbit let up on it, and I had the pleas-
are of viewing its first fully expanded
flower on the 15th of April. The flow-
er is about an inch and a half in diam-
eter, of a light blue, veined with
streaks of dark blue from the outer
ends of the petals to the center. The
SOMAIS 9W is Iow open, and there are
two more buds to open yet. The plant
seems to be proof against all Insect
enemies, and is said to gradually
throw out a number of stems which
are perfectly enveloped in flowers dur-
ing its blooming season, which is said
to lat more than two months. The
two stems that were topped near the
ground have sprouted out, and will un-
doubtedly bloom later in the season.
As this fower is large in sise, of a rare
color, and a prolific bloomer, I regard
It as worthy of a place in every floral
A Plant '"ouprips."
We do not often feel like giving free
advertising to any one. But this may
benefit our readers more than the lor-
1st, J. L. Chids, Floral Park, N. Y.. of-
fers after May 15, to send "surprise
collections" from one dollar upward,
assuring the purchaser two or three
times the value that could Do sent in
regular season. The following is the
report of one customer from last year:
Bose Seelye-Mller, So. Dak., in the
"There was three dollars-a great
deal of money, but then after looking
over the beloved catalogue it seemed to
cover a very small space in comparl-
son to the plants wanted. Over and
over I had seen the advertisement
about "Surprise Collections" sent out
at the option of Mr. Childs. I just
simply decided that I would have a
Surprise Collection; and a "surprise"
it has proved. How many plants,
good ones, choice ones and common,
do you suppose that three dollars
bought? Thirty-seven, two dozen
Gladiolus bulbs, nice size, and twenty
packets of flower seeds. These, if I
had selected them, would have cost
more than double the money; I haven't
figured up Just the exact cost, but it is
certain that I have been dealt gener-
ously with, and amongst the whole lot
only three plants came of which I have
duplicates, and I have a good many
plants, too. I want to "pass this on."
I wish that those who are hampered in
lucre but not in love for plants would
go and do likewise, and see how very,
very elastic the paltry dollar or so will
seem to be."
Some ilne New Bulbs.
On this subject the editor of the May-
"Important strides have been made
in the last few years in improving va-
rious kinds of flowering bulbs. Not-
ably is this the case among Cannas and
Gladiolus. Of the latter the introduc-
ion of Lemolna's Hybrids and the si-
gantic Childsi Hybrids have been red-
letter events in floriculture, and giving
an impetus to the general cultivation
of this bulb which no one ever dreamed
of. The Gladiolus is now by far the
most popular garden flower of summer
for show beds, and more especially for
cutting for church, table and other de-
corations. One cannot wonder at this
wien o conasders that the magnifA
cent spikes of bloom will keep perfect
in water for seven to twelve days. We
have sold as many as fifty thousand
cut spikes of Gladiolus to one store in
New York in a single day, the same
store receiving shipments from us
three times a week.
"The most remarkable flowering bulb
of recent times is the Giant-flowering
Caladium, "New Century." It is
adapted to pot as well as to garden cul-
ture and io a lanBt of truly t op!10c
luxuriance. Its leaves often grow to
dimensions of three to five feet, and
the flowers are as much as fifteen
inches in length and produced almost
continually. For effective bedding or
for a large pot plant for decorative ef-
fects it has no equal. There are some
fine new Fancy Caladiums now being
grown, but not many of them have as
yet been introduced. They show won-
derful Improvements in the size, color-
ing and beauty of leaves.
"Calla Foragrans has not received
the attention it demrvea. It is the
most persistent bloomer among Callas,
not excepting even our Dwarf Ever-
blooming. The plant is of a dwarf,
stout, vigorous habit and the flowers
are borne continually, following each
other, and are of large size, perfect
shape, snow white and quite sweet-
"Phrynlum Variegatum is a distinct
collage plant of recent IntroducteiRo
and makes a magnificent show in the
open ground and is also good as a pot
plant. The wide, handsome leaves are
partly creamy-white and partly deep
green. It is a plant which is sure to
give great satisfaction.
"Zephyranthes Floribunda, or the
fragrant Zephyranthes, Is one of the
very choicest new bulbs. When it first
bloomed with us, five or six years ago,
we thought it one of the most beauti-
ful flowers we had ever seen. olor a
bright lemon-yellow and deliciously
sweet-scented. Unlike other Zephyr-
anthes, each stem bear two flowers.
We have carefully increased and multi-
plied this bulb until we have a large
stock of it, and it is one of the bulbs
that go to make up the present premi-
um of the Mayflower.
Zephyranthes Bulphurca is another
choice new variety with a flower al-
most the size of a large Amaryllis and
borne on a stem thirteen inches high.
Color light sulphur yellow.
Ismene Calathena is one of the finest
garden bulbs. producaim Lrev Lily-
like blossoms which are pure white
and as fragrant as an Auratum Lily.
This bulb cannot be called new, but
the fact that very few of the true var-
iety have ever been found in cultiva-
tion leads us to believe that it is quite
unknown. The bulb that is usually
sold for Ismene Calathena is Ismene
Undulate, a very Insignificant and, we
Hrlty W, WOR ta marety and la no
way to be compared with the magni-
ficence of the true Calathena.
"The Rainbow Canna is one of the
great new foliage plants. The leaves
are numerous, wide and luxuriant,
like that of the Muna. and are beauti-
fully variegated, and is grown both as
a pot plant and as a bedding plant for
the garden. Its fine color, is however,
not at all times constant. A plant may
be in fine color when planted out in the
garden and as the vigorous growth sets
in it will lose its color for a couple of
months, and towards fall it will return.
In pots it seldom loses its color. A new
variety ha been introduced this sea-
son, which originated three years ago
and is called the 'Improved Rainbow.'
Its color seems to be constant, as the
foliage of no plant of it has ever yet
reverted to a green state at any time
during the growing season."
[We have not seen the Rainbow Can-
na, but if the foliage i finer than that
of John White, is very beautiful in-
"The Everblooming Tritoma Is not,
strictly akLing, a. bulb, but the
strong, sturdy crowns of the plants
take the place of a bulb, and are kept
in a dormant state over winter and
may be handled and shipped that way.
It always starts a vigorous growth as
soon as planted out in spring, no mat-
ter how cold the weather may be. It
is a great bloomer, beginnni as early
as June and keeping up an incessant
succession of flowers until December
without a break. It is so hardy that
It grows and blooms right on after fall
froets have killed everything else.
Surely one of the grandest garden
plants ever introduced."
Water Idlles in Tubs.
The following from Vick's Magazine
gives directions for growing aquatics.
A kerosene oil barrel can usually be
bought at the nearest grocery for fifty
cents and will make two tubs for wa-
ter lilies that will last many years. Of-
ten a wooden lard tub can be got for a
fewcents that will do very well for
many plants, though if to be kept in
the open air it should be rehooped
"A few years since, the Water
Lily was cultivated only In few botan-
"I KNOW PERUNA IS THE BEST
CATAKRH CURE ON EARTEL"
Rough Rider sergeant Back Taylor.
Sergeant Buck Taylor, one of the
famous Bough Riders, is a personal
friend of Governor Roosevelt, of New
York. He accompanied Governor
Roosevelt on his great stumping tour
through upper New York state. He
was promoted through gallantry in the
field darff the less war.
The Sergeant has the following to say
of Pe-ru-na: "I think there is no better
medicine on earth than Pe-ru-na, for
oatarrh. It has cured me. It wonl
take a volume to tell you all the good it
has done me. Pe-ru-na is the best ea
tarrh cure on earth, and I know, for I
save crFts nearly ail or them.
Respeotully, Buck F. Taylor.
Send for book of testimonials, sent
free by The Pe-ru-na Medicine Co,
leal gardens, and was universally sup-
posed to be manageable only by the
specialist. But year by year it has out-
grown these quarters and proves itself
to be a plant for the million. Any per-
son possessing water and a two gallon
pall may have aquatic plants and flow-
ers. Water hyacinths, water poppies,
parrot's feather and even the minia-
ture nymphaeas may be grown in a
vessel (wooden preferred) having a su-
perficial area of one square foot. Tubs
the size of oil or whiskey barrels,
sawed in two, make suitable vessels
for a variety of nymphaeas and lota-
ses. A most pleasant addition to a
lawn, noticed lately, was a group of
foii subSi-tAhfe wf t1iM Slamed In a
triangle, their inner edges supporting
the fourth-making a pyramid. In the
upper or central tub was a lotus, its
flowers and umbrella-like leaves tower-
ing up several feet high, while parrot's
feather was trailing down over the
sides almost completely hiding the tub.
In the lower tubs were red, white and
blue nymphaeas with some other
acquatics, while around the margins a
few rocks were placed, and interspers-
ed with moisture loving plants-the
whole a mound of fresh, bright green
9fage and brimunt colored flower, all
summer. Tubs, pails od asks for wa-
ter lilies should be filled, two-thirds
full of good rich loam, the roots plant-
ed two inches deep, then be given a
warm sunny place, and kept full of
pure water. At frost the water may
be poured of, and the tubs carried
over winter in a warm cellar or under
the benches of a greenhouse."
[In this State the tube "ia be left It
the yard if protected with wire grass
or pine straw during a freeze. If the
tubs are sunk into the ground, very lit-
tle protection will be needed.-Ed.j
Read ad. on last page.
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST. 319
WITH T=X JOMB.,
The language of the lower Londoner is
"Now. Trine gawn. ent it?"
"Get your train?"
'No. Train gone, hasn't it?"
Ent (the old ain't) seems to cover isn't,
wasn't, weren't, has, hasn't, have, haven't,
had, hadn't.--Notes and Queries.
A BRILLIANT FINISH.
'"I s 1 h kings psR j Bfen he I was
leaving," said the sour visaged aunt, and she
said it in a regular dull thud tone.
"Well, I can realize that it would be the
last thing he would think of." And she sailed
out as though she had scored every possible
point.-Detroit Free Press.
NO TROUBLE AT ALL.
Miss Chamberlayne-What does your father,
the baron, call his estate on the Rhine?
Herr Von Griff-It was named by mine
grossfader der castle of Schneiderblitzenschon-
"Thank you; I'm awfully sorry to have
troubled you."-Melbourne Weekly Times.
"Looks as though our day was done," said
the dejected horse.
"Oh, I don't know," replied Optimistic Dob-
bin. "They'll need leather for certain parts of
these automobiles, and they'll probably use our
hides for that."-Philadelphia Press.
BEHIND THE ENGINE.
Quinn-Which Is the swiftest animal?
De Fonte-Well, I've heard of an ele-
Ihanrt making a mile a minute.
Quinn-Preposterous Where was 4bhi
De Fonte-On a circus train.-Cicago
THE APPROPRIATE SEASON.
It seems to me that I saw a great
many more horseless carriages during the
fall than at any other easop."
"That's to be expected."
"Fal is the proper time for autumn-
obiles, isn't tt?"-Cleveland Plain Dealer.
"Paw." asked %Tommy. "what becomes
of a cowboy wihen ho grown up!"
"I presume he becomes a horseman, my
son," replied Mr. Tucker. "Don't bother
me with foolish questions."-Chicago Tri-
Mr. Northalde (emerging from telephone
box)-That girl at "Central" munt be a
Mr. Shadyside-How do you know?
Mr. Northside-She cuts people out so
easily.-Pittsburg OhronicleTe raph.
"Bhall I ing 'Decause I Love You?"
asked Mrs. Darley as she seated herself
at the piano.
"No," replied Mr. Darley, who is a
brute. "If you love me, don't sing."-De-
troit Free Press.
e : 0 * : : O e 0S 0 :9 : 0@- e :-:
S If not, something must be *
Swron with its oa d. If the
mother's milk doesn't nour.
Ish it, she needs SCOTTS 0
EMULSION. It supplies the
elements of fat required for
SUhe baby. If bAqy b n-i t
:nourished by its artificial:
Food, then it requires
SHalf a tespoonfll three
Sor four tmes a day in ts
4 bottle will have the desired *
Effect. it seems to have a
nmo e u effect upon babies
Sand children. A fifty ent
bottle will prove the truth
of our statement.
SSo b takes Is summer as
well as w after.
amd ts- ael drnsinae,
SSC OtT BOW E, Chnet.., 4ew YoriL
a a a ma :O.OOGs tO-S-MO 8:*
CUPID IN A HUFF.
"Our engagement Is off again."
"What's the matter nowT"
"I gave her a belt buckle with my pho-
tograph on it, and she uses it to fasten
her dog's collar."-Chicago Record.
A SERIOUS DISAPPOINTMENT.
"Why does Mrs. Timberlake wear that
settled look of melancholy?"
"Because she can't make eyeglasses
stay on that flat nose of hers."-Cleve-
land Plain Dealer.
ShT7 BEYNIa PI
"Yes,' she said, "I am proud to say
that I am a bachelor girl."
"And I," he replied, "take equal pride in
the fact that I am an old maid man."-
"Tie French have a folding bicycle."
"Is that so? Well, the American wheel
doubles up often enough to suit me."-
A MIXED BLESSING.
"Telephones are great time savers,
"Well, that depends on who calls you
Hicks-It is a shame the way Buster is
bringing up that boy of his. The lad
doesn't know how to read or write, and
there is no Indication of his ever being
sent to bsheol,
Wicks-Buster kn6ws what he Is do-
Ing, you can depend upon ft. Probably
he intends when that boy reaches man-
hood he will have all the business he
can attend to as criminal court juror.-
Doctor-Stick out your tongue.Tommy.
Tvemay--I t in yur ife. I did that
yesterday to my teacher, and I still ache
1ll over for it.-Wiener 'Tagblatt.
The girl's father was rich, and the suit-
wr for her hand was poor, but remark-
"Papa," she said to the old gentleman,
'If Frank asks me this evening to marry
him what shall I say?"
"Sa whatever you think is best. my
,"How best, papa? Best for me or best
for Frank?"-Detroit Free Press.
Professor-Mr. Drone, I am astonished
that you cannot remember any of the
quotations called for in today's lesson.
an you recoleot any quotation of any
Student-Yes, sir; "Any fool can ask
TOO MUCH EXPERIENCE.
Pilson-Are you going to take part In
that guessing contest?
Dtlson-Oh, no; they'd rule me out as a
Dllson-Yes; you know I am connected
with the weather bureau.-Ohio State
MORE TIME NEEDED.
"Why do you want your vacation ex-
"Well, it took me two weeks to get
used to loafing, and now I want two
weeks more to get used to working
"Bilty, your wife is a very stylish dree-
"Stylish? Wait till you see our cook."-
NO USE FOR IT.
"What's dis?" asked Uncle Rastus.
"This is a patnet razor; take tt along,
Rastus. I'll give it to you."
"Gwan 'way frum here. I don't need no
safety raszer. Wen I goes to a ball I
wants a razzer dates loaded en doan you
forget It."-Harlem lAfe.
THE BRIGHT SIDE.
Pessim-Think of It, will you? One hun-
dred million dollars' shrinkage in stocks
In about two days.
Ontlim=Tma hut the rcranue stamrm
used In making the sales amounted to
$350,000, and that would pay the expenses
of the Philippines war for a whole day.
What are you grumbling about?-Chicago
Ikey-Vun should always make both
ends meet, aindt it, fader?
His l Fath er-Vun should always make
dem lap ofer, Ikey.-Puck.
Wife-You used to call me an angel be-
fore we were married.
Husband-I believed it myself then.-
N. Y. Journal.
TH E WRONG SENSE.
Little Harold was studying deeply a pic-
ture of "Jack and the Beanstalk" when
his mother called to bhm.
"Oh, please let me stay here," pleaded
Harold. "I'm waiting to hear Jack and
the beans talk."
KNOWLEDGE NOT ALWAYS POOR.
"Intellect doesn't amount to anything."
"What d2 yen meae, Mierval"
'"The most Intellectual woma' I the
world can be squelched in three seconds
by a dressmaker."-Indlanapa q Journal.
Florida East Coast Ry.
TIME TABLE NO. 9. IN EFFECT APRIL II, 1900.
oOTb BOUND (Bead Doew) (Be4 Up) NORTH BOUND.
aM 'yDdIy B5 a OTAUT B: Oy W_
.. 0....pal aUta ...... T S.......
...... ii ". In ....... ..... A.. 1 p ......
S 11 .......... ala ...... ....Ar
S.ffl TS ..;;;.. ........
4"' lift 'W'
.e bp ......a..t. 9..,.......I" I
S0 N.... i ......... s .
B e< . i* ......-,. B g;;n
B s...... 8Up .......... Potbes .... ... 1i ......
...... 8p ... ... ....L.... I" ...
I ...... b a un ......... 1 ....
ON 1 p.. "P ...... .. J te......... s ....
.S. 85 "........ .ort Pdw -' ( ...:. |
S *. ..... Lemn ......... t: ..
...... Cit .5...... ...... i ........... Is ...... ,
.4. .r U v..... 0 C
.p lO Lv. ...A I Stni L ts "........ a .........
P 2 5p r l ap, i .f 1: .....O l. "0 i. ........ a1 0a... .... .
Sas, ....... t p ... 1
45pllt a w ..Lsa Iea ....l ........Cd S ..... 1.. oia .......... l
New P T m .... Robe:. :::A 114%
0 15pop r..ai. O rMa e 80 .... ... .. .......
Al tr gains btw w yra a O range Betwee ( D.r- W-- . a t
City Junction daily exempt 8awday. Al trails between Tituavlle md ansIt
a dal except Snnday.
r T- -HIP sd[NlrW2
Bi a P E t sow thes tim ehat whoAh
Ire Jsnse... M arrival or at sm........s..
715plaAr .. ablo 5Bach. ......... stated i nor doe e.......
All trains between JackanvI and Pabo pny hold m rst....r ay
Beachnon daily except Sund, any ctrea between ar illng t d erfrom.
For copy of iocal time card call O. Ti.ket Agent., or address ********
Wl t the intNIo he PId M ost C Teabshle show the times et whisr
oL. P. BC JWITH, Tramo Maa ar b .J. D. RAN.B, A. ri. A.
Florida Eat Coat Steamhip Co.or dertre
71 5a BETWEEN lI I ND KEY WEST.nor d the
l ave Miami nday% except SuWday. eday candsr ..ces wising therefm P.
Arrive Weoal on ard da Thday ant or ddr ...............es
ArriveMami ridays and r oday .. ...... A. 46 A.
BETWEEN MIAMI AND KEY WEHSTAVANA.
Arrive Miam Wei SondaysaWednedays, Th ys .................................... .
Arrive HavanaWest Tuesday and Fridays............................................****** *ON a.
Learrive Havana Tuesridays and Friday........................... ............ ... saO -.
Arrive Miami Wednesdays aadSaturdays......................... .. ..... liwGa. -s
While it is the inAntoBn o the Forilda Bhat Oos0 teamp hi oin to have their ship
ollrow regular schedules adertited, the line rewrvs the right at all times to withdraw
their ship or change their sailna das without noteoe, and to umbtitute any steamer when
:r m will the line holditsaIf r'estmsiihls ior any deten, ion of its steamers or daay
nsrseU AWN W= P"103s eaSI, IWWNMse. e. r Is_
.saLssdn. Yoeu s. 5Serst Can rsani isi4
.d iU you d it exaur no Z =eMeiaemslt
mo THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
S-OW TO GET A TON OF FERTILIZE I
-L. a l FOR $2.00 .
io,ooo Subscribers Wanted for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST within the next six months.
Every Thirtieth person remitting $2.oo for a year's subscription will be given an order for a
TON of Simon Pure Fertilizer of whatever brand desired . . .
HOW TO DO IT.
Cut out the coupon and send with $2.00 to E. O. Painter & Co., Publishers, DeLand, Fla., and
you will receive the Florida Agriculturist, the oldest, only agricultural paper in the state, for one
year. ThR esupons will be numbered as received,
COUPON. and a receipt for the money bearing the same num-
ber will be returned. If your number is 30, or any
.............................. 1oo multiple of 30, as 60, 90, 300, etc., you can order a
rlessrs. E. O. PAINTER & co., ton of fertilizer at once or any time within a year.
Pubs. Florida Agriculturist, Please bear in mind you get the Florida Agricultur-
DeLand, Fa. ist at the regular price of $2 per year and have one
antlamen--Plese fnd enceo d 92:.00 for one year'ssub- chance in 30 of getting a ton of high grade fertilizer
acription to the lor:da Agriculturist to begin at once. It cae i m ayo g-O a-tll Ul f l
is understood that should the number of my receipt be 30 beside. This may be OUR opportunity.
or any multiple of that number, I can order a ton of any
brand of Simon Pure Fertilizer which will be delivered f.
o.. cars at Jacksonville, Fla., without further expense E 0 PAINTER & CO.
Shipping Point ................................... .....
grelgat Depot ................................................
P. 0. Address.............................................. Publishers,
Not-If the station to which the fertilizer is to be shipped i a LAND LORIDA
.*prepay," amount of frS.ght must be forwarded with instructions. LA -
A High-Grade Fertilizer
"T'lH-l IDEAL" BRANDS
-aG 'S H AVE TH ESE. '9"
Then why pay $35.00 and $40.00per ton when you can get a strictly high grade, reliable fertilizer at the following pi ices
IDEAL FRUIT AND VINE................$3o00o per ton IDEAL FERTILIZER (for all crops)......... .$27.00 per ton
DEAL To pr tn IDEAL BLOOD, BONE AND POTASH..... $28.oo per ton
IDEAL POTATO MANURE................ .$30.0 per ton SPECIAL MIXTURE No. I................. $28.oo per ton
IDEAL VEGETABLE MANURE............ $30.00 per ton CORN FERTILIZER...................... $o.oo per ton
All fertilizer material at the lowest market prices. Ask for our book "Why we make the IDEAL FERTILIZERS
WILSON & TOOMER FERTIT .IZR COMPANY,
ris rnoot Brand Blood and B 117.99 Per tn, iamavralD4d Gua-no. The Ideal Tobacco Fertiliser, f44.00 pqr t.